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Sample records for asia oceania research

  1. Proceedings From the First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Faro, Edited by Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    The First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting was held in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, in July 2005. The conference covered regional issues relating to infection with the human papillomavirus—epidemiology, virology, and immunology, testing, screening, and prevention strategies—as well as cervical cancer screening and its management.

  2. Create new research directions in comparative endocrinology from Asia and Oceania.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-15

    The Asia and Oceania Society for Comparative Endocrinology (AOSCE) was founded in 1987, when the first congress was held in Nagoya, Japan. The purpose of the AOSCE is to progress scientific activities in the field of comparative endocrinology in Asia and Oceania and to establish a deep relationship among the members. For this purpose, the AOSCE holds a congress or an intercongress symposium every 2 years, which organizes an attractive scientific program covering the latest progress in the broad aspect of comparative endocrinology. 2012 was the 25th anniversary of AOSCE. Our scientific activities have increased dramatically during the past 25 years. The 7th AOSCE congress was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 2012. The theme of this congress was "Overcoming challenges in the 21st century". To overcome challenges in the 21st century, we further need to create new research directions in comparative endocrinology from Asia and Oceania. This paper describes a brief history of the AOSCE and also highlights the discovery of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) and the progress of GnIH research as one of new research directions in comparative endocrinology. In 2000, GnIH was discovered in Japan and now more than 50 laboratories are working on GnIH in the world. The discovery of GnIH has changed our understanding about regulation of the reproductive axis drastically in the past decade. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Educational Research in Relation to Educational Reform in Asia and Oceania (May 31-June 9, 1979). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    Educational research in Asia and Oceania is explored from the point of view of its effect on actual educational practices. Information is based on speeches and group discussion at a 10-day regional seminar held in Japan in 1979. This document--a report of that seminar--is presented in four chapters. In Chapter I, seminar objectives are explained,…

  4. Soil and groundwater remediation: Asia, Oceania, and Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, P.M.; Islandar, I.K.

    1999-11-01

    This book covers information on metals, radionuclides, other inorganics, pesticides, and other anthropogenic organic compounds in soil environments in Asia, Oceania, and Africa. It addresses the current status and future prospects on soil and groundwater pollution and the remediation strategies for years to come.

  5. Postgraduate Education in Gerontology in the Asia-Oceania Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Cherry; Mahony, Mary Jane; Hughes, Ian; Kendig, Hal

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of opportunities for graduate education in Gerontology in the Asia-Oceania Region. It locates emerging demand in a demographic context, highlighting high rates of growth in the aged population within the Region and growing awareness of governments of the need for appropriate planning. An important component of…

  6. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Population growth trends and family planning activities in Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania are summarized in this booklet developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Narrative information for each continent gives a resume of population growth trends, reasons for the trends, population problems, policy formation, family…

  7. AGU signs memorandum of agreement with Asia Oceania Geosciences Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Chris

    2012-03-01

    AGU has taken the latest step in building strategic alliances with partner groups by signing a memorandum of agreement with the Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS). This agreement is based on the common interests of our members and will allow us to strengthen our respective organizations by - exchanging information on key programs and initiatives; - expanding membership of both our organizations through possible joint programs; - offering additional educational opportunities, professional services, and student programs; and - extending benefits to members of both organizations.

  8. Brief histories of medical physics in Asia-Oceania.

    PubMed

    Round, W H; Jafari, S; Kron, T; Azhari, H A; Chhom, S; Hu, Y; Mauldon, G F; Cheung, K Y; Kuppusamy, T; Pawiro, S A; Lubis, L E; Soejoko, D S; Haryanto, F; Endo, M; Han, Y; Suh, T S; Ng, K H; Luvsan-Ish, A; Maung, S O; Chaurasia, P P; Jafri, S M A; Farrukh, S; Peralta, A; Toh, H J; Sarasanandarajah, S; Shiau, A C; Krisanachinda, A; Suriyapee, S; Vinijsorn, S; Nguyen, T C

    2015-09-01

    The history of medical physics in Asia-Oceania goes back to the late nineteenth century when X-ray imaging was introduced, although medical physicists were not appointed until much later. Medical physics developed very quickly in some countries, but in others the socio-economic situation as such prevented it being established for many years. In others, the political situation and war has impeded its development. In many countries their medical physics history has not been well recorded and there is a danger that it will be lost to future generations. In this paper, brief histories of the development of medical physics in most countries in Asia-Oceania are presented by a large number of authors to serve as a record. The histories are necessarily brief; otherwise the paper would quickly turn into a book of hundreds of pages. The emphasis in each history as recorded here varies as the focus and culture of the countries as well as the length of their histories varies considerably.

  9. Asia Oceania Guidelines for the Implementation of Programs for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control

    PubMed Central

    Ngan, Hextan Y. S.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Bhatla, Neerja; Pagliusi, Sonia R.; Chan, Karen K. L.; Cheung, Annie N. Y.; Chu, Tang-Yuan; Domingo, Efren J.; Qiao, You Lin; Park, Jong Sup; Tay, Eng Hseon; Supakarapongkul, Wisit

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for health professionals, to develop a comprehensive cervical cancer program for a clinic, a community, or a country. Ensuring access to healthcare is the responsibility of all societies, and the Asia Oceania Research Organisation in Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) is committed to working collaboratively with governments and health professionals to facilitate prevention programs, to protect girls and women from cervical cancer, a disease that globally affects 500,000 and kills nearly 300,000 women annually, just over half of whom are in the Asia Oceania region. We share the vision that a comprehensive program of vaccination, screening, and treatment should be made accessible to all girls and women in the world. The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide information on scientific evidence on the different modalities and approaches of cervical cancer prevention programs, for high resource and low resource settings. The secondary purpose is to provide an overview of the current situation of cervical cancer control and prevention in various Asian Oceania countries: their views of an ideal program, identified obstacles, and suggestions to overcome them are discussed. PMID:21559068

  10. Marine pollution by persistent organochlorines in Asia and Oceania

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, S.; Iwata, H.; Tatsukawa, R.

    1995-12-31

    The global chemical trade increased year by year and exceeded US$300 billion in 1991. In this context, the share of chemical exports in developing countries is expanding markedly from 7% of the world total value in 1980to 13% in 1991, almost doubling within 10 years. It was also reported that the growth rates of chemical exports in 1991 were less than 1% in developed nations, whereas those in developing countries revealed more than 13%. Among several developing nations, Asian countries have the largest bulk of chemical exports and now top the list of chemical exporters. It is also remarkable that 68% of the share of Asia`s chemical exports in 1991 has gone to the regional market in the same area. These statistics indicate that the growth in supply and demand of chemicals has been far outpaced in developing, countries, particularly the Asian region, and therefore corresponding, environmental problems caused by toxic chemicals are of great concern. The present paper overviews the marine pollution by toxic organochlorines such as PCBs, DDT, HCHs and chlordane compounds in Asia and Oceania, and also deals with their ecotoxicological implications in marine ecosystems. The recent pattern of contamination by organochlorines is prominent in tropical coastal regions, suggesting their continuous usage in the low-latitude developing countries. Due to the high temperature, the toxic contaminants used in the tropics are rapidly evaporated into the air, and then carried by the long-range atmospheric transport on global terms and eventually deposited in the water phase in the polar regions. These situations may accelerate the biological contaminations and possible toxic effects to marine organisms, particularly mammals which are now facing the extraordinary contamination by persistent organochlorines and serious mass mortalities.

  11. Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and Oceania. Bulletin of the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania. Number 21, June 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This issue contains a regional review, discussion of technical and vocational education in countries of Asia and Oceania, articles dealing with various aspects of technical and vocational education, and a bibliographical supplement. The brief statistical review in section 1 concerns second-level technical and vocational education in the developing…

  12. Education in Asia and Oceania: Reviews, Reports and Notes. Numbers 13-14, September 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This periodical contains special reports, reviews, and notes of recent documents on education in Asia and Oceania. The first special report, "Education in the People's Republic of China," describes that country's task of educating millions of laborers to have a socialist consciousness, to master modern production skills, and to become…

  13. Education in Asia and Oceania: Reviews, Reports and Notes. Number 15, June 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This periodical contains special reports, reviews, and notes of recent documents on education in Asia and Oceania. The first section contains special reports on Pakistan's new educational policy and Thailand's new educational system. Pakistan's 1978 policy provides for village workshops for out-of-school youth; a national council on adult…

  14. Education in Asia and Oceania: Reviews, Reports and Notes. Numbers 13-14, September 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This periodical contains special reports, reviews, and notes of recent documents on education in Asia and Oceania. The first special report, "Education in the People's Republic of China," describes that country's task of educating millions of laborers to have a socialist consciousness, to master modern production skills, and to become…

  15. Asia & Oceania Today: A Reproducible Atlas. 1995 Revised Edition. World Eagle's Today Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Independent Broadcasting Associates, Inc., Littleton, MA.

    This book contains blank outline maps of the continent or region, tables, and graphics depicting various aspects of Asia and Oceania. Sections of the book include: (1) "The Land and Population Figures"; (2) "Cities and Countries"; (3) "People: Languages, Literacy, Ethnic groups, Demographic Statistics and Projections,…

  16. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania. October 1973 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Population growth trends and family planning activities in Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania are summarized in this booklet developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Narrative information for each continent gives a resume of population growth trends, reasons for the trends, population problems, policy formation, family…

  17. Asia & Oceania Today: A Reproducible Atlas. 1995 Revised Edition. World Eagle's Today Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Independent Broadcasting Associates, Inc., Littleton, MA.

    This book contains blank outline maps of the continent or region, tables, and graphics depicting various aspects of Asia and Oceania. Sections of the book include: (1) "The Land and Population Figures"; (2) "Cities and Countries"; (3) "People: Languages, Literacy, Ethnic groups, Demographic Statistics and Projections,…

  18. Policy Towards Social Sciences in Asia and Oceania. Report on the Meeting of Experts. Manila, Philippines, 3-7 April 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    The document reports on a meeting of Asian social science policy experts sponsored by UNESCO. The objectives of the meeting were to review the basic elements of the social science policies of countries in Asia and Oceania, to examine the feasibility of establishing a Regional Centre for Social Science Research, and to make recommendations for…

  19. The role of the Australasian Journal on Ageing in the Asia-Oceania region.

    PubMed

    Howe, Anna L

    2013-10-01

    The role of the Australasian Journal on Ageing (AJA) in the Asia-Oceania region has been developing over the 30 years of the journal's publication, and review of its current and potential future roles is timely in the context of a number of developments in the region. This review describes the regional reach of the AJA, presents an analysis of regional content published over the 5 years to 2012, discusses the regional context with reference to other journals published in the region, and proposes several strategies for advancing the AJA's regional role. Pursuing these strategies would realise the AJA's potential as a vehicle for promoting the exchange of multidisciplinary knowledge on ageing.

  20. IFLA General Conference 1988. Division of Regional Activities. Sections on: Asia and Oceania; Africa; Latin America and the Caribbean; Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The eight papers in this collection focus on library activities in various geographical regions, e.g., Asia, Oceania, Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, and Western Australia: (1) "Future Approaches and Prospects of Computerised Information Network among the Countries of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)" (Abdullah…

  1. IFLA General Conference 1988. Division of Regional Activities. Sections on: Asia and Oceania; Africa; Latin America and the Caribbean; Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The eight papers in this collection focus on library activities in various geographical regions, e.g., Asia, Oceania, Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, and Western Australia: (1) "Future Approaches and Prospects of Computerised Information Network among the Countries of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)" (Abdullah…

  2. Education in Asia and Oceania. Regional Conference of Ministers of Education and Those Responsible for Economic Planning in Asia and Oceania (4th, Colombo, Sri Lanka, July 24-August 1, 1978). Bulletin of the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania, Number 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    The book presents background information and papers which were prepared for a conference on educational development in Asia and Oceania. The document is presented in three major sections. Section I offers an overview of regional development strategies with emphasis on the relationship of education to economic development. Major regional objectives…

  3. Education in Asia and Oceania. Regional Conference of Ministers of Education and Those Responsible for Economic Planning in Asia and Oceania (4th, Colombo, Sri Lanka, July 24-August 1, 1978). Bulletin of the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania, Number 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    The book presents background information and papers which were prepared for a conference on educational development in Asia and Oceania. The document is presented in three major sections. Section I offers an overview of regional development strategies with emphasis on the relationship of education to economic development. Major regional objectives…

  4. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Asia, the Far East and Oceania.

    PubMed

    Murray, G; Ashley, K; Kolesar, R

    2014-04-01

    The complex and diverse nature of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) region for Asia, the Far East and Oceania presents both challenges and opportunities in implementing improved approaches to animal welfare. Drivers for improvements include social values, culture, religion, political interest, trade, an increasing global awareness of animal welfare issues, an increasing demand for meat and dairy products, the interest of non-governmental organisations, and the mandate given to the OIE to develop science-based standards for animal welfare. The outcomes-based OIE standards can be amended in the light of new scientific knowledge and implemented by countries in a manner best suited to meet their needs. A number of regional initiatives are described, including a regional strategy, examples of national activities, projects run by the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Science and Bioethical Analysis, and trade measures. Although the overall outlook for improvements in the region looks promising, implementation of standards over the longer-term will require ongoing political commitment, resources and cultural change to ensure sustained improvements.

  5. The Asia Oceania Human Proteome Organisation Membrane Proteomics Initiative. Preparation and characterization of the carbonate-washed membrane standard

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lifeng; Kapp, Eugene A.; Fenyö, David; Kwon, Min-Seok; Jiang, Pu; Wu, Songfeng; Jiang, Ying; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel; Ahmed, Nikhat; Baker, Mark S.; Cai, Zongwei; Chen, Yu-Ju; Van Chi, Phan; Chung, Maxey C. M.; He, Fuchu; Len, Alice C. L.; Liao, Pao-Chi; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Ngai, Sai Ming; Paik, Young-Ki; Pan, Tai-Long; Poon, Terence C. W.; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Simpson, Richard J.; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Svasti, Jisnuson; Tyan, Yu-Chang; Dreyer, Florian S.; McLauchlan, Danyl; Rawson, Pisana; Jordan, T. William

    2013-01-01

    The Asia Oceania Human Proteome Organisation has embarked on a Membrane Proteomics Initiative with goals of systematic comparison of strategies for analysis of membrane proteomes and discovery of membrane proteins. This multi-laboratory project is based on analysis of a subcellular fraction from mouse liver that contains endoplasmic reticulum and other organelles. Here we present the strategy used for preparation and initial characterisation of the membrane sample, including validation that the carbonate-washing step enriches for integral and lipid-anchored membrane proteins. Analysis of seventeen independent datasets from five types of proteomic workflows is in progress. PMID:20486120

  6. Phylogeny and ancient DNA of Sus provides insights into neolithic expansion in Island Southeast Asia and Oceania.

    PubMed

    Larson, Greger; Cucchi, Thomas; Fujita, Masakatsu; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Robins, Judith; Anderson, Atholl; Rolett, Barry; Spriggs, Matthew; Dolman, Gaynor; Kim, Tae-Hun; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Dieu; Randi, Ettore; Doherty, Moira; Due, Rokus Awe; Bollt, Robert; Djubiantono, Tony; Griffin, Bion; Intoh, Michiko; Keane, Emile; Kirch, Patrick; Li, Kuang-Ti; Morwood, Michael; Pedriña, Lolita M; Piper, Philip J; Rabett, Ryan J; Shooter, Peter; Van den Bergh, Gert; West, Eric; Wickler, Stephen; Yuan, Jing; Cooper, Alan; Dobney, Keith

    2007-03-20

    Human settlement of Oceania marked the culmination of a global colonization process that began when humans first left Africa at least 90,000 years ago. The precise origins and dispersal routes of the Austronesian peoples and the associated Lapita culture remain contentious, and numerous disparate models of dispersal (based primarily on linguistic, genetic, and archeological data) have been proposed. Here, through the use of mtDNA from 781 modern and ancient Sus specimens, we provide evidence for an early human-mediated translocation of the Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) to Flores and Timor and two later separate human-mediated dispersals of domestic pig (Sus scrofa) through Island Southeast Asia into Oceania. Of the later dispersal routes, one is unequivocally associated with the Neolithic (Lapita) and later Polynesian migrations and links modern and archeological Javan, Sumatran, Wallacean, and Oceanic pigs with mainland Southeast Asian S. scrofa. Archeological and genetic evidence shows these pigs were certainly introduced to islands east of the Wallace Line, including New Guinea, and that so-called "wild" pigs within this region are most likely feral descendants of domestic pigs introduced by early agriculturalists. The other later pig dispersal links mainland East Asian pigs to western Micronesia, Taiwan, and the Philippines. These results provide important data with which to test current models for human dispersal in the region.

  7. Phylogeny and ancient DNA of Sus provides insights into neolithic expansion in Island Southeast Asia and Oceania

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Greger; Cucchi, Thomas; Fujita, Masakatsu; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Robins, Judith; Anderson, Atholl; Rolett, Barry; Spriggs, Matthew; Dolman, Gaynor; Kim, Tae-Hun; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Dieu; Randi, Ettore; Doherty, Moira; Due, Rokus Awe; Bollt, Robert; Djubiantono, Tony; Griffin, Bion; Intoh, Michiko; Keane, Emile; Kirch, Patrick; Li, Kuang-Ti; Morwood, Michael; Pedriña, Lolita M.; Piper, Philip J.; Rabett, Ryan J.; Shooter, Peter; Van den Bergh, Gert; West, Eric; Wickler, Stephen; Yuan, Jing; Cooper, Alan; Dobney, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Human settlement of Oceania marked the culmination of a global colonization process that began when humans first left Africa at least 90,000 years ago. The precise origins and dispersal routes of the Austronesian peoples and the associated Lapita culture remain contentious, and numerous disparate models of dispersal (based primarily on linguistic, genetic, and archeological data) have been proposed. Here, through the use of mtDNA from 781 modern and ancient Sus specimens, we provide evidence for an early human-mediated translocation of the Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) to Flores and Timor and two later separate human-mediated dispersals of domestic pig (Sus scrofa) through Island Southeast Asia into Oceania. Of the later dispersal routes, one is unequivocally associated with the Neolithic (Lapita) and later Polynesian migrations and links modern and archeological Javan, Sumatran, Wallacean, and Oceanic pigs with mainland Southeast Asian S. scrofa. Archeological and genetic evidence shows these pigs were certainly introduced to islands east of the Wallace Line, including New Guinea, and that so-called “wild” pigs within this region are most likely feral descendants of domestic pigs introduced by early agriculturalists. The other later pig dispersal links mainland East Asian pigs to western Micronesia, Taiwan, and the Philippines. These results provide important data with which to test current models for human dispersal in the region. PMID:17360400

  8. A predominantly indigenous paternal heritage for the Austronesian-speaking peoples of insular Southeast Asia and Oceania.

    PubMed

    Capelli, C; Wilson, J F; Richards, M; Stumpf, M P; Gratrix, F; Oppenheimer, S; Underhill, P; Pascali, V L; Ko, T M; Goldstein, D B

    2001-02-01

    Modern humans reached Southeast Asia and Oceania in one of the first dispersals out of Africa. The resulting temporal overlap of modern and archaic humans-and the apparent morphological continuity between them-has led to claims of gene flow between Homo sapiens and H. erectus. Much more recently, an agricultural technology from mainland Asia spread into the region, possibly in association with Austronesian languages. Using detailed genealogical study of Y chromosome variation, we show that the majority of current Austronesian speakers trace their paternal heritage to Pleistocene settlers in the region, as opposed to more-recent agricultural immigrants. A fraction of the paternal heritage, however, appears to be associated with more-recent immigrants from northern populations. We also show that the northern Neolithic component is very unevenly dispersed through the region, with a higher contribution in Southeast Asia and a nearly complete absence in Melanesia. Contrary to claims of gene flow (under regional continuity) between H. erectus and H. sapiens, we found no ancestral Y chromosome lineages in a set of 1,209 samples. The finding excludes the possibility that early hominids contributed significantly to the paternal heritage of the region.

  9. Research priorities for conservation and natural resource management in Oceania's small island developing states.

    PubMed

    Weeks, R; Adams, V M

    2017-06-06

    For conservation science to effectively inform management, research must focus on creating the scientific knowledge required to solve conservation problems. We report the outcomes of an exercise to identify research questions that, if answered, would increase the effectiveness of conservation and natural resource management practice and policy within Oceania's small island developing states. Respondents from academia, government, and nongovernment organizations across the region surveyed online proposed 270 questions, and subsequently identified 38 of these as high priority. High priority questions speak to the particular challenges of undertaking conservation within small island developing states, and the need for a research agenda that is responsive to the socio-cultural context of Oceania. Our comparison with research priorities identified globally and for other regions revealed broad thematic similarities but also highlighted important differences in specific issues that are relevant to particular conservation contexts. This emphasizes the importance of involving local practitioners in the identification of research priorities. We found that priorities were reasonably well aligned between sectoral groups. Only a few questions were widely considered to be already answered; this may indicate a smaller than expected knowledge-action gap. We hope that these questions can act to strengthen research collaborations between scientists and practitioners working to further conservation and natural resource management in this region. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Global perspectives on animal welfare: Asia, the Far East, and Oceania.

    PubMed

    Rahman, S A; Walker, L; Ricketts, W

    2005-08-01

    In Asia and the Far East, livestock undergo major suffering due to malnutrition, overloading, and ill-treatment. At slaughter animals are handled roughly and watch other animals being killed; stunning is not practised. Cruelty to other animals such as elephants, horses, donkeys, bears, dogs, and circus animals has largely been prevented through the efforts of animal welfare organisations. Governments have taken initiatives to establish Animal Welfare Boards and enact laws for the prevention of cruelty to animals, but their efforts are far too limited to be of any significance and financial constraints and lack of personnel inhibit the implementation of the laws that do exist. In New Zealand and Australia, legislation and strong consultation procedures at governmental and community level strive to regulate and improve the welfare of animals in all spheres, but in other Oceanic countries there is a need for both an update in, or establishment of, legislation covering animal welfare. Limited progress has been made due to the status of the Veterinary Services and a lack of resources. Although some public and educational awareness programmes are carried out, increasing exposure to international media and attitudes of visiting tourists suggest that further awareness work needs to be undertaken. To address the problems of animal welfare in developing countries, it would be inappropriate to adopt the international standards that are implemented in the developed countries. Each developing country should evolve its own standards based on its own individual priorities.

  11. Towards understanding the origin and dispersal of Austronesians in the Solomon Sea: HLA class II polymorphism in eight distinct populations of Asia-Oceania.

    PubMed

    Zimdahl, H; Schiefenhövel, W; Kayser, M; Roewer, L; Nagy, M

    1999-12-01

    HLA class II nucleotide sequence polymorphisms were examined in eight ethnic groups of Asia-Oceania using DNA typing methods. Allele frequencies and characteristic DR/DQ haplotypes were determined and compared with those of other populations of Asia-Oceania. Genetic distances were measured to show the genetic relationship within the studied populations as well as between the studied populations and previously published populations. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on HLA allele frequencies using the neighbour-joining method. The populations, mainly Trobriand Islanders, Roro, Tolai, Western Samoans and Taiwanese Aborigines, are characterized by a reduced diversity at the HLA loci examined, especially for DPB1. The high frequency of the 'Asian'-specific DPB1*0501 allele in Trobrianders and Roro, but also in Western Samoans and Taiwanese Aborigines, was the most striking result. The prevalence of DPB1*0501 and the short genetic distance from Trobriander and Roro to Taiwanese Aborigines provide evidence that the origin of the Austronesian odyssey is south-east Asia, and Taiwan could be an important part of it. The relatedness of Trobrianders to the Polynesian population from Western Samoa indicates a probable recent common ancestor. The observed lack of diversity may reflect bottleneck(s) and/or limited diversity of the founding population. Analysis of HLA class I antigens, together with mt-DNA and Y-chromosomal studies, will give us further information about the settlement of the Trobriand and other islands during the colonization of the Pacific.

  12. Engaging Oceania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    provided medical, dental , veterinarian, educational, and engineering support to seven of the nations of Oceania since 2007.19 This and other assistance...improvement would be more than cosmetic but far less than a major overhaul (e.g., upgrading of mainte- nance facilities, radar, pierside storage, and the

  13. NASA COAST and OCEANIA Airborne Missions Support Ecosystem and Water Quality Research in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, L. S.; Kudela, R. M.; Hooker, S. B.; Morrow, J. H.; Russell, P. B.; Palacios, S. L.; Livingston, J. M.; Negrey, K.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Broughton, J.

    2014-12-01

    NASA has a continuing requirement to collect high-quality in situ data for the vicarious calibration of current and next generation ocean color satellite sensors and to validate the algorithms that use the remotely sensed observations. Recent NASA airborne missions over Monterey Bay, CA, have demonstrated novel above- and in-water measurement capabilities supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The results characterize coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties through an end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems. The primary goal is to demonstrate the following in support of calibration and validation exercises for satellite coastal ocean color products: 1) the utility of a multi-sensor airborne instrument suite to assess the bio-optical properties of coastal California, including water quality; and 2) the importance of contemporaneous atmospheric measurements to improve atmospheric correction in the coastal zone. The imaging spectrometer (Headwall) is optimized in the blue spectral domain to emphasize remote sensing of marine and freshwater ecosystems. The novel airborne instrument, Coastal Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) provides measurements of apparent optical properties with high dynamic range and fidelity for deriving exact water leaving radiances at the land-ocean boundary, including radiometrically shallow aquatic ecosystems. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data are accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Flight operations are presented for the instrument payloads using the CIRPAS Twin Otter flown over Monterey Bay during the seasonal fall algal bloom in 2011 (COAST) and 2013 (OCEANIA) to support bio-optical measurements of phytoplankton for coastal zone research.

  14. Deciphering past human population movements in Oceania: provably optimal trees of 127 mtDNA genomes.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Melanie J; Martinez-Arias, Rosa; Holland, Barbara R; Gemmell, Neil J; Hurles, Matthew E; Penny, David

    2006-10-01

    The settlement of the many island groups of Remote Oceania occurred relatively late in prehistory, beginning approximately 3,000 years ago when people sailed eastwards into the Pacific from Near Oceania, where evidence of human settlement dates from as early as 40,000 years ago. Archeological and linguistic analyses have suggested the settlers of Remote Oceania had ancestry in Taiwan, as descendants of a proposed Neolithic expansion that began approximately 5,500 years ago. Other researchers have suggested that the settlers were descendants of peoples from Island Southeast Asia or the existing inhabitants of Near Oceania alone. To explore patterns of maternal descent in Oceania, we have assembled and analyzed a data set of 137 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes from Oceania, Australia, Island Southeast Asia, and Taiwan that includes 19 sequences generated for this project. Using the MinMax Squeeze Approach (MMS), we report the consensus network of 165 most parsimonious trees for the Oceanic data set, increasing by many orders of magnitude the numbers of trees for which a provable minimal solution has been found. The new mtDNA sequences highlight the limitations of partial sequencing for assigning sequences to haplogroups and dating recent divergence events. The provably optimal trees found for the entire mtDNA sequences using the MMS method provide a reliable and robust framework for the interpretation of evolutionary relationships and confirm that the female settlers of Remote Oceania descended from both the existing inhabitants of Near Oceania and more recent migrants into the region.

  15. Deciphering Past Human Population Movements in Oceania: Provably Optimal Trees of 127 mtDNA Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Pierson, Melanie J.; Martinez-Arias, Rosa; Holland, Barbara R.; Gemmell, Neil J.; Hurles, Matthew E.; Penny, David

    2009-01-01

    The settlement of the many island groups of Remote Oceania occurred relatively late in prehistory, beginning approximately 3,000 years ago when people sailed eastwards into the Pacific from Near Oceania, where evidence of human settlement dates from as early as 40,000 years ago. Archeological and linguistic analyses have suggested the settlers of Remote Oceania had ancestry in Taiwan, as descendants of a proposed Neolithic expansion that began approximately 5,500 years ago. Other researchers have suggested that the settlers were descendants of peoples from Island Southeast Asia or the existing inhabitants of Near Oceania alone. To explore patterns of maternal descent in Oceania, we have assembled and analyzed a data set of 137 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes from Oceania, Australia, Island Southeast Asia, and Taiwan that includes 19 sequences generated for this project. Using the MinMax Squeeze Approach (MMS), we report the consensus network of 165 most parsimonious trees for the Oceanic data set, increasing by many orders of magnitude the numbers of trees for which a provable minimal solution has been found. The new mtDNA sequences highlight the limitations of partial sequencing for assigning sequences to haplogroups and dating recent divergence events. The provably optimal trees found for the entire mtDNA sequences using the MMS method provide a reliable and robust framework for the interpretation of evolutionary relationships and confirm that the female settlers of Remote Oceania descended from both the existing inhabitants of Near Oceania and more recent migrants into the region. PMID:16855009

  16. Shipboard monitoring of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in Asia and Oceania using commercially cargo vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nara, H.; Tanimoto, H.; Mukai, H.; Nojiri, Y.; Tohjima, Y.; Machida, T.; Hashimoto, S.

    2011-12-01

    The National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) has been performing a long-term program for monitoring trace gases of atmospheric importance over the Pacific Ocean since 1995. The NIES Voluntary Observing Ships (NIES-VOS) program currently makes use of commercial cargo vessels because they operate regularly over fixed routes for long periods and sail over a wide area between various ports (e.g., between Japan and the United States, between Japan and Australia/New Zealand, and between Japan and southeast Asia). This program allows systematic and continuous measurements of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, providing long-term datasets for background air over the Pacific Ocean and regionally polluted air around east Asia. We observe both long-lived greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide) and short-lived air pollutants (e.g., tropospheric ozone, carbon monoxide) on a continuous basis. Flask samples are collected for later laboratory analysis of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon monoxide by using gas chromatographic techniques. In addition, we recently installed cavity ringdown spectrometers for high-resolution measurement of methane and carbon dioxide to capture their highly variable features in regionally polluted air around southeast Asia (e.g., Hong Kong, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippine), which is now thought to be a large source due to expanding socioeconomic activities as well as biomass burnings. Contrasting the Japan-Australia/New Zealand and Japan-southeast Asia cruises revealed regional characteristics of sources and sinks of these atmospherically important species, suggesting the existence of additional sources for methane, nitrous oxides, and carbon monoxide in this tropical Asian region.

  17. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beh, Yolanda

    1988-01-01

    Briefly describes 22 reports on language-related research relevant to Southeast Asia, detailing study aims, methodology, researchers, and sponsors for studies conducted in Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. (CB)

  18. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beh, Yolanda

    1988-01-01

    Briefly describes 22 reports on language-related research relevant to Southeast Asia, detailing study aims, methodology, researchers, and sponsors for studies conducted in Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. (CB)

  19. Asthma research performance in Asia-Pacific: a bibliometric analysis by searching PubMed database.

    PubMed

    Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Reantragoon, Rangsima

    2009-12-01

    Countries in the Asia-Pacific region have experienced an increase in the prevalence of asthma, and they have been actively involved in asthma research recently. This study aimed to analyze asthma research from Asia-Pacific in the last decade by bibliometric method. Asthma articles from Asia-Pacific countries published between 1998 and 2007 were retrieved from PubMed by searching MeSH for "asthma." Most of published asthma articles in Asia-Pacific are from affluent countries in northeast Asia and Oceania. Australia and Japan have been the regional powerhouses since they contributed more than half of regional articles on asthma. Asthma publications from emerging economies in Asia such as South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore, have dramatically increased in the last decade in terms of quantity and quality aspects and were considerable sources of basic and translational research in the region. Mainland China and India have significantly increased their research capacity as well, but quality needs to be improved. Asthma publications from New Zealand and Australia, countries with the highest asthma prevalence rates in the world, yielded highest citation counts per articles and were published in journals with high impact factor. Asthma research parameters per million population correlate well with gross domestic product per capita. Almost half (41%) of total articles were produced from only 25 institutions in the region and almost half of them (47%) were published in 20 journals. Asthma research in Asia-Pacific were mainly conducted in countries in Oceania and Northeast Asia and research performance strongly correlated with the nation's wealth. Interesting asthma research projects in the region were recommended.

  20. NASA COAST and OCEANIA Airborne Missions in Support of Ecosystem and Water Quality Research in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guild, Liane S.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Kudela, Raphael; Morrow, John; Russell, Philip; Myers, Jeffrey; Dunagan, Stephen; Palacios, Sherry; Livingston, John; Negrey, Kendra; hide

    2015-01-01

    ecosystems. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data were accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Flight operations are presented for the instrument payloads using the CIRPAS Twin Otter flown over Monterey Bay during the seasonal fall algal bloom in 2011 (COAST) and 2013 (OCEANIA) to support bio-optical measurements of phytoplankton for coastal zone research. Further, this airborne capability can be responsive to first flush rain events that deliver higher concentrations of sediments and pollution to coastal waters via watersheds and overland flow.

  1. Gene therapy research in Asia.

    PubMed

    Deng, H-X; Wang, Y; Ding, Q-R; Li, D-L; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2017-09-07

    Gene therapy has shown great potential for the treatment of diseases that previously were either untreatable or treatable but not curable with conventional schemes. Recent progress in clinical gene therapy trials has emerged in various severe diseases, including primary immunodeficiencies, leukodystrophies, Leber's congenital amaurosis, haemophilia, as well as retinal dystrophy. The clinical transformation and industrialization of gene therapy in Asia have been remarkable and continue making steady progress. A total of six gene therapy-based products have been approved worldwide, including two drugs from Asia. This review aims to highlight recent progress in gene therapy clinical trials and discuss the prospects for the future in China and wider Asia.Gene Therapy advance online publication, 7 September 2017; doi:10.1038/gt.2017.62.

  2. Forestry research in Asia and Pacific

    Treesearch

    Jim Chamberlain; Erin Moore

    1992-01-01

    Much research has been done in Asia and the Pacific that might help Pacific Island countries produce more biomass and better manage their natural resources. National forestry research institutes throughout the region have examined many important aspects of forestry. Not all research findings are directly transferable between countries, but research methods and results...

  3. Global Principles, Regional Action: Guiding Ecohealth Practice in Oceania.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Rebecca; Dietrich, Uta

    2016-12-01

    In Oceania, a region challenged by rapid urbanisation and climate change, integrative frameworks are required to enable effective actions on health and sustainability. The Ecohealth approach provides a framework for practice that acknowledges human health is intrinsically linked to ecosystem health. This research communication reports on a study involving interviews with twenty-seven leading health and sustainability thinkers from Oceania and across the globe. In examining their ideas for action, the report presents the study findings in relation to the guiding principles of Ecohealth: systems thinking, transdisciplinarity, participation, sustainability, equity and knowledge-to-action. Implications for Ecohealth practitioners working in Oceania are considered.

  4. Language Teacher Research in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The Language Teacher Research Series aims to connect research and practice by highlighting the insights that teachers themselves describe after examining their own practices. This first volume of the five-volume series presents research conducted by language teachers at all levels, from high school English teachers to English language teacher…

  5. Language Teacher Research in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The Language Teacher Research Series aims to connect research and practice by highlighting the insights that teachers themselves describe after examining their own practices. This first volume of the five-volume series presents research conducted by language teachers at all levels, from high school English teachers to English language teacher…

  6. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beh, Yolanda

    1989-01-01

    Summaries of six language-related research projects are presented from Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Topics include English as the instructional medium, teacher's use of language, Tamil language management, standardizing texts, cross-cultural business negotiations, and assessment of English language needs in computer science. (LB)

  7. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beh, Yolanda

    1989-01-01

    Summaries of six language-related research projects are presented from Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Topics include English as the instructional medium, teacher's use of language, Tamil language management, standardizing texts, cross-cultural business negotiations, and assessment of English language needs in computer science. (LB)

  8. Advancing Research on Comparative and International Education in Asia: Contribution of the "Asia Pacific Education Review"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gok, Enes; Weidman, John C.

    2015-01-01

    This article explored the contribution of Asia Pacific Education Review (APER) to expanding the scope of research on comparative and international education in Asia. We developed a rubric based on extensive studies (Rust et al. in "Comp Educ Rev," 43(1):86-109, 1999; Foster et al. in "Int J Educ Dev" 32:711-732, 2012) of…

  9. Advancing Research on Comparative and International Education in Asia: Contribution of the "Asia Pacific Education Review"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gok, Enes; Weidman, John C.

    2015-01-01

    This article explored the contribution of Asia Pacific Education Review (APER) to expanding the scope of research on comparative and international education in Asia. We developed a rubric based on extensive studies (Rust et al. in "Comp Educ Rev," 43(1):86-109, 1999; Foster et al. in "Int J Educ Dev" 32:711-732, 2012) of…

  10. Shaping Education Policy Research in an Asia-Pacific Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Dong Wook; Lee, Ho Jun; Lee, Seung Ho; Wi, Eunjoo

    2014-01-01

    Globalization increasingly calls for comparing educational policies across countries. In this study, we assemble and analyze academic journal publications of the past decade in order to shape education policy research within an Asia-Pacific context. After examining Asia-Pacific research publication data from the Web of Science, we find a few…

  11. Regional Event Identification Research in Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    include mining event ground- truth data collection in central Asia, and efforts to improve the magnitude and distance amplitude correction (MDAC...identify active mines. Our goal was to tie event clusters with similar waveforms to specific mine sites, and thereby establish ground truth location and...event ground- truth data in central Asia, and we have continued efforts to derive Eurasian two-dimensional, regional-phase attenuation models and

  12. Research of Ionospheric Scintillation in Asia (RISA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    scintillation in distributed GNSS networks in Thailand and vicinity and the potential correlation with extreme space weather events. New stations in Asian...effects of ionospheric scintillation in distributed GNSS networks in Thailand and vicinity and the potential correlation with extreme space weather...Ionospheric studies in South-East Asia using space-geodetic systems, in particular by analyzing data acquired using dedicated or available GNSS (Global

  13. Issues and priorities of medical education research in Asia.

    PubMed

    Majumder, M A A

    2004-03-01

    This article addresses the roles, issues, approaches, rationale, pitfalls, priorities and balance of research in medical education, particularly its "disarray" status in Asia. Research in medical education has influenced education in many ways. Most importantly, it provides legitimate evidences to stakeholders on which to make educational decisions. It also has a wider social impact on teaching practice and subsequent clinical practice. However, in Asia, medical educational research has not substantially influenced educational policy and medical practices. Moreover, it fails to receive comparable attention as in developed countries. A number of constraints that have hampered the development of educational research in Asia are identified: low socio-economic condition of the region; cultural and religious values and beliefs of the people; lack of congruence between the mission and vision of medical schools; leadership crisis; lack of financial resources; inadequate exposure to medical educational research in undergraduate training; lack of collaboration and commitment; and unforeseeable short-term outcome of medical education. The article concludes with some specific recommendations to strengthen research and to create a research culture in the region, including active leadership and commitment of the institutes/organisations, careful assessment and strategic settings of the priorities of medical educational research, establishment of a regional centre for medical education research, availability of financial resources, wider dissemination of research findings, collaboration with the developed countries and initiative to publish regional-based medical education journals, including electronic journals. Appropriate research environment and culture will enable stakeholders to obtain evidence-based information from educational research to increase the relevance, quality, cost-effectiveness and equity of medical education and practice in Asia.

  14. Asia and the Pacific in 2020: Scenarios for Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Colin

    2009-01-01

    By 2020 our world will have changed and with it the shape and role of education and of educational research. One cannot predict the future, but in this paper three possible scenarios are outlined reflecting alternative approaches of government to the economic, political, social and environmental challenges facing the Asia Pacific region. For each…

  15. International Voices: Reading in Kazakhstan and Oceania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith; Golopyatova, Nina; Goodwin, Maureen; Peirce, Robin

    2007-01-01

    This column focuses on the innovative strategies some teachers from Kazakhstan and Oceania are using to overcome the challenges they face. In Kazakhstan, schools organize reading days to encourage and inspire children to read. In the predominantly oral culture of the Cook Islands, Niue Island, and Rarotonga, teachers and administrators model…

  16. The Q2 mitochondrial haplogroup in Oceania.

    PubMed

    Corser, Chris A; McLenachan, Patricia A; Pierson, Melanie J; Harrison, G L Abby; Penny, David

    2012-01-01

    Many details surrounding the origins of the peoples of Oceania remain to be resolved, and as a step towards this we report seven new complete mitochondrial genomes from the Q2a haplogroup, from Papua New Guinea, Fiji and Kiribati. This brings the total to eleven Q2 genomes now available. The Q haplogroup (that includes Q2) is an old and diverse lineage in Near Oceania, and is reasonably common; within our sample set of 430, 97 are of the Q haplogroup. However, only 8 are Q2, and we report 7 here. The tree with all complete Q genomes is proven to be minimal. The dating estimate for the origin of Q2 (around 35 Kya) reinforces the understanding that humans have been in Near Oceania for tens of thousands of years; nevertheless the Polynesian maternal haplogroups remain distinctive. A major focus now, with regard to Polynesian ancestry, is to address the differences and timing of the 'Melanesian' contribution to the maternal and paternal lineages as people moved further and further into Remote Oceania. Input from other fields such as anthropology, history and linguistics is required for a better understanding and interpretation of the genetic data.

  17. The Q2 Mitochondrial Haplogroup in Oceania

    PubMed Central

    Corser, Chris A.; McLenachan, Patricia A.; Pierson, Melanie J.; Harrison, G. L. Abby; Penny, David

    2012-01-01

    Many details surrounding the origins of the peoples of Oceania remain to be resolved, and as a step towards this we report seven new complete mitochondrial genomes from the Q2a haplogroup, from Papua New Guinea, Fiji and Kiribati. This brings the total to eleven Q2 genomes now available. The Q haplogroup (that includes Q2) is an old and diverse lineage in Near Oceania, and is reasonably common; within our sample set of 430, 97 are of the Q haplogroup. However, only 8 are Q2, and we report 7 here. The tree with all complete Q genomes is proven to be minimal. The dating estimate for the origin of Q2 (around 35 Kya) reinforces the understanding that humans have been in Near Oceania for tens of thousands of years; nevertheless the Polynesian maternal haplogroups remain distinctive. A major focus now, with regard to Polynesian ancestry, is to address the differences and timing of the ‘Melanesian’ contribution to the maternal and paternal lineages as people moved further and further into Remote Oceania. Input from other fields such as anthropology, history and linguistics is required for a better understanding and interpretation of the genetic data. PMID:23284859

  18. Research priorities in epilepsy for the Asia-Oceanian region.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Patrick; Cabral-Lim, Leonor; D'Souza, Wendyl; Jain, Satish; Lee, Byung-In; Liao, Weiping; Lim, Shih-Hui; Otsuki, Taisuke; Tan, Chong-Tin; Wantanabe, Masako

    2015-05-01

    The Asia-Oceanian region is the most populous region in the world. Although there has been substantial economic development and improvement in health services in recent years, epilepsy remains generally an underrecognized and understudied condition. To help promote research in the region, the Commission on Asian and Oceanian Affairs (CAOA) of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) appointed the Research Task Force (RTF) to facilitate the development of research priorities for the region. Research that focuses on issues that are unique or of particular importance in the Asia-Oceanian region is encouraged, and that captures the impact of the dynamic socioeconomic changes taking place in the region is emphasized. Based on these considerations, we propose research "dimensions" as priorities within the Asia-Oceanian region. These are studies (1) that would lead to fuller appreciation of the health burden of epilepsy, particularly the treatment gap; (2) that would lead to better understanding of the causes of epilepsy; (3) that would alleviate the psychosocial consequences of epilepsy; (4) that would develop better therapies and improved therapeutic outcomes; and (5) that would improve the research infrastructure.

  19. Priority of epilepsy research in Asia.

    PubMed

    Jain, Satish

    2005-01-01

    Epilepsy is the most common serious disorder of the brain, characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. It is estimated that there are approximately 50 million people with epilepsy worldwide, the majority of which today are living in the developing countries. Many countries in the Asian Oceanian regions have large populations and limited resources. Most such countries do have a vast health-care network with few centres of excellence that are comparable to the best in the world. The peculiar sociocultural milieu of this region provides a large population with epilepsy that can be used as a unique tool to conduct research into the basic processes, clinical aspects and psychosocial consequences of epilepsy. The Asian Oceanian region offers tremendous opportunities for research despite its limited resources. The clinicians and scientists need to be aware of the basic realities of the region and take full advantage of the stimulation to work for the benefit of humanity.

  20. Combining Education and Work: Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Although there is currently no national approach to career education in Australia, recent economic and labor trends have prompted the reconsideration of work experience and career education programs. Career education does not exist below secondary levels and prevocational training serves only as an introduction to extensive postsecondary technical…

  1. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murugasu, V.

    Work oriented education has been tied to national development in Malaysia since the 1960's. Increasing population, unemployment, and shortages of skilled manpower led the government to relate education more closely to work and develop technical and vocational education. Malaysia extended basic education to lower secondary manpower needs; and…

  2. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dacca Univ., Bangladesh. Inst. of Education and Research.

    Bangladesh stresses the importance of education responsive to the country's development needs and capable of producing, through formal or non-formal methods, skilled, employable manpower. Although no pre-vocational training exists, new curricula have introduced practical work experience in the primary schools and have integrated agriculture,…

  3. Combining Education and Work: Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Although there is currently no national approach to career education in Australia, recent economic and labor trends have prompted the reconsideration of work experience and career education programs. Career education does not exist below secondary levels and prevocational training serves only as an introduction to extensive postsecondary technical…

  4. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education (Singapore).

    Since Singapore achieved partial self-government in 1955, economic and political considerations have reshaped educational policy and programs to support the transformation to an industrialized country. Changes in the educational systems include: more facilities for technical education and training; a reorganized secondary school system phasing out…

  5. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murugasu, V.

    Work oriented education has been tied to national development in Malaysia since the 1960's. Increasing population, unemployment, and shortages of skilled manpower led the government to relate education more closely to work and develop technical and vocational education. Malaysia extended basic education to lower secondary manpower needs; and…

  6. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Ministry of Education, Islamabad (Pakistan).

    In Pakistan, academic education is a luxury. Instead, education must be geared to production, solving practical problems, and promoting national development. Since 1951, Pakistan has attempted to bring work and education together and to throw off the structural and attitudinal restrictions of a foreign educational system which strangled tradition,…

  7. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand).

    Reflected in priorities of secondary vocational training, agricultural education, and nonformal short courses, Thailand's education policy of "productive work experience" helps solve the problems of those who have an incomplete general education, have negative work attitudes and habits, are untrained dropouts, or are vocationally trained…

  8. What is next for pharmacoeconomics and outcomes research in Asia?

    PubMed

    Doherty, Jim; Kamae, Isao; Lee, Kenneth K C; Li, Hong; Li, Shu-Chun; Liu, Gordon G; Tarn, Yen-Huei; Yang, Bong-min

    2004-01-01

    Pharmacoeconomics and outcomes research have the potential for rapid adoption in the Asia Pacific region. Nevertheless, the region is characterized by great diversity in social and economic development, ethnicity, population size, health-care system, culture, language, and religion. Thus, the rate of adoption is also quite diverse across the region. Among the countries reviewed in this article, governments take varying levels of interest in applying this research in health policy decisions. For example, some countries have already implemented systems that require pharmacoeconomic studies as one component of a new pharmaceutical product's approval for reimbursement, whereas others recommend such data but do not require it in policy and medical decision making. The literature in the countries reviewed is actually quite robust given the early stages of development of this field in most countries. The academic community has members trained in this field of research in all the countries reviewed and some universities have established departments whereas others have just introduced a few classes in the area. At the moment, pharmacoeconomics and outcomes research are being conducted mainly by academics. In addition, some pharmaceutical researchers are active and pharmaceutical companies are currently preparing to conduct more of this research as part of their strategy for Asian drug development. Prospects for future growth and development in this field are quite good in Asia as rapid healthcare inflation, increasing rates of chronic conditions and aging population, and increasing technology diffusion will underpin the need for greater awareness of the need to incorporate economic efficiency into the health-care systems.

  9. Finding a Place for Systems-Based, Collaborative Research in Emerging Disease Research in Asia.

    PubMed

    Burns, Theresa E; Stephen, Craig

    2015-12-01

    The need to adequately predict, prevent and respond to infectious diseases emerging unexpectedly from human-animal-environmental systems has driven interest in multisectoral, socio-economic, systems-based, collaborative (MSC) research approaches such as EcoHealth and One Health. Our goals were to document how MSC research has been used to address EIDs in Asia, and to explore how MSC approaches align with current priorities for EID research in Asia. We gathered priorities for EID research from the peer-reviewed and grey literature, documented organizational descriptions of MCS research approaches, and analysed a series of EID MSC projects. We found that priority areas for EID research in Asia included (1) understanding host-pathogen-environment interactions; (2) improving tools and technologies; (3) changing people's behaviour; and (4) evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. We found that the unifying characteristics of MSC research were that it was action-oriented and sought to inspire change under real-world conditions at the complex interface of human and natural systems. We suggest that MSC research can be considered a type of 'pragmatic research' and might be most useful in describing change in complex human-animal-environmental systems, accelerating research-to-action, and evaluating effectiveness of interventions in 'real world' settings.

  10. Exploring Ecosystems and Health by Shifting to a Regional Focus: Perspectives from the Oceania EcoHealth Chapter.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, Jonathan; Patrick, Rebecca; Horwitz, Pierre; Parkes, Margot; Jenkins, Aaron; Massy, Charles; Henderson-Wilson, Claire; Arabena, Kerry

    2015-10-13

    This article highlights contributions that can be made to the public health field by incorporating "ecosystem approaches to health" to tackle future environmental and health challenges at a regional level. This qualitative research reviews attitudes and understandings of the relationship between public health and the environment and the priorities, aspirations and challenges of a newly established group (the Oceania EcoHealth Chapter) who are attempting to promote these principles. Ten semi-structured interviews with Oceania EcoHealth Chapter members highlighted the important role such groups can play in informing organisations working in the Oceania region to improve both public health and environmental outcomes simultaneously. Participants of this study emphasise the need to elevate Indigenous knowledge in Oceania and the role regional groups play in this regard. They also emphasis that regional advocacy and ecosystem approaches to health could bypass silos in knowledge and disciplinary divides, with groups like the Oceania EcoHealth Chapter acting as a mechanism for knowledge exchange, engagement, and action at a regional level with its ability to bridge the gap between environmental stewardship and public health.

  11. Exploring Ecosystems and Health by Shifting to a Regional Focus: Perspectives from the Oceania EcoHealth Chapter

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, Jonathan; Patrick, Rebecca; Horwitz, Pierre; Parkes, Margot; Jenkins, Aaron; Massy, Charles; Henderson-Wilson, Claire; Arabena, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights contributions that can be made to the public health field by incorporating “ecosystem approaches to health” to tackle future environmental and health challenges at a regional level. This qualitative research reviews attitudes and understandings of the relationship between public health and the environment and the priorities, aspirations and challenges of a newly established group (the Oceania EcoHealth Chapter) who are attempting to promote these principles. Ten semi-structured interviews with Oceania EcoHealth Chapter members highlighted the important role such groups can play in informing organisations working in the Oceania region to improve both public health and environmental outcomes simultaneously. Participants of this study emphasise the need to elevate Indigenous knowledge in Oceania and the role regional groups play in this regard. They also emphasis that regional advocacy and ecosystem approaches to health could bypass silos in knowledge and disciplinary divides, with groups like the Oceania EcoHealth Chapter acting as a mechanism for knowledge exchange, engagement, and action at a regional level with its ability to bridge the gap between environmental stewardship and public health. PMID:26473903

  12. Oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS in Asia: Systematic review and future research guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder-Singh; Vohra, Puneeta; Nagpal, Archna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The authors have conducted a systematic review of oral manifestations of HIV from studies conducted in Asia to establish the characteristics and prevalence of individual oral manifestations in Asia, and to assess the direction of future research studies on oral manifestations of HIV in Asia. Material and Methods The electronic retrieval systems and databases searched for relevant articles were PubMed [MEDLINE], EBSCO, and EMBASE. The search was for limited articles published in English or with an English abstract and articles published during the period January 1995 to August 2014. The authors reached a final overall sample of 39 studies that were conducted in Asia. Results The median population size among all studies was 312.7 patients. Oral candidiasis [OC] was the most common oral manifestation [37.7%] in studies conducted in Asia. The overall prevalence of oral hairy leukoplakia and melanotic hyperpigmentation was computed to be 10.1% and 22.8% respectively. Thailand and India are primarily countries with maximum research on oral manifestations. Conclusions The research on oral manifestations of HIV in Asia has to upgrade to more interventional and therapeutic studies rather than the contemporary cross- sectional epidemiological descriptive studies. The authors have given suggestions and future directions for the implementation of clinical research of oral manifestations in HIV patients. Key words:Oral manifestations, HIV/AIDS, Asia, Systematic review. PMID:26330942

  13. Adult Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulletin of the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific, 1982

    1982-01-01

    This issue reproduces articles adapted from country reports presented to a Regional Seminar on Adult Education and Development in Asia and Oceania, Bangkok, November 1980. A summary of adult and nonformal education in the region forms section 1. Highlights of the country articles in section 2 include Afghanistan--national literacy campaign;…

  14. Terra Australis to Oceania: racial geography in the "fifth part of the world".

    PubMed

    Douglas, Bronwen

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a synoptic history of racial geography in the 'fifth part of the world' or Oceania - an extended region embracing what are now Australia, Island Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, Aotearoa/New Zealand and Papua New Guinea. The period in question stretches from classical antiquity to the Enlightenment, to focus on the consolidation of European racial thinking with the marriage of geography and raciology in the early 19th century. The paper investigates the naming of places by Europeans and its ultimate entanglement with their racial classifications of people. The formulation of geographical and anthropological knowledge is located at the interface of metropolitan discourses and local experience. This necessitates unpacking the relationships between, on the one hand, the deductive reasoning of metropolitan savants, and, on the other hand, the empirical logic of voyagers and settlers who had visited or lived in particular places, encountered their inhabitants, and been exposed, often unwittingly, to indigenous agency and knowledge.

  15. Higher Education Research in Asia: A Publication and Co-Publication Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jisun; Horta, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    This study explores higher education research in Asia. Drawing on scientometrics, the mapping of science and social network analysis, this paper examines the publications of 38 specialised journals on higher education over the past three decades. The findings indicate a growing number of higher education research publications but the proportion of…

  16. A Synthesis of Reviews of Research on Principal Leadership in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Allan; Hallinger, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to synthesize findings from five systematic reviews of research on principal leadership in East Asia contained in this special issue. The goal is to identify commonalities as well as differences concerning both approaches to research and the enactment of school leadership within this rapidly developing and…

  17. Higher Education Research in Asia: A Publication and Co-Publication Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jisun; Horta, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    This study explores higher education research in Asia. Drawing on scientometrics, the mapping of science and social network analysis, this paper examines the publications of 38 specialised journals on higher education over the past three decades. The findings indicate a growing number of higher education research publications but the proportion of…

  18. Promoting road traffic injuries research in South Asia: capacity strengthening in health research.

    PubMed

    Harun-Ar-Rashid

    2004-12-01

    Ideally, health policies should be based on valid scientific evidence and such evidence requires health research. Health research is also an essential tool for achieving equity in health and development. Although the need to carry out health research is noe well accepted, South Asia countries still lag behind and do not make any meaningful contribution to health research and development, This paucity in research work is due to a lack of incentives, shortage of skilled manpower, poor exposure and insufficient orientation to the methods and materials of biomedical research. Research capacity is a tool to help a country deal with it's national health problems in as effective and efficient a manner as possible. It is, therefore, part of the national health system ans should be integrated in a comprehensive national health plan for the promotion of health and the delivery of health services to the country. Capacity strengthening is recognized as a crucial step in the process of integrating the use od research doe decision-making in the health system of a country. This is especially true for conditions such as road traffic injuries, which present a new challenge for existing health systems.

