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Sample records for asia transboundary water

  1. South Asia transboundary water quality monitoring workshop summary report.

    SciTech Connect

    Betsill, Jeffrey David; Littlefield, Adriane C.; Luetters, Frederick O.; Rajen, Gaurav

    2003-04-01

    The Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in several regions as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group made up of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and the United States convened in Kathmandu, Nepal, from February 17-23,2002. The workshop was held to further develop the South Asia Transboundary Water Quality Monitoring (SATWQM) project. The project is sponsored in part by the CMC located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico through funding provided by the US. Department of State, Regional Environmental Affairs Office, American Embassy, Kathmandu, Nepal, and the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. This report summarizes the SATWQM project, the workshop objectives, process and results. The long-term interests of the participants are to develop systems for sharing regional environmental information as a means of building confidence and improving relations among South Asian countries. The more immediate interests of the group are focused on activities that foster regional sharing of water quality data in the Ganges and Indus River basins. Issues of concern to the SATWQM network participants include studying the impacts from untreated sewage and industrial effluents, agricultural run-off, salinity increases in fresh waters, the siltation and shifting of river channels, and the environmental degradation of critical habitats such as wetlands, protected forests, and endangered aquatic species conservation areas. The workshop focused on five objectives: (1) a deepened understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of additional regional and national government and non-government organizations in South Asia involved in river water quality monitoring; (3) identification of

  2. Evolution, opportunity and challenges of transboundary water and energy problems in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lidan; Zhou, Haiwei; Xia, Ziqiang; Huang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the regions that suffer the most prominent transboundary water and energy problems in the world. Effective transboundary water-energy resource management and cooperation are closely related with socioeconomic development and stability in the entire Central Asia. Similar to Central Asia, Northwest China has an arid climate and is experiencing a water shortage. It is now facing imbalanced supply-demand relations of water and energy resources. These issues in Northwest China and Central Asia pose severe challenges in the implementation of the Silk Road Economic Belt strategy. Based on the analysis of water and energy distribution characteristics in Central Asia as well as demand characteristics of different countries, the complexity of local transboundary water problems was explored by reviewing corresponding historical problems of involved countries, correlated energy issues, and the evolution of inter-country water-energy cooperation. With references to experiences and lessons of five countries, contradictions, opportunities, challenges and strategies for transboundary water-energy cooperation between China and Central Asia were discussed under the promotion of the Silk Road Economic Belt construction based on current cooperation conditions.

  3. Social and ecological aspects of the water resources management of the transboundary rivers of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normatov, P.

    2014-09-01

    The Zeravshan River is a transboundary river whose water is mainly used for irrigation of agricultural lands of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Sufficiently rich hydropower resources in upstream of the Zeravshan River characterize the Republic of Tajikistan. Continuous monitoring of water resources condition is necessary for planning the development of this area taking into account hydropower production and irrigation needs. Water quality of Zeravshan River is currently one of the main problems in the relationship between the Republics of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, and it frequently triggers conflict situations between the two countries. In most cases, the problem of water quality of the Zeravshan River is related to river pollution by wastewater of the Anzob Mountain-concentrating Industrial Complex (AMCC) in Tajikistan. In this paper results of research of chemical and bacteriological composition of the Zeravshan River waters are presented. The minimum impact of AMCC on quality of water of the river was experimentally established.

  4. The Navruz Project: Cooperative transboundary monitoring data sharing and modeling of water resources in Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Passell, Howard David; Barber, David S.; Solodukhin, V.; Khazekhber, S.; Pozniak, V.; Vasiliev, I.; Alekhina, V.; Djuraev, Akram; Djuraev, Anvar; Salikhbaev, U.; Radyuk, R.; Suozzi, D.

    2006-10-01

    The Navruz Project engages scientists from nuclear physics research institutes and water science institutions in the Central Asia Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and Sandia National Laboratories. The project uses standardized methods to monitor basic water quality parameters, radionuclides, and metals in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. Phase I of the project was initiated in 2000 with 15 sampling points in each of the four countries with sample analysis performed for over 100 parameters. Phase II of the project began in 2003 and expanded sampling to include at least 30 points in each country in an effort to characterize ''hot spots'' and to identify sources. Phase III of the project began in 2006 and will integrate decision support modeling with the existing monitoring. Overall, the project addresses four main goals: to create collaboration among Central Asian scientists and countries; to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and nonproliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources. Contamination of these rivers is a result of growing population, urbanization, and agricultural activities, as well as radioactive contamination from a legacy of uranium mining and related activities of the former Soviet Union. The project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of the importance of these contaminants to public health and political stability in Central Asia.

  5. Water resources in Central Asia - status quo and future conflicts in transboundary river catchments - the example of the Zarafshan River (Tajikistan-Uzbekistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groll, Michael; Opp, Christian; Kulmatov, Rashid; Normatov, Inom; Stulina, Galina; Shermatov, Nurmakhmad

    2014-05-01

    Water is the most valuable resource in Central Asia and due to its uneven distribution and usage among the countries of the region it is also the main source of tension between upstream and downstream water users. Due to the rapidly shrinking glaciers in the Pamir, Tien-Shan and Alai mountains, the available water resources will, by 2030, be 30% lower than today while the water demand of the growing economies will increase by 30%. This will further aggravate the pressure on the water resources and increase the water deficit caused by an unsustainable water use and political agendas. These challenges can only be overcome by an integrated water resource management for the important transboundary river catchments. The basis for such an IWRM approach however needs to be a solid data base about the status quo of the water resources. To that end the research presented here provides a detailed overview of the transboundary Zarafshan River (Tajikistan-Uzbekistan), the lifeline for more than 6 mln people. The Zarafshan River is well suited for this as it is not only one of the most important rivers in Central Asia but because the public availability of hydrological and ecological data is very limited, Furthermore the catchment is characterized by the same imbalances in the Water-Energy-Food-Nexus as most river systems in that region, which makes the Zarafshan a perfect model river for Central Asia as a whole. The findings presented here are based on field measurements, existing data from the national hydrometeorological services and an extensive literature analysis and cover the status quo of the meteorological and hydrological characteristics of the Zarafshan as well as the most important water quality parameters (pH, conductivity, nitrate, phosphate, arsenic, chromate, copper, zinc, fluoride, petroleum products, phenols and the aquatic invertebrate fauna). The hydrology of the Zarafshan is characterized by a high natural discharge dynamic in the mountainous upper parts of

  6. New Approach to Monitor Transboundary Particulate Pollution over Northeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, M. E.; Song, C. H.; Park, R. S.; Lee, Jaehwa; Kim, J.; Lee, S.; Woo, J. H.; Carmichael, G. R.; Eck, Thomas F.; Holben, Brent N.; hide

    2014-01-01

    A new approach to more accurately monitor and evaluate transboundary particulate matter (PM) pollution is introduced based on aerosol optical products from Korea's Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI). The area studied is Northeast Asia (including eastern parts of China, the Korean peninsula and Japan), where GOCI has been monitoring since June 2010. The hourly multi-spectral aerosol optical data that were retrieved from GOCI sensor onboard geostationary satellite COMS (Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellite) through the Yonsei aerosol retrieval algorithm were first presented and used in this study. The GOCI-retrieved aerosol optical data are integrated with estimated aerosol distributions from US EPA Models-3/CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality) v4.5.1 model simulations via data assimilation technique, thereby making the aerosol data spatially continuous and available even for cloud contamination cells. The assimilated aerosol optical data are utilized to provide quantitative estimates of transboundary PM pollution from China to the Korean peninsula and Japan. For the period of 1 April to 31 May, 2011 this analysis yields estimates that AOD as a proxy for PM2.5 or PM10 during long-range transport events increased by 117-265% compared to background average AOD (aerosol optical depth) at the four AERONET sites in Korea, and average AOD increases of 121% were found when averaged over the entire Korean peninsula. This paper demonstrates that the use of multi-spectral AOD retrievals from geostationary satellites can improve estimates of transboundary PM pollution. Such data will become more widely available later this decade when new sensors such as the GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer) and GOCI-2 are scheduled to be launched.

  7. Transboundary air pollution in Asia: Model development and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Tracey

    2001-12-01

    This work investigates transboundary air pollution in Asia through atmospheric modeling and public policy analysis. As an example of models actively shaping environmental policy, the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution in Europe (LRTAP) is selected as a case study. The LRTAP Convention is the only mulit- lateral air pollution agreement to date, and results from the RAINS integrated assessment model were heavily used to calculate nationally differentiated emission ceilings. Atmospheric chemistry and transport are included in RAINS through the use of transfer coefficients (or ``source-receptor relationships'') relating pollutant transfer among European nations. Following past work with ATMOS to simulate sulfur species in Asia, here ATMOS is developed to include odd-nitrogen. Fitting with the linear structure of ATMOS and the emphasis on computational efficiency, a simplified chemical scheme developed for use in the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Global Chemical Transport Model (GFDL GCTM) is adopted. The method solves for the interconversions between NOx, HNO3, and PAN based on five reaction rates stored in look-up tables. ATMOS is used to calculate source-receptor relationships for Asia. Significant exchange of NOy occurs among China, North and South Korea, and Japan. On an annual average basis, China contributes 18% to Japan's total nitrate deposition, 46% to North Korea, and 26% to South Korea. Nitrate deposition is an important component of acidification (along with sulfate deposition), contributing 30-50% to the acid burden over most of Japan, and more than 50% to acid deposition in southeast Asia, where biomass burning emits high levels of NOx. In evaluating the policy-relevance of results from the ATMOS model, four factors are taken into account: the uncertainty and limitations of ATMOS, the environmental concerns facing Asia, the current status of the scientific community in relation to regional air pollution in the region, and

  8. Nitrate transboundary heavy pollution over East Asia in winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itahashi, Syuichi; Uno, Itsushi; Osada, Kazuo; Kamiguchi, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Shigekazu; Tamura, Kei; Wang, Zhe; Kurosaki, Yasunori; Kanaya, Yugo

    2017-03-01

    contrast, for type S, the production of SO42- led to the decomposition of NH4NO3, and more SO42- was transported. Notably, the type N transport pattern was limited to western Japan, especially the island of Kyushu. Transboundary air pollution dominated by SO42- (type S) has been recognized as a major pattern of pollution over East Asia. However, our study confirms the importance of transboundary air pollution dominated by NO3-, which will help refine our understanding of transboundary heavy PM2. 5 pollution in winter over East Asia.

  9. The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers. Sampling and Analysis Plan and Operational Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Passell, Howard D.; Barber, David S.; Betsill, J. David; Littlfield, Adriane C.; Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Shanks, Sonoya T.; Yuldashev, Bekhzad; Salikhbaev, Umar; Radyuk, Raisa; Djuraev, Akram; Djuraev, Amwar; Vasilev, Ivan; Tolongutov, Bajgabyl; Valentina, Alekhina; Solodukhin, Vladimir; Pozniak, Victor

    2002-04-02

    The transboundary nature of water resources demands a transboundary approach to their monitoring and management. However, transboundary water projects raise a challenging set of problems related to communication issues, and standardization of sampling, analysis and data management methods. This manual addresses those challenges and provides the information and guidance needed to perform the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. This manual provides guidelines for participants on sample and data collection, field equipment operations and procedures, sample handling, laboratory analysis, and data management. Also included are descriptions of rivers, sampling sites and parameters on which data are collected. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site, and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors.

  10. Towards a South Asia Land Data Assimilation System: first results for transboundary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Ghatak, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.; Limaye, A. S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Bajracharya, B.; Shrestha, B. R.; Iceland, C.; Narula, K.; Lee, S.; Mourad, B.; Doorn, B.

    2014-12-01

    South Asia faces a remarkably complex and diverse set of hydrologic stresses, including melting glaciers, variable snowpack, intensively utilized transboundary rivers, rapid groundwater depletion due to irrigation, flood and drought hazard, and rapidly changing land use/cover and climate conditions. The management and prediction challenges posed by these conditions are compounded by the sparseness of in situ monitoring sites, particularly in headwaters regions, and a lack of open sharing of hydrometeorological data across national boundaries. As a result, uncertainties in availability in a situation of rising demands are leading to increasing competing and exploitive use of a limited resource, being experienced at various scales. An open water information system for decision support is an absolute necessity. In order to provide an open and spatially complete water information system for decision support across the region, we are implementing a customized Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) designed to provide best-available estimates of hydrologic states and fluxes across South Asia, both retrospectively and in near-real time. The LDAS merges advanced land surface models with satellite-derived and in situ observations. In the case of South Asia, multiple satellite-derived hydrological fields are relevant to complete water balance analysis, including precipitation from multiple sources (e.g., TRMM, CHIRPS, GPM), water storage anomalies from GRACE, thermal infrared evapotranspiration estimates, and snowpack characteristics from visible and microwave sensors. Each of these observation types can either be ingested to South Asia LDAS or used as an independent observation for comparison. Here we present the first results of this South Asian Land Data Assimilation System, with a focus on complete water balance analysis for selected river basins in South Asia.

  11. China's transboundary waters: new paradigms for water and ecological security through applied ecology.

    PubMed

    He, Daming; Wu, Ruidong; Feng, Yan; Li, Yungang; Ding, Chengzhi; Wang, Wenling; Yu, Douglas W

    2014-10-01

    China is Asia's most important upstream riparian country, sharing 110 rivers and lakes with 18 downstream countries. Consequently, China's management of transboundary water resources must consider both environmental and geopolitical risks.The major threats to and conflicts over international rivers in China revolve around biotic homogenisation due to the installation of transport links, water allocation, water pollution, alteration of natural flow patterns and disruption of fisheries due to the installation of hydropower dams, and droughts and floods exacerbated by climate change. Because these problems have an international component, they fall under China's Peaceful Rise strategy, mandating that transboundary conflicts be resolved amicably as part of the overarching goal of increasing regional economic growth with as little conflict as possible.Science-backed policy is more likely to result in long term, mutually agreeable solutions; the results of applied ecological research have already resulted in a number of mitigation measures, including setting operational thresholds to reduce the downstream impact of dams, designating protected areas along key river stretches where dams cannot be installed (one dam in a critical location has been cancelled), and the installation of terrestrial protected-area networks.Synthesis and applications. Applied ecology will continue to play an important role in the diagnosis and resolution of environmental threats to China's transboundary waters. More importantly, applied ecology can inform the development of a transboundary environmental compensation mechanism and regional consultative mechanisms that support informed, cooperative decision-making for China and its riparian neighbours.

  12. China's transboundary waters: new paradigms for water and ecological security through applied ecology

    PubMed Central

    He, Daming; Wu, Ruidong; Feng, Yan; Li, Yungang; Ding, Chengzhi; Wang, Wenling; Yu, Douglas W

    2014-01-01

    China is Asia's most important upstream riparian country, sharing 110 rivers and lakes with 18 downstream countries. Consequently, China's management of transboundary water resources must consider both environmental and geopolitical risks. The major threats to and conflicts over international rivers in China revolve around biotic homogenisation due to the installation of transport links, water allocation, water pollution, alteration of natural flow patterns and disruption of fisheries due to the installation of hydropower dams, and droughts and floods exacerbated by climate change. Because these problems have an international component, they fall under China's Peaceful Rise strategy, mandating that transboundary conflicts be resolved amicably as part of the overarching goal of increasing regional economic growth with as little conflict as possible. Science-backed policy is more likely to result in long term, mutually agreeable solutions; the results of applied ecological research have already resulted in a number of mitigation measures, including setting operational thresholds to reduce the downstream impact of dams, designating protected areas along key river stretches where dams cannot be installed (one dam in a critical location has been cancelled), and the installation of terrestrial protected-area networks. Synthesis and applications. Applied ecology will continue to play an important role in the diagnosis and resolution of environmental threats to China's transboundary waters. More importantly, applied ecology can inform the development of a transboundary environmental compensation mechanism and regional consultative mechanisms that support informed, cooperative decision-making for China and its riparian neighbours. PMID:25558084

  13. Science-policy processes for transboundary water governance.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Derek; de Loë, Rob C; Morris, Michelle; Edwards, Tom W D; Gerlak, Andrea K; Hall, Roland I; Huitema, Dave; Ison, Ray; Livingstone, David; MacDonald, Glen; Mirumachi, Naho; Plummer, Ryan; Wolfe, Brent B

    2015-09-01

    In this policy perspective, we outline several conditions to support effective science-policy interaction, with a particular emphasis on improving water governance in transboundary basins. Key conditions include (1) recognizing that science is a crucial but bounded input into water resource decision-making processes; (2) establishing conditions for collaboration and shared commitment among actors; (3) understanding that social or group-learning processes linked to science-policy interaction are enhanced through greater collaboration; (4) accepting that the collaborative production of knowledge about hydrological issues and associated socioeconomic change and institutional responses is essential to build legitimate decision-making processes; and (5) engaging boundary organizations and informal networks of scientists, policy makers, and civil society. We elaborate on these conditions with a diverse set of international examples drawn from a synthesis of our collective experiences in assessing the opportunities and constraints (including the role of power relations) related to governance for water in transboundary settings.

  14. Large transboundary watersheds: Climate, water and streams of thought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2001-05-01

    Water is a "fugitive" resource in the sense that it flows naturally from one place to another, from one reserve to another (e.g., groundwater to surface), and from one physical state (solid, liquid and gas) to another. Thus "trans-boundary" can mean many things including: transitions from wet to arid zones, from upstream to downstream, from one country or province to the next etc. The Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (1992) defines "transboundary waters" to mean "any surface or ground waters which mark, cross or are located on the boundaries between two or more states". Emerging issues in water resources emanate from three categories of problems; (1) transboundary water availability; (2) transboundary groundwater allocation, management, and conservation; and (3) transboundary water quality. Transboundary fluctuations and changes in river flow can be attributed to (1) climate variations and change on several timescales, and, (2) physical and biological transformations of basin hydrology including increased storage, diversions, and landscape changes. Researchers and practitioners have identified numerous factors underlying international disputes involving river flows, including: the variability and uncertainty of supply, interdependencies among users, increasing over-allocation and rising costs, the increasing vulnerability of water quality and aquatic ecosystems to human activities, ways and means of supplying safe water facilities, and the mobilization of financial resources for water development and management. Many of these issues derive from general concerns in water resources management. How these concerns are met is strongly shaped by the choice of the spatial unit within which studies and management actions are conducted, by the way problems have been defined and changed over time, and by who benefits from defining problems in a particular way. In the following discussion the scales of human activities

  15. Transboundary water conflict resolution mechanisms: toward convergence between theory and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayia, Ahmed; Madani, Kaveh

    2016-04-01

    Transboundary waters are expected be one of the biggest challenges for human development over the next decades. The growing global water scarcity and interdependence among water-sharing countries have created tensions over shared water resources around the world. Therefore, interest in studying transboundary water conflict resolution has grown over the last decades. This research focuses on transboundary water resources conflict resolution mechanisms. A more a specific concern is to explore the mechanisms of allocating of transboundary water resources among riparian states. The literature of transboundary water resources conflict has brought various approaches for allocating of transboundary water resources among riparian countries. Some of these approaches have focused on the negotiation process, such the Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR). Other approaches have analysed the economic dimension of transboundary water disputes, in an attempt to identify optimal economic criteria for water allocation, such as the "social planner" approach and the "water market" approach. A more comprehensive approach has been provided by game theory that has brought together the economic and political dimensions of the water dispute management. The study attempts to provide a map for the relation between theory and practice in the field of transboundary water conflict resolution. Therefore, it explores the approaches that have been used to analyse real transboundary water disputes management. Moreover, it examines the approaches that have been suggested in literature as mechanisms of transboundary water conflict resolution. Finally, it identifies the techniques that have been used in practice to solve transboundary water conflicts and attempts to evaluate the sustainability of the resulting regulatory institutional arrangements.