  19. One Health research and training and government support for One Health in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Joanna S.; Dahal, Rojan; Kakkar, Manish; Debnath, Nitish; Rahman, Mahmudur; Dorjee, Sithar; Naeem, Khalid; Wijayathilaka, Tikiri; Sharma, Barun Kumar; Maidanwal, Nasir; Halimi, Asmatullah; Kim, Eunmi; Chatterjee, Pranab; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Considerable advocacy, funding, training, and technical support have been provided to South Asian countries to strengthen One Health (OH) collaborative approaches for controlling diseases with global human pandemic potential since the early 2000s. It is essential that the OH approach continues to be strengthened given South Asia is a hot spot for emerging and endemic zoonotic diseases. The objectives of this article are to describe OH research and training and capacity building activities and the important developments in government support for OH in these countries to identify current achievements and gaps. Materials and methods A landscape analysis of OH research, training, and government support in South Asia was generated by searching peer-reviewed and grey literature for OH research publications and reports, a questionnaire survey of people potentially engaged in OH research in South Asia and the authors’ professional networks. Results Only a small proportion of zoonotic disease research conducted in South Asia can be described as truly OH, with a significant lack of OH policy-relevant research. A small number of multisectoral OH research and OH capacity building programmes were conducted in the region. The governments of Bangladesh and Bhutan have established operational OH strategies, with variable progress institutionalising OH in other countries. Identified gaps were a lack of useful scientific information and of a collaborative culture for formulating and implementing integrated zoonotic disease control policies and the need for ongoing support for transdisciplinary OH research and policy-relevant capacity building programmes. Discussion Overall we found a very small number of truly OH research and capacity building programmes in South Asia. Even though significant progress has been made in institutionalising OH in some South Asian countries, further behavioural, attitudinal, and institutional changes are required to strengthen OH research

  20. One Health research and training and government support for One Health in South Asia.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Joanna S; Dahal, Rojan; Kakkar, Manish; Debnath, Nitish; Rahman, Mahmudur; Dorjee, Sithar; Naeem, Khalid; Wijayathilaka, Tikiri; Sharma, Barun Kumar; Maidanwal, Nasir; Halimi, Asmatullah; Kim, Eunmi; Chatterjee, Pranab; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2016-01-01

    Considerable advocacy, funding, training, and technical support have been provided to South Asian countries to strengthen One Health (OH) collaborative approaches for controlling diseases with global human pandemic potential since the early 2000s. It is essential that the OH approach continues to be strengthened given South Asia is a hot spot for emerging and endemic zoonotic diseases. The objectives of this article are to describe OH research and training and capacity building activities and the important developments in government support for OH in these countries to identify current achievements and gaps. A landscape analysis of OH research, training, and government support in South Asia was generated by searching peer-reviewed and grey literature for OH research publications and reports, a questionnaire survey of people potentially engaged in OH research in South Asia and the authors' professional networks. Only a small proportion of zoonotic disease research conducted in South Asia can be described as truly OH, with a significant lack of OH policy-relevant research. A small number of multisectoral OH research and OH capacity building programmes were conducted in the region. The governments of Bangladesh and Bhutan have established operational OH strategies, with variable progress institutionalising OH in other countries. Identified gaps were a lack of useful scientific information and of a collaborative culture for formulating and implementing integrated zoonotic disease control policies and the need for ongoing support for transdisciplinary OH research and policy-relevant capacity building programmes. Overall we found a very small number of truly OH research and capacity building programmes in South Asia. Even though significant progress has been made in institutionalising OH in some South Asian countries, further behavioural, attitudinal, and institutional changes are required to strengthen OH research and training and implementation of sustainably effective

  1. Higher Education in Southeast Asia: Blurring Borders, Changing Balance. Routledge Research on Public and Social Policy in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This is the first book to systematically chart and comparatively assess the trend towards private higher education in South East Asia. Caught between conflicting imperatives of spiralling demand, and limited resources, the balance between public and private higher education systems in South East, South, and East Asia has shifted markedly. The…

  2. Higher Education in Southeast Asia: Blurring Borders, Changing Balance. Routledge Research on Public and Social Policy in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This is the first book to systematically chart and comparatively assess the trend towards private higher education in South East Asia. Caught between conflicting imperatives of spiralling demand, and limited resources, the balance between public and private higher education systems in South East, South, and East Asia has shifted markedly. The…

  3. FOREWORD: Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Akio; Hishita, Shunichi; Osada, Minoru; Haneda, Hajime

    2010-10-01

    Ceramics, as broadly defined, include all materials other than organic substances and metals, either crystalline or amorphous. They have been used by humans since early history and have contributed considerably to improving the quality of our life. In most cases, however, high-temperature treatment is necessary to prepare ceramics. This burdens the environment and there is therefore a great need for new ceramics processing methods. Recent technologically advanced ceramics are often composed of nanocrystallites, which have great potential for innovation in terms of exploring practical applications of nanomaterials and, consequently, reducing the environmental load. The ceramics industry had long flourished in Asia, particularly in East Asia, and even today, this region is leading the development of related materials. In line with these traditions, Japanese and Korean ceramics societies have been co-sponsoring seminars on ceramics since the 1980s. Having become more international in scope and context, a series of these seminars is now known as the International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics. This focus issue contains eight key articles presented at the 26th International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics held on 24-26 November 2010 at the Tsukuba International Congress Center. In particular, Fabbri et al review electrode materials for protonic solid-oxide fuel cells, and Kamiya et al outline the present situation and future prospects for transparent transistors, particularly those based on amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O films. Eitel et al discuss the progress in engineering high-strain lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. Kim and Kumar review a simple processing method for producing porous ceramics using polysiloxane precursors, Kamiya and Iijima focus on surface modification and characterization of nanomaterials, and Wan et al briefly review the strategy of reducing lattice thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials and propose new materials for thermoelectric devices

  4. Physical activity and obesity research in the Asia-Pacific: a review.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Selina; Morris, Tony

    2012-05-01

    Obesity is a global health concern and has a great impact on countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for obesity, but physical activity levels are declining in much of this region. Increasing physical activity is a priority in many countries. Considerable research has been conducted on physical activity related to obesity in Western countries, but populations in the Asia-Pacific region differ in physical, psychological, social, and cultural ways that warrant local and regional research. The authors reviewed research conducted in the Asia-Pacific region that examined either the impact of physical activity interventions on obesity-related outcomes or the effect of behavior-change interventions on physical activity participation. The number of studies found was limited, and their samples and methods varied too much to draw conclusions. The authors recommend further research in the Asia-Pacific region using systematic protocols to permit sound conclusions to be drawn and promote informed action at local levels.

  5. An Analysis of Asia-Pacific Educational Technology Research Published Internationally in 2000-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Insung; Yoo, Mina

    2014-01-01

    The past fourteen years have seen a significant rise in the percentage of Asia-Pacific papers on educational technology (ET) published internationally: from 13.7% in 2000 to 38.4% in 2013. This study seeks to identify the overall trends and gaps in this research. Of the 4,332 articles published in five selected international journals between 2000…

  6. A Review of HRD Research in Three Areas of East Asia: Mainland China, Taiwan, and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Jie; Paprock, Kenneth E.; Lynham, Susan A.; Li, Jie

    2004-01-01

    Recent research focusing on Human Resource Development (HRD) in East Asia is attracting increasing attention. The purpose of the study is to explore the definition and practice of HRD, together with influencing cultural factors, in Mainland China, Taiwan, and Japan. The results indicate a difference in the definition and implementation of HRD…

  7. Educational Reforms in the Asia-Pacific Region: Trends, Challenges and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yin Cheong

    This paper analyzes trends and challenges in recent educational reform and development in the Asia-Pacific region and explores related implications for educational research. There are numerous educational reforms in nearly all countries in the region as they respond to challenges of globalization, information technology, knowledge-based economy,…

  8. Directory of Scholarships and Grants for Students and Researchers in Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This directory targets users in Asia and the Pacific who seek further study or research opportunities in which English is the medium of learning. Information gathered form various sources is compiled in three parts: (1) a brief account of fellowships offered or administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization;…

  9. An Analysis of Asia-Pacific Educational Technology Research Published Internationally in 2000-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Insung; Yoo, Mina

    2014-01-01

    The past fourteen years have seen a significant rise in the percentage of Asia-Pacific papers on educational technology (ET) published internationally: from 13.7% in 2000 to 38.4% in 2013. This study seeks to identify the overall trends and gaps in this research. Of the 4,332 articles published in five selected international journals between 2000…

  10. SOCIAL RESEARCH AND HEALTH CARE PLANNING IN SOUTH ASIA - PART 1

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Charles

    1988-01-01

    This paper discuses the social research and health care planning systems of South Asia. Also, the Author attempts to indicate the scope and nature of this work done in this territory to identity elements relevant to health care planning. PMID:22557621

  11. Major conservation policy issues for biodiversity in Oceania.

    PubMed

    Kingsford, R T; Watson, J E M; Lundquist, C J; Venter, O; Hughes, L; Johnston, E L; Atherton, J; Gawel, M; Keith, D A; Mackey, B G; Morley, C; Possingham, H P; Raynor, B; Recher, H F; Wilson, K A

    2009-08-01

    Oceania is a diverse region encompassing Australia, Melanesia, Micronesia, New Zealand, and Polynesia, and it contains six of the world's 39 hotspots of diversity. It has a poor record for extinctions, particularly for birds on islands and mammals. Major causes include habitat loss and degradation, invasive species, and overexploitation. We identified six major threatening processes (habitat loss and degradation, invasive species, climate change, overexploitation, pollution, and disease) based on a comprehensive review of the literature and for each developed a set of conservation policies. Many policies reflect the urgent need to deal with the effects of burgeoning human populations (expected to increase significantly in the region) on biodiversity. There is considerable difference in resources for conservation, including people and available scientific information, which are heavily biased toward more developed countries in Oceania. Most scientific publications analyzed for four threats (habitat loss, invasive species, overexploitation, and pollution) are from developed countries: 88.6% of Web of Science publications were from Australia (53.7%), New Zealand (24.3%), and Hawaiian Islands (10.5%). Many island states have limited resources or expertise. Even countries that do (e.g., Australia, New Zealand) have ongoing and emerging significant challenges, particularly with the interactive effects of climate change. Oceania will require the implementation of effective policies for conservation if the region's poor record on extinctions is not to continue.

  12. Asia Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages. 1991 Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    This document presents illustrative maps, tables, and graphs that depict several features of Asia and Oceania including: size, population, resources, commodities, trade, languages, religions, ethnic groups, cities, land use, food and agriculture, health, schooling, jobs, energy, industry, demographic statistics, aspects of government, and…

  13. Asia Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages. 1991 Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    This document presents illustrative maps, tables, and graphs that depict several features of Asia and Oceania including: size, population, resources, commodities, trade, languages, religions, ethnic groups, cities, land use, food and agriculture, health, schooling, jobs, energy, industry, demographic statistics, aspects of government, and…

  14. Progress of ambient air pollution and cardiovascular disease research in Asia.

    PubMed

    Su, Ta-Chen; Chen, Szu-Ying; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Asian countries are with deteriorating air quality accompanying the rapid economic and social development of the past decades, and the potential health impacts of air pollution have been noticed by researchers in the region. We reviewed the scientific literature on air pollution and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) published by Asian researchers in English since the 1980s to determine whether the findings in Europe and North America can be extrapolated to Asia. Epidemiological studies show that short-term particulate matter pollution is a strong predictor for CVD morbidity and mortality and suggestive on cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality in newly developed countries in Asia. Multicountry epidemiological studies are needed to fully appreciate the extent of air pollution on CVD in Asia, especially less developed Asian countries. New cohort studies should be initiated to improve our understanding of particulate matter's toxicological pathways, long-term exposure effects, and gene-environment interaction on CVD among the Asian population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling aerosol climate effects over monsoon Asia: A collaborative research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Chyung; Chen, Guoxing; Song, Yangyang

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the latest progress of a collaborative research program entitled "Modeling Aerosol Climate Effects over Monsoon Asia", under the Climate Sciences agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (in the early 1980s, Professor Duzheng YE played a critical role in leading and formalizing the agreement). Here, the rationale and approach for pursuing the program, the participants, and research activities of recent years are first described, and then the highlights of the program's key findings and relevant scientific issues, as well as follow-up studies, are presented and discussed.

  16. Challenges of cross-cultural research: lessons from a U.S.-Asia HIV collaboration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Simoni, Jane M; Chuang, Peing; Zhao, Hongxin; Bao, Meijuan; Lu, Hongzhou

    2013-01-01

    Many Asian countries have scaled up their research to combat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV experts from the West have teamed up with these countries to assist in designing research protocols and providing necessary training. In this paper, we document the formation and maintenance of international and interdisciplinary HIV research collaboration among cross-disciplinary researchers working in the United States, Taiwan, and China. We conducted international social-behavioral HIV studies in several major metropolitan areas in Asia. Culturally sensitive issues that could be attributed to social and disciplinary differences have emerged throughout the collaboration process, including questions of who should be the research leader, where should resources be allocated, how should tasks be shared, which topics are valuable for investigation, and what survey questions are allowable. There is now a window of opportunity for greater international and interdisciplinary collaboration; however, for such collaboration to flourish, team dynamics in international research collaboration should be carefully identified and managed before studies are begun.

  17. Environmental Prime Movers for Prehistoric Colonization of Islands in Remote Oceania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenegro, Alvaro; Callaghan, Richard T.; Fitzpatrick, Scott M.

    2016-04-01

    The peopling of Remote Oceania was one of the last great waves of human migration in the ancient past. Beginning around 3500 BP, peoples from Island Southeast Asia began colonizing western Micronesia, and shortly thereafter ca. 3400 BP, Lapita groups began moving east from Near Oceania (e.g., the Solomons and Bismarck Archipelago) to islands in Eastern Melanesia and West Polynesia, including Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa. It is remarkable that over the next 2500 years, even the most remote islands, known now to represent the distant nodes of the Polynesian triangle (New Zealand, Hawaii, and Easter Island), were eventually visited by Austronesian speakers and their descendants across this seemingly boundless ocean. One of the more enduring questions - and one that has perplexed scholars for decades - is how and when these ancient seafarers were able to develop navigational/wayfinding techniques and seafaring technologies to overcome a number of environmental challenges. This would ultimately help determine what combination of social and environmental stimuli forced or encouraged people to colonize some of the most isolated patches of land on earth. To advance our understanding of ancient Pacific colonization strategies, we integrate seafaring simulation models, ease of eastward travel estimates based on land distribution and wind pattern analysis, and new climatic datasets for precipitation in Micronesia and Polynesia to examine intra-annual variations in wind and precipitation that would have influenced travel. Combined with statistical modeling of winds and currents, we argue that: land distribution could have contributed to the pause in eastward expansion seen at about 3000 BP; simple downwind sailing and downwind sailing during eastward spells are viable navigation strategies for reaching islands to the east; seasonality of eastward winds would facilitate voyage planning and increase chances of success; knowledge of annual and interannual variability

  18. Deploying the Post-Colonial Predicaments of Researching on/with "Asia" in Education: A Standpoint from a Rich Peripheral Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita

    2016-01-01

    Against the current infatuation with Asia in Australian education, this article rearticulates the notion of "Asia literacy" to explore new ways of researching on/with/through Asia. Drawing on the post-colonial critique of Western social science knowledge, I first demonstrate the problematic nature of Australian knowledge production on…

  19. Deploying the Post-Colonial Predicaments of Researching on/with "Asia" in Education: A Standpoint from a Rich Peripheral Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita

    2016-01-01

    Against the current infatuation with Asia in Australian education, this article rearticulates the notion of "Asia literacy" to explore new ways of researching on/with/through Asia. Drawing on the post-colonial critique of Western social science knowledge, I first demonstrate the problematic nature of Australian knowledge production on…

  20. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) onboard the HALO research aircraft during OMO-ASIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safadi, Layal; Neumaier, Marco; Fischbeck, Garlich; Zahn, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    We report on first results of VOC measurements during the OMO-Asia campaign that took place in summer 2015 on Cyprus and on the island of Gan (Maldives) to study the free-radical chemistry at higher altitudes during the Asian summer monsoon. The deployed instrument (KMS = Karlsruhe Mass Spectrometer) is based on a commercial PTRMS from Ionicon and was strongly modified for the use onboard the research aircraft HALO (a modified Gulfstream GV-550 having a ceiling altitude of ~15.5 km). By the construction of an aluminum vacuum system, the development of largely custom-made electronics and the use of light-weight pumps, the weight was reduced to ~55 kg compared to 120-130 kg of the commercial instrument. The KMS is in addition very robust and field-compliant. Before OMO-Asia the HALO payload was tested first during a technical field campaign OMO-EU which took place in Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany) in winter 2015. During OMO-Asia the instrument was calibrated before and after each flight by diluting an external gas standard (Apel-Riemer Environmental, Inc. Denver, Colorado) containing ~1 ppm of 10 VOCs. The determined sensitivity for acetone was ~380 cps/ppb showing a variation of ±5% over a period of 8 weeks. The detection limit amounted to ~35 ppt for acetone at an integration time of 6 s. The measurements during all together 17 flights took place over a wide range of Asia, including Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Oman and Sri Lanka. Referring to the meteorological forecasts of carbon monoxide (CO), remnant of the Asia monsoon outflow was measured during some flights (e.g. over Oman). Acetone mixing ratios of up to ~1500 ppt and up to ~100 ppt of benzene were measured in the outflow of the plume. The gathered data shows a good correlation with the measurements taken with other instruments (e.g. CO measurements by Max Planck Institute for Chemistry). The poster will describe the instrument and the main features derived.

  1. Research progress in Asia on methods of processing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yang-Min; Guo, Lian-Bo; Li, Jia-Ming; Liu, Hong-Di; Zhu, Zhi-Hao; Li, Xiang-You; Lu, Yong-Feng; Zeng, Xiao-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has attracted much attention in terms of both scientific research and industrial application. An important branch of LIBS research in Asia, the development of data processing methods for LIBS, is reviewed. First, the basic principle of LIBS and the characteristics of spectral data are briefly introduced. Next, two aspects of research on and problems with data processing methods are described: i) the basic principles of data preprocessing methods are elaborated in detail on the basis of the characteristics of spectral data; ii) the performance of data analysis methods in qualitative and quantitative analysis of LIBS is described. Finally, a direction for future development of data processing methods for LIBS is also proposed.

  2. Epidemiological surveys of, and research on, soil-transmitted helminths in Southeast Asia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Julia C; Turner, Hugo C; Tun, Aung; Anderson, Roy M

    2016-01-27

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections of humans fall within the World Health Organization's (WHO) grouping termed the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). It is estimated that they affect approximately 1.4 billion people worldwide. A significant proportion of these infections are in the population of Southeast Asia. This review analyses published data on STH prevalence and intensity in Southeast Asia over the time period of 1900 to the present to describe age related patterns in these epidemiological measures. This is with a focus on the four major parasite species affecting humans; namely Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms; Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Data were also collected on the diagnostic methods used in the published surveys and how the studies were designed to facilitate comparative analyses of recorded patterns and changes therein over time. PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infections search engines were used to identify studies on STH in Southeast Asia with the search based on the major key words, and variants on, "soil-transmitted helminth" "Ascaris" "Trichuris" "hookworm" and the country name. A total of 280 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria from 11 Southeast Asian countries; Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Vietnam. It was concluded that the epidemiological patterns of STH infection by age and species mix in Southeast Asia are similar to those reported in other parts of the world. In the published studies there were a large number of different diagnostic methods used with differing sensitivities and specificities, which makes comparison of the results both within and between countries difficult. There is a clear requirement to standardise the methods of both STH diagnosis in faecal material and how the

  3. Challenges of cross-cultural research: Lessons from a U.S.-Asia HIV collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Simoni, Jane M.; Chuang, Peing; Zhao, Hongxin; Bao, Meijuan; Lu, Hongzhou

    2013-01-01

    Many Asian countries have scaled up their research to combat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV experts from the West have teamed up with these countries to assist in designing research protocols and providing necessary training. In this paper, we document the formation and maintenance of international and interdisciplinary HIV research collaboration among cross-disciplinary researchers working in the United States, Taiwan, and China. We conducted international social-behavioral HIV studies in several major metropolitan areas in Asia. Culturally sensitive issues that could be attributed to social and disciplinary differences have emerged throughout the collaboration process, including questions of who should be the research leader, where should resources be allocated, how should tasks be shared, which topics are valuable for investigation, and what survey questions are allowable. There is now a window of opportunity for greater international and interdisciplinary collaboration; however, for such collaboration to flourish, team dynamics in international research collaboration should be carefully identified and managed before studies are begun. PMID:23419838

  4. East Asia: Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-03

    JPRS-SEA-90-023 3 AUGUST 1990 !■■■■■ !■■■■■ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS 91$ East Asia Southeast Asia 19990510 139...DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 4 East Asia Southeast Asia JPRS-SEA-90-023 CONTENTS 3 A UGUST1990 INDONESIA East Timor Governor Describes Province’s...Sam Neua District. This did not include the small shops in front of houses. In one month they were able to collect 500,000 kip in taxes . The tax

  5. Program of Research in the Field of Human Resources Development with Special Reference to Asia and the Far East; Annotated List of Research Projects Completed and Proposed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, M.M.

    Summaries of nine research projects completed and 26 research projects proposed or in progress, titles of papers produced in coordinated research and teaching programs, and a list of 13 international, national, or regional, seminars, conferences, or expert working group meetings contributing to human resources development in Asia and the Far East…

  6. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Zealand National Commission for UNESCO, Wellington.

    New Zealand is committed to reducing unemployment by providing its youth with more skills and appropriate job opportunities. In line with this policy are recommendations to introduce vocational elements into general education and increase secondary level work experience programs in keeping with the detailed legal, labor, and safety guidelines…

  7. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania. November 1975 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This document gives highlights of the family planning situation in countries of the world, together with basic demographic statistics. Its purpose is to provide a quick reference source for those who work in family planning, population, and other related fields. Following a brief history of the pioneering work in family planning, population…

  8. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semykin, N. P.

    Working education in the USSR prepares students for socially useful and productive work by equipping them with the knowledge, abilities, skills and attitudes necessary for collective activities. Working education does not give students a profession but rather prepares them to master one by including in its curriculum professional knowledge and…

  9. East Asia Dust Source Location Using the Naval Research Laboratory's 1-km Dust Enhancement Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. L.; Curtis, C. A.; Miller, S. D.; Richardson, K.; Westphal, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    In the effort to predict dust storms and their effects on local, regional and global scales an often cited uncertainty is the precise location of dust sources. Many approaches have been used to identify major dust source regions in East Asia. These approaches include analysis of station data for frequency of dust storms, drifting dust, dusty day, wind speed, and PM10 total suspended particulates. Some approaches emphasize the location of land surface type (Gobi, sandy desert, and loess) and geomorphological setting/features (basins, plateaus, alluvial fans, dry rivers, or oases). Other approaches use remote sensing to locate areas of high dust activity using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer Aerosol Index (TOMS AI) data, to correlate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) vegetation cover with dust storm frequency, or to track dust storm event origination by analyzing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. It is also customary for researchers to combine two or more of these approaches to identify dust source regions. In this paper we use a novel approach to locate dust sources in East Asia. Utilizing the Naval Research Laboratory's satellite derived 1-km Dust Enhancement Product (DEP) imagery we can readily distinguish elevated dust over land from other components of the scene and individual dust plumes are readily seen. The high resolution of the DEP allows the many small, eroding point sources (measuring 1-10s km across) that form individual plumes to be located. Five years (2007 - 2011) of East Asia DEP imagery have been analyzed. Dust source frequency plots will be shown highlighting the most active dust source areas in East Asia. Our results show the most active point sources are located along the slopes and around the rim of large basins. Within basins, on plateaus and in valleys point sources are concentrated in smaller depressions relative to the surrounding topography. Point sources are also associated with the action of

  10. English Language Education among Young Learners in East Asia: A Review of Current Research (2004-2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Yuko Goto

    2015-01-01

    The teaching of foreign languages to young learners is growing in popularity around the world. Research in this field, particularly of English as a second/foreign language education in East Asia, is a relatively new area of empirical inquiry, and it has the potential to make significant contributions to child second-language acquisition…

  11. English Language Education among Young Learners in East Asia: A Review of Current Research (2004-2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Yuko Goto

    2015-01-01

    The teaching of foreign languages to young learners is growing in popularity around the world. Research in this field, particularly of English as a second/foreign language education in East Asia, is a relatively new area of empirical inquiry, and it has the potential to make significant contributions to child second-language acquisition…

  12. Coordinating research on neglected parasitic diseases in Southeast Asia through networking.

    PubMed

    Olveda, Remigio; Leonardo, Lydia; Zheng, Feng; Sripa, Banchob; Bergquist, Robert; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-01-01

    The new dialogue between stakeholders, that is, scientists, research administrators and donors as well as the populations victimized by endemic infections, is initiating a virtuous circle leading to lower disease-burdens, improved public health and the mitigation of poverty. There is now general agreement that control activities need research collaboration to advance, while surveillance plays an increasingly important role in sustaining long-term relief. On the part of the Regional Network on Asian Schistosomiasis and Other Helminth Zoonoses (RNAS(+)), this has led to a new vision not only focused on general strengthening of research capabilities but also on furthering efforts to close the gap between research and control and bridge different branches of science. From its original, exclusive focus on schistosomiasis, RNAS(+) has expanded to include food-borne and soil-transmitted helminth infections as well. Its current repository of data on the distribution, prevalence and severity of these diseases is increasingly utilised by decision makers charged with epidemiological control in the endemic countries. Thanks to a more rapid translation of research results into control applications and the dissemination of data and new technology through networking, the overall situation is improving. Working as a virtual organisation of researchers and control officers in the endemic countries of Southeast Asia, RNAS(+) is playing an important role in this conversion. Its responsibilities are divided along disease lines into five main areas, but no serious, endemic disease is considered to be outside the network's sphere of interest. This chapter recounts some of the more important RNAS(+) accomplishments, pinpoints potential directions for future operations and highlights areas where research is most needed.

  13. What conceptions of science communication are espoused by science research funding bodies?

    PubMed

    Palmer, Sarah E; Schibeci, Renato A

    2014-07-01

    We examine the conceptions of science communication, especially in relation to "public engagement with science" (PES), evident in the literature and websites of science research funding bodies in Europe, North America, South America, Asia and Oceania, and Africa. The analysis uses a fourfold classification of science communication to situate these conceptions: professional, deficit, consultative and deliberative. We find that all bodies engage in professional communication (within the research community); however, engagement with the broader community is variable. Deficit (information dissemination) models still prevail but there is evidence of movement towards more deliberative, participatory models.

  14. Promoting operational research through fellowships: a case study from the South-East Asia Union Office.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A M V; Satyanarayana, S; Berger, S Dar; Chadha, S S; Singh, R J; Lal, P; Tonsing, J; Harries, A D

    2015-03-21

    In 2009, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) jointly developed a new paradigm for operational research (OR) capacity building and started a new process of appointing and supporting OR fellows in the field. This case study describes 1) the appointment of two OR fellows in The Union South-East Asia Office (USEA), New Delhi, India; 2) how this led to the development of an OR unit in that organisation; 3) achievements over the 5-year period from June 2009 to June 2014; and 4) challenges and lessons learnt. In June 2009, the first OR fellow in India was appointed on a full-time basis and the second was appointed in February 2012-both had limited previous experience in OR. From 2009 to 2014, annual research output and capacity building initiatives rose exponentially, and included 1) facilitation at 61 OR training courses/modules; 2) publication of 96 papers, several of which had a lasting impact on national policy and practice; 3) providing technical assistance in promoting OR; 4) building the capacity of medical college professionals in data management; 5) support to programme staff for disseminating their research findings; 6) reviewing 28 scientific papers for national or international peer-reviewed journals; and 7) developing 45 scientific abstracts for presentation at national and international conferences. The reasons for this success are highlighted along with ongoing challenges. This experience from India provides good evidence for promoting similar models elsewhere.

  15. Assessing the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia: a description of a regional research methodology.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Nick; Moore, Tim; Crofts, Nick

    2012-07-09

    For over 15 years the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) has been a leading donor for harm reduction projects in Southeast Asia. The recent AusAID-supported harm reduction projects of greatest significance have included the Asia Regional HIV/AIDS Project (AHRP), from 2002 until 2007,1 and the HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP), from 2007 until 2015.2 Both projects included in their design specific strategies for engaging with law enforcement agencies at country level. The main focus of these strategies has been to develop law enforcement harm reduction policy and curriculum, and the design and implementation of specific harm reduction training for law enforcement officers.In July 2008, the Australian Development Research Awards (ADRA) funded the Nossal Institute for Global Health at the University of Melbourne to establish a research project created to assess the influence of harm reduction programs on the policy and operational practices of law enforcement agencies in Southeast Asia, known as the LEHRN Project (Law Enforcement, Harm Reduction, Nossal Institute Project). The ADRA is a unique grant research mechanism that specifically funds development research to improve the understanding and informed decision making of the implementation of Australian aid effectiveness.While the need to engage law enforcement when establishing harm reduction programs was well documented, little was known about the impact or influence of harm reduction programs on policy and practices of law enforcement agencies. The LEHRN Project provided the opportunity to assess the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR.

  16. Assessing the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia: a description of a regional research methodology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    For over 15 years the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) has been a leading donor for harm reduction projects in Southeast Asia. The recent AusAID-supported harm reduction projects of greatest significance have included the Asia Regional HIV/AIDS Project (AHRP), from 2002 until 2007,1 and the HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP), from 2007 until 2015.2 Both projects included in their design specific strategies for engaging with law enforcement agencies at country level. The main focus of these strategies has been to develop law enforcement harm reduction policy and curriculum, and the design and implementation of specific harm reduction training for law enforcement officers. In July 2008, the Australian Development Research Awards (ADRA) funded the Nossal Institute for Global Health at the University of Melbourne to establish a research project created to assess the influence of harm reduction programs on the policy and operational practices of law enforcement agencies in Southeast Asia, known as the LEHRN Project (Law Enforcement, Harm Reduction, Nossal Institute Project). The ADRA is a unique grant research mechanism that specifically funds development research to improve the understanding and informed decision making of the implementation of Australian aid effectiveness. While the need to engage law enforcement when establishing harm reduction programs was well documented, little was known about the impact or influence of harm reduction programs on policy and practices of law enforcement agencies. The LEHRN Project provided the opportunity to assess the impact of harm reduction programs on law enforcement in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR. PMID:22769050

  17. Coordinating centers in cancer epidemiology research: the Asia Cohort Consortium coordinating center.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Betsy; Smith, Briana R; Potter, John D

    2011-10-01

    Although it is tacitly recognized that a good coordinating center (CC) is essential to the success of any multisite collaborative project, very little study has been done on what makes a CC successful, why some CCs fail, or how to build a CC that meets the needs of a given project. Moreover, very little published guidance is available, as few CCs outside the clinical trial realm write about their work. The Asia Cohort Consortium (ACC) is a collaborative cancer epidemiology research project that has made strong scientific and organizational progress over the past 3 years by focusing its CC on the following activities: collaboration development; operations management; statistical and data management; and communications infrastructure and tool development. Our hope is that, by sharing our experience building the ACC CC, we can begin a conversation about what it means to run a CC for multi-institutional collaboration in cancer epidemiology, help other collaborative projects solve some of the issues associated with collaborative research, and learn from others. ©2011 AACR

  18. Coordinating Centers in Cancer-Epidemiology Research: The Asia Cohort Consortium Coordinating Center

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Betsy; Smith, Briana R; Potter, John D

    2011-01-01

    Although it is tacitly recognized that a good Coordinating Center (CC) is essential to the success of any multi-site collaborative project, very little study has been done on what makes a CC successful, why some CCs fail, or how to build a CC that meets the needs of a given project. Moreover, very little published guidance is available, as few CCs outside the clinical-trial realm write about their work. The Asia Cohort Consortium (ACC) is a collaborative cancer-epidemiology research project that has made strong scientific and organizational progress over the past three years by focusing its CC on the following activities: collaboration development; operations management; statistical and data management; and communications infrastructure and tool development. Our hope is that, by sharing our experience building the ACC CC, we can begin a conversation about what it means to run a coordinating center for multi-institutional collaboration in cancer epidemiology, help other collaborative projects solve some of the issues associated with collaborative research, and learn from others. PMID:21803842

  19. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    Hay, John; Yeh, Kenneth B.; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Shapieva, Zhanna; Omasheva, Gulnara; Deryabin, Pavel; Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Ayazbayev, Timur; Andryushchenko, Alexei; Zhunushov, Asankadyr; Hewson, Roger; Farris, Christina M.; Richards, Allen L.

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review, we describe in detail the successes, challenges, and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. PMID:26870722

  20. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Hay, John; Yeh, Kenneth B; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Shapieva, Zhanna; Omasheva, Gulnara; Deryabin, Pavel; Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Ayazbayev, Timur; Andryushchenko, Alexei; Zhunushov, Asankadyr; Hewson, Roger; Farris, Christina M; Richards, Allen L

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review, we describe in detail the successes, challenges, and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

  1. Promoting road traffic injuries research in South Asia: capacity strengthening in health research.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Harun Ar

    2004-12-01

    Ideally, health policies should be based on valid scientific evidence and such evidence requires health research. Health research is also an essential tool for achieving equity in health and development. Although the need to carry out health research is now well accepted, South Asian countries still lag behind and do not make any meaningful contributions to health research and development. This paucity in research work is due to a lack of incentives, shortage of skilled manpower, poor exposure and insufficient orientation to the methods and materials of biomedical research. Research capacity is a tool to help a country deal with its national health problems in as effective and efficient a manner as possible. It is, therefore, part of the national health system and should be integrated in a comprehensive national health plan for the promotion of health and the delivery of health services to the country. Capacity strengthening is recognized as a crucial step in the process of integrating the use of research for decision-making in the health system of a country. This is especially true for conditions such as road traffic injuries, which present a new challenge for existing health systems.

  2. The South/Southeast Asia Research Initiative (SARI) Update and Meeting Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Land Use/Cover Change (LU/CC) is one of the most important types of environmental change in South and Southeast Asian countries. Several studies suggest that LU/CC in these countries is in large part driven by population growth and economic development. In the region, changes that are most common include urban expansion, agricultural land loss, land abandonment, deforestation, logging, reforestation, etc. To address the research needs and priorities in the region, a regional initiative entitled South Southeast Asia Regional Initiative (SARI) has been developed involving US and regional scientists. The initiative is funded by NASA Land Cover, Land Use Change program. The goal of SARI is to integrate state-of-the-art remote sensing, natural sciences, engineering and social sciences to enrich LU/CC science in South Southeast Asian countries. In the presentation, LU/CC change research in SARI countries will be highlighted including the drivers of change. For example, in South Asia, forest cover has been increasing in countries like India, Nepal and Bhutan due to sustainable afforestation measures; whereas, large-scale deforestation in Southeast Asian countries is still continuing, due to oil palm plantation expansion driven by the international market demand in Malaysia and Indonesia. With respect to urbanization, South and Southeast Asian countries contain 23 megacities, each with more than 10 million people. Rapid urbanization is driving agricultural land loss and agricultural intensification has been increasing due to less availability of land for growing food crops such as in India, Vietnam, and Thailand. The drivers of LUCC vary widely in the region and include such factors as land tenure, local economic development, government policies, inappropriate land management, land speculation, improved road networks, etc. In addition, variability in the weather, climate, and socioeconomic factors also drive LU/CC resulting in disruptions of biogeochemical cycles

  3. East Asia: Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-25

    JPRS-SEA-90-022 25 JULY 1990 FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report— East Asia Southeast Asia 19990510 141 REPRODUCED BY U.S...Burmese have been forcibly resettled to new towns from densely-populated areas of Rangoon and Mandalay , often without running water and elec- tricity... settlement of some 100,000 people in bamboo houses. Situated in what were rice fields, the town suffers from flooding in the current monsoon season

  4. ELSI practices in genomic research in East Asia: implications for research collaboration and public participation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Common infrastructures and platforms are required for international collaborations in large-scale human genomic research and policy development, such as the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health and the ‘ELSI 2.0’ initiative. Such initiatives may require international harmonization of ethical and regulatory requirements. To enable this, however, a greater understanding of issues and practices that relate to the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) of genomic research will be needed for the different countries and global regions involved in such research. Here, we review the ELSI practices and regulations for genomic research in six East Asian countries (China, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan), highlighting the main similarities and differences between these countries, and more generally, in relation to Western countries. While there are significant differences in ELSI practices among these East Asian countries, there is a consistent emphasis on advancing genomic science and technology. In addition, considerable emphasis is placed on informed consent for participation in research, whether through the contribution of tissue samples or personal information. However, a higher level of engagement with interested stakeholders and the public will be needed in some countries. PMID:24944586

  5. PREFACE: Asia-Pacific Interdisciplinary Research Conference 2011 (AP-IRC 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Adarsh; Okada, Hiroshi; Maekawa, Toru; Okano, Ken

    2012-03-01

    AP-IRC Logo Scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs and policymakers gather at the first truly interdisciplinary conference held in Asia-Pacific http://www.apirc.jp/ The inaugural Asia-Pacific Interdisciplinary Research Conference 2011 (AP-IRC 2011) was held at Toyohashi University of Technology (Toyohashi Tech) on 17-18 November 2011. The conference is a forum for enhancing mutual understanding between scientists, engineers, policymakers and experts from a wide spectrum of pure and applied sciences, to resolve the daunting global issues facing mankind. The conference attracted approximately 300 participants including delegates from France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Russia, Sweden, United Kingdom, USA and Vietnam. AP-IRC 2011 was chaired by Dr Yoshiyuki Sakaki, President of Toyohashi Tech, who opened the proceedings by stressing the importance of an interdisciplinary approach to research, to resolve global scientific and technical issues. Recalling his own experience as the leader of Japan's efforts in the Human Genome Project, Sakaki also encouraged participants to make an effort to try to understand the sometimes difficult concepts and terminology of other areas of research. The presentations at AP-IRC 2011 were divided into three focus sessions: innovative mechano-magneto-electronic systems, life sciences, and green science and technology. A total of 174 papers were presented over the two-day conference including eight by invited speakers. Highlights of AP-IRC 2011 included a first-hand account of the damage caused by the massive earthquake in March 2011 to experimental facilities at Tohoku University by Masayoshi Esashi; the fascinating world of bees and the inborn numerical competence of humans and animals by Hans J Gross; research on robots and cognition-enabled technical systems at Technische Universität München by Sandra Hirche; the history of events leading to the invention of the world's strongest NdFeB permanent magnet by Masato Sagawa

  6. Promoting operational research through fellowships: a case study from the South-East Asia Union Office

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, S.; Berger, S. Dar; Chadha, S. S.; Singh, R. J.; Lal, P.; Tonsing, J.; Harries, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) jointly developed a new paradigm for operational research (OR) capacity building and started a new process of appointing and supporting OR fellows in the field. This case study describes 1) the appointment of two OR fellows in The Union South-East Asia Office (USEA), New Delhi, India; 2) how this led to the development of an OR unit in that organisation; 3) achievements over the 5-year period from June 2009 to June 2014; and 4) challenges and lessons learnt. In June 2009, the first OR fellow in India was appointed on a full-time basis and the second was appointed in February 2012—both had limited previous experience in OR. From 2009 to 2014, annual research output and capacity building initiatives rose exponentially, and included 1) facilitation at 61 OR training courses/modules; 2) publication of 96 papers, several of which had a lasting impact on national policy and practice; 3) providing technical assistance in promoting OR; 4) building the capacity of medical college professionals in data management; 5) support to programme staff for disseminating their research findings; 6) reviewing 28 scientific papers for national or international peer-reviewed journals; and 7) developing 45 scientific abstracts for presentation at national and international conferences. The reasons for this success are highlighted along with ongoing challenges. This experience from India provides good evidence for promoting similar models elsewhere. PMID:26400596

  7. International Conference of Directors of National Libraries on Resource Sharing in Asia and Oceania, Canberra, 1979: Papers from Australasia and Oceania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnie, Mary; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes four library resource sharing projects in (1) New Zealand, (2) Papua New Guinea, (3) Australia, and (4) Fiji. Numerous shared services are discussed, including national bibliographies, publications exchanges, staff exchanges, clearing centers for duplicates, library planning, and national collections. (LLS)

  8. International Conference of Directors of National Libraries on Resource Sharing in Asia and Oceania, Canberra, 1979: Papers from Australasia and Oceania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnie, Mary; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes four library resource sharing projects in (1) New Zealand, (2) Papua New Guinea, (3) Australia, and (4) Fiji. Numerous shared services are discussed, including national bibliographies, publications exchanges, staff exchanges, clearing centers for duplicates, library planning, and national collections. (LLS)

  9. Data and Data Products for Climate Research: Web Services at the Asia-Pacific Data-Research Center (APDRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarlo, S.; Potemra, J. T.; Wang, K.

    2012-12-01

    The International Pacific Research Center (IPRC) at the University of Hawaii maintains a data center for climate studies called the Asia-Pacific Data-Research Center (APDRC). This data center was designed within a center of excellence in climate research with the intention of serving the needs of the research scientist. The APDRC provides easy access to a wide collection of climate data and data products for a wide variety of users. The data center maintains an archive of approximately 100 data sets including in-situ and remote data, as well as a range of model-based output. All data are available via on-line browsing tools such as a Live Access Server (LAS) and DChart, and direct binary access is available through OPeNDAP services. On-line tutorials on how to use these services are now available. Users can keep up-to-date with new data and product announcements via the APDRC facebook page. The main focus of the APDRC has been climate scientists, and the services are therefore streamlined to such users, both in the number and types of data served, but also in the way data are served. In addition, due to the integration of the APDRC within the IPRC, several value-added data products (see figure for an example using Argo floats) have been developed via a variety of research activities. The APDRC, therefore, has three main foci: 1. acquisition of climate-related data, 2. maintenance of integrated data servers, and 3. development and distribution of data products The APDRC can be found at http://apdrc.soest.hawaii.edu. The presentation will provide an overview along with specific examples of the data, data products and data services available at the APDRC.; APDRC product example: gridded field from Argo profiling floats

  10. Biology Education in Asia: Report of a Regional Workshop (Quezon City, Philippines, August 18-23, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City.

    Proceedings of a Workshop organized by the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania and with the Science Education Center of the University of the Philippines are presented. The primary purpose of the workshop was to review biology education at the secondary level, focusing on: (1) environmental aspects; (2) molecular and genetic…

  11. Evaluation of Experiential Outdoor Research Locations in Asia for a K-12 school in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, D. L.; Joyce, S.

    2016-12-01

    A team of faculty and administrators from The Independent Schools Foundation Academy spend the 2015 - 2016 academic year identifying possible locations in Asia for a year-round outdoor education center. ISF Academy currently has over 1500 students its K-12 bilingual school in Hong Kong, China. The outdoor education center is an extension of the built campus in Pokfulam and will provide students opportunities to live in a natural setting, participate in outdoor educational activities and study in an environment significantly different than a classroom. Currently ISF Academy students in grades 4 - 12 are off campus twice during the academic year in an experiential learning environment. These current programs include camping, hiking, kayaking, other adventurous activities and service learning opportunities. The purpose of the dedicated site is to have a "home base" for ISF Academy and the experiential learning programs. This past year we looked specifically at programs and locations that could also be used by students for ecology and earth systems based research in the senior school (grades 9 - 12). We have looked at sites in Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia and Taiwan. The ideal site will have marine, terrestrial and mangrove ecosystems and allow students to set up long-term research sites in any of these ecosystems. Creating opportunities for authentic research that allows students spend an extended time in a research setting will help them to gain both skills and independence needed in the future at the tertiary level. The evaluation of these sites included identifying potential research partners, site preparation, logistics in and out of the locations, and the heath/safety management of students living and working in a remote location. In parallel to the site evaluations, the curriculum is being developed for the students that is age and skill appropriate using the frame work of the existing guided discovery curriculum in the primary school, and the MYP and DP

  12. Prescribing Pattern of Antidepressants in Children and Adolescents: Findings from the Research on Asia Psychotropic Prescription Pattern.

    PubMed

    Chee, K Y; Tripathi, A; Avasthi, A; Chong, M Y; Xiang, Y T; Sim, K; Kanba, S; He, Y L; Lee, M S; Chiu, H F K; Yang, S Y; Kuga, H; Udomratn, P; Tanra, A J; Maramis, M M; Grover, S; Mahendran, R; Kallivayalil, R A; Shen, W W; Shinfuku, N; Tan, C H; Sartorius, N

    2016-03-01

    Pharmacotherapy of depression in children and adolescents is complex. In the absence of research into the efficacy and safety of antidepressants in this group of patients, their off-label prescription is common. This paper aimed to illustrate the prescription pattern of antidepressants in children and adolescents from major psychiatric centres in Asia. The Research on Asia Psychotropic Prescription Pattern on Antidepressants worked collaboratively in 2013 to study the prescription pattern of antidepressants in Asia using a unified research protocol and questionnaire. Forty psychiatric centres from 10 Asian countries / regions participated and 2321 antidepressant prescriptions were analysed. A total of 4.7% antidepressant prescriptions were for children and adolescents. Fluoxetine, sertraline, and escitalopram were the most common antidepressants prescribed for children and adolescents. Almost one-third (30.3%) of prescriptions were for diagnoses other than depressive and anxiety disorders. There was less antidepressant polypharmacy and concomitant use of benzodiazepine, but more concomitant use of antipsychotics in children and adolescents compared with adults. Off-label use of antidepressants in children and adolescents was reported by 40 Asian psychiatric institutions that participated in the study. In-service education and regulatory mechanisms should be reinforced to ensure efficacy and safety of antidepressants in children and adolescents.

  13. Research on trend of warm-humid climate in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zhi; Peng, Dailiang; Wen, Jingyi; Cai, Zhanqing; Wang, Tiantian; Hu, Yuekai; Ma, Yaxin; Xu, Junfeng

    2017-07-01

    Central Asia is a typical arid area, which is sensitive and vulnerable part of climate changes, at the same time, Central Asia is the Silk Road Economic Belt of the core district, the warm-humid climate change will affect the production and economic development of neighboring countries. The average annual precipitation, average anneal temperature and evapotranspiration are the important indexes to weigh the climate change. In this paper, the annual precipitation, annual average temperature and evapotranspiration data of every pixel point in Central Asia are analyzed by using long-time series remote sensing data to analyze the trend of warm and humid conditions. Finally, using the model to analyzed the distribution of warm-dry trend, the warm-wet trend, the cold-dry trend and the cold-wet trend in Central Asia and Xinjiang area. The results showed that most of the regions of Central Asia were warm-humid and warm-dry trends, but only a small number of regions showed warm-dry and cold-dry trends. It is of great significance to study the climatic change discipline and guarantee the ecological safety and improve the ability to cope with climate change in the region. It also provide scientific basis for the formulation of regional climate change program. The first section in your paper

  14. Teachers, Teacher Education and Development: Report on an APEID Regional Meeting of Directors of Educational Research and Development Institutes in the Asia and the Pacific Region. Final Report of a Regional Meeting (July 7-15, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    The 1997 Asia-Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) Regional Meeting of Directors of Educational Research and Development Institutes in the Asia and the Pacific Region reviewed research from the Asia-Pacific region related to teachers, teacher education, and teacher development. The meeting identified common…

  15. National and Regional Scale Rice Crop Monitoring in Asia with the RIICE and PRISM Projects: From Research to Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, A.; Quicho, E. D.; Maunahan, A. A.; Setiyono, T. D.; Raviz, J. V.; Rala, A. B.; Laborte, A. G.; Holecz, F.; Collivignarelli, F.; Gatti, L.; Barbieri, M.; Mabalay, M. R. O.; De Dios, J. L.; Quilang, E. J. P.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, remote sensing based mapping and monitoring of the rice crop have been demonstrated in many pilot studies and research sites - mainly in Asia - using both optical and SAR sensors and ground based observations. These efforts have been partly driven by the high demand for more timely, more detailed and more accurate information on the rice crop for applications in both public and private sector, such as food security policy, crop and land management, infrastructure investment and crop insurance. The basic premise being that better access to better information leads to eventual benefits for both producers and consumers through better investment and management at all levels. To realise these benefits means scaling up this work to national and regional levels. This presentation summarises the progress of two related projects in Asia: RIICE (Remote Sensing-based Information and Insurance in emerging Economies) and PRISM (Philippine Rice Information SysteM) that are making the transition from research to operation with the support of national governments and international donors. The presentation focuses on the technology, the partnerships, the achievements and the challenges in embedding both the capacity and the technology for remote sensing based monitoring of rice in countries in South and South East Asia. We highlight several aspects which are essential for a successful transition to a sustainable operational status and lessons learned in each country where the two projects have been operating.

  16. The Work of Glendon Lean on the Counting Systems of Papua New Guinea and Oceania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Kay

    2001-01-01

    Introduces data collated by Glendon Lean on nearly 900 counting systems in Papua New Guinea, Oceania, and Irian Jaya (West Papua) which came from a questionnaire completed by students and talks with village elders. Lean's thesis on the spontaneous developments of these ancient cultures challenged traditional theories describing the spread of…

  17. Relationship between Socio-Economic Values and Wellbeing: An Overview Research in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trung, Nguyen Ngoc; Cheong, Kimoon; Nghi, Pham Thanh; Kim, Won Joong

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates ten Asian nations to consider how socio-economic values affect happiness and satisfaction. Moreover, it considers whether economic factors can strongly affect wellbeing under certain conditions. Males in Asia are said they have more opportunities to obtain higher happiness and satisfaction but it does not happen in the…

  18. Relationship between Socio-Economic Values and Wellbeing: An Overview Research in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trung, Nguyen Ngoc; Cheong, Kimoon; Nghi, Pham Thanh; Kim, Won Joong

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates ten Asian nations to consider how socio-economic values affect happiness and satisfaction. Moreover, it considers whether economic factors can strongly affect wellbeing under certain conditions. Males in Asia are said they have more opportunities to obtain higher happiness and satisfaction but it does not happen in the…

  19. Embedding Research on International Development in the Discourse of Comparative Education in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, I-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    In the wake of the recent ASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) launch in 2010, this paper argues for the greater scholarly contribution of international development studies in the discourse of comparative education in East Asia. The argument is based on three premises. The first acknowledges the growing relations of East Asian countries to…

  20. Future Developments of Educational Research in the Asia-Pacific Region: Paradigm Shifts, Reforms, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yin Cheong

    2007-01-01

    In facing up to the challenges and impacts of globalization, high technology, economic transformation, international competitions and local developments in the new century, there have been numerous educational reforms and initiatives in many countries in the Asia-Pacific Region (Cheng, 2005a, A new paradigm for re-engineering education:…

  1. Future Developments of Educational Research in the Asia-Pacific Region: Paradigm Shifts, Reforms, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yin Cheong

    2007-01-01

    In facing up to the challenges and impacts of globalization, high technology, economic transformation, international competitions and local developments in the new century, there have been numerous educational reforms and initiatives in many countries in the Asia-Pacific Region (Cheng, 2005a, A new paradigm for re-engineering education:…

  2. Social Science Pre-Service Teachers' Preparation to Teach about Asia: A Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenna, Joshua L.; Poole, Cyndi Mottola

    2017-01-01

    Asia is the world's largest continent, both in terms of land mass and human population; yet, many of the schools in the United States still embrace a Eurocentric curriculum, and resultantly, U.S. citizens remain largely ignorant about topics pertaining to Asian nations including their geography, histories, politics, economics, religions, and…

  3. Embedding Research on International Development in the Discourse of Comparative Education in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, I-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    In the wake of the recent ASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) launch in 2010, this paper argues for the greater scholarly contribution of international development studies in the discourse of comparative education in East Asia. The argument is based on three premises. The first acknowledges the growing relations of East Asian countries to…

  4. Mental health research priorities in low- and middle-income countries of Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Sharan, P; Gallo, C; Gureje, O; Lamberte, E; Mari, J J; Mazzotti, G; Patel, V; Swartz, L; Olifson, S; Levav, I; de Francisco, A; Saxena, S

    2009-10-01

    Studies suggest a paucity of and lack of prioritisation in mental health research from low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries. To investigate research priorities in mental health among researchers and other stakeholders in LAMI countries. We used a two-stage design that included identification, through literature searches and snowball technique, of researchers and stakeholders in 114 countries of Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean; and a mail survey on priorities in research. The study identified broad agreement between researchers and stakeholders and across regions regarding research priorities. Epidemiology (burden and risk factors), health systems and social science ranked highest for type of research. Depression/anxiety, substance use disorders and psychoses; and children and adolescents, women, and people exposed to violence/trauma were prioritised among the disorders and population groups respectively. Important criteria for prioritising research were burden of disease, social justice, and availability of funds. Stakeholder groups differed in the importance they gave to the personal interest of researchers as a criterion for prioritising research. Researchers' and stakeholders' priorities were consistent with burden of disease estimates, however suicide was underprioritised compared with its burden. Researchers' and stakeholders' priorities were also largely congruent with the researchers' projects. The results of this first ever conducted survey of researchers and stakeholders regarding research priorities in mental health suggest that it should be possible to develop consensus at regional and international levels regarding the research agenda that is necessary to support health system objectives in LAMI countries.

  5. Political Science in Asia and the Pacific: Status Reports on Teaching and Research in Ten Countries. Social and Human Sciences in Asia and the Pacific, RUSHSAP Series on Occasional Monographs and Papers, 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchida, Takeo

    This publication contains reports on the status of teaching and research in political science in ten countries in the Asia-Pacific Region. These reports prepared according to a common guideline provide an opportunity for comparison. The essays review how political science has grown and taken root in the respective countries; the problems it faces;…

  6. Political Science in Asia and the Pacific: Status Reports on Teaching and Research in Ten Countries. Social and Human Sciences in Asia and the Pacific, RUSHSAP Series on Occasional Monographs and Papers, 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchida, Takeo

    This publication contains reports on the status of teaching and research in political science in ten countries in the Asia-Pacific Region. These reports prepared according to a common guideline provide an opportunity for comparison. The essays review how political science has grown and taken root in the respective countries; the problems it faces;…

  7. Research and Development initiative of Satellite Technology Application for Environmental Issues in Asia Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamoto, K.; Kaneko, Y.; Sobue, S.; Oyoshi, K.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change and human activities are directly or indirectly influence the acceleration of environmental problems and natural hazards such as forest fires, drought and floods in the Asia-Pacific countries. Satellite technology has become one of the key information sources in assessment, monitoring and mitigation of these hazards and related phenomenon. However, there are still gaps between science and application of space technology in practical usage. Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF) recommended to initiate the Space Applications for Environment (SAFE) proposal providing opportunity to potential user agencies in the Asia Pacific region to develop prototype applications of space technology for number of key issues including forest resources management, coastal monitoring and management, agriculture and food security, water resource management and development user-friendly tools for application of space technology. The main activity of SAFE is SAFE prototyping. SAFE prototyping is a demonstration for end users and decision makers to apply space technology applications for solving environmental issues in Asia-Pacific region. By utilizing space technology and getting technical support by experts, prototype executers can develop the application system, which could support decision making activities. SAFE holds a workshop once a year. In the workshop, new prototypes are approved and the progress of on-going prototypes are confirmed. Every prototype is limited for two years period and all activities are operated by volunteer manner. As of 2016, 20 prototypes are completed and 6 prototypes are on-going. Some of the completed prototypes, for example drought monitoring in Indonesia were applied to operational use by a local official organization.

  8. Changing healthcare issues and context for elderly women in Asia: implications for a research agenda for nursing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Wha; Kim, Sue; Joe, Seun Young

    2008-01-01

    In this descriptive review, the current healthcare issues and context for elderly women in Asia are discussed and a nursing research agenda to promote better health security is proposed. Chesney and Ozer's multilevel circular framework of key content areas of women's health was applied to organize and critique the literature. The results indicate that elderly Asian women display morbidity and mortality differentials and are influenced by gender and social factors, as well as health policy issues. The research agenda for nursing that is proposed in this article includes activating health promotion research, employing family and community-based participatory approaches, supporting gender-sensitive social and health policies, and promoting comprehensive and culturally competent international research on health transitions for elderly women.

  9. The polyps of Oceania armata identified by DNA barcoding (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).

    PubMed

    Schuchert, Peter

    2016-10-18

    The polyps of the widely distributed medusa Oceania armata have never been found in nature and only the primary polyp is known from breeding experiments. The fully developed colony is so far unknown. This report shows that DNA sequence data of the medusa stage of O. armata permits to identify several hydroid colonies from different geographic origins as the most likely polyp stage of this medusa. These hydroids had previously been misidentified as Turritopsis species, a closely related genus which also produces medusae resembling Oceania armata. It is concluded that most Turritopsis hydroids are not reliably identifiable to species level using morphological traits only. However, DNA barcodes, particularly 16S sequences, are an excellent tool to identify the species, although we still lack information on a few nominal species and the identities of some sequence-delimited clades need to be corroborated by the addition of topotype samples.