  16. Economic Commission for Europe inventory of transboundary ground water in Europe.

    PubMed

    Arnold, G E; Buzás, Zs

    2005-01-01

    In Europe, a long history of cooperation over transboundary rivers--most notably the Rhine and Danube rivers--exists. To help foster cooperation and communication vis-à-vis transboundary ground water, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), as part of its ground water program, conducted a survey on transboundary aquifers in Europe. The survey produced 25 responses from 37 countries and identified 89 transboundary aquifers. Respondents reported on the degree of ground water use within their own boundaries, transboundary aspects (agreements, joint commissions, etc.) of ground water, and transboundary aquifers themselves. The inventory proved useful, but a number of problems were identified: different map scales and symbols, difficulty in identifying transboundary aquifers, inconsistent labeling of aquifers, and data discrepancies. The UNECE ground water program also drafted guidelines for monitoring and assessment of transboundary ground water. These guidelines are not legally binding but have been adopted by 25 countries, deal mainly with monitoring and assessment, and are being implemented through a number of pilot projects. Other organizations-the United Nations Scientific, Educational and Cultural Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, the International Association of Hydrogeologists, and the European Union--are all supporting the investigation of transboundary aquifers in an effort to facilitate data sharing and coordinated management of these valuable resources.

  17. Sharing water and benefits in transboundary river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjoon, Diane; Tilmant, Amaury; Herrmann, Markus

    2016-06-01

    The equitable sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins is necessary to solve disputes among riparian countries and to reach a consensus on basin-wide development and management activities. Benefit-sharing arrangements must be collaboratively developed to be perceived not only as efficient, but also as equitable in order to be considered acceptable to all riparian countries. The current literature mainly describes what is meant by the term benefit sharing in the context of transboundary river basins and discusses this from a conceptual point of view, but falls short of providing practical, institutional arrangements that ensure maximum economic welfare as well as collaboratively developed methods for encouraging the equitable sharing of benefits. In this study, we define an institutional arrangement that distributes welfare in a river basin by maximizing the economic benefits of water use and then sharing these benefits in an equitable manner using a method developed through stakeholder involvement. We describe a methodology in which (i) a hydrological model is used to allocate scarce water resources, in an economically efficient manner, to water users in a transboundary basin, (ii) water users are obliged to pay for water, and (iii) the total of these water charges is equitably redistributed as monetary compensation to users in an amount determined through the application of a sharing method developed by stakeholder input, thus based on a stakeholder vision of fairness, using an axiomatic approach. With the proposed benefit-sharing mechanism, the efficiency-equity trade-off still exists, but the extent of the imbalance is reduced because benefits are maximized and redistributed according to a key that has been collectively agreed upon by the participants. The whole system is overseen by a river basin authority. The methodology is applied to the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The described technique not only ensures economic efficiency, but may

  18. Hotspot identification of trans-boundary water conflict due to anthropogenic water use and climate change in the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueki, A.; Yoshikawa, S.; Kanae, S.

    2014-12-01

    A significant fraction of world population is projected to experience increased water stress in response to the combined effects of population growth and climate change. Some previous studies have suggested that high water stress had significant causality for civil war, and militarized conflict and trans-boundary water conflict in international river basin. On the other hand, some previous empirical analyses have found that institutionalization (e.g., specific provisions in trans-boundary freshwater treaties) in international river basin was associated with a lower risk of water conflicts during water scarcity. The purpose of this study is to identify these water conflict "hotspots", integrating institutional and governance mechanisms of adaptations to impact of water stress. These adaptations is classified to 4 abilities and skills and then used to calculate the adaptive capacity. The adaptive capacity includes the way to manage water conflict effectively, plan to deal with uncertainty in the future, alter current situation and create institutionalization with common perspective throughout the whole activities. This study identifies water conflict "hotspots" by combining high water stress areas projected by a global water resource model and a lower degree of the adaptive capacity. This study finds that 9 water conflict "hotspots" in Africa, Asia and South America.

  19. The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers. Data Report

    SciTech Connect

    Passell, Howard D.; Barber, David S.; Betsill, J. David; Littlefield, Adriane C.; Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Shanks, Sonoya T.; Yuldashev, Bekhzad; Saalikhbaev, Umar; Radyuk, Raisa; Djuraev, Akram; Djuraev, Anwar; Vasilev, Ivan; Tolongutov, Bajgabyl; Valentina, Alekhina; Solodukhin, Vladimir; Pozniak, Victor

    2003-04-01

    The Navruz Project is a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan and facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. The Project also collects data on basic water quality parameters. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through a world-wide web site (http://www.cmc.sandia.org/Central/centralasia.html) and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. This report includes graphs showing selected data from the Fall 2000 and Spring 2001 sampling seasons. These data include all parameters grouped into six regions, including main rivers and some tributaries in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya river systems. This report also assembles all data (in tabular form) generated by the project from Fall 2000 through Fall 2001. This report comes as the second part of a planned three-part reporting process. The first report is the Sampling and Analysis Plan and Operational Manual, SAND 2002-0484. This is the second report.

  20. Water and Benefit Sharing in Transboundary River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjoon, D.; Tilmant, A.; Herrmann, M.

    2015-12-01

    Growing water scarcity underlies the importance of cooperation for the effective management of river basins, particularly in the context of international rivers in which unidirectional externalities can lead to asymmetric relationships between riparian countries. Studies have shown that significant economic benefits can be expected through basin-wide cooperation, however, the equitable partitioning of these benefits over the basin is less well studied and tends to overlook the importance of stakeholder input in the definition of equitability. In this study, an institutional arrangement to maximize welfare and then share the scarcity cost in a river basin is proposed. A river basin authority plays the role of a bulk water market operator, efficiently allocating bulk water to the users and collecting bulk water charges which are then equitably redistributed among water users. This highly regulated market restrains the behaviour of water users to control externalities and to ensure basin-wide coordination, enhanced efficiency, and the equitable redistribution of the scarcity cost. The institutional arrangement is implemented using the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The importance of this arrangement is that it can be adopted for application in negotiations to cooperate in trans-boundary river basins. The benefit sharing solution proposed is more likely to be perceived as equitable because water users help define the sharing rule. As a result, the definition of the sharing rule is not in question, as it would be if existing rules, such as bankruptcy rules or cooperative game theory solutions, are applied, with their inherent definitions of fairness. Results of the case study show that the sharing rule is predictable. Water users can expect to receive between 93.5% and 95% of their uncontested benefits (benefits that they expect to receive if water was not rationed), depending on the hydrologic scenario.

  1. Water stress in global transboundary river basins: significance of upstream water use on downstream stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka, M.; Wada, Y.; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analysed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world’s transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. We found that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.

  2. Water Stress in Global Transboundary River Basins: Significance of Upstream Water Use on Downstream Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka,M.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analyzed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world's transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. Wefound that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.

  3. Water Stress in Global Transboundary River Basins: Significance of Upstream Water Use on Downstream Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka,M.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analyzed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world's transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. Wefound that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.

  4. Assessment of transboundary aquifers of the world--vulnerability arising from human water use (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Y.; Heinrich, L.

    2013-12-01

    Internationally shared, or transboundary, aquifers (TBAs) have long played an important role in sustaining drinking water supply and food production, supporting livelihoods of millions of people worldwide. Rapidly growing populations and their food demands cast significant doubt on the sustainability of TBAs. Here, this study provides a first quantitative assessment of TBAs worldwide with an aquifer stress indicator over the period 1960-2010 using groundwater abstraction, groundwater recharge, and groundwater contribution to environment flow. The results reveal that 8% of TBAs worldwide are currently stressed due to human overexploitation. Over these TBAs the rate of groundwater pumping increased substantially during the past fifty years, which worsened the aquifer stress condition. In addition, many TBAs over Europe, Asia and Africa are not currently stressed, but their aquifer stress has been increasing at an alarming rate (>100%) for the past fifty years, due to the increasing reliance on groundwater abstraction for food production. Groundwater depletion is substantial over several TBAs including the India River Plain (India, Pakistan), the Paleogene and Cretaceous aquifers (the Arabian Peninsula), and a few TBAs over the USA-Mexico border. Improving irrigation efficiency can reduce the amount of groundwater depletion over some TBAs, but it likely aggravates groundwater depletion over TBAs where conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater is prevalent.

  5. Assessment of transboundary aquifers of the world—vulnerability arising from human water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Heinrich, Lena

    2013-06-01

    Internationally shared, or transboundary, aquifers (TBAs) have long played an important role in sustaining drinking water supply and food production, supporting livelihoods of millions of people worldwide. Rapidly growing populations and their food demands cast significant doubt on the sustainability of TBAs. Here, this study provides a first quantitative assessment of TBAs worldwide with an aquifer stress indicator over the period 1960-2010 using groundwater abstraction, groundwater recharge, and groundwater contribution to environment flow. The results reveal that 8% of TBAs worldwide are currently stressed due to human overexploitation. Over these TBAs the rate of groundwater pumping increased substantially during the past fifty years, which worsened the aquifer stress condition. In addition, many TBAs over Europe, Asia and Africa are not currently stressed, but their aquifer stress has been increasing at an alarming rate (>100%) for the past fifty years, due to the increasing reliance on groundwater abstraction for food production. Groundwater depletion is substantial over several TBAs including the India River Plain (India, Pakistan), the Paleogene and Cretaceous aquifers (the Arabian Peninsula), and a few TBAs over the USA-Mexico border. Improving irrigation efficiency can reduce the amount of groundwater depletion over some TBAs, but it likely aggravates groundwater depletion over TBAs where conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater is prevalent.

  6. Evolutionary and Ecological Dynamics of Transboundary Disease Caused by H5N1 Virus in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Wei, K; Lin, Y; Xie, D

    2015-06-01

    Southeast Asia has been the breeding ground for many emerging diseases in the past decade, and it is in this region that new genetic variants of HPAI H5N1 viruses have been emerging. Cross-border movement of animals accelerates the spread of H5N1, and the changing environmental conditions also exert strong selective pressure on the viruses. The transboundary zoonotic diseases caused by H5N1 pose a serious and continual threat to global economy and public health. Here, we divided the H5N1 viruses isolated in Southeast Asia during 2003-2009 into four groups according to their phylogenetic relationships among HA gene sequences. Molecular evolution analysis suggests populations in expansion rather than a positive selection for group 2 and group 3, yet group 4 is under strong positive selection. Site 193 was found to be a potential glycosylation site and located in receptor-binding domain. Note that site 193 tends to appear in avian isolates instead of human strains. Population dynamics analysis reveals that the effective population size of infections in Southeast Asia has undergone three obvious increases, and the results are consistent with the epidemiological analysis. Ecological and phylogeographical analyses show that agro-ecological environments, migratory birds, domestic waterfowl, especially free-ranging ducks, are crucial in the occurrence, maintenance and spread of H5N1 virus. The epidemiological links between Indonesia and Suphanburi observed suggest that viruses in Indonesia were originated from multiple introductions.

  7. Solutions for North American Water Security Challenge: Colorado and Bravo transboundary basins cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Pérez, M.

    2013-12-01

    The transboundary basins of Colorado (Baja California) and Rio Bravo (Grande) have low water availability figures and water will be appreciated as a highly valued good. In the Rio Grande basin, the strategies and actions have been developed with the River Basin Council: a new surface water management, new water allocation rules for different rainfall and runoff scenarios (climate change included), new sources of water and establishment of water reserves for human consumption and for environmental purposes. In the Colorado River, with an integrated watershed management vision, Mexican and US federal, state and non-governmental organizations representatives signed Minute 319 for 5 years without changing the 1944 Water Treaty. Concepts and rules for surplus, shortage, Intentionally Created Mexican Water (ICMA), salinity, water for the environment and international projects were included and are been implemented. Parallel drinking water and sanitation services in both sides of the border through the Joint Investment Program, EPA-CONAGUA invested 979.2 million dollars from grants to improve the quality of the environment and the inhabitants. Accomplishments are high and the reduction in river health is a good indicator. The implementation of this binational cooperation actions under the framework of the 1944 Water Treaty are considered global solutions in the field of integrated water management in transboundary basins and for creating water security in highly pressured basins. Keywords: Colorado River, Rio Grande or Bravo River, water security, Transboundary basins, environmental water reserves

  8. The Transboundary Waters Assessment Programme (TWAP) River Basin Component Methods and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sherbinin, A. M.; Glennie, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Transboundary Waters Assessment Programme (TWAP) was initiated by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) to create the first baseline assessment of all of the planet's transboundary water resources. The TWAP River Basin component consists of a baseline comparative assessment of 270 transboundary river basins, including all but the smallest basins, to enable the identification of priority issues and hotspots at risk from a variety of stressors. The assessment is indicator based and it is intended to provide a relative analysis of basins based on risks to societies and ecosystems. Models and observational data have been used to create 14 indicators covering environmental, human and agricultural water stress; nutrient and wastewater pollution; extinction risk; governance and institutions; economic dependence on water resources; societal wellbeing at sub-basin scales; and societal risks from climate extremes. The methodology is not limited to transboundary basins, but can be applied to all river basins. This presentation will provide a summary of the methods and results of the TWAP River Basin component. It will also briefly discuss preliminary results of the TWAP lakes and aquifer components.

  9. Countries at Risk: Heightened Human Security Risk to States With Transboundary Water Resources and Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, J. C.; Sullivan, G. S.; Paola, C.; Starget, A.; Watson, J. E.; Hwang, Y. J.; Picucci, J. A.; Choi, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Countries at Risk project is a global assessment of countries with transboundary water resources that are at risk for conflict because of high human security instability. Building upon Basins at Risk (BAR) research, our team used updated Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database georeferenced social and environmental data, quantitative data from global indices, and qualitative data from news media sources. Our assessment considered a combination of analyzing 15 global indices related to water or human security to identify which countries scored as highest risk in each index. From this information, we were able to assess the highest risk countries' human security risk by using a new human security measurement tool, as well as comparing this analysis to the World Bank's Fragile States Index and the experimental Human Security Index. In addition, we identified which countries have the highest number of shared basins, the highest percentage of territory covered by a transboundary basin, and the highest dependency of withdrawal from transboundary waters from outside their country boundaries. By synthesizing these social and environmental data assessments, we identified five countries to analyze as case studies. These five countries are Afghanistan, China, Iraq, Moldova, and Sudan. We created a series of 30 maps to spatial analyze the relationship between the transboundary basins and social and environmental parameters to include population, institutional capacity, and physical geography by country. Finally, we synthesized our spatial analysis, Human Security Key scores, and current events scored by using the BAR scale to determine what aspects and which basins are most at risk with each country in our case studies and how this concerns future global water resources.

  10. The physical and chemical characteristics of long-lasting trans-boundary mixed pollutants over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Y.; Uno, I.; Kobayashi, H.; Itahashi, S.; PAN, X.; Nishizawa, T.; Shimizu, A.; Matsui, I.; Sugimoto, N.

    2014-12-01

    Trans-boundary air pollution lasted about 1 week over East Asia from late May to early June 2014. Daily averaged PM2.5 and PM10 exceeded respectively 35μg/m3 and 100μg/m3 during this episode at Fukuoka, southeastern city of Japan. The continuous aerosol plumes were constructed by Asian dust and anthropogenic pollutants, and observed by many aerosol measurements, such as ground-based lidar, space-born lidar, Aerosol Chemical Speciation Analyzer (ACSA) and Polarization Optical Particle Counter (POPC). Regional chemical transport model was used to clarify the meteorological condition forming long-lasting aerosol plumes and the 3D structure. The continuous aerosol plume was made by 2 sequential low pressure systems passing over desert area, and subsequently generated blocking high pressure system over Japan. The averaged aerosol depolarization ratio derived by ground-based lidar and POPC at around 0.5μm during this episode were 0.11 and 0.146, these values were very low for dust case. ACSA data at Fukuoka also showed that coarse model nitrate and fine mode sulfate concentration was very high (3~6μg/m3 for coarse mode nitrate, 5-15 μg/m3 for fine mode sulfate) during this episode. These results suggested that transport of anthropogenic aerosols were occurred during this event together with dust plume. Coarse mode nitrate might be made by internal mixing between dust particles and nitrate. Numerical chemical transport model could not reproduced high concentration of coarse mode nitrate because model did not consider the process of internal mixing between dust particles and nitrate. Further vertical structure and mixing state during long-lasting trans-boundary pollution are clarified.

  11. [Improvement of sanitary legislation for using the transboundary and boundary drinking water sources].

    PubMed

    Turbinskiĭ, V V; Trofimovich, E M; Khmelev, V A

    2012-01-01

    The paper considers legislative acts for organizing human water use in the transboundary areas and for ensuring hygienic requirements for choosing water sources to the conditions of economic activity in the drainage area of boundary subjects, for organizing a monitoring of the quality of water from centralized, household, and community water sources. Prompt interaction of the water users and supervisory bodies of adjoining areas must be a mandatory element of hydroeconomic activities in the border areas. Recommendations are given to improve water sanitary legislations.

  12. Analysis of key thresholds leading to upstream dependencies in global transboundary water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munia, Hafsa Ahmed; Guillaume, Joseph; Kummu, Matti; Mirumachi, Naho; Wada, Yoshihide

    2017-04-01

    Transboundary water bodies supply 60% of global fresh water flow and are home to about 1/3 of the world's population; creating hydrological, social and economic interdependencies between countries. Trade-offs between water users are delimited by certain thresholds, that, when crossed, result in changes in system behavior, often related to undesirable impacts. A wide variety of thresholds are potentially related to water availability and scarcity. Scarcity can occur because of the country's own water use, and that is potentially intensified by upstream water use. In general, increased water scarcity escalates the reliance on shared water resources, which increases interdependencies between riparian states. In this paper the upstream dependencies of global transboundary river basins are examined at the scale of sub-basin areas. We aim to assess how upstream water withdrawals cause changes in the scarcity categories, such that crossing thresholds is interpreted in terms of downstream dependency on upstream water availability. The thresholds are defined for different types of water availability on which a sub-basin relies: - reliable local runoff (available even in a dry year), - less reliable local water (available in the wet year), - reliable dry year inflows from possible upstream area, and - less reliable wet year inflows from upstream. Possible upstream withdrawals reduce available water downstream, influencing the latter two water availabilities. Upstream dependencies have then been categorized by comparing a sub-basin's scarcity category across different water availability types. When population (or water consumption) grows, the sub-basin satisfies its needs using less reliable water. Thus, the factors affecting the type of water availability being used are different not only for each type of dependency category, but also possibly for every sub- basin. Our results show that, in the case of stress (impacts from high use of water), in 104 (12%) sub- basins out of

  13. A market-based approach to share water and benefits in transboundary river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjoon, Diane; Tilmant, Amaury; Herrmann, Markus

    2016-04-01

    The equitable sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins is necessary to reach a consensus on basin-wide development and management activities. Benefit sharing arrangements must be collaboratively developed to be perceived as efficient, as well as equitable, in order to be considered acceptable to all riparian countries. The current literature falls short of providing practical, institutional arrangements that ensure maximum economic welfare as well as collaboratively developed methods for encouraging the equitable sharing of benefits. In this study we define an institutional arrangement that distributes welfare in a river basin by maximizing the economic benefits of water use and then sharing these benefits in an equitable manner using a method developed through stakeholder involvement. In this methodology (i) a hydro-economic model is used to efficiently allocate scarce water resources to water users in a transboundary basin, (ii) water users are obliged to pay for water, and (iii) the total of these water charges are equitably redistributed as monetary compensation to users. The amount of monetary compensation, for each water user, is determined through the application of a sharing method developed by stakeholder input, based on a stakeholder vision of fairness, using an axiomatic approach. The whole system is overseen by a river basin authority. The methodology is applied to the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The technique ensures economic efficiency and may lead to more equitable solutions in the sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins because the definition of the sharing rule is not in question, as would be the case if existing methods, such as game theory, were applied, with their inherent definitions of fairness.

  14. Characterization of rainwater chemical composition after a Southeast Asia haze event: insight of transboundary pollutant transport during the northeast monsoon.