  10. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) measurements onboard the HALO research aircraft during OMO-ASIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safadi, Layal; Neumaier, Marco; Fischbeck, Garlich; Geiger, Felix; Förster, Eric; Tomsche, Laura; Zahn, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the OMO-Asia campaign that took place in summer 2015 was to study the free-radical chemistry at higher altitudes during the Asian summer monsoon taken over a wide area of Asia. VOC measurements (e.g. acetone, acetonitrile, benzene, and toluene) were conducted using a strongly modified instrument based on a commercial Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTRMS) from Ionicon. The PTRMS data are generally in good agreement with VOC measurements taken by the GC instrument from Max Planck Institute for Chemistry. In the outflow of the Monsoon plume acetone and acetonitrile volume mixing ratios (VMR) up to 1500 pptV and 180 pptV have been measured, respectively, pointing to a small contribution from biomass burning sources of which acetonitrile is an important tracer. Comparison with VOCs simulated in the atmospheric chemistry model EMAC model exhibits an underestimation (factor of 3 for acetone). The measured data were analyzed with the help of 10 days back trajectories to distinguish air mass origins. For air masses originating from North America (NA) an enhancement of 500 pptV acetone relative to the atmospheric background ( 500 pptV) can be traced back to active biogenic acetone sources in the NA boreal summer. An average enhancement of 400 pptV acetone comes from the Asian summer monsoon. Acetone - CO correlations in the monsoon relative to background air is being analyzed for further characterization and estimation of the sources.

  11. Repair vs replacement of direct composite restorations: a survey of teaching and operative techniques in Oceania.

    PubMed

    Brunton, Paul A; Ghazali, Amna; Tarif, Zahidah H; Loch, Carolina; Lynch, Christopher; Wilson, Nairn; Blum, Igor R

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the teaching and operative techniques for the repair and/or replacement of direct resin-based composite restorations (DCRs) in dental schools in Oceania. A 14-item questionnaire was mailed to the heads of operative dentistry in 16 dental schools in Oceania (Australia, New Zealand, Fiji and Papua New Guinea). The survey asked whether the repair of DCRs was taught within the curriculum; the rationale behind the teaching; how techniques were taught, indications for repair, operative techniques, materials used, patient acceptability, expected longevity and recall systems. All 16 schools participated in the study. Thirteen (81%) reported the teaching of composite repairs as an alternative to replacement. Most schools taught the theoretical and practical aspects of repair at a clinical level only. All 13 schools (100%) agreed on tooth substance preservation being the main reason for teaching repair. The main indications for repair were marginal defects (100%), followed by secondary caries (69%). All 13 schools that performed repairs reported high patient acceptability, and considered it a definitive measure. Only three schools (23%) claimed to have a recall system in place following repair of DCRs. Most respondents either did not know or did not answer when asked about the longevity of DCRs. Repair of DCRs seems to be a viable alternative to replacement, which is actively taught within Oceania. Advantages include it being minimally invasive, preserving tooth structure, and time and money saving. However, standardised guidelines need to be developed and further clinical long-term studies need to be carried out. The decision between replacing or repairing a defective composite restoration tends to be based on what clinicians have been taught, tempered by experience and judgement. This study investigated the current status of teaching and operative techniques of repair of direct composite restorations in dental schools in Oceania. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  12. China’s Increasing Influence in Oceania: Implications for the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    ecological, scientific, and touristic value given the distinct coral and maritime ecosystems that surround the islands and atolls of the region.13 The...GDP.39 China’s fishing sector is of critical importance to national food security and economic development. However, overfishing and environmental...inshore and offshore marine environment.40 This extends to Oceania where China maintains permanent fleets in the Federated States of Micronesia and Fiji

  13. Bridging near and remote Oceania: mtDNA and NRY variation in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Delfin, Frederick; Myles, Sean; Choi, Ying; Hughes, David; Illek, Robert; van Oven, Mannis; Pakendorf, Brigitte; Kayser, Manfred; Stoneking, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Although genetic studies have contributed greatly to our understanding of the colonization of Near and Remote Oceania, important gaps still exist. One such gap is the Solomon Islands, which extend between Bougainville and Vanuatu, thereby bridging Near and Remote Oceania, and include both Austronesian-speaking and Papuan-speaking groups. Here, we describe patterns of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nonrecombining Y chromosome (NRY) variation in over 700 individuals from 18 populations in the Solomons, including 11 Austronesian-speaking groups, 3 Papuan-speaking groups, and 4 Polynesian Outliers (descended via back migration from Polynesia). We find evidence for ancient (pre-Lapita) colonization of the Solomons in old NRY paragroups as well as from M2-M353, which probably arose in the Solomons ∼9,200 years ago and is the most frequent NRY haplogroup there. There are no consistent genetic differences between Austronesian-speaking and Papuan-speaking groups, suggesting extensive genetic contact between them. Santa Cruz, which is located in Remote Oceania, shows unusually low frequencies of mtDNA and NRY haplogroups of recent Asian ancestry. This is in apparent contradiction with expectations based on archaeological and linguistic evidence for an early (∼3,200 years ago), direct colonization of Santa Cruz by Lapita people from the Bismarck Archipelago, via a migration that "leapfrogged" over the rest of the Solomons. Polynesian Outliers show dramatic island-specific founder events involving various NRY haplogroups. We also find that NRY, but not mtDNA, genetic distance is correlated with the geographic distance between Solomons groups and that historically attested spheres of cultural interaction are associated with the recent genetic structure of Solomons groups, as revealed by mtDNA HV1 sequence and Y-STR haplotype diversity. Our results fill an important lacuna in human genetic studies of Oceania and aid in understanding the colonization and genetic history of

  14. The human genetic history of Oceania: near and remote views of dispersal.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Manfred

    2010-02-23

    The human history of Oceania is unique in the way that it encompasses both the first out-of-Africa expansion of modern humans to New Guinea and Australia as well as the last regional human occupation of Polynesia. Other anthropological peculiarities of Oceania include features like the extraordinarily rich linguistic diversity especially of New Guinea with about 1,000 often very distinct languages, the independent and early development of agriculture in the highlands of New Guinea about 10,000 years ago, or the long-term isolation of the entire region from the outside world, which lasted as long as until the 1930s for most of the interior of New Guinea. This review will provide an overview on the genetic aspects of human population history of Oceania and how some of the anthropological peculiarities are reflected in human genetic data. Due to current data availability it will mostly focus on insights from sex-specifically inherited mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal DNA, whereas more genome-wide autosomal DNA data are soon expected to add additional details or may correct views obtained from these two, albeit highly complex, genetic loci. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Research on wind and solar energy transmission economic of Asia and Europe under Northern-hemisphere energy connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaoxia; Ding, Jian; Liu, Jie; Wei, Tiezhong

    2017-01-01

    Relying on the northern-hemisphere energy connection, considering the energy implementation of Asia and Europe, carrying out clean energy alternative is mainly to use the clean energy to take place of fossil energy. Under the green development scenario, this research gives the northern-hemisphere energy interconnection development model, makes the Artic as the connection points, gives the Northern hemisphere interconnection model unite the whole world energy. This research also identifies the factors effecting the transmission changes cost, including generation cost, transmission cost and landing cost. And estimate these two continents cost benefit, its economic and variable power-jointed scheme cost competitiveness. It showed that the trans-continent mode had better benefit, and can solve the pollution and energy restriction.

  16. Research priorities for rice pest management in tropical Asia: a simulation analysis of yield losses and management efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Willocquet, Laetitia; Elazegui, Francisco A; Castilla, Nancy; Fernandez, Luzviminda; Fischer, Kenneth S; Peng, Shaobing; Teng, Paul S; Srivastava, R K; Singh, H M; Zhu, Defeng; Savary, Serge

    2004-07-01

    ABSTRACT A simulation study was conducted to assess the current and prospective efficiency of rice pest management and develop research priorities for lowland production situations in tropical Asia. Simulation modeling with the RICEPEST model provided the flexibility required to address varying production situations and diverse pest profiles (bacterial leaf blight, sheath blight, brown spot, leaf blast, neck blast, sheath rot, white heads, dead hearts, brown plant-hoppers, insect defoliators, and weeds). Operational definitions for management efficacy (injury reduction) and management efficiency (yield gain) were developed. This approach enabled the modeling of scenarios pertaining to different pest management strategies within the agroecological contexts of rice production and their associated pest injuries. Rice pests could be classified into two broad research priority-setting categories with respect to simulated yield losses and management efficiencies. One group, including weeds, sheath blight, and brown spot, consists of pests for which effective pest management tools need to be developed. The second group consists of leaf blast, neck blast, bacterial leaf blight, and brown plant-hoppers, for which the efficiency of current management methods is to be maintained. Simulated yield losses in future production situations indicated that a new type of rice plant with high-harvest index and high-biomass production ("New Plant Type") was more vulnerable to pests than hybrid rice. Simulations also indicated that the impact of deployment of host resistance (e.g., through genetic engineering) was much larger when targeted against sheath blight than when targeted against stem borers. Simulated yield losses for combinations of production situations and injury profiles that dominate current lowland rice production in tropical Asia ranged from 140 to 230 g m(-2). For these combinations, the simulated efficiency of current pest management methods, expressed in terms of

  17. The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study: Epidemiologic and Neuropathologic Research on Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Gelber, Rebecca P.; Launer, Lenore J.; White, Lon R.

    2016-01-01

    The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HAAS) is a longitudinal epidemiologic investigation of rates, risk factors, and neuropathologic abnormalities associated with cognitive decline and dementia in aged Japanese-American men. The project was established in 1991 and will be brought to closure in 2012. Age-specific rates of total dementia and the major specific types of dementia in HAAS participants are generally similar to those reported from other geographic, cultural, and ethnic populations. Risk factors for dementia in the HAAS include midlife hypertension and other factors previously shown to influence cardiovascular disease. The autopsy component of the project has yielded novel findings, the most illuminating of which is the demonstration of 5 important lesion types linked independently to cognitive impairment. While one of these – generalized atrophy – is strongly associated with both Alzheimer lesions and microinfarcts, it also occurs in the absence of these lesions and is independently correlated with dementia. Each lesion type is viewed as representing a distinct underlying pathogenic process. Their summed influences is an especially robust correlate of dementia in the months and years prior to death. PMID:22471866

  18. Effects of aerosols on cloud microphysics simulations with Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, S.; Park, R.; Lim, K.; Hong, S.

    2011-12-01

    Aerosols in the atmosphere play an important role in cloud formation as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Chemical composition and number size distribution of aerosols significantly modify cloud properties by altering droplet number concentration, droplet effective radius, cloud albedo, cloud liquid water content, and cloud lifetime. However, a mechanistic simulation of aerosol effects in cloud microphysics is relatively scarce in regional meteorological forecasting models. We examine the effect of dynamically varying aerosols on CCN activation and cloud formation in the WRF model by employing the updated Twomey equation and our improvement in the cloud microphysics scheme in particular for the CCN activation process. First, we use the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to obtain spatially and temporally varying aerosol concentrations in East Asia, which are provided as input data in the WRF simulations. The baseline and sensitivity simulations are conducted using the WRF. The latter includes explicit calculation of CCN activation with aerosol concentrations from the CMAQ. A comparison of simulated precipitation with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission observation shows better agreement of sensitivity results with observed data. We also find that the simulated precipitation in the sensitivity model shows a clear weekly variability such as increases in precipitation during the weekdays whereas the decrease during the weekends. This simulated weekly variability is consistent with that of observed precipitation in Korea over the past decades and can be attributed to the indirect effect of anthropogenic aerosols coined as "weekend effect", indicating the importance of an explicit consideration of aerosols for cloud microphysics simulations of regional meteorological models.

  19. Ethics and the Promotion of Inclusiveness within Qualitative Research: Case Examples from Asia and the Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czymoniewicz-Klippel, Melina T.; Brijnath, Bianca; Crockett, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative researchers are often confronted by ethical challenges when making research decisions because current guidelines and principles guiding research ethics do not wholly cover the concerns that can arise in complex social research situations. In this article, the authors explore this dilemma in relation to our experiences of conducting…

  20. Emerging Infectious Disease Surveillance in Southeast Asia: Cambodia, Indonesia, and the Naval Area Medical Research Unit 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-22

    change in the Asia-Pacific Emerging Infectious Disease Surveillance in Southeast Asia: Cambodia, Indonesia , and the Naval Area Medical...2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Emerging Infectious Disease Surveillance in Southeast Asia: Cambodia, Indonesia , and the Naval Area Medical...denominator, this paper compares barriers to EID surveillance in Cambodia and Indonesia and presents key factors? uncovered through extensive interviews

  1. Migrations of European honey bee lineages into Africa, Asia, and North America during the Oligocene and Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthoff, Ulrich; Wappler, Torsten; Engel, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Today honey bees, principally the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, represent a multi-billion dollar agricultural industry. Through the efforts of humans they have become established well outside of their modern native ranges, having been introduced multiple times into the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, and many areas of Oceania. The native, i.e., non-human influenced, distribution and migration of honey bee species and populations has been a matter of serious and continued debate. Apicultural dogma informs us that the center of origin of honey bees (genus Apis) resides in Asia, with subsequent migration and diversification into Europe and Asia. Recent population genetic studies of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, slightly modified this received wisdom by suggesting that this species originated in Africa and subsequently reinvaded Eurasia. Research into the historical biogeography of honey bees has ignored entirely the abundant fossil evidence distributed through a variety of Late Paleogene (Oligocene) and Early Neogene (Miocene) deposits, a diversity which is predominantly European in origin, particularly among the most basal species of the genus. We have examined the morphological disparity and affinities of the full living and fossil diversity of honey bees ranging from their earliest origins to the present day. This analysis indicates that honey bees exhibited a greater morphological disparity during the Oligocene and Miocene epochs, a time when the principal lineages were established, and that Apis apparently originated in Europe, spreading from there into Asia, Africa, and North America, with subsequent diversification in the former two regions and extinction in the latter. During the human migrations and colonization honey bees were once again introduced multiple times into the Americas, as well as into Australia and Asia.

  2. International Conference of Directors of National Libraries on Resource Sharing in Asia and Oceanic [Proceedings] (Canberra, Australia, May 14-18, 1979). Development of Resource Sharing Networks. Networks Study No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Australia, Canberra.

    The proceedings of this 1979 conference on library cooperation begin with proposals for the promotion of resource sharing among the national libraries of Asia and Oceania, the text of a policy statement on the role of national and international systems as approved at a 1976 meeting of directors of national libraries held in Lausanne, and a summary…

  3. The Participatory Research Approach in Non-Western Countries: Practical Experiences from Central Asia and Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…

  4. The Participatory Research Approach in Non-Western Countries: Practical Experiences from Central Asia and Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…

  5. Building tobacco control research in Thailand: meeting the need for innovative change in Asia.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Stephen L; Mock, Jeremiah; Hense, Sibasis; Charoenca, Naowarut; Kungskulniti, Nipapun

    2012-01-28

    In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over the past two decades locally relevant tobacco control research has been scant. Experience shows that tobacco control measures should be based on sound research findings to ensure that measures are appropriate for local conditions and that they are likely to have an impact. Research should also be integrated within tobacco control measures to ensure ongoing learning and the production of knowledge. Thailand, a middle-income country, has a public health community with a record of successful tobacco control and a longstanding commitment to research. Thailand's comprehensive approach includes taxation; bans on tobacco advertising, sponsorship and promotion; smoke-free areas; graphic cigarette pack warnings; social marketing campaigns; cessation counseling; and an established tobacco control research program. The purpose of this study was to document and analyze the development of tobacco control research capacity in Thailand and the impact of research on Thai tobacco control measures. We used mixed methods including review of historical documentation and policy reports, qualitative interviews with key members of Thailand's tobacco control community, and an analysis of research productivity. In Thailand, tobacco control research has evolved through three phases: (1) discovery of the value of research in the policymaking arena, (2) development of a structure to support research capacity building through international collaborations supported by foreign funding agencies, and (3) delivery of locally relevant research made possible largely through substantial stable funding from a domestic health promotion foundation. Over two decades, Thai tobacco control advocates have constructed five steppingstones to success: (1) adapting foreign research to inform policymaking and lobbying for more support for domestic research; (2) attracting foreign funding agencies to support small-scale research and capacity building; (3

  6. Building tobacco control research in Thailand: meeting the need for innovative change in Asia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over the past two decades locally relevant tobacco control research has been scant. Experience shows that tobacco control measures should be based on sound research findings to ensure that measures are appropriate for local conditions and that they are likely to have an impact. Research should also be integrated within tobacco control measures to ensure ongoing learning and the production of knowledge. Thailand, a middle-income country, has a public health community with a record of successful tobacco control and a longstanding commitment to research. Thailand's comprehensive approach includes taxation; bans on tobacco advertising, sponsorship and promotion; smoke-free areas; graphic cigarette pack warnings; social marketing campaigns; cessation counseling; and an established tobacco control research program. The purpose of this study was to document and analyze the development of tobacco control research capacity in Thailand and the impact of research on Thai tobacco control measures. Method We used mixed methods including review of historical documentation and policy reports, qualitative interviews with key members of Thailand's tobacco control community, and an analysis of research productivity. Findings In Thailand, tobacco control research has evolved through three phases: (1) discovery of the value of research in the policymaking arena, (2) development of a structure to support research capacity building through international collaborations supported by foreign funding agencies, and (3) delivery of locally relevant research made possible largely through substantial stable funding from a domestic health promotion foundation. Over two decades, Thai tobacco control advocates have constructed five steppingstones to success: (1) adapting foreign research to inform policymaking and lobbying for more support for domestic research; (2) attracting foreign funding agencies to support small-scale research and

  7. The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Children and Young People: Reviewing Research Conducted and Distilling Implications for the Education Sector in Asia. Discussion Paper No. I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijngaarden, Jan; Shaeffer, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    This discussion paper evaluates the impact of HIV/AIDS on the education sector in the Asia Pacific region. It looks at the impact of the epidemic on children (aged 0-18) focusing on how the presence of HIV/AIDS in the household affects the education sector. Examples are summarized from research papers from inter-governmental agencies including…

  8. Research capacity strengthening in South Asia: based on the experience of South Asian Hub for Advocacy, Research and Education on Mental Health (SHARE).

    PubMed

    Sharma, M; Razzaque, B

    2017-01-01

    The South Asian Hub for Advocacy, Research and Education (SHARE) was a five-year National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded program that aimed to stimulate the research base for task-shifting mental health interventions to address the mental health treatment gap in low and middle-income countries. During its 5 years (2011-2016) SHARE made notable accomplishments, including providing 20 studentships for short courses and ten fellowships to conduct mentored study, developing a new humanitarian research training course, implementing distance learning courses, creating an online repository of training materials, creation of a network of public health researchers at different career stages in South Asia, strengthening of partnerships amongst institutions of SHARE network and supporting its member's to produce peer reviewed publications. Furthermore, additional research capacity building and research grants leveraged on SHARE network were secured. The salient lessons learned in the 5-year program were that research capacity-building opportunities need to be tailored to the local context, as SHARE sought to develop and support courses that can build the capacities in specific areas identified as weak in the South Asian region. Mentoring was recognized as a critical component for which innovative and effective models of mentoring in the region need to be developed. Diverse platforms and mediums ought to be utilized to deliver the research training programs. Finally, research capacity-building program requires collaborative efforts of multiple stakeholders working locally, nationally and globally to attain the maximum impact in a region.

  9. Helminth records from eleven species of Emoia (Sauria: Scincidae) from Oceania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, S.R.; Bursey, C.R.; Fisher, R.N.

    2005-01-01

    As part of an ongoing study of the biogeography of helminth parasites of lizards from Oceania, 53 specimens of Emoia (11 species) were examined, as follows: E. atrocostata, E. boettgeri, E. caerulocauda, E. cyanogaster, E. cyanura, E. impar, E. nigra, E. nigromarginata, E. ponapea, E. sanfordi, E. trossula. One species of Digenea, Paradistomoides gregarium, and six species of Nematoda, Hedruris hanleyae, Maxvachonia chabaudi, Parapharyngodon maplestoni, Physalopteroides arnoensis, Spauligodon gehyrae, and Moaciria sp. indet., were found. These helminths have been reported previously from other lizard species. Seventeen new host records and eight new locality records are reported. ?? 2005 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.

  10. National Information Policies for the Asia Oceania Region. Proceedings of the General Assembly and Congress of the International Federation for Information and Documentation Commission for Asia and Oceania (11th, Seoul, Korea, October 29-31, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Ian, Ed.; Dwyer, Lisa, Ed.

    The 18 papers presented at this conference address national information policies, information for industry, and electronic publishing. The titles of the papers are as follows: (1) "Industrial Information Policies of Developing Countries" (keynote address, Sung Jin Choi); (2) "National Information Policy. Current Trends and…

  11. The eighth Asia cancer forum: seeking to advance the outcomes of the UN summit: 'global health as the key to a new paradigm in cancer research'.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Norie; Akaza, Hideyuki; Roh, Jae Kyung; Shibuya, Kenji; Inoue, Hajime; Takemi, Keizo; Nozaki, Shinjiro; Kawakami, Koji; Iwasaki, Masaru

    2012-12-01

    To date, the Asia Cancer Forum has focused its efforts on creating a common concept for collaborative efforts in international cancer research with a focus on Asia, where cancer incidence is rising dramatically, and also sharing information and knowledge among cancer specialists about the importance of cancer as a global health agenda issue. The Eighth Asia Cancer Forum was held following the historic outcome of the High-level Meeting of the United Nations General Assembly on the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases held in New York in September 2011, at which cancer was duly recognized as a global health agenda issue. Despite this significant development, however, the issue of cancer, one of the most intractable of all non-communicable diseases, still faces a variety of challenges if it is to be addressed on the global level. The Eighth Asia Cancer Forum sought to address these various issues, seeking ways to capitalize on the outcomes of the UN Meeting and take global collaborative studies and alliances in the field of cancer further. It was recognized that one of the main challenges for the Asia Cancer Forum is to formulate a proposal that demonstrates how middle-income countries can provide a good level of care using only their own limited medical resources. Given that the Asia Cancer Forum is one of the organizations that can provide assistance in working to further boost awareness about cancer research and the situation relating to cancer in Asian countries, discussion also focused on how to concretize activities in the future.

  12. The Learning Environments of Early Childhood in Asia: Research Perspectives and Changing Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    Highlights of a workshop (held in Bangkok, December 1986) on research perspectives and prospects concerning the learning environment of early childhood are discussed. Researchers and early childhood educators from seven Asian and Pacific nations and resource persons from four continents attended. Participants were asked to explore the home and…

  13. Phylogeographical Structure in Mitochondrial DNA of Legume Pod Borer (Maruca vitrata) Population in Tropical Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Periasamy, Malini; Schafleitner, Roland; Muthukalingan, Krishnan; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the genetic diversity and host plant races of M. vitrata population in South and Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene was used to understand the phylogenetic relationship of geographically different M. vitrata population, but previous studies did not include population from Southeast Asia, the probable center of origin for Maruca, and from east Africa. Extensive sampling was done from different host plant species in target countries. Reference populations from Oceania and Latin America were used. An amplicon of 658 bp was produced by polymerase chain reaction, and 64 haplotypes were identified in 686 M. vitrata individuals. Phylogenetic analysis showed no difference among the M. vitrata population from different host plants. However, the results suggested that M. vitrata has formed two putative subspecies (which cannot be differentiated based on morphological characters) in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, as indicated by the high pairwise FST values (0.44–0.85). The extremely high FST values (≥0.93) of Maruca population in Latin America and Oceania compared to Asian and African population seem to indicate a different species. On the continental or larger geographical region basis, the genetic differentiation is significantly correlated with the geographical distance. In addition, two putative species of Maruca, including M. vitrata occur in Australia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The negative Tajima’s D and Fu’s FS values showed the recent demographic expansion of Maruca population. The haplotype network and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery analyses confirmed the results of phylogenetic analysis. Thus, this study confirmed the presence of three putative Maruca species, including one in Latin America, one in Oceania (including Indonesia) and M. vitrata in Asia, Africa and Oceania. Hence, the genetic differences in Maruca population should be carefully considered while

  14. Phylogeographical Structure in Mitochondrial DNA of Legume Pod Borer (Maruca vitrata) Population in Tropical Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Periasamy, Malini; Schafleitner, Roland; Muthukalingan, Krishnan; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the genetic diversity and host plant races of M. vitrata population in South and Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene was used to understand the phylogenetic relationship of geographically different M. vitrata population, but previous studies did not include population from Southeast Asia, the probable center of origin for Maruca, and from east Africa. Extensive sampling was done from different host plant species in target countries. Reference populations from Oceania and Latin America were used. An amplicon of 658 bp was produced by polymerase chain reaction, and 64 haplotypes were identified in 686 M. vitrata individuals. Phylogenetic analysis showed no difference among the M. vitrata population from different host plants. However, the results suggested that M. vitrata has formed two putative subspecies (which cannot be differentiated based on morphological characters) in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, as indicated by the high pairwise FST values (0.44-0.85). The extremely high FST values (≥ 0.93) of Maruca population in Latin America and Oceania compared to Asian and African population seem to indicate a different species. On the continental or larger geographical region basis, the genetic differentiation is significantly correlated with the geographical distance. In addition, two putative species of Maruca, including M. vitrata occur in Australia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The negative Tajima's D and Fu's FS values showed the recent demographic expansion of Maruca population. The haplotype network and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery analyses confirmed the results of phylogenetic analysis. Thus, this study confirmed the presence of three putative Maruca species, including one in Latin America, one in Oceania (including Indonesia) and M. vitrata in Asia, Africa and Oceania. Hence, the genetic differences in Maruca population should be carefully considered while designing

  15. New insights on the history of canids in Oceania based on mitochondrial and nuclear data.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Kylie M; Wilton, Alan N

    2016-10-01

    How and when dingoes arrived in Oceania poses a fascinating question for scientists with interest in the historical movements of humans and dogs. The dingo holds a unique position as top terrestrial predator of Australia and exists in a wild state. In the first geographical survey of genetic diversity in the dingo using whole mitochondrial genomes, we analysed 16,428 bp in 25 individuals from five separate populations. We also investigated 13 nuclear loci to compare with the mitochondrial population history patterns. Phylogenetic analyses based upon mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA support the hypothesis that there are at least two distinct populations of dingo, one of which occurs in the northwest and the other in the southeast of the continent. Conservative molecular dating based upon mitochondrial DNA suggest that the lineages split approximately 8300 years before present, likely outside Australia but within Oceania. The close relationship between dingoes and New Guinea Singing Dogs suggests that plausibly dingoes spread into Australia via the land bridge between Papua New Guinea and Australia although seafaring introductions cannot be rejected. The geographical distribution of these divergent lineages suggests there were multiple independent dingo immigrations. Importantly, the observation of multiple dingo populations suggests the need for revision of existing conservation and management programs that treat dingoes as a single homogeneous population.

  16. Neglected Tropical Diseases of Oceania: Review of Their Prevalence, Distribution, and Opportunities for Control

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Kevin; McCarthy, James S.; Pearson, Mark; Loukas, Alex; Hotez, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Among Oceania's population of 35 million people, the greatest number living in poverty currently live in Papua New Guinea (PNG), Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands. These impoverished populations are at high risk for selected NTDs, including Necator americanus hookworm infection, strongyloidiasis, lymphatic filariasis (LF), balantidiasis, yaws, trachoma, leprosy, and scabies, in addition to outbreaks of dengue and other arboviral infections including Japanese encephalitis virus infection. PNG stands out for having the largest number of cases and highest prevalence for most of these NTDs. However, Australia's Aboriginal population also suffers from a range of significant NTDs. Through the Pacific Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, enormous strides have been made in eliminating LF in Oceania through programs of mass drug administration (MDA), although LF remains widespread in PNG. There are opportunities to scale up MDA for PNG's major NTDs, which could be accomplished through an integrated package that combines albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, and azithromycin, in a program of national control. Australia's Aboriginal population may benefit from appropriately integrated MDA into primary health care systems. Several emerging viral NTDs remain important threats to the region. PMID:23383349

  17. Nannochloropsis oceania-derived defatted meal as an alternative to fishmeal in Atlantic salmon feeds

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yangyang; Bjarnason, Fridrik; Vasanth, Ghana K.; Dahle, Dalia; Huntley, Mark; Kiron, Viswanath

    2017-01-01

    Defatted microalgal biomass derived from biorefinery can be potential feed ingredients for carnivorous fish. The present study investigated the growth, feed intake:gain and health parameters in Atlantic salmon fed for 84 days with defatted Nannochloropsis oceania as a fishmeal replacer. Fish fed feeds containing the algal biomass (at 10 and 20% inclusion, alga groups) were compared with groups that consumed alga-devoid feeds (control group). The fish that received 20% alga tended to have reduced weight gain and specific growth rate. Condition factor, feed conversion ratio and feed intake of this fish group were significantly different when compared with the control group. Hepatosomatic and viscerosomatic indices, whole body and fillet proximate composition were not affected by the dietary treatments. Digestibility of dry matter, protein, lipid, ash and energy, as well as retention of lipid and energy of the fish that received feed with 20% alga meal were also significantly different from those of the control group. Serum superoxide dismutase activity of the 10% alga-fed fish was significantly higher compared with the control fish. Although alga feeding did not cause any distal intestinal inflammation, the intestinal proteins that were altered upon feeding 20% algal meal might be pointing to systemic physiological disturbances. In conclusion, feeds with 20% alga had a negative effect on feed intake, FCR, lipid and energy retention and health of the fish. The defatted Nannochloropsis oceania can be used at modest inclusion levels, around 10%, without negative effects on the performance of Atlantic salmon. PMID:28704386

  18. The Current Status of Mapping in the World - Spotlight on Oceania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinder, John C.

    2016-06-01

    A summary is presented of the results of questionnaires sent to mapping agencies in Oceania, covering Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Island countries, to investigate the status of mapping in those countries. After World War II, the Australian Federal Government funded the initial small scale mapping of the whole country leading to increased percentages of map coverage of Australia. Mapping at larger scales is undertaken by the states and territories in Australia, including cadastral mapping. In New Zealand mapping is maintained by Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) at 1:50,000 scale and smaller with regular updating. The results of the questionnaires also demonstrate the extent of map coverage in six Pacific Islands, but there is little information available on the actual percent coverage. Overall there are estimated to be an increases in the percentages of coverage of most map scales in Oceania. However, there appear to be insufficient professionals in most Pacific Island countries to maintain the mapping programs. Given that many Pacific Island countries will be impacted by rising sea level in the future, better mapping of these countries is essential. The availability of modern technology especially satellite images, digital aerial photography and airborne lidar data should enable the Pacific Island countries to provide better map products in future, but this would depend on foreign aid on many occasions.

  19. Complex origins of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae): implications for human migrations in Oceania.

    PubMed

    Zerega, Nyree J C; Ragone, Diane; Motley, Timothy J

    2004-05-01

    Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae), a traditional starch crop in Oceania, has enjoyed legendary status ever since its role in the infamous mutiny aboard the H.M.S. Bounty in 1789, yet its origins remain unclear. Breadfruit's closest relatives are A. camansi and A. mariannensis. DNA fingerprinting data (AFLP, amplified fragment length polymorphisms) from over 200 breadfruit cultivars, 30 A. camansi, and 24 A. mariannensis individuals were used to investigate the relationships among these species. Multivariate analyses and the identification of species-specific AFLP markers indicate at least two origins of breadfruit. Most Melanesian and Polynesian cultivars appear to have arisen over generations of vegetative propagation and selection from A. camansi. In contrast, most Micronesian breadfruit cultivars appear to be the result of hybridization between A. camansi-derived breadfruit and A. mariannensis. Because breadfruit depends on humans for dispersal, the data were compared to theories on the human colonization of Oceania. The results agree with the well-supported theory that humans settled Polynesia via Melanesia. Additionally, a long-distance migration from eastern Melanesia into Micronesia is supported.

  20. Nannochloropsis oceania-derived defatted meal as an alternative to fishmeal in Atlantic salmon feeds.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Mette; Gong, Yangyang; Bjarnason, Fridrik; Vasanth, Ghana K; Dahle, Dalia; Huntley, Mark; Kiron, Viswanath

    2017-01-01

    Defatted microalgal biomass derived from biorefinery can be potential feed ingredients for carnivorous fish. The present study investigated the growth, feed intake:gain and health parameters in Atlantic salmon fed for 84 days with defatted Nannochloropsis oceania as a fishmeal replacer. Fish fed feeds containing the algal biomass (at 10 and 20% inclusion, alga groups) were compared with groups that consumed alga-devoid feeds (control group). The fish that received 20% alga tended to have reduced weight gain and specific growth rate. Condition factor, feed conversion ratio and feed intake of this fish group were significantly different when compared with the control group. Hepatosomatic and viscerosomatic indices, whole body and fillet proximate composition were not affected by the dietary treatments. Digestibility of dry matter, protein, lipid, ash and energy, as well as retention of lipid and energy of the fish that received feed with 20% alga meal were also significantly different from those of the control group. Serum superoxide dismutase activity of the 10% alga-fed fish was significantly higher compared with the control fish. Although alga feeding did not cause any distal intestinal inflammation, the intestinal proteins that were altered upon feeding 20% algal meal might be pointing to systemic physiological disturbances. In conclusion, feeds with 20% alga had a negative effect on feed intake, FCR, lipid and energy retention and health of the fish. The defatted Nannochloropsis oceania can be used at modest inclusion levels, around 10%, without negative effects on the performance of Atlantic salmon.

  1. Neglected tropical diseases of Oceania: review of their prevalence, distribution, and opportunities for control.

    PubMed

    Kline, Kevin; McCarthy, James S; Pearson, Mark; Loukas, Alex; Hotez, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Among Oceania's population of 35 million people, the greatest number living in poverty currently live in Papua New Guinea (PNG), Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands. These impoverished populations are at high risk for selected NTDs, including Necator americanus hookworm infection, strongyloidiasis, lymphatic filariasis (LF), balantidiasis, yaws, trachoma, leprosy, and scabies, in addition to outbreaks of dengue and other arboviral infections including Japanese encephalitis virus infection. PNG stands out for having the largest number of cases and highest prevalence for most of these NTDs. However, Australia's Aboriginal population also suffers from a range of significant NTDs. Through the Pacific Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, enormous strides have been made in eliminating LF in Oceania through programs of mass drug administration (MDA), although LF remains widespread in PNG. There are opportunities to scale up MDA for PNG's major NTDs, which could be accomplished through an integrated package that combines albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, and azithromycin, in a program of national control. Australia's Aboriginal population may benefit from appropriately integrated MDA into primary health care systems. Several emerging viral NTDs remain important threats to the region.

  2. IFLA General Conference, 1990. Regional Activities: Africa; Asia and Oceania; Latin America and the Caribbean. Booklet 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The 12 papers in this collection were presented during the meetings of three sections of the Division of Regional Activities: (1) "Which Way African Librarianship?" (Kingo Mchombu); (2) "The Expansion of the University of the Air of Japan and the Changing Function of Regional University Libraries" (Katsuhiro Jinzaki); (3)…

  3. IFLA General Conference, 1990. Regional Activities: Africa; Asia and Oceania; Latin America and the Caribbean. Booklet 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The 12 papers in this collection were presented during the meetings of three sections of the Division of Regional Activities: (1) "Which Way African Librarianship?" (Kingo Mchombu); (2) "The Expansion of the University of the Air of Japan and the Changing Function of Regional University Libraries" (Katsuhiro Jinzaki); (3)…

  4. IHY activities in West Asia: Research and Education in Astronomy and Space Sciences for Arab Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Naimiy, H. M. K.

    2006-11-01

    alnaimiy2@yahoo.com Astronomy and Space Sciences (ASS) are important fields of research, study, knowledge and culture. They have been the cradle of both eastern and western sciences. We all know, from education and psychology, about the effective teaching and learning of ASS. Unfortunately, a small percentage of this knowledge is actually used in teaching at schools, universities level and any other academic institutions in the Arab countries. The challenge is to provide effective professional development for ASS educators and researchers at all levels, from elementary school to university. ASS is the most appealing subject to young students and very important tool to convey scientific knowledge? Once students have understood the importance of science, they might be more easily pursued to continue their education in science and technology. The aim of this paper is to show the importance of the formal and informal ASS research, and education, giving an example of a possible curriculum, projects, and comments on the activities that have been carried out in a few Arab countries. We feel the need for a new communication channel among the Arab people based on our common scientific ground. ASS is, in this respect, the best possible choice in the vast cultural heritage of the Arab basin. The final purpose is scientific and economical. Building modern and good observatories, planetariums and research centers in the region jointly by Arab astronomers and space scientists is essential and will be an excellent step toward developing astronomy and astrophysics (for research, education and knowledge).

  5. The Potential for U.S.-Asia Research Collaboration: Two Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Diane E., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Two articles explore possibilities for collaboration between American and Asian researchers addressing disabilities in a worldwide context. The first article, by Mike Miles, is titled "Using Action-Oriented Disability Studies in Pakistan." It focuses on how information can be disseminated in informal, nontraditional (non-Western) ways.…

  6. The role of evolutionary biology in research and control of liver flukes in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Echaubard, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Mallory, Frank F; Wilcox, Bruce A

    2016-09-01

    Stimulated largely by the availability of new technology, biomedical research at the molecular-level and chemical-based control approaches arguably dominate the field of infectious diseases. Along with this, the proximate view of disease etiology predominates to the exclusion of the ultimate, evolutionary biology-based, causation perspective. Yet, historically and up to today, research in evolutionary biology has provided much of the foundation for understanding the mechanisms underlying disease transmission dynamics, virulence, and the design of effective integrated control strategies. Here we review the state of knowledge regarding the biology of Asian liver Fluke-host relationship, parasitology, phylodynamics, drug-based interventions and liver Fluke-related cancer etiology from an evolutionary biology perspective. We consider how evolutionary principles, mechanisms and research methods could help refine our understanding of clinical disease associated with infection by Liver Flukes as well as their transmission dynamics. We identify a series of questions for an evolutionary biology research agenda for the liver Fluke that should contribute to an increased understanding of liver Fluke-associated diseases. Finally, we describe an integrative evolutionary medicine approach to liver Fluke prevention and control highlighting the need to better contextualize interventions within a broader human health and sustainable development framework.

  7. Integrated Assessments of the Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture: An Overview of AgMIP Regional Research in South Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDermid, Sonali P.; Dileepkumar, Guntuku; Murthy, K. M. Dakshina; Nedumaran, S.; Singh, Piara; Srinivasa, Chukka; Gangwar, B.; Subash, N.; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Zubair, Lareef; hide

    2015-01-01

    South Asia's growing population. In order to assess the future of food and livelihood security across South Asia, the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) has undertaken integrated climate-crop-economic assessments of the impact of climate change on food security and poverty in South Asia, encompassing Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. AgMIP has funded, on a competitive basis, four South Asian regional research teams (RRTs) and one South Asian coordination team (CT) to undertake climate-crop-economic integrated assessments of food security for many districts in each of these countries, with the goal of characterizing the state of food security and poverty across the region, and projecting how these are subject to change under future climate change conditions.

  8. Integrated Assessments of the Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture: An Overview of AgMIP Regional Research in South Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDermid, Sonali P.; Dileepkumar, Guntuku; Murthy, K. M. Dakshina; Nedumaran, S.; Singh, Piara; Srinivasa, Chukka; Gangwar, B.; Subash, N.; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Zubair, Lareef; Nissanka, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    South Asia's growing population. In order to assess the future of food and livelihood security across South Asia, the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) has undertaken integrated climate-crop-economic assessments of the impact of climate change on food security and poverty in South Asia, encompassing Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. AgMIP has funded, on a competitive basis, four South Asian regional research teams (RRTs) and one South Asian coordination team (CT) to undertake climate-crop-economic integrated assessments of food security for many districts in each of these countries, with the goal of characterizing the state of food security and poverty across the region, and projecting how these are subject to change under future climate change conditions.

  9. Improving Linkages between Research and Education Reform: Report of a Regional Seminar. Report from the Regional Seminar on Educational Research in Asia and the Pacific (Tokyo, Japan, October 18-November 2, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    This Regional Seminar was convened for the purpose of providing a forum for educational researchers to exchange information and experiences about educational research and its relationship to educational reform in the countries of the Asian Pacific region. The Regional Seminar was attended by 17 participants from 16 countries in Asia and the…

  10. Provision of community-wide benefits in public health intervention research: the experience of investigators conducting research in the community setting in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Holly A; Merritt, Maria W

    2012-12-01

    This article describes the types of community-wide benefits provided by investigators conducting public health research in South Asia as well as their self-reported reasons for providing such benefits. We conducted 52 in-depth interviews to explore how public health investigators in low-resource settings make decisions about the delivery of ancillary care to research subjects. In 39 of the interviews respondents described providing benefits to members of the community in which they conducted their study. We returned to our narrative dataset to find answers to two questions: What types of community-wide benefits do researchers provide when conducting public health intervention studies in the community setting, and what reasons do researchers give when asked why they provided community-wide benefits? The types of community-wide benefits delivered were directed to the health and well-being of the population. The most common types of benefits delivered were the facilitation of access to health care for individuals in acute medical need and emergency response to natural disasters. Respondents' self-reported reasons when asked why they provided such benefits fell into 2 general categories: intrinsic importance and instrumental importance. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Genetic evidence for the proto-Austronesian homeland in Asia: mtDNA and nuclear DNA variation in Taiwanese aboriginal tribes.

    PubMed Central

    Melton, T; Clifford, S; Martinson, J; Batzer, M; Stoneking, M

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies of mtDNA variation in indigenous Taiwanese populations have suggested that they held an ancestral position in the spread of mtDNAs throughout Southeast Asia and Oceania (Melton et al. 1995; Sykes et al. 1995), but the question of an absolute proto-Austronesian homeland remains. To search for Asian roots for indigenous Taiwanese populations, 28 mtDNAs representative of variation in four tribal groups (Ami, Atayal, Bunun, and Paiwan) were sequenced and were compared with each other and with mtDNAs from 25 other populations from Asia and Oceania. In addition, eight polymorphic Alu insertion loci were analyzed, to determine if the pattern of mtDNA variation is concordant with nuclear DNA variation. Tribal groups shared considerable mtDNA sequence identity (P>.90), where gene flow is believed to have been low, arguing for a common source or sources for the tribes. mtDNAs with a 9-bp deletion have considerable mainland-Asian diversity and have spread to Southeast Asia and Oceania through a Taiwanese bottleneck. Only four Taiwanese mtDNA haplotypes without the 9-bp deletion were shared with any other populations, but these shared types were widely dispersed geographically throughout mainland Asia. Phylogenetic and principal-component analyses of Alu loci were concordant with conclusions from the mtDNA analyses; overall, the results suggest that the Taiwanese have temporally deep roots, probably in central or south China, and have been isolated from other Asian populations in recent history. PMID:9837834

  12. National Bibliographies and the International Conference on National Bibliographic Services Recommendations: Europe; North, Central and South America; and Oceania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langballe, Anne M. Hasund

    This paper discusses the findings of a survey that examined the national bibliographies of 81 countries in Europe, North America, Central America, South America, and Oceania. Results are presented in the following areas: (1) the connection between legal deposit laws and national bibliographies; (2) coverage and scripts of the national…

  13. Operational research capacity building in Asia: innovations, successes and challenges of a training course.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A M V; Satyanarayana, S; Wilson, N; Zachariah, R; Harries, A D

    2013-06-21

    A structured training course on operational research (OR) based on the model created by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease and Médecins Sans Frontières was conducted in the South Asian region in 2012. Many innovations were introduced into the administration, structure and content of the course. Of 12 participants, 11 successfully completed all pre-defined milestones. Several challenges were identified. The main challenges included shortage of time, especially for data analysis and interpretation, and insufficient numbers of experienced facilitators. Appropriate modifications have been made to the structure and processes of the next course scheduled for 2013. We describe these modifications and the innovations, successes and challenges of this model of training.

  14. Operational research capacity building in Asia: innovations, successes and challenges of a training course

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, S.; Wilson, N.; Zachariah, R.; Harries, A. D.

    2013-01-01

    A structured training course on operational research (OR) based on the model created by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease and Médecins Sans Frontières was conducted in the South Asian region in 2012. Many innovations were introduced into the administration, structure and content of the course. Of 12 participants, 11 successfully completed all pre-defined milestones. Several challenges were identified. The main challenges included shortage of time, especially for data analysis and interpretation, and insufficient numbers of experienced facilitators. Appropriate modifications have been made to the structure and processes of the next course scheduled for 2013. We describe these modifications and the innovations, successes and challenges of this model of training. PMID:26393025

  15. LCLUC as an entry point for transdisciplinary research--reflections from an agriculture land use change study in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Nagabhatla, Nidhi; Padmanabhan, Martina; Kühle, Peter; Vishnudas, Suma; Betz, Lydia; Niemeyer, Bastian

    2015-01-15

    This article highlights applied understanding of classifying earth imaging data for land cover land use change (LCLUC) information. Compared to the many previous studies of LCLUC, the present study is innovative in that it applied geospatial data, tools and techniques for transdisciplinary research. It contributes to a wider discourse on practical decision making for multi-level governance. Undertaken as part of the BioDIVA project, the research adopted a multi-tiered methodical approach across three key dimensions: socioecology as the sphere of interest, a transdisciplinary approach as the disciplinary framework, and geospatial analysis as the applied methodology. The area of interest was the agroecosystem of Wayanad district in Kerala, India (South Asia). The methodology was structured to enable analysis of multi-scalar and multi-temporal data, using Wayanad as a case study. Three levels of analysis included: District (Landsat TM-30m), Taluk or sub-district (ASTER-15m) and Village or Gram Panchayat (GeoEye-0.5m). Our hypothesis, that analyzing patterns of land use change is pertinent for up-to-date assessment of agroecosystem resources and their wise management is supported by the outcome of the multi-tiered geospatial analysis. In addition, two examples from the project that highlight the adoption of LCLUC by different disciplinary experts are presented. A sociologist assessed the land ownership boundary for a selected tribal community. A faunal ecologist used it to assess the effect of landscape structure on arthropods and plant groups in rice fields. Furthermore, the Google Earth interface was used to support the overall validation process. Our key conclusion was that a multi-level understanding of the causes, effects, processes and mechanisms that govern agroecosystem transformation requires close attention to spatial, temporal and seasonal dynamics, for which the incorporation of local knowledge and participation of local communities is crucial.

  16. Derivation of indices of socioeconomic status for health services research in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Earnest, Arul; Ong, Marcus E.H.; Shahidah, Nur; Chan, Angelique; Wah, Win; Thumboo, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Background Environmental contexts have been shown to predict health behaviours and outcomes either directly or via interaction with individual risk factors. In this paper, we created indexes of socioeconomic disadvantage (SEDI) and socioeconomic advantage (SAI) in Singapore to test the applicability of these concepts in an Asian context. These indices can be used for health service resource allocation, research and advocacy. Methods We used principal component analysis (PCA) to create SEDI and SAI using a structured and iterative process to identify and include influential variables in the final index. Data at the master plan geographical level was obtained from the most recent Singapore census 2010. Results The 3 areas with highest SEDI scores were Outram (120.1), followed by Rochor (111.0) and Downtown Core (110.4). The areas with highest SAI scores were Tanglin, River Valley and Newton. The SAI had 89.6% of variation explained by the final model, as compared to 67.1% for SEDI, and we recommend using both indices in any analysis. Conclusion These indices may prove useful for policy-makers to identify spatially varying risk factors, and in turn help identify geographically targeted intervention programs, which can be more cost effective to conduct. PMID:26844087

  17. Investigation of comparative effectiveness research in Asia, Europe, and North America.

    PubMed

    Patel, Isha; Rarus, Rachel; Tan, Xi; Lee, E K; Guy, Jason; Ahmad, Akram; Chang, Jongwha

    2015-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is an important branch of pharmacoeconomics that systematically studies and evaluates the cost-effectiveness of medical interventions. CER plays instrumental roles in guiding government public health policy programs and insurance. Countries throughout the world use different methods of CER to help make medical decisions based on providing optimal therapy at a reduced cost. Expenses to the healthcare system continue to rise, and CER is one-way in which expenses could be curbed in the future by applying cost-effectiveness evidence to clinical decisions. China, India, South Korea, and the United Kingdom are of essential focus because these country's economies and health care expenses continue to expand. The structures and use of CER are diverse throughout these countries, and each is of prime importance. By conducting this thorough comparison of CER in different nations, strategies and organizational setups from different countries can be applied to help guide public health and medical decision-making in order to continue to expand the establishment and role of CER programs. The patient-centered medical home has been created to help reduce costs in the primary care sector and to help improve the effectiveness of therapy. Barriers to CER are also important as many stakeholders need to be able to work together to provide the best CER evidence. The advancement of CER in multiple countries throughout the world provides a possible way of reducing costs to the healthcare system in an age of expanding expenses.

  18. Investigation of comparative effectiveness research in Asia, Europe, and North America

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Isha; Rarus, Rachel; Tan, Xi; Lee, EK; Guy, Jason; Ahmad, Akram; Chang, Jongwha

    2015-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is an important branch of pharmacoeconomics that systematically studies and evaluates the cost-effectiveness of medical interventions. CER plays instrumental roles in guiding government public health policy programs and insurance. Countries throughout the world use different methods of CER to help make medical decisions based on providing optimal therapy at a reduced cost. Expenses to the healthcare system continue to rise, and CER is one-way in which expenses could be curbed in the future by applying cost-effectiveness evidence to clinical decisions. China, India, South Korea, and the United Kingdom are of essential focus because these country's economies and health care expenses continue to expand. The structures and use of CER are diverse throughout these countries, and each is of prime importance. By conducting this thorough comparison of CER in different nations, strategies and organizational setups from different countries can be applied to help guide public health and medical decision-making in order to continue to expand the establishment and role of CER programs. The patient-centered medical home has been created to help reduce costs in the primary care sector and to help improve the effectiveness of therapy. Barriers to CER are also important as many stakeholders need to be able to work together to provide the best CER evidence. The advancement of CER in multiple countries throughout the world provides a possible way of reducing costs to the healthcare system in an age of expanding expenses. PMID:26729947

  19. An International Multicenter Study Assessing the Role of Ethnicity on Variation of Lumbar Facet Joint Orientation and the Occurrence of Degenerative Spondylolisthesis in Asia Pacific: A Study from the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Richard; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Goss, Ben; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Acharya, Shankar; Kawakami, Mamoru; Satoh, Shigenobu; Chen, Wen-Jer; Park, Chun-Kun; Lee, Chong-Suh; Foocharoen, Thanit; Nagashima, Hideki; Kuh, Sunguk; Zheng, Zhaomin; Condor, Richard; Ito, Manabu; Iwasaki, Motoki; Jeong, Je Hoon; Luk, Keith D. K.; Prijambodo, Bambang; Rege, Amol; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Luo, Zhuojing; Tassanawipas, Warat; Acharya, Narayana; Pokharel, Rohit; Shen, Yong; Ito, Takui; Zhang, Zhihai; Aithala P, Janardhana; Kumar, Gomatam Vijay; Jabir, Rahyussalim Ahmad; Basu, Saumyajit; Li, Baojun; Moudgil, Vishal; Sham, Phoebe; Samartzis, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A multinational, multiethnic, cross-sectional image-based study was performed in 33 institutions, representing 10 countries, which were part of the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium. Objective Lumbar facet joint orientation has been reported to be associated with the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). The role of ethnicity regarding facet joint orientation remains uncertain. As such, the following study was performed across a wide-ranging population base to assess the role of ethnicity in facet joint orientation in patients with DS in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Lateral standing X-rays and axial magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained for patients with lumbar DS. The DS parameters and facet joint angulations were assessed from L3–S1. Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and ethnicity were also noted. Results The study included 371 patients with known ethnic origin (mean age: 62.0 years; 64% males, 36% females). The mean BMI was 25.6 kg/m2. The level of DS was most prevalent at L4–L5 (74.7%). There were 28.8% Indian, 28.6% Japanese, 18.1% Chinese, 8.6% Korean, 6.5% Thai, 4.9% Caucasian, 2.7% Filipino, and 1.9% Malay patients. Variations in facet joint angulations were noted from L3 to S1 and between patients with and without DS (p < 0.05). No differences were noted with regards to sex and overall BMI to facet joint angulations (p > 0.05); however, increasing age was found to increase the degree of angulation throughout the lumbar spine (p < 0.05). Accounting for age and the presence or absence of DS at each level, no statistically significant differences between ethnicity and degree of facet joint angulations from L3–L5 were noted (p > 0.05). Ethnic variations were noted in non-DS L5–S1 facet joint angulations, predominantly between Caucasian, Chinese, and Indian ethnicities (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study is the first to suggest that ethnicity may not play a role in

  20. An International Multicenter Study Assessing the Role of Ethnicity on Variation of Lumbar Facet Joint Orientation and the Occurrence of Degenerative Spondylolisthesis in Asia Pacific: A Study from the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium.

    PubMed

    Williams, Richard; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Goss, Ben; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Acharya, Shankar; Kawakami, Mamoru; Satoh, Shigenobu; Chen, Wen-Jer; Park, Chun-Kun; Lee, Chong-Suh; Foocharoen, Thanit; Nagashima, Hideki; Kuh, Sunguk; Zheng, Zhaomin; Condor, Richard; Ito, Manabu; Iwasaki, Motoki; Jeong, Je Hoon; Luk, Keith D K; Prijambodo, Bambang; Rege, Amol; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Luo, Zhuojing; Tassanawipas, Warat; Acharya, Narayana; Pokharel, Rohit; Shen, Yong; Ito, Takui; Zhang, Zhihai; Aithala P, Janardhana; Kumar, Gomatam Vijay; Jabir, Rahyussalim Ahmad; Basu, Saumyajit; Li, Baojun; Moudgil, Vishal; Sham, Phoebe; Samartzis, Dino

    2016-02-01

    Study Design A multinational, multiethnic, cross-sectional image-based study was performed in 33 institutions, representing 10 countries, which were part of the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium. Objective Lumbar facet joint orientation has been reported to be associated with the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). The role of ethnicity regarding facet joint orientation remains uncertain. As such, the following study was performed across a wide-ranging population base to assess the role of ethnicity in facet joint orientation in patients with DS in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Lateral standing X-rays and axial magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained for patients with lumbar DS. The DS parameters and facet joint angulations were assessed from L3-S1. Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and ethnicity were also noted. Results The study included 371 patients with known ethnic origin (mean age: 62.0 years; 64% males, 36% females). The mean BMI was 25.6 kg/m(2). The level of DS was most prevalent at L4-L5 (74.7%). There were 28.8% Indian, 28.6% Japanese, 18.1% Chinese, 8.6% Korean, 6.5% Thai, 4.9% Caucasian, 2.7% Filipino, and 1.9% Malay patients. Variations in facet joint angulations were noted from L3 to S1 and between patients with and without DS (p < 0.05). No differences were noted with regards to sex and overall BMI to facet joint angulations (p > 0.05); however, increasing age was found to increase the degree of angulation throughout the lumbar spine (p < 0.05). Accounting for age and the presence or absence of DS at each level, no statistically significant differences between ethnicity and degree of facet joint angulations from L3-L5 were noted (p > 0.05). Ethnic variations were noted in non-DS L5-S1 facet joint angulations, predominantly between Caucasian, Chinese, and Indian ethnicities (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study is the first to suggest that ethnicity may not play a role in facet

  1. AIDS vaccine research in Asia: needs and opportunities. Report from a UNAIDS/WHO/NIID meeting Tokyo, 28-30 October 1998.

    PubMed

    1999-07-30

    A meeting was organized by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Japanese National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID) with the following objectives: (i) to discuss public health and economic rationale to accelerate the development and evaluation of HIV vaccines suitable for use in Asia; (ii) to review ongoing preclinical HIV vaccine research in Asia; (iii) to review the Asian experience in conducting clinical trials of HIV candidate vaccines; (iv) to explore possibilities for international collaboration between countries in the region and with other countries and institutions; and (v) to discuss issues related to availability of future effective HIV vaccines. The meeting was attended by participants from Australia, China, France, Germany, India, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, South Korea, Thailand, United Kingdom, and the United States of America. The HIV epidemic in Asia is rapidly spreading and has already resulted in a total of 7 million HIV infections in the region. The epidemic already has a significant public health and economic impact, which may be worse in the future, unless effective intervention programmes are successfully implemented. A safe, effective, and affordable vaccine should be considered as the best hope for a long-term solution to the HIV epidemic in Asia. Asian scientists and institutions have established a number of international collaborations to isolate and characterize prevalent HIV-1 strains (mostly belonging to subtypes C and E) and are developing candidate vaccines based on these subtypes. In the region, phase I/II clinical trials of preventative HIV candidate vaccines have been conducted in Australia, China and Thailand. Since 1993, a comprehensive National AIDS Vaccine Plan has allowed Thailand to conduct phase I/II trials of six different preventative or therapeutic candidate vaccines, and the first phase III preventative efficacy trial has been approved. The meeting

  2. The work of Glendon Lean on the counting systems of Papua New Guinea and Oceania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Kay

    2001-04-01

    Glendon Lean collated data on nearly 900 counting systems of Papua New Guinea, Oceania, and Irian Jaya (West Papua). Lean's data came from a questionnaire completed by students and talks with village elders. He read old documents written in English, German, and Dutch. He made comparisons between older and new accounts of the counting systems and compared neighbouring counting systems from both Austronesian and non-Austronesian languages. His work drew attention to the rich diversity of the systems and suggested that systems based on body parts and cyclic systems developed spontaneously. Digit tally systems were also relatively common. Lean's thesis on spontaneous developments of these ancient cultures challenged traditional theories describing the spread of number systems from Middle East cultures.