    PubMed

    Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd; Lin, Chin Yik; Khan, Md Firoz; Latif, Mohd Talib; Dominick, Doreena; Hamid, Haris Hafizal Abdul; Mohamad, Noorlin; Maulud, Khairul Nizam Abdul; Wahab, Muhammad Ikram Abdul; Kamaludin, Nurul Farahana; Lazim, Mohamad Azwani Shah Mat

    2017-06-01

    Open biomass burning in Peninsula Malaysia, Sumatra, and parts of the Indochinese region is a major source of transboundary haze pollution in the Southeast Asia. To study the influence of haze on rainwater chemistry, a short-term investigation was carried out during the occurrence of a severe haze episode from March to April 2014. Rainwater samples were collected after a prolonged drought and analyzed for heavy metals and major ion concentrations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), respectively. The chemical composition and morphology of the solid particulates suspended in rainwater were examined using a scanning electron microscope coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The dataset was further interpreted using enrichment factors (EF), statistical analysis, and a back trajectory (BT) model to find the possible sources of the particulates and pollutants. The results show a drop in rainwater pH from near neutral (pH 6.54) to acidic (

  15. Transboundary impacts on regional ground water modeling in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rainwater, K.; Stovall, J.; Frailey, S.; Urban, L.

    2005-01-01

    Recent legislation required regional grassroots water resources planning across the entire state of Texas. The Texas Water Development Board (TWDB), the state's primary water resource planning agency, divided the state into 16 planning regions. Each planning group developed plans to manage both ground water and surface water sources and to meet future demands of various combinations of domestic, agricultural, municipal, and industrial water consumers. This presentation describes the challenges in developing a ground water model for the Llano Estacado Regional Water Planning Group (LERWPG), whose region includes 21 counties in the Southern High Plains of Texas. While surface water is supplied to several cities in this region, the vast majority of the regional water use comes from the High Plains aquifer system, often locally referred to as the Ogallala Aquifer. Over 95% of the ground water demand is for irrigated agriculture. The LERWPG had to predict the impact of future TWDB-projected water demands, as provided by the TWDB, on the aquifer for the period 2000 to 2050. If detrimental impacts were noted, alternative management strategies must be proposed. While much effort was spent on evaluating the current status of the ground water reserves, an appropriate numerical model of the aquifer system was necessary to demonstrate future impacts of the predicted withdrawals as well as the effects of the alternative strategies. The modeling effort was completed in the summer of 2000. This presentation concentrates on the political, scientific, and nontechnical issues in this planning process that complicated the modeling effort. Uncertainties in data, most significantly in distribution and intensity of recharge and withdrawals, significantly impacted the calibration and predictive modeling efforts. Four predictive scenarios, including baseline projections, recurrence of the drought of record, precipitation enhancement, and reduced irrigation demand, were simulated to

  16. Transboundary impacts on regional ground water modeling in Texas.

    PubMed

    Rainwater, Ken; Stovall, Jeff; Frailey, Scott; Urban, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    Recent legislation required regional grassroots water resources planning across the entire state of Texas. The Texas Water Development Board (TWDB), the state's primary water resource planning agency, divided the state into 16 planning regions. Each planning group developed plans to manage both ground water and surface water sources and to meet future demands of various combinations of domestic, agricultural, municipal, and industrial water consumers. This presentation describes the challenges in developing a ground water model for the Llano Estacado Regional Water Planning Group (LERWPG), whose region includes 21 counties in the Southern High Plains of Texas. While surface water is supplied to several cities in this region, the vast majority of the regional water use comes from the High Plains aquifer system, often locally referred to as the Ogallala Aquifer. Over 95% of the ground water demand is for irrigated agriculture. The LERWPG had to predict the impact of future TWDB-projected water demands, as provided by the TWDB, on the aquifer for the period 2000 to 2050. If detrimental impacts were noted, alternative management strategies must be proposed. While much effort was spent on evaluating the current status of the ground water reserves, an appropriate numerical model of the aquifer system was necessary to demonstrate future impacts of the predicted withdrawals as well as the effects of the alternative strategies. The modeling effort was completed in the summer of 2000. This presentation concentrates on the political, scientific, and nontechnical issues in this planning process that complicated the modeling effort. Uncertainties in data, most significantly in distribution and intensity of recharge and withdrawals, significantly impacted the calibration and predictive modeling efforts. Four predictive scenarios, including baseline projections, recurrence of the drought of record, precipitation enhancement, and reduced irrigation demand, were simulated to

  17. Dividing the waters: An empirical analysis of interstate compact allocation of transboundary rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, David L.; Moore, Michael R.

    2011-06-01

    Legal scholars and jurists have identified several criteria (e.g., hydrology, climate, population, and historical water use) to guide equitable allocation of transboundary rivers among riparian claimants. Are these criteria used in practice, such that a quantitative pattern emerges from actual water-sharing agreements regarding factors affecting allocations? To address this, we study interstate compacts, the principal mechanism for allocating the waters of transboundary rivers within the United States. We develop a georeferenced data set and construct variables representing conditions in state-based watersheds of 14 rivers at the times of compact ratification. A state's water allocation share of a compact serves as the dependent variable, and a set of explanatory variables is derived from legal and political theories. We estimate allocation shares using both ordinary least squares (OLS) and bootstrap regressions, and we apply two alternative specifications of the factors affecting compact allocations, one with and one without political variables. Estimated coefficients on variables for land area, population, prior water use, riparian position, and Congressional committee chair are statistically significant in the OLS regressions. The preferred OLS specification, which includes political variables, provides a good fit (R2 = 0.84). We also find that OLS and bootstrap regressions have a similar ability to predict state allocation shares. We discuss how the results could be used as a reference point in negotiations over new compacts or international river treaties and as a basis to identify existing compacts with statistical outliers.

  18. The Global International Waters Assessment for the Pacific Islands: aspects of transboundary, water shortage, and coastal fisheries issues.

    PubMed

    South, G Robin; Skelton, Posa A; Veitayaki, Joeli; Resture, Alan; Carpenter, Clive; Pratt, Craig; Lawedrau, Alena

    2004-02-01

    Aspects of transboundary, water shortage, and fisheries issues are discussed in the context of the recently completed Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) for the Pacific Islands. The region encompasses some 30 million km2 and approximately 12% of the world's ocean space, and features great geographic, demographic and developmental diversity. Global change, especially sea level rise and sea surface temperature increases, is the dominant transboundary concern as it impacts all aspects of life. Water shortage and unsustainable fishing issues are selected for discussion, as they will dominate the region into the foreseeable future, and they are illustrated with examples from Fiji, Kiribati, and Tonga. The environmental impacts are exacerbated by socioeconomic issues such as high population growth rates, urban drift, the breakdown of traditional life styles and the rapid adoption of the cash economy. Policy options that may assist in addressing these issues are proposed.

  19. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2014-05-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled the largest fire-induced haze episode in the past decade (2006) in Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). We focused mainly on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city-state of Singapore, and on comparisons of modeled and measured aerosol and CO concentrations. Two simulations were run with the model using the complex Volatility Basis Set (VBS) scheme to reproduce primary and secondary aerosol evolution and concentration. The first simulation referred to as WRF-FIRE included anthropogenic, biogenic, and b iomass burning emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) while the second simulation referred to as WRF-NOFIRE was run without emissions from biomass burning. To test model performance, we used three independent datasets for comparison including airborne measurements of Particulate Matter with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) in Singapore, CO measurements in Sumatra, and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) column observations from 4 satellite-based sensors. We found reasonable agreement of the model runs with both ground-based measurements of CO and PM10. The comparison with AOD was less favorable and indicated the model underestimated AOD, although the degree of mismatch varied between different satellite data sets. During our study period, forest and peat fires in Sumatra were the main cause of enhanced aerosol concentrations from regional transport over Singapore. Analysis of the biomass burning plume showed high concentrations of primary organic aerosols (POA) with values up to 600 μg m-3 over the fire locations. The concentration of POA remained quite stable within the plume between the main burning region and Singapore while secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentration slightly increased. The

  20. Paradigm for Distributive & Procedural Justice in Equitable Apportionment of Transboundary Ganges Waters Under Changing Climate & Landuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, H.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.; Anand, J.

    2015-12-01

    Rivers have no regard for human demarcated boundaries. Besides, ever increasing demand-supply gap & vested riparian interests, fuel transboundary water conflicts. For resolving such disputes, appropriation doctrines advocating equity & fairness have received endorsement in the Helsinki Rules-1966 & UN Convention-1997. Thus, current study proposes the principle of equitable apportionment for sharing Ganges waters as it balances the interests & deservedness of all stakeholders, namely, India & its 11 states, Bangladesh, Nepal, & China. The study endeavors to derive a reasonable share of each co-basin state by operationalizing the vague concepts of fairness & equity through an objective & quantitative framework encompassing proportionality & egalitarianism for distributive & procedural justice. Equal weightage factors reflecting hydrology, geography & water use potential are chosen for fair share computation, wherein each contender ranks these factors to maximize his entitlement. If cumulative claims exceed the water availability, each claimant puts forth next ranked factor & this process continues till the claims match availability. Due to inter-annual variability in few factors, scenarios for Rabi & Kharif seasons are considered apart from cases for maximum, upper quartile, median, lower quartile & minimum. Possibility of spatial homogeneity & heterogeneity in factors is also recognized. Sometimes lack of technical information hinders transboundary dispute resolution via legal mechanisms. Hence, the study also attempts to bridge this gap between law & technology through GIS-based SWAT hydrologic model by estimating the Ganges water yield, & consequent share of each riparian for range of flows incorporating e-flows as well, under present & future climate & landuse scenarios. 82% of India's territory lies within interstate rivers, & therefore this research is very pertinent as it can facilitate the decision makers in effective interstate water conflict resolution.

  1. Facing Water Scarcity in Jordan: Reuse, Demand Reduction, Energy and Transboundary Approaches to Assure Future Water Supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C. A.; El-Naser, H.; Hagan, R. E.; Hijazi, A.

    2001-05-01

    Jordan is extremely water-scarce with just 170 cubic meters per capita per year to meet domestic, industrial, agricultural, tourism, and environmental demands for water. Given the natural climatological conditions, demographic pressure, and transboundary nature of water resources, all renewable water resources of suitable quality are being exploited and some non-renewable aquifers are being depleted. The heavy exploitation of water resources has contributed to declines in the level of the Dead Sea. Rapid growth in demand, particularly for higher quality water for domestic, industrial and tourism uses, is significantly increasing pressure on agricultural and environmental uses of water, both of which must continue to adapt to reduced volumes and lower quality water. The agricultural sector has begun to respond by improving irrigation efficiency and increasing the use of recycled water. Total demand for water still exceeds renewable supplies while inadequate treatment of sewage used for irrigation creates potential environmental and health risks and presents agricultural marketing challenges that undermine the competitiveness of exports. The adaptive capability of the natural environment may already be past sustainable limits with groundwater discharge oasis wetlands that have been seriously affected. Development of new water resources is extremely expensive in Jordan with an average investment cost of US\\$ 4-5 per cubic meter. Integrated water resources management (IWRM) that incorporates factors external to the 'water sector' as conventionally defined will help to assure sustainable future water supplies in Jordan. This paper examines four IWRM approaches of relevance to Jordan: water reuse, demand management, energy-water linkages, and transboundary water management. While progress in Jordan has been made, the Ministry of Water and Irrigation continues to be concerned about the acute water scarcity the country faces as well as the need to continue working with

  2. Water-related problems of central Asia: some results of the (GIWA) International Water Assessment Program.

    PubMed

    Severskiy, Igor Vasilievich

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents results of the research under the program Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) for the Aral Sea basin (Subregion 24 of the GIWA program). These results show that the detemining factor for the region is freshwater shortage and the main issue is modification of stream flow. According to GIWA assessment estimations, freshwater shortage is responsible for about 70% of the developmental problems in the region. The current economy is developing under conditions of increasing water deficiency. In spite of increasing efforts by the governments of the countries in the region, and by the international community, the situation in regard to water supply and economic objectives in the countries of central Asia remains tense and shows clear tendencies towards aggravation and conflict. The main causes for this sharpening of ecological and socioeconomic conditions in the region are analyzed, and measures to mitigate stress in transboundary water-resources use are presented.

  3. Water Management for Competing Uses: Environmental Flows in the Transboundary Rio Grande/Rio Bravo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval Solis, S.; McKinney, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Introduction Due to high water demand, the scarcity of water, and the complexity of water allocation, environmental flows have not been considered as an integral part of the water management in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo transboundary basin. The Big Bend reach is located between the cities of Presidio/Ojinaga to Amistad international reservoir, along the main stream (Fig. 1). Important environmental habitats such as the Big Bend National and State Park in the U.S., the Maderas del Carmen, Cañon de Santa Elena and Ocampo natural reserved areas in Mexico are ecologically threatened because of the lack of environmental water management policies. Several efforts have been undertaken by scientists, government agencies and NGOs to determine the environmental flows for this reach and water management policies that can provide these flows. Objective The objective of this research is to describe a water management policy that can conciliate environmental and human water uses in the Big Bend region. In other words, define a policy that can provide environmental flows without harming water supply for stakeholders or increasing flood risk, within legal and physical constraints of the system. Methodology First, the system was characterized identifying water users, hydraulic infrastructure, and water allocation according to state, federal and international regulations. Second, a hydrograph for environmental flows was proposed that mimics the hydrologic characteristics of the prior dam alteration. Third, a water planning model was constructed to evaluate alternative policies. Fourth, the water management is proposed to provide environmental restoration flows from Luis L. Leon reservoir. This policy considers mechanisms that reduce flooding and drought risks, while meting national and international water regulations. Results Three types of natural flow regimes are considered: (1) median flows aimed to provide the base flow in the region, (2) high flows to provide transversal

  4. Pathways for building capacity and ensuring effective transboundary water resources management in Africa: Revisiting the key issues, opportunities and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikozho, Claudious

    The performance of most organizations and institutions set up to facilitate transboundary water resources management in Africa remains unsatisfactory and new frameworks are required to address this performance gap. Using the Nile and Senegal River Basins as case studies, this paper applies qualitative research methods to explore the transboundary river basin management terrain in Africa with a view to identifying and articulating some of the major issues, challenges and opportunities faced in building the capacity of the main actors and institutions in the sector. The paper establishes that the creation of basin management institutions as the assumed panacea to challenges evident in this sector has not delivered the desired results. Some of the institutions established for this purpose in Africa have remained functionally weak and ineffective. Thus, demand for capacity-building interventions in this landscape remains high. The paper concludes that comprehensive capacity-building interventions should seek to improve the competencies and skills of key actors in implementing the broad range of activities constituting integrated water resources management in transboundary basins. In-depth analysis of the fundamental capacity constraints and challenges that key players face in relation to key drivers for cooperation is the absolutely necessary ingredient.

  5. Sustainable management of transboundary water resources (Belgium/France): Characterization and modelling of the Carboniferous aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastien, J.; Picot-Colbeaux, G.; Crastes de Paulet, F.; Rorive, A.; Bouvet, A.; Goderniaux, P.; Thiery, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Carboniferous Limestone groundwater extends from East to West across Belgium and the North of France (1420 km²). In a high population density and industrial activity region, it represents huge volumes of abstracted groundwater (98 Mm³). The aquifer thus constitutes a critical reserve for public distribution and industrial uses. This water reservoir is intensively exploited from both sides of the border since the end of the 19th century. Historically, this transboundary aquifer was overexploited, due to the massive requirements of the industry. As a consequence, a substantial piezometric level decrease was observed (up to 50 m). Due to the karstic nature of the aquifer, many sinkhole collapses were induced in the studied area. A reduction of the abstracted volumes was implemented in the 90s, which contributed to the relative stabilization of the piezometric levels, but the equilibrium remains uncertain. Due to complex political, urbanistic and industrial developments across this region, a reasonable and long-term management model was needed, involving all concerned countries and regions. Within the framework of the Interreg ScaldWIN Project, a belgo-french collaboration allowed the acquisition of new sets of geological and hydrogeological data. A new piezometric map was established and correlated with chemical and isotopic analyses. It enabled a more accurate knowledge on the main flow directions within the aquifer, and the relation between recharge area and the confined area, where groundwater is aged up to 10000 years. A new numerical model of the aquifer was implemented and calibrated by using the MARTHE code. This 4 layer-model includes a part of the French chalk aquifer and integrates all abstracted groundwater volumes (wells and quarries) from 1900 to 2010. Atmospheric and surface waters and potential evapotranspiration are included in relation to the groundwater. This model is used by the different partners to consider globally and locally the impact of

  6. Open Ocean Assessments for Management in the GEF Transboundary Waters Assessment Project (TWAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, A. S.; Alverson, K. D.

    2010-12-01

    A methodology for a thematic and scientifically-credible assessment of Open Ocean waters as a part of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) Transboundary Waters Assessment Project (TWAP) has been developed in the last 18 months by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, and is presented for feedback and comment. While developed to help the GEF International Waters focal area target investment to manage looming environmental threats in interlinked freshwater and marine systems (a very focused decision support system), the assessment methodology could contribute to other assessment and management efforts in the UN system and elsewhere. Building on a conceptual framework that describes the relationships between human systems and open ocean natural systems, and on mapping of the human impact on the marine environment, the assessment will evaluate and make projections on a thematic basis, identifying key metrics, indices, and indicators. These themes will include the threats on key ecosystem services of climate change through sea level rise, changed stratification, warming, and ocean acidification; vulnerabilities of ecosystems, habitats, and living marine resources; the impact and sustainability of fisheries; and pollution. Global-level governance arrangements will also be evaluated, with an eye to identifying scope for improved global-level management. The assessment will build on sustained ocean observing systems, model projections, and an assessment of scientific literature, as well as tools for combining knowledge to support identification of priority concerns and in developing scenarios for management. It will include an assessment of key research and observing needs as one way to deal with the scientific uncertainty inherent in such an exercise, and to better link policy and science agendas.

  7. Simulation of Intra- or transboundary surface-water-rights hierarchies using the farm process for MODFLOW-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmid, W.; Hanson, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    Water-rights driven surface-water allocations for irrigated agriculture can be simulated using the farm process for MODFLOW-2000. This paper describes and develops a model, which simulates routed surface-water deliveries to farms limited by streamflow, equal-appropriation allotments, or a ranked prior-appropriation system. Simulated diversions account for deliveries to all farms along a canal according to their water-rights ranking and for conveyance losses and gains. Simulated minimum streamflow requirements on diversions help guarantee supplies to senior farms located on downstream diverting canals. Prior appropriation can be applied to individual farms or to groups of farms modeled as "virtual farms" representing irrigation districts, irrigated regions in transboundary settings, or natural vegetation habitats. The integrated approach of jointly simulating canal diversions, surface-water deliveries subject to water-rights constraints, and groundwater allocations is verified on numerical experiments based on a realistic, but hypothetical, system of ranked virtual farms. Results are discussed in light of transboundary water appropriation and demonstrate the approach's suitability for simulating effects of water-rights hierarchies represented by international treaties, interstate stream compacts, intrastate water rights, or ecological requirements. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  8. An urban systems framework to assess the trans-boundary food-energy-water nexus: implementation in Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswami, Anu; Boyer, Dana; Singh Nagpure, Ajay; Fang, Andrew; Bogra, Shelly; Bakshi, Bhavik; Cohen, Elliot; Rao-Ghorpade, Ashish

    2017-02-01

    This paper develops a generalizable systems framework to analyze the food-energy-water (FEW) nexus from an urban systems perspective, connecting in- and trans-boundary interactions, quantifying multiple environmental impacts of community-wide FEW provisioning to cities, and visualizing FEW supply-chain risks posed to cities by the environment. Delhi’s community-wide food demand includes household consumption by socio-economic-strata, visitors- and industrial food-use. This demand depends 90%, 76%, and 86% on trans-boundary supply of FEW, respectively. Supply chain data reveal unique features of trans-boundary FEW production regions (e.g. irrigation-electricity needs and GHG intensities of power-plants), yielding supply chain-informed coupled energy-water-GHG footprints of FEW provisioning to Delhi. Agri-food supply contributes to both GHG (19%) and water-footprints (72%-82%) of Delhi’s FEW provisioning, with milk, rice and wheat dominating these footprints. Analysis of FEW interactions within Delhi found >75% in-boundary water-use for food is for urban agriculture and >76% in-boundary energy-use for food is from cooking fuels. Food waste-to-energy and energy-intensity of commercial and industrial food preparation are key data gaps. Visualizing supply chains shows >75% of water embodied in Delhi’s FEW supply is extracted from locations over-drafting ground water. These baseline data enable evaluation of future urban FEW scenarios, comparing impacts of demand shifts, production shifts, and emerging technologies and policies, within and outside of cities.

  9. Influence of long-range transboundary transport on atmospheric water vapor mercury collected at the largest city of Tibet.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jie; Kang, Shichang; Tian, Lide; Guo, Junming; Zhang, Qianggong; Cong, Zhiyuan; Sillanpää, Mika; Sun, Shiwei; Tripathee, Lekhendra

    2016-10-01

    Monsoon circulation is an important process that affects long-range transboundary transport of anthropogenic contaminants such as mercury (Hg). During the Indian monsoon season of 2013, a total of 92 and 26 atmospheric water vapor samples were collected at Lhasa, the largest city of the Tibet, for Hg and major ions analysis, respectively. The relatively low pH/high electronic conductivity values, together with the fact that NH4(+) in atmospheric water vapor was even higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa, indicated the effects of anthropogenic perturbations through long-range transboundary atmospheric transport. Concentrations of Hg in atmospheric water vapor ranged from 2.5 to 73.7ngL(-1), with an average of 12.5ngL(-1). The elevated Hg and major ions concentrations, and electronic conductivity values were generally associated with weak acidic samples, and Hg mainly loaded with anthropogenic ions such as NH4(+). The results of principal component analysis and trajectory analysis suggested that anthropogenic emissions from the Indian subcontinent may have largely contributed to the determined Hg in atmospheric water vapor. Furthermore, our study reconfirmed that below-cloud scavenging contribution was significant for precipitation Hg in Lhasa, and evaluated that on average 74.1% of the Hg in precipitation could be accounted for by below-cloud scavenging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Modelling as a means to promote water diplomacy in Southern Africa: the Stampriet Transboundary Aquifer System case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Filippis, Giovanna; Carvalho Resende, Tales; Filali-Meknassi, Youssef; Puri, Shaminder; Kenabatho, Piet; Amakali, Maria; Majola, Kwazikwakhe; Rossetto, Rudy

    2017-04-01

    Within the framework of the "Governance of Groundwater Resources in Transboundary Aquifers" (GGRETA) project, funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), the Governments of Botswana, Namibia and South Africa, jointly with the UNESCO International Hydrological Programme (UNESCO-IHP) are undertaking an assessment of the Stampriet Transboundary Aquifer System (STAS). The importance of the STAS to the region draws from the fact that it is the only permanent and dependable water resource in the area, which covers 87000 km2 from Central Namibia into Western Botswana and South Africa's Northern Cape Province. The first phase of the project (2013-2015) focused on an assessment of the STAS which allowed establishing a shared science based understanding of the resource. The activities of the second phase of the project (2016-2018) will consolidate the technical results achieved and the tools developed in the first phase, and will strengthen capacity on groundwater governance at the national and transboundary levels to support the process of establishment of a multi-country cooperation mechanism (MCCM). The establishment of the STAS MCCM would be the first example of a mechanism for the management and governance of a transboundary aquifer in Southern Africa. The joint development of a numerical model is crucial to foster such cooperation as it provides a baseline for the formulation of sound policies for the governance of the STAS. The model is being developed through the application of the FREEWAT platform (within the H2020 FREEWAT project - FREE and open source software tools for WATer resource management; Rossetto et al., 2015), an open source and public domain GIS-integrated modelling environment for the simulation of the hydrological cycle. The FREEWAT project aims at improving water resource management by simplifying the application of water-related regulations through the use of modeling environments and GIS tools for storage, management and

  11. Basin-wide water accounting using remote sensing data: the case of transboundary Indus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, P.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Molden, D.; Cheema, M. J. M.

    2012-11-01

    The paper describes the application of a new Water Accounting Plus (WA+) framework to produce spatial information on water flows, sinks, uses, storages and assets, in the Indus Basin, South Asia. It demonstrates how satellite-derived estimates of land use, land cover, rainfall, evaporation (E), transpiration (T), interception (I) and biomass production can be used in the context of WA+. The results for one selected year showed that total annual water depletion in the basin (502 km3) plus outflows (21 km3) exceeded total precipitation (482 km3). The deficit in supply was augmented through abstractions beyond actual capacity, mainly from groundwater storage (30 km3). The "landscape ET" (depletion directly from rainfall) was 344 km3 (69% of total consumption). "Blue water" depletion ("utilized flow") was 158 km3 (31%). Agriculture was the biggest water consumer and accounted for 59% of the total depletion (297 km3), of which 85% (254 km3) was through irrigated agriculture and the remaining 15% (44 km3) through rainfed systems. While the estimated basin irrigation efficiency was 0.84, due to excessive evaporative losses in agricultural areas, half of all water consumption in the basin was non-beneficial. Average rainfed crop yields were 0.9 t ha-1 and 7.8 t ha-1 for two irrigated crop growing seasons combined. Water productivity was low due to a lack of proper agronomical practices and poor farm water management. The paper concludes that the opportunity for a food-secured and sustainable future for the Indus Basin lies in focusing on reducing soil evaporation. Results of future scenario analyses suggest that by implementing techniques to convert soil evaporation to crop transpiration will not only increase production but can also result in significant water savings that would ease the pressure on the fast declining storage.

  12. Transboundary Transport of Biomass Burning Emissions in Southeast Asia and Contribution to Local Air Quality During the 2006 Fire Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2014-12-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled the largest fire-induced haze episode in the past decade (2006) that originated in Indonesia using WRF-Chem. Our study addressed 3 research questions: (1) Can the WRF-Chem model reproduce observations of both aerosol and CO concentrations in this complex region? (2) What is the evolution in the chemical composition of the aerosol fire plume during its atmospheric transport? and (3) What is the relative contribution of these fires to air quality in the urbanized area of the city-state of Singapore? To test model performance, we used three independent datasets for comparison (PM10 in Singapore, CO measurements in Sumatra, and AOD column observations from 4 satellite-based sensors). We found reasonable agreement of the model runs with ground-based measurements of both CO and PM10. However, the comparison with AOD was less favorable and indicated the model underestimated AOD. In the past, modeling studies using only AOD as a constraint have often boosted fire emissions to get a better agreement with observations. In our case, this approach would seriously deteriorate the difference with ground-based observations. Finally, our results show that about 21% of the total mass loading of ambient PM10 during the July-October study period in Singapore was due to the influence of biomass and peat burning in Sumatra, with an increased contribution during high burning periods. The composition of this biomass burning plume was largely dominated by primary organic carbon. In total, our model results indicated that during 35 days aerosol concentrations in Singapore were above the threshold of 50 μg m-3 day-1 (WHO threshold). During 17 days this deterioration was due to Indonesian fires, based on the difference between the simulations with and without fires. Local air pollution in combination with recirculation of air masses was probably the main

  13. An integrative case study approach between game theory and Pareto frontier concepts for the transboundary water resources allocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucukmehmetoglu, Mehmet

    2012-07-01

    SummaryIn the context of transboundary issues, this paper introduces a composite water resources allocation approach that integrates both game theory and Pareto frontier concepts over the case of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. The proposed approach searches for an acceptable and viable solution set over the Pareto Frontier Surface via game theory based rationality constraints. For this purpose, the used base model is the Euphrates and Tigris River Basin Model, which is a linear programming model maximizing net economic benefits while optimally allocating scarce water resources in the basin. Results indicate that game theory based strategies and associated constraints provide a determinative backbone for an efficient and effective use of generated Pareto Frontier Surfaces. Additionally, estimated marginal values imply that the upstream countries have upper hand positions regarding their geographic and climatic contexts. After all the generation schemes, it appears that Turkey is the critical partner for inclusion into any form of coalition in the Euphrates and Tigris River Basin.

  14. Problematising and conceptualising local participation in transboundary water resources management: The case of Limpopo river basin in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatch, Joanna J.; Manzungu, Emmanuel; Mabiza, Collin

    IWRM-led water reforms in southern Africa have emphasised the creation of new stakeholder institutions with little explanation of how they will operate at different levels, especially at the local level. A case in point is the subsidiarity principle, which advocates for water management to be undertaken at the lowest appropriate level. The main objective of the study was to investigate the conceptualisation and application of the subsidiarity principle in the Limpopo river basin in Zimbabwe. This was done by analysing how state-led frameworks at the regional, basin, national and local level provided for local participation. These frameworks were compared to a bottom-up approach based on action research in three second tier local government administrative units (wards) in Shashe subcatchment of Mzingwane catchment. The catchment represents the entirety of the Limpopo basin in Zimbabwe. Data collection was based on document reviews, key informants, focus group discussions and participatory observations. In general the top-down efforts were found to express intent but lacked appropriately conceptualised implementation guidelines. Views of local people regarding how they could meaningfully participate in transboundary water resource management were based on practical considerations rather than theoretical abstractions. This was shown by a different conceptualisation of stakeholder identification and representation, demarcation of boundaries, role of intermediate institutions, and direct participation of local people at the basin level. The paper concludes that a bottom-up institutional model can enhance the conceptualisation and application of the subsidiarity principle. It also provides evidence that prescriptive approaches may not be the best way to achieve participatory governance in transboundary water resource management.

  15. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia during a high fire event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled a large fire-induced haze episode in 2006 stemming mostly from Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem). We focused on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city state of Singapore, and on comparisons of modeled and measured aerosol and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations. Two simulations were run with WRF-Chem using the complex volatility basis set (VBS) scheme to reproduce primary and secondary aerosol evolution and concentration. The first simulation referred to as WRF-FIRE included anthropogenic, biogenic and biomass burning emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) while the second simulation referred to as WRF-NOFIRE was run without emissions from biomass burning. To test model performance, we used three independent data sets for comparison including airborne measurements of particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) in Singapore, CO measurements in Sumatra, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) column observations from four satellite-based sensors. We found reasonable agreement between the model runs and both ground-based measurements of CO and PM10. The comparison with AOD was less favorable and indicated the model underestimated AOD, although the degree of mismatch varied between different satellite data sets. During our study period, forest and peat fires in Sumatra were the main cause of enhanced aerosol concentrations from regional transport over Singapore. Analysis of the biomass burning plume showed high concentrations of primary organic aerosols (POA) with values up to 600 μg m-3 over the fire locations. The concentration of POA remained quite stable within the plume between the main burning region and Singapore while the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentration

  16. Integrating EO data for applying the Nexus of water, energy and agriculture to monitor SDG Indicators within transboundary river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalidis, G.; Kavvada, A.; Crisman, T.

    2016-12-01

    The NEXUS of water, energy and agriculture is widely recognized as an integrated approach for innovative management solutions and actions to protect natural resources. Soil Spectral Libraries (SSL) implement the NEXUS approach by combining Earth Observation (EO) and Geospatial Information (GI) data and tools to extract information on soil attributes rapidly, reliably and cost effectively. NEXUS approach for soil resources at large scales- across landscapes or regions- remains a challenge however, especially for stakeholders, and in regards to promoting the concept, disseminating the methodology, and discussing potential benefits at both local and transboundary river basin levels. The CEOS Data Cube is an excellent tool for collecting, processing and disseminating EO data, and providing `Analysis Ready Data' utilized both as a management tool for policy makers, and a tool boosting economic activity and supporting end-users. Thus, it helps supporting the tracking of, and reporting on, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and promoting targeted approaches to address specific SDG Indicators. Although several European projects in the Balkan transboundary river basin areas focus on existing/potential ties to specific SDG Indicators under the leadership of i-BEC, data are lacking for some regions, and there is an exigent need for country/region - specific case studies. A case study in Albania, the 3rd for CEOS and the 1st for Europe, will seek to build synergies between different sectors and activities (water, energy, food) and natural resources, while also accounting for ecosystem climate- regulating functions. This will contribute to the global expansion of the Data Cube initiative, while adding high quality datasets in GEOSS. Engagement of EO ecosystem stakeholders, together with National Statistical Offices, regionally and globally, should exploit the networking capacities of multipliers, maximizing the impact and reach of SSL. The H2020 project GEOCRADLE has

  17. Reinforcement Learning Multi-Agent Modeling of Decision-Making Agents for the Study of Transboundary Surface Water Conflicts with Application to the Syr Darya River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegels, N.; Siegfried, T.; Pereira Cardenal, S. J.; Jensen, R. A.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.

    2008-12-01

    -cooperative environment with which different institutional setups and incentive systems can be studied so to identify reasonable ways to reach desirable, Pareto--optimal allocation outcomes. Preliminary results from an application to the Syr Darya river basin in Central Asia will be presented and discussed. The Syr Darya River is a classic example of a transboundary river basin in which basin-wide efficiency gains identified in optimization studies have not been sufficient to induce cooperative management of the river by the riparian states.

  18. Quantifying Temporal Variations in Water Resources of the Saq Transboundary Aquifer System and Identification of their Controlling Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallatah, O.; Ahmed, M.; Save, H.; Akanda, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Abstract: Monthly (April 2002—April 2015) Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity field solutions, acquired over the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia/Jourdan transboundary aquifer system, the Saq aquifer, were analyzed and spatiotemporally correlated with other relevant land surface models (e.g., GLDAS), remote sensing (e.g., CMAP, NDVI), and field (e.g., water levels) datasets to quantify the temporal variations in the Saq'a water resources and to identify the factors that control these variations. Examination of the GRACE-derived Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) and Groundwater Storage (GWS) data indicates the following: (1) the Saq aquifer system is witnessing a TWS and GWS depletion rates of -9.05 ± 0.25 mm/yr (-4.84 ± 0.13 km3/yr) and -6.52 ± 0.29 mm/yr (-3.49 ± 0.15 km3/yr), respectively, related to both climatic and anthropogenic factors, (2) the observed TWS depletion rates is partially related to decline in rainfall as evident from comparison of average annual precipitation (AAP) for the investigated period to the previous 23 years (AAP: 1979—2001: 104 mm; 2002—2014: 60 mm), (3) the observed GWS depletion in the Saq aquifer is attributed to groundwater extraction activities for irrigation purposes, and (4) the observed GRACE-derived GWS depletion is highly correlated with the observed water level depletion rates within the investigated wells. Our analysis indicate that the availability of the global monthly GRACE solutions is providing, and will continue to provide, the most practical, informative, and cost-effective tool for monitoring the aquifer systems across the world.

  19. Monitoring Lake Victoria Water Quality from Space: Opportunities for Strengthening Trans-boundary Information Sharing for Effective Resource Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugo, R. M.; Korme, T.; Farah, H.; Nyaga, J. W.; Irwin, D.; Flores, A.; Limaye, A. S.; Artis, G.

    2014-12-01

    converted to croplands. On-going dissemination of our findings together with capacity building efforts with the three main fishery and research institutions working in the lake, will enable informed decision making for the water management of LV. Enhanced capacity in trans-boundary water resources research is critical for successful decision making.

  20. Hydroclimatic change driven by land-water-use developments:the case of transboundary Sava River Catchment, South Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, Lea; Jaramillo, Fernando; Andričević, Roko; Destouni, Georgia

    2013-04-01

    Growing human demands for water, food and energy have led to extensive use and modification of world water bodies, for instance by construction of dams, reservoirs and channels for hydropower purposes. In this study we use the transboundary Sava River Catchment (SRC) in South Eastern Europe, as field case for investigating long-term hydroclimatic changes and their relation to regional hydropower and associated land-water-use developments. We find sustained increase in average annual evapotranspiration, and decrease in average annual runoff and temporal runoff variability as hydropower production increased in the SRC parts with the greatest such developments during the 20th century. Purely climate-driven estimates of change in evapotranspiration and runoff cannot capture these changes, which are apparently related to the land and water use changes associated with hydropower development. Direct comparisons with corresponding results from other world regions and global estimates show consistent cross-regional results, supporting generalization of obtained specific numerical results and the used analysis approach on different scales and across different parts of the world. With regard to specific results, the estimated average increase of actual evapotranspiration by hydropower-related/reflected land-water-use changes in SRC (sub)catchments with considerable hydropower development is 37 mm/year (for their average annual hydropower production of 217 MWh/km2). This result is for instance consistent with a corresponding estimate of evapotranspiration increase by Destouni et al (2012) of 57 mm/year (for their investigated Swedish hydropower catchments with average annual hydropower production of 322 MWh/km2). The SRC case study, of an area of recent political and social instability with less than ideal conditions regarding environmental monitoring, represents a methodological success by showing that, even in such a complicated part of the world, relevant data series can be

  1. An assessment of potential hydro-political tensions in transboundary river basins using environmental, political, and economic indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Stefano, Lucia; Petersen-Perlman, Jacob; Sproles, Eric; Eynard, James; Wolf, Aaron T.

    2015-04-01

    Globally 286 river basins extend across international borders, covering over 61.9 million km2 of the earth's surface and hosting a total of approximately 2.7 billion people. In these basins, transboundary water resources support an interdependent web of environmental, political, and economic systems that can enhance or destabilize a region. We present an integrated global-scale assessment of transboundary watersheds to identify regions more likely to experience hydro-political tensions over the next decade and beyond based upon environmental, political, and economic indicators. We combine NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measurements of changes in terrestrial water storage with metrics of projected climate change impacts on water variability, the institutional capacity of countries to manage shared water resources, the development of new water infrastructure, per capita gross national income, domestic and international armed conflicts, and recent history of disputes over transboundary waters. The construction of new water-related infrastructure is on-going or planned in many basins worldwide. New water infrastructure is foreseen also in areas where instruments of international cooperation are still absent or limited in scope, e.g. in Southeast Asia, South Asia, Central America, the northern part of the South American continent, and the southern Balkans as well as in different parts of Africa. Moreover, in Central and Eastern Africa, the Middle East, and Central, South and South-East Asia there is a concomitance of several political, environmental and socioeconomic factors that could exacerbate hydropolitical tensions. Our analysis integrates political, economic and environmental metrics and is part of the United Nation's Transboundary Waters Assessment Programme to provide the first global-scale assessment of its type.

  2. Transboundary water resources and public health in the U.S.-Mexico border region

    SciTech Connect

    Varady, R.G.; Mack, M.D.

    1995-04-01

    The ``Ambos Nogales Water Project`` represents an interdisciplinary study of water management policy in a community straddling the US-Mexico border. The project was a joint effort undertaken from 1989 through 1993 by the Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy at the University of Arizona and El Colegio de la Frontera Norte (COLEF) in Nogales, Sonor. Funding was provided by the Ford Foundation. Three key water management issues were the research focus: quantity (water supply), sewerage (water and waste removal), and quality. All three have inseparable linkages with public health. Regarding quantity, the study revealed that entire neighborhoods, especially in Nogales, Sonora, are unsupplied or undersupplied with running water, suggesting negative implications for the health of residents on both sides of the border. Sewerage systems do not reach many neighborhoods in Nogales, Sonora. Even sewered areas are problematic due to breaks in poorly maintained systems, resulting in leaks to the aquifer and threats to groundwater quality. A pilot, water sample survey to assess water quality of area wells revealed significant bacteriologic contamination due to wastewater, elevated nitrate levels, and detectable concentrations of volatile organic compounds, all of which have potentially deleterious health effects. The project database offers an opportunity to analyze environment-related health problems in Ambos Nogales.

  3. Paradigm Shift in Transboundary Water Management Policy: Linking Water Environment Energy and Food (weef) to Catchment Hydropolitics - Needs, Scope and Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RAI, S.; Wolf, A.; Sharma, N.; Tiwari, H.