  3. The need for public education on HPV and cervical cancer prevention in Asia. Opinions of experts at the AOGIN conference.

    PubMed

    Garland, S; Park, S N; Ngan, H Y S; Frazer, I; Tay, E H; Chen, C J; Bhatla, N; Pitts, M; Shin, H R; Konno, R; Smith, J; Pagliusi, S; Park, J S

    2008-10-09

    Asia accounts for more than half of all cases of cervical cancer registered globally and improving prevention is urgently needed. A range of tools and strategies is now available to effectively prevent this disease, including two new prophylactic HPV vaccines approved and recommended for adolescents and young women. However, without communication these tools may have little impact on disease burden. The conferences of the Asia Oceania Research Organisation in Genital Infection and Neoplasia (AOGIN) bring together clinicians and scientists whose work is related to genital infections, particularly HPV, cervical dysplasia and neoplasia, as well as other anogenital cancers, with the aim of improving communication on prevention through human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and screening in Asian countries. The scope of this year's AOGIN conference was to extend education to include health workers, family doctors, paediatricians, governmental health agencies, and the general public through patients' testimonials that can reach out to women raising awareness of this silent disease. Community based initiatives and awareness campaigns were also reported, and can empower the people to engage in a dialog with local governments towards prioritization of cancer prevention programs, achieving more for the public than isolated actions. Parents and teachers are encouraged to communicate about these issues within families and schools. Evidence was discussed that males can participate in cervical cancer control as well, and prevention programs involving men should not be neglected as they may reduce genital disease burden in women. Opinion leaders proposed prevention measures to be considered for governmental decisions. While each country develops a locally appropriate policy for cervical cancer control there is a need to revise these programs regularly, as knowledge increases in response to public need, as well as to gather evidence about disease burden and the effectiveness of

  4. Tobacco control in Asia.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Judith; Ritthiphakdee, Bungon; Reddy, K Srinath

    2013-05-04

    For the purpose of this article, Asia refers to WHO's combined South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions and thus includes Australia and New Zealand. Asia has the highest number of tobacco users and is the prime target of transnational tobacco companies. The future of global tobacco control rests in this region and the challenges are clear. China, India, and Indonesia are key markets and Asia is a frontrunner in tobacco control measures, such as plain packaging of cigarettes. Some countries in Asia have a long history of tobacco control activities beginning in the 1970s, and WHO's Western Pacific Region is still the only region where all countries have ratified WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. We reviewed the history, research, epidemiology, tobacco control action, obstacles, and potential responses and solutions to the tobacco epidemic in this region. Levels of development, systems of government, and population size are very different between countries, with population size ranging from 1500 to 1·3 billion, but similarities exist in aspects of the tobacco epidemic, harms caused, obstacles faced, and tobacco control actions needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Maternal history of Oceania from complete mtDNA genomes: contrasting ancient diversity with recent homogenization due to the Austronesian expansion.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Ana T; Evans, Bethwyn; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Friedlaender, Jonathan S; Koki, George; Merriwether, D Andrew; Kayser, Manfred; Stoneking, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Archaeology, linguistics, and existing genetic studies indicate that Oceania was settled by two major waves of migration. The first migration took place approximately 40 thousand years ago and these migrants, Papuans, colonized much of Near Oceania. Approximately 3.5 thousand years ago, a second expansion of Austronesian-speakers arrived in Near Oceania and the descendants of these people spread to the far corners of the Pacific, colonizing Remote Oceania. To assess the female contribution of these two human expansions to modern populations and to investigate the potential impact of other migrations, we obtained 1,331 whole mitochondrial genome sequences from 34 populations spanning both Near and Remote Oceania. Our results quantify the magnitude of the Austronesian expansion and demonstrate the homogenizing effect of this expansion on almost all studied populations. With regards to Papuan influence, autochthonous haplogroups support the hypothesis of a long history in Near Oceania, with some lineages suggesting a time depth of 60 thousand years, and offer insight into historical interpopulation dynamics. Santa Cruz, a population located in Remote Oceania, is an anomaly with extreme frequencies of autochthonous haplogroups of Near Oceanian origin; simulations to investigate whether this might reflect a pre-Austronesian versus Austronesian settlement of the island failed to provide unequivocal support for either scenario. Copyright © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Eco-bio-social research on dengue in Asia: a multicountry study on ecosystem and community-based approaches for the control of dengue vectors in urban and peri-urban Asia.

    PubMed

    Sommerfeld, Johannes; Kroeger, Axel

    2012-12-01

    This article provides an overview of methods and cross-site insights of a 5-year research and capacity building initiative conducted between 2006 and 2011 in six countries of South Asia (India, Sri Lanka) and South-East Asia (Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand).The initiative managed an interdisciplinary investigation of ecological, biological, and social (i.e., eco-bio-social) dimensions of dengue in urban and peri-urban areas, and developed community-based interventions aimed at reducing dengue vector breeding and viral transmission. The multicountry study comprised interdisciplinary research groups from six leading Asian research institutions. The groups conducted a detailed situation analysis to identify and characterize local eco-bio-social conditions, and formed a community-of-practice for EcoHealth research where group partners disseminated results and collaboratively developed site-specific intervention tools for vector-borne diseases. In sites where water containers produced more than 70% of Aedes pupae, interventions ranged from mechanical lid covers for containers to biological control. Where small discarded containers presented the main problem, groups experimented with solid waste management, composting and recycling schemes. Many intervention tools were locally produced and all tools were implemented through community partnership strategies. All sites developed socially and culturally appropriate health education materials. The study also mobilised and empowered women's, students' and community groups and at several sites organized new volunteer groups for environmental health. The initiative's programmes showed significant impact on vector densities in some sites. Other sites showed varying effect - partially attributable to the 'contamination' of control groups - yet led to significant outcomes at the community level where local groups united around broad interests in environmental hygiene and sanitation. The programme's findings are relevant

  7. Nannochloropsis oceania-derived defatted meal as an alternative to fishmeal in Atlantic salmon feeds

    DOE PAGES

    Sørensen, Mette; Gong, Yangyang; Bjarnason, Fridrik; ...

    2017-07-13

    Defatted microalgal biomass derived from biorefinery can be potential feed ingredients for carnivorous fish. The present study investigated the growth, feed intake:gain and health parameters in Atlantic salmon fed for 84 days with defatted Nannochloropsis oceania as a fishmeal replacer. Fish fed feeds containing the algal biomass (at 10 and 20% inclusion, alga groups) were compared with groups that consumed alga-devoid feeds (control group). The fish that received 20% alga tended to have reduced weight gain and specific growth rate. Condition factor, feed conversion ratio and feed intake of this fish group were significantly different when compared with the controlmore » group. Hepatosomatic and viscerosomatic indices, whole body and fillet proximate composition were not affected by the dietary treatments. Digestibility of dry matter, protein, lipid, ash and energy, as well as retention of lipid and energy of the fish that received feed with 20% alga meal were also significantly different from those of the control group. Serum superoxide dismutase activity of the 10% alga-fed fish was significantly higher compared with the control fish. Although alga feeding did not cause any distal intestinal inflammation, the intestinal proteins that were altered upon feeding 20% algal meal might be pointing to systemic physiological disturbances. In conclusion, feeds with 20% alga had a negative effect on feed intake, FCR, lipid and energy retention and health of the fish. Lastly, the defatted Nannochloropsis oceania can be used at modest inclusion levels, around 10%, without negative effects on the performance of Atlantic salmon.« less

  8. Symposium: "Oncology Leadership in Asia".

    PubMed

    Noh, Dong-Young; Roh, Jae Kyung; Kim, Yeul Hong; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Baba, Hideo; Samson-Fernando, Marie Cherry Lynn; Misra, Sanjeev; Aziz, Zeba; Umbas, Rainy; P Singh, Yogendra; Shu Kam Mok, Tony; Yang, Han-Kwang; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2017-03-09

    The Symposium on "Oncology Leadership in Asia" was held as part of the official program of the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Korean Cancer Association. Given the increasing incidence of cancer in all countries and regions of Asia, regardless of developmental stage, and also in light of the recognized need for Asian countries to enhance collaboration in cancer prevention, research, treatment and follow-up, the symposium was held with the aim of bringing together oncology specialists from eight countries and regions in Asia to present the status in their own national context and discuss the key challenges and requirements in order to establish a greater Asian presence in the area of cancer control and research. The task of bringing together diverse countries and regions is made all the more urgent in that while Asia now accounts for more than half of all new cancer cases globally, clinical guidelines are based predominantly on practices adopted in western countries, which may not be optimized for unique ethnic, pharmacogenomic and cultural characteristics in Asia. Recognizing the need for Asia to better gather information and data for the compilation of Asia-specific clinical guidelines, the participants discussed the current status in Asia in the national and regional contexts and identified future steps towards integrated and collaborative initiatives in Asia. A key outcome of the symposium was a proposal to combine and integrate the activities of existing pan-Asian societies, including the Asia Pacific Federation of Organizations for Cancer Research and Control (APFOCC) and Asian Clinical Oncology Society (ACOS). Further proposals included the expansion of pan-Asian society membership to include individuals and the essential need to encourage the participation of young researchers in order to ensure self-sustainability of cancer control efforts in the future.

  9. Management of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy in Asia.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Fereidoun; Amouzegar, Atieh; Mehran, Ladan; Alamdari, Shahram; Subekti, Imam; Vaidya, Bijay; Poppe, Kris; Sarvghadi, Farzaneh; San Luis, Teofilo; Akamizu, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Maternal hyperthyroidism in pregnancy is associated with adverse impacts on both mother and fetus. Recently, the American Thyroid Association and the Endocrine Society have published guidelines for the management of thyroid diseases in pregnancy. We aimed to disclose the impact of these guidelines in current practices of Asian members of the Asia-Oceania Thyroid Association (AOTA) regarding the management of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. Completed questionnaire survey, based on clinical case scenarios, was collected from 321 Asian physician members of AOTA from 21 Asian countries in 2013. For a woman with Graves' disease planning pregnancy, 92% of clinicians favored antithyroid treatment, 52% with propylthiouracil (PTU) while 40% preferred methimazole (MMI). For a pregnant woman with newly diagnosed overt hyperthyroidism, nearly all responders initiated PTU treatment. To monitor dosage of antithyroid drugs, approximately 73% of responders used TSH and free T4 (FT4) levels without free T3 (FT3) (53%) or with FT3 (20%). Majority of responders targeted achieving low serum TSH with FT4 (or total T4) in the upper end of the normal range. For management of gestational thyrotoxicosis, 40% chose to follow up and 52% treated patients with PTU. Although timing of TSH receptor antibodies measurement in pregnant hyperthyroid patients was variable, 53% of responders would check it at least once during pregnancy. Nearly 80% of responders do not treat subclinical hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. Therefore, despite wide variations in the management of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy in Asia, majority of Asian physicians practice within the recommendations of major professional societies.

  10. Satellite outreach in Asia and the Pacific.

    PubMed

    1977-01-01

    Communication by satellite is rapidly changing information exchange in Asia, especially for rural areas. The integrated education planned for satellite networks includes family planning as part of general development. A series of conferences has already been held successfully via satellite for family planning associations who are members of the East and Southeast Asia and Oceania Region of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. These included a conference on nursing training. In India the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) made history during its 1-year trial. By 1981 the entire nation is to be linked by satellite. The question is whether the television education will truly change rural life or whether it will become merely a diversion. In Indonesia, satellites were chosen as the fastest way to obtain interisland communication. The Domsat system links the entire 13,000-island archipelago and is already being used for emergency communications. The system, which was developed in 1 1/2 years by the Hughes Aircraft Corporation will be used for teaching basic health, hygiene, and family planning. It will be several years before Domsat is fully operational, but it bears watching.

  11. Optimising reproductive and child health outcomes by building evidence-based research and practice in South East Asia (SEA-ORCHID): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Henderson-Smart, David J; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Mohammad, Hakimi; McDonald, Steve J; Green, Sally; Crowther, Caroline A

    2007-01-01

    Background Disorders related to pregnancy and childbirth are a major health issue in South East Asia. They represent one of the biggest health risk differentials between the developed and developing world. Our broad research question is: Can the health of mothers and babies in Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines and Malaysia be improved by increasing the local capacity for the synthesis of research, implementation of effective interventions, and identification of gaps in knowledge needing further research? Methods/Design The project is a before-after study which planned to benefit from and extend existing regional and international networks. Over five years the project was designed to comprise five phases; pre-study, pre-intervention, intervention, outcome assessment and reporting/dissemination. The study was proposed to be conducted across seven project nodes: four in South East Asia and three in Australia. Each South East Asian study node was planned to be established within an existing department of obstetrics and gynaecology or neonatology and was intended to form the project coordinating centre and focus for evidence-based practice activities within that region. Nine hospitals in South East Asia planned to participate, representing a range of clinical settings. The three project nodes in Australia were intended to provide project support. The intervention was planned to consist of capacity-strengthening activities targeted at three groups: generators of evidence, users of evidence and teachers of evidence. The primary outcome was established as changes in adherence to recommended clinical practices from baseline to completion of the project and impact on health outcomes. Discussion The SEA-ORCHID project was intended to improve care during pregnancy and the perinatal period of mothers and their babies in South East Asia. The possible benefits extend beyond this however, as at the end of this project there is hoped to be an existing network of South East Asian

  12. Recommendations for cervical cancer prevention in Asia Pacific.

    PubMed

    Garland, Suzanne M; Cuzick, Jack; Domingo, Efren J; Goldie, Sue J; Kim, Young-Tak; Konno, Ryo; Parkin, D Maxwell; Qiao, You-Lin; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Stern, Peter L; Tay, Sun Kuie; Bosch, F Xavier

    2008-08-19

    Asia Oceania includes countries from both the Asia Pacific region and Australasia, which cover very diverse geographical areas and populations as well as bearing 52% of the cervical cancer burden in the world. Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in women with normal cytology varies between countries in this region, as well as with the distribution typically observed in worldwide estimates or in Western countries. HPV-16 remains the predominant oncogenic type for high-grade cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer across the region, and HPV-18 is generally among the five most common types. HPV-58 is commonly found in cervical cancer as well as in women with normal cytology, and HPV-31, 33 and 35 are relatively less frequent in these regions compared to the West. While screening programmes have been proposed and implemented in several populations, successful programmes are rather limited and the majority of countries still have no or minimal screening services. Prophylactic HPV vaccination will only be feasible when it becomes affordable, thus the current priority and the short-term goal for cervical cancer control is to identify feasible and effective screening measures, and to find the most effective way to combine vaccination with sustainable screening programmes. This Regional Report has carefully described the disease burden of HPV and cervical cancer and the current situations in cervical cancer prevention for many countries in the Asia Oceania region. These data identify the many challenges and opportunities to be considered for policy decisions for cervical cancer control. Furthermore, this report presents the results of advanced decision analytic models calibrated to countries in the region that provide early insight into what strategies are most promising and those likely to be cost-effective and affordable. It thus provides a synthesis of the available evidence-based scientific information, in the context of a significant and systematic

  13. Impact of antiretroviral therapy on opportunistic infections of HIV-infected children in the therapeutic research, education and AIDS training asia pediatric HIV observational database.

    PubMed

    Prasitsuebsai, Wasana; Kariminia, Azar; Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Lumbiganon, Pagakrong; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Siew Moy, Fong; Law, Matthew; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Razali, Kamarul; Sirisanthana, Virat; Sohn, Annette H; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya

    2014-07-01

    There are limited data on opportunistic infections (OIs) and factors associated with their occurrence after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Asian children. The use of HAART in Asia started much later than in developed countries and therefore reported findings may not be fully applicable to the pediatric HIV epidemic in Asia. Retrospective and prospectively collected data from the Therapeutic Research, Education and AIDS Training Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database cohort study from March 1993 to March 2009 were analyzed. OIs were defined according to World Health Organization clinical staging criteria and incidence rates calculated. Factors associated with the incidence of severe OIs were analyzed using random effects Poisson regression modeling. Of 2280 children in the cohort, 1752 were ever reported to have received antiretroviral therapy, of whom 1480 (84%) started on HAART. Before commencing any antiretroviral therapy, OIs occurred at a rate of 89.5 per 100 person-years. The incidence rate was 28.8 infections per 100 person-years during mono- or dual-therapy and 10.5 infections per 100 person-years during HAART. The most common OIs both before and after antiretroviral therapy initiation were recurrent upper respiratory tract infections, persistent oral candidiasis and pulmonary tuberculosis. The incidence rates of World Health Organization clinical stage 3 or 4 OIs after HAART were highest among children <18 months of age and those with low weight-for-age z scores, CD4 cell % <15%, and World Health Organization stage 3 at HAART initiation. Despite dramatic declines in their incidence, OIs remained important causes of morbidity after HAART initiation in this regional cohort of HIV-infected children in Asia.

  14. A Survey of Mental Health Research Priorities in Low- and Middle-Income Countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, P; Gallo, C; Gureje, O; Lamberte, E; Mari, JJ; Mazzotti, G; Patel, V; Swartz, L; Olifson, S; Levav, I; de Francisco, A; Saxena, S

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies suggest a paucity of and lack of prioritization in mental health research output from low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries. Aims To investigate research priorities in mental health among researchers and other stakeholders in LAMI countries. Method A two-stage design that included enumeration (through literature searches and snowball technique) of researchers and stakeholders in 114 countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean; and a mail survey on priority research. Results The study revealed broad agreement between researchers and stakeholders and across regions regarding the priorities for mental health research, however, stakeholders did not consider researchers' personal interest as an important criterion for prioritizing research. Studies on epidemiology (burden and risk factors), health systems, and social science were the highest ranked types of needed research. The three prioritized disorders were depression/anxiety, substance use disorders, and psychoses, while prioritized population groups were children and adolescents, women, and persons exposed to violence/trauma. Important criteria for prioritizing research were burden of disease, social justice, and availability of funds. Researchers' and stakeholders' priorities were largely consistent with burden of disease estimates (however, suicide was under-prioritized) and partly congruent with the research projects of the responding researchers. Conclusions The broad agreement found between a large and reasonably representative group of active researchers and stakeholders provides a basis for generating policy and service relevant evidence for global mental health. PMID:19794206

  15. User-Friendly Data Servers for Climate Studies at the Asia-Pacific Data-Research Center (APDRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, G.; Shen, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Merrill, R.; Waseda, T.; Mitsudera, H.; Hacker, P.

    2002-12-01

    The APDRC was recently established within the International Pacific Research Center (IPRC) at the University of Hawaii. The APDRC mission is to increase understanding of climate variability in the Asia-Pacific region by developing the computational, data-management, and networking infrastructure necessary to make data resources readily accessible and usable by researchers, and by undertaking data-intensive research activities that will both advance knowledge and lead to improvements in data preparation and data products. A focus of recent activity is the implementation of user-friendly data servers. The APDRC is currently running a Live Access Server (LAS) developed at NOAA/PMEL to provide access to and visualization of gridded climate products via the web. The LAS also allows users to download the selected data subsets in various formats (such as binary, netCDF and ASCII). Most of the datasets served by the LAS are also served through our OPeNDAP server (formerly DODS), which allows users to directly access the data using their desktop client tools (e.g. GrADS, Matlab and Ferret). In addition, the APDRC is running an OPeNDAP Catalog/Aggregation Server (CAS) developed by Unidata at UCAR to serve climate data and products such as model output and satellite-derived products. These products are often large (> 2 GB) and are therefore stored as multiple files (stored separately in time or in parameters). The CAS remedies the inconvenience of multiple files and allows access to the whole dataset (or any subset that cuts across the multiple files) via a single request command from any DODS enabled client software. Once the aggregation of files is configured at the server (CAS), the process of aggregation is transparent to the user. The user only needs to know a single URL for the entire dataset, which is, in fact, stored as multiple files. CAS even allows aggregation of files on different systems and at different locations. Currently, the APDRC is serving NCEP, ECMWF

  16. Historical collections reveal patterns of diffusion of sweet potato in Oceania obscured by modern plant movements and recombination

    PubMed Central

    Roullier, Caroline; Benoit, Laure; McKey, Doyle B.; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The history of sweet potato in the Pacific has long been an enigma. Archaeological, linguistic, and ethnobotanical data suggest that prehistoric human-mediated dispersal events contributed to the distribution in Oceania of this American domesticate. According to the “tripartite hypothesis,” sweet potato was introduced into Oceania from South America in pre-Columbian times and was then later newly introduced, and diffused widely across the Pacific, by Europeans via two historically documented routes from Mexico and the Caribbean. Although sweet potato is the most convincing example of putative pre-Columbian connections between human occupants of Polynesia and South America, the search for genetic evidence of pre-Columbian dispersal of sweet potato into Oceania has been inconclusive. Our study attempts to fill this gap. Using complementary sets of markers (chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites) and both modern and herbarium samples, we test the tripartite hypothesis. Our results provide strong support for prehistoric transfer(s) of sweet potato from South America (Peru-Ecuador region) into Polynesia. Our results also document a temporal shift in the pattern of distribution of genetic variation in sweet potato in Oceania. Later reintroductions, accompanied by recombination between distinct sweet potato gene pools, have reshuffled the crop’s initial genetic base, obscuring primary patterns of diffusion and, at the same time, giving rise to an impressive number of local variants. Moreover, our study shows that phenotypes, names, and neutral genes do not necessarily share completely parallel evolutionary histories. Multidisciplinary approaches, thus, appear necessary for accurate reconstruction of the intertwined histories of plants and humans. PMID:23341603

  17. Historical collections reveal patterns of diffusion of sweet potato in Oceania obscured by modern plant movements and recombination.

    PubMed

    Roullier, Caroline; Benoit, Laure; McKey, Doyle B; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-02-05

    The history of sweet potato in the Pacific has long been an enigma. Archaeological, linguistic, and ethnobotanical data suggest that prehistoric human-mediated dispersal events contributed to the distribution in Oceania of this American domesticate. According to the "tripartite hypothesis," sweet potato was introduced into Oceania from South America in pre-Columbian times and was then later newly introduced, and diffused widely across the Pacific, by Europeans via two historically documented routes from Mexico and the Caribbean. Although sweet potato is the most convincing example of putative pre-Columbian connections between human occupants of Polynesia and South America, the search for genetic evidence of pre-Columbian dispersal of sweet potato into Oceania has been inconclusive. Our study attempts to fill this gap. Using complementary sets of markers (chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites) and both modern and herbarium samples, we test the tripartite hypothesis. Our results provide strong support for prehistoric transfer(s) of sweet potato from South America (Peru-Ecuador region) into Polynesia. Our results also document a temporal shift in the pattern of distribution of genetic variation in sweet potato in Oceania. Later reintroductions, accompanied by recombination between distinct sweet potato gene pools, have reshuffled the crop's initial genetic base, obscuring primary patterns of diffusion and, at the same time, giving rise to an impressive number of local variants. Moreover, our study shows that phenotypes, names, and neutral genes do not necessarily share completely parallel evolutionary histories. Multidisciplinary approaches, thus, appear necessary for accurate reconstruction of the intertwined histories of plants and humans.

  18. Advances in research of Asian geology—A summary of 1:5M International Geological Map of Asia project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jishun; Niu, Baogui; Wang, Jun; Jin, Xiaochi; Zhao, Lei; Liu, Renyan

    2013-08-01

    The International Geological Map of Asia at a 1:5,000,000 scale (IGMA5000) is the first digital Asian geological map under the standard of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW). Major advances that have been achieved in compiling the map are manifested in the following understandings. Large amounts of Mesozoic volcanic rocks occurring in the eastern Asian coastal area are mainly Cretaceous instead of Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous. Most of the Carboniferous-Permian volcanic rocks in Central Asia seem not to be arc volcanics, but the product of an extensional stage. The basal boundary of the Meso-Neoproterozoic Jixian section in China is not dated at 1.8 Ga as defined previously, but less than 1.68 Ga. The most significant Neoarchean tectono-thermal events in the Sino-Korean craton and the Indian craton took place at 2.5 Ga rather than at 2.7 Ga. The basement of the Yangtze craton was finally formed at 0.75-0.8 Ga, which is 0.2-0.3 Ga later than the Greenville orogenic cycle. Geologically, South China is identified to be an Early Paleozoic Caledonian foldbelt. The Qinling belt, where no oceanic basin was developed in Triassic times, is not an Indosinian collisional orogen, but a continental crust subduction one. When Pangea was formed, Indo-Australian Gondwana had been joined to Paleo-Asia and between them there was no oceanic basin, i.e. no Paleo-Tethys which continued from Paleozoic to Mesozoic. A huge Indosinian orogenic belt existed on the southern margin of Paleo-Asia to the north of the Zagros-Himalayas. Asia is a composite continent consisting of three major cratons—the Siberian, Indian and Arabian and three huge orogenic belts with a number of minor cratons and numerous microcontinents included. The main body of the Asian continent took its shape during the Mesozoic. The orogenic belts belong respectively to three global tectonic domains: the Paleo-Asian, Tethyan and Pacific. The small cratons, such as Sino-Korea, Yangtze, Tarim, and

  19. Using seafaring simulations and shortest-hop trajectories to model the prehistoric colonization of Remote Oceania

    PubMed Central

    Montenegro, Álvaro; Callaghan, Richard T.; Fitzpatrick, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    The prehistoric colonization of islands in Remote Oceania that began ∼3400 B.P. represents what was arguably the most expansive and ambitious maritime dispersal of humans across any of the world’s seas or oceans. Though archaeological evidence has provided a relatively clear picture of when many of the major island groups were colonized, there is still considerable debate as to where these settlers originated from and their strategies/trajectories used to reach habitable land that other datasets (genetic, linguistic) are also still trying to resolve. To address these issues, we have harnessed the power of high-resolution climatic and oceanographic datasets in multiple seafaring simulation platforms to examine major pulses of colonization in the region. Our analysis, which takes into consideration currents, land distribution, wind periodicity, the influence of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, and “shortest-hop” trajectories, demonstrate that (i) seasonal and semiannual climatic changes were highly influential in structuring ancient Pacific voyaging; (ii) western Micronesia was likely settled from somewhere around the Maluku (Molucca) Islands; (iii) Samoa was the most probable staging area for the colonization of East Polynesia; and (iv) although there are major differences in success rates depending on time of year and the occurrence of ENSO events, settlement of Hawai’i and New Zealand is possible from the Marquesas or Society Islands, the same being the case for settlement of Easter Island from Mangareva or the Marquesas. PMID:27791145

  20. Using seafaring simulations and shortest-hop trajectories to model the prehistoric colonization of Remote Oceania.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Álvaro; Callaghan, Richard T; Fitzpatrick, Scott M

    2016-10-24

    The prehistoric colonization of islands in Remote Oceania that began ∼3400 B.P. represents what was arguably the most expansive and ambitious maritime dispersal of humans across any of the world's seas or oceans. Though archaeological evidence has provided a relatively clear picture of when many of the major island groups were colonized, there is still considerable debate as to where these settlers originated from and their strategies/trajectories used to reach habitable land that other datasets (genetic, linguistic) are also still trying to resolve. To address these issues, we have harnessed the power of high-resolution climatic and oceanographic datasets in multiple seafaring simulation platforms to examine major pulses of colonization in the region. Our analysis, which takes into consideration currents, land distribution, wind periodicity, the influence of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, and "shortest-hop" trajectories, demonstrate that (i) seasonal and semiannual climatic changes were highly influential in structuring ancient Pacific voyaging; (ii) western Micronesia was likely settled from somewhere around the Maluku (Molucca) Islands; (iii) Samoa was the most probable staging area for the colonization of East Polynesia; and (iv) although there are major differences in success rates depending on time of year and the occurrence of ENSO events, settlement of Hawai'i and New Zealand is possible from the Marquesas or Society Islands, the same being the case for settlement of Easter Island from Mangareva or the Marquesas.

  1. Aeronautical Wind Tunnels, Europe and Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    AERONAUTICAL WIND TUNNELS EUROPE AND ASIA Researchers: Katarina David Jenele Gorham Sarah Kim Patrick Miller... Wind Tunnels Europe and Asia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...18 Library of Congress – Federal Research Division Aeronautical Wind Tunnels Europe and Asia PREFACE 1 This catalog is a compilation of data on

  2. Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Home to beautiful jungles, booming industry, and age-old temples, Southeast Asia has become a confluence of ancient and modern life. This true-color image of mainland Southeast Asia was acquired on November 30, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The body of water in the upper righthand corner of the image is the Gulf of Tonkin. East and southeast of the gulf are the dark green jungles of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. The light brown Mekong River winds its way through the center of the Cambodian jungle and into southern Vietnam. The dark blue patch to the left of the river at the bottom of the image is the Tonle Sap. Literally translated to mean 'Great Lake,' the Tonle Sap is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia. During the rainy season from May to October, the lake will more than double in size growing from its wintertime extent of 3,000 square kilometers to over 7,500 square kilometers. North of the lake, approximately in the center of the image, is a saucer-shaped patch of reddish brown land known as the Khorat Plateau. Situated 90 to 200 meters above sea level in eastern Thailand, the dry plateau is mostly covered with farmland and savanna-type grasses and shrubs. Moving south again, the large body of light blue water at the bottom central portion of the image is the Gulf of Thailand. By switching to the full resolution image (250 meters per pixel) and following the Gulf of Thailand to its northernmost extent, one can see a pinkish beige patch of terrain covered by a faint latticework of fine lines. These are likely to be the network of roads that crisscross Bangkok and its surrounding suburbs and fertile farmland. The narrow strip of land to the east of the Gulf of Thailand is the Malay Peninsula. The body of water to the left of the peninsula is the Gulf of Martaban, which borders Myanmar (Burma). At the far upper lefthand corner of the image, the water has turned light brown from

  3. Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Home to beautiful jungles, booming industry, and age-old temples, Southeast Asia has become a confluence of ancient and modern life. This true-color image of mainland Southeast Asia was acquired on November 30, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The body of water in the upper righthand corner of the image is the Gulf of Tonkin. East and southeast of the gulf are the dark green jungles of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. The light brown Mekong River winds its way through the center of the Cambodian jungle and into southern Vietnam. The dark blue patch to the left of the river at the bottom of the image is the Tonle Sap. Literally translated to mean 'Great Lake,' the Tonle Sap is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia. During the rainy season from May to October, the lake will more than double in size growing from its wintertime extent of 3,000 square kilometers to over 7,500 square kilometers. North of the lake, approximately in the center of the image, is a saucer-shaped patch of reddish brown land known as the Khorat Plateau. Situated 90 to 200 meters above sea level in eastern Thailand, the dry plateau is mostly covered with farmland and savanna-type grasses and shrubs. Moving south again, the large body of light blue water at the bottom central portion of the image is the Gulf of Thailand. By switching to the full resolution image (250 meters per pixel) and following the Gulf of Thailand to its northernmost extent, one can see a pinkish beige patch of terrain covered by a faint latticework of fine lines. These are likely to be the network of roads that crisscross Bangkok and its surrounding suburbs and fertile farmland. The narrow strip of land to the east of the Gulf of Thailand is the Malay Peninsula. The body of water to the left of the peninsula is the Gulf of Martaban, which borders Myanmar (Burma). At the far upper lefthand corner of the image, the water has turned light brown from

  4. Three millennia of human and sea turtle interactions in Remote Oceania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. S.

    2007-12-01

    Sea turtles are one of the largest vertebrates in the shallow water ecosystems of Remote Oceania, occurring in both sea grass pastures and on coral reefs. Their functional roles, however, over ecological and evolutionary times scales are not well known, in part because their numbers have been so drastically reduced. Ethnographic and archaeological data is analysed to assess long-term patterns of human sea turtle interactions (mainly green and hawksbill) prior to western contact and the magnitude of turtle losses in this region. From the ethnographic data two large-scale patterns emerge, societies where turtle capture and consumption was controlled by chiefs and priests versus those where control over turtle was more flexible and consumption more egalitarian. Broadly the distinction is between societies on high (volcanic and raised coral) islands versus atolls, but the critical variables are the ratio of land to shallow marine environments, combined with the availability of refugia. Archaeological evidence further highlights differences in the rate and magnitude of turtle losses across these two island types, with high islands suffering both large and rapid declines while those on atolls are less marked. These long-term historical patterns help explain the ethnographic endpoints, with areas that experienced greater losses apparently developing more restrictive social controls over time. Finally, if current turtle migration patterns held in the past, with annual movements between western foraging grounds and eastern nesting beaches, then intensive harvesting from 2,800 Before Present in West Polynesia probably affected turtle abundance and coral reef ecology in East Polynesia well before the actual arrival of human settlers, the latter a process that most likely began 1,400 years later.

  5. Prevalence of new psychoactive substances in Northeast Asia from 2007 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junhui; Yang, Songhee; Kang, Yujin; Han, Eunyoung; Feng, Ling-Yi; Li, Jih-Heng; Chung, Heesun

    2017-03-01

    The proliferation of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has been a global trend in drug abuse and its regulation has been a worldwide concern. There is no doubt that it is necessary to share information related to these emerging substances between countries and continents for the effective regulation of NPS. With efforts for the efficient regulation of NPS, many studies and information have been published for the prevalence of NPS in the United States and other countries in Europe and Oceania. However, there is lack of information available for the prevalence of NPS in Asian and African countries. Therefore, this research was focused on the investigation of legal status of certain NPS in Northeast Asian countries, including China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan, in order to provide information on the prevalence and trend of emerging NPS in these countries. The results showed that a total of 940 NPS was reported in 4 Northeast Asian countries from 2007 to 2015. Among 940 NPS, 882 NPS are legally restricted in at least one country (94%) and 96 substances were not currently under control (6%) in these countries. The number of controlled NPS that are currently controlled in all 4 countries was only 25 (or 28%) out of 882 NPS. Each substance was categorized in 9 groups according to the classification proposed by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). In Northeast Asia, the most commonly controlled NPS were synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, and phenethylamines. It was found that Japan is the most proactive country in terms of the NPS regulation with 41% of the total number of controlled NPS in Northeast Asia, followed by South Korea (21%), China (28%), Taiwan (10%). Comparing the number of NPS newly regulated in each country every year, NPS has been broadly scheduled in 2011 and the number of scheduled NPS has dramatically increased from 2013 to 2015. It was shown that Northeast Asia is also in danger of these emerging NPS and the effective

  6. Research on farmers' objectives for tree breeding. Report of a workshop following a regional study in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Raintree, J.B.; Taylor, D.A.

    1991-09-01

    In 1989, a study of farmers' tree breeding objectives was carried out in 31 villages in 7 countries of Asia. These conference proceedings contain discussion of the study's findings and its methodology and recommendations for follow-up activities. The primary aim of the study was to describe 'ideotypes' (plant models designed to yield products of greater quality and quantity than a conventional cultivar or wild plant) of multipurpose trees desired by farmer respondents. The study's main conclusion is that farmers' tree-breeding objectives can be elicited by the methodology used, and factors related to local situations. Recommended follow-up activities include: (1) consultation which extends beyond farmers to include other interest groups within the community; and (2) a small-scale study of processes by which farmers improve trees, with consideration of a larger scale study if warranted. Individual reports discuss tree breeding in Thailand, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Nepal.

  7. Allergic conjunctivitis in Asia.

    PubMed

    Thong, Bernard Yu-Hor

    2017-04-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC), which may be acute or chronic, is associated with rhinitis in 30%-70% of affected individuals, hence the term allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C). Seasonal and perennial AC is generally milder than the more chronic and persistent atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Natural allergens like house dust mites (HDM), temperate and subtropical grass and tree pollen are important triggers that drive allergic inflammation in AC in the Asia-Pacific region. Climate change, environmental tobacco smoke, pollutants derived from fuel combustion, Asian dust storms originating from central/north Asia and phthalates may also exacerbate AR/C. The Allergies in Asia Pacific study and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood provide epidemiological data on regional differences in AR/C within the region. AC significantly impacts the quality of life of both children and adults, and these can be measured by validated quality of life questionnaires on AR/C. Management guidelines for AC involve a stepped approach depending on the severity of disease, similar to that for allergic rhinitis and asthma. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are effective in certain types of persistent AC, and sublingual immunotherapy is emerging as an effective treatment option in AR/C to grass pollen and HDM. Translational research predominantly from Japan and Korea involving animal models are important for the potential development of targeted pharmacotherapies for AC.

  8. Allergic conjunctivitis in Asia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC), which may be acute or chronic, is associated with rhinitis in 30%–70% of affected individuals, hence the term allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C). Seasonal and perennial AC is generally milder than the more chronic and persistent atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Natural allergens like house dust mites (HDM), temperate and subtropical grass and tree pollen are important triggers that drive allergic inflammation in AC in the Asia-Pacific region. Climate change, environmental tobacco smoke, pollutants derived from fuel combustion, Asian dust storms originating from central/north Asia and phthalates may also exacerbate AR/C. The Allergies in Asia Pacific study and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood provide epidemiological data on regional differences in AR/C within the region. AC significantly impacts the quality of life of both children and adults, and these can be measured by validated quality of life questionnaires on AR/C. Management guidelines for AC involve a stepped approach depending on the severity of disease, similar to that for allergic rhinitis and asthma. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are effective in certain types of persistent AC, and sublingual immunotherapy is emerging as an effective treatment option in AR/C to grass pollen and HDM. Translational research predominantly from Japan and Korea involving animal models are important for the potential development of targeted pharmacotherapies for AC. PMID:28487836

  9. Youth in Transition: The Challenges of Generational Change in Asia. Proceedings of the Biennial General Conference of the Association of Asian Social Science Research Councils (15th, Canberra, Australia, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Fay, Ed.; Fahey, Stephanie, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book originates from a conference of the Association of Asian Social Science Research Councils and contains writings and research reports on Youth in Transition in the Asia and Pacific region. The definition of "youth" varies from country to country and ranges between the ages of 10 to 35. The publication summarizes issues in the…

  10. Teaching and Research in International Law in Asia and the Pacific. Report of a Regional Consultation Meeting Including Nine Country Status Surveys (Seoul, Republic of Korea, October 10-13, 1984). Social and Human Sciences in Asia and the Pacific. RUSHSAP Series on Occasional Monographs and Papers, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    Information on teaching and research in international law for countries of the Asia-Pacific region is presented in proceedings of a 1984 conference sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. In addition to a regional overview, suggestions are offered for promoting regional cooperation in international law.…

  11. Bringing the Ocean into Finer Focus through the NASA COAST, HyspIRI, and OCEANIA Suborbital Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, S. L.; Guild, L. S.; Kudela, R. M.; Hooker, S. B.; Morrow, J. H.; Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Negrey, K.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    High-quality ocean color measurements are needed to characterize water quality and phytoplankton functional types in the coastal zone. Accurate ocean color retrievals are often confounded by inadequacies in atmospheric correction. The recent NASA COAST, HyspIRI, and OCEANIA suborbital missions over Monterey Bay, CA have used novel instruments in a multi-sensor, multi-platform approach to collect above- and in-water measurements to better characterize ocean color through improvements in instrument dynamic range and attention to atmospheric correction. High-level objectives of these missions are to characterize the coastal ocean through end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, and sea-truth observations to improve vicarious calibration and validation of satellite ocean color products. We present results from COAST, HyspIRI, and OCEANIA to demonstrate the importance of coincident atmospheric and sea-truth measurements to improve atmospheric correction. Our specific objective was to conduct a sensitivity analysis of the atmospheric correction algorithm, Tafkaa, on Headwall Imaging Spectrometer data using input parameters of atmospheric aerosol optical depth spectra and column water vapor obtained from the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) collected on the CIRPAS Twin Otter during COAST (2011). Use of the high dynamic-range, in-water Compact-Optical Profiling System (C-OPS) and above-water Coastal Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) with matched wavelength channels enabled accurate observations of exact water-leaving radiance to use in validating imagery. Results from HyspIRI and OCEANIA (October 2013) flown on the NASA ER-2 and CIRPAS Twin Otter will be presented. Knowledge gained from these missions will improve vicarious calibration and validation of legacy (MODIS) and future (PACE & GEO-CAPE) satellite sensors to better characterize coastal ecosystems using ocean color observations.

  12. An Update on Zika Virus in Asia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) was first isolated in Asia from mosquitoes from Malaysia in 1966. However, the incidence of Zika and Zika-related neurological complications in Asia is not well known. The few studies of Zika in Asia have been inconsistent in pointing to likely transmission levels, with some studies suggesting substantial transmission and others not. Interpretation of existing epidemiological and public health data from Asia is constrained by the non-specific symptomatology of Zika, the high proportion of subclinical ZIKV infections, relatively low viremia, and the lack of accurate serological assays. Here, we update the status of Zika cases from countries in Asia, and highlight some key knowledge gaps. In particular, accurate determinations of the incidence of Zika-related congenital Zika syndrome should be a priority for Zika research in Asia. Additional information will be critical to make informed strategies for the prevention and control of this global public health threat. PMID:28681575

  13. Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of Melanesian futsal players: a first approach to talent identification in Oceania

    PubMed Central

    Zongo, P; Chamari, K; Chaouachi, A; Michalak, E; Dellal, A; Castagna, C; Hue, O

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of elite Melanesian futsal players in order to determine the best performance predictors. Physiological parameters of performance were measured in 14 Melanesian (MEL-G, 24.4±4.4 yrs) and 8 Caucasian (NMEL-G, 22.9±4.9) elite futsal players, using tests of jump-and-reach (CMJ), agility (T-Test), repeated sprint ability (RSA), RSA with change-of-direction (RSA-COD), sprints with 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, and 30 m lap times, and aerobic fitness with the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (30-15 IFT). The anthropometric data revealed significantly lower height for MEL-G compared with NMEL-G: 1.73±0.05 and 1.80±0.08 m, respectively; P = 0.05. The CMJ was significantly higher for MEL-G than NMEL-G: 50.4±5.9 and 45.2±4.3 cm, respectively; P = 0.05. T-Test times were significantly lower for MEL-G than NMEL-G: 10.47±0.58 and 11.01±0.64 seconds, respectively; P = 0.05. MEL-G height was significantly related to CMJ (r = 0.706, P = 0.01), CMJpeakP (r = 0.709, P = 0.01) and T-Test (r = 0.589, P = 0.02). No significant between-group differences were observed for sprint tests or 30-15 IFT, including heart rate and estimated VO2max. Between groups, the percentage decrement (%Dec) in RSA-COD was significantly lower in MEL-G than NMEL-G (P = 0.05), although no significant difference was noted between RSA and RSA-COD. Within groups, no significant difference was observed between %Dec in RSA or RSA-COD; P = 0.697. This study presents specific anthropometric (significantly lower height) and physiological (significantly greater agility) reference values in Melanesians, which, taken together, might help coaches and physical fitness trainers to optimize elite futsal training and talent identification in Oceania. PMID:26060337

  14. Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of Melanesian futsal players: a first approach to talent identification in Oceania.

    PubMed

    Galy, O; Zongo, P; Chamari, K; Chaouachi, A; Michalak, E; Dellal, A; Castagna, C; Hue, O

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of elite Melanesian futsal players in order to determine the best performance predictors. Physiological parameters of performance were measured in 14 Melanesian (MEL-G, 24.4±4.4 yrs) and 8 Caucasian (NMEL-G, 22.9±4.9) elite futsal players, using tests of jump-and-reach (CMJ), agility (T-Test), repeated sprint ability (RSA), RSA with change-of-direction (RSA-COD), sprints with 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, and 30 m lap times, and aerobic fitness with the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (30-15 IFT). The anthropometric data revealed significantly lower height for MEL-G compared with NMEL-G: 1.73±0.05 and 1.80±0.08 m, respectively; P = 0.05. The CMJ was significantly higher for MEL-G than NMEL-G: 50.4±5.9 and 45.2±4.3 cm, respectively; P = 0.05. T-Test times were significantly lower for MEL-G than NMEL-G: 10.47±0.58 and 11.01±0.64 seconds, respectively; P = 0.05. MEL-G height was significantly related to CMJ (r = 0.706, P = 0.01), CMJpeakP (r = 0.709, P = 0.01) and T-Test (r = 0.589, P = 0.02). No significant between-group differences were observed for sprint tests or 30-15 IFT, including heart rate and estimated VO2max. Between groups, the percentage decrement (%Dec) in RSA-COD was significantly lower in MEL-G than NMEL-G (P = 0.05), although no significant difference was noted between RSA and RSA-COD. Within groups, no significant difference was observed between %Dec in RSA or RSA-COD; P = 0.697. This study presents specific anthropometric (significantly lower height) and physiological (significantly greater agility) reference values in Melanesians, which, taken together, might help coaches and physical fitness trainers to optimize elite futsal training and talent identification in Oceania.

  15. Underground laboratories in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  16. Underground laboratories in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  17. One hundred case studies of Asia-Pacific telemedicine using a digital video transport system over a research and education network.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Shuji; Nakashima, Naoki; Okamura, Koji; Tanaka, Masao

    2009-01-01

    Although the use of video in telemedicine is most helpful, the transmission of high-quality moving images is difficult in conventional systems due to the limitation of network bandwidth and the quality of service. We have established a new system via the academic broadband network that can preserve the original quality and assure smooth movement of the image. Here we report on 100 case studies and discuss the lessons we have learned. Kyushu University Hospital in Fukuoka, Japan, was linked to 53 medical institutions and meeting venues in 13 countries and regions over the Asia-Pacific Advanced Network, an international research and education consortium. The digital video transport system (DVTS), free software that transforms digital video signals directly into Internet Protocol, was installed on a personal computer (PC) with a network bandwidth of 30 Mbps per channel. Between February 2003 and June 2007, 100 telecommunication sessions were held, 94 of which were international and 6 domestic. Furthermore, 47 involved real-time demonstrations and 53 interactive teleconferences using video or PC presentations. Multiple stations were connected in 37 events, and the number of connected stations in total reached 269. The time delay was restricted to 0.3-1.0 seconds between the stations. Participants provided feedback via questionnaires, and with respect to image quality, 509 (68.3%) participants reported "very good," 206 (27.7%) reported "good," 19 (2.6%) reported "poor," and 11 (1.5%) reported "very poor." DVTS is both economical, with a minimal initial investment, and simple to set up, and this is the first time that this advanced system has been used so widely in the Asia-Pacific region. Because the high-speed academic network for research and education is available worldwide, we believe our cutting-edge technology will facilitate medical standardization beyond geographic borders in the world.

  18. Karaoke and Interpersonal Communication in East Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Ringo

    An exploratory study investigated the interpersonal meaning of karaoke to its participants in East Asia. Current research suggests that the popularity of karaoke in East Asia is associated with the cultural value of harmony and the indirect mode of communication in this region. Subjects, 51 East Asian undergraduate-level students who had…

  19. Gondwana to Asia: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Sanghoon; Kim, Sung Won; Santosh, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Korean Peninsula, China, Japan, India, Sri Lanka, and Timor, among other regions, preserve important clues for the tectonic evolution of present-day Asia derived from the break-up of Mesozoic supercontinent Pangea. Evidence for the formation, evolution, and destruction of Earth's first coherent supercontinent Columbia during Paleoproterozoic, followed by the Neoproterozoic Rodinia and late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Gondwana supercontinents are also recorded in many of these regions. The debates surrounding some of these aspects and the state-of-the-art knowledge from these terranes were the focal themes of discussion during the "2013 Annual Convention of the International Association for Gondwana Research (IAGR) and the 10th Gondwana to Asia International Conference" held at the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Korea during September 30th to October 2nd 2013. The conference was attended by more than 200 delegates representing 11 countries. The discussion continued at the "International conference on Continental Dynamics" held in Xian, China during April 2014. This special issue of Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, assembling 24 research papers is an outcome of the deliberations under various sessions of the above conferences. In assembling this special issue, we attempt to provide evidence-driven discussions on the construction and destruction of Precambrian and Paleozoic supercontinents preserved in present-day Asian continents. We also address a variety of themes including magmatic, metamorphic and metallogenic processes, as well as issues related to natural environment. We hope that the papers assembled in this special issue offer new insights into some of the key issues surrounding the geological, geophysical and geodynamic milieu in Asia, and a better understanding of analogous processes in other parts of the world.

  20. Research on dengue and dengue-like illness in East Asia and the Western Pacific during the First Half of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Goro

    2007-01-01

    Dengue has become an enormous medical problem worldwide since the end of the World War II (WWII). Despite a voluminous amount of research conducted worldwide for many years to elucidate the mechanism of the development of the two severe forms of dengue (dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS)), to develop effective vaccines and to design reliable disease control and prevention strategies, the goals of achieving these objectives are not in sight yet. For such a medical research that requires a multi-directional approach to resolve a variety of research questions, sometimes it is necessary to step back and re-examine historically how the current status of the expanding global problems and sudden emergence of severe forms of dengue have evolved in the first place. To examine the history of dengue epidemiology, it is first necessary to put in perspective all relevant documents, including a large number of nearly forgotten, old Japanese publications regarding dengue outbreaks and allied background information in East Asia and the Western Pacific that were documented before the emergence of the haemorrhagic disease outbreaks in the 1950s there. The compiled data in this review, thus, fill in for the first time many blanks in the early epidemiologic history of dengue in this part of the world. Besides the data for epidemiologists, virologic data, clinical studies of haemorrhagic manifestation, significance in military medicine and entomologic investigations covered in this review should be useful for the current researchers investigating any of those subjects.

  1. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Zhang, Zhen-Zhen; Wang, Zhe; Zeng, Xiao-Yan; Yan, Jun-Jie

    2016-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an analytical detection technique based on atomic emission spectroscopy to measure the elemental composition. LIBS has been extensively studied and developed due to the non-contact, fast response, high sensitivity, real-time and multi-elemental detection features. The development and applications of LIBS technique in Asia are summarized and discussed in this review paper. The researchers in Asia work on different aspects of the LIBS study in fundamentals, data processing and modeling, applications and instrumentations. According to the current research status, the challenges, opportunities and further development of LIBS technique in Asia are also evaluated to promote LIBS research and its applications.

  2. Male sexual dysfunction in Asia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Christopher Ck; Singam, Praveen; Hong, Goh Eng; Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md

    2011-07-01

    Sex has always been a taboo subject in Asian society. However, over the past few years, awareness in the field of men's sexual health has improved, and interest in sexual health research has recently increased. The epidemiology and prevalence of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and premature ejaculation in Asia are similar in the West. However, several issues are specific to Asian males, including culture and beliefs, awareness, compliance and the availability of traditional/complementary medicine. In Asia, sexual medicine is still in its infancy, and a concerted effort from the government, relevant societies, physicians and the media is required to propel sexual medicine to the forefront of health care.

  3. Male sexual dysfunction in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Christopher CK; Singam, Praveen; Hong, Goh Eng; Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md

    2011-01-01

    Sex has always been a taboo subject in Asian society. However, over the past few years, awareness in the field of men's sexual health has improved, and interest in sexual health research has recently increased. The epidemiology and prevalence of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and premature ejaculation in Asia are similar in the West. However, several issues are specific to Asian males, including culture and beliefs, awareness, compliance and the availability of traditional/complementary medicine. In Asia, sexual medicine is still in its infancy, and a concerted effort from the government, relevant societies, physicians and the media is required to propel sexual medicine to the forefront of health care. PMID:21643001

  4. Impact of Increasing Capacity for Generating and Using Research on Maternal and Perinatal Health Practices in South East Asia (SEA-ORCHID Project)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity remain unacceptably high in many low and middle income countries. SEA-ORCHID was a five year international collaborative project in South East Asia which aimed to determine whether health care and health outcomes for mothers and babies could be improved by developing capacity for research generation, synthesis and use. Methods Nine hospitals in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand participated in SEA-ORCHID. These hospitals were supported by researchers from three Australian centres. Health care practices and outcomes were assessed for 1000 women at each hospital both before and after the intervention. The capacity development intervention was tailored to the needs and context of each hospital and delivered over an 18 month period. Main outcomes included adherence to forms of care likely to be beneficial and avoidance of forms of care likely to be ineffective or harmful. Results We observed substantial variation in clinical practice change between sites. The capacity development intervention had a positive impact on some care practices across all countries, including increased family support during labour and decreased perineal shaving before birth, but in some areas there was no significant change in practice and a few beneficial practices were followed less often. Conclusion The results of SEA-ORCHID demonstrate that investing in developing capacity for research use, synthesis and generation can lead to improvements in maternal and neonatal health practice and highlight the difficulty of implementing evidence-based practice change. PMID:21915274

  5. Impact of increasing capacity for generating and using research on maternal and perinatal health practices in South East Asia (SEA-ORCHID Project).

    PubMed

    Lumbiganon, P; McDonald, S J; Laopaiboon, M; Turner, T; Green, S; Crowther, C A

    2011-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity remain unacceptably high in many low and middle income countries. SEA-ORCHID was a five year international collaborative project in South East Asia which aimed to determine whether health care and health outcomes for mothers and babies could be improved by developing capacity for research generation, synthesis and use. Nine hospitals in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand participated in SEA-ORCHID. These hospitals were supported by researchers from three Australian centres. Health care practices and outcomes were assessed for 1000 women at each hospital both before and after the intervention. The capacity development intervention was tailored to the needs and context of each hospital and delivered over an 18 month period. Main outcomes included adherence to forms of care likely to be beneficial and avoidance of forms of care likely to be ineffective or harmful. We observed substantial variation in clinical practice change between sites. The capacity development intervention had a positive impact on some care practices across all countries, including increased family support during labour and decreased perineal shaving before birth, but in some areas there was no significant change in practice and a few beneficial practices were followed less often. The results of SEA-ORCHID demonstrate that investing in developing capacity for research use, synthesis and generation can lead to improvements in maternal and neonatal health practice and highlight the difficulty of implementing evidence-based practice change.

  6. Collaborative work between the West and Asia.

    PubMed

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Bart, Gavin; Li, Li; Giang, Le Minh

    2013-12-01

    The "Collaborative Work between the West and Asia" session was chaired by Dr. Yih-Ing Hser and had three speakers. The speakers (and their topics) were: Dr. Gavin Bart (Collaborative Addiction Research in Asian Populations Home and Abroad), Dr. Li Li (Implementing Intervention Research Projects in Asia), and Dr. Le Minh Giang (Building Research Infrastructure for International Collaborative Studies on Substance Use Disorder and HIV: The Case of Hanoi Medical University/Vietnam).

  7. Women of Southeast Asia. Occasional Paper No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Esterik, Penny, Ed.

    Nine chapters emphasizing religious, domestic, and economic aspects of women in Southeast Asia are presented. In an introductory chapter, Penny Van Esterik discusses women and Buddhism, societal and domestic roles, occupational patterns, research on women in Southeast Asia, and Southeast Asia's past and future. In chapter 2, "Buddhism,…

  8. Women of Southeast Asia. Occasional Paper No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Esterik, Penny, Ed.

    Nine chapters emphasizing religious, domestic, and economic aspects of women in Southeast Asia are presented. In an introductory chapter, Penny Van Esterik discusses women and Buddhism, societal and domestic roles, occupational patterns, research on women in Southeast Asia, and Southeast Asia's past and future. In chapter 2, "Buddhism,…

  9. Strategic Asia 2002 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Ellings; Aaron Friedberg; Michael Wills

    2002-09-01

    The Strategic Asia Program made considerable progress over the course of 2002--the program's first year with support from the Department of Energy--and completed all its tasks on schedule and within budget. Following a planning meeting in Washington in February 2002, a team of leading specialists wrote a series of original assessments regarding the impact of September 11 on the strategic environment in Asia, examining how perceptions and strategies of countries in the region changed following the terrorist attacks. The final products, Strategic Asia 2002-03: Asian Aftershocks and its accompanying executive summary, were published in September 2002. The program's research findings (some of which are summarized) were presented to policymakers in Washington and elsewhere throughout the year, and almost 2,000 copies of the book had been distributed by mid-2003.

  10. 2013 Asia-Pacific Education Research Institutes Network (ERI-Net) Regional Study on Transversal Competencies in Education Policy & Practice (Phase I). Regional Synthesis Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoko, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    This report provides an understanding of how transversal competencies are viewed, implemented, and adapted in education policy and curriculum across the Asia-Pacific region. The publication consolidates the results of ten country studies carried out in 2013-2014 in ten countries and economies of the Asia-Pacific region, including: Australia; China…

  11. 2013 Asia-Pacific Education Research Institutes Network (ERI-Net) Regional Study on Transversal Competencies in Education Policy & Practice (Phase I). Regional Synthesis Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoko, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    This report provides an understanding of how transversal competencies are viewed, implemented, and adapted in education policy and curriculum across the Asia-Pacific region. The publication consolidates the results of ten country studies carried out in 2013-2014 in ten countries and economies of the Asia-Pacific region, including: Australia; China…

  12. Asia Lakes

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... oil were expanded in 2000. Important industries include coal mining and the production of food and wool. The region is also of ... NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science ...

  13. GSSML: An Observations and Measurements profile for GlobalSoilMap.net (Oceania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Alistair; Simons, Bruce; Wilson, Peter; Cox, Simon

    2013-04-01

    The Oceania node of the GlobalSoilMap.net consortium has defined GSMML, a profile of the Observations and Measurements (O&M) Geography Markup Language (GML) application schema, to support the delivery of project data using Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Feature Services (WFS). This paper describes GSMML, and the results of initial testing, and proposes linkages to other OGC service types and soil data exchange standards. GlobalSoilMap.net will create a global soil dataset providing predictions for twelve agreed soil properties within a three-dimensional grid. The grid consists of 'Spatial Entities' spaced at 3 arc second intervals and extending to a depth of 2 meters with ten physical soil property predictions made at six predefined depth intervals. In addition, two properties predicting the depth of the profile are made for each Spatial Entity. Each prediction must include: an estimate of its uncertainty; its age and that of the source data; and a description of the process used to generate the value. The approach taken in GSMML is to map the GlobalSoilMap.net requirements on to classes within the O&M Observation and Sampling Features packages. The GlobalSoilMap.net Spatial Entities represent a sampling regime across the earth's terrestrial surface and are modelled as nested O&M 'SF_SpatialSamplingFeatures'. The property predictions are related 'OM_Observation' instances that carry the result, age properties, estimation process, and uncertainty. GSMML defines two concrete classes ('GSM_PrimarySpatialEntity' and 'GSM_SecondarySpatialEntity') with no properties of their own that specialize the SF_SpatialSamplingFeature. Uncertainty is encoded by adopting the UncertML profile of O&M. The schema is accompanied by a set of conformance classes to constrain content, and Semantic Web vocabularies that define the observed properties. Test GSMML services show that a WFS can only reliably support the provision of comprehensive data for requests returning a few hundred

  14. Educational Research and Training in Asia and the Pacific. Report of a Regional Seminar (October 22-November 5, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    Practical guidelines are provided for the development of training programs for educational research workers. There are five chapters. Background, objectives, and organization of the seminar are discussed in the first chapter. The second chapter examines common directions, trends, and problems in the educational research of the Asian and Pacific…

  15. Culture and Disability in the Pacific. Summaries of Papers Prepared for a Working Session of the Association for Social Anthropology in Oceania (New Orleans, Louisiana, February 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Maureen, Ed.; Armstrong, Jocelyn, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter issue is devoted to summaries of 12 papers on culture and disability issues in the Pacific. The summaries presented span Oceania and are based on papers representing Polynesia, Micronesia, and Melanesia. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Nstasinge: The Sickness of a Small Boy from the Finisterre Range in Papua New…

  16. Securing health through food systems: an initiative of the nutrition consortium of the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan and Asia Pacific regional partners as a network.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Kuo, Ken N

    2009-01-01

    There are growing concerns about the health impacts of climate change with ecosystem degradation and global warming, finite reserves of non-renewable energy, water shortages in food-producing regions, limits to contemporary agriculture with its dependence on exhaustible petrochemical nitrogen and rock phosphate fertilizers, and failure of the global financial system. To date, health security has meant attention to safe environments especially water, sanitation and waste disposal; and access to health care and its affordability. Its dependency on food security (safety, sufficiency, sustainability, and satisfaction which requires diversity and quality) has been under-estimated because the current and imminent risks have increased and extended to more populations, because these may be less tractable and because the nature, extent and dynamics of nutritionally-related health are better appreciated. As a step towards more collaborative food and health systems, the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan has created an interdisciplinary Nutrition Consortium (NC) with research and policy agendas. The NC held a food in Health Security (FIHS) in the Asia Pacific region roundtable in conjunction with the World Vegetable Center based in Tainan, supported by the National Science Council and Academia Sinica in Taiwan and the Australian Academies of Science and of Science Technology and Engineering, August 2-5th 2009 in Taiwan. A FIHS Network is being established to further the initiative. It should form part of the broader Human Security agenda.

  17. Pharmacovigilance in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Pipasha

    2013-01-01

    An increase in drug safety concerns in recent years with some high profile drug withdrawals have led to raising the bar by various stakeholders more importantly by the regulatory authorities. The number of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) reported have also resulted in an increase in the volume of data handled and to understand pharmacovigilance a high level of expertise is required to rapidly detect drug risks as well as to defend the product against an inappropriate removal. Proactive pharmacovigilance throughout the product life cycle is the way forward and the future direction for drug safety in Asia. It has been a constant challenge to standardize pharmacovigilance in Asia, in the context of clinical trials and post-marketing pharmacovigilance due to varied geaographical, cultural and medical practices in these regioon. While major advancements of the discipline of pharmacovigilance have taken place in the West, not much has been achieved in Asian countries, though several attempts have been taken. However, with more clinical trials and clinical research activity being conducted in the Asian continent, there is an immense need to understand and implement pharmacovigilance. For this to happen, the mind set of people working in regulatory agencies, the Pharmaceutical companies, prescribers and patients/consumers need to change. PMID:24347987

  18. Pharmacovigilance in Asia.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Pipasha

    2013-12-01

    An increase in drug safety concerns in recent years with some high profile drug withdrawals have led to raising the bar by various stakeholders more importantly by the regulatory authorities. The number of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) reported have also resulted in an increase in the volume of data handled and to understand pharmacovigilance a high level of expertise is required to rapidly detect drug risks as well as to defend the product against an inappropriate removal. Proactive pharmacovigilance throughout the product life cycle is the way forward and the future direction for drug safety in Asia. It has been a constant challenge to standardize pharmacovigilance in Asia, in the context of clinical trials and post-marketing pharmacovigilance due to varied geaographical, cultural and medical practices in these regioon. While major advancements of the discipline of pharmacovigilance have taken place in the West, not much has been achieved in Asian countries, though several attempts have been taken. However, with more clinical trials and clinical research activity being conducted in the Asian continent, there is an immense need to understand and implement pharmacovigilance. For this to happen, the mind set of people working in regulatory agencies, the Pharmaceutical companies, prescribers and patients/consumers need to change.

  19. Uniportal VATS in Asia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The history of uniportal Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) stretches back almost a decade with the treatment of simple thoracic conditions. As the technique matures with increasing ability to tackle the full spectrum of thoracic surgical diseases, most notably major lung resections for lung tumours, the spread of uniportal VATS across the globe has been phenomenal. VATS centres in Asia are now performing uniportal VATS, and developing their individual styles and techniques with great successes. The enthusiasm from surgeons, demand from patients, as well as the dynamism and diversity of uniportal VATS in the region have helped fuel this excitement and change. The 1st Asian Single Port VATS Symposium in 2013 heralded the beginning of academic exchange between uniportal VATS centres in Asia and experts from around the world. Wetlabs in the region will provide further training for thoracic surgeons interested in super-specializing in uniportal VATS. The future of this approach will hinge on good regional collaboration, research and training. PMID:24040529

  20. Hepatitis B virus genotypes: epidemiological and clinical relevance in Asia.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qiuju; Jia, Jidong

    2016-11-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is characterized by a high genetic heterogeneity since it replicates via a reverse transcriptase that lacks proofreading ability. Up to now, ten genotypes (A-J) have been described, with genotype A and D being ubiquitous but most prevalent in Europe and Africa, genotype B and C being confined to Asia and Oceania. Infections with other genotypes such as E, F, G and H are also occasionally observed in Asia. Genotype I is rare and can be found in Laos, Vietnam, India and China, whereas genotype J has been described in Japan and Ryukyu. Novel variants generated by recombination and co-infection with other genotypes have gradually gotten worldwide attention and may be correlated with certain clinical features. There are substantial differences in HBV infection regarding prevalence, clinical manifestation, disease progression and response to antiviral therapy. Due to the complex interplay among viral, host and environmental factors, the relationship between HBV genotypes and clinical profiles remains incompletely revealed. In general, genotype A is associated with better response to interferon therapy; genotype C, and to lesser extent B, usually represent a risk factor for perinatal infection and are associated with advanced liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma; genotype D may be linked with poor response to interferon therapy. Future studies with better design and larger sample size are warranted to further clarify the controversial issues and guide the day-to-day clinical practice.

  1. Combination of 1H NMR and chemometrics to discriminate manuka honey from other floral honey types from Oceania.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Marc; Rogers, Karyne M; Jamin, Eric; Thomas, Freddy; Guyader, Sophie; Lees, Michèle; Rutledge, Douglas N

    2017-02-15

    Manuka honey is a product produced essentially in New Zealand, and has been widely recognised for its antibacterial properties and specific taste. In this study, 264 honeys from New Zealand and Australia were analysed using proton NMR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics. Known manuka markers, methylglyoxal and dihydroxyacetone, have been characterised and quantified, together with a new NMR marker, identified as being leptosperin. Manuka honey profiling using 1H NMR is shown to be a possible alternative to chromatography with the added advantage that it can measure methylglyoxal (MGO), dihydroxyacetone (DHA) and leptosperin simultaneously. By combining the information from these three markers, we established a model to estimate the proportion of manuka in a given honey. Markers of other botanical origins were also identified, which makes 1H NMR a convenient and efficient tool, complementary to pollen analysis, to control the botanical origin of Oceania honeys.

  2. School Psychology Research and Practice in East Asia: Perspectives on the Past, Present, and Future Directions of the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jacqueline A.; Watanabe, Yayoi; Lee, Dong Hun; McIntosh, Kent

    2016-01-01

    To engage in a comparison of school psychology research and practice in eastern and western countries, the current study sought to identify key themes that have influenced the field of school psychology in East Asian countries. Forty-six leading school psychology professionals in Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Thailand, and Taiwan provided their…

  3. Economics in Asia: Status Reports on Teaching and Research in Nine Countries. RUSHSAP Series on Occasional Monographs and Papers, 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This book contains reports on the teaching of and research in economics in nine countries: India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Viet Nam. Each report covers the historical development and growth of the discipline in the country; the development of infra-structures for teaching and…

  4. Scanning the New Horizons: Essays on the Preparation of Educational Research Personnel in Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, John E., Ed.

    Eighteen essays are presented by participants at a regional seminar on the training of educational research personnel. Following an introduction which discusses trends and problems in the educational leadership of Asian countries, material is divided into five sections. Section 1, advancing the professionalism of teachers, contains three articles…

  5. School Psychology Research and Practice in East Asia: Perspectives on the Past, Present, and Future Directions of the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jacqueline A.; Watanabe, Yayoi; Lee, Dong Hun; McIntosh, Kent

    2016-01-01

    To engage in a comparison of school psychology research and practice in eastern and western countries, the current study sought to identify key themes that have influenced the field of school psychology in East Asian countries. Forty-six leading school psychology professionals in Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Thailand, and Taiwan provided their…

  6. JPRS Report East Asia Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-17

    aqua EAST EUROPE gold SOVIET UNION salmon EAST ASIA yellow NEAR EAST £ SOUTH ASIA. ..blue LATIN AMERICA pink WEST EUROPE ivory AFRICA (SUB...established with a view to improving technical knowledge. Then unified accounting was set up, particularly on behalf of the cadres who go out to...has reduced their number from 23 to 11, etc. In terms of management, through accounting and financial planning, it is possible to ascertain the

  7. JPRS Report, East Asia Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-14

    JPRS-SEA-90-017 14 JUNE 1990 JPRS Report— East Asia Southeast Asia REPRODUCED BY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION ...Rangoon THE WORKING PEOPLE’S DAILY in English 31 Mar 90 pp 12, 4, 6 [Excerpts] Yangon, 30 March—The Information Com- mittee of the State Law and Order...is found that rooms for tourists are insufficient. Hence, the Ministry of Trade is making arrangements for building new hotels in Yangon, Mandalay

  8. JPRS Report: East Asia, Southeast Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-13

    are a number of knowledgeable and well-educated people who don’t dare give their views. They are afraid of being branded as bad. They are afraid...exempts the eldest sons of war dead families), the children of Class-1 and Class-2 disabled veterans and Class-1 ill soldiers, and people with blood...19980515 091 East Asia Southeast Asia JPRS-SEA-91-003 CONTENTS 13 February 1991 BURMA Report on Border Area Development [THE WORKING PEOPLES DAILY

  9. 20 Years of Developing Capacity for Action-Oriented Collaborative Regional Research in the Asia-Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupas, L. M.; Stevenson, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    During its 3rd strategic phase, which ran from 2010 to 2015, the APN provided support for 123 projects through its competitive collaborative regional research and capacity development programmes. With over 250 peer-reviewed papers and the underlying philosophy that the regional research it undertakes engages at least two developing countries, the 3rd strategic phase is not only improving the research capabilities of nations in the region, but is engaging the developing country community in underpinning policy-relevant research. The extent to which science is contributing to policy is further evident in that 69% of the activities conducted had some form of science-policy mechanism built in to the project activities. The period of the 3rd Strategic Phase has been witness to significant changes in the make-up of the "conventional" global change arena, with the transition of some global change programmes into the new "Future Earth" initiative. At the same time, major events such as the Rio+20 Summit, the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, the establishment of an IPCC-related platform for biodiversity, i.e. IPBES, and the evolving engagement of science and policy communities has kept the APN busy at what it does best - networking and partnering with the international community. The APN has embraced these changes through its dynamism, allowing the APN to meet not only the needs of the scientists and decision makers its serves in the region but those of the international science communities as well. The challenge for the APN in its next two decades will be to ensure alignment with the transforming global change arena. With key phrases such as "policy-relevant science" and "science-policy interactions" being adopted broadly by the community at large these days, the APN's niche in the global community has received considerable recognition, particularly as other institutions strive to adopt similar practices that the APN has built over the last 20 years.

  10. Conclusion: applying South East Asia Rainforest Research Programme science to land-use management policy and practice in a changing landscape and climate.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Rory P D; Nussbaum, Ruth; Fowler, David; Weilenmann, Maja; Hector, Andy

    2011-11-27

    The context and challenges relating to the remaining tropical rainforest are briefly reviewed and the roles which science can play in addressing questions are outlined. Key messages which articles in the special issue, mainly based on projects of the Royal Society South East Asia Rainforest Research Programme (SEARRP), have raised of relevance to policies on land use, land management and REDD+ are then considered. Results from the atmospheric science and hydrology papers, and some of the ecological ones, demonstrate the very high ecosystem service values of rainforest (compared with oil palm) in maintaining high biodiversity, good local air quality, reducing greenhouse emissions, and reducing landslide, flooding and sedimentation consequences of climate change-and hence provide science to underpin the protection of remaining forest, even if degraded and fragmented. Another group of articles test ways of restoring forest quality (in terms of biodiversity and carbon value) or maintaining as high biodiversity and ecological functioning levels as possible via intelligent design of forest zones and fragments within oil palm landscapes. Finally, factors that have helped to enhance the policy relevance of SEARRP projects and dissemination of their results to decision-makers are outlined.

  11. Care-seeking practices in South Asia: using formative research to design program interventions to save newborn lives.

    PubMed

    Syed, U; Khadka, N; Khan, A; Wall, S

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the formative research findings of newborn care practices in poor and rural districts of Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan and to explain how these findings were used to design behavior change communication elements of newborn care programs. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions regarding newborn care practices were conducted with mothers, mothers-in-law, delivery attendants, health care providers, husbands/fathers, male and female community leaders, religious leaders and elderly influential persons between 2002-2003 in three countries supported by Save the Children's Saving Newborn Lives program. Key findings from each country are summarized according to time periods and care-seeking practices: antenatal care, birth and emergency preparedness/care-seeking, postnatal care and care-seeking for newborn illness. All country reports indicated cultural and religious barriers to seeking care as well as limited societal knowledge about the importance of care-seeking and recognition of maternal and newborn danger signs. Routine care-seeking, especially during the postnatal period, was universally low. When families did seek care, they preferred remedies from traditional healers rather than skilled health workers because of cultural and religious beliefs, poor access to health facilities, and financial barriers. Findings from the country reports were used to design behavior change communication strategies that addressed the underlying reasons why newborn care practices were sub-optimal. Cultural and religious barriers, though strong, were not insurmountable in implementing effective behavior change communication strategies. Formative research from South Asian countries has proved crucial to program approaches to improve care-seeking for maternal and newborn care, increasing availability and access of key services, and expanding family and community knowledge and demand for these services.

  12. WHO Meeting on EMF Biological Effects and Standards Harmonization in Asia and Oceania, 22-24 October, 2001, Shilla Hotel, Seoul, Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-24

    notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not...CHINA Huai Chian 12:00-12:20 EMF SAFETY STANDARDS IN JAPAN Masao Taki 12:20-12:40 EMF SAFETY STANDARDS IN MALAYSIA Ahmed Farag 112:40-13:00 EMF STANDARDS...FIELD EXPOSURE STANDARD IN CHINA Huai Chian 69 EMF SAFETY STANDARDS IN JAPAN Masao Taki 71 EMF SAFETY STANDARDS IN MALAYSIA Ahmed Farag 73 EMF STANDARDS

  13. IFLA General Conference 1991. Division of Regional Activities: Section of Africa; Section of Asia and Oceania; Section of Latin America and the Carribean. Booklet 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The six papers in this collection were presented at three sections of the Division of Regional Activities: (1) "A la recherche d'Approches adaptees aux Besoins en Documentation des Africains (In Search of an Approach Adapted to the Information Needs of Africans)" (Touria Temsamani Haji, Morocco); (2) "People's Libraries: An African…

  14. IFLA General Conference 1991. Division of Regional Activities: Section of Africa; Section of Asia and Oceania; Section of Latin America and the Carribean. Booklet 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The six papers in this collection were presented at three sections of the Division of Regional Activities: (1) "A la recherche d'Approches adaptees aux Besoins en Documentation des Africains (In Search of an Approach Adapted to the Information Needs of Africans)" (Touria Temsamani Haji, Morocco); (2) "People's Libraries: An African…

  15. Combiner L'Education Et Le Travail; Experiences en Asie et en Oceanie: Viet Nam (Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Viet Nam).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vien, Hguyen Khac

    Educational policy in Viet Nam has closely followed the revolutionary movement. In the essentially democratic period from 1945 to 1960, Viet Nam created a nationwide 10-grade school system and fought illiteracy on a large scale. By 1960, as socialism began to predominate, especially in the North, traditional educational methods and values began to…

  16. Combiner L'Education Et Le Travail; Experiences en Asie et en Oceanie: Viet Nam (Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Viet Nam).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vien, Hguyen Khac

    Educational policy in Viet Nam has closely followed the revolutionary movement. In the essentially democratic period from 1945 to 1960, Viet Nam created a nationwide 10-grade school system and fought illiteracy on a large scale. By 1960, as socialism began to predominate, especially in the North, traditional educational methods and values began to…

  17. Huntington Disease in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Miao; Wu, Zhi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to review the major differences of Huntington disease (HD) in Asian population from those in the Caucasian population. Data Sources: Data cited in this review were obtained from PubMed database and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) from 1994 to 2014. All the papers were written in English or Chinese languages, with the terms of Asia/Asian, HD, genotype, epidemiology, phenotype, and treatment used for the literature search. Study Selection: From the PubMed database, we included the articles and reviews which contained the HD patients’ data from Asian countries. From the CNKI, we excluded the papers which were not original research. Due to the language's restrictions, those data published in other languages were not included. Results: In total, 50 papers were cited in this review, authors of which were from the mainland of China, Japan, India, Thailand, Taiwan (China), Korea, and western countries. Conclusions: The lower epidemiology in Asians can be partly explained by the less cytosine-adenine-guanine repeats, different haplotypes, and CCG polymorphisms. For the physicians, atypical clinical profiles such as the initial symptom of ataxia, movement abnormalities of Parkinsonism, dystonia, or tics need to be paid more attention to and suggest gene testing if necessary. Moreover, some pathogenesis studies may help progress some new advanced treatments. The clinicians in Asian especially in China should promote the usage of genetic testing and put more effects in rehabilitation, palliative care, and offer comfort of patients and their families. The unified HD rating scale also needs to be popularized in Asia to assist in evaluating the progression of HD. PMID:26112725

  18. Unification of South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-03

    time. Even protest movements that sprang from its fold, like Jainism and Buddhism, remained part of the Hindu fold. These protestant religions were more...Asia: for example, Jainism , Buddhism, Sikhism and Christians. The Hindus are the descendants of the Aryans, nomadic people of Central Asia who

  19. AED in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is an independent, nonprofit, charitable organization that operates development programs in the United States and throughout the world. This directory presents an overview of AED endeavors in Asia. AED's work in Asia has centered on institution-building, taking advantage of its…

  20. "Asia Literacy" through Research-Oriented School-Engaged Teacher Education: From Volunteer Mandarin Teaching-Assistants to Volunteer Teacher-Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Michael; Zhao, Da Cheng

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the possibilities for building research-oriented, school-engaged teacher education through the professional learning of volunteer teacher-researchers. Volunteerism in education covers a broad spectrum of people and activities ranging from working in school canteens to supporting language and literacy programs. This paper…

  1. Combining high-resolution gross domestic product data with home and personal care product market research data to generate a subnational emission inventory for Asia.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Juliet Elizabeth Natasha; Vamshi, Raghu; Holmes, Christopher; Rowson, Matthew; Miah, Taqmina; Price, Oliver Richard

    2014-04-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is reliant on good estimates of product usage information and robust exposure models. Over the past 20 to 30 years, much progress has been made with the development of exposure models that simulate the transport and distribution of chemicals in the environment. However, little progress has been made in our ability to estimate chemical emissions of home and personal care (HPC) products. In this project, we have developed an approach to estimate subnational emission inventory of chemical ingredients used in HPC products for 12 Asian countries including Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam (Asia-12). To develop this inventory, we have coupled a 1 km grid of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) estimates with market research data of HPC product sales. We explore the necessity of accounting for a population's ability to purchase HPC products in determining their subnational distribution in regions where wealth is not uniform. The implications of using high resolution data on inter- and intracountry subnational emission estimates for a range of hypothetical and actual HPC product types were explored. It was demonstrated that for low value products (<500 US$ per capita/annum required to purchase product) the maximum deviation from baseline (emission distributed via population) is less than a factor of 3 and it would not result in significant differences in chemical risk assessments. However, for other product types (>500 US$ per capita/annum required to purchase product) the implications on emissions being assigned to subnational regions can vary by several orders of magnitude. The implications of this on conducting national or regional level risk assessments may be significant. Further work is needed to explore the implications of this variability in HPC emissions to enable the HPC industry and/or governments to advance risk-based chemical

  2. Status of epidemiology in the WHO South-East Asia region: burden of disease, determinants of health and epidemiological research, workforce and training capacity

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Preet K; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Arora, Narendra K; Mathur, Prashant; Maskey, Mahesh; Sukirna, Ratna Djuwita; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2012-01-01

    Background The South-East Asia region (SEAR) accounts for one-quarter of the world's population, 40% of the global poor and ∼30% of the global disease burden, with a disproportionately large share of tuberculosis (35%), injuries (30%), maternal (33%) and <5-year-old mortality (30%). In this article, we describe the disease burden and status of epidemiological research and capacity in the SEAR to understand, analyse and develop capacity in response to the diverse burdens of diseases in the region. Methods Data on morbidity, mortality, risk factors, social determinants, research capacity, health education, workforce and systems in the SEAR were obtained using global data on burden of disease, peer-reviewed journals, World Health Organization (WHO) technical and advisory reports, and where available, validated country reports and key informants from the region. Results SEAR countries are afflicted with a triple burden of disease—infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases and injuries. Of the seven WHO regions, SEAR countries account for the highest proportion of global mortality (26%) and due to relatively younger ages at death, the second highest percentage of total years of life lost (30%). The SEAR exceeds the global average annual mortality rate for all three broad cause groupings—communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions (334 vs 230 per 100 000); non-communicable diseases (676 vs 573 per 100 000); and injuries (101 vs 78 per 100 000). Poverty, education and other social determinants of health are strongly linked to inequities in health among SEAR countries and within socio-economic subgroups. India, Thailand and Bangladesh produce two-thirds of epidemiology publications in the region. Significant efforts to increase health workforce capacity, research and training have been undertaken in the region, yet considerable heterogeneity in resources and capacity remains. Conclusions Health systems, statistics and surveillance

  3. Improving capacity for evidence-based practice in South East Asia: evaluating the role of research fellowships in the SEA-ORCHID Project

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fellowships are a component of many professional education programs. They provide opportunities to develop skills and competencies in an environment where time is protected and resources and technical support are more readily available. The SEA-ORCHID fellowships program aimed to increase capacity for evidence-based practice and research synthesis, and to encourage fellows to become leaders in these areas. Methods Fellows included doctors, nurses, midwives and librarians working in the maternal and neonatal areas of nine hospitals in South East Asia. Fellowships were undertaken in Australia and involved specific outputs related to evidence-based practice or research synthesis. Training and support was tailored according to the type of output and the fellow's experience and expertise. We evaluated the fellowships program quantitatively and qualitatively through written evaluations, interviews and follow-up of fellowship activities. Results During 2006-07, 23 fellows from Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines undertook short-term fellowships (median four weeks) in Australia. The main outputs were drafts of Cochrane systematic reviews, clinical practice guidelines and protocols for randomised trials, and training materials to support evidence-based practice. Protocols for Cochrane systematic reviews were more likely to be completed than other outcomes. The fellows identified several components that were critical to the program's overall success; these included protected time, tailored training, and access to technical expertise and resources. On returning home, fellows identified a lack of time and limited access to the internet and evidence-based resources as barriers to completing their outputs. The support of colleagues and senior staff was noted as an important enabler of progress, and research collaborators from other institutions and countries were also important sources of support. Conclusions The SEA-ORCHID fellowships program provided

  4. Overweight and Obesity and Associated Factors among School-Aged Adolescents in Six Pacific Island Countries in Oceania

    PubMed Central

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess overweight and obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in six Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 10,424 school-going adolescents predominantly 13–16 years old from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between dietary behaviour, substance use, physical activity, psychosocial factors, social-familial influences, and overweight or obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined based on self-reported height and weight and the international child body mass index standards. Results indicate a prevalence of overweight or obesity of 24.3% and obesity of 6.1% in the six countries, ranging in terms of overweight or obesity and obesity from 12.0% and 0.4% in Vanuatu to 58.7% and 21.1% in Tonga, respectively. In multivariable regression analysis, being female was associated with overweight, carbonated soft drink use with obesity, sedentary behaviour with overweight or obesity, suicidal ideation with overweight, having close friends and peer support with overweight and obesity, parental or guardian supervision with overweight, and parental or guardian bonding was associated with overweight or obesity. High prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were found and several factors identified which can help guide interventions. PMID:26580638

  5. Overweight and Obesity and Associated Factors among School-Aged Adolescents in Six Pacific Island Countries in Oceania.

    PubMed

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2015-11-13

    The aim of this study was to assess overweight and obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in six Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 10,424 school-going adolescents predominantly 13-16 years old from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between dietary behaviour, substance use, physical activity, psychosocial factors, social-familial influences, and overweight or obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined based on self-reported height and weight and the international child body mass index standards. Results indicate a prevalence of overweight or obesity of 24.3% and obesity of 6.1% in the six countries, ranging in terms of overweight or obesity and obesity from 12.0% and 0.4% in Vanuatu to 58.7% and 21.1% in Tonga, respectively. In multivariable regression analysis, being female was associated with overweight, carbonated soft drink use with obesity, sedentary behaviour with overweight or obesity, suicidal ideation with overweight, having close friends and peer support with overweight and obesity, parental or guardian supervision with overweight, and parental or guardian bonding was associated with overweight or obesity. High prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were found and several factors identified which can help guide interventions.

  6. Neurology in Asia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chong-Tin

    2015-02-10

    Asia is important as it accounts for more than half of the world population. The majority of Asian countries fall into the middle income category. As for cultural traditions, Asia is highly varied, with many languages spoken. The pattern of neurologic diseases in Asia is largely similar to the West, with some disease features being specific to Asia. Whereas Asia constitutes 60% of the world's population, it contains only 20% of the world's neurologists. This disparity is particularly evident in South and South East Asia. As for neurologic care, it is highly variable depending on whether it is an urban or rural setting, the level of economic development, and the system of health care financing. To help remedy the shortage of neurologists, most counties with larger populations have established training programs in neurology. These programs are diverse, with many areas of concern. There are regional organizations serving as a vehicle for networking in neurology and various subspecialties, as well as an official journal (Neurology Asia). The Asian Epilepsy Academy, with its emphasis on workshops in various locations, EEG certification examination, and fellowships, may provide a template of effective regional networking for improving neurology care in the region.

  7. Virtual Mobility as an Inclusion Strategy in Higher Education: Research on Distance Education Master Degrees in Europe, Latin America and Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Corbella, Marta; Álvarez-González, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Mobility of higher education students is one of the main indicators of competitiveness among universities, and a key aspect for quality in education. Colleges with virtual and distance methodologies include student mobility programmes. Within this context, the Active Projects (Erasmus MUNDUS Programme, EC: Net-Active and Active-Asia) compare and…

  8. Asia and the Pacific: A Survey of Distance Education 1992. Vol. II: Republic of Korea-Vietnam. New Papers on Higher Education: Studies and Research, No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Suk-Ying; And Others

    This report is intended to serve as a general reference for people either new to the field or involved in planning and decision-making in the field of distance education, specifically in Asia and the Pacific region. Volume II contains data from 15 countries: the Republic of Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, New Zealand, Pakistan,…

  9. Virtual Mobility as an Inclusion Strategy in Higher Education: Research on Distance Education Master Degrees in Europe, Latin America and Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Corbella, Marta; Álvarez-González, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Mobility of higher education students is one of the main indicators of competitiveness among universities, and a key aspect for quality in education. Colleges with virtual and distance methodologies include student mobility programmes. Within this context, the Active Projects (Erasmus MUNDUS Programme, EC: Net-Active and Active-Asia) compare and…

  10. Asia and the Pacific: A Survey of Distance Education 1992. Vol. I: Australia-Japan. New Papers on Higher Education: Studies and Research, No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Suk-Ying; And Others

    This report is intended to serve as a general reference for people either new to the field or involved in planning and decision-making in the field of distance education, specifically in Asia and the Pacific region. Volume I contains data from eight countries: Australia, Bangladesh, the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia,…

  11. Review of Research on Educational Leadership and Management in Asia: A Comparative Analysis of Research Topics and Methods, 1995-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Chen, Junjun

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades scholars have called for a more concerted effort to develop an empirically grounded literature on educational leadership outside of mainstream "Western" contexts. This paper reports the results of a review of research topics and methods that comprise the literature on educational leadership and management in…

  12. Review of Research on Educational Leadership and Management in Asia: A Comparative Analysis of Research Topics and Methods, 1995-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Chen, Junjun

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades scholars have called for a more concerted effort to develop an empirically grounded literature on educational leadership outside of mainstream "Western" contexts. This paper reports the results of a review of research topics and methods that comprise the literature on educational leadership and management in…

  13. Terrorism in Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-11-18

    Asia , particularly those in the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia , and, to a lesser extent, Thailand, that are known or alleged to have ties to the...Southeast Asia ,” Heritage Lectures, No.773, Delivered December 13, 2002, [http://www.heritage.org (continued...) Malaysia Malaysia’s former Prime...Relations. CRS Report RS20572. Indonesian Separatist Movement in Aceh. CRS Issue Brief IB97004. Japan-U.S. Relations. CRS-32 Figure 1. Southeast Asia Maps CRS-33 Figure 2. Indonesia CRS-34 Figure 3. Malaysia

  14. Zika virus in Asia.

    PubMed

    Duong, Veasna; Dussart, Philippe; Buchy, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored.

  15. Asia-MIP: Multi Model-data Synthesis of Terrestrial Carbon Cycles in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichii, K.; Kondo, M.; Ito, A.; Kang, M.; Sasai, T.; SATO, H.; Ueyama, M.; Kobayashi, H.; Saigusa, N.; Kim, J.

    2013-12-01

    Asia, which is characterized by monsoon climate and intense human activities, is one of the prominent understudied regions in terms of terrestrial carbon budgets and mechanisms of carbon exchange. To better understand terrestrial carbon cycle in Asia, we initiated multi-model and data intercomparison project in Asia (Asia-MIP). We analyzed outputs from multiple approaches: satellite-based observations (AVHRR and MODIS) and related products, empirically upscaled estimations (Support Vector Regression) using eddy-covariance observation network in Asia (AsiaFlux, CarboEastAsia, FLUXNET), ~10 terrestrial biosphere models (e.g. BEAMS, Biome-BGC, LPJ, SEIB-DGVM, TRIFFID, VISIT models), and atmospheric inversion analysis (e.g. TransCom models). We focused on the two difference temporal coverage: long-term (30 years; 1982-2011) and decadal (10 years; 2001-2010; data intensive period) scales. The regions of covering Siberia, Far East Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia (60-80E, 10S-80N), was analyzed in this study for assessing the magnitudes, interannual variability, and key driving factors of carbon cycles. We will report the progress of synthesis effort to quantify terrestrial carbon budget in Asia. First, we analyzed the recent trends in Gross Primary Productivities (GPP) using satellite-based observation (AVHRR) and multiple terrestrial biosphere models. We found both model outputs and satellite-based observation consistently show an increasing trend in GPP in most of the regions in Asia. Mechanisms of the GPP increase were analyzed using models, and changes in temperature and precipitation play dominant roles in GPP increase in boreal and temperate regions, whereas changes in atmospheric CO2 and precipitation are important in tropical regions. However, their relative contributions were different. Second, in the decadal analysis (2001-2010), we found that the negative GPP and carbon uptake anomalies in 2003 summer in Far East Asia is one of the largest

  16. Pass Over Southeastern Asia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This video over Southeastern Asia was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Oct. 7, 2011, from 12:41:10 to 12:50:46 GMT, on ...

  17. Review: keratoconus in Asia.

    PubMed

    Kok, Yee Onn; Tan, Grace Feng Ling; Loon, Seng Chee

    2012-05-01

    Keratoconus is an ectatic corneal disorder for which exciting therapeutic and diagnostic technologies are emerging. However, its pathogenesis is still heterogeneous and elusive. We researched overlooked Asian keratoconus data by literature review of databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid, Google Scholar, Cornea, and Cochrane) using key words "keratoconus, Asia, epidemiology, treatment, risk factors, genes" and names of Asian countries. Articles and their references were analyzed. Studies showed that keratoconus may be more prevalent, have earlier onset, and have greater disease progression in certain Asian and non-Asian ethnicities, particularly Indians, Pakistanis, Middle Easterners, and Polynesians, compared with white populations. Epidemiological risk factors include ethnicity, age (younger than 30 years), gender (male), positive family history, and eye rubbing. Genetic and disease risk factors include atopy, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, Down syndrome, pellucid marginal corneal degeneration, VSX1 (visual system homeobox 1) gene, and Leber congenital amaurosis. Differentiation of heterogeneous keratoconus subsets with detailed genotype-phenotype characterization may advance understanding. Comprehensive multiethnic population studies with valid large-scale data are needed. New effective treatments (deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty, intrastromal corneal ring segments, and corneal collagen cross-linking with riboflavin) are succeeding previous treatments.

  18. Guam USA: America’s Forward Fortress in Asia Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-09

    AMERICA’S FORWARD FORTRESS IN ASIA PACIFIC BY COLONEL JERRY M. RIVERA United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release...STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT GUAM USA: AMERICA’S FORWARD FORTRESS IN ASIA PACIFIC By Colonel Jerry M. Rivera United States Army Colonel (Ret) Donald W. Boose...withdraw all its foreign bases in the Asia Pacific region and return to Guam and possibly, the Marianas which are United States soil and make it their hub

  19. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-12

    South - East Asia unloading dollars in the expectation that the US currency will fall still further. In Tokyo, the US dollar closed at 222.10 yen after a...consideration of the fact that South - East Asia, despite the concept of Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality (ZOPFAN), is still a zone of...at McMurdo and South Pole, I accepted in microseconds and waited some months with impatience. Christchurch, in New Zealand’s South Island, is the US

  20. Climate change and postglacial human dispersals in southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Soares, Pedro; Trejaut, Jean Alain; Loo, Jun-Hun; Hill, Catherine; Mormina, Maru; Lee, Chien-Liang; Chen, Yao-Ming; Hudjashov, Georgi; Forster, Peter; Macaulay, Vincent; Bulbeck, David; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Lin, Marie; Richards, Martin B

    2008-06-01

    Modern humans have been living in Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) for at least 50,000 years. Largely because of the influence of linguistic studies, however, which have a shallow time depth, the attention of archaeologists and geneticists has usually been focused on the last 6,000 years--in particular, on a proposed Neolithic dispersal from China and Taiwan. Here we use complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome sequencing to spotlight some earlier processes that clearly had a major role in the demographic history of the region but have hitherto been unrecognized. We show that haplogroup E, an important component of mtDNA diversity in the region, evolved in situ over the last 35,000 years and expanded dramatically throughout ISEA around the beginning of the Holocene, at the time when the ancient continent of Sundaland was being broken up into the present-day archipelago by rising sea levels. It reached Taiwan and Near Oceania more recently, within the last approximately 8,000 years. This suggests that global warming and sea-level rises at the end of the Ice Age, 15,000-7,000 years ago, were the main forces shaping modern human diversity in the region.

  1. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-15

    Louangphachit [PASASON 18 Nov] ...., 21 MALAYSIA ECONOMIC Proton To Start Plant in Chile [BERITA HARIAN 14 Nov] 22 THAILAND MILITARY Opinion...Minister of Defense and Security] L.B. Murdani said that sociocultural problems are latent throughout the Asia Pacific area, including Southeast...can learn that the country disintegrated because of sociocultural problems and not because of military, sociopolitical, or socioeconomic issues. He

  2. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-23

    interests of socialism and peace and stability in the region and the world over." /12913 CSO: 4209/663 PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF KAMPUCHEA KAMPUCHEA...will be further strengthened and developed for the social development of each country and for peace and stability in the region and the world. [Text...contributed to the safeguarding of peace and stability in Indochina, Southeast Asia and the world. We are very proud of these successes and consider

  3. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Economic Management 7 PASASON Sees Need for Enterprises To Adopt Capitalist Expertise 7 MALAYSIA Mahathir Hands Over $100,000 to PLO 9 Libyan...Diplomats in Malaysia Spearhead Asia-Pacific ’Offensive’ 9 Mahathir Warns Japanese Investors About ’Western Media Distortion’ 10 Negotiations To...9604 JPRS-SEA-88-033 10 August 1988 FIJI Study of Nation’s Leadership 42130148a Kuala Lumpur UTUSAN MALAYSIA in Malay 2 Jun 88 p 6 [Article by

  4. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    facilities, facilities which have proven to be reliable and far less expensive. And to sweeten the pot the Soviet Union also offered to let...interior of Sichuan Province, and this facility has even launched a U.S. artificial satellite. The AsiaSat 1 satellite was launched there recently...rockets to launch its artificial satellites. Its concern has been that sophisticated satellite technology will fall into the hands of an enemy. JPRS

  5. Carriers of human mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroup M colonized India from southeastern Asia.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Patricia; Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Larruga, Jose M; Cabrera, Vicente M

    2016-11-10

    From a mtDNA dominant perspective, the exit from Africa of modern humans to colonize Eurasia occurred once, around 60 kya, following a southern coastal route across Arabia and India to reach Australia short after. These pioneers carried with them the currently dominant Eurasian lineages M and N. Based also on mtDNA phylogenetic and phylogeographic grounds, some authors have proposed the coeval existence of a northern route across the Levant that brought mtDNA macrohaplogroup N to Australia. To contrast both hypothesis, here we reanalyzed the phylogeography and respective ages of mtDNA haplogroups belonging to macrohaplogroup M in different regions of Eurasia and Australasia. The macrohaplogroup M has a historical implantation in West Eurasia, including the Arabian Peninsula. Founder ages of M lineages in India are significantly younger than those in East Asia, Southeast Asia and Near Oceania. Moreover, there is a significant positive correlation between the age of the M haplogroups and its longitudinal geographical distribution. These results point to a colonization of the Indian subcontinent by modern humans carrying M lineages from the east instead the west side. The existence of a northern route, previously proposed for the mtDNA macrohaplogroup N, is confirmed here for the macrohaplogroup M. Both mtDNA macrolineages seem to have differentiated in South East Asia from ancestral L3 lineages. Taking this genetic evidence and those reported by other disciplines we have constructed a new and more conciliatory model to explain the history of modern humans out of Africa.

  6. High prevalence of an anti-hypertriglyceridemic variant of the MLXIPL gene in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Kazuhiro; Yanagisawa, Yoshiko; Ogawa, Ayumi; Ishizuka, Yuumi; Munkhtulga, Lkhagvasuren; Charupoonphol, Phitaya; Supannnatas, Somjit; Kuartei, Stevenson; Chimedregzen, Ulziiburen; Koda, Yoshiro; Ishida, Takafumi; Kagawa, Yasuo; Iwamoto, Sadahiko

    2011-12-01

    MLXIPL is a transcription factor integral to the regulation of glycolysis and lipogenesis in the liver. Common variants of the MLXIPL gene (MLXIPL) are known to influence plasma triglyceride levels in people of European descent. As MLXIPL has a key role in energy storage, genetic variations of the MLXIPL may be relevant to physiological adaptations to nutritional stresses that have occurred during the evolution of modern humans. In the present study, we assessed the phenotypic consequences of the Q241H variant of MLXIPL in populations of Asian and Oceanian origin and also surveyed the prevalence of Q241H variant in populations worldwide. Multiple linear regression models based on 2373 individuals of Asian origin showed that the H allele was significantly associated with decreased concentrations of plasma triglycerides (P=0.0003). Direct genotyping of 1455 individuals from Africa, Asia and Oceania showed that the triglyceride-lowering H allele was found at quite low frequencies (0.00-0.16) in most of the populations examined. The exceptions were some Central Asian populations, including Mongolians, Tibetans and Uyghurs, which exhibited much higher frequencies of the H allele (0.21-0.26). The high prevalence of the H allele in Central Asia implies that the Q241H variant of MLXIPL might have been significant for utilization of carbohydrates and fats in the common ancestors of these populations, who successfully adapted to the environment of Central Asia by relying on nomadic livestock herding.

  7. An Update on Zika Virus in Asia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sl Ki; Lim, Jacqueline Kyungah; Yoon, In Kyu

    2017-06-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) was first isolated in Asia from mosquitoes from Malaysia in 1966. However, the incidence of Zika and Zika-related neurological complications in Asia is not well known. The few studies of Zika in Asia have been inconsistent in pointing to likely transmission levels, with some studies suggesting substantial transmission and others not. Interpretation of existing epidemiological and public health data from Asia is constrained by the non-specific symptomatology of Zika, the high proportion of subclinical ZIKV infections, relatively low viremia, and the lack of accurate serological assays. Here, we update the status of Zika cases from countries in Asia, and highlight some key knowledge gaps. In particular, accurate determinations of the incidence of Zika-related congenital Zika syndrome should be a priority for Zika research in Asia. Additional information will be critical to make informed strategies for the prevention and control of this global public health threat. Copyright © 2017 by The Korean Society of Infectious Diseases and Korean Society for Chemotherapy.

  8. Prevalence of food allergies in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Arakali, Schweta R; Green, Todd D; Dinakar, Chitra

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the published medical literature on the prevalence and types of food allergies in South Asia. A PubMed search was performed using the keywords India and food allergy, Asia and food allergy, and South Asia and food allergy for any period. Articles cited in selected studies were reviewed for their appropriateness of inclusion into this review. Publications were included that were original research and fit the topic of food allergy and South Asia. South Asia is defined as region inclusive of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. A total of 169 articles were initially identified, and 47 were reviewed in detail for inclusion in this review. The primary focus was placed on 10 studies that consisted of case reports of newly reported or documented food allergy, survey studies that investigated food allergy prevalence in specific demographics, and prospective and cross-sectional studies with case controls, all of which investigated food allergy prevalence by allergy testing in a selected population. The medical literature on the prevalence and types of food allergy in South Asia indicates that there is a variety of unusual and unique allergens and an overall low incidence of food allergy. There is also an association of increased food allergy prevalence in individuals who live in metropolitan regions or who migrate to communities that have adopted westernization. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Facilitators and Barriers to International Collaboration in Spinal Cord Injury: Results from a Survey of Clinicians and Researchers.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Vanessa K; Chan, Elaine; Bassett-Spiers, Kent; Berlowitz, David J; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Charlifue, Susan; Graco, Marnie; Hayes, Keith C; Horsewell, Jane; Joshi, Phalgun; Markelis, Debora; Smith, Verna; Waheed, Zeina; Brown, Doug J

    2017-07-20

    International collaboration in spinal cord injury (SCI) clinical research is necessary to overcome the challenges often encountered by clinicians and researchers including participant recruitment, high cost and the need for highly specialized expertise. However, international collaboration poses its own obstacles. The objective of this study was to conduct an international online survey to assess barriers and facilitators to international SCI clinical research, potential initiatives to facilitate future collaborations and the use of SCI-specific data sets and standards. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. 213 out of 364 total respondents fully completed the survey with the majority of these participants based in North America (38%), Asia (22%), Europe (18%) and Oceania (16%). Over half had >10 years of experience in SCI research or clinical practice (57%) and 60% had previous experience with international collaborations. Funding was identified as a top barrier (82%), facilitator (93%) and proposed future initiative (97%). Communication and technology were also identified as strong facilitators and proposed future initiatives. The International Standards for Neurological Classification of SCI were used by 69%, the International Standards to document remaining Autonomic Function after SCI by 13%, and the International SCI Data Sets by 45% of participants. As the need for international collaborations in SCI research increases, it is important to identify how clinicians and researchers can be supported by SCI consumer and professional organizations, funders and networks. Furthermore, unique solutions to overcome modifiable barriers and creation of new facilitators are also needed.

  10. Lapita Diet in Remote Oceania: New Stable Isotope Evidence from the 3000-Year-Old Teouma Site, Efate Island, Vanuatu

    PubMed Central

    Kinaston, Rebecca; Buckley, Hallie; Valentin, Frederique; Bedford, Stuart; Spriggs, Matthew; Hawkins, Stuart; Herrscher, Estelle

    2014-01-01

    Remote Oceania was colonized ca. 3000 BP by populations associated with the Lapita Cultural Complex, marking a major event in the prehistoric settlement of the Pacific Islands. Although over 250 Lapita sites have been found throughout the Western Pacific, human remains associated with Lapita period sites are rare. The site of Teouma, on Efate Island, Vanuatu has yielded the largest burial assemblage (n = 68 inhumations) of Lapita period humans ever discovered, providing a unique opportunity for assessing human adaptation to the environment in a colonizing population. Stable isotope ratios (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) of human bone collagen from forty-nine Teouma adults were analyzed against a comprehensive dietary baseline to assess the paleodiet of some of Vanuatu's earliest inhabitants. The isotopic dietary baseline included both modern plants and animals (n = 98) and prehistoric fauna from the site (n = 71). The human stable isotope data showed that dietary protein at Teouma included a mixture of reef fish and inshore organisms and a variety of higher trophic marine (e.g. marine turtle) and terrestrial animals (e.g. domestic animals and fruit bats). The domestic pigs and chickens at Teouma primarily ate food from a C3 terrestrial environment but their δ15N values indicated that they were eating foods from higher trophic levels than those of plants, such as insects or human fecal matter, suggesting that animal husbandry at the site may have included free range methods. The dietary interpretations for the humans suggest that broad-spectrum foraging and the consumption of domestic animals were the most important methods for procuring dietary protein at the site. Males displayed significantly higher δ15N values compared with females, possibly suggesting dietary differences associated with labor specialization or socio-cultural practices relating to food distribution. PMID:24598939

  11. Lapita diet in remote oceania: new stable isotope evidence from the 3000-year-old Teouma site, Efate Island, Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Kinaston, Rebecca; Buckley, Hallie; Valentin, Frederique; Bedford, Stuart; Spriggs, Matthew; Hawkins, Stuart; Herrscher, Estelle

    2014-01-01

    Remote Oceania was colonized ca. 3000 BP by populations associated with the Lapita Cultural Complex, marking a major event in the prehistoric settlement of the Pacific Islands. Although over 250 Lapita sites have been found throughout the Western Pacific, human remains associated with Lapita period sites are rare. The site of Teouma, on Efate Island, Vanuatu has yielded the largest burial assemblage (n=68 inhumations) of Lapita period humans ever discovered, providing a unique opportunity for assessing human adaptation to the environment in a colonizing population. Stable isotope ratios (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) of human bone collagen from forty-nine Teouma adults were analyzed against a comprehensive dietary baseline to assess the paleodiet of some of Vanuatu's earliest inhabitants. The isotopic dietary baseline included both modern plants and animals (n=98) and prehistoric fauna from the site (n=71). The human stable isotope data showed that dietary protein at Teouma included a mixture of reef fish and inshore organisms and a variety of higher trophic marine (e.g. marine turtle) and terrestrial animals (e.g. domestic animals and fruit bats). The domestic pigs and chickens at Teouma primarily ate food from a C3 terrestrial environment but their δ15N values indicated that they were eating foods from higher trophic levels than those of plants, such as insects or human fecal matter, suggesting that animal husbandry at the site may have included free range methods. The dietary interpretations for the humans suggest that broad-spectrum foraging and the consumption of domestic animals were the most important methods for procuring dietary protein at the site. Males displayed significantly higher δ15N values compared with females, possibly suggesting dietary differences associated with labor specialization or socio-cultural practices relating to food distribution.

  12. Household energy in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, G.

    1987-01-01

    This research study on the use of energy in South Asis (India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh) was sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank), and the Directorate-General for Development of the Commission of the European Communities. The aim of this book is to improve the understanding of household energy and its linkages, by reviewing the data resources on household energy use, supply, prices and other relevant factors that exist in South Asia.

  13. Applied Linguistics in Asia: Pathways, Patterns and Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakir, Anne

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines language trends in 21st century Asia and reports on the development of Applied Linguistics (AL) in the region. It has a dual focus: the first analyses the unique preoccupations of Asian and Asia-based applied linguists that have given rise to present research directions and preferences. These, however, seem to be not much…

  14. Ethical issues in human genomics research in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide a powerful means of identifying genetic variants that play a role in common diseases. Such studies present important ethical challenges. An increasing number of GWAS is taking place in lower income countries and there is a pressing need to identify the particular ethical challenges arising in such contexts. In this paper, we draw upon the experiences of the MalariaGEN Consortium to identify specific ethical issues raised by such research in Africa, Asia and Oceania. Discussion We explore ethical issues in three key areas: protecting the interests of research participants, regulation of international collaborative genomics research and protecting the interests of scientists in low income countries. With regard to participants, important challenges are raised about community consultation and consent. Genomics research raises ethical and governance issues about sample export and ownership, about the use of archived samples and about the complexity of reviewing such large international projects. In the context of protecting the interests of researchers in low income countries, we discuss aspects of data sharing and capacity building that need to be considered for sustainable and mutually beneficial collaborations. Summary Many ethical issues are raised when genomics research is conducted on populations that are characterised by lower average income and literacy levels, such as the populations included in MalariaGEN. It is important that such issues are appropriately addressed in such research. Our experience suggests that the ethical issues in genomics research can best be identified, analysed and addressed where ethics is embedded in the design and implementation of such research projects. PMID:21418562

  15. Current status of home blood pressure monitoring in Asia: Statement from the HOPE Asia Network.

    PubMed

    Chia, Yook-Chin; Buranakitjaroen, Peera; Chen, Chen-Huan; Divinagracia, Romeo; Hoshide, Satoshi; Park, Sungha; Shin, Jinho; Siddique, Saulat; Sison, Jorge; Soenarta, Arieska Ann; Sogunuru, Guru Prasad; Tay, Jam Chin; Turana, Yuda; Wang, Ji-Guang; Wong, Lawrence; Zhang, Yuqing; Kario, Kazuomi

    2017-08-17

    Hypertension represents a major burden in Asia, with a high prevalence rate but poor level of awareness and control reported in many countries in the region. Home blood pressure monitoring has been validated as an accurate and reliable measure of blood pressure that can help guide hypertension treatment as well as identify masked and white-coat hypertension. Despite its benefits, there has been limited research into home blood pressure monitoring in Asia. The authors reviewed the current evidence on home blood pressure monitoring in Asia, including but not limited to published literature, data presented at congresses, and national hypertension management guidelines to determine the current utilization of home blood pressure monitoring in clinical practice in the region. Public policies to enable greater access to home blood pressure monitoring and its use in clinical care would add considerably to improving hypertension outcomes in Asia. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Epilepsy: Asia versus Africa.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Devender; Tchalla, Achille Edem; Marin, Benoît; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Tan, Chong Tin; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2014-09-01

    Is epilepsy truly an "African ailment"? We aimed to determine this, since international health agencies often refer to epilepsy as an African disease and the scientific literature has spoken the same tone. Various published materials, mainly reports, articles, were used to gather Asian and African evidence on various aspects of epilepsy and many of its risk and associated factors. Our results suggest that in no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment and such characterization is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. In comparison to Africa, Asia has a 5.0% greater burden from all diseases, and is 17.0% more affected from neuropsychiatric disorders (that include epilepsy). Given that more countries in Asia are transitioning, there may be large demographic and lifestyle changes in the near future. However these changes are nowhere close to those expected in Africa. Moreover, 23 million Asians have epilepsy in comparison to 3.3 million Africans and 1.2 million sub-Saharan Africans. In comparison to Africa, Asia has more untreated patients, 55.0% more additional epilepsy cases every year, because of its larger population, with greater treatment cost and possibly higher premature mortality. Of several associated factors discussed herein, many have more importance for Asia than Africa. The current state of epilepsy in Asia is far less than ideal and there is an urgent need to recognize and accept the importance of epilepsy in Asia. In no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment. This is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here.

  17. Methodology of Leaving America for Asia: Reading South Korea's Social Studies Textbooks through Chen Kuan-Hsing's Asia as Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Jeong-eun

    2013-01-01

    This project began as a content analysis of five South Korean high school Social Studies textbooks. Yet, it has evolved into an epistemological experiment to pursue the question of "what does it mean to leave America for Asia, at least methodologically, for the researcher who left Asia for America?" Using the textbooks as a mediating…

  18. Spatial distribution of biogenic sulphur compounds in the Arctic aerosol collected during the AREX 2011 and 2012 Oceania ship cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udisti, Roberto; Rugi, Francesco; Becagli, Silvia; Bolzacchini, Ezio; Calzolai, Giulia; Chiari, Massimo; Frosini, Daniele; Ghedini, Costanza; Marconi, Miriam; Grazia Perrone, Maria; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Severi, Mirko; Traversi, Rita; Walczowski, Waldek; Zielinski, Timon

    2013-04-01

    The sea area between Norway and Svalbard Islands (Norwegian and Greenland Seas) is a critical site to study the effects of the climate change on the high-latitude Northern-Hemisphere regions. In particular, changes in extension and/or in the persistence of annual sea-ice, availability of nutrients and trace-elements in the biological-active marine layers and sea surface temperatures could affect the marine primary productivity and the emission into the atmosphere of dimethylsulphide (DMS), produced by phytoplankton metabolic processes. This volatile compound is oxidised in the atmosphere mainly to sulphuric acid and Methanesulphonic acid (MSA), which undergo gas-to-particle processes and form secondary sub-micrometric aerosol particles. In this way, they play a relevant role as cloud concentration nuclei (CCN), therefore controlling the climate through scattering/absorption of solar irradiation and changes in cloud coverage (and so affecting albedo). Here, we report the spatial distribution of MSA and H2SO4 measured on 12-h aerosol samples (PM10) collected during two summer cruises of the Oceania ship (AREX 2011 and 2012 oceanographic cruises). The samples were collected on Teflon filters along several marine transects starting from Tromso (Norway) to Svalbard Island and along the Western side of Svalbard Islands. S-compounds distribution was also compared with the organic carbon (OC) aerosol fraction, determined by a EC/OC thermo-optical analyser, and with the atmospheric concentration of selected carboxylic acids (measured by ion chromatography). Preliminary results on the AREX 2011 aerosol samples show two sharp maxima of non-sea-salt sulphate and MSA in June, in phase one with each other, while lower contribution of biogenic emission are recorded in the filters collected in July. Besides, no clear trend along coastal to open-sea transects is evident. Higher MSA concentrations (up to 120 ng/m3) were measured near the Norwegian coast, along the Tromso

  19. Higher Education in South-East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    South-East Asia is a region of vast development diversity but also many commonalities. And the development of higher education in the region, stemmed from its different historical background is changing rapidly towards their respective socio-economic needs. The publication is a joint research study by UNESCO Bangkok and Southeast Asian Ministers…

  20. A bibliometric analysis of global trends of research productivity in tropical medicine.

    PubMed

    Falagas, Matthew E; Karavasiou, Antonia I; Bliziotis, Ioannis A

    2006-10-01

    The field of tropical medicine has a long history due to the significance of the relevant diseases for the humanity. We estimated the contribution of different world regions to research published in the main journals of tropical medicine. Using the PubMed and the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) "Web of Science" databases, we retrieved articles from 12 journals included in the "Tropical Medicine" category of the "Journal Citation Reports" database of ISI for the period 1995-2003. Data on the country of origin of the research were available for 11,860 articles in PubMed (98.1% of all articles from the tropical medicine category). The contribution of different world regions during the studied period, as estimated by the location of the affiliation of the first author, was: Western Europe 22.7%, Africa 20.9%, Latin America and the Caribbean 20.7%, Asia (excluding Japan) 19.8%, USA 10.6%, Oceania 2.1%, Japan 1.5%, Eastern Europe 1.3%, and Canada 0.6%. The contribution of regions, estimated by the location of the affiliation of at least one author of the published papers (retrieved from the ISI database), was similar: Western Europe 36.6%, Africa 27.7%, Latin America and the Caribbean 24.4%, and Asia 23.3%. The mean impact factor of articles published in tropical medicine journals was highest for the USA (1.65). Our analysis suggests that the developing areas of the world produce a considerable amount of research in tropical medicine; however, given the specific geographic distribution of tropical diseases they probably still need help by the developed nations to produce more research in this field.