    2015-12-01

    The incessant use of water due to rapid growth of population, enhanced agricultural and industrial activities, degraded environment and ecology will in the coming decades constrain the socioeconomic development of humans. To add on to the precarious situation, political boundaries rarely embrace hydrological boundaries of lakes, rivers, aquifers etc. Hydropolitics relate to the ability of geopolitical institutions to manage shared water resources in a politically sustainable manner, i.e., without tensions or conflict between political entities. Riparian hydropolitics caters to differing objectives, needs and requirements of states making it difficult to administer the catchment. The diverse riparian objectives can be merged to form a holistic catchment objective of sustainable water resources development and management. It can be proposed to make a paradigm shift in the present-day transboundary water policy from riparian hydropolitics (in which the focal point of water resources use is hinged on state's need) to catchment hydropolitics (in which the interest of the basin inhabitants are accorded primacy holistically over state interests) and specifically wherein the water, environment, energy and food (WEEF) demands of the catchment are a priority and not of the states in particular. The demands of the basin pertaining to water, food and energy have to be fulfilled, keeping the environment and ecology healthy in a cooperative political framework; the need for which is overwhelming. In the present scenario, the policy for water resources development of a basin is segmented into independent uncoordinated parts controlled by various riparians; whereas in catchment hydropolitics the whole basin should be considered as a unit. The riparians should compromise a part of national interest and work in collaboration on a joint objective which works on the principle of the whole as against the part. Catchment hydropolitics may find greater interest in the more than 250

  4. Assessing and managing water scarcity within the Nile River Transboundary Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butts, M. B.; Wendi, D.; Jessen, O. Z.; Riegels, N. D.

    2012-04-01

    The Nile Basin is the main source of water in the North Eastern Region of Africa and is perhaps one of the most critical river basins in Africa as the riparian countries constitute 40% of the population on the continent but only 10% of the area. This resource is under considerable stress with rising levels of water scarcity, high population growth, watershed degradation, and loss of environmental services. The potential impacts of climate change may significantly exacerbate this situation as the water resources in the Nile Basin are critically sensitive to climate change (Conway, Hanson, Doherty, & Persechino, 2007). The motivation for this study is an assessment of climate change impacts and adaptation potential for floods and droughts within the UNEP project "Adapting to climate change induced water stress in the Nile River Basin", supported by SIDA. This project is being carried out as collaboration between DHI, the UK Met Office, and the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI). The Nile Basin exhibits highly diverse climatological and hydrological characteristics. Thus climate change impacts and adaptive capacity must be addressed at both regional and sub-basin scales. While the main focus of the project is the regional scale, sub-basin scale modelling is required to reflect variability within the basin. One of the major challenges in addressing this variability is the scarcity of data. This paper presents an initial screening modelling study of the water balance of the Nile Basin along with estimates of expected future impacts of climate change on the water balance. This initial study is focussed on the Ethiopian Highlands and the Lake Victoria regions, where the impact of climate change on rainfall is important. A robust sub-basin based monthly water balance model is developed and applied to selected sub-basins. The models were developed and calibrated using publicly available data. One of the major challenges in addressing this variability within the basin is the

  5. Transboundary water resources management and livelihoods: interactions in the Senegal river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckmann, Laurent; Beltrando, Gérard

    2016-04-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, 90 % of wetlands provide ecosystem services to societies, especially for agriculture and fishing. However, tropical rivers are increasingly regulated to provide hydroelectricity and irrigated agriculture. Modifications of flows create new hydrological conditions that affect floodplains ecology and peoples' livelihoods. In the Senegal river valley, large dams were built during the 1980's to secure water resources after a decade of water scarcity in the 1970's: Manantali in the upper basin with a reservoir of 12km3 and Diama close to estuary to avoid saltwater intrusion during dry season. Senegal river water resources are known under the supervision of Senegal River Basin Development Organization (OMVS), which defines water allocation between different goals (electricity, irrigation, traditional activities). This study, based on the concept of socio-hydrology, analyses socio-ecological changes following thirty years of dam management. The work enlightens adaptation mechanisms of livelihoods from people living along the river floodplain and feedback on water ressources. The study uses a mixed method approach, combining hydrological analyses, literature review and data collection from surveys on stakeholders and key informants level in the middle Senegal valley. Our results suggest that in all the Senegal river valley, socio-ecological changes are driven by new hydrological conditions. If dam management benefit for peoples with electrification and development of an irrigated agriculture, it has also emphasized the floodplain degradation. Flooded area has decline and are more irregular, causing an erosion of floodplain supporting services (traditional activities as fishing, grazing and flood-recession agriculture). These conditions reduce peoples' livelihood possibilities and irrigation is the only regular activity. As a feedback, irrigated agriculture increases withdrawals in the river and, recently, in aquifers posing a new uncertainty on water

  6. Water-energy nexus in the Sava River Basin: energy security in a transboundary perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Eunice; Howells, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Resource management policies are frequently designed and planned to target specific needs of particular sectors, without taking into account the interests of other sectors who share the same resources. In a climate of resource depletion, population growth, increase in energy demand and climate change awareness, it is of great importance to promote the assessment of intersectoral linkages and, by doing so, understand their effects and implications. This need is further augmented when common use of resources might not be solely relevant at national level, but also when the distribution of resources spans over different nations. This paper focuses on the study of the energy systems of five south eastern European countries, which share the Sava River Basin (SRB), using a water-food(agriculture)-energy nexus approach. In the case of the electricity generation sector, the use of water is essential for the integrity of the energy systems, as the electricity production in the riparian countries relies on two major technology types dependent on water resources: hydro and thermal power plants. For example, in 2012, an average of 37% of the electricity production in the SRB countries was generated by hydropower and 61% in thermal power plants. Focusing on the SRB, in terms of existing installed capacities, the basin accommodates close to a tenth of all hydropower capacity while providing water for cooling to 42% of the net capacity of thermal power currently in operation in the basin. This energy-oriented nexus study explores the dependency on the basin's water resources of the energy systems in the region for the period between 2015 and 2030. To do so, a multi-country electricity model was developed to provide a quantification ground to the analysis, using the open-source software modelling tool OSeMOSYS. Three main areas are subject to analysis: first, the impact of energy efficiency and renewable energy strategies in the electricity generation mix; secondly, the potential

  7. Ozone Enhancement in the Lower Troposphere over East Asia Observed by OMI: Evidence of Transboundary Pollution Transport from China to Korea and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashida, S.; Ono, A.; Liu, X.; Yang, K.; Kanaya, Y.; Chance, K.

    2014-12-01

    Liu et al. (2010) developed an algorithm to retrieve ozone profiles from the ground to ~60 km from OMI ultraviolet radiances using the optimal estimation technique (Rogers, 2000). This algorithm is for derivation of an ozone profile divided into 24 layers, with three layers in the troposphere (0-3km, 3-6km, 6-9km). In this study, we report results for the analysis of lower tropospheric ozone over CEC using the OMI ozone profiles mentioned above. First, we show good correlation of OMI-derived ozone with aircraft measurements and ozonesonde measurements. Second, we show significant enhancement of ozone derived from OMI over CEC. To interpret this remarkable enhancement of ozone, we show correlation of ozone with carbon monoxide (CO) and hotspot numbers suggesting the effects of crop burning on ozone enhancement. Third, we also show complementary data obtained in the field campaign at Mt. Tai in 2005 and 2006 (Kayana et al., 2013) to demonstrate ozone enhancement in June every year and show the relationship with residue burning in fields over Shandong and Hebei Provinces. Finally, we show important evidence of transboundary pollution transport from China to Korea and Japan.References:Kanaya, Y., et al. (2013), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13(16), 8265-8283.Liu, X., et al. (2010), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10(5), 2521-2537.Rodgers, C. D. (2000), Inverse methods for atmospheric sounding: Theory and practice, World Scientific Publishing, Singapore.

  8. China's Transboundary Groundwater Cooperation in the Context of Emerging Transboundary Aquifer Law.

    PubMed

    He, Yanmei

    2017-07-01

    China shares more than 20 transboundary aquifers with its coaquifer states, but they have not exploited their transboundary groundwater resources, and these resources have not been governed by any international agreements. Given the close interaction between surface water and groundwater, and the growing demands for transboundary groundwater in China and its coaquifer states, there is increasing necessity for these countries to undertake international cooperation on this issue. This article overviews China's transboundary aquifers, reviews the duty to cooperate on China's transboundary groundwater as well as the emerging transboundary aquifer law. It concludes by providing some proposals on international cooperation in this context, based on the two theories of international water law-limited territorial sovereignty and common interests, taking into account the practicability of China's cooperation with its coaquifer states. The author suggests that China cooperates with its coaquifer states through such means as the exchange of data and information, joint monitoring, the conclusion of bilateral or multilateral aquifer agreements, the establishment of joint management mechanisms, and international technical cooperation. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  9. South Asia Water Resources Workshop: An effort to promote water quality data sharing in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    RAJEN,GAURAV; BIRINGER,KENT L.; BETSILL,J. DAVID

    2000-04-01

    To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group comprised of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the US convened at the Soaltee Hotel in Kathmandu, Nepal, September 12 to 14, 1999. The workshop was sponsored in part by the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, through funding provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. The CMC promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in regions throughout the world as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. In the long term, the workshop organizers and participants are interested in the significance of regional information sharing as a means to build confidence and reduce conflict. The intermediate interests of the group focus on activities that might eventually foster regional management of some aspects of water resources utilization. The immediate purpose of the workshop was to begin the implementation phase of a project to collect and share water quality information at a number of river and coastal estuary locations throughout the region. The workshop participants achieved four objectives: (1) gaining a better understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of existing regional organizations promoting environmental cooperation in South Asia; (3) identifying sites within the region at which data is to be collected; and (4) instituting a data and information collection and sharing process.

  10. Gains from trans-boundary water quality management in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems: a case study for the Minho region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roebeling, P. C.; Brito, A. G.; Rocha, J.; Alves, H.; Mamede, J.

    2012-04-01

    Worldwide, aquatic and coastal ecosystems are affected by point and diffuse source water pollution originating from rural, urban and industrial land uses in catchments, even though these ecosystems are of vital importance from an environmental and economic perspective. Integrated Catchment and Coastal Zone Management (ICCZM) specifically takes into account this inherent relationship between terrestrial land use, surface and ground water pollution, aquatic and coastal ecosystem state, and associated environmental values. To warrant sustainable regional economic development, we need to balance the marginal costs from terrestrial water pollution abatement and the associated marginal benefits from aquatic and coastal resource appreciation. In doing so, however, we need to differentiate between intra- and trans-boundary catchments because benefactors and beneficiaries from water quality improvement are not one and the same. In trans-boundary catchments, private (national) welfare maximizing rates of water quality improvement differ across nations as benefits from water quality improvement generally accrue to one nation while the costs are paid by multiple nations. While approaches for water quality management in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems are fairly recent though existent, water quality management in trans-boundary catchments poses additional challenges. The objective of this paper is to develop and apply a deterministic optimal control approach that allows us to explore private and social welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems. For a case study of the Minho region in the Iberian Peninsula, we estimate nation-specific water pollution abatement cost (based on management practice adoption) and benefit (based on aquatic and coastal environmental values) functions, to determine as well as compare private (national) and social (trans-national) welfare maximizing rates of water

  11. Preparing for Future Water Resources Conflicts through Climate Change Adaptation Planning: A Case Study in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehlert, B. B.; Neumann, J. E.; Strzepek, K.; Sutton, W.; Srivastava, J.

    2011-12-01

    Uncertainties posed by climate change and rapidly rising global water demand suggest that existing conflicts over water resources are likely to be exacerbated and new conflicts will appear where little or no conflict occurs today. Successfully planning for and preventing conflicts first requires a sound scientific understanding of the timing, location, and magnitude of water resource shortfalls, identification of the most appropriate climate adaptation options based on multiple criteria, and development of broad, multi-level consensus within the affected community. We recently applied this approach in a World Bank-funded adaptation assessment for the agricultural sectors of four countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia-Albania, Macedonia, Moldova, and Uzbekistan. For each major basin, we first used a hydrological model to project changes in water availability through 2050 under country-specific high, medium, and low climate impact scenarios. Next, under the three climate scenarios, we projected changes in agricultural water demand using a crop model (i.e., AquaCrop and DSSAT), and changes in water demand in other sectors based on population projections and sectoral forecasts of changes in per capita use. We incorporated these water availability and demand projections-along with other characteristics of the water system such as water supply priorities, environmental and transboundary flow requirements, irrigation efficiency, and reservoir locations and volumes-into a monthly integrated water resource planning tool (the Water Evaluation And Planning tool, or WEAP) to generate projected unmet water demand under each climate scenario and to each sector through 2050. The findings suggest that the agricultural sector in each country (except the relatively water-rich Albania) would experience significant unmet water demands, up to 52 percent in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya River basins of Uzbekistan. Potential adaptation responses to address unmet water demands-such as

  12. Changes of Glaciation and Their Probable Impact on Water Resources in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severskiy, I.

    2009-04-01

    In the Central Asia the main limiting factor of sustainable development is increasing water shortage. Even now the overwhelming part of territory of Kazakhstan and the adjacent countries of Central Asia are characterized by a condition of the strongest water stress. Fresh water deficiency is, to this or that extent, observed practically on all the territory of Central Asia and transboundary character of the main rivers is one of the main risk factors for sustainable development of national economy of the countries in this region. For the last 20 years a great number of scientific publications appeared in which their authors express an increasingly serious fears about significant reduction of water resources in the arid regions of the world as a reaction to global warming. One of the arguments substantiating such forecasts is the indisputable fact of a continuous intensive degradation of glaciers. Predominating opinion about the inevitability of glaciers disappearance in Central Asia Mountains cannot be accepted as an axiom. Taking into account stability in the sum of precipitation and especially in the snow resources, one can suppose that glaciers in this region will not disappear during this century. Despite the reduction of glaciers, annual runoff volumes and runoff distribution within a year remained unchanged during the last decades. During the same period, norms of atmospheric precipitation and maximum snow-water storage in the zone of runoff formation remained stable. All these suggest the existence of a certain compensation mechanism. Research, based on data analysis of repeated photogrammetric surveys of a group of glaciers and temperature regime of permafrost in Zailiyskiy Alatau range (Northern Tien Shan), suggests that such mechanism can be more and more significant (with climate warming) participation of melting waters of underground ice (buried glaciers, rock glaciers, permafrost) in runoff formation. During last decade the Global Climate system

  13. Defining a stable water isotope framework for isotope hydrology application in a large trans-boundary watershed (Russian Federation/Ukraine).

    PubMed

    Vystavna, Yuliya; Diadin, Dmytro; Huneau, Frédéric

    2017-07-10

    Stable isotopes of hydrogen ((2)H) and oxygen ((18)O) of the water molecule were used to assess the relationship between precipitation, surface water and groundwater in a large Russia/Ukraine trans-boundary river basin. Precipitation was sampled from November 2013 to February 2015, and surface water and groundwater were sampled during high and low flow in 2014. A local meteoric water line was defined for the Ukrainian part of the basin. The isotopic seasonality in precipitation was evident with depletion in heavy isotopes in November-March and an enrichment in April-October, indicating continental and temperature effects. Surface water was enriched in stable water isotopes from upstream to downstream sites due to progressive evaporation. Stable water isotopes in groundwater indicated that recharge occurs mainly during winter and spring. A one-year data set is probably not sufficient to report the seasonality of groundwater recharge, but this survey can be used to identify the stable water isotopes framework in a weakly gauged basin for further hydrological and geochemical studies.

  14. Groundwater depletion in the Middle East from GRACE with implications for transboundary water management in the Tigris-Euphrates-Western Iran region.

    PubMed

    Voss, Katalyn A; Famiglietti, James S; Lo, Minhui; Linage, Caroline; Rodell, Matthew; Swenson, Sean C

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we use observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission to evaluate freshwater storage trends in the north-central Middle East, including portions of the Tigris and Euphrates River Basins and western Iran, from January 2003 to December 2009. GRACE data show an alarming rate of decrease in total water storage of approximately -27.2±0.6 mm yr(-1) equivalent water height, equal to a volume of 143.6 km(3) during the course of the study period. Additional remote-sensing information and output from land surface models were used to identify that groundwater losses are the major source of this trend. The approach used in this study provides an example of "best current capabilities" in regions like the Middle East, where data access can be severely limited. Results indicate that the region lost 17.3±2.1 mm yr(-1) equivalent water height of groundwater during the study period, or 91.3±10.9 km(3) in volume. Furthermore, results raise important issues regarding water use in transboundary river basins and aquifers, including the necessity of international water use treaties and resolving discrepancies in international water law, while amplifying the need for increased monitoring for core components of the water budget.

  15. Groundwater Depletion in the Middle East from GRACE with Implications for Transboundary Water Management in the Tigris-Euphrates-Western Iran Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, Katalyn A.; Famiglietti, James S.; Lo, MinHui; De Linage, Caroline; Rodell, Matthew; Swenson, Sean C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we use observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission to evaluate freshwater storage trends in the north-central Middle East, including portions of the Tigris and Euphrates River Basins and western Iran, from January 2003 to December 2009. GRACE data show an alarming rate of decrease in total water storage of approximately -27.2 plus or minus 0.6 millimeters per year equivalent water height, equal to a volume of 143.6 cubic kimometers during the course of the study period. Additional remote-sensing information and output from land surface models were used to identify that groundwater losses are the major source of this trend. The approach used in this study provides an example of ''best current capabilities'' in regions like the Middle East, where data access can be severely limited. Results indicate that the region lost 17.3 plus or minus 2.1 millimeters per year equivalent water height of groundwater during the study period, or 91.3 plus or minus 10.9 cubic kilometers in volume. Furthermore, results raise important issues regarding water use in transboundary river basins and aquifers, including the necessity of international water use treaties and resolving discrepancies in international water law, while amplifying the need for increased monitoring for core components of the water budget.

  16. Groundwater Depletion in the Middle East from GRACE with Implications for Transboundary Water Management in the Tigris-Euphrates-Western Iran Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, Katalyn; Famiglietti, James S.; Lo, MinHui; de Linage, Caroline; Rodell, Matthew; Swenson, Sean C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we use observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission to evaluate freshwater storage trends in the north-central Middle East, including portions of the Tigris and Euphrates River Basins and western Iran, from January 2003 to December 2009. GRACE data show an alarming rate of decrease in total water storage of approximately -27.2 plus or minus 0.6 mm per yr equivalent water height, equal to a volume of 143.6 cubic kilometers during the course of the study period. Additional remote-sensing information and output from land surface models were used to identify that groundwater losses are the major source of this trend. The approach used in this study provides an example of ''best current capabilities'' in regions like the Middle East, where data access can be severely limited. Results indicate that the region lost 17.3 plus or minus 2.1 mm per yr equivalent water height of groundwater during the study period, or 91.3 plus or minus 10.9 cubic kilometers in volume. Furthermore, results raise important issues regarding water use in transboundary river basins and aquifers, including the necessity of international water use treaties and resolving discrepancies in international water law, while amplifying the need for increased monitoring for core components of the water budget

  17. Groundwater depletion in the Middle East from GRACE with implications for transboundary water management in the Tigris-Euphrates-Western Iran region

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Katalyn A; Famiglietti, James S; Lo, MinHui; Linage, Caroline; Rodell, Matthew; Swenson, Sean C

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we use observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission to evaluate freshwater storage trends in the north-central Middle East, including portions of the Tigris and Euphrates River Basins and western Iran, from January 2003 to December 2009. GRACE data show an alarming rate of decrease in total water storage of approximately −27.2±0.6 mm yr−1 equivalent water height, equal to a volume of 143.6 km3 during the course of the study period. Additional remote-sensing information and output from land surface models were used to identify that groundwater losses are the major source of this trend. The approach used in this study provides an example of “best current capabilities” in regions like the Middle East, where data access can be severely limited. Results indicate that the region lost 17.3±2.1 mm yr−1 equivalent water height of groundwater during the study period, or 91.3±10.9 km3 in volume. Furthermore, results raise important issues regarding water use in transboundary river basins and aquifers, including the necessity of international water use treaties and resolving discrepancies in international water law, while amplifying the need for increased monitoring for core components of the water budget. PMID:23658469

  18. Valuing environmental water pulses into the Incomati estuary: Key to achieving equitable and sustainable utilisation of transboundary waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengo, D. José; Kachapila, Albert; Zaag, Pieter van der; Mul, Marloes; Nkomo, Sakhiwe

    Upstream developments in the Incomati river basin, shared by South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique, have altered downstream flows significantly. The frequency of small floods into the estuary has been reduced dramatically. This change in the flow regime has impacted on the state of the environment downstream, and the Incomati estuary in particular. The estuary requires fresh water pulses that naturally occur, and the resulting seasonal flooding of the plains. Resource-poor rural households depend on the goods and services that the estuary and flood plains provide such as wood, charcoal, building materials, fish and shrimp, wetland farming, and tourism. Alteration of the flow regime into the estuary has a negative impact on the state of the environment and hence on the goods and services the estuary yields; a phenomenon the people living near the estuary are keenly aware of. The article estimates the value of the goods and services that the estuary currently provides, that is under the conditions of a changed flow regime. A linear relationship is then assumed between fresh water pulses into the estuary and the goods and services it provides, so that the order of magnitude of the economic value of fresh water pulses into the estuary may be approximated. Various development scenarios in the Incomati basin are then considered, that have different upstream and downstream impacts on water availability, and the basin-wide benefits and costs are compared. The paper concludes that the principle of sharing the benefits derived from the water resources, rather than the water itself, as proposed by authors such as [Sadoff, C.W., Grey, D., 2002. Beyond the river: the benefits of cooperation on international rivers. Water Policy 4, 389-403], may be a feasible approach only if the less tangible benefits and functions, especially those of the environment, are assigned an appropriate value and corresponding priority.