  1. Micronutrient Fortification of Food: Issues for Asia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Geoffry

    2015-01-01

    More than 2 billion individuals globally suffer some degree of deficiency of one or more micronutrients, with the largest numbers in Africa and Asia. Fortification of foods with vitamins and minerals is a proven public health intervention. In Asia, salt iodization, fortified flour and condiments such as fish sauce and soy sauce are reaching hundreds of millions. However, many individuals still do not have adequate intakes of numerous micronutrients, and better fortification strategies and practices will help to alleviate these deficiencies. The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) has supported research and scientific dialog about technical and health issues related to micronutrients. Recent studies have indicated widespread vitamin D deficiency among children in SE Asia, and in India. A new trial shows the efficacy of vitamin D-fortified milk in addressing deficiencies, which may have applicability in school feeding programs in India and other parts of Asia. Infant nutrition is also critical, and complementary foods can play an important role after exclusive breastfeeding in providing critical nutrients. A formulation developed in China, Ying Yang Bao, has shown significant reduction of anemia and improved growth in infants. Fortification in Asia has the potential to greatly reduce micronutrient deficiencies and improve health, but more structured efforts are needed to achieve these goals.

  2. ESP in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crooks, Tony, Ed.

    Seven conference papers discuss English language training and political development in Asia, including language project design and evaluation, counterparting, sustainability, appropriate technology, and languages and the politics of development. Papers included are: "Linguistic and Cultural Considerations of Writing ELT Texts for Use in…

  3. Performance Theory: Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Michael, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Focusing on the contemporary theatre in Southeast Asia, this journal issue sheds light on the intercultural relationships that exist between that part of the world and the Western world. In addition to a transcript of a Balinese "topeng" (storytelling) performance, the journal contains eight articles that provide information on the…

  4. Literature of Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echols, John M.

    This paper provides a brief description of the literature of Southeast Asia. This area, which embraces the region south of China and east of India, includes the modern nations of Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, The Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. The earliest historical influence came from India around the beginnings of the…

  5. Multicultural Central Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Eric D.

    This article addresses the multicultural aspect of Central Asia in response to the discussion on diversity in U.S. classrooms. Many areas of the world are more diverse than the U.S., and these areas experience successes and failures with many of the same issues the U.S. is currently struggling with. Comparing the U.S. diversity debate with similar…

  6. HRD Issues in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on human resource development (HRD) issues in Asia. "The Japanese Human Resource Development System" (Kiyoe Harada) provides a comprehensive model of the Japanese HRD system based on the current state of the art, including management practices and issues and trends in Japanese HRD.…

  7. Performance Theory: Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Michael, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Focusing on the contemporary theatre in Southeast Asia, this journal issue sheds light on the intercultural relationships that exist between that part of the world and the Western world. In addition to a transcript of a Balinese "topeng" (storytelling) performance, the journal contains eight articles that provide information on the…

  8. HRD Issues in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on human resource development (HRD) issues in Asia. "The Japanese Human Resource Development System" (Kiyoe Harada) provides a comprehensive model of the Japanese HRD system based on the current state of the art, including management practices and issues and trends in Japanese HRD.…

  9. OCLC in Asia Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Min-min

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) and the changing Asia Pacific library scene under the broad headings of the three phases of technology innovation. Highlights include WorldCat and the OCLC shared cataloging system; resource sharing and interlibrary loan; enriching OCLC online catalog with Asian collections; and future outlooks.…

  10. New Confrontations in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thien, Ton That

    1978-01-01

    Examines political, social, and economic developments in Southeast Asia under Communist forces which conquered Southeast Asia after the American disengagement. Topics discussed include refugees, Vietnamese who have chosen to live in exile, civil administration in Vietnam, Sino-Soviet relations, and predictions about the future of Southeast Asia.…

  11. Musics of Oceania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Raymond F.

    1972-01-01

    Article examines the music and musical instruments of an area commonly referred to as the South Sea Isles. Author also points out the musical function and cultural meaning of specific musical styles. (RK)

  12. On The Trail of Disease in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Maxmen, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Infectious disease research is blossoming in cities like Bangkok, as local clinicians and scientists delve into the surrounding muddy tropics of Southeast Asia to learn about endemic pathogens. PMID:19153251

  13. Asia's communications market booms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Neil W.

    1995-01-01

    Asia's communications and direct broadcasting satellite business markets has bloomed, with a growing number of Asian-owned communications satellites launched and others purchased for imminent use. Ironically, Hong Kong now possesses Asia's most successful satellite TV broadcasting firm, even though it does not hold the keys to the actual technology. In contrast, Japan holds virtually all the technical keys but companies are bogged down by financial trouble, the absence of a local enterprise equivalent to telecommunications, and bureaucratic intervention. Due to large trade deficits vis-a-vis Tokyo and lower prices offered by US and European telecom equipment suppliers, Asian countries are not buying from Japan. Currently, excessive competition is likely to come from other Asian countries, prompting Japanese firms surprised by this development to attempt at 'bridging' the competition gap with the US and European suppliers.

  14. Asbestos in Asia.

    PubMed

    Leong, Su Lyn; Zainudin, Rizka; Kazan-Allen, Laurie; Robinson, Bruce W

    2015-05-01

    Asbestos is a global killer. Despite lessons learned in the developed world on the use of asbestos and its hazardous pulmonary consequences, its use continues to increase in Asia. Although some countries such as Japan, Korea and Singapore have curtailed the use of this mineral, there are numerous countries in Asia that continue to mine, import and use this fibre, particularly China, which is one of the largest consumers in the world. Numerous factors ranging from political and economic to the lack of understanding of asbestos and the management of asbestos-related lung disease are keys to this observed trend. Awareness of these factors combined with early intervention may prevent the predicted Asian 'tsunami' of asbestos diseases. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  15. Acid rain in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.

    1992-07-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized world—which necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)—the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

  16. Southeast Asia Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ASIA REPORT CONTENTS FIJI Briefs Objection to French Nuclear Testing 1 Solution to Unemployment Proposed 1 INDONESIA Minister Addresses U.S...27 Feb 84) 39 Government Willing To Mediate Between Irian Jaya Rebels and Indonesia (PAPUA NEW GUINEA POST COURIER, 2 Mar 84) 41 Legal...CSO: 4200/593 INDONESIA MINISTER ADDRESSES U.S. PRIVATE INVESTMENT MISSION Jakarta MERDEKA in Indonesian 6 Dec 83 pp 1, 11 [Text] Prof Dr J.B

  17. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    JPRS-SEA-85-128 20 August 1985 SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT CONTENTS INDONESIA U.S. Textile ’Protectionism’ Explained (KOMPAS, 13 Jun 85) 1...Australian Opposition Leader on Ties With Indonesia (KOMPAS, 12 Jun 85) 4 Syarikat Islam Accepts Pancasila, Elects Executive Officers (ANTARA NEWS...Minister 31 Indonesia Not a Threat 32 Main Naval Base 32 LPA Arms Misused; U.S. Blamed for Environmental Damage (VIENTIANE MAI, 15, 17 Jun 85) 33 Nghe

  18. Terrorism in Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-07

    September 2001, the United States has been concerned with radical Islamist groups in Southeast Asia, particularly those in the Philippines, Indonesia ...in its camps in Afghanistan, and by financing and cooperating with indigenous radical Islamist groups. Indonesia and the southern Philippines have been...against Western targets. These include the deadliest terrorist attack since September 2001: the October 12, 2002 bombing in Bali, Indonesia , that

  19. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-17

    Indonesia ," according to Sukarno, must be nationalism, "neither Javanese nationalism, nor Sumatran nationalism, nor the nationalism of Borneo, or of...1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-SEA-87-038 17 MARCH 1987 SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT CONTENTS INDONESIA LAOS ’Extremist...Assistance (Tran Ngoc Chuc; TAP CHI HOAT DONG KHOA HOC, Dec 86) 113 /9987 d - INDONESIA •EXTREMIST’ ISLAMIC BOARDING SCHOOL UNDERGOING

  20. Southeast Asia Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT CONTENTS INDONESIA Briefs Radiation-Free Certificates for Imported Foodstuff 1 Japan To Import 1.95 Million Tons of LPG 1...1 August X986 INDONESIA BRIEFS RADIATION-FREE CERTIFICATES FOR IMPORTED FOODSTUFF—Jakarta, June 5 (ANTARA)—The ministry of health will request to...to the press in Jakarta Thursday that the ministry of health’s request was a preventive measure from Indonesia against possible pollution danger

  1. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    September 1985 SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT CONTENTS AUSTRALIA Briefs i Oil Exploration Talks With SRV j- New Helicopters for Navy LAOS MALAYSIA 2...the People of Malaysia , 5 Aug 85) 24 USNO, Berjaya Bosses Step Down (N. V. Raman; THE STAR, 24 Jun 85) 26 Chemical Warfare Studies for...SAN PATHET LAO in Lao 21 Jun 85 p A5] 12597 CSO: 4206/148 15 JPRS-SEA-85-136 4 September 1985 MALAYSIA MUSLIM RADICAL GROUP UNDER PROBE Kuala

  2. Terrorism in South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-09

    and their supporters in South Asia is identified as a threat to both regional stability and to the attainment of central U.S. policy goals. Al Qaeda...forces that fled from Afghanistan with their Taliban supporters remain active on Pakistani territory, and Al Qaeda is believed to have links with...portion of Pakistan’s ethnic Pashtun population is reported to sympathize with the Taliban and even Al Qaeda. The United States maintains close

  3. Hemodialysis in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Narayan; Jha, Vivekanand

    2015-01-01

    Background Asia is the largest, most populous and most heterogeneous continent in the world. The number of patients with end-stage renal disease is growing rapidly in Asia. Summary A fully informed report on the status of dialysis therapies including hemodialysis (HD) is limited by the lack of systematic registries. Available data suggest remarkable heterogeneities, with some countries like Taiwan, Japan and Korea exhibiting well-established HD systems, high prevalence and universal access to all patients, while low- and low-middle income countries are unable to provide HD to eligible patients because of high cost and poor healthcare systems. Many Asian countries have unregulated dialysis units, with poor standards of delivery, quality control and outcome reporting. This leads to high mortality due to preventable complications like infections. Modeling data suggest that at least 2.9 million people need dialysis in Asia, which represents a gap in availability of dialysis to the tune of −66%. The population is projected to grow rapidly in the coming years. Several countries are expanding access to HD. Innovative modifications in dialysis practice are being made to optimize outcomes. It is important to develop robust systems of documentation and outcome reporting to evaluate the effects of such changes. HD needs to develop in conjunction with effective preventive programs and improvement of health systems. Key Messages The practice of HD in Asia is growing and evolving. Rapid expansion will improve the currently dismal access to care for large sections of the population. Quality issues need to be addressed if the full benefit of this therapy is to reach the population. Developed countries of Asia can provide substantial messages to developing economies. HD programs must develop in conjunction with prevention efforts. Facts from East and West (1) While developed Western and Asian countries provide end-stage renal disease patients full access to HD, healthcare systems

  4. Noise-induced hearing loss in Asia.

    PubMed

    Fuente, Adrian; Hickson, Louise

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this manuscript is to summarize the current scenarios encompassing noise exposure in the workplace and the risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in Asia. NIHL is the most prevalent and preventable occupational disease in most Asian countries. Sources of noise in these countries include manufacturing and agriculture industries, exploitation of natural resources, and urban traffic. The highest attributable fraction of adult-onset hearing loss resulting from noise exposure in the world comes from Asian countries. NIHL is a serious health problem in Asia, not only because of the number of affected labourers, but also because the majority of Asian countries are still developing economies where access to health services and preventive programmes are limited. Lack of awareness about NIHL among employers, employees, and health care professionals is one of the main barriers for the prevention of NIHL in Asia. In this paper, the sources of noise, NIHL prevalence in different industries, local legislation, and research publications on NIHL from Asia are discussed.

  5. Prevalence and Prescription of Antidepressants in Depression with Somatic Comorbidity in Asia: The Research on East Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao; Si, Tian-Mei; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Ungvari, Gabor S; Wang, Chuan-Yue; He, Yan-Ling; Kua, Ee-Heok; Fujii, Senta; Sim, Kang; Trivedi, Jitendra K; Chung, Eun-Kee; Udomratn, Pichet; Chee, Kok-Yoon; Sartorius, Norman; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression is often comorbid with chronic somatic diseases. Few previous studies have investigated the prevalence of somatic diseases in depression or the prescription pattern of antidepressants in comorbidly depressed patients in Asia. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of somatic comorbidity (SC) in depression and compared the prescriptions of antidepressants in depressed patients with and without SC. Methods: A total of 2320 patients treated with antidepressants in 8 Asian countries were examined, and a diagnosis was based on the International Classification of Disease, 10th revision. We listed 17 common chronic somatic diseases. Patients’ socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and psychotropic drug prescriptions were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. Results: Of the patients examined, 1240 were diagnosed with depression and 30% of them (n = 375) had SC. The most common comorbid condition was diabetes (23.7%). The patients with SC were more likely to seek help at a general hospital (74.7% vs. 47.2%), and had a higher incidence of symptoms involving sadness, disturbed sleep, and poor appetite. Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant was prescribed more for patients with SC than for those without SC (30.4% vs. 22.9%). Conclusions: SC is common in depressed Asian patients. It is important to strengthen the recognition of depression, especially in general hospitals and when patients report some somatic discomfort. It is also a matter of urgency to establish evidence-based guidelines for the use of new antidepressants in depressed patients with SC. PMID:25836602

  6. Southeast Asia Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-29

    even mystical. When pressed the Middle Forces will emerge. Unorganized, it will consolidate (although we shouldn t press our luck too far on that...195012 JPRS-SEA-87-062 29 APRIL 1987 Southeast Asia Report ty< ’ T ~ T ;;"rTnrT ^yZfTjZ-^v "]£ Approved ic; wtshlic celnos.s; Distnbuüon ü...in English Mar 87 pp 8-14 « t «i*: [Text] following," S*. * translation of thei ’opening speech delivered by Secretary of the Council of State u

  7. Mortality in Asia.

    PubMed

    1981-01-01

    Although the general trend in mortality between 1950 and 1975 in South and East Asia has been downward, there is considerable country-to-country variation in the rate of decline. In countries where combined economic, social, and political circumstances resulted in controlling the disease spectrum (e.g., China, Malaysia, Sri Lanka), mortality levels declined to those seen in low-mortality countries. In most of the large countries of the region however, mortality declined at a slower rate, even slowing down considerably in the 1970's while the death rates remained high (e.g., India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Philippines); this slowing down of mortality level is attributed essentially to the poverty-stricken masses of society which were not able to take advantage of social, technological, and health-promoting behavioral changes conducive to mortality decline. Infant mortality levels, although declining since 1950, followed the same dismal pattern of the general mortality level. The rate varies from less than 10/1000 live births (Japan) to more than 140/1000 (Bangladesh, Laos, Nepal). Generally, rural areas exhibited higher infant mortality than urban areas. The level of child mortality declines with increases in the mother's educational level in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The largest decline in child mortality occurs when at least 1 parent has secondary education. The premature retardation of mortality decline is caused by several factors: economic development, nutrition and food supply, provision and adequacy of health services, and demographic trends. The outlook for the year 2000 for most of Asia's countries will depend heavily on significant population increases. In most countries, particularly in South Asia, population is expected to increase by 75%, much of it in rural areas and among poorer socioeconomic groups. In view of this, Asia's health planners and policymakers will have to develop health policies which will strike a balance

  8. South Asia: Danger Ahead?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    2011 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE South Asia: Danger Ahead? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...its opponent and preclude a devastating retaliatory response. 4 Fundamen­ tally, both countries are restricted to use their nuclear forces to threaten...threaten India’s hold in the Kashmir Valley; to control a part of the Himalayan Range to facili­ tate insurgent movement into the Kashmir Valley and the

  9. Haemoglobinopathies in southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Fucharoen, Suthat; Winichagoon, Pranee

    2011-10-01

    In Southeast Asia α-thalassaemia, β-thalassaemia, haemoglobin (Hb) E and Hb Constant Spring (CS) are prevalent. The abnormal genes in different combinations lead to over 60 different thalassaemia syndromes, making Southeast Asia the locality with the most complex thalassaemia genotypes. The four major thalassaemic diseases are Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis (homozygous α-thalassaemia 1), homozygous β-thalassaemia, β-thalassaemia/Hb E and Hb H diseases. α-Thalassaemia, most often, occurs from gene deletions whereas point mutations and small deletions or insertions in the β-globin gene sequence are the major molecular defects responsible for most β-thalassaemias. Clinical manifestations of α-thalassaemia range from asymptomatic cases with normal findings to the totally lethal Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis syndrome. Homozygosity of β-thalassaemia results in a severe thalassaemic disease while the patients with compound heterozygosity, β-thalassaemia/Hb E, present variable severity of anaemia, and some can be as severe as homozygous β-thalassaemia. Concomitant inheritance of α-thalassaemia and increased production of Hb F are responsible for mild clinical phenotypes in some patients. However, there are still some unknown factors that can modulate disease severity in both α- and β-thalassaemias. Therefore, it is possible to set a strategy for prevention and control of thalassaemia, which includes population screening for heterozygotes, genetic counselling and foetal diagnosis with selective abortion of affected pregnancies.

  10. Haemoglobinopathies in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Fucharoen, Suthat; Winichagoon, Pranee

    2011-01-01

    In Southeast Asia α-thalassaemia, β-thalassaemia, haemoglobin (Hb) E and Hb Constant Spring (CS) are prevalent. The abnormal genes in different combinations lead to over 60 different thalassaemia syndromes, making Southeast Asia the locality with the most complex thalassaemia genotypes. The four major thalassaemic diseases are Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis (homozygous α-thalassaemia 1), homozygous β-thalassaemia, β-thalassaemia/Hb E and Hb H diseases. α-Thalassaemia, most often, occurs from gene deletions whereas point mutations and small deletions or insertions in the β-globin gene sequence are the major molecular defects responsible for most β-thalassaemias. Clinical manifestations of α-thalassaemia range from asymptomatic cases with normal findings to the totally lethal Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis syndrome. Homozygosity of β-thalassaemia results in a severe thalassaemic disease while the patients with compound heterozygosity, β-thalassaemia/Hb E, present variable severity of anaemia, and some can be as severe as homozygous β-thalassaemia. Concomitant inheritance of α-thalassaemia and increased production of Hb F are responsible for mild clinical phenotypes in some patients. However, there are still some unknown factors that can modulate disease severity in both α- and β-thalassaemias. Therefore, it is possible to set a strategy for prevention and control of thalassaemia, which includes population screening for heterozygotes, genetic counselling and foetal diagnosis with selective abortion of affected pregnancies. PMID:22089614

  11. A Pn Spreading Model Constrained with Observed Amplitudes in Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    of observed Pn amplitudes from the tectonically active regions of Asia to evaluate the performance of Y2007 and to develop new, observation-based...a set of observed Pn amplitudes from the tectonically active regions of Asia to evaluate the performance of Y2007 and to develop new observation-based...tomographic inversions to map the lateral Pn attenuation variation. RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHED Introduction It has long been recognized that the

  12. Asia Wise Workbook Number One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasmanian Education Dept., Hobart (Australia).

    This workbook is a compilation of work sheets from the teacher's sections of the 1989 issues of "Asia Wise," an Auatralian magazine devoted to the study of Asia. Profiles and worksheets are provided for the countries of China, Indo-China, Indonesia, Japan, Philippines, and Thailand. Worksheets feature the following themes: Asian…

  13. Is lumbar facet joint tropism developmental or secondary to degeneration? An international, large-scale multicenter study by the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium.

    PubMed

    Samartzis, Dino; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Acharya, Shankar; Kawakami, Mamoru; Satoh, Shigenobu; Chen, Wen-Jer; Park, Chun-Kun; Lee, Chong-Suh; Foocharoen, Thanit; Nagashima, Hideki; Kuh, Sunguk; Zheng, Zhaomin; Condor, Richard; Ito, Manabu; Iwasaki, Motoki; Jeong, Je Hoon; Luk, Keith D K; Prijambodo, Bambang; Rege, Amol; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Luo, Zhuojing; Tassanawipas, Warat Anant; Acharya, Narayana; Pokharel, Rohit; Shen, Yong; Ito, Takui; Zhang, Zhihai; Aithala P, Janardhana; Kumar, Gomatam Vijay; Jabir, Rahyussalim Ahmad; Basu, Saumyajit; Li, Baojun; Moudgil, Vishal; Goss, Ben; Sham, Phoebe; Williams, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Facet joint tropism is asymmetry in orientation of the bilateral facets. Some studies have shown that tropism may increase the risk of disc degeneration and herniations, as well as degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). It remains controversial whether tropism is a pre-existing developmental phenomena or secondary to progressive remodeling of the joint structure due to degenerative changes. As such, the following study addressed the occurrence of tropism of the lower lumbar spine (i.e. L3-S1) in a degenerative spondylolisthesis patient model. An international, multi-center cross-sectional study that consisted of 349 patients with single level DS recruited from 33 spine institutes in the Asia Pacific region was performed. Axial MRI/CT from L3-S1 were utilized to assess left and right facet joint sagittal angulation in relation to the coronal plane. The angulation difference between the bilateral facets was obtained. Tropism was noted if there was 8° or greater angulation difference between the facet joints. Tropism was noted at levels of DS and compared to immediate adjacent and distal non-DS levels, if applicable, to the index level. Age, sex-type and body mass index (BMI) were also noted and assessed in relation to tropism. Of the 349 subjects, there were 63.0 % females, the mean age was 61.8 years and the mean BMI was 25.6 kg/m(2). Overall, 9.7, 76.5 and 13.8 % had L3-L4, L4-L5 and L5-S1 DS, respectively. Tropism was present in 47.1, 50.6 and 31.3 % of L3-L4, L4-L5 and L5-S1 of levels with DS, respectively. Tropism involved 33.3 to 50.0 % and 33.3 to 58.8 % of the immediate adjacent and most distal non-DS levels from the DS level, respectively. Patient demographics were not found to be significantly related to tropism at any level (p > 0.05). To the authors' knowledge, this is one of the largest studies conducted, in particular in an Asian population, addressing facet joint tropism. Although levels with DS were noted to have tropism, immediate adjacent

  14. Aerosols over Eastern Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of eastern Asia from October 14, 2001, shows large amounts of aerosol in the air. A few possible point sources of smoke, probably fires, are visible north of the Amur River at the very top of the image. One of the larger of these plumes can be seen down river of the confluence of the Songhua and Amur rivers. At lower left, the Yangtze River plume in the East China Sea is also very prominent. Sediment suspended in the ocean water is quite brown near the shore, but becomes much greener as it diffuses into the water. The increasing greenness of the river plume is probably an indication of enhanced phytoplankton growth driven by the nutrients in the river runoff. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  15. International collaborative research on infectious diseases by Japanese universities and institutes in Asia and Africa, with a special emphasis on J-GRID.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Sumio; Imamura, Daisuke; Mizuno, Tamaki; Miyoshi, Shin-Ichi; Ramamurthy, Thandavrayan

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries including Japan, malignant tumor (cancer), heart disease and cerebral apoplexy are major causes of death, but infectious diseases are still responsible for a high number of deaths in developing countries, especially among children aged less than 5 years. World Health Statistics published by WHO reports a high percentage of mortality from infectious diseases in children, and many of these diseases may be subject to transmission across borders and could possibly invade Japan.  Given this situation, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan initiated Phase I of the Program of Founding Research Centers for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Disease, which ran from FY 2005 to 2009, and involved 8 Japanese universities and 2 research centers. The program was established for the following purposes: 1) creation of a domestic research structure to promote the accumulation of fundamental knowledge about infectious diseases, 2) establishment of 13 overseas research collaboration centers in 8 countries at high risk of emerging and reemerging infections and at which Japanese researchers are stationed and conduct research in partnership with overseas instructors, 3) development of a network among domestic and overseas research centers, and 4) development of human resources.  The program was controlled under MEXT and managed by the RIKEN Center of Research Network for Infectious Diseases (Riken CRNID). Phase II of the program was set up as the Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases (J-GRID), and has been running in FY 2010-2014.  Phase III will start in April 2015, and will be organized by the newly established Japanese governmental organization "Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED)", the so-called Japanese style NIH.  The Collaborative Research Center of Okayama University for Infectious Diseases in India (CRCOUI) was started up in 2007 at the National

  16. Glaciers of Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2010-01-01

    -glacier systems of the world including the Himalaya, Karakorum, Tien Shan and Altay mountain ranges. The glaciers are widely scattered and cover an area of about 59,425 km2. The mountain glaciers may be classified as maritime, subcontinental or extreme continental. In Afghanistan, more than 3,000 small glaciers occur in the Hindu Kush and Pamir mountains. Most glaciers occur on north-facing slopes shaded by mountain peaks and on east and southeast slopes that are shaded by monsoon clouds. The glaciers provide vital water resources to the region and cover an area of about 2,700 km2. Glaciers of northern Pakistan are some of the largest and longest mid-latitude glaciers on Earth. They are located in the Hindu Kush, Himalaya, and Karakoram mountains and cover an area of about 15,000 km2. Glaciers here are important for their role in providing water resources and their hazard potential. The glaciers in India are located in the Himalaya and cover about 8,500 km2. The Himalaya contains one of the largest reservoirs of snow and ice outside the polar regions. The glaciers are a major source of fresh water and supply meltwater to all the rivers in northern India, thereby affecting the quality of life of millions of people. In Nepal, the glaciers are located in the Himalaya as individual glaciers; the glacierized area covers about 5,324 km2. The region is the highest mountainous region on Earth and includes the Mt. Everest region. Glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya have a total area of about 1,317 km2. Many recent glacier studies are focused on glacier lakes that have the potential of generating dangerous glacier lake outburst floods. Research on the glaciers of the middle-latitude, high-mountain glaciers of Asia has also focused on the information contained in the ice cores from the glaciers. This information helps in the reconstruction of paleoclimatic records, and the computer modeling of global climate change.

  17. Concepts in research capabilities strengthening positive experiences of network approaches by TDR in the People's Republic of China and Eastern Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Wayling, Steven; Bergquist, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Strengthening human and physical resources for health research is an important function of any sustainable public health approach. The process of successfully embedding research into health systems in developing countries calls for the participation of competent, national scientists, with input and support where appropriate from international research institutions. Without a research-friendly environment, it is not easy for institutions and control programmes to engage and deliver products that can contribute to improving general health status. For example, monitoring is an important component of disease control but this can now be built upon to design surveillance systems capable of reporting activities in real time based on geographical information systems and continuous internet access. Informed surveillance can take on a stronger role than just capturing transmission foci to also become instrumental in directing swift responses in a spatially explicit and cost-effective manner. Further, whenever assessments of impact and control measures for different diseases are similar as they are, for example, with respect to schistosomiasis and food-borne trematode infections, the amalgamation of separate control programmes becomes realistic even if diverse strategies were originally developed for the diseases in question. Developments like this are guiding the expansion of research capabilities to espouse the integration of multidisciplinary research into national disease control programmes. The deployment of public-private partnerships as vehicles for operational progress and the endorsement of regional networks as platforms for driving research, while at the same time supporting and promoting training and dispersion of new knowledge, represent further manifestations of innovation in disease control. Some Asian examples of how this can be accomplished are provided.

  18. A bibliometric analysis of research productivity in Parasitology by different world regions during a 9-year period (1995–2003)

    PubMed Central

    Falagas, Matthew E; Papastamataki, Paraskevi A; Bliziotis, Ioannis A

    2006-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to estimate the research productivity of different world regions in the field of Parasitology. Methods Using the PubMed database we retrieved articles from journals included in the "Parasitology" category of the "Journal Citation Reports" database of the Institute for Scientific Information for the period 1995–2003. Research productivity was evaluated based on a methodology we developed and used in other bibliometric studies by analysing: (1) the total number of publications, (2) the mean impact factor of all papers, and (3) the product of the above two parameters, (4) the research productivity in relation to gross domestic product of each region, and (5) the research productivity in relation to gross national income per capita and population of each region. Results Data on the country of origin of the research was available for 18,110 out of 18,377 articles (98.6% of all articles from the included journals). Western Europe exceeds all world regions in research production for the period studied (34.8% of total articles), with USA ranking second (19.9%), and Latin America & the Caribbean ranking third (17.2%). The mean impact factor in articles published in Parasitology journals was highest for the USA (1.88). Oceania ranked first in research productivity when adjustments for both the gross national income per capita (GNIPC) and population were made. Eastern Europe almost tripled the production of articles from only 1.9% of total production in 1995 to 4.3% in 2003. Similarly, Latin America and the Caribbean and Asia doubled their production. However, the absolute and relative production by some developing areas, including Africa, is still very low, despite the fact that parasitic diseases are major public health problems in these areas. Conclusion Our data suggest that more help should be provided by the developed nations to developing areas for improvement of the infrastructure of research. PMID:16545114

  19. Exploring Features of Highly Productive Research Contexts in Asia: A Comparison of Knowledge Production in Educational Leadership in Israel and Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren A.

    2016-01-01

    A recent review of research identified two Asian societies that represented "positive outliers" in the production of published knowledge on educational leadership and management: Hong Kong and Israel. These were the only Asian societies that had produced a critical mass of publications in this field in international journals over the…

  20. Strengthening the Research-Practice Nexus: A Special Issue as a Springboard for Building the Capacity of Teacher Education Institutions in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cher Ping

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how the research-practice nexus may be strengthened in higher education by harnessing the conceptual ideas and key findings of a special issue to engage private and public organisations as partners to organise a regional workshop that is followed up by a suite of activities for teacher education institutions and their…

  1. Exploring Features of Highly Productive Research Contexts in Asia: A Comparison of Knowledge Production in Educational Leadership in Israel and Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren A.

    2016-01-01

    A recent review of research identified two Asian societies that represented "positive outliers" in the production of published knowledge on educational leadership and management: Hong Kong and Israel. These were the only Asian societies that had produced a critical mass of publications in this field in international journals over the…

  2. Southwest Asia assessment.

    PubMed

    Devendra, T

    1984-06-01

    Southwest Asia, which support 1/3 of the world's population, is acutely aware of the consequences of rapid and excessive population growth. No other region has consciously devoted so much of its resources to stemming excessive population growth. India, with a population of 684 million, formulated a policy of population limitation in the 1950s. The 1980 government rededicated itself to voluntary family planning and rebuilt the broad coalition of an excellent infrastructure of government institutions, voluntary organizations, and international agencies. Government support for family planning clinics began in Bangladesh in the 1960s. A strong institutional structure has been established under the supervision of the National Population Council. Innovative approaches to family planning service delivery have been initiated by an admirable array of institutions. Pakistan's Population Welfare Plan provides substantial funds and an administrative structure to make maternal/child helath care and family planning services available in rural areas. Another welfare program encourages smaller families through projects to enhance the status of women by improving literacy, establishing rural industries, and advocating late marriage. Nepal has had to struggle with a poor administrative structure, grossly insufficient medical services, and an inadequate database for policy formulation. Family planning services are now a component of the overall health program. The family planning services of the pioneer Afghan Family Guidance Association, established in 1968, have been incorported into the national maternal/child health program. The present government of Iran views foreign assistance as an unacceptable form of persuasion and has phased out all international funded family planning programs. Sri Lanka is the only country in the region to have made the demographic transition to fertility decline. An impressive health infrastructure delivers family planning services at every level using

  3. Teaching about Inner Asia. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, David

    This ERIC Digest discusses: (1) reasons for learning about Inner Asia; (2) how to include Inner Asia in the curriculum; and (3) strategies for teaching about Inner Asia. U.S. students have difficulties in interpreting current events that occur in this region, because they lack knowledge of the history, geography, and cultures of Inner Asia. This…

  4. Cyptotrama (Physalacriaceae, Agaricales) from Asia.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jiao; Yang, Zhu-Liang

    2016-04-01

    Cyptotrama was divided into several sections, of which sect. Xerulina was often treated as a separate genus by some mycologists. In this study, collections of Cyptotrama from East Asia, Southeast Asia, and South Asia were studied. For comparison, materials from North America and New Zealand were analysed. Our multi-gene phylogenetic analyses indicated that Cyptotrama is monophyletic and Xerulina should be treated as a section within the genus Cyptotrama. Different scenarios of morphological character evolution in Cyptotrama are discovered. A total of seven species of Cyptotrama can be recognized from Asia, three of which, Cyptotrama angustispora, C. glabra, and C. shennongjia, are new to science. Meanwhile, three taxa previously placed in Xerulina or Marasmius were proved to be members of Cyptotrama, and the new combinations, namely Cyptotrama trogioides, C. megaspora, and C. myochroa, are accordingly proposed. A key for the diagnosis of worldwide Cyptotrama species is provided.

  5. Cryospheric science: Asia's glacier changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinotti, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Mass changes in High Mountain Asia's glaciers have been under dispute for almost a decade. An analysis of satellite data archives provides an observation-based mass budget for every single glacier in the region.

  6. Health challenges in Kazakhstan and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Adambekov, Shalkar; Kaiyrlykyzy, Aiym; Igissinov, Nurbek; Linkov, Faina

    2016-01-01

    The Central Asian region, which encompasses Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, is an interesting geographic region with a rich history dating back to the Silk Road, Mongol conquests and expansion of the Russian Empire. However, from a public health viewpoint, the Central Asian region is under-investigated, and many public health challenges exist, as countries of Central Asia inherited the centralised medical systems practiced in the Soviet Union, and are currently undergoing rapid transitions. A large number of low and middle-income countries around the world, including countries of Central Asia, face a double burden of chronic and infectious disease. This essay focuses on the exploration of the most important public health challenges in the Central Asian region, including limited scientific productivity, the double burden of chronic and infectious disease, the need for healthcare reform and the reduction in care variation. Central Asia has a large number of medical schools, medical centres, and emerging research institutes that can be used to foster a change in medical and public health practice in the region.

  7. HIV in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Abrams, S

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southeast Asia. Prostitution and injecting drug use are two major factors in the appearance of HIV/AIDS in a country. But, it is the correct social network that assures its transmission to epidemic proportions. Heterosexual transmission in Cambodia, Myanmar, and Thailand is linked with prevalence among female sex workers and their clients. In Malaysia, the Ministry of Health responded immediately, but the number of new infections continued to increase. The failures suggest the need for more effective, intensive health education programs, outreach by nongovernmental organizations, and peer education at the grassroots level and in remote areas. Public health officials need to promote political change. International agencies could play an important role, if countries such as Myanmar, Cambodia, and Viet Nam were open to international exchanges. In Myanmar, political unrest has a priority over the need for aggressive health interventions. In Indonesia, the Islamic influence prevents recognition of the country's significant sex industry or the existence of a homosexual community. In Cambodia, health officials warned about the high number of sexual partners, high mobility rate, and low condom use, but HIV spread rapidly in the 1990s. Thailand initiated a 100% condom campaign to combat HIV prevalence in the 1990s, and HIV prevalence declined among sex workers and military recruits. Risk factors for rapid transmission include mobility, the number of sexual partners/sex worker, the proportion engaging in commercial sex, and the rate of regular condom use among sex workers.

  8. Colorectal cancer screening in Asia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Siew C; Wong, Sunny H

    2013-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer are rapidly rising in several countries in Asia. However, screening guidelines are lacking. Review of literature and local data published in peer review journals. The incidence, anatomical distribution and mortality of colorectal cancer among Asian populations are comparable to those in Western countries. Flat and depressed colonic lesions are not uncommon. Male gender, smoking, obesity, metabolic syndrome and family history are risk factors for colorectal cancer. Certain ethnic groups in Asia have increased susceptibility to colorectal cancer. Faecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy are recommended options for colorectal cancer screening in Asia. Regular screening should start at the age of 50 years. The optimal screening method in Asia remains unclear. Faecal immunochemical test has been suggested as the first choice of screening test in countries with limited resources. The role of nurse endoscopists in performing endoscopic procedures for colorectal cancer screening in Asia has not been defined. There is low public awareness and little support by health authorities for screening and prevention of this emerging disease. Screening for colorectal cancer should be a national health priority in most Asian countries. Studies on barriers to screening, education of the public and engagement of family physicians are important strategies in promoting colorectal cancer screening. With more health-care support, increased public acceptance and better access to the general population, colorectal cancer screening in Asia can be rewarding.

  9. Developing Curriculum Materials on East Asia for Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menton, Linda K.

    2007-01-01

    The Curriculum Research & Development Group (CRDG) is a research unit of the College of Education at the University of Hawai'i. Part of its mission is to develop curriculum materials for students in grades K-12. The social studies section of CRDG has been developing curriculum materials on Asia since the early 1990s. As part of a project…

  10. Outlook and challenges to coal in Asia: 1994--2015

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.; Li, B.

    1996-02-01

    The two key threats to coal`s long term dominance in Asia are: (1) its uneven distribution of reserves and lack of adequate rail transportation infrastructure, and (2) growing environmental concerns about coal-related pollution. Even with increased attention to emissions control for coal, continued growth in coal consumption is expected to result in further deterioration of the environment in Asia for another one to two decades. China will remain the largest polluter in Asia, but it`s believed it will become Asia`s largest user of emissions control technology by 2015. The authors have subjectively weighed the above constraints to increased coal use in preparing the projections of the future role of coal in the Asian region. This paper shows past trends in coal production and consumption, plus projections of coal production, consumption and trade over the 1994--2015 period. The projections in this paper are useful as a general indicator of long term patterns in Asia. However, there are too many uncertainties about economic growth rates and energy and environmental policies to suggest that the projections will be accurate for every economy. This paper concludes with the preliminary results of research under way, which suggests that increasing economic wealth in China is the most important factor in solving China`s coal-related pollution problems.

  11. The Asia pacific cohort studies collaboration: a decade of achievements.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Mark; Huxley, Rachel; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Fang, Xianghua; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2012-12-01

    The Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration (APCSC) was established in the late 1990s when there was a distinct shortfall in evidence of the importance of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Asia. With few exceptions, most notably from Japan, most of the published reports on cardiovascular disease in the last century were from Western countries, and there was uncertainty how far etiological associations found in the West could be assumed to prevail in the East. Against this background, APCSC was set up as a pooling project, combining individual participant data (about 600,000 subjects) from all available leading cohort studies (36 from Asia and 8 from Australasia) in the region, to fill the knowledge gaps. In the past 10 years, APCSC has published 50 peer-reviewed publications of original epidemiological research, primarily concerned with coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. This work has established that Western risk factors generally act similarly in Asia and in Australasia, just as they do in other parts of the world. Consequently, strategies to reduce the prevalence of elevated blood pressure, obesity, and smoking are at least as important in Asia as elsewhere- and possibly more important when the vast size of Asia is considered. This article reviews the achievements of APCSC in the past decade, with an emphasis on coronary heart disease.

  12. Changing epidemiological trends of inflammatory bowel disease in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wee Khoon; Wong, Sunny H.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has become more common in Asia over the past few decades. The rate of increase in prevalence of the disease varies greatly in Asia, with several countries in East Asia experiencing a more than doubled increase in IBD prevalence over the past decade. Historically, ulcerative colitis (UC) is more common than Crohn's disease (CD) in Asia. However, a reverse trend is beginning to appear in more developed countries in Asia such as Japan, Korea, and Hong Kong. While Asian IBD patients share many similarities with their Western counterparts, there are important differences with significant clinical implications. In Asia, there are more men with CD, more ileo-colonic involvement in CD, less familial aggregation, fewer extra-intestinal manifestations and worse clinical outcomes for older-onset patients with UC. These differences are likely related to the different genetic makeup and environmental exposures in different regions. Evaluation of the differences and rates in epidemiologic trends may help researchers and clinicians estimate disease burden and understand the reasons behind these differences, which may hold the key to unravel the etiology of IBD. PMID:27175111

  13. Early Substance Use Initiation and Suicide Ideation and Attempts among School-Aged Adolescents in Four Pacific Island Countries in Oceania

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the correlations between early initiation (<12 years) of smoking cigarettes, alcohol use, and drug use (cannabis) with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in school-aged adolescents in four Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 6540 adolescents (≤13 to ≥16 years old) from Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the association between pre-adolescent substance use initiation and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Results indicate a prevalence of 25.8% suicidal ideation in the past 12 months (ranging from 17.2% in Vanuatu to 34.7% in Kiribati) and 34.9% suicide attempts in the past 12 months (ranging from 23.5% in Vanuatu to 62.0% in Samoa). The prevalence of early cigarette smoking initiation was 15.7%, early alcohol initiation 13.8%, and early drug use initiation was 12.9%. Students who reported pre-adolescent substance use initiation, compared with non-substance users, were more likely reporting suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The concurrent initiation of cigarette smoking, alcohol, and drug use should be targeted in early prevention programmes in order to prevent possible subsequent suicidal behaviours. PMID:26437423

  14. Population and development in Asia and the Pacific: a demographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Debavalya, N

    1982-06-01

    Close examinations of population trends shows that the new trends reflect demographic changes that have occurred in many developing countries in Asia and the Pacific. In East Asia the population growth rate has declined rather rapidly from 1.94% in 1960-65 to 1.38% in 1975-80 and 1.24% in 1980-85. Since nearly 85% of this region's population is accounted for by China, demographic trends there virtually dictate the trends for the region as a whole. The available data suggest that the growth rate in China declined from 2.02% in 1970-75 to 1.4% in 1975-80 and is expected to reach 1.27% during 1980-85. The sharp decline in China's population growth rate is expected to continue. It is anticipated that the population of East Asia will increase to 1.4 billion by the year 2000. In addition, the growth rate has declined significantly in Japan and the Republic of Korea. The growth rate is declining in Eastern South and Middle South Asia as well. Longterm declines have brought growth rates down in Sri Lanka and Singapore. More recently, the rate of growth also has begun to fall in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand, while it remains generally at high levels in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan. In the Oceania region, 79% of which is made up of Australia and New Zealand, the growth rate is also steadily decreasing. Despite the decrease in the growth rate of Asia and the Pacific, especially during 1980-2000, in absolute terms its growth will be the largest in the world during these 29 years; 908 million out of 1687 million of the total growth. Asia and the Pacific will contribute more than 45 million people a year during the final 20 years of this century. For the world as a whole, the new estimates and projections indicate a slow but steady decline of the crude birthrate from 36.3/1000 in 1950-55 to 28.5 in 1975-80, then to 23.9 in 1995-2000, and finally to 17.9 in 2020-2025. China had a birthrate estimated at about 21 in 1975-80; and India and Indonesia

  15. Peritoneal dialysis in Asia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, I K

    1996-01-01

    The socioeconomic status of Asian countries is diverse, and government reimbursement policies for treatment of patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD) vary greatly from one country to another. Both of these factors have a major impact not only on the choice of treatment for ESRD but also on the utilization of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in this region. Based on the data collected from 11 representative Asian countries, several observations can be made. First, the treatment rates for ESRD in these countries correlated closely with their gross domestic product (GDP) per capita income. Second, the PD utilization rate appeared to have a biphasic relationship with the GDP per capita income and treatment rate, in that countries with the highest and the lowest treatment rates tended to have lower PD utilization rates, whereas countries with modest treatment rates tended to have higher PD utilization rates. The reason for low PD utilization in countries with the highest treatment rates differs from that in countries with low treatment rates. In the former, because of full government reimbursement, there is little physician incentive to introduce PD as an alternative form of ESRD treatment to in-center hemodialysis (HD), whereas in the latter, the complete lack of government reimbursement prevents the introduction of PD as a form of treatment. This pattern is likely to change in the future because, of the 11 countries surveyed, all except Thailand have recorded a growth rate which is higher for PD than HD over the last three years. The rate of utilization of different PD systems varies greatly among different Asian countries. Automated PD has yet to gain popularity in Asia. Conventional straight-line systems remain the dominant PD systems in use in Hong Kong, Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines, while in Malaysia and Singapore UV germicidal connection devices are most popular. However, in all these countries there has been a progressive shift over the last

  16. Nuclear nonproliferation strategy in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, F.W.

    1989-07-01

    The most immediate danger of a further spread of nuclear weapons in Asia is in South Asia, where both India and Pakistan have developed the means of producing nuclear explosive materials. In East Asia, North Korea appears to be in the early stages of a weapon-related nuclear program, and before the end of the century South Korea or Taiwan could revive their past efforts to move closer to a nuclear weapons capability. Over the longer run, Japan could conceivably decide to abandon its present strong opposition to the acquisition of nuclear Weapons. At present, the United States has largely separate approaches to the nuclear weapon proliferation problems in South Asia and in East Asia. This paper argues that these separate approaches should be strengthened and integrated into a broader regional nonproliferation strategy. This regional strategy would have three major strands: inducing India and Pakistan to agree not to produce nuclear weapons or test nuclear explosive devices for a specific period; bolstering the existing nonproliferation regime, principally by maintaining nonproliferation incentives and involving China more in the nonproliferation regime; and encouraging regional cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy.

  17. The countries and languages that dominate biological research at the beginning of the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Monge-Nájera, Julian; Nielsen, Vanessa

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, studies of scientific productivity are biased in two ways: they are based on Current Contents, an index centered in British and American journals, and they seldom correct for population size, ignoring the relative effort that each society places in research. We studied national productivity for biology using a more representative index, the Biological Abstracts, and analyzed both total and relative productivity. English dominates biological publications with 87% (no other individual language reaches 2%). If the USA is considered a region by itself, it occupies the first place in per capita production of biology papers, with at least twice the productivity of either Asia or Europe. Canada, Oceania and Latin America occupy an intermediate position. The global output of scientific papers is dominated by Europe, USA. Japan, Canada, China and India. When corrected for population size, the countries with the greatest productivity of biology papers are the Nordic nations, Israel, Switzerland, Netherlands, Australia, Saint Lucia and Montserrat. The predominance of English as the language of biological research found in this study shows a continuation of the trend initiated around the year 1900. The large relative productivity of the USA reflects the importance that American society gives to science as the basis for technological and economic development, but the USA's share of total scientific output has decreased from 44% in 1983 to 34% in 2002, while there is a greater growth of science in India, Japan and Latin America, among others. The increasing share obtained by China and India may reflect a recent change in attitude towards funding science. The leadership of Nordic nations, Israel, Switzerland, Netherlands and Australia can be explained by cultural attitude. Apparently, a positive trend is emerging in Latin America, where Chile improved its ranking in per capita productivity but Argentina, Costa Rica, Uruguay, Brazil and Cuba fell. Nevertheless, the

  18. Shellfish allergy--an Asia-Pacific perspective.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alison Joanne; Gerez, Irvin; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Lee, Bee Wah

    2012-03-01

    Shellfish forms a common food source in the Asia-Pacific and is also growing in the West. This review aims to summarize the current literature on the epidemiology and research on shellfish allergy with particular focus on studies emerging from the Asia-Pacific region. A PubMed search using search strategies "Shellfish AND Allergy", "Shellfish Allergy Asia", and "Shellfish AND anaphylaxis" was made. In all, 244 articles written in English were reviewed. Shellfish allergy in the Asia-Pacific ranks among the highest in the world and is the most common cause of food-induced anaphylaxis. Shellfish are classified into molluscs and arthropods. Of the arthropods, the crustaceans in particular Penaeid prawns are the most common cause of allergy and are therefore most extensively studied. Several classes of allergens have been identified. The tropomyosins (class 1 allergens) are the best defined. Despite the establishment of molecular homology and allergenic cross reactivity between allergens of the same class, clinical cross-reactivity is more variable between patients and less clearly defined. There are two relatively unique clinical manifestations of IgE-mediated prawn allergy: (1) isolated oral allergy symptoms; and (2) wide spectrum of severity and sometimes even within the same individual. Shellfish allergy is common in the Asia Pacific. More research including food challenge-proven subjects are required to establish the true prevalence, as well as to understand clinical cross reactivity and variations in clinical features.

  19. It’s the Economy! U.S. Facilities Access in Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-16

    government agency. STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT H IT’S THE ECONOMY ! U.S. FACILITIES ACCESS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA BY COMMANDER DOUGLAS M. DEETS...4 February 1997 INTRODUCTION The Southeast Asia region is becoming more and more important to the economy of the United States (U.S.) at a time

  20. Acid deposition in east Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Phadnis, M.J.; Carmichael, G.R.; Ichikawa, Y.

    1996-12-31

    A comparison between transport models was done to study the acid deposition in east Asia. The two models in question were different in the way the treated the pollutant species and the way simulation was carried out. A single-layer, trajectory model with simple (developed by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Japan) was compared with a multi-layered, eulerian type model (Sulfur Transport Eulerian Model - II [STEM-II]) treating the chemical processes in detail. The acidic species used in the simulation were sulfur dioxide and sulfate. The comparison was done for two episodes: each a month long in winter (February) and summer (August) of 1989. The predicted results from STEM-II were compared with the predicted results from the CRIEPI model as well as the observed data at twenty-one stations in Japan. The predicted values from STEM-II were similar to the ones from the CRIEPI results and the observed values in regards to the transport features. The average monthly values of SO{sub 2} in air, sulfate in air and sulfate in precipitation were in good agreement. Sensitivity studies were carried out under different scenarios of emissions, dry depositions velocities and mixing heights. The predicted values in these sensitivity studies showed a strong dependence on the mixing heights. The predicted wet deposition of sulfur for the two months is 0.7 gS/m2.mon, while the observed deposition is around 1.1 gS/m2.mon. It was also observed that the wet deposition on the Japan sea side of the islands is more than those on the Pacific side and the Okhotsk sea, mainly because of the continental outflow of pollutant air masses from mainland China and Korea. The effects of emissions from Russia and volcanoes were also evaluated.

  1. Improved phylogenetic resolution and rapid diversification of Y-chromosome haplogroup K-M526 in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Karafet, Tatiana M; Mendez, Fernando L; Sudoyo, Herawati; Lansing, J Stephen; Hammer, Michael F

    2015-03-01

    The highly structured distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroups suggests that current patterns of variation may be informative of past population processes. However, limited phylogenetic resolution, particularly of subclades within haplogroup K, has obscured the relationships of lineages that are common across Eurasia. Here we genotype 13 new highly informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a worldwide sample of 4413 males that carry the derived allele at M526, and reconstruct an NRY haplogroup tree with significantly higher resolution for the major clade within haplogroup K, K-M526. Although K-M526 was previously characterized by a single polytomy of eight major branches, the phylogenetic structure of haplogroup K-M526 is now resolved into four major subclades (K2a-d). The largest of these subclades, K2b, is divided into two clusters: K2b1 and K2b2. K2b1 combines the previously known haplogroups M, S, K-P60 and K-P79, whereas K2b2 comprises haplogroups P and its subhaplogroups Q and R. Interestingly, the monophyletic group formed by haplogroups R and Q, which make up the majority of paternal lineages in Europe, Central Asia and the Americas, represents the only subclade with K2b that is not geographically restricted to Southeast Asia and Oceania. Estimates of the interval times for the branching events between M9 and P295 point to an initial rapid diversification process of K-M526 that likely occurred in Southeast Asia, with subsequent westward expansions of the ancestors of haplogroups R and Q.

  2. Improved phylogenetic resolution and rapid diversification of Y-chromosome haplogroup K-M526 in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Karafet, Tatiana M; Mendez, Fernando L; Sudoyo, Herawati; Lansing, J Stephen; Hammer, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    The highly structured distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroups suggests that current patterns of variation may be informative of past population processes. However, limited phylogenetic resolution, particularly of subclades within haplogroup K, has obscured the relationships of lineages that are common across Eurasia. Here we genotype 13 new highly informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a worldwide sample of 4413 males that carry the derived allele at M526, and reconstruct an NRY haplogroup tree with significantly higher resolution for the major clade within haplogroup K, K-M526. Although K-M526 was previously characterized by a single polytomy of eight major branches, the phylogenetic structure of haplogroup K-M526 is now resolved into four major subclades (K2a–d). The largest of these subclades, K2b, is divided into two clusters: K2b1 and K2b2. K2b1 combines the previously known haplogroups M, S, K-P60 and K-P79, whereas K2b2 comprises haplogroups P and its subhaplogroups Q and R. Interestingly, the monophyletic group formed by haplogroups R and Q, which make up the majority of paternal lineages in Europe, Central Asia and the Americas, represents the only subclade with K2b that is not geographically restricted to Southeast Asia and Oceania. Estimates of the interval times for the branching events between M9 and P295 point to an initial rapid diversification process of K-M526 that likely occurred in Southeast Asia, with subsequent westward expansions of the ancestors of haplogroups R and Q. PMID:24896152

  3. Geodynamics map of northeast Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parfenov, Leonid M.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Yan, Hongquan

    2013-01-01

    This map portrays the geodynamics of Northeast Asia at a scale of 1:5,000,000 using the concepts of plate tectonics and analysis of terranes and overlap assemblages. The map is the result of a detailed compilation and synthesis at 5 million scale and is part of a major international collaborative study of the mineral resources, metallogenesis, and tectonics of northeast Asia conducted from 1997 through 2002 by geologists from earth science agencies and universities in Russia, Mongolia, northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA.

  4. Cognitive assessment tools in Asia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rosli, Roshaslina; Tan, Maw Pin; Gray, William Keith; Subramanian, Pathmawathi; Chin, Ai-Vyrn

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of dementia is increasing in Asia than in any other continent. However, the applicability of the existing cognitive assessment tools is limited by differences in educational and cultural factors in this setting. We conducted a systematic review of published studies on cognitive assessments tools in Asia. We aimed to rationalize the results of available studies which evaluated the validity of cognitive tools for the detection of cognitive impairment and to identify the issues surrounding the available cognitive impairment screening tools in Asia. Five electronic databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Science Direct) were searched using the keywords dementia Or Alzheimer Or cognitive impairment And screen Or measure Or test Or tool Or instrument Or assessment, and 2,381 articles were obtained. Thirty-eight articles, evaluating 28 tools in seven Asian languages, were included. Twenty-nine (76%) of the studies had been conducted in East Asia with only four studies conducted in South Asia and no study from northern, western, or central Asia or Indochina. Local language translations of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were assessed in 15 and six studies respectively. Only three tools (the Korean Dementia Screening Questionnaire, the Picture-based Memory Intelligence Scale, and the revised Hasegawa Dementia Screen) were derived de novo from Asian populations. These tools were assessed in five studies. Highly variable cut-offs were reported for the MMSE (17-29/30) and MoCA (21-26/30), with 13/19 (68%) of studies reporting educational bias. Few cognitive assessment tools have been validated in Asia, with no published validation studies for many Asian nations and languages. In addition, many available tools display educational bias. Future research should include concerted efforts to develop culturally appropriate tools with minimal educational bias.