  19. The Water Efficiency Paradox, a study of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merks, Joreen; Bastiaanssen, Wim

    2017-04-01

    Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern in the semi-arid areas of Central Asia. Water savings and efficiency improvement programs are promoted as a possibility to save the Aral Sea. The Aral Seas lost 92% of its volume between 1960 and 2009. Projects on rehabilitating the Aral Sea and increasing the efficiency of water use in the irrigation sector are, however, not making progress. In Central Asia, 90% of the water withdrawal is allocated to agriculture. Irrigation efficiency programs often disregard the downstream connectivity of the water flow path. Not all water being applied is consumed by crop evapotranspiration and in fact an equally great portion of water returns back into the river basin system and is reused downstream. This cascade effect implies that results in one location can induce a scarcity of water in another location. The cascade effect in the Syr Darya has been studied by means of the Aral Sea Basin Management Model (ASBMM) designed by SIC-ICWC and remote sensing data produced by UNESCO-IHE. We will demonstrate the impact of increasing irrigation efficiency locally on the overall water consumption in the basin. We will show that efficiency increases with larger areas, and that there are caps to the maximum efficiency at basin scale. Increasing efficiency is thus not self-evident. Classical solutions on promoting increase of efficiency and water savings are therefore outdated and misleads stakeholders. We will look into the misconceptions and challenges in the communication between researchers and policy makers regarding increasing efficiency.

  20. Towards water sensitive cities in Asia: an interdisciplinary journey.

    PubMed

    Barron, N J; Kuller, M; Yasmin, T; Castonguay, A C; Copa, V; Duncan-Horner, E; Gimelli, F M; Jamali, B; Nielsen, J S; Ng, K; Novalia, W; Shen, P F; Conn, R J; Brown, R R; Deletic, A

    2017-09-01

    Rapid urbanisation, population growth and the effects of climate change drive the need for sustainable urban water management (SUWM) in Asian cities. The complexity of this challenge calls for the integration of knowledge from different disciplines and collaborative approaches. This paper identifies key issues and sets the stage for interdisciplinary research on SUWM in Asia. It reports on the initial stages of a SUWM research programme being undertaken at Monash University, Australia, and proposes a framework to guide the process of interdisciplinary research in urban water management. Three key themes are identified: (1) Technology and Innovation, (2) Urban Planning and Design, and (3) Governance and Society. Within these themes 12 research projects are being undertaken across Indonesia, China, India and Bangladesh. This outward-looking, interdisciplinary approach guides our research in an effort to transgress single-discipline solutions and contribute on-ground impact to SUWM practices in Asia.

  1. An overview of the transboundary aquifers in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiye, Tamiru Alemayehu

    2010-11-01

    A transboundary aquifer is a body of groundwater intersected by two or more countries with the potential threat of dispute over a shared groundwater resource. A large portion of the population in East Africa relies on surface water resources for day-to-day activities; in turn, this is dependent on episodic rainfall. Surface water in the region is vulnerable to pollution and potential climate change. Consequently, frequent conflict over the water use is a regular event in the region. This paper examines the transboundary aquifers and their significance for water supply in the six adjacent Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) countries (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan, Kenya, Somalia and Djibouti). Analysis of available literature and short field visits to accessible areas were undertaken in order to examine the geology, hydrogeological dynamics, and water use. The geology of the transboundary aquifers is mainly represented by Precambrian basement, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Cenozoic volcanics and recent alluvial deposits. Taking into consideration the topographic setting and water circulation, the Ethiopian highlands are the major sources of recharge to the transboundary aquifers of the adjacent countries. The surface runoff drains through 11 major rivers into the neighbouring countries. The groundwater contained in the transboundary aquifers is yet to receive attention by the various countries, but the future trend is towards exploiting the resources to alleviate water shortages in the region. It is hoped that the systematic development of these groundwater resources would strengthen cooperation in this conflict-dominated region.

  2. Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    Gathering the efficient information on water pollution of transboundary river systems remains the crucial task in international water management, environmental pollution control and prevention health problems. Countries, located in the low parts of the river basins, depend on the water strategy and water use in the adjacent countries, located upstream. Surface water pollution is considered to be the most serious problem, facing the above-mentioned countries. Large efforts in terms of field measurement campaigns and (numerical) transport modeling are then typically needed for relevant pollution prediction and prevention. Russian rivers take inflow from 8 neighboring countries. Among them there are 2 developing economies - People Republic of China and Mongolia, which are located in water-scarce areas and thus solve their water-related problems through the consumption of international water. Negative change of water runoff and water quality in the foreign part of transboundary river is appeared inside Russian territory with more or less delay. The transboundary river system of Selenga is particularly challenging, being the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Selenga River contributes about 50 % of the total inflow into Baikal. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the water quality of the river system. Absence of the single monitoring system and predictive tools for pollutants transport in river system requires large efforts in understanding sources of water pollution and implemented data on the relevant numerical systems for the pollution prediction and prevention. Special investigations in the Selenga river basin (Mongolia and Russia) were done to assess hot spots and understand state-of-the art in sediment load, water chemistry and hydrobiology of transboundary systems

  3. Anthropogenic and climate-driven water depletion in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Shuang; Sun, Wenke; Feng, Wei; Chen, Jianli

    2016-09-01

    Anthropogenic depletion of terrestrial water storage (TWS) can be alleviated in wet years and intensified in dry years, and this wet/dry pattern spanning seasons to years is termed climate variability. However, the anthropogenic and climate-driven changes have not been isolated in previous studies; thus, the estimated trend of changes in TWS is strongly dependent on the study period. Here we try to remove the influence of climate variability from the estimation of the anthropogenic contribution, which is an indicator of the environmental burden and important for TWS projections. Toward this end, we propose a linear relationship between the variation in water storage and precipitation. Factors related to the sensitivity of water storage to precipitation are given to correct for the climate variability, and the anthropogenic depletion of terrestrial water and groundwater in Asia is estimated to be -187 ± 38 Gt/yr and -100 ± 47 Gt/yr, respectively.

  4. Asia-Pacific Region Water Boosted Rocket Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, K.-I.; Hidayat, A.; Sofyan, E.; Sinha, H. S. S.; Herudi, K.; Kubota, T.; Sukkarieh, S.; Arban, J. L.; Chung, D. M.; Medagangoda, I.; Mohd, Z. B.; Pitan, S.; Chin, C.; Sarkar, F. R.

    2010-05-01

    Space Education and Awareness Working Group, which is one of four working groups of Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum, had organized water boosted rocket competition in Japan in 2005, in Indonesia in 2006, and in 2007 in India. One junior high school student (12-15 years old) and one leader from 9 and 13 Asian/Pacific countries attended the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd water rocket events, respectively. The 4th event is planned in Vietnam, in December 2008. The manuscript introduces the structure and activities of Space Education and Awareness Working Group, which is working under Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum sponsored by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, and Technology of Japan; and application of water-boosted rocket to other field is described. Details of the water boosted rocket events, such as the purpose, competition rules, and the schedules are provided. Finally we discuss the issues to be taken into account for the future event.

  5. Identifying and characterizing transboundary aquifers along the Mexico-US border: An initial assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Rosario; Lopez, Victoria; Eckstein, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The transboundary nature of water dividing Mexico and the United States (U.S.) transforms the entire border region into an instrument of cooperation, a source of conflict, a national security issue, and an environmental concern. Reasonable data collection and research analysis have been conducted for surface waters by joint governmental institutions and non-governmental bodies. However, with the exception of the U.S. Transboundary Assessment Act Program (TAAP) (focusing on the Hueco Bolson, Mesilla Bolson, San Pedro and Santa Cruz aquifers), there is no comparable research, institutional development, or assessment of transboundary groundwater issues on the frontier. Moreover, data collection and methodologies vary between the two countries, there is no broadly accepted definition of the transboundary nature of an aquifer, and available legal and policy frameworks are constrained by non-hydrological considerations. Hence, there is a conceptual and institutional void regarding transboundary groundwater resources between Mexico and the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to bridge this void and characterize transboundary aquifers on the Mexico-US border. It reviews existing international frameworks for identifying hydrological and social criteria that characterize an aquifer as transboundary. It then assesses data from both countries to propose where and which aquifers could be considered transboundary. Finally, the paper proposes an agenda for assessing Mexico-US transboundary aquifers as a means for improving groundwater management in the border region.

  6. Sustainability issues in rural water supply in Asia.

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    This article identifies some sustainability issues in management of water supplies in rural Asia. The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade was 1981-90. At present, less than 50% of the rural population in several Asian countries have access to safe water, and even less have access to adequate sanitation. Access does not ensure quality of services or supplies. Data on coverage is inadequate and does not take into account water quality, hours of service, reliability of supplies, distance to the source, and community use patterns. It is difficult to improve access to the poor. There is no single uniform strategy that works for all parts of a country. Countries need to promote community management that has strategic vision and appropriate priorities. Local management is constrained by centralized authority, the orientation of sector agencies, and staff with weak managerial, financial, technical, and communications skills. Many countries lack resources to maintain water delivery infrastructures and to prevent deterioration of services. There is a need to develop low cost appropriate technologies, management requirements, health education, community participation, mobilization of women, and synergistic, nonsequential development. Demand for water and sanitation is driven by survival and privacy issues. Rural water supply programs should view water as an economic and social good. Water management is effective when decisions are made locally. Local governments need to be strengthened in order to be able to perform demand management, select institutional options, and to take care of the unserviced.

  7. Central Asia’s Raging Waters: The Prospects of Water Conflict in Central Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    hydropolitical issue at stake, institutional control of water resources and national water ethos.”11 This thesis, utilizing a case study method focusing on...with the Soviet mismanagement and inefficient control of water resources. Gleason claims it is the result of an excessive agrarian policy in a...causes erosion , delivering loads of fertile sediment all along its path. These deposited silt beds support fruitful fields along the Amu Darya’s banks

  8. Changes in Central Asia's Water Tower: Past, Present and Future.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaning; Li, Weihong; Deng, Haijun; Fang, Gonghuan; Li, Zhi

    2016-10-20

    The Tienshan Mountains, with its status as "water tower", is the main water source and ecological barrier in Central Asia. The rapid warming affected precipitation amounts and fraction as well as the original glacier/snowmelt water processes, thereby affecting the runoff and water storage. The ratio of snowfall to precipitation (S/P) experienced a downward trend, along with a shift from snow to rain. Spatially, the snow cover area in Middle Tienshan Mountains decreased significantly, while that in West Tienshan Mountains increased slightly. Approximately 97.52% of glaciers in the Tienshan Mountains showed a retreating trend, which was especially obvious in the North and East Tienshan Mountains. River runoff responds in a complex way to changes in climate and cryosphere. It appears that catchments with a higher fraction of glacierized area showed mainly increasing runoff trends, while river basins with less or no glacierization exhibited large variations in the observed runoff changes. The total water storage in the Tienshan Mountains also experienced a significant decreasing trend in Middle and East Tienshan Mountains, but a slight decreasing trend in West Tienshan Mountains, totally at an average rate of -3.72 mm/a. In future, water storage levels are expected to show deficits for the next half-century.

  9. Some aspects of integrated water resources management in central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaydarova, V.; Penkova, N.; Pak, E.; Poberejsky, L.; Beltrao, J.

    2003-04-01

    Two main tasks are to be implemented for elaboration of the governmental water distribution criteria in Central Asia: 1 -development of the common methodological basis for the intergovernmental water distribution; and 2 - to reopen and continue both theoretical and experimental researches of various aspects of the wastewater reuse. The prospects of socio economic development of all Central Asian countries are substantially defined by the water resources availability. The water resources of Central Asia belong, mainly, watersheds of the Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers. The basic flow of Amu Darya is formed in territory of Tajikistan. Then the Amu Darya river proceeds along border of Afghanistan with Uzbekistan, crosses Turkmenistan and again comes back to Uzbekistan and then runs into the Aral Sea. The Syr-Darya is second river on the water discharge and is first river on length in Central Asia. The basic flow of Syr Darya is formed in territory of Kyrgyzstan. Then the Syr-Darya river crosses of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and runs into the Aral Sea in territory of Kazakhstan. During the Soviet Union the water resources of two river watersheds were divided among the Central Asian republics on the basis of the general plans developed by the center in Moscow. In the beginning of 90s years, after taking of sovereignty by the former Soviet republics, the unified control system of water resources management was abolished and the various approaches to its transformation caused by features of the national economy developing, elected models of transition from command to market mechanisms of economic activity, and also specificity of political and social processes in each of the states of region were planned. The distinctions of modern priorities of economic development of the states of region have generated the contradiction of interests in the intergovernmental water distribution that can in the long term become complicated even more in connection with the increasing of water

  10. Correlation between total precipitable water and precipitation over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keum, Wangho; Lim, Gyu-Ho

    2017-04-01

    The precipitation rate(PR) and the total precipitable water(TPW) interact with various physical mechanisms. The correlation of two variables changes with difference of domain resolution and characteristics of the region. This poster analyzes the correlation between PR and TPW over East Asia using Cyclostationary Empirical Orthogonal Function(CSEOF) which is one of the PCA analysis. The CSEOF is useful to search a periodic pattern of the data. The anomalies which is subtracted climatological mean from the original data are used to represent annual cycles. Two variances of ERA-Interim Monthly Total Column Water vapor and GPCP monthly precipitation amounts with 372 time since January, 1984 to December, 2014 are decomposed into several modes separately. The first mode which explain largest variance are used in analysis. PC of both PR and TPW increase recently on mean value and amplitude, and they show considerable correlation on phase. The correlation coefficient of PR and TPW is 0.61 and maintains the same values by month. The result of harmonic analysis shows 2 to 6 year oscillations. As result of decomposed modes of two variables, there is the relationship between TPW PC series and horizontal moisture gradient. The Horizontal moist gradient can change affect moisture flux convergence which is one of important variable of rainfall events.

  11. Temporal variation of the water budget in Central Southwest Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, K.; Taylor, P. A.; Szeto, K.

    2009-05-01

    Water budget terms for Central Southwest Asia (CSWA) have been computed using National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data for 60-years from 1948-2007 and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ERA-40) reanalysis for the 44-year period from 1958-2001. First, observational rainfall data from the Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) and the Iran Meteorological Organization (IMO) were compared with Global Prediction Climate Centre (GPCC) version-4 data. GPCC rainfall data appear close to the observational data of the region. GPCC rainfall data have then been used for comparison with both NCEP and ERA-40 reanalysis data sets and it was found that NCEP is closer to GPCC than ERA-40 for this region. The domain under study is located from 45-75E and 25-40N including parts of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq and Kazakhstan. For realistic results only land areas has been used in the study. In the ERA-40 reanalysis data, evapotranspiration may have been overestimated in the system noting that evaporation exceeds rainfall. NCEP computes more precipitation than evaporation with moisture flux into the area providing the balance. This suggests that the ERA-40 data set is not suitable for computing water budget terms in this particular region. Moisture flux convergence is computed by using four daily readings (00, 06, 12 and 18z) up to 300 hPa. Finally, Principle Component Analysis (PCA) techniques are used to divide the domain into six areas and we discuss the temporal variation of rainfall for each area. The main contribution of rainfall in most of the areas is due to western disturbance weather systems moving from west to east. Also the area at the extreme southeast is getting rain though southwest monsoon in the month of July August. It is observed that rainfall decreases significantly after 1980 as a result of a dedcrease in moisture flux convergence.

  12. Sediment fluxes in transboundary Selenga river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belozerova, Ekaterina

    2013-04-01

    Gathering reliable information on transboundary river systems remains a crucial task for international water management and environmental pollution control. Countries located in the lower parts of the river basins depend on water use and management strategies in adjacent upstream countries. One important issue in this context is sediment transport and associated contaminant fluxes across the state borders. The mass flows of dissolved ions, biogens, heavy metal concentrations, as far as suspended sediment concentration (SSC, mg/l) along upper Selenga river and its tributaries based on the literature review and results of field campaigns 2011-2012 were estimated. Based on the water discharges measurements Q, suspended load WR (t/day) and dissolved loads WL were calculated. In the Selenga basin the minimal WR (1,34-3,74 t/day) were found at small rivers. Maximal sediment loads (WR = 15 000 t/day) were found at the upper Orkhon river during flood event. The downstream point (Mongolia-Russia border) was characterized 2 220 t/day in 2011. Generally the prevalence of the accumulation is found through calculating sediment budget for all rivers (ΔW = WR (downstream) - WR (upstream) < 0). Downstream of Orkhon river (below confluence with Tuul) ΔW = - 1145 t/day. Below Selenga-Orkhon confluence sediment yield reached 2515 t/day, which is corresponded to transboundary sediment flux. Silt sediments (0,001 - 0,05 mm) form the main portion of the transported material. The maximal value of sand flux (302 t/day) was reported for middle stream station of Selenga river (upstream from confluence with Orkhon). The increase of human activities (mining and pastures) increases the portion of clay particles in total sediment load (e.g. at the downstream point of most polluted Orkhon river it reached 207,8 t/day). The existed estimates are compared with distribution of the main matter sources within basin: mining and industry, river-bank erosion and slope wash. The heaviest increase of

  13. Resolving conflicts over trans-boundary rivers using bankruptcy methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarezadeh, M.; Madani, K.; Morid, S.

    2013-11-01

    A bankruptcy approach is proposed for resolving trans-boundary rivers conflicts in which the total water demand or claim of the riparian parties is more than the available water. Bankruptcy solution methods can allocate the available water to the conflicting parties with respect to their claims. Four bankruptcy rules are used here to allocate the available water to the riparian parties. Given the non-uniform spatial and temporal distribution of water across river basins, bankruptcy optimization models are proposed to allocate water based on these rules with respect to time sensitivity of water deliveries during the planning horizon. Once allocation solutions are developed, their acceptability and stability must be evaluated. Thus, a new stability index method is developed for evaluating the acceptability of bankruptcy solutions. To show how the bankruptcy framework can be helpful in practice, the suggested methods are applied to a real-world tarns-boundary river system with eight riparians under various hydrologic regimes. Stability analysis based on the proposed stability index method suggests that the acceptability of allocation rules is sensitive to hydrologic conditions and demand values. This finding has an important policy implication suggesting that fixed allocation rules and trans-boundary treaties may not be reliable for securing cooperation over trans-boundary water resources as they are vulnerable to changing socio-economic and climatic conditions as well as hydrologic non-stationarity.

  14. Characterizing hydrological hazards and trends with the NASA South Asia Land Data Assimilation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghatak, D.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Limaye, A. S.; Searby, N. D.; Doorn, B.; Bolten, J. D.; Toll, D. L.; Lee, S.; Mourad, B.; Narula, K.; Nischal, S.; Iceland, C.; Bajracharya, B.; Kumar, S.; Shrestha, B. R.; Murthy, M.; Hain, C.; Anderson, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    South Asia faces severe challenges to meet the need of water for agricultural, domestic and industrial purposes while coping with the threats posed by climate and land use/cover changes on regional hydrology. South Asia is also characterized by extreme climate contrasts, remote and poorly-monitored headwaters regions, and large uncertainties in estimates of consumptive water withdrawals. Here, we present results from the South Asia Land Data Assimilation System (South Asia LDAS) that apply multiple simulations involving different combination of forcing datasets, land surface models, and satellite-derived parameter datasets to characterize the distributed water balance of the subcontinent. The South Asia LDAS ensemble of simulations provides a range of uncertainty associated with model products. The system includes customized irrigation schemes to capture water use and HYMAP streamflow routing for application to floods. This presentation focuses on two key application areas for South Asia LDAS: the representation of extreme floods in transboundary rivers, and the estimate of water use in irrigated agriculture. We show that South Asia LDAS captures important features of both phenomena, address opportunities and barriers for the use of South Asia LDAS in decision support, and review uncertainties and limitations.This work is being performed by an interdisciplinary team of scientists and decision makers, to ensure that the modeling system meets the needs of decision makers at national and regional levels.

  15. Security of water, energy, and food nexus in the Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, M.; Endo, A.; Fujii, M.; Shoji, J.; Baba, K.; Gurdak, J. J.; Allen, D. M.; Siringan, F. P.; Delinom, R.

    2014-12-01

    Water, energy, and food are the most important and fundamental resources for human beings and society. Demands for these resources are escalating rapidly because of increases in populations and changes in lifestyles. Therefore intensive demand for those resources makes conflicts between resources. Securities of water, energy, and food are treated separately, however they should be considered as one integrated matter, because water-energy-food are connected and it makes nexus and tradeoff. Security in terms of self-production, diversity of alternatives, and variability are evaluated for water, energy and food for thirty two countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The water and energy nexus includes water consumption for the cooling of power plant systems, water use for hydro power generation, and energy consumption for water allocation and pumping. The water and food nexus consists of water consumption for agriculture and aquaculture. The energy and food nexus includes energy consumption for food production and biomass for energy. Analyses of 11 countries within the Asia- Pacific region show that energy consumption for fish is the largest among foods in Japan, Philippines, and Peru, while energy consumption for cereals is the largest among foods in Canada, US, Indonesia, and others. Water consumption for different types of food and energy are also analyzed, including nexus ratio to total water consumption. The water-energy-food nexus at a local level in the Asia Pacific region are examined by the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature project "Human environmental security in Asia Pacific Ring of Fire". Themes including geothermal power plants for energy development and hot springs as water, shale gas for energy development and water consumption/contamination, aquaculture for food and water contamination are used to evaluate the water-energy-food nexus in the Asia-Pacific region.

  16. Natural radionuclides and toxic elements in transboundary rivers of Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Solodukhin, V; Poznyak, V; Kabirova, G; Stepanov, V; Ryazanova, L; Lennik, S; Liventsova, A; Bychenko, A; Zheltov, D

    2015-06-01

    The paper reports on the study of radionuclide and elemental composition of water, bottom sediment and soil samples collected at the border areas of the following transboundary rivers in Kazakhstan: Chagan, Ural, Ilek, Tobol, Ayat, Irtysh, Emel, Ili, Tekes, Shu, Karabalta, Talas and Syrdarya. The employed analyses include the following methods: instrumental gamma-ray spectrometry, radiochemical analysis, neutron activation analysis, XRF and the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Evidence of water environment contamination with radionuclides and toxic elements has been revealed in many of the studied rivers both in Kazakhstan and in adjacent countries. Transboundary transfer of the contaminants is most likely related to local industry (uranium mining and processing) and the presence of radioactive substances in the river basins. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. East Asia: Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-25

    JPRS-SEA-90-022 25 JULY 1990 FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report— East Asia Southeast Asia 19990510 141 REPRODUCED BY U.S...Burmese have been forcibly resettled to new towns from densely-populated areas of Rangoon and Mandalay , often without running water and elec- tricity... settlement of some 100,000 people in bamboo houses. Situated in what were rice fields, the town suffers from flooding in the current monsoon season

  18. Climate and land use controls over terrestrial water use efficiency in monsoon Asia.

    Treesearch

    Hanqin Tian; Chaoqun Lu; Guangsheng Chen; Xiaofeng Xu; Mingliang Liu; et al

    2011-01-01

    Much concern has been raised regarding how and to what extent climate change and intensive human activities have altered water use efficiency (WUE, amount of carbon uptake per unit of water use) in monsoon Asia. By using a process-based ecosystem model [dynamic land ecosystem model (DLEM)], we examined effects of climate change, land use/cover change, and land...

  19. A new conceptual model for quantifying transboundary contribution of atmospheric pollutants in the East Asian Pacific rim region.

    PubMed

    Lai, I-Chien; Lee, Chon-Lin; Huang, Hu-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Transboundary transport of air pollution is a serious environmental concern as pollutant affects both human health and the environment. Many numerical approaches have been utilized to quantify the amounts of pollutants transported to receptor regions, based on emission inventories from possible source regions. However, sparse temporal-spatial observational data and uncertainty in emission inventories might make the transboundary transport contribution difficult to estimate. This study presents a conceptual quantitative approach that uses transport pathway classification in combination with curve fitting models to simulate an air pollutant concentration baseline for pollution background concentrations. This approach is used to investigate the transboundary transport contribution of atmospheric pollutants to a metropolitan area in the East Asian Pacific rim region. Trajectory analysis categorized pollution sources for the study area into three regions: East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan cities. The occurrence frequency and transboundary contribution results suggest the predominant source region is the East Asian continent. This study also presents an application to evaluate heavy pollution cases for health concerns. This new baseline construction model provides a useful tool for the study of the contribution of transboundary pollution delivered to receptors, especially for areas deficient in emission inventories and regulatory monitoring data for harmful air pollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transboundary Groundwater Along the Canadian-American Border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, A.

    2009-05-01

    Canada does not have obvious problems as a consequence of the intensive use of surface water or groundwater. Canada mostly struggles to keep the quality of its waters, in the highest standards, and to overcome the knowledge gaps of its groundwater resources. In assessing water resources, it has become obvious that both surface and groundwater resources are equally important. Because of this shift, Canada is interested in transboundary groundwater issues, both between provinces and internationally. There is no competition in Canada for groundwater resources between provinces or internationally. When an aquifer extends beneath the border of two jurisdictions, conflict may arise when one jurisdiction depletes groundwater resources that affect the quantity and quality of water available to the other jurisdiction. The most important cases of transboundary aquifers within Canada are located in the Prairie Provinces, but no competition has been reported. The equitable and "reasonable" use of shared waters is the most essential principle considered when negotiating a groundwater apportionment method. Other factors considered are: the priority use, the sustainable yield of the aquifer, and the joint apportionment of surface water and groundwater Over 20 million Canadians live in watersheds that cross the Canada-US border (over 17 million of them in the Great Lakes-St Lawrence watershed), and are therefore affected by American policies, or else affect American water quality. The International Joint Commission is one well-developed and valuable mechanism for coordinating policies between Canada and the United States. Other mechanisms include provisions under the North American Free Trade Agreement, supported by its environmental commission, which attempt to ensure that the Agreement's policies are consistent with environmental protection and conservation as well as strengthening the development and enforcement of environmental laws and regulations. Policies affecting

  1. Central Asia Water (CAWa) - A visualization platform for hydro-meteorological sensor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stender, Vivien; Schroeder, Matthias; Wächter, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Water is an indispensable necessity of life for people in the whole world. In central Asia, water is the key factor for economic development, but is already a narrow resource in this region. In fact of climate change, the water problem handling will be a big challenge for the future. The regional research Network "Central Asia Water" (CAWa) aims at providing a scientific basis for transnational water resources management for the five Central Asia States Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. CAWa is part of the Central Asia Water Initiative (also known as the Berlin Process) which was launched by the Federal Foreign Office on 1 April 2008 at the "Water Unites" conference in Berlin. To produce future scenarios and strategies for sustainable water management, data on water reserves and the use of water in Central Asia must therefore be collected consistently across the region. Hydro-meteorological stations equipped with sophisticated sensors are installed in Central Asia and send their data via real-time satellite communication to the operation centre of the monitoring network and to the participating National Hydro-meteorological Services.[1] The challenge for CAWa is to integrate the whole aspects of data management, data workflows, data modeling and visualizations in a proper design of a monitoring infrastructure. The use of standardized interfaces to support data transfer and interoperability is essential in CAWa. An uniform treatment of sensor data can be realized by the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) , which makes a number of standards and interface definitions available: Observation & Measurement (O&M) model for the description of observations and measurements, Sensor Model Language (SensorML) for the description of sensor systems, Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for obtaining sensor observations, Sensor Planning Service (SPS) for tasking sensors, Web Notification Service (WNS) for asynchronous dialogues and Sensor Alert Service

  2. New approaches to solve old water problems: community based organizations in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurymgereyev, Kanysh

    2010-05-01

    The dry summer of 2009 has once again shown unsteadiness of economy of the Central-Asian countries, first of all, in agricultural sector and serious dependence of the region on water resources. For example, decreasing of water level in Toktogul reservoir forces the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic, the country where the largest rivers of the Central Asia originate, to the systematic switching-off of the electricity in three regions. Already in the spring of 2009, the experts predicted decreasing of gross production of agriculture in region, especially for the main cultures of cotton and rice. Coupled by natural cataclysms, the problems with water resources management have seriously aggravated conditions that are directly reflected on the livelihood of the rural population of Central Asia. This demands a search for new approaches and methods of solution of the main problems of water resources management. Despite the fact that the main issues of water distribution are solved at a level of the governments of the countries of Central Asia, a serious role in this process is associated directly to local water users. In recent years in some countries of the region, a process of creation of new community based Institutes of water resources management like Water Users Associations of (WUA) has started. The main idea for creation of these organizations is the necessity to involve the local water users like farmers to the process of water resources management and distribution. However, activity of the WUAs in the region has shown certain weaknesses both regarding the legal status of these organizations and institutional development. The main weakness of many WUAs is a lack of opportunities and mechanisms of involving of associations in decision-making processes. Members of WUAs have an opportunity to participate in distribution of water only within the borders of the associations while the main requirement of efficient water resources management is the principle of the

  3. A Regional Strategy for the Assessment and Management of Transboundary Aquifer Systems in the Americas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, R. T.; Rivera, A.; Tujchneider, O.; Guillén, C.; Campos, M.; Da Franca, N.; May, Z.; Aureli, A.

    2015-12-01

    The UNESCO-IHP ISARM-Americas technical committee has developed a regional strategy for the assessment and management of transboundary aquifer systems in the Americas as part of their ongoing cooperative assistance to help neighboring countries sustain water resources and reduce potential conflict. The fourth book in the series of publications sponsored by UNESCO and OAS documents this strategy. The goal of this strategy is the collective understanding, developing, managing, and protecting of the transboundary aquifers in the Americas This strategy includes technical, social, and governance recommendations for an integrated resource management of groundwater based on flexible arrangements that not only manage but also demand social participation in solving problems, consider changes in land use and water use and promote the increase of water sustainability for all transboundary neighbors. The successful implementation of this strategy starts with sharing information of the status and use of land and water as well as intergovernmental partnerships to link science and policy with existing instruments for managing the water resources. International organizations such as UNESCO and OAS also can help facilitate the development of transboundary agreements and establish cooperation on transboundary aquifers between neighbors. The UNESCO-IHP ISARM-Americas technical committee has been successful in creating a network of partners from 24 countries and in translating existing aquifer knowledge into a meaningful strategy for the American hemisphere. The strategy aims to explain and develop the role of science and the informed-decision approach. Examples from North and South America show how the process has begun to develop for selected transboundary aquifers. These include the Milk River basin between the US and Canada, the Rio Grande and Colorado River basins between the US and Mexico, and the Guarani River basin in South America.

  4. Climate Change and Water Infrastructure in Central Asia: adaptation capacities and institutional challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullaev, Iskandar; Rakhmatullaev, Shavkat

    2014-05-01

    The paper discusses vulnerability areas of water sector in arid Central Asia due to climate change projections with particular focus on adaptation to sustainable operation of physical infrastructure capacities (from legal, institutional and technical aspects). Two types of technical installations are the main focus of this paper, i.e., electrical lift irrigation systems and water reservoirs. The first set of electrical lift infrastructure is strategic for delivering water to water users via pumps, diversion structures, vertical drainage facilities and groundwater boreholes; on the other hand, the primarily task of second set of structures is to accumulate the water resources for sectors of economy. In Central Asia, approximately, 20-50% of irrigation water is lifted, yet major of lift structures are in very poor technical conditions coupled with ever increasing of electricity tariffs. Furthermore, useful volumes capacities of water reservoirs are being severely diminished due to bio-physical geomorphologic processes, improper operational regimes and chronic financing for special in-house sedimentation surveys. Most importantly, the key argument is that irrigation sector should internalize its adaptation efforts, i.e., integrate renewable energy technologies, energy audit programs and lastly design comprehensive investment prioritization processes and programs. Otherwise, water sector will be at great risk for continued provision of fundamental services to the public, food security and industry

  5. Crop-specific seasonal estimates of irrigation water demand in South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biemans, H.; Siderius, C.; Mishra, A.; Ahmad, B.

    2015-08-01

    Especially in the Himalayan headwaters of the main rivers in South Asia, shifts in runoff are expected as a result of a rapidly changing climate. In recent years, our insight in these shifts and their impact on water availability has increased. However, a similar detailed understanding of the seasonal pattern in water demand is surprisingly absent. This hampers a proper assessment of water stress and ways to cope and adapt. In this study, the seasonal pattern of irrigation water demand resulting from the typical practice of multiple-cropping in South Asia was accounted for by introducing double-cropping with monsoon-dependent planting dates in a hydrology and vegetation model. Crop yields were calibrated to the latest subnational statistics of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal. The representation of seasonal land use and more accurate cropping periods lead to lower estimates of irrigation water demand compared to previous model-based studies, despite the net irrigated area being higher. Crop irrigation water demand differs sharply between seasons and regions; in Pakistan, winter (Rabi) and summer (Kharif) irrigation demands are almost equal, whereas in Bangladesh the Rabi demand is ~ 100 times higher. Moreover, the relative importance of irrigation supply vs. rain decreases sharply from west to east. Given the size and importance of South Asia, improved regional estimates of food production and its irrigation water demand will also affect global estimates. In models used for global water resources and food-security assessments, processes like multiple-cropping and monsoon-dependent planting dates should not be ignored.

  6. Crop-specific seasonal estimates of irrigation-water demand in South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biemans, Hester; Siderius, Christian; Mishra, Ashok; Ahmad, Bashir

    2016-05-01

    Especially in the Himalayan headwaters of the main rivers in South Asia, shifts in runoff are expected as a result of a rapidly changing climate. In recent years, our insight into these shifts and their impact on water availability has increased. However, a similar detailed understanding of the seasonal pattern in water demand is surprisingly absent. This hampers a proper assessment of water stress and ways to cope and adapt. In this study, the seasonal pattern of irrigation-water demand resulting from the typical practice of multiple cropping in South Asia was accounted for by introducing double cropping with monsoon-dependent planting dates in a hydrology and vegetation model. Crop yields were calibrated to the latest state-level statistics of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal. The improvements in seasonal land use and cropping periods lead to lower estimates of irrigation-water demand compared to previous model-based studies, despite the net irrigated area being higher. Crop irrigation-water demand differs sharply between seasons and regions; in Pakistan, winter (rabi) and monsoon summer (kharif) irrigation demands are almost equal, whereas in Bangladesh the rabi demand is ~ 100 times higher. Moreover, the relative importance of irrigation supply versus rain decreases sharply from west to east. Given the size and importance of South Asia improved regional estimates of food production and its irrigation-water demand will also affect global estimates. In models used for global water resources and food-security assessments, processes like multiple cropping and monsoon-dependent planting dates should not be ignored.

  7. Observed Increase of TTL Temperature and Water Vapor in Polluted Couds over Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Hui; Jiang, Jonathan; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, J.; Read, William G.; Massie, Steven T.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Colarco, Peter; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Santee, Michelle L.

    2011-06-01

    Aerosols can affect cloud particle size and lifetime, which impacts precipitation, radiation and climate. Previous studies1-4 suggested that reduced ice cloud particle size and fall speed due to the influence of aerosols may increase evaporation of ice crystals and/or cloud radiative heating in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), leading to higher water vapor abundance in air entering the stratosphere. Observational substantiation of such processes is still lacking. Here, we analyze new observations from multiple NASA satellites to show the imprint of pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. We focus our analysis on the highly-polluted South and East Asia region during boreal summer. We find that "polluted" ice clouds have smaller ice effective radius than "clean" clouds. In the TTL, the polluted clouds are associated with warmer temperature and higher specific humidity than the clean clouds. The water vapor difference between the polluted and clean clouds cannot be explained by other meteorological factors, such as updraft and detrainment strength. Therefore, the observed higher water vapor entry value into the stratosphere in the polluted clouds than in the clean clouds is likely a manifestation of aerosol pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. Given the radiative and chemical importance of stratospheric water vapor, the increasing emission of aerosols over Asia may have profound impacts on stratospheric chemistry and global energy balance and water cycle.

  8. Beyond the Transboundary River: Issues of Riparian Responsibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parhi, P. K.; Sankhua, R. N.

    2013-11-01

    The issues of riparian countries sharing transboundary waters spans decades, and has been greatly strengthened by its collaboration with partner agencies. International cooperation on shared water resources is critical, especially in water scarce regions experiencing the impacts of over-consumption and pollution. Where, river basins are transboundary, this requires regular and structured consultation, coordination and cooperation among all states sharing the catchment. Rapid and unsustainable development of river basins and their wetlands has led to the disruption of natural hydrological cycles. In many cases this has resulted in greater frequency and severity of flooding, drought and pollution. Appropriate transnational planning, protection and allocation of water to wetlands are essential to avoid disaster and enable these ecosystems to continue to provide important goods and services to local communities. Integrated river basin management takes into account policies and measures for the multifunctional use of rivers on a catchment scale and associated institutional changes. The implementation of these involves a number of steps such as definition of aim, construction of conceptual model, selection of variables, comparison with selection criteria, database assessment, and indicator selection division of tasks and responsibilities for river basin management with regard to the development of indicators, data collection, and their application in decision-making. This work presents issues pertaining to the pressure to the river, the state of the river ecosystem, the impact to goods and services provided by the river, and the societal response.

  9. Studying strategic interaction under environmental and economic uncertainties among water users in the Zambezi River Basin - From descriptive analysis to institutional design for better transboundary management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, L.; Siegfried, T. U.; Bernauer, T.

    2009-12-01

    The Zambezi River Basin (ZRB) is one of the largest freshwater catchments in Africa and worldwide. Consumptive water use in the ZRB is currently estimated at 15 - 20 percent of total runoff. This suggests many development possibilities, particularly for irrigated agriculture and hydropower production. The key drivers in the basin are population development on the demand side as well as uncertain impacts from climate change for supply. Development plans of the riparian countries suggest that consumptive water use might increase up to 40 percent of total runoff by 2025. This suggests that expanding water use in the Zambezi basin could become a source of disputes among the eight riparian countries. We study the surface water allocation in the basin by means of a couple hydrological-economic modeling approach. A conceptual lumped-parameter rainfall-runoff model for the ZRB was constructed and calibrated on the best available runoff data for the basin. Water users are modeled based on an agent-based framework and implemented as distributed sequential decision makers that act in an uncertain environment. Given the current non-cooperative status quo, we use the stochastic optimization technique of reinforcement learning to model the individual agents’ behavior. Their goals include the maximization of a) their long-term reward as conditioned on the state of the multi-agent system and b) the immediate reward obtained from operational decisions of reservoirs and water diversions under their control. We feed a wide range of water demand drivers as well as climate change predictions into the model and assess agents’ responses and the resulting implications for runoff at key points in the water catchment, including Victoria Falls, Kariba reservoir, Kafue Gorge, and Cahora Bassa reservoir in the downstream. It will be shown that considerable benefits exist if the current non-cooperative regime is replaced by a basin-wide, coordinated allocation strategy that regulates water

  10. Influences of recent climate change and human activities on water storage variations in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Haijun; Chen, Yaning

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) change is an indicator of climate change. Therefore, it is helpful to understand how climate change impacts water systems. In this study, the influence of climate change on TWS in Central Asia over the past decade was analyzed using the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellites and Climatic Research Unit datasets. Results indicate that TWS experienced a decreasing trend in Central Asia from 2003 to 2013 at a rate of -4.44 ± 2.2 mm/a, and that the maximum positive anomaly for TWS (46 mm) occurred in July 2005, while the minimum negative anomaly (-32.5 mm) occurred in March 2008-August 2009. The decreasing trend of TWS in northern Central Asia (-3.86 ± 0.63 mm/a) is mainly attributed to soil moisture storage depletion, which is driven primarily by the increase in evapotranspiration. In the mountainous regions, climate change exerted an influence on TWS by affecting glaciers and snow cover change. However, human activities are now the dominant factor driving the decline of TWS in the Aral Sea region and the northern Tarim River Basin.