  5. Exacerbation of erosion induced by human perturbation in a typical Oceania watershed: Insight from 45 years of hydrological records from the Lanyang-Hsi River, northeastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Shuh-Ji; Liu, Kon-Kee

    2002-03-01

    High precipitation, steep slopes, small basin areas, and frequent flood events can induce high erosion rates on Oceania islands. These natural characteristics make watersheds much more vulnerable to anthropogenic perturbation. We analyzed long-term data sets (1950-1994) of suspended sediment loading from two gauges in Lanyang-Hsi watershed, a typical mountainous river in northeastern Taiwan. Prior to road construction that began in 1957, the annual sediment yield for the downstream gauge near the river mouth was in the range of 730-5400 t km-2 yr-1 with a mean sediment yield of 2800 t km-2 yr-1, which was 18 times higher than the global mean (150 t km-2 yr-1). However, following massive road construction projects, sediment exports increased more than tenfold for the downstream gauge and fortyfold for the upstream gauge at an altitude of 450 m, indicating an exacerbation of erosion induced by human activities. Such conditions of high export lasted for 2-4 years before the sediment yield returned to lower level. From 1957 to 1994 the mean sediment yield for entire watershed went up to 12,800 t km-2 yr-1 ~75% of that resulted from human perturbation. By comparing the sediment loads from the two gauges we concluded that the extra sediments mainly originated from the upper reach. A huge amount of the sediments apparently had resided in the middle reach; subsequent flood events with enough physical strength may resuspend and sweep the sediments to the sea gradually. Since the Taiwanese rivers represent the extreme conditions in correlation plots for the calculation of sediment export from mountainous rivers, one should exercise great care in distinguishing natural from perturbed conditions when using sediment yield data from Taiwan.

  6. VNTR internal structure mapping at the {alpha}-globin 3{prime}HVR locus reveals a hierachy of related lineages in oceania

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, J.J.; Clegg, J.B.; Boyce, A.J.

    1994-09-01

    Analysis of the {alpha}-globin gene complex in Oceania has revealed many different rearrangements which remove one of the adult globin genes. Frequencies of these deletion chromosomes are elevated by malarial resistance conferred by the resulting {alpha}-thalassaemia. One particular deletion chromosome, designated -{alpha}{sup 3.7}III, is found at high levels in Melanesia and Polynesia: RFLP haplotype analysis shows that this deletion is always found on chromosomes bearing the IIIa haplotype and is likely to be the product of one single rearrangement event. A subset of the -{alpha}{sup 3.7}III chromosomes carries a more recent mutation which generates the haemoglobin variant HbJ{sup Tongariki}. We have characterized the allelic variation at the 3{prime}HVR VNTR locus located 6 kb from the globin genes in each of these groups of chromosomes. We have determined the internal structure of these alleles by RFLP mapping of PCR-amplified DNA: within each group, the allelic diversity results from the insertion and/or deletion of small {open_quotes}motifs{close_quotes} of up to 6 adjacent repeats. Mapping of 3{prime}HVR alleles associated with other haplotypes reveals that these are composed of repeat arrays that are substantially different to those derived from IIIa chromosomes, indicating that interchromosomal recombination between heterologous haplotypes does not account for any of the diversity seen to date. We have recently shown that allelic size variation at the two VNTR loci flanking the {alpha}-globin complex is very closely linked to the haplotypes known to be present at this locus. Here we show that, within a haplotype, VNTR alleles are very closely related to each other on the basis of internal structure and demonstrate that intrachromosomal mutation processes involving small numbers of tandem repeats are the main cause of variation at this locus.

  7. Snake Bite in South Asia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Alirol, Emilie; Sharma, Sanjib Kumar; Bawaskar, Himmatrao Saluba; Kuch, Ulrich; Chappuis, François

    2010-01-01

    Snake bite is one of the most neglected public health issues in poor rural communities living in the tropics. Because of serious misreporting, the true worldwide burden of snake bite is not known. South Asia is the world's most heavily affected region, due to its high population density, widespread agricultural activities, numerous venomous snake species and lack of functional snake bite control programs. Despite increasing knowledge of snake venoms' composition and mode of action, good understanding of clinical features of envenoming and sufficient production of antivenom by Indian manufacturers, snake bite management remains unsatisfactory in this region. Field diagnostic tests for snake species identification do not exist and treatment mainly relies on the administration of antivenoms that do not cover all of the important venomous snakes of the region. Care-givers need better training and supervision, and national guidelines should be fed by evidence-based data generated by well-designed research studies. Poorly informed rural populations often apply inappropriate first-aid measures and vital time is lost before the victim is transported to a treatment centre, where cost of treatment can constitute an additional hurdle. The deficiency of snake bite management in South Asia is multi-causal and requires joint collaborative efforts from researchers, antivenom manufacturers, policy makers, public health authorities and international funders. PMID:20126271

  8. Emerging strengths in Asia Pacific bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Shoba; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Yang, Ueng-Cheng; Tan, Tin Wee

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 annual conference of the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet), Asia's oldest bioinformatics organisation set up in 1998, was organized as the 7th International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB), jointly with the Bioinformatics and Systems Biology in Taiwan (BIT 2008) Conference, Oct. 20–23, 2008 at Taipei, Taiwan. Besides bringing together scientists from the field of bioinformatics in this region, InCoB is actively involving researchers from the area of systems biology, to facilitate greater synergy between these two groups. Marking the 10th Anniversary of APBioNet, this InCoB 2008 meeting followed on from a series of successful annual events in Bangkok (Thailand), Penang (Malaysia), Auckland (New Zealand), Busan (South Korea), New Delhi (India) and Hong Kong. Additionally, tutorials and the Workshop on Education in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (WEBCB) immediately prior to the 20th Federation of Asian and Oceanian Biochemists and Molecular Biologists (FAOBMB) Taipei Conference provided ample opportunity for inducting mainstream biochemists and molecular biologists from the region into a greater level of awareness of the importance of bioinformatics in their craft. In this editorial, we provide a brief overview of the peer-reviewed manuscripts accepted for publication herein, grouped into thematic areas. As the regional research expertise in bioinformatics matures, the papers fall into thematic areas, illustrating the specific contributions made by APBioNet to global bioinformatics efforts. PMID:19091008

  9. A Study on Some Critical Aspects of Secondary Education in the Countries of Asia and the Pacific. Research Proposal. Report of a Regional Workshop (1st, Tokyo, Japan, June 17-July 10, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    A regional workshop on "The Study of Secondary Education in Asia and the Pacific" was attended by 18 participants from Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Western Samoa. The major objective of the…

  10. Soft Power and Cultural Diplomacy: Emerging Education Hubs in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jack T.

    2015-01-01

    Several education hubs have emerged in Asia and the Middle East in recent years with a specific focus on cross-border higher education. Through considerable efforts in policy planning and generous funding, these hubs aim to transform a country or city into an eminent destination for education, research, and training. The inherent design of these…

  11. Collaboration in Cultural Heritage Digitisation in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyuk-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of collaboration in cultural heritage preservation in East Asia, including digital projects, and to suggest practical improvements based on a cultural structuralism perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Through exploratory research, the paper addresses aspects for successful…

  12. Family, Community, and Educational Outcomes in South Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudgar, Amita; Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we review research on the economics and sociology of education to assess the relationships between family and community variables and children's educational outcomes in South Asia. At the family level, we examine the variables of family socioeconomic status (SES), parental education, family structure, and religion and caste. At…

  13. Collaboration in Cultural Heritage Digitisation in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyuk-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of collaboration in cultural heritage preservation in East Asia, including digital projects, and to suggest practical improvements based on a cultural structuralism perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Through exploratory research, the paper addresses aspects for successful…

  14. Soft Power and Cultural Diplomacy: Emerging Education Hubs in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jack T.

    2015-01-01

    Several education hubs have emerged in Asia and the Middle East in recent years with a specific focus on cross-border higher education. Through considerable efforts in policy planning and generous funding, these hubs aim to transform a country or city into an eminent destination for education, research, and training. The inherent design of these…

  15. A PRELIMINARY RECONNAISSANCE OF THE LANGUAGES OF ASIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MULDER, J.W.; STUART, DON G.

    THE PRESENT PRELIMINARY RECONNAISSANCE OF THE LANGUAGE OF ASIA WAS INTENDED TO PROVIDE A GENERAL BASIC REFERENCE WORK FOR THE GUIDANCE AND ORIENTATION OF GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS, EDUCATORS, AND OTHERS CHARGED WITH THE RESPONSIBILITY OF DEVELOPING RESEARCH AND EDUCATION IN THE FIELD OF THE SO-CALLED NEGLECTED LANGUAGES. EXCLUDED FROM THIS WORK WERE…

  16. A PRELIMINARY RECONNAISSANCE OF THE LANGUAGES OF ASIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MULDER, J.W.; STUART, DON G.

    THE PRESENT PRELIMINARY RECONNAISSANCE OF THE LANGUAGE OF ASIA WAS INTENDED TO PROVIDE A GENERAL BASIC REFERENCE WORK FOR THE GUIDANCE AND ORIENTATION OF GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS, EDUCATORS, AND OTHERS CHARGED WITH THE RESPONSIBILITY OF DEVELOPING RESEARCH AND EDUCATION IN THE FIELD OF THE SO-CALLED NEGLECTED LANGUAGES. EXCLUDED FROM THIS WORK WERE…

  17. Epidemiology of adult asthma in Asia: toward a better understanding.

    PubMed

    Song, Woo-Jung; Kang, Min-Gyu; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2014-04-01

    Asia is the world's most dynamic area. Asthma is a major chronic disease in Asia, like other continents. However, unlike childhood asthma, the epidemiological burden of asthma in Asian adults has been unclear. Here we reviewed the currently available literatures on the epidemiology of adult asthma in the Asian community populations. Adult asthma prevalence was generally lower in Asian than in Europe, but the increasing trends suggested the disease burden to rise in the near future. However, for better understanding, it may be essential to prepare for the Asian multinational network for the standardization and collaboration of research.

  18. Measuring Pre-Service Teachers' Asia Literacy and Their Preparedness to Teach Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grainger, Peter; Christie, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Asia literacy is a growing concern of the Federal Government in relation to the development of an Asia literate workforce. Despite 30 years of funded initiatives, the thought of teaching about Asia is a daunting one for pre-service teachers. This is due to the lack of Asia foci in university pre-service courses and complicated by the definition of…

  19. Measuring Pre-Service Teachers' Asia Literacy and Their Preparedness to Teach Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grainger, Peter; Christie, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Asia literacy is a growing concern of the Federal Government in relation to the development of an Asia literate workforce. Despite 30 years of funded initiatives, the thought of teaching about Asia is a daunting one for pre-service teachers. This is due to the lack of Asia foci in university pre-service courses and complicated by the definition of…

  20. Open File: Education in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonez, Victor, Ed.; Maclean, Rupert, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This collection of scholarly essays on comparative education is divided into four sections. The first section, Viewpoints/Controversies, contains the essay "Educational Policies and Contents in Developing Countries" (Jacques Hallak). The second section, Open File: Education in Asia, contains the following essays: "Some Current…

  1. Transgenic horticultural crops in Asia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Modern biotechnology applications, including genetic engineering, are a powerful tool to complement the conventional methods of crop improvement. Asia currently has three countries cultivating biotech/transgenic crops – China, India, and the Philippines, but only China commercially grows a transgen...

  2. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  3. Children's Literature from Northeastern Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Maurine V.; And Others

    This paper presents an overview of three countries, China, Japan, and Korea, in the northeastern Asia region and provides a bibliography of children's literature from the area in the appendix. The document advocates that the global interdependence of societies necessitates an understanding of the cultures with which people must interrelate.…

  4. Migration in south Asia: an overview.

    PubMed

    Skeldon, R

    1983-01-01

    Past studies on migration patterns and flows in south Asia have been based on limited data. The present overview is based on a detailed study of census and survey data reaching back to the early 1950's. The study incorporates the thinking of several research scholars who have dealt with specialized areas of migration in individual countries, and in the region as a whole. The interrelationships between migration and development are considered in a final chapter, with special mention of future trends, associated with traditional practices and historical circumstances. Migration will be of great importance in the coming decades. The activities of "sons of soil" anti-migrant movements and anti-migrant legislation have had little, if any, effect on migration flows. As the population increases in villages and towns and jobs become scarce, migration is likely to become even more of a political issue. Less politically volatile is circulation between village and town or between villages, whereby the migrants can have access to resources in 2 or more places. This option may play a critical role in the continued survival of much of the population in the future. This has been perhaps the most important factor in explaining the relatively slow rate of urbanization in south Asia as it allowed the rural people to take advantage of the towns without causing a massive and permanent transfer of population. The numbers who practice this "bilocality" are therefore likely to increase and migrants will continue to make up more significant proportions of the urban populations than their contribution to urban growth would suggest owing to the importance of "turnover migration." However, this circulation is not a new phenomenon: India and the other countries of south Asia have been characterized by tremendous mobility of population through circulation for considerable time but both its volume, and the distances over which it occurs are likely to increase as these countries develop.

  5. Towards water sensitive cities in Asia: an interdisciplinary journey.

    PubMed

    Barron, N J; Kuller, M; Yasmin, T; Castonguay, A C; Copa, V; Duncan-Horner, E; Gimelli, F M; Jamali, B; Nielsen, J S; Ng, K; Novalia, W; Shen, P F; Conn, R J; Brown, R R; Deletic, A

    2017-09-01

    Rapid urbanisation, population growth and the effects of climate change drive the need for sustainable urban water management (SUWM) in Asian cities. The complexity of this challenge calls for the integration of knowledge from different disciplines and collaborative approaches. This paper identifies key issues and sets the stage for interdisciplinary research on SUWM in Asia. It reports on the initial stages of a SUWM research programme being undertaken at Monash University, Australia, and proposes a framework to guide the process of interdisciplinary research in urban water management. Three key themes are identified: (1) Technology and Innovation, (2) Urban Planning and Design, and (3) Governance and Society. Within these themes 12 research projects are being undertaken across Indonesia, China, India and Bangladesh. This outward-looking, interdisciplinary approach guides our research in an effort to transgress single-discipline solutions and contribute on-ground impact to SUWM practices in Asia.

  6. Central Asia Active Fault Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd A.; Kakar, Najibullah

    2014-05-01

    The ongoing collision of the Indian subcontinent with Asia controls active tectonics and seismicity in Central Asia. This motion is accommodated by faults that have historically caused devastating earthquakes and continue to pose serious threats to the population at risk. Despite international and regional efforts to assess seismic hazards in Central Asia, little attention has been given to development of a comprehensive database for active faults in the region. To address this issue and to better understand the distribution and level of seismic hazard in Central Asia, we are developing a publically available database for active faults of Central Asia (including but not limited to Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, northern Pakistan and western China) using ArcGIS. The database is designed to allow users to store, map and query important fault parameters such as fault location, displacement history, rate of movement, and other data relevant to seismic hazard studies including fault trench locations, geochronology constraints, and seismic studies. Data sources integrated into the database include previously published maps and scientific investigations as well as strain rate measurements and historic and recent seismicity. In addition, high resolution Quickbird, Spot, and Aster imagery are used for selected features to locate and measure offset of landforms associated with Quaternary faulting. These features are individually digitized and linked to attribute tables that provide a description for each feature. Preliminary observations include inconsistent and sometimes inaccurate information for faults documented in different studies. For example, the Darvaz-Karakul fault which roughly defines the western margin of the Pamir, has been mapped with differences in location of up to 12 kilometers. The sense of motion for this fault ranges from unknown to thrust and strike-slip in three different studies despite documented left-lateral displacements of Holocene and late

  7. Tethyan evolution of central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Sengor, A.M.C. )

    1990-05-01

    The study area extends from the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea in the west to the Helan Shan and Longmen Shan in the east and from about 40{degree}N parallel in the north to the neo-Tethyan sutures in the south, thus including what is called Middle Asia in the Soviet literature. In the region thus delineated lies the boundary between the largely late Paleozoic core of Asia (Altaids) and the Tethyside superorogenic complex. This boundary passes through continental objects that collided with nuclear Asia in the late Paleozoic to terminate its Altaid evolution. Subduction to the south of some of these had commenced before they collided (e.g., Tarim in the Kuen-Lun), in others later (e.g., South Ghissar area west of Pamirs). This subduction 1ed, in the late Paleozoic, to the opening of marginal basins, at least one of which may be partly extant (Tarim). Giant subduction accretion complexes of Paleozoic to earliest Triassic age dominate farther south in the basement of Turan (mainly in Turkmenian SSR) and in the Kuen-Lun/Nan Shan ranges. No discrete continental collisions or any continental basement in these regions could be unequivocally recognized contrary to most current interpretations. Magmatic arcs that developed along the southern margin of Asia in the late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic grew atop these subduction-accretion complexes and record a gradual southerly migration of magmatism through time. Subduction also dominated the northern margin of Gondwanaland between Iran and China in late Paleozoic time, although the record in Afghanistan and northwest Tibet is scrappy. It led to back-arc basin formation, which in Iran and Oman became neo-Tethys and, in at least parts of central Asia, the Waser-Mushan-Pshart/Banggong Co-Nu Jiang ocean. This ocean was probably connected with the Omani part of the neo-Tethys via the Sistan region.

  8. Asia: point of no return?

    PubMed

    1991-09-01

    Perhaps 1 million people in Asia are HIV positive (1% of the world's total). Even many more people are at risk since Asia has 50% of the world's population. Sexual transmission is the main mode of transmission. Yet people in Asia do not want to deal with sexual behavior. Thus high level political commitment is needed such has been done in Thailand which has set up a national AIDS committee. An AIDS expert predicts that by 1995 the number of HIV positive individuals in Asia will surpass the number of HIV positive individuals in all the developed countries. India, Myanmar, and Thailand where prostitution and intravenous (IV) drug use abounds (the Golden Triangle) suffer from the worst AIDS epidemics in the region. International sex tourism contributes greatly to both the heterosexual and homosexual spread of AIDS. In fact, the national AIDS committee in Thailand has begun a campaign to stop sex tourism, but as of September 1991, it had no effect. Further some sex businesses have attempted to stop the spread of AIDS. For example, 2 brothels in central Thailand have implemented a condom only policy for their clients. High rates of sexually transmitted diseases among prostitutes facilitate HIV transmission. This highlights the need for Asian countries to promote condom use. Not all of the Asian countries screen 100% of their blood and blood products. In fact, in India, commercial blood banks do not always screen donated blood since screening eats into their profits. Further unsterile needles are often used in medical facilities such as in India and Viet Nam. Hong Kong sells inexpensive sterile needles over the counter which may account for its low HIV positive rate among drug users. Despite the many problems in Asia which facilitate HIV transmission, tragedy can be averted if governments act at once.

  9. IFLA General Conference, 1989. Division of Regional Activities. Section on Regional Activities--Africa; Section on Regional Activities--Asia and Oceania; Section on Regional Activities--Latin America and the Caribbean. Booklet 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    There are five papers in this collection from the Division of Regional Activities: (1) "Communication and Information in Contemporary African Society" (Bimpe Aboyade), which discusses how libraries can make themselves relevant to other institutions concerned with information transfer; (2) "Libraries and Rural Development: Village…

  10. Future Directions of Population Education. Report of a Regional Consultative Seminar organized by the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania in co-operation with the Government of the Philippines (Manila, 14-21, August 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    The document presents objectives and proceedings of a population education seminar involving representatives from 12 non Western nations. Major purposes of the seminar were to provide a forum where population experts from Asian and Oceanic nations could exchange ideas, cooperate in improving population education programs, and explore how to…

  11. Future Directions of Population Education. Report of a Regional Consultative Seminar organized by the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania in co-operation with the Government of the Philippines (Manila, 14-21, August 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    The document presents objectives and proceedings of a population education seminar involving representatives from 12 non Western nations. Major purposes of the seminar were to provide a forum where population experts from Asian and Oceanic nations could exchange ideas, cooperate in improving population education programs, and explore how to…

  12. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-07

    Journal (THANH NIEN, Oct 86) 100 ECONOMIC PLANNING, COMMERCE, FINANCE Writer: To Reestablish Market Order, Must Stabilize Production (Huu Tam...the ASEAN market sold by IPTN. -" Earlier Habibie who serves also as Minister for Research and Technology revealed that IPTN had produced 100...was made after observing the current market of B0-105s which had been hit by the dollar appreciation against the German mark, a sluggish demand by

  13. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-12

    publications may be ordered from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161. In order- ing, it is recommended that the JPRS...may be addressed to Joint Publications Research Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-SEA-87-035 12 MARCH 1987 SOUTHEAST...Facing Aquino (Nick T. Enciso ; MANILA BULLETIN, 16 Feb 87) ... Defense Ministry Trims, Replaces CHDF Units I (MANILA BULLETIN, 12 Feb 87) • 1 1 1

  14. The TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jialun; Kumarasamy, N.; Ditangco, Rossana; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Lee, Christopher K. C.; Li, Patrick C. K.; Paton, Nicholas I.; Phanuphak, Praphan; Pujari, Sanjay; Vibhagool, Asda; Wong, Wing-Wai; Zhang, Fujie; Chuah, John; Frost, Kevin R.; Cooper, David A.; Law, Matthew G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Relatively little is known regarding HIV disease natural history and response to antiretroviral treatments among Asian people infected with HIV. The Therapeutics Research, Education, and AIDS Training in Asia (TREAT Asia) HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) is a recently established collaborative observational cohort study that aims to assess HIV disease natural history in treated and untreated patients in the Asia-Pacific region. Methods Observational data are collected on HIV-infected patients from 11 sites in the Asia-Pacific region. Data are centrally aggregated for analyses, with the first baseline and retrospective data transferred in September 2003. Retrospective data were analyzed to assess the response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) over a 6-month period in terms of changes in CD4 count and proportions of patients achieving an undetectable HIV viral load (<400 copies/mL). Results By the end of May 2004, 1887 patients had been recruited to the TAHOD. Seventy-two percent of patients were male, with median age 36 years. Seventy-eight percent of patients reported HIV infection through heterosexual contact. Forty-three percent of patients had a previous AIDS diagnosis, of whom 55% had tuberculosis. The mean 6-month CD4 count increase was 115 cells/μL (SD = 127) after starting triple-combination therapy. Smaller CD4 count increases were associated with a higher CD4 count before starting treatment, prior treatment with monotherapy or double therapy, and treatment with a HAART regimen containing a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and/or protease inhibitor (PI) but without a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). Five hundred and ninety-eight patients started HAART and had a viral load assessment at 6 months, with 69% attaining an undetectable viral load. Older patients, patients not exposed to HIV through heterosexual contact, and patients treated with HAART containing NRTIs and NNRTIs but without PIs

  15. Aetiology of cancer in Asia.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohee; Bae, Jisuk; Nam, Byung-Ho; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2008-01-01

    Cancer has become the leading cause of death in many Asian countries. There is an increasing trend in breast, prostate and colon cancers, which are considered as typical of economically developed countries. Although breast and prostate cancer rates are still lower than in western countries, they are particularly rapidly increasing. In this paper, we review recently published literature to identify important etiologic factors affecting the cancer risk in Asian populations. Infectious agents such as Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis B and C viruses, and human papillomavirus were shown to be associated with elevated risks of stomach, liver and cervical cancer, respectively. Tobacco smoking was shown to be significantly associated with higher lung cancer risk and moderately increased all cancer risk. Excessive alcohol drinking appeared to increase the risk of colorectal cancer in Japanese and breast cancer in the Korean population. Betel nut chewing was associated with higher risk of oral and esophageal cancer. In terms of diet, various studies have demonstrated that high caloric and fat intake was associated with breast cancer risk, salted food intake with stomach cancer, aflatoxin B1 with liver cancer, and low fruits and vegetables intake with breast and lung cancer. Environmental exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollution, arsenic, radon, asbestos and second hand smoke was shown to increase the lung cancer risk. Reproductive factors such as late age at first childbirth, early menarche, late menopause, oral contraceptive intake, and short duration of lifetime lactation were shown to be associated with breast and/or colorectal cancer. Cancer has clearly become an emerging health threat in Asia and cancer control programs should be actively implemented and evaluated in this region. Various strategies for cancer control have been developed in some Asian countries, including the set-up of national cancer registries, cancer screening programs, education programs for health

  16. ACE-Asia Chemical Transport Modeling Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    UNO, I.; Chin, M.; Collins, W.; Ginoux, P.; Rasch, P.; Carmichael, G. R.; Yienger, J. J.

    2001-12-01

    ACE-Asia (Asia Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment) was designed to increase our understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth?s climate system. The intensive observation period was carried out during March to May, 2001, and more than 100 researchers from several countries (United States, Japan, Korea, China, and many other Asian countries) participated using aircraft, a research vessel, surface stations and numerical models. Aerosol transport forecast activities played an important role during the ACE-Asia intensive observation period. Three independent modeling groups operated chemical transport models in forecast mode and participated in flight planning activities at the operations center. These models were: MATCH (Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry; Rasch and Collins); GOCART (Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model; Chin and Ginour) and CFORS (Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University + University of Iowa - Chemical weather FORecast System; Uno, Carmichael and Yienger). The MATCH model used in ACE-Asia was a transport model applied for the Asia region, driven by NCEP forecast meteorology. A unique feature of this model was that it assimilated satellite derived optical depths into its forecast algorithm. The GOCART model provided global aerosol forecast using forecast meteorological fields provided by the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The CFORS model provided regional forecasts using a limited area transport model coupled with Regional Meteorological Modeling System (RAMS), initialized by NCEP and JMA forecasts. All models produced 3-d aerosol forecast products consisting of aerosol mass distributions and optical depths for sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, sea salt, and dust. In the field these model products were made available to all participating scientists via the Web, and were also presented during the

  17. Relative Travel Time Tomography for East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S. J.; CHO, S.

    2016-12-01

    Japan island region is one of the most seismically active region in the world. As a large number of earthquakes have recently occurred along circum-Pacific belt called the ring of fire, concern over earthquakes is increasing in South Korea close to Japan. In this study, we perform seismic imaging based on relative S-wave travel-times to examine S-wave velocity upper mantle structure of East Asia. We used teleseismic events recorded at the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) network and F-net network operated by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). Relative travel-time residuals were obtained by a multi-channel cross-correlation method designed to automatically determine accurate relative phase arrival times. The resulting images show high-velocity anomalies along East and South side of Japan island region. These anomalies may indicate subducting Pacific and Philippine Sea plates, respectively. The velocity structure beneath southwest Japan is revealed very complex because the two slabs interact with each other there. Velocity structure of East Asia is useful to understand the tectonic evolution and the mechanism of earthquakes that occur in this region.

  18. Messages, limitations and future needs of research into environmental impacts and mitigating and remediation measures of oil palm and forest land-use and land management in SE Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Rory; Bidin, Kawi; Nurhidayu, Siti; Nainar, Anand; Annammala, Kogilavani; Blake, William; Higton, Sam; Wall, Katy; Darling, Isabella

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm and forest logging land-uses have expanded immensely in recent decades in SE Asia and other parts of the humid tropics - and increasingly into steeplands where adverse biophysical in situ and downstream impacts are particularly severe. With a focus on recent and current projects in Sabah (Malaysian Borneo) and Peninsular Malaysia, this paper examines the changing nature of research foci and approaches of research projects to assess impacts and develop and test mitigation strategies. Early projects focussed on comparing slope- and catchment-scale hydrology and erosion of selectively logged forest and primary forest and on ways of reducing logging impacts. The second phase of research focussed increasingly on (1) longer-term recovery from logging and (2) the likely impacts of climate change. With repeat logging and conversion of areas of forest to oil palm (and conservation of remaining primary forest was secured), the focus of attention has moved to (1) assessing impacts of oil palm conversion and land management practices, (2) testing existing (and potentially more effective) Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) guidelines and Government Regulations aimed at reducing impacts and (3) developing and testing ways of restoring and rehabilitating forest within both badly degraded logged forest areas and largely oil palm landscapes - with attention focussed on the landscape scale, the long-term, downstream as well as in situ impacts and the more vulnerable steepland areas. Two multidisciplinary umbrella projects - the SAFE (Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems) Project and the SEnSOR Programme - have formed the backbone of this latest phase. The SAFE Project is a ten-year programme assessing the effectiveness of retention of differing widths of riparian forest buffers and different- sized forest 'islands' within converted oil palm landscapes in reducing their adverse ecological, emissions, hydrological, erosional and water pollution impacts. The SEn

  19. Education - An Obstacle to Development? Reflections on the Political Function of Education in Asia and Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanf, Theodor; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Article attempted to summarize criticisms, supplemented them on the basis of empirical research, and lay the foundation for this general thesis: Formal education in Africa and Asia tends to impede economic growth and promote political instability. (Author/RK)

  20. The Nabataeans and Asia Minor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameen, Z. al

    The Nabataean period (c. 312 BC- AD 106) stands out as a period of prosperity, expansion, cultural growth and a relative political unity. It is clear that the Nabataean commercial activities as well as their involvement in the lucrative trade of aromatics had been the major acknowledged influence on the Nabataean urban settlements, economic development and architectural renaissance. This paper focuses on the international Nabataean relations with the west and their influences on the Nabataean cultural achievements. The specific question of this work investigates the influence of international maritime and long distance trade as well as the influence of Asia Minor on the Nabataean culture. It discusses the south-western Asia Minor archaeological evidence uncovered in Nabataea. Attention focuses on the nature and extent of the Nabataean material remains found in the Mediterranean and south west Anatolia and discusses the south-western Anatolian influence on the cultural achievements of the Nabataeans.

  1. Southeast Asia Report. No. 1316

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-25

    Soviet Union had: moved its naval base 2400 miles closer to New Zea- land with a base in South - east Asia, where previously...Hunt’s Penrod 78 rig to New Zealand. And the Australian giant BHP has pulled out of a consortium with a licence area south - east of the Maui...licence areas off the South Island east coast, is likely to make a decision soon on hiring a rig to start its drilling pro- gramme early neext year

  2. Heart Failure in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Sivadasan Pillai, Harikrishnan; Ganapathi, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    South Asia (SA) is both the most populous and the most densely populated geographical region in the world. The countries in this region are undergoing epidemiological transition and are facing the double burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases. Heart failure (HF) is a major and increasing burden all over the world. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology of HF in SA today and its impact in the health system of the countries in the region. There are no reliable estimates of incidence and prevalence of HF (heart failure) from this region. The prevalence of HF which is predominantly a disease of the elderly is likely to rise in this region due to the growing age of the population. Patients admitted with HF in the SA region are relatively younger than their western counterparts. The etiology of HF in this region is also different from the western world. Untreated congenital heart disease and rheumatic heart disease still contribute significantly to the burden of HF in this region. Due to epidemiological transition, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity and smoking is on the rise in this region. This is likely to escalate the prevalence of HF in South Asia. We also discuss potential developments in the field of HF management likely to occur in the nations in South Asia. Finally, we discuss the interventions for prevention of HF in this region PMID:23597297

  3. Heart failure in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Harikrishnan Sivadasan; Ganapathi, Sanjay

    2013-05-01

    South Asia (SA) is both the most populous and the most densely populated geographical region in the world. The countries in this region are undergoing epidemiological transition and are facing the double burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases. Heart failure (HF) is a major and increasing burden all over the world. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology of HF in SA today and its impact in the health system of the countries in the region. There are no reliable estimates of incidence and prevalence of HF (heart failure) from this region. The prevalence of HF which is predominantly a disease of the elderly is likely to rise in this region due to the growing age of the population. Patients admitted with HF in the SA region are relatively younger than their western counterparts. The etiology of HF in this region is also different from the western world. Untreated congenital heart disease and rheumatic heart disease still contribute significantly to the burden of HF in this region. Due to epidemiological transition, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity and smoking is on the rise in this region. This is likely to escalate the prevalence of HF in South Asia. We also discuss potential developments in the field of HF management likely to occur in the nations in South Asia. Finally, we discuss the interventions for prevention of HF in this region.

  4. First nimravid skull from Asia

    PubMed Central

    Averianov, Alexander; Obraztsova, Ekaterina; Danilov, Igor; Skutschas, Pavel; Jin, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Maofelis cantonensis gen. and sp. nov. is described based on a complete cranium from the middle-upper Eocene Youganwo Formation of Maoming Basin, Guangdong Province, China. The new taxon has characters diagnostic for Nimravidae such as a short cat-like skull, short palate, ventral surface of petrosal dorsal to that of basioccipital, serrations on the distal carina of canine, reduced anterior premolars, and absence of posterior molars (M2-3). It is plesiomorphic nimravid taxon similar to Nimravidae indet. from Quercy (France) in having the glenoid pedicle and mastoid process without ventral projections, a planar basicranium in which the lateral rim is not ventrally buttressed, and P1 present. The upper canine is less flattened than in other Nimravidae. Maofelis cantonensis gen. and sp. nov. exemplifies the earliest stage of development of sabertooth specialization characteristic of Nimravidae. This taxon, together with other middle-late Eocene nimravid records in South Asia, suggests origin and initial diversification of Nimravidae in Asia. We propose that this group dispersed to North America in the late Eocene and to Europe in the early Oligocene. The subsequent Oligocene diversification of Nimravidae took place in North America and Europe, while in Asia this group declined in the Oligocene, likely because of the earlier development of open habitats on that continent. PMID:27161785

  5. Revisiting adverse reactions to vaccines: A critical appraisal of Autoimmune Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants (ASIA).

    PubMed

    Hawkes, David; Benhamu, Joanne; Sidwell, Tom; Miles, Rhianna; Dunlop, Rachael A

    2015-05-01

    In 2011 Shoenfeld and Agmon-Levin proposed a new syndrome as a way of grouping together a range of emerging autoimmune diseases with possible adjuvant-associated causes, Autoimmune/Auto-inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants (ASIA). At present, there is no evidence to suggest that ASIA syndrome is a viable explanation for unusual autoimmune diseases. Since the initial paper, over 80 publications have discussed ASIA. This systematic review examines the research that has been done to investigate whether ASIA is a broad umbrella term with little clinical significance, or whether there is some underlying mechanism which could be utilised to reduce the occurrence of adjuvant mediated disease. Twenty-seven animal, epidemiological and case studies were reviewed. Unfortunately, a robust animal model of ASIA using biologically relevant doses of adjuvants has yet to be defined. It is also apparent that the broadness of the current ASIA criteria lack stringency and, as a result, very few cases of autoimmune disease could be excluded from a diagnosis of ASIA. The current studies involving human cases are so diverse, in both external stimuli and in resulting conditions, that there is currently a lack of reproducible evidence for any consistent relationship between adjuvant and autoimmune condition. The addition of a mandatory criterion requiring temporal association and clinically relevant adjuvant dose would allow better definition of what constitutes a diagnosis of ASIA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preliminary northeast Asia geodynamics map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parfenov, Leonid M.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Yan, Hongquan

    2003-01-01

    This map portrays the geodynamics of Northeast Asia at a scale of 1:5,000,000 using the concepts of plate tectonics and analysis of terranes and overlap assemblages. The map is the result of a detailed compilation and synthesis at 5 million scale and is part of a major international collaborative study of the Mineral Resources, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of Northeast Asia conducted from 1997 through 2002 by geologists from earth science agencies and universities in Russia, Mongolia, Northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA. This map is the result of extensive geologic mapping and associated tectonic studies in Northeast Asia in the last few decades and is the first collaborative compilation of the geology of the region at a scale of 1:5,000,000 by geologists from Russia, Mongolia, Northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA. The map was compiled by a large group of international geologists using the below concepts and definitions during collaborative workshops over a six-year period. The map is a major new compilation and re-interpretation of pre-existing geologic maps of the region. The map is designed to be used for several purposes, including regional tectonic analyses, mineral resource and metallogenic analysis, petroleum resource analysis, neotectonic analysis, and analysis of seismic hazards and volcanic hazards. The map consists of two sheets. Sheet 1 displays the map at a scale of 1:5,000,000, explanation. Sheet 2 displays the introduction, list of map units, and source references. Detailed descriptions of map units and stratigraphic columns are being published separately. This map is one of a series of publications on the mineral resources, metallogenesis, and geodynamics,of Northeast Asia. Companion studies and other articles and maps , and various detailed reports are: (1) a compilation of major mineral deposit models (Rodionov and Nokleberg, 2000; Rodionov and others, 2000; Obolenskiy and others, in press a); (2) a series of

  7. Pediatric HIV clinical care resources and management practices in Asia: a regional survey of the TREAT Asia pediatric network.

    PubMed

    Prasitsuebsai, Wasana; Bowen, Asha C; Pang, Joselyn; Hesp, Cees; Kariminia, Azar; Sohn, Annette H

    2010-02-01

    Characterizing intraregional differences in current pediatric HIV care and treatment in Asia can guide the development of clinical practice guidelines and improve the understanding of local resource availability. The Therapeutics Research, Education, and AIDS Training in Asia (TREAT Asia) Pediatric Program is a collaboration of clinics and referral hospitals studying pediatric HIV outcomes in the region. A Web-based survey to characterize clinical management practices and monitoring resources was developed and distributed to 20 sites in January 2008. Seventeen (85%) sites from 6 countries responded through April 2008; 14 (82%) were hospital-based and 16 (94%) were public facilities. Of 4050 HIV-infected children under care, 3606 (89%) were on antiretroviral treatment; 80% were on their first mono-, dual-, or triple-drug regimen and 74% were on nevirapine- or efavirenz-based regimens. Fifteen (88%) sites had consistent access to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for infant diagnosis. All sites had access to CD4 testing, with 13 (76%) routinely monitoring patients every 3-6 months; 7 (41%) sites monitored viral load at 6- to 12-month intervals. Although there is some variation in clinical practices, high levels of treatment and monitoring resources were available at these sites. The availability of PCR for early infant diagnosis positions them to implement recent WHO recommendations to treat HIV-infected children younger than 1 year of age. This information will be used to develop future research and programs to support children with HIV in Asia.

  8. Hepatocellular carcinoma in Asia: Prevention strategy and planning

    PubMed Central

    Ashtari, Sara; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin; Sharifian, Afsaneh; Zali, Mohamad Reza

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To review all of epidemiological and etiological aspects of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and examined the prevention of this disease in Asia. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review according to the PRISMA guidelines. We were chosen articles that published previously, from PubMed (MEDLINE), the Cochrane database and Scopus. The key words used in this research were as follows: HCC in Asia and the way of prevention of this disease, with no language limitations. We selected those papers published before 2014 that we considered to be most important and appropriate. All relevant articles were accessed in full text and all relevant materials was evaluated and reviewed. RESULTS: More than 70% of all new cases of liver cancer were diagnosed in Asia, a region that 75% of all those chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the world. Chronic HBV infection is the main cause of HCC in Asia, where the virus is endemic and vertical transmission is common. Japan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Pakistan are exception because of high prevalence of HCV infection in these regions. The prevalence of this cancer is high in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, But Middle Eastern countries are characterized as moderate prevalence rate of HCC region and Central Asia and some part of Middle Eastern countries are known as low prevalence rate of HCC. In addition of HBV and HCV the other factors such as aflatoxin, alcohol, obesity, diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) might be responsible for a low prevalence of HCC in Asian countries. Currently available HCC therapies, chemotherapy, surgical are inefficient, mainly due to usually late diagnosis and high recurrence rates after surgical resection, and usually end with treatment failure. Liver transplantation also remains as a difficult strategy in patients with HCC. Thus prevention of HCC by treating and prevention HBV and HCV infection, the major causative agents of HCC, and the other risk factors such as aflatoxin

  9. Is Central Asia really exsiccating?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E. M.; Surazakov, A. B.

    2008-12-01

    At the end of 20th and the beginning of 21st century central Asia oases suffered from serious drought caused lack of water for agriculture, economy growth and population increase. However, people of this region always experienced lack of water for irrigation and fought a war over the rights to control river streams. The drying up of central Asian rivers is not a new phenomenon according to the ancient manuscripts. Thus, lets see about what has happened with the past century climate and water resources of central Asia using the long-term observational data. We analyzed data from more than 200 meteorological stations and stream gauges over the central Asia in elevation range from 25 m. b.s.l. to 4,000 m. a.s.l. to understand the last 100 years variability in climate and water resources, examining changes in the extreme and mean monthly air temperatures, precipitation and river runoff. The evaluation of seasonal snow and glacier's covered areas between 1970th and 2007th in central Asia derived from AVHRR, MODIS, Hexagon KH-9, Landsat ETM and ASTER data exhibit 15% reduction of the seasonal snow covered area and 10.1% of the glacier area. It has been found that during last twenty years the duration of snowmelt, from the date of maximum snow cover to date of its disappearance, reduced by 30 days and in 2007 was equal to 138 days in the central Asian mountains. The decrease of seasonal snow cover is not a linear process. The further decrease may be accelerated due to increase of rainfall instead of snowfall in early spring months at high elevations, and consequently a lesser heat expenditure for the snowmelt. The growth in summer air temperatures, especially observable since the 1970th, accompanied by increase of evapotranspiration and precipitation, notably in summer and autumn, and at high elevations over 3,000 m, and at the western peripheral mountain ridges. Average difference in the means of annual air temperatures for the two thirty-year periods before and after

  10. Non-communicable diseases in South Asia: contemporary perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Karen R.; Patel, Shivani A.; Ali, Mohammed K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as metabolic, cardiovascular, cancers, injuries and mental health disorders are increasingly contributing to the disease burden in South Asia, in light of demographic and epidemiologic transitions in the region. Home to one-quarter of the world's population, the region is also an important priority area for meeting global health targets. In this review, we describe the current burden of and trends in four common NCDs (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) in South Asia. Sources of data The 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study supplemented with the peer-reviewed literature and reports by international agencies and national governments. Areas of agreement The burden of NCDs in South Asia is rising at a rate that exceeds global increases in these conditions. Shifts in leading risk factors—particularly dietary habits, tobacco use and high blood pressure—are thought to underlie the mounting burden of death and disability due to NCDs. Improvements in life expectancy, increasing socioeconomic development and urbanization in South Asia are expected to lead to further escalation of NCDs. Areas of controversy Although NCD burdens are currently largest among affluent groups in South Asia, many adverse risk factors are concentrated among the poor, portending a future increase in disease burden among lower income individuals. Growing points There continues to be a notable lack of national surveillance data to document the distribution and trends in NCDs in the region. Similarly, economic studies and policy initiatives addressing NCD burdens are still in their infancy. Areas timely for developing research Opportunities for innovative structural and behavioral interventions that promote maintenance of healthy lifestyles—such as moderate caloric intake, adequate physical activity and avoidance of tobacco—in the context of socioeconomic development are abundant. Testing of health

  11. United States interests in South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-11

    sea lanes running from the Persian Gulf to South East Asia . Therefore the purpose of this study is to analyze the five factors; geography, security...Sri Lanka which is strategically located in the Indian Ocean close to the major sea lanes running from the Persian Gulf to South East Asia . Therefore...Indian Ocean is the third largest ocean in the world after Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. It lies South of Asia , between Africa and Australia with

  12. South Asia Water Resources Workshop: An effort to promote water quality data sharing in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    RAJEN,GAURAV; BIRINGER,KENT L.; BETSILL,J. DAVID

    2000-04-01

    To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group comprised of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the US convened at the Soaltee Hotel in Kathmandu, Nepal, September 12 to 14, 1999. The workshop was sponsored in part by the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, through funding provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. The CMC promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in regions throughout the world as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. In the long term, the workshop organizers and participants are interested in the significance of regional information sharing as a means to build confidence and reduce conflict. The intermediate interests of the group focus on activities that might eventually foster regional management of some aspects of water resources utilization. The immediate purpose of the workshop was to begin the implementation phase of a project to collect and share water quality information at a number of river and coastal estuary locations throughout the region. The workshop participants achieved four objectives: (1) gaining a better understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of existing regional organizations promoting environmental cooperation in South Asia; (3) identifying sites within the region at which data is to be collected; and (4) instituting a data and information collection and sharing process.

  13. Metallogenic belt and mineral deposit maps of northeast Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Dejidmaa, Gunchin; Gerel, Ochir; Hwang, Duk-Hwan; Miller, Robert J.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Smelov, Alexander P.; Yan, Hongquan; Seminskiy, Zhan V.

    2013-01-01

    This report contains explanatory material and summary tables for lode mineral deposits and placer districts (Map A, sheet 1) and metallogenic belts of Northeast Asia (Maps B, C, and D on sheets 2, 3, and 4, respectively). The map region includes eastern Siberia, southeastern Russia, Mongolia, northeast China, and Japan. A large group of geologists—members of the joint international project, Major Mineral Deposits, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of Northeast Asia—prepared the maps, tables, and introductory text. This is a cooperative project with the Russian Academy of Sciences, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Mongolian National University, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolian Technical University, Mineral Resources Authority of Mongolia, Geological Research Institute, Jilin University, China Geological Survey, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Geological Survey of Japan, and U.S. Geological Survey. This report is one of a series of reports on the mineral resources, geodynamics, and metallogenesis of Northeast Asia. Companion studies include (1) a detailed geodynamics map of Northeast Asia (Parfenov and others, 2003); (2) a compilation of major mineral deposit models (Rodionov and Nokleberg, 2000; Rodionov and others, 2000); (3) a series of metallogenic belt maps (Obolenskiy and others, 2004); (4) location map of lode mineral deposits and placer districts of Northeast Asia (Ariunbileg and others, 2003b); (5) descriptions of metallogenic belts (Rodionov and others, 2004); (6) a database on significant metalliferous and selected nonmetalliferous lode deposits and selected placer districts (Ariunbileg and others, 2003a); and (7) a series of summary project publications (Ariunbileg and 74 others, 2003b).

  14. An evaluation of ozone dry deposition simulations in East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Park, R.; Hong, Seungkyu K.; Kwon, Hyoung-Ahn; Kim, Saewung; Guenther, Alex B.; Woo, Jung-Hun; Loughner, C. P.

    2014-08-11

    We used a 3-D regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (WRF-Chem) to examine processes that determine O3 in East Asia; in particular, we focused on O3 dry deposition, which is an uncertain research area due to insufficient observation and numerical studies in East Asia. Here, we compare two widely used dry deposition parameterization schemes, Wesely and M3DRY, which are used in the WRF-Chem and CMAQ models, respectively. The O3 dry deposition velocities simulated using the two aforementioned schemes under identical meteorological conditions show considerable differences (a factor of 2) due to surface resistance parameterization discrepancies. The O3 concentration differed by up to 10 ppbv for the monthly mean. The simulated and observed dry deposition velocities were compared, which showed that the Wesely scheme model is consistent with the observations and successfully reproduces the observed diurnal variation. We conduct several sensitivity simulations by changing the land use data, the surface resistance of the water and the model’s spatial resolution to examine the factors that affect O3 concentrations in East Asia. As shown, the model was considerably sensitive to the input parameters, which indicates a high uncertainty for such O3 dry deposition simulations. Observations are necessary to constrain the dry deposition parameterization and input data to improve the East Asia air quality models.

  15. Potential cooperative measures on nuclear issues in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, J.

    1997-08-01

    Cooperation on nuclear issues is receiving increased attention in Asia. In Northeast Asia, where the nuclear industry is well-developed, cooperation in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle could help deal with issues such as disposition of spent fuel and long term storage options. In Southeast Asia, where countries are just beginning to introduce nuclear energy, cooperation would be useful in developing standards for the nuclear industry. Throughout Asia, nuclear research and power activities can raise concerns about safety, environmental pollution and proliferation. The sharing of relevant information, i.e. cooperative monitoring, will be essential to addressing these issues. In fact, a number of regional interactions on nuclear issues are already occurring. These range from training exchanges sponsored by the more advanced states to participation in environmental monitoring of the East Sea (Sea of Japan). Several states are considering sharing information from their nuclear facilities; some exchanges of radiation data are already in place. The KEDO reactor project will involve close working relations between the nuclear experts of South Korea, North Korea, Japan, and the US. Areas for further regional cooperation are discussed.

  16. The Asia Pacific LNG trade: Status and technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Hovdestad, W.R.

    1995-10-01

    The Asia Pacific Region is experiencing a period of sustained economic expansion. Economic growth has led to an increasing demand for energy that has spurred a rapid expansion of baseload liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in this region. This is illustrated by the fact that seven of the ten baseload facilities in existence provide LNG for markets in the Asia Pacific region. With the three exceptions having been initially commissioned in 1972 and earlier, it is fair to observed that most advances in LNG technology have been developed and applied for this market. The paper presents the current status and identified future trends for the Asia Pacific LNG trade. Technology development in terms of application to onstream production, processing and transportation facilities, including LNG tankers, is presented. The potential of future advances to applied technology and operational practices to improve the cost-effectiveness of new and existing facilities is discussed. Current design data and methods as actually used are examined in terms of identifying where fundamental research and basic physical data are insufficient for optimization purposes. These findings are then summarized and presented in terms of the likely evolution of future and existing LNG projects in the Asia Pacific region.

  17. Inversing grided land surface carbon fluxes focusing on Asia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huifang

    2013-04-01

    With the global carbon budget research carrying out, there is a growing scientific and political interest to better understand terrestrial carbon cycle at global and regional scales. Asia, contributed one of the largest uncertainties to global carbon budget, needs further more investigation and study. The contribution of Asia to the global carbon cycle is characterized by its high fossil fuel emissions due to economic booming and demand steep rising in energy, a rapidly increasing land cover change or degradation caused by population explosion and crop land expansion, a fast forest recovering in virtue of forest afforestation in the past 20 years. These unique characteristics force the exchange of terrestrial carbon more heterogeneous in Asian continent, and lead the Asian carbon balance research's implementation more difficult. In view of the Asian net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon characteristics, we used a state-of-the-art CO2 data assimilation system called CarbonTraker to estimate NEE of CO2 in Asia for every week during the years 2000-2009. This approach includes the following three steps: (1) the atmospheric transport model (TM5) used in the data assimilation system was nested to be 1x1 degree grid in Asian area while globally at 2x3 degree resolution; (2) the number of CO2 observation sites was expend with 22 in Asia (including CONTRAIL and NOAA's CO2 measurement); and (3) two different prior flux products were used to estimate uncertainty ranges. We find the Asian terrestrial biosphere absorbed about 1.89 PgC (1 petagram=1015 g) per year averaged over the period studied, partly offsetting the estimated 3.87 PgC/yr release by fossil fuel burning and cement manufacturing. The estimated sink is located mainly in the boreal Asia, while the temperate Asia and the tropical Asia are a week sink and a very small source, respectively. The results also show that the surface fluxes produced by the CarbonTracker system were reasonably consistent with the recent

  18. Cenozoic tectonic evolution of Asia: A preliminary synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, An

    2010-06-01

    of east Asia was developed in two stages: initially in a widely distributed zone that has an east-west width of 500-800 km during 65-35 Ma, which was followed by localized extension and opening of back-arc basins associated with the development of spreading centers at 32-17 Ma (e.g., Japan Sea or East Korea Sea, Bohai Bay, and South China Sea). Opening of the back-arc basins could be induced by (1) rapid eastward migration of the western Pacific trench system or (2) oblique subduction of Pacific plate beneath Asia that had produced a series of en echelon right-slip primary shear zones linking with back-arc spreading centers oriented obliquely to the strike of the nearby trench. Since ~ 15 Ma, the eastern margin of Asia became contractional in the east-west direction, as indicated by the collapse of back-arc basins in the western Pacific and the development of fold-thrust belts along the eastern continental margin. Coeval with the contraction is widespread east-west extension in Siberia, North China, and the Tibetan plateau. The above observations can be explained by a change in boundary condition along the eastern margin of Asia that allowed the thickened Asian continent to spread eastward, causing east-west extension in its trailing edge and east-west compression in its leading edge. In west Asia, continental-margin extension started at about 25-20 Ma in the Aegean and Cretan regions, which was associated with a rapid southward retreat of the Hellenic arc. The complex evolution of Cenozoic deformation in Asia may be explained by a combined effect of temporal changes in plate boundary conditions, thermal evolution of the upper mantle perturbed by collisional tectonics, and the built-up of gravitational energy through crustal thickening and thermal heating. Although the past research in Asia has treated the India-Asia and Arabia-Asia convergence as separate collisional processes, their interaction may have controlled the far-field Cenozoic deformation in Asia. The

  19. Land Cover Analysis of Temperate Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Satellite data from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) instrument were used to produce a general land cover distribution of temperate Asia (referred to hence as Central Asia) from 1982, starting with the NOAA-7 satellite, and continuing through 1991, ending with the NOAA-11 satellite. Emphasis was placed upon delineating the and and semi-arid zones of Central Asia (largely Mongolia and adjacent areas), mapping broad categories of aggregated land cover, and upon studying photosynthetic capacity increases in Central Asia from 1982 to 1991.

  20. Cholera outbreaks in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bharati, Kaushik; Bhattacharya, S K

    2014-01-01

    This chapter highlights the cholera situation in South Asia and the Bay of Bengal region, the original 'homeland' of cholera. A detailed discussion of cholera outbreaks in individual countries in South-East Asia follows. The countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) SEARO (South-East Asia Region) region are discussed first, followed by discussions about the other countries in South-East Asia that do not fall within the purview of the WHO SEARO classification of the member countries of the region. Therefore, the chapter attempts to provide a comprehensive yet precise outline of the major cholera outbreaks that have occurred in the region over the years.

  1. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26042615

  2. Ciguatera fish poisoning in East Asia and southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-06-02

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases.

  3. AIDS. Grim news for Asia.

    PubMed

    1992-12-04

    While Asia was the last region to be exposed to the global spread of HIV and AIDS, the incidence of HIV infection there is increasing fastest. The Asian Development Bank predicts mortality from AIDS will cause some town and village populations to begin declining by the year 2000. With an estimated 1 million people infected in India, and 400,000 in Thailand, these 2 countries are particularly exposed to the risk of epidemic HIV spread. In 5 years, more people may be affected by AIDS in India than anywhere else in the world. Concern over a growing presence of HIV is also merited for the Philippines, Indonesia, China, and the drug trade's Golden Triangle. The Second International Conference on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific in November 1992 stressed that AIDS no longer affects only homosexual and IV drug using populations. 50% of new infections worldwide in the first half of 1992 were among women, 65% of Thailand's AIDS cases are among heterosexuals, and 3-5% of Thailand's long-haul truck drivers have tested positive for HIV infection. HIV and AIDS robs economies and societies of their best workers. The immediate costs of caring for AIDS patients will pale next to the far greater losses to be realized in private sector economic productivity. Asia's more developed economies will probably be able to survive the epidemic, but small, poor countries like Laos will wilt. Prompt action must be taken to overcome public and religious ignorance and objections to promoting and using condoms throughout the region. For the first time, Beijing has organized an AIDS awareness conference for male homosexuals. Further, Singapore has implemented compulsory testing for lower-income foreign workers. Pakistan has even solicited educational assistance and support from Islamic religious leaders; similar action is being considered in Bangladesh.

  4. Severe acute malnutrition in Asia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hossain, Muttaquina; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Hossain, Mir Mobarak; Bhandari, Nita; Lin, Maung Maung; Joshi, Prakash Chandra; Angdembe, Mirak Raj; Wickramasinghe, V Pujitha; Hossain, S M Moazzem; Shahjahan, Mohammad; Irianto, Sugeng Eko; Soofi, Sajid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar

    2014-06-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a common condition that kills children and intellectually maims those who survive. Close to 20 million children under the age of 5 years suffer from SAM globally, and about 1 million of them die each year. Much of this burden takes place in Asia. Six countries in Asia together have more than 12 million children suffering from SAM: 0.6 million in Afghanistan, 0.6 million in Bangladesh, 8.0 million in India, 1.2 million in Indonesia, 1.4 million in Pakistan, and 0.6 million in Yemen. This article is based on a review of SAM burden and intervention programs in Asian countries where, despite the huge numbers of children suffering from the condition, the coverage of interventions is either absent on a national scale or poor. Countries in Asia have to recognize SAM as a major problem and mobilize internal resources for its management. Screening of children in the community for SAM and appropriate referral and back referral require good health systems. Improving grassroots services will not only contribute to improving management of SAM, it will also improve infant and young child feeding and nutrition in general. Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF), the key to home management of SAM without complications, is still not endorsed by many countries because of its unavailability in the countries and its cost. It should preferably be produced locally from locally available food ingredients. Countries in Asia that do not have the capacity to produce RUTF from locally available food ingredients can benefit from other countries in the region that can produce it. Health facilities in all high-burden countries should be staffed and equipped to treat children with SAM. A continuous cascade of training of health staff on management of SAM can offset the damage that results from staff attrition or transfers. The basic nutrition interventions, which include breastfeeding, appropriate complementary feeding, micronutrient supplementation, and

  5. Asia-Pacific energy database

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Statistical data is presented in graphic and tabular form on the petroleum market in Asia and Pacific nations. Seven major categories are reported: (1) primary energy production and consumption; (2) historical petroleum product demand and forecasts; (3) crude oil production and exports; (4) import dependence; (5) crude and product pricing assumptions; (6) market share of refined products by suppliers in selected countries; and (7) refining margins. Petroleum demand and forecasts and crude oil production and exports are reported by country. Historical data are presented from 1970 through 1996, and forecasts are made through 2010.

  6. What Is Inner Asia? Teaching Aids for the Study of Inner Asia, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinor, Denis

    This pamphlet is the first of a series aimed at helping college and high school teachers incorporate facts pertaining to Inner Asia into their courses. Written in a narrative style, the pamphlet defines Inner Asia as a "cultural concept," part of the Eurasian continent lying outside the boundaries of Europe, the Middle East, India, Southeast Asia,…

  7. What Is Inner Asia? Teaching Aids for the Study of Inner Asia, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinor, Denis

    This pamphlet is the first of a series aimed at helping college and high school teachers incorporate facts pertaining to Inner Asia into their courses. Written in a narrative style, the pamphlet defines Inner Asia as a "cultural concept," part of the Eurasian continent lying outside the boundaries of Europe, the Middle East, India, Southeast Asia,…

  8. The Quest for an Entrepreneurial University in East Asia: Impact on Academics and Administrators in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, universities in East Asia have taken knowledge transfer more seriously, especially when the state funding for higher education was reduced while other private funding sources were diversified. Universities in East Asia collaborate with the industrial and business sectors on projects related to research, development, and…

  9. Towards Transformation of Knowledge and Subjectivity in Curriculum Inquiry: Insights from Chen Kuan-Hsing's "Asia as Method"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Angel M. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Chen's book, "Asia as Method" (Duke University Press, 2010), and his theorization on topics of de-imperialization, de-colonization, de-cold war, as well as on foregrounding epistemologies and frames of reference situated in the diverse contexts in Asia have contributed to empowering scholars and researchers situated not only in Taiwan,…

  10. Towards Transformation of Knowledge and Subjectivity in Curriculum Inquiry: Insights from Chen Kuan-Hsing's "Asia as Method"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Angel M. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Chen's book, "Asia as Method" (Duke University Press, 2010), and his theorization on topics of de-imperialization, de-colonization, de-cold war, as well as on foregrounding epistemologies and frames of reference situated in the diverse contexts in Asia have contributed to empowering scholars and researchers situated not only in Taiwan,…

  11. The Quest for an Entrepreneurial University in East Asia: Impact on Academics and Administrators in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, universities in East Asia have taken knowledge transfer more seriously, especially when the state funding for higher education was reduced while other private funding sources were diversified. Universities in East Asia collaborate with the industrial and business sectors on projects related to research, development, and…

  12. Tuberculosis and mental health in the Asia-Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Paul H; Sweetland, Annika C; Fox, Greg J; Halovic, Shaun; Nguyen, Thu Anh; Marks, Guy B

    2017-01-01

    Objective This opinion piece encourages mental health researchers and clinicians to engage with mental health issues among tuberculosis patients in the Asia-Pacific region in a culturally appropriate and ethical manner. The diversity of cultural contexts and the high burden of tuberculosis throughout the Asia-Pacific presents significant challenges. Research into tuberculosis and mental illness in this region is an opportunity to develop more nuanced models of mental illness and treatment, while simultaneously contributing meaningfully to regional tuberculosis care and prevention. Conclusions We overview key issues in tuberculosis and mental illness co-morbidity, highlight ethical concerns and advocate for a regional approach to tuberculosis and mental health that is consistent with the transnational challenges presented by this airborne infectious disease. Integrating tuberculosis and mental health services will go a long way to addressing the needs of vulnerable populations and stopping the transmission of one of the world’s biggest infectious killers. PMID:27206468

  13. Sex trafficking in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Huda, S

    2006-09-01

    Economic and social inequalities and political conflicts have led to the movement of persons within each country and across the borders in South Asia. Globalization has encouraged free mobility of capital, technology, experts and sex tourism. Illiteracy, dependency, violence, social stigma, cultural stereotypes, gender disparity and endemic poverty, among other factors, place women and children in powerless, non-negotiable situations that have contributed to the emergence and breeding of the cavernous problem of sex trafficking in the entire region. This alarming spread of sex trafficking has fuelled the spread of HIV infection in South Asia, posing a unique and serious threat to community health, poverty alleviation and other crucial aspects of human development. Although the SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) Convention on Trafficking in Women and Children has been an important breakthrough, most of the countries in the region do not have anti-trafficking legislation or means to protect the victims. Countries of the region should make a concerted effort to treat trafficking victims as "victims" of human rights violations in all anti-trafficking strategies and actions.

  14. Bolster Ground Force Capabilities in the Asia-Pacific Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-12

    Bolster Ground Force Capabilities in the Asia- Pacific Region 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...aggressively contested America’s ability to project power in an area of global economic importance: the Western Pacific . Notable Chinese efforts in this...capabilities, this research paper examines how U.S. Pacific Command (USPACOM) can shape the theater and assure the U.S. and its allies maintain access to the

  15. Savannahs of Asia: antiquity, biogeography, and an uncertain future.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, Jayashree; Tomlinson, Kyle W; Rasquinha, Dina N; Sankaran, Mahesh

    2016-09-19

    The savannahs of Asia remain locally unrecognized as distinctive ecosystems, and continue to be viewed as degraded forests or seasonally dry tropical forests. These colonial-era legacies are problematic, because they fail to recognize the unique diversity of Asian savannahs and the critical roles of fire and herbivory in maintaining ecosystem health and diversity. In this review, we show that: the palaeo-historical evidence suggests that the savannahs of Asia have existed for at least 1 million years, long before widespread landscape modification by humans; savannah regions across Asia have levels of C4 grass endemism and diversity that are consistent with area-based expectations for non-Asian savannahs; there are at least three distinct Asian savannah communities, namely deciduous broadleaf savannahs, deciduous fine-leafed and spiny savannahs and evergreen pine savannahs, with distinct functional ecologies consistent with fire- and herbivory-driven community assembly. Via an analysis of savannah climate domains on other continents, we map the potential extent of savannahs across Asia. We find that the climates of African savannahs provide the closest analogues for those of Asian deciduous savannahs, but that Asian pine savannahs occur in climates different to any of the savannahs in the southern continents. Finally, we review major threats to the persistence of savannahs in Asia, including the mismanagement of fire and herbivory, alien woody encroachment, afforestation policies and future climate uncertainty associated with the changing Asian monsoon. Research agendas that target these issues are urgently needed to manage and conserve these ecosystems.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Savannahs of Asia: antiquity, biogeography, and an uncertain future

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The savannahs of Asia remain locally unrecognized as distinctive ecosystems, and continue to be viewed as degraded forests or seasonally dry tropical forests. These colonial-era legacies are problematic, because they fail to recognize the unique diversity of Asian savannahs and the critical roles of fire and herbivory in maintaining ecosystem health and diversity. In this review, we show that: the palaeo-historical evidence suggests that the savannahs of Asia have existed for at least 1 million years, long before widespread landscape modification by humans; savannah regions across Asia have levels of C4 grass endemism and diversity that are consistent with area-based expectations for non-Asian savannahs; there are at least three distinct Asian savannah communities, namely deciduous broadleaf savannahs, deciduous fine-leafed and spiny savannahs and evergreen pine savannahs, with distinct functional ecologies consistent with fire- and herbivory-driven community assembly. Via an analysis of savannah climate domains on other continents, we map the potential extent of savannahs across Asia. We find that the climates of African savannahs provide the closest analogues for those of Asian deciduous savannahs, but that Asian pine savannahs occur in climates different to any of the savannahs in the southern continents. Finally, we review major threats to the persistence of savannahs in Asia, including the mismanagement of fire and herbivory, alien woody encroachment, afforestation policies and future climate uncertainty associated with the changing Asian monsoon. Research agendas that target these issues are urgently needed to manage and conserve these ecosystems. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation’. PMID:27502371

  17. A new thermal model for Northern and Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolk, Ward; Beekman, Fred; Kaban, Mikhail; Tesauro, Magdala; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2010-05-01

    Central and Northern Asia is a key natural laboratory for the study of active intra-continental deformation in response to the ongoing far-field collision of India and Eurasia. The induced tectonic processes strongly depend on the thermo-mechanical and compositional (density and thickness) structure of the lithosphere. Density heterogeneities within the crust and upper mantle are important factors in the control of the dynamics of Earth deformation at shallow and deep levels. The main aim of this research project is to construct new high-resolution 3D models of the compositional, thermal and rheological structure of the intra-continental lithosphere of the study area. The 3D models will be constructed by combining and jointly analysing satellite gravity data with terrestrial data (seismic velocity distributions, seismic tomography, GPS derived surface deformations, heat flow measurements and terrestrial gravity). Here we present a first new 3D thermal and lithospheric thickness model for Central and Northern Asia. This new thermal model is constructed using an improved version of the methodology presented by Goes et al (2000) and Tesauro et al (2009), and is based on a recent seismic tomographic model of Central Asia (Koulakov, personal communication) and a global Moho model. We also present a new estimate for the lithospheric thickness in the study area, based on the analysis of the spatial distribution of the 1100, 1200, and 1300C isotherms. The new higher resolution models show significant lateral variations in thermal structure across the study area, in particular across main structural boundaries. Central Asia is characterized by more heterogeneous thermal structure of the lithosphere compared to the adjacent cratonic areas in Northern and Western Asia. The observed thermal heterogeneity of Central Asia will result in an anomalous thermo-mechanical structure of the continental lithosphere, which in turn may control the development of the contemporary

  18. Asia`s energy future: The case of coal -- opportunities and constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-12-31

    In this paper the author presents his views about the changing energy mix in Asia to the year 2020, and why the importance of coal will continue. The topics of the paper include Asia`s energy mix compared with the rest of the world including nuclear power, hydropower, solar and wind energy, oil, coal, and natural gas; the economics of coal and natural gas; coal production and consumption; new energy sources; Asia`s energy mix in the year 2020; resource depletion and conclusions. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. East Asia: A Bibliography for Undergraduate Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillin, Donald; And Others

    This bibliography, similar to others on Asia and Africa, contains over 2000 titles relevant to the study of East Asia. Book, journal, and a few government citations -- the majority of which have been published within the last twenty years -- emphasize the humanities and social studies. Intended as a book selection guide, entries are graded as to…

  20. Characteristics of gastric cancer in Asia.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Rubayat; Asombang, Akwi W; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2014-04-28

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer in the world with more than 70% of cases occur in the developing world. More than 50% of cases occur in Eastern Asia. GC is the second leading cause of cancer death in both sexes worldwide. In Asia, GC is the third most common cancer after breast and lung and is the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Although the incidence and mortality rates are slowly declining in many countries of Asia, GC still remains a significant public health problem. The incidence and mortality varies according to the geographic area in Asia. These variations are closely related to the prevalence of GC risk factors; especially Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and its molecular virulent characteristics. The gradual and consistent improvements in socioeconomic conditions in Asia have lowered the H. pylori seroprevalence rates leading to a reduction in the GC incidence. However, GC remains a significant public health and an economic burden in Asia. There has been no recent systemic review of GC incidence, mortality, and H. pylori molecular epidemiology in Asia. The aim of this report is to review the GC incidence, mortality, and linkage to H. pylori in Asia.

  1. Asia Society's Ongoing Chinese Language Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livaccari, Chris; Wang, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Asia Society remains committed to promoting the teaching and learning of Chinese in American schools as an integral part of the broader agenda of building students' global competency, the key goal of its Partnership for Global Learning. Under the leadership of Asia Society's new Vice President for Education Tony Jackson and with continuing…

  2. Characteristics of gastric cancer in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Rubayat; Asombang, Akwi W; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer in the world with more than 70% of cases occur in the developing world. More than 50% of cases occur in Eastern Asia. GC is the second leading cause of cancer death in both sexes worldwide. In Asia, GC is the third most common cancer after breast and lung and is the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Although the incidence and mortality rates are slowly declining in many countries of Asia, GC still remains a significant public health problem. The incidence and mortality varies according to the geographic area in Asia. These variations are closely related to the prevalence of GC risk factors; especially Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and its molecular virulent characteristics. The gradual and consistent improvements in socioeconomic conditions in Asia have lowered the H. pylori seroprevalence rates leading to a reduction in the GC incidence. However, GC remains a significant public health and an economic burden in Asia. There has been no recent systemic review of GC incidence, mortality, and H. pylori molecular epidemiology in Asia. The aim of this report is to review the GC incidence, mortality, and linkage to H. pylori in Asia. PMID:24782601

  3. Pedagogical Approaches and Strategies for Teaching Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chau, Donovan C.

    2014-01-01

    Asia today is the center of tremendous growth. With the continued rise of China and the influential roles of Japan and South Korea in international affairs, it is no wonder that the 21st century has been dubbed the Asian century. Outside of these influential political actors, one also see the growing political significance of Southeast Asia in…

  4. A role for INDEPTH Asian sites in translating research to action for non-communicable disease prevention and control: a case study from Ballabgarh, India

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Anand; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Kapoor, Suresh Kumar; Pandav, Chandrakant

    2009-01-01

    Background The International Network of field sites with continuous Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH) has 34 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in 17 different low and middle-income countries. Of these, 23 sites are in Africa, 10 sites are in Asia, and one in Oceania. The INDEPTH HDSS sites in Asia identified chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) as a neglected area of attention. As a first step, they conducted NCD risk factor surveys within nine sites in five countries. These sites are now looking to broaden the agenda of research on NCDs using the baseline data to inform policy and practice. Methods A conceptual framework for translating research into action for NCDs at INDEPTH sites was developed. This had five steps – assess the problem, understand the nature of the problem, evaluate different interventions in research mode, implement evidence-based interventions in programme mode, and finally, share knowledge and provide leadership to communities and countries. Ballabgarh HDSS site in India has successfully adopted these steps and is used as a case study to demonstrate how this progress was achieved and what factors were responsible for a successful outcome. Results Most of the HDSS sites are in the second step of the process of translating research to action (understand the problem). The conduct of NCD risk factor surveys has enabled an assessment of the burden of NCD risk together with determinants in order to understand the burden at the population level. The experience from Ballabgarh HDSS exemplifies that the following steps – pilot testing the interventions, implementing activities in programme mode, and finally, share knowledge and provide leadership – are also possible in rural settings in low-income countries. The critical success factors identified were involvement of a premier medical institution, pre-existing links to policy makers and programme managers, strong commitment of the HDSS team and

  5. A role for INDEPTH Asian sites in translating research to action for non-communicable disease prevention and control: a case study from Ballabgarh, India.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Anand; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Kapoor, Suresh Kumar; Pandav, Chandrakant

    2009-09-28

    The International Network of field sites with continuous Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH) has 34 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in 17 different low and middle-income countries. Of these, 23 sites are in Africa, 10 sites are in Asia, and one in Oceania. The INDEPTH HDSS sites in Asia identified chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) as a neglected area of attention. As a first step, they conducted NCD risk factor surveys within nine sites in five countries. These sites are now looking to broaden the agenda of research on NCDs using the baseline data to inform policy and practice. A conceptual framework for translating research into action for NCDs at INDEPTH sites was developed. This had five steps - assess the problem, understand the nature of the problem, evaluate different interventions in research mode, implement evidence-based interventions in programme mode, and finally, share knowledge and provide leadership to communities and countries. Ballabgarh HDSS site in India has successfully adopted these steps and is used as a case study to demonstrate how this progress was achieved and what factors were responsible for a successful outcome. Most of the HDSS sites are in the second step of the process of translating research to action (understand the problem). The conduct of NCD risk factor surveys has enabled an assessment of the burden of NCD risk together with determinants in order to understand the burden at the population level. The experience from Ballabgarh HDSS exemplifies that the following steps - pilot testing the interventions, implementing activities in programme mode, and finally, share knowledge and provide leadership - are also possible in rural settings in low-income countries. The critical success factors identified were involvement of a premier medical institution, pre-existing links to policy makers and programme managers, strong commitment of the HDSS team and adequate human resource capacity

  6. Fake artesunate in southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Newton, P; Proux, S; Green, M; Smithuis, F; Rozendaal, J; Prakongpan, S; Chotivanich, K; Mayxay, M; Looareesuwan, S; Farrar, J; Nosten, F; White, N J

    2001-06-16

    Artesunate is a key antimalarial drug in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in southeast Asia. We investigated the distribution of counterfeit artesunate tablets by use of the validated, simple, and inexpensive Fast Red TR dye technique. We also aimed to identify distinguishing characteristics of the fake drugs. Of 104 shop-bought "artesunate" samples from Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, and Vietnam, 38% did not contain artesunate. Characteristics such as cost and physical appearance of the tablets and packaging reliably predicted authenticity. The illicit trade in counterfeit antimalarials is a great threat to the lives of patients with malaria. The dye test will assist national malaria control authorities in urgently needed campaigns to stop this murderous trade.

  7. South Asia's health promotion kaleidoscope.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Alok

    2007-01-01

    South Asia has 22 percent of the world's population but only 1.3 percent of the global income. Consequently 40 percent of the population is living in absolute poverty. However the health transition in some of its countries including India and Sri Lanka is a testimony to the fact that there are proven solutions to the problems of health and development within the region. The countries of the region have much in common, including a democratic political system, four major religions, a vibrant and living tradition of voluntarism and an extensive health infrastructure which is operating well below par. Despite the underlying unity, South Asia enjoys enormous cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity. In this large, complex and vibrant region, health promotion is a challenging task, but it also holds the key to a dramatic change in the global health situation. Many of these solutions lie in wider areas of socio-political action. There are much needed shifts in the health promotion and development efforts, particularly in the area of poverty and social justice; gender inequity; population stabilisation; health and environment; control of communicable and non-communicable diseases; and urban health strategies. The principle of cooperation, partnership and intersectoral collaboration for health will be explored. Developing an appropriate, sustainable and people centred health and development strategy in the coming decades is an enormous challenge. There has been an attempt to focus on the emerging needs of the region, which call for health promotion, and involvement of civil society, private sector and the governments bestowed with the increased responsibility of ensuring health security for people. Strengthening the existing health systems, allocating adequate resources for health development and ensuring community participation are all prerequisites to the success of health promotion in the region.

  8. Asia-Pacific consensus statements on Crohn's disease. Part 2: Management.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Choon Jin; Makharia, Govind K; Hilmi, Ida; Gibson, Peter R; Fock, Kwong Ming; Ahuja, Vineet; Ling, Khoon Lin; Lim, Wee Chian; Thia, Kelvin T; Wei, Shu-chen; Leung, Wai Keung; Koh, Poh Koon; Gearry, Richard B; Goh, Khean Lee; Ouyang, Qin; Sollano, Jose; Manatsathit, Sathaporn; de Silva, H Janaka; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Pisespongsa, Pises; Abu Hassan, Muhamad Radzi; Sung, Joseph; Hibi, Toshifumi; Boey, Christopher C M; Moran, Neil; Leong, Rupert W L

    2016-01-01

    The Asia Pacific Working Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease was established in Cebu, Philippines, at the Asia Pacific Digestive Week conference in 2006 under the auspices of the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology (APAGE) with the goal of developing best management practices, coordinating research and raising awareness of IBD in the region. The consensus group previously published recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis (UC) with specific relevance to the Asia-Pacific region. The present consensus statements were developed following a similar process to address the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease (CD). The goals of these statements are to pool the pertinent literature specifically highlighting relevant data and conditions in the Asia-Pacific region relating to the economy, health systems, background infectious diseases, differential diagnoses and treatment availability. It does not intend to be all-comprehensive and future revisions are likely to be required in this ever-changing field.

  9. MICS-Asia II: Impact of global emissions on regional air quality in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Tracey; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Han, Zhiwei; Ehlers, Susanna; Spak, Scott N.; Horowitz, Larry W.; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Streets, David G.; Hozumi, Y.; Ueda, Hiromasa; Park, S. U.; Fung, Christopher; Kajino, M.; Thongboonchoo, Narisara; Engardt, Magnuz; Bennet, Cecilia; Hayami, Hiroshi; Sartelet, Karine; Wang, Zifa; Matsuda, K.; Amann, Markus

    This study quantifies the seasonality and geographic variability of global pollutant inflow to Asia. Asia is often looked to as a major source of intercontinental air pollution transport with rising emissions and efficient pollutant export processes. However, the degree to which foreign emissions have been imported to Asia has not been thoroughly examined. The Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) is an international collaboration to study air pollution transport and chemistry in Asia. Using the global atmospheric chemistry Model of Ozone and Related Tracers (MOZART v. 2.4), and comparing results with a suite of regional models participating in MICS-Asia, we find that imported O 3 contributes significantly throughout Asia. The choice of upper boundary condition is found to be particularly important for O 3, even for surface concentrations. Both North America and Europe contribute to ground-level O 3 concentrations throughout the region, though the seasonality of these two sources varies. North American contributions peak at over 10% of monthly mean O 3 during winter months in East Asia, compared to Europe's spring- and autumn-maxima (5-8%). In comparison to observed data from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET), MOZART concentrations for O 3 generally fall within the range of the MICS models, but MOZART is unable to capture the fine spatial variability of shorter-lived species as well as the regional models.

  10. Interview: Health technology assessment in Asia: an emerging trend.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bong-min

    2012-05-01

    Bong-min Yang, PhD (in economics), is Professor and former Dean of the School of Public Health at the Seoul National University, South Korea. Professor Yang has led research and written many papers in health economics and healthcare systems in Korea and Asia. His recent research and publications focus on the field of economic evaluation and outcomes research. He played a key role in the introduction of a formal health technology assessment system within Korean healthcare. He is currently serving as Executive Director, Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University. In addition to his research and publications, Professor Yang is Associate Editor for Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, is co-editor-in-chief for Value in Health Regional Issues, and is currently chair of the Management Advisory Board of Value in Health and a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Medical Economics. He has been a policy consultant to China, Japan, Indonesia, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand and India. He has also worked as a short-term consultant at the WHO, ADB, UNDP and the World Bank. For the Korean government, he served as Chairperson of the Health Insurance Reform Committee, and Chairperson of the Drug Pricing and Reimbursement Committee. He is currently serving as Chair of the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research-Asia Consortium, and a member of the Board of Directors of the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research.

  11. AIDS in Asia and the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Karel, S G; Robey, B

    1988-09-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been an African and Western concern due to its epidemic nature. Although nearly 99% of all reported cases occurred in these regions, Asia has reported cases, and the potential for devastation of Asia's already strained health care reserves are undeniable. This review compiled by analysis of 1986-88 articles on AIDS research, demographics, official statements from government and health organizations, news reports, and public statements describe how AIDS has spread in well documented regions like America, Europe, and Africa, and how the Asian regions have attempted to handle the AIDS epidemic before it becomes as serious as in the West. The topics covered include a clinical overview of how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS, how it is transmitted, and what are the primary forms of transmission in well documented regions. The report briefly documents what policies China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, Taiwan, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Australia, and New Zealand have individually instituted to stem the flow of AIDS into their country, and/or stop the spread of AIDS already found there. The efforts to combat AIDS globally by the World Health Organization/United Nations Development Program alliance (WHO-UNDP) along with the US Agency for International Development (USAID), and UNICEF are highlighted. The available research and aid programs are contrasted with how the Asian nations are preparing to deal with the AIDS epidemic. 1) AIDS has an incubation time wherein an infected individual is not AIDS symptomatic, but is capable of infecting others, and this hidden infected population makes it essential that containment policies are also enforced in countries with few reported cases. 2) A committee should be established in all Asian countries to coordinate education on safe sexual behaviors with specific programs for prostitutes

  12. The Epidemiology of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Wee Ming; Bogich, Tiffany; Siegel, Karen; Jin, Jing; Chong, Elizabeth Y.; Tan, Chong Yew; Chen, Mark IC; Horby, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Context: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a widespread pediatric disease caused primarily by human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16). Objective: This study reports a systematic review of the epidemiology of HFMD in Asia. Data Sources: PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar were searched up to December 2014. Study Selection: Two reviewers independently assessed studies for epidemiologic and serologic information about prevalence and incidence of HFMD against predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Data Extraction: Two reviewers extracted answers for 8 specific research questions on HFMD epidemiology. The results are checked by 3 others. Results: HFMD is found to be seasonal in temperate Asia with a summer peak and in subtropical Asia with spring and fall peaks, but not in tropical Asia; evidence of a climatic role was identified for temperate Japan. Risk factors for HFMD include hygiene, age, gender and social contacts, but most studies were underpowered to adjust rigorously for confounding variables. Both community-level and school-level transmission have been implicated, but their relative importance for HFMD is inconclusive. Epidemiologic indices are poorly understood: No supporting quantitative evidence was found for the incubation period of EV-A71; the symptomatic rate of EV-A71/Coxsackievirus A16 infection was from 10% to 71% in 4 studies; while the basic reproduction number was between 1.1 and 5.5 in 3 studies. The uncertainty in these estimates inhibits their use for further analysis. Limitations: Diversity of study designs complicates attempts to identify features of HFMD epidemiology. Conclusions: Knowledge on HFMD remains insufficient to guide interventions such as the incorporation of an EV-A71 vaccine in pediatric vaccination schedules. Research is urgently needed to fill these gaps. PMID:27273688

  13. Fires and Thick Smoke Across Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Vehicles and power plants are not the only sources of air pollution and greenhouses gases: fires contribute, too. In the Northern Hemisphere spring, which is the end of dry season across much of Southeast Asia, thousands of fires burn each year as people clear cropland and pasture in anticipation of the upcoming wet (growing) season. Intentional fires also escape people's control and burn into adjacent forest. The smoke from these fires crosses the Pacific Ocean, affecting climate far away. This dramatic photo-like image of fires and smoke in Southeast Asia was captured on April 2, 2007, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite. MODIS detected hundreds, possibly thousands of fires (marked in red), burning in Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and China. Thick smoke hides nearly all of Laos, where the highest concentration of fires is located. In southern China and northern Vietnam, the smoke has sunk into the valleys that crisscross the mountainous terrain; only the highest ridgelines, which appear dark green, emerge from the blanket of smoke. The smoke sails above a bank of clouds at upper right as a dingy, yellowish haze. Fires have been burning in the region for more than month, as shown by the high carbon monoxide levels observed by NASA's MOPITT sensor during March 2007. In addition to carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, fires produce tiny particles of incompletely burned, or charred, carbon. According to research published in mid-March 2007 in the Journal of Geophysical Research, significant amounts of this black carbon travel across the Pacific Ocean to North America at altitudes above 2 kilometers. In spring 2004, between 25-35 gigatons (roughly 55 to 77 million pounds) of black carbon crossed the Pacific and entered skies over western North America between March 26 and April 25; nearly 75 percent of it came from Asia. (Smoke and other pollution have no respect for borders; for example, scientists have also

  14. Fires and Thick Smoke Across Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Vehicles and power plants are not the only sources of air pollution and greenhouses gases: fires contribute, too. In the Northern Hemisphere spring, which is the end of dry season across much of Southeast Asia, thousands of fires burn each year as people clear cropland and pasture in anticipation of the upcoming wet (growing) season. Intentional fires also escape people's control and burn into adjacent forest. The smoke from these fires crosses the Pacific Ocean, affecting climate far away. This dramatic photo-like image of fires and smoke in Southeast Asia was captured on April 2, 2007, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite. MODIS detected hundreds, possibly thousands of fires (marked in red), burning in Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and China. Thick smoke hides nearly all of Laos, where the highest concentration of fires is located. In southern China and northern Vietnam, the smoke has sunk into the valleys that crisscross the mountainous terrain; only the highest ridgelines, which appear dark green, emerge from the blanket of smoke. The smoke sails above a bank of clouds at upper right as a dingy, yellowish haze. Fires have been burning in the region for more than month, as shown by the high carbon monoxide levels observed by NASA's MOPITT sensor during March 2007. In addition to carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, fires produce tiny particles of incompletely burned, or charred, carbon. According to research published in mid-March 2007 in the Journal of Geophysical Research, significant amounts of this black carbon travel across the Pacific Ocean to North America at altitudes above 2 kilometers. In spring 2004, between 25-35 gigatons (roughly 55 to 77 million pounds) of black carbon crossed the Pacific and entered skies over western North America between March 26 and April 25; nearly 75 percent of it came from Asia. (Smoke and other pollution have no respect for borders; for example, scientists have also

  15. Understanding patient and physician perceptions of benign prostatic hyperplasia in Asia Pacific, Latin America and the Commonwealth of Independent States: the Prostate Research on Behaviour and Education (PROBE) II survey.

    PubMed

    Ertel, Phillip; Adalig, Burkay; Demircan, Ipek; Lartey, Belinda; Manyak, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    To assess attitudes and beliefs towards benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)/ lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and its treatment among patients and physicians in Latin America, Asia Pacific and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Cross-sectional, quantitative study conducted between December 2014 and September 2015. Separate questionnaires were administered to BPH/LUTS patients receiving drug treatment for their condition and to practising physicians who treat patients with BPH/LUTS. In total, 1094 patients and 202 physicians completed a questionnaire. Most patients (61%) felt very/fairly well informed about BPH/LUTS, and 60% of physicians perceived patients to be very/somewhat informed. Overall, 70% of physicians felt that it would be valuable to raise awareness of BPH/LUTS and encourage men to consult a physician. The first symptoms most commonly noticed by patients were need to urinate more frequently, slower/weaker stream and nocturia. At first consultation, 71% of patients recalled providing a urine sample, 57% having a blood test for prostate-specific antigen and 56% a digital rectal examination being performed. Over two thirds of patients (69%) were satisfied with their current medication; highest satisfaction rates (among both patients and physicians) were reported for alpha blockers and 5ARIs, either as monotherapies or used in combination. Patients were prepared to wait longer for symptom relief in order to have a reduced risk of surgery. Most physicians (90%) thought that at least some patients believe BPH/LUTS to be a progressive condition. Most physicians thought that patients were very/fairly concerned about BPH surgery (92%) and acute urinary retention (72%); 52% of physicians thought treatment adherence was "extremely" important. This study provides valuable insights into the attitudes and beliefs of patients and physicians in Asia Pacific, Latin America and CIS about BPH/LUTS and its management. It also highlights areas of discordance

  16. Regional Location Calibration in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steck, L. K.; Hartse, H.; Aprea, C.; Franks, J.; Velasco, A.; Randall, G.; Bradley, C.; Begnaud, M.; Aguilar-Chang, J.

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents a spectrum of issues and efforts involved in improving seismic location performance worldwide. Our efforts are largely designed around providing validated, rigorously calibrated travel times, azimuths, and slownesses along with accurate error estimates. To do so entails a significant effort that includes data mining, data integration, database management, developing optimal 1-, 2-, and 3-D Earth models, using the Earth models to predict wave propagation, developing corrections and errors for travel times, azimuths, and slownesses, and validation of all products. Results presented here will focus on Asia. For the region around station MAKZ in north-central Asia we have looked at several tens of published 1-D velocity models. For each model, travel time calculations were performed, predictions for P and S arrivals were established, and the predicted times were compared to the observed. We will present best-fit models for tectonic provinces out to regional distances from MAKZ. Previous work has shown that Non-stationary Modified Bayesian Kriging of travel time residuals successfully improves regional seismic event location, and this method is being extended to calculate corrections for azimuth and slowness. The ability to krig over 3-D Earth models is also being implemented. In order to produce the most useful corrections, we require accurate ground truth. For this we are continuing efforts to create a location database consisting of the best available seismic event locations and the most accurate and precise travel times. Building this database relies on participation from universities, other NNSA laboratories, and contacts in private industry. Through the kriging procedure we are able to stabilize location algorithms, but the ultimate usefulness of the corrections themselves is directly related to the quality of the ground truth from which the corrections are derived. Indeed, epicentral mislocations from EvLoc using travel time correction

  17. Value of Information in Asia: Concepts, Current Use, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Dilokthornsakul, Piyameth; McQueen, R Brett; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Spackman, Eldon; Watanabe, Jonathan H; Campbell, Jonathan D

    2016-05-01

    Health technology assessment is a form of health policy research that provides policymakers with information relevant to decisions about policy alternatives. Findings from cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) are one of the important aspects of health technology assessment. Nevertheless, the more advanced method of value of information (VOI), which is recommended by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research and Society for Medical Decision Making Modeling Good Research Practices Task Force, has rarely been applied in CEA studies in Asia. The lack of VOI in Asian CEA studies may be due to limited understanding of VOI methods and what VOI can and cannot help policy decision makers accomplish. This concept article offers audiences a practical primer in understanding the calculation, presentation, and policy implications of VOI. In addition, it provides a rapid survey of health technology assessment guidelines and literature related to VOI in Asia and discusses the future directions of VOI use in Asia and its potential barriers. This article will enable health economists, outcomes researchers, and policymakers in Asia to better understand the importance of VOI analysis and its implications, leading to the appropriate use of VOI in Asia.

  18. Changing epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in Asia.

    PubMed

    Goh, George Boon-Bee; Chang, Pik-Eu; Tan, Chee-Kiat

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a major problem in Asia because of the presence of multiple risk factors in the region such as endemicity of hepatitis B and significant contamination of foodstuff by aflatoxin in some areas. Another risk factor for HCC, chronic hepatitis C infection, in Asia is most significant in Japan, the only Asian country with more HCV than HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma. As these risk factors can and are being modified by measures such as universal hepatitis B immunisation, successful treatment of HCV infections, reduction and improved surveillance of aflatoxin contamination of foodstuff, it is not surprising that the epidemiology of HCC in Asia is changing. All these are offset by the rising importance of NAFLD and NASH as chronic liver diseases and risk factors for HCC which contributes to the changing epidemiology of HCC in Asia.

  19. Transport: Shipping emissions in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, James

    2016-11-01

    Large growth in East Asia's sea-borne trade has increased premature deaths and atmospheric warming in the region. New legislation could reduce these impacts in areas around China, but joint efforts are needed for region-wide benefits.

  20. Systemic lupus erythematosus: the face of Asia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pao-Hsii

    2007-06-01

    This review documents the remarkable progress systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has made in the past 40 years especially in Asia. It provides a kaleidoscope in terms of prevalence, ethnic and regional variations, disease manifestation, treatment strategies, and outcome. From a seminal paper on the use of intravenous cyclophosphamide in 1964 from Singapore to the use of mycophenolate mofetil in 2000 from Hong Kong and Guangzhou, the prognosis of lupus has changed dramatically in the last few decades. With more targeted therapies and better translational research, this progress is set to continue in the coming years. From an acute fulminating illness, lupus has now evolved to one with a chronic, relapsing course. The main causes of morbidity and mortality are now either treatment-related or patient-related rather than the disease itself. The present time is one of unprecedented growth of new therapeutic approaches and reevaluation of past treatment modalities. With improving socioeconomic conditions in the region, we anticipate further rapid progress in disease outcome. Although living with the wolf is still an ordeal for our patients, optimism has now replaced nihilism in the lupus world. There is light at the end of the tunnel.

  1. Non-invasive screening for colorectal cancer in Asia.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Han-Mo; Chang, Li-Chun; Hsu, Wen-Feng; Chou, Chu-Kuang; Wu, Ming-Shiang

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing trend of colorectal cancer incidence in Asia and nearly 45% of CRC cases worldwide occur in Asia therefore screening for CRC becomes an urgent task. Stool-based tests, including guaiac fecal occult blood test (gFOBT) and fecal immunochemical test (FIT), can select subjects at risk of significant colorectal neoplasms from the large target population thus are currently the most commonly used non-invasive screening tool in large population screening programs. FIT has the advantage over gFOBT in terms of higher sensitivity for early neoplasms, the ability to provide high-throughput automatic analysis, and better public acceptance thus greater effectiveness on reducing CRC mortality and incidence is expected. Owing to the large target population and constrained endoscopic capacity and manpower, FIT is nowadays the most popular CRC screening test in Asia. Some Asian countries have launched nationwide screening program in the past one or two decades but also encountered some challenges such as low screening participation rate, low verification rate after positive stool tests, low public awareness, and insufficient manpower. In addition, some controversial or potential future research issues are also addressed in this review.

  2. Nuclear relations in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Joeck, N.

    1998-12-18

    The strategic landscape of South Asia changed dramatically in 1998. With the reciprocal testing of nuclear weapons, India and Pakistan emerged from the world of threshold status to an overt posture which has yet to be fully defined. Each claims the status of a nuclear weapon state, yet the contours of that status are unclear. A number of important strategic issues have been raised by these dramatic events. This paper will attempt to examine the implications of this new posture for each country and for the region. First and foremost, the decisions to test nuclear weapons are a product of each individual state making a sovereign decision about its national security needs. Both have made clear for a number of years that their attitudes toward nuclear weapons-and by default, toward nuclear nonproliferation-will not be directed by outsiders. They have rejected the global norms that oppose the further proliferation of nuclear weapons, embodied in the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), and that embrace the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons, captured in Article VI of that treaty. The decisions reached in New Delhi and lslamabad have been questioned by many, but the tests cannot be undone and it now falls on both countries to make further decisions about what strategies will best serve them, and what obligations they must now assume. Issues such as strategic planning, weaponization, deployment, and command and control, which heretofore were relegated to the back burner, may no longer be deferred.

  3. Exporting vices: smoking in Asia.

    PubMed

    Cutler, B

    1988-08-01

    Marketing statistics of U.S. cigarette exports indicate that despite notable declines in sales at home, sales to foreign countries, especially in Asia, Africa and Latin America, are growing dramatically. World cigarette consumption has doubled since 1960, mainly in less developed countries. In 1987, American tobacco firms increased cigarette exports 76%, or 1 billion in new sales. U.S. smoking dropped in 1985-86 from 30.4 to 26.5% of adults. In Taiwan, tariffs were removed from U.S. cigarettes, lowering prices from $2.86 to 1.30, and raising U.S. imports from $4.4 to 119 million. South Korean trade barriers were removed in May 1988, creating a large market. Japan imports 32% of exported U.S. cigarettes, has 120 million smokers, and is the beneficiary of a massive advertising campaign centered on young people and women. The Asian response to the smoking phenomenon is emerging in the form of restrictions on timing of TV advertising (Japan and Taiwan), health warnings (Japan and Taiwan), and restriction of smoking in public places (Hong Kong).

  4. Malaria successes and challenges in Asia.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Rajesh; Rastogi, Rakesh Mani; Ortega, Leonard

    2013-12-01

    Asia ranks second to Africa in terms of malaria burden. In 19 countries of Asia, malaria is endemic and 2.31 billion people or 62% of the total population in these countries are at risk of malaria. In 2010, WHO estimated around 34.8 million cases and 45,600 deaths due to malaria in Asia. In 2011, 2.7 million cases and > 2000 deaths were reported. India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Pakistan are responsible for >85% of the reported cases (confirmed) and deaths in Asia. In last 10 yr, due to availability of donor's fund specially from Global fund, significant progress has been made by the countries in Asia in scaling-up malaria control interventions which were instrumental in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality significantly. There is a large heterogeneity in malaria epidemiology in Asia. As a result, the success in malaria control/elimination is also diverse. As compared to the data of the year 2000, out of 19 malaria endemic countries, 12 countries were able to reduce malaria incidence (microscopically confirmed cases only) by 75%. Two countries, namely Bangladesh and Malaysia are projected to reach 75% reduction by 2015 while India is projected to reach 50-75% only by 2015. The trend could not be assessed in four countries, namely Indonesia, Myanmar, Pakistan and Timor-Leste due to insufficient consistent data. Numerous key challenges need to be addressed to sustain the gains and eliminate malaria in most parts of Asia. Some of these are to control the spread of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin, control of outdoor transmission, control of vivax malaria and ensuring universal coverage of key interventions. Asia has the potential to influence the malaria epidemiology all over the world as well as to support the global efforts in controlling and eliminating malaria through production of quality-assured ACTs, RDTs and long-lasting insecticidal nets.

  5. Psychogeriatrics in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Chiu, H F; Ng, L L; Nivataphand, R; Yong, K C; Lengkong, Y; Buenaventura, R D; Li, S W

    1997-10-01

    A common phenomenon in South-East Asia is ageing of the population. This article describes the various stages of development of psychogeriatrics in Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines. It is only in the last few years that more systematic development of psychogeriatric services has begun under the pressure of an ageing population. The model of service delivery in Hong Kong can serve as an example of development of psychogeriatric services in South-East Asia.

  6. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Morocco

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    JPRS-NEA-92-030 19 MARCH 1992 SFOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE -:PRS Report "Near East & South Asia MOROCCO 19980113 275 REPRODUCED BY U.S...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA 22161 Near East & South Asia MOROCCO JPRS-NEA-92-030 CONTENTS 19 March 1992...NEA-92-030 19 March 1992 POLITICAL 1 INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS "Fish should not poison relations between the EEC and Morocco . It is up to the competent

  7. Chemistry and Climate in Asia - An Earth System Modeling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, M. C.; Emmons, L. K.; Massie, S. T.; Pfister, G.; Romero Lankao, P.; Lamarque, J.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2011-12-01

    Asia is one of the most highly populated and economically dynamic regions in the world, with much of the population located in growing mega-cities. It is a region with significant emissions of greenhouse gases, aerosols and other pollutants, which pose high health risks to urban populations. Emissions of these aerosols and gases increased drastically over the last decade due to economic growth and urbanization and are expected to rise further in the near future. As such, the continent plays a role in influencing climate change via its effluent of aerosols and gaseous pollutants. Asia is also susceptible to adverse climate change through interactions between aerosols and clouds, which potentially can have serious implications for freshwater resources. We are developing an integrated inter-disciplinary program to focus on Asia, its climate, air quality, and impact on humans that will include connections with hydrology, ecosystems, extreme weather events, and human health. The primary goal of this project is to create a team to identify key scientific questions and establish networks of specialists to create a plan for future studies to address these questions. A second goal is to establish research facilities and a framework for investigating chemistry and climate over Asia. These facilities include producing high resolution Earth System Model simulations that have been evaluated with meteorological and chemical measurements, producing high-resolution emission inventories, analyzing satellite data, and analyzing the vulnerability of humans to air quality and extreme natural events. In this presentation we will describe in more detail these activities and discuss a future workshop on the impact of chemistry in climate on air quality and human health.

  8. Bioclimatic Classification of Northeast Asia for climate change response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Jeon, S. W.; Lim, C. H.

    2016-12-01

    As climate change has been getting worse, we should monitor the change of biodiversity, and distribution of species to handle the crisis and take advantage of climate change. The development of bioclimatic map which classifies land into homogenous zones by similar environment properties is the first step to establish a strategy. Statistically derived classifications of land provide useful spatial frameworks to support ecosystem research, monitoring and policy decisions. Many countries are trying to make this kind of map and actively utilize it to ecosystem conservation and management. However, the Northeast Asia including North Korea doesn't have detailed environmental information, and has not built environmental classification map. Therefore, this study presents a bioclimatic map of Northeast Asia based on statistical clustering of bioclimate data. Bioclim data ver1.4 which provided by WorldClim were considered for inclusion in a model. Eight of the most relevant climate variables were selected by correlation analysis, based on previous studies. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was used to explain 86% of the variation into three independent dimensions, which were subsequently clustered using an ISODATA clustering. The bioclimatic zone of Northeast Asia could consist of 29, 35, and 50 zones. This bioclimatic map has a 30' resolution. To assess the accuracy, the correlation coefficient was calculated between the first principal component values of the classification variables and the vegetation index, Gross Primary Production (GPP). It shows about 0.5 Pearson correlation coefficient. This study constructed Northeast Asia bioclimatic map by statistical method with high resolution, but in order to better reflect the realities, the variety of climate variables should be considered. Also, further studies should do more quantitative and qualitative validation in various ways. Then, this could be used more effectively to support decision making on climate change

  9. Seismic monitoring of Central Asia territory in KNDC.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukambayev, Aidyn; Mikhailova, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    The Central Asia territory includes the territory of five post-Soviet countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Every country has its own independent network of seismic observations and Data Processing Center aimed at every day seismic monitoring of one country territory. However, seismic hazard of Central Asia territory is stipulated by one geodynamic system that generates simultaneous large earthquakes on the territory of different countries. Thus, it is necessary to observe seismic situation for the whole region for emergency situations and for compilation of joint seismic bulletins of Central Asia region. A new contemporary network of seismic observations operated by the Institute of Geophysical Researches has been installed in Kazakhstan during last 15 years. Mainly, these are seismic arrays located throughout the country perimeter. The arrays were constructed under support of the CTBTO, and AFTAC. There are also IRIS and CAREMON stations. All data arrive to KNDC (Kazakhstan National Data Center) in real time mode. In addition, KNDC receives data in real time from stations Zalesovo (Russia), Alibek (Turkmenistan), Ala-Archa and Tokmak (Kyrgyzstan). Arrival times in the form of tables are received with 24-hours delay from almost 20 Kazakhstan stations belonging to SEME MES RK. This observation system allows monitoring the Central Asian seismicity by earthquakes with representative magnitude more than 3.5. In some regions, the events with magnitude 1.5 are recorded. As result, different products with different operativity are created for Central Asia territory: -bulletin of urgent alerts; -automatic seismic bulletin; -interactive seismic bulletin; -joint seismic operative bulletin by data arrived on-line and in table form. After that, in retrospective mode, the events nature is identified to discriminate mining explosions (up to 4000 per year) and natural earthquakes (up to 15000 per year). The results are available at KNDC web

  10. Dengue in the Americas and Southeast Asia: do they differ?

    PubMed

    Halstead, Scott B

    2006-12-01

    The populations of Southeast Asia (SE Asia) and tropical America are similar, and all four dengue viruses of Asian origin are endemic in both regions. Yet, during comparable 5-year periods, SE Asia experienced 1.16 million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), principally in children, whereas in the Americas there were 2.8 million dengue fever (DF) cases, principally in adults, and only 65,000 DHF cases. This review aims to explain these regional differences. In SE Asia, World War II amplified Aedes aegypti populations and the spread of dengue viruses. In the Americas, efforts to eradicate A. aegypti in the 1940s and 1950s contained dengue epidemics mainly to the Caribbean Basin. Cuba escaped infections with the American genotype dengue-2 and an Asian dengue-3 endemic in the 1960s and 1970s. Successive infections with dengue-1 and an Asian genotype dengue-2 resulted in the 1981 DHF epidemic. When this dengue-2 virus was introduced in other Caribbean countries, it encountered populations highly immune to the American genotype dengue-2. During the 1980s and 1990s, rapidly expanding populations of A. aegypti in Brazil permitted successive epidemics of dengue-1, -2, and -3. These exposures, however, resulted mainly in DF, with surprisingly few cases of DHF. The absence of high rates of severe dengue disease in Brazil, as elsewhere in the Americas, may be partly explained by the widespread prevalence of human dengue resistance genes. Understanding the nature and distribution of these genes holds promise for containing severe dengue. Future research on dengue infections should emphasize population-based designs.

  11. Drug problem in southeast and southwest Asia.

    PubMed

    Kulsudjarit, Kongpetch

    2004-10-01

    In 2002, the drug problem in Southeast and Southwest Asia was serious, particularly in the production of opium and heroin in Afghanistan, Myanmar, and Laos, the three largest producers of illicit opium in the world. The increasing illicit manufacture of ATS, particularly methamphetamine, in Southeast Asia, mainly in China and Myanmar, was also a major concern. Some reports indicated that ephedrine, used for illicitly producing methamphetamine in Southeast Asia, is diverted and smuggled out of China and India, whereas caffeine, the adulterant used for producing methamphetamine tablets, is mainly smuggled into Myanmar through its border with Thailand. Seizure data showed a dramatic increase in trafficking in MDMA through Southeast Asia. In terms of the drug epidemic, in 2002, cannabis remained overall the main drug of abuse in all of the countries of Southeast and Southwest Asia. Opiates, mainly opium and heroin, were also the drugs of choice except in Thailand, where opiate abuse declined, but ATS was the main drug of abuse due to its low cost and availability. A significant increase in ATS abuse, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and MDMA among the youth who smoked, sniffed, and inhaled them was reported in Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, the Philippines, and Thailand. Injecting drug use among opiate abusers has been identified as the prime cause of the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS in Southeast and Southwest Asia.

  12. Educational Psychology as an Evolving Discipline: Trends and Synthesis in Asia Pacific Education Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dong-il; Koh, Hye-jung; Jo, Su-yeon; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Kim, Myeung-chan

    2014-01-01

    Educational psychology has seen rapid growth as an academic discipline in recent years. The current study reviewed research articles published in "Asia Pacific Education Review" ("APER"), a journal that has been gaining greater international recognition, to reveal recent trends in educational psychology research in Asia…

  13. Incubating Innovation or Cultivating Corruption? The Developmental State and the Life Sciences in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheol-Sung; Schrank, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of literature purports to document the growth of scientific misconduct in Northeast Asia. This article traces the apparent growth of research fraud and falsification to two distinct features of the national innovation systems common to the region: liberal research regimes adopted by developmental states and marked by freedom…

  14. Incubating Innovation or Cultivating Corruption? The Developmental State and the Life Sciences in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheol-Sung; Schrank, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of literature purports to document the growth of scientific misconduct in Northeast Asia. This article traces the apparent growth of research fraud and falsification to two distinct features of the national innovation systems common to the region: liberal research regimes adopted by developmental states and marked by freedom…

  15. Educational Psychology as an Evolving Discipline: Trends and Synthesis in Asia Pacific Education Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dong-il; Koh, Hye-jung; Jo, Su-yeon; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Kim, Myeung-chan

    2014-01-01

    Educational psychology has seen rapid growth as an academic discipline in recent years. The current study reviewed research articles published in "Asia Pacific Education Review" ("APER"), a journal that has been gaining greater international recognition, to reveal recent trends in educational psychology research in Asia…

  16. Acute reperfusion therapy and stroke care in Asia after successful endovascular trials.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Kazunori; Koga, Masatoshi; Hayakawa, Mikito; Yamagami, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    The current status of and prospects for acute stroke care in Asia in the situation where both intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular therapies have been recognized as established strategies for acute stroke are reviewed. Of 15 million people annually having stroke worldwide, ≈9 million are Asians. The burdens of both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes are severe in Asia. The unique features of stroke in Asia include susceptibility to intracranial atherosclerosis, high prevalence of intracerebral hemorrhage, effects of dietary and lifestyle habits, and several disorders with genetic causes. These features affect acute stroke care, such as the dosage of alteplase for thrombolysis and consideration of bleeding complications during antithrombotic therapy. Acute endovascular thrombectomy, as well as intravenous thrombolysis, is relatively prevalent in East Asia, but most of the other Asian countries need to develop their human resources and fundamental medical infrastructure for stroke care. A limitation of endovascular therapy in East Asia is the high prevalence of intracranial atherosclerosis that can cause recanalization failure and require additional angioplasty or permanent stent insertion although intracranial stenting is not an established strategy. Multinational collaboration on stroke research among Asian countries is infrequent. Asians should collaborate to perform their own thrombolytic and endovascular trials and seek the optimal strategy for stroke care specific to Asia.

  17. Insecticide resistance status in the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci genetic groups Asia-I, Asia-II-1 and Asia-II-7 on the Indian subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Naveen, N. C.; Chaubey, Rahul; Kumar, Dinesh; Rebijith, K. B.; Rajagopal, Raman; Subrahmanyam, B.; Subramanian, S.

    2017-01-01

    The present study is a summary of the current level of the insecticide resistance to selected organophosphates, pyrethroids, and neonicotinoids in seven Indian field populations of Bemisia tabaci genetic groups Asia-I, Asia-II-1, and Asia-II-7. Susceptibility of these populations was varied with Asia-II-7 being the most susceptible, while Asia-I and Asia-II-1 populations were showing significant resistance to these insecticides. The variability of the LC50 values was 7x for imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, 5x for monocrotophos and 3x for cypermethrin among the Asia-I, while, they were 7x for cypermethrin, 6x for deltamethrin and 5x for imidacloprid within the Asia-II-1 populations. When compared with the most susceptible, PUSA population (Asia-II-7), a substantial increase in resistant ratios was observed in both the populations of Asia-I and Asia-II-1. Comparative analysis during 2010–13 revealed a decline in susceptibility in Asia-I and Asia-II-1 populations of B. tabaci to the tested organophosphate, pyrethroid, and neonicotinoid insecticides. Evidence of potential control failure was detected using probit analysis estimates for cypermethrin, deltamethrin, monocrotophos and imidacloprid. Our results update resistance status of B. tabaci in India. The implications of insecticide resistance management of B. tabaci on Indian subcontinent are discussed. PMID:28098188

  18. Can Asia's population bomb be defused?

    PubMed

    Gupte, P

    1983-01-01

    The UN optimistically identifies an emerging trend in Asia and in much of the rest of the world in the form of determination by women to reduce their family size by resorting to birth control methods, often against the wishes of their husbands. The new trend also seems to parallel women's new desire to go out and work. Yet, it is also in Asia that such countries as Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, and Burma are the cause of serious demographic concern. The overall Asian population increased to rise to 3.6 billion and by 2025 to 4.5 billion. In 2025 Asia's population will continue to constitute nearly 60% of the world's population. Experts predict that what happens in Asia will largely determine the overall trends in world population. The population experts usually divide Asia into 2 regions, East Asia, such as Japan and China, have engineered dramatic fertility declines. China's population control efforts are probably the world's most sensational. China more than halved its birthrate from 34/1000 in 1970 to 16 in 1983 and hopes to reach 5/1000 by 1985. Most countries of South and West Asia, such as Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Burma, have annual birthrates of 45/1000, and it is these countries that can least afford such population growth. According to the UN, the biggest population increase in Asia over the next decade--more than 220 million--will be in India and its immediate neighbors. The current performance of the majority of Asian states in controlling population growth is discouraging. Only a handful of countries--Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Sri Lanka, South Korea, and China--have displayed the necessary energy, imagination, and determination and have committed funds to population projects. In a number of Asian countries various incentives and disincentives have been created to influence people's fertility decisions, and such things seem to work. Several factors, for example, account for Thailand's progress in population matters, including the availability

  19. What have we learnt from ISAAC phase III in the Asia-Pacific rim?.

    PubMed

    Fok, Annie O L; Wong, Gary W K

    2009-04-01

    International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) phase III had provided a worldwide map of epidemiology of asthma and allergic diseases, as well as the changes in prevalence rate of these diseases when compared to data obtained in phase I. The wide variations of environmental factors and ethnic background in Asia provide excellent opportunities for research into the environmental and genetic determinants of asthma and allergies. This review summarizes important lessons learnt from ISAAC phase III results from Asia on asthma and allergy. ISAAC phase III provided epidemiological evidence of the wide variation and increasing prevalence of asthma and allergy in many Asian countries. When compared to other regions of the world, Asia has a relatively lower prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases. Comparative studies of populations of the same ethnic group living in different environments reveal striking disparity in prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases. The established risk factors could not explain the secular trend and variations of asthma prevalence in different Asian countries. Further research is needed in this rapidly changing region of Asia in order to identify the protective or risk factors associated with the development of asthma. ISAAC phase III provides standardized data on the prevalence and burden of asthma and allergy in the Asia-Pacific region. Further research is needed to reveal the underlying factors responsible for the wide variations in disease manifestations in the region.

  20. Asia Pacific Consensus Statements on Crohn's disease. Part 1: Definition, diagnosis, and epidemiology: (Asia Pacific Crohn's Disease Consensus--Part 1).

    PubMed

    Ooi, Choon Jin; Makharia, Govind K; Hilmi, Ida; Gibson, Peter R; Fock, Kwong Ming; Ahuja, Vineet; Ling, Khoon Lin; Lim, Wee Chian; Thia, Kelvin T; Wei, Shu-chen; Leung, Wai Keung; Koh, Poh Koon; Gearry, Richard B; Goh, Khean Lee; Ouyang, Qin; Sollano, Jose; Manatsathit, Sathaporn; de Silva, H Janaka; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Pisespongsa, Pises; Abu Hassan, Muhamad Radzi; Sung, Joseph; Hibi, Toshifumi; Boey, Christopher C M; Moran, Neil; Leong, Rupert W L

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was previously thought to be rare in Asia, but emerging data indicate rising incidence and prevalence of IBD in the region. The Asia Pacific Working Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease was established in Cebu, Philippines, at the Asia Pacific Digestive Week conference in 2006 under the auspices of the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology with the goal of developing best management practices, coordinating research, and raising awareness of IBD in the region. The consensus group previously published recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis with specific relevance to the Asia-Pacific region. The present consensus statements were developed following a similar process to address the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of Crohn's disease. The goals of these statements are to pool the pertinent literature specifically highlighting relevant data and conditions in the Asia-Pacific region relating to the economy, health systems, background infectious diseases, differential diagnoses, and treatment availability. It does not intend to be all comprehensive and future revisions are likely to be required in this ever-changing field.