  11. Terrestrial Water Cycle in South and East Asia: Hydrospheric and Cryospheric Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menenti, M.; Jia, L.; Hu, G.; Liu, Q.; Xin, X.; Roupioz, L.; Zheng, C.; Zhou, J.; Li, Z.; Faivre, R.; Ghafarian, H.; Hien, V. P.; Lindenbergh, R.; Li, J.; Wen, J.; Li, L.; Zhao, J.; Dou, B.

    2016-08-01

    The state of the land surface and the water cycle over the South and East Asia can be determined by space observation. New or significantly improved algorithms have been developed and evaluated against ground measurements. V ariables retrieved include land surface properties, i.e. NDVI, LAI, FPAR, albedo, soil moisture, glacier and lake levels. Based on these biophysical parameters derived from microwave and optical remote sensing observations, a hybrid remotely sensed evapotranspiration (ET) estimation model named ETMonitor was developed and applied to estimate the daily actual ET of the Southeast Asia at a spatial resolution of 1 km. The changes in glaciers and lakes on the Tibetan Plateau, and the drainage links between glaciers and lakes are determined in this climate-sensitive region.

  12. Assessment of transboundary environmental effects in the Pearl River Delta Region: Is there a role for strategic environmental assessment?

    SciTech Connect

    Marsden, Simon

    2011-11-15

    China's EIA Law does not require transboundary proposals to be assessed, despite recognition of this globally, for example in the Espoo Convention and Kiev Protocol, and in the European EIA and SEA Directives. In a transboundary context assessment within a state is unusual, as regulating these effects is primarily about the relationship between states. However where a state has more than one legal system such as in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) Region of southern China, transboundary effects should also be addressed. Yet despite the geographical connections between Guangdong Province in mainland China (where the EIA Law applies) and the Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions (which have their own provisions, neither of which requires transboundary assessments), EIA and SEA are carried out separately. Coordinated or joint approaches to transboundary assessment are generally absent, with the legal autonomy of Hong Kong and Macau a major constraint. As a result institutional responses at the policy level have developed. The article considers global experiences with regulating transboundary EIA and SEA, and analyses potential application to land use, transport and air and water planning in the PRD Region. If applied, benefits may include prevention or mitigation of cumulative effects, broader public participation, and improvements to environmental governance. The PRD Region experience may encourage China to conduct and coordinate EIA and SEA processes with neighbouring states, which has been non-existent or extremely limited to date.

  13. South Asia river flow projections and their implications for water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathison, C.; Wiltshire, A. J.; Falloon, P.; Challinor, A. J.

    2015-06-01

    South Asia is a region with a large and rising population and a high dependance on industries sensitive to water resource such as agriculture. The climate is hugely variable with the region relying on both the Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) and glaciers for its supply of fresh water. In recent years, changes in the ASM, fears over the rapid retreat of glaciers and the increasing demand for water resources for domestic and industrial use, have caused concern over the reliability of water resources both in the present day and future for this region. The climate of South Asia means it is one of the most irrigated agricultural regions in the world, therefore pressures on water resource affecting the availability of water for irrigation could adversely affect crop yields and therefore food production. In this paper we present the first 25 km resolution regional climate projections of river flow for the South Asia region. ERA-Interim, together with two global climate models (GCMs), which represent the present day processes, particularly the monsoon, reasonably well are downscaled using a regional climate model (RCM) for the periods; 1990-2006 for ERA-Interim and 1960-2100 for the two GCMs. The RCM river flow is routed using a river-routing model to allow analysis of present day and future river flows through comparison with river gauge observations, where available. In this analysis we compare the river flow rate for 12 gauges selected to represent the largest river basins for this region; Ganges, Indus and Brahmaputra basins and characterize the changing conditions from east to west across the Himalayan arc. Observations of precipitation and runoff in this region have large or unknown uncertainties, are short in length or are outside the simulation period, hindering model development and validation designed to improve understanding of the water cycle for this region. In the absence of robust observations for South Asia, a downscaled ERA-Interim RCM simulation provides a

  14. Control of Pollutants in the Trans-Boundary Area of Taihu Basin, Yangtze Delta

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao; Katopodes, Nikolaos; Shen, Chunqi; Wang, Hua; Pang, Yong; Zhou, Qi

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on pollution control in the trans-boundary area of Taihu Basin. Considering the unique characteristics of the river network in the study area, a new methodology of pollution control is proposed aiming at improving the water quality in the trans-boundary area and reducing conflicts between up and downstream regions. Based on monitoring data and statistical analysis, important trans-boundary cross sections identified by the regional government were selected as important areas for consideration in developing management objectives; using a 1-D mathematicmodel and an effective weight evaluation model, the trans-boundary effective control scope (TECS) of the study area was identified as the scope for pollutant control; the acceptable pollution load was then estimated using an established model targeting bi-directional flow. The results suggest that the water environmental capacity for chemical oxygen demand (COD), in order to guarantee reaching the target water quality standard in the TECS, is 160,806 t/year, and amounts to 16,098 t/year, 3493 t/year, and 39,768 t/year for ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus, respectively. Our study method and results have been incorporated into the local government management project, and have been proven to be useful in designing a pollution control strategy and management policy. PMID:27999331

  15. Projecting groundwater arsenic levels to define water use options in South Asia (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendorf, S.; Kocar, B. D.; Polizzotto, M.; Stuckey, J.; Benner, S. G.

    2010-12-01

    More than a hundred million people are at risk of exposure to dangerous levels of geogenic arsenic in drinking water across South Asia. Arsenic within rocks of the Himalayas is liberated to the sediment load of the major river systems draining these mountain systems through erosion and ultimately deposited within the massive deltas of South Asia. Upon burial, arsenic may be released to the aqueous phase through microbially driven reduction of arsenic and iron, leading to contamination of groundwater now commonly used for human consumption. Fueling this process is organic carbon that stimulates microbial activity and, with limited oxygen supply, anaerobic metabolisms. Resulting concentrations of arsenic, however, are distributed unevenly in the subsurface as a result of heterogeneity in groundwater flow and biogeochemical processes. While such heterogeneity make predicting groundwater arsenic concentrations difficult both spatially and temporally, it provides an opportunity to potentially extract water safe (or safer) for human consumption. Here we describe the fate controlling processes of arsenic with a coupled biogeochemical-hydrologic model for the Mekong Delta and illustrate changes in groundwater quality with land use alterations—a key driver in determining long-term temporal variation in arsenic distribution. For areas where low-arsenic groundwater is not available, we further examine possible solutions, including alternate water resources, for providing safe drinking water to the local populous.

  16. Streamflow model of the six-country transboundary Ganges-Bhramaputra and Meghna river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, K.; Lehmann, A.; Dennedy-Frank, P. J.; Gorelick, S.

    2014-12-01

    Extremely large-scale river basin modelling remains a challenge for water resources planning in the developing world. Such planning is particularly difficult in the developing world because of the lack of data on both natural (climatological, hydrological) processes and complex anthropological influences. We simulate three enormous river basins located in south Asia. The Ganges-Bhramaputra and Meghna (GBM) River Basins cover an area of 1.75 million km2 associated with 6 different countries, including the Bengal delta, which is the most densely populated delta in the world with ~600 million people. We target this developing region to better understand the hydrological system and improve water management planning in these transboundary watersheds. This effort uses the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to simulate streamflow in the GBM River Basins and assess the use of global climatological datasets for such large scale river modeling. We evaluate the utility of three global rainfall datasets to reproduce measured river discharge: the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) from NASA, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis, and the World Metrological Organization (WMO) reanalysis. We use global datasets for spatial information as well: 90m DEM from the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission, 300m GlobCover land use maps, and 1000 km FAO soil map. We find that SWAT discharge estimates match the observed streamflow well (NSE=0.40-0.66, R2=0.60-0.70) when using meteorological estimates from the NCEP reanalysis. However, SWAT estimates diverge from observed discharge when using meteorological estimates from TRMM and the WMO reanalysis.

  17. Contemporary changes of water resources, water and land use in Central Asia based on observations and modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, A. I.; Prousevitch, A.; Sokolik, I. N.; Lammers, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Water is a key agent in Central Asia ultimately determining human well-being, food security, and economic development. There are complex interplays among the natural and anthropogenic drivers effecting the regional hydrological processes and water availability. Analysis of the data combined from regional censuses and remote sensing shows a decline in areas of arable and irrigated lands and a significant decrease in availability of arable and irrigated lands per capita across all Central Asian countries since the middle of 1990thas the result of post-Soviet transformation processes. This change could lead to considerable deterioration in food security and human system sustainability. The change of political situation in the region has also resulted in the escalated problems of water demand between countries in international river basins. We applied the University of New Hampshire - Water Balance Model - Transport from Anthropogenic and Natural Systems (WBM-TrANS) to understand the consequences of changes in climate, water and land use on regional hydrological processes and water availability. The model accounts for sub-pixel land cover types, glacier and snow-pack accumulation/melt across sub-pixel elevation bands, anthropogenic water use (e.g. domestic and industrial consumption, and irrigation for most of existing crop types), hydro-infrastructure for inter-basin water transfer and reservoir/dam regulations. A suite of historical climate re-analysis and temporal extrapolation of MIRCA-2000 crop structure datasets has been used in WBM-TrANS for this project. A preliminary analysis of the model simulations over the last 30 years has shown significant spatial and temporal changes in hydrology and water availability for crops and human across the region due to climatic and anthropogenic causes. We found that regional water availability is mostly impacted by changes in extents and efficiency of crop filed irrigation, especially in highly arid areas of Central Asia

  18. Health risks from large-scale water pollution: trends in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Törnqvist, Rebecka; Jarsjö, Jerker; Karimov, Bakhtiyor

    2011-02-01

    Limited data on the pollution status of spatially extensive water systems constrain health-risk assessments at basin-scales. Using a recipient measurement approach in a terminal water body, we show that agricultural and industrial pollutants in groundwater-surface water systems of the Aral Sea Drainage Basin (covering the main part of Central Asia) yield cumulative health hazards above guideline values in downstream surface waters, due to high concentrations of copper, arsenic, nitrite, and to certain extent dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Considering these high-impact contaminants, we furthermore perform trend analyses of their upstream spatial-temporal distribution, investigating dominant large-scale spreading mechanisms. The ratio between parent DDT and its degradation products showed that discharges into or depositions onto surface waters are likely to be recent or ongoing. In river water, copper concentrations peak during the spring season, after thawing and snow melt. High spatial variability of arsenic concentrations in river water could reflect its local presence in the top soil of nearby agricultural fields. Overall, groundwaters were associated with much higher health risks than surface waters. Health risks can therefore increase considerably, if the downstream population must switch to groundwater-based drinking water supplies during surface water shortage. Arid regions are generally vulnerable to this problem due to ongoing irrigation expansion and climate changes.

  19. Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Asia-Pacific Ring of Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, M.; Endo, A.; Gurdak, J. J.; Allen, D. M.; Siringan, F.; Delinom, R.; Shoji, J.; Fujii, M.; Baba, K.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and economic development are causing increased pressure on water, energy and food resources, presenting communities with increased levels of tradeoffs and potential conflicts among these resources. Therefore, the water-energy-food nexus is one of the most important and fundamental global environmental issues facing the world. For the purposes of this research project, we define human-environmental security as the joint optimization between human and environmental security as well as the water-energy-food nexus. To optimize the governance and management within these inter-connected needs, it is desirable to increase human-environmental security by improving social managements for the water-energy-food nexus. In this research project, we intend to establish a method to manage and optimize the human-environmental security of the water-energy-food nexus by using integrated models, indices, and maps as well as social and natural investigations with stakeholder analyses. We base our approach on the viewpoint that it is important for a sustainable society to increase human-environmental security with decreasing risk and increasing resilience by optimizing the connections within the critical water-energy and water-food clusters. We will take a regional perspective to address these global environmental problems. The geological and geomorphological conditions in our proposed study area are heavily influenced by the so-called 'Ring of Fire,' around the Pacific Ocean. Within these areas including Japan and Southeast Asia, the hydro-meteorological conditions are dominated by the Asia monsoon. The populations that live under these natural conditions face elevated risk and potential disaster as negative impacts, while also benefitting from positive ecological goods and services. There are therefore tradeoffs and conflicts within the water-energy-food nexus, as well as among various stakeholders in the region. The objective of this project is to maximize human

  20. Airborne Sunphotometry of Aerosol Optical Depth and Columnar Water Vapor During ACE-Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, Jens; Schmid, B.; Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Eilers, J. A.; Ramirez, S. A.; Kahn, R.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    During the Intensive Field Campaign (IFC) of the Aerosol Characterization Experiment - Asia (ACE-Asia), March-May 2001, the 6-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) operated during 15 of the 19 research flights aboard the NCAR C- 130, while its 14-channel counterpart (AATS- 14) was flown successfully on all 18 research flights of a Twin Otter aircraft operated by the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS), Monterey, CA. ACE-Asia was the fourth in a series of aerosol characterization experiments and focused on aerosol outflow from the Asian continent to the Pacific basin. Each ACE was designed to integrate suborbital and satellite measurements and models so as to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosols. The Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometers measured solar beam transmission at 6 (380-1021 nm, AATS-6) and 14 wavelengths (353-1558 nm, AATS-14) respectively, yielding aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra and column water vapor (CWV). Vertical differentiation in profiles yielded aerosol extinction and water vapor concentration. The wavelength dependence of AOD and extinction indicates that supermicron dust was often a major component of the aerosol. Frequently this dust-containing aerosol extended to high altitudes. For example, in data flights analyzed to date 34 +/- 13% of full-column AOD(525 nm) was above 3 km. In contrast, only 10 +/- 4% of CWV was above 3 km. In this paper, we will show first sunphotometer-derived results regarding the spatial variation of AOD and CWV, as well as the vertical distribution of aerosol extinction and water vapor concentration. Preliminary comparison studies between our AOD/aerosol extinction data and results from: (1) extinction products derived using in situ measurements and (2) AOD retrievals using the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) aboard the TERRA satellite will also be presented.

  1. Diagnosing the inter-model spread in snow water equivalent for CMIP5 over Southwest Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankin, J. S.; Scherer, M.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent analysis of the CMIP5 set of integrations has highlighted a wide divergence in the models' ability to resolve historical observations of snow water equivalent (SWE) throughout the Northern Hemisphere. However, despite the difficulty of resolving SWE in hindcasts, there exists a consistent signal in the magnitude of SWE decline under the RCP8.5 forcing scenario among the CMIP5. Separately, our work has established that lower yields in irrigated wheat induce Afghan farmers to plant more opium poppy, a more drought resistant crop planted at the same time. In Southwest and Central Asia, subsistence and industrial agriculture rely on irrigation supplied by runoff from upland snowmelt, and crop yields, including those of wheat and poppy, are influenced by this water availability. If water availability attenuates driving yield declines in staple crops like wheat, farmers in Afghanistan can be driven to cultivate more opium poppy in response—a crop that has a complex influence on stability and conflict there. Bounding the ensemble uncertainty in model simulations of SWE is an important step in assessing the ways in which farmer decisions have and will be constrained. Therefore, diagnosing the sources of model divergence in this important metric for subsistence and large-scale agriculture in Southwest and Central Asia is a first step for improving model resolution of such processes in projections of climate change. We present initial results that quantify the extent to which snow albedo feedback (SAF) parameterizations among the models in CMIP5 influence SWE simulation uncertainties over Southwest and Central Asia.

  2. Uncertainties in hydrological modelling and its consequences for water management in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malsy, Marcus; aus der Beek, Tim; Flörke, Martina

    2013-04-01

    Central Asia features an extreme continental climate with mostly arid to semi-arid conditions. Due to low precipitation and therefore low water availability, water is a scarce resource and often the limiting factor in terms of socio-economic development. The aim of this model study is to compare the uncertainties of hydrological modelling induced by global and regional climate datasets and to calculate the impacts on estimates of local water resources. Within this integrated model study the hydrological and water use model WaterGAP 3 (Global Assessment and Prognosis) is being applied to all river basins located in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Mongolia in five arc minutes spatial resolution (~ 6 x 9 km per grid cell). First of all, water abstractions for the sectors households, irrigation, livestock, manufacturing industries, and electricity production are being computed and fed into the hydrological module of WaterGAP. Then, water fluxes of the terrestrial water cycle are being modelled. The performance of the model is then being evaluated by comparing modelled and observed river discharge for the time period 1971 to 2000. As WaterGAP input, various global and regional climate datasets are available for the study region. In detail, these are the global TS dataset of the Climate Research Unit (CRU), the WATCH forcing data (WFD) developed within the EU-FP6 Project WATer and global CHange (WATCH) and the regional Aphrodités Water Resources dataset. Finally, the uncertainties in modelled water availability induced by the different datasets are quantified to point out the consequences for a sustainable water management. The results show that the datasets differ in both aspects, temporal and spatial goodness. At this, not only differences between the regional and the global datasets, but also among the global datasets are evident.

  3. Trends and Collaboration in Transboundary Aquifer Management in the Americas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salame, L.; Stephan, R. M.

    2009-05-01

    In the framework of the UNESCO/OAS ISARM Americas project, a questionnaire on Sustainable Socioeconomic and Environmental Aspects of Transboundary Aquifers was addressed to the participating countries. The questionnaire inquired about interactions between countries sharing one or more aquifers, during the past twenty years. Forty nine transboundary aquifers are considered, based on the answers received. Very few interactions are reported; with a majority of positive ones. When competition is reported, its main reason is the quantity of water, and in some cases its quality. However the level of competition is sometimes assessed differently depending on the way it is interpreted. Reported cooperative interactions differ not only in intensity and level of success, but also in the field and range of subjects and objectives on which it has been developed; it ranges from information exchange to a complex strategic management on several subjects. In some cases, while no interactions are reported at the level of the governments, scientific cooperation is reported as a positive interaction between countries sharing an aquifer, such as in the case of most aquifers shared by Mexico and Guatemala. Countries indeed find many reasons to cooperate. The most often mentioned activities to foster cooperation are the conduction of bi or multilateral projects. The information collected lead to the conclusion that the balance of interactions over the use of shared aquifers leans towards cooperation.

  4. Transboundary aquifer mapping and management in Africa: a harmonised approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altchenko, Yvan; Villholth, Karen G.

    2013-11-01

    Recent attention to transboundary aquifers (TBAs) in Africa reflects the growing importance of these resources for development in the continent. However, relatively little research on these aquifers and their best management strategies has been published. This report recapitulates progress on mapping and management frameworks for TBAs in Africa. The world map on transboundary aquifers presented at the 6th World Water Forum in 2012 identified 71 TBA systems in Africa. This report presents an updated African TBA map including 80 shared aquifers and aquifer systems superimposed on 63 international river basins. Furthermore, it proposes a new nomenclature for the mapping based on three sub-regions, reflecting the leading regional development communities. The map shows that TBAs represent approximately 42 % of the continental area and 30 % of the population. Finally, a brief review of current international law, specific bi- or multilateral treaties, and TBA management practice in Africa reveals little documented international conflicts over TBAs. The existing or upcoming international river and lake basin organisations offer a harmonised institutional base for TBA management while alternative or supportive models involving the regional development communities are also required. The proposed map and geographical classification scheme for TBAs facilitates identification of options for joint institutional setups.

  5. Comparative water law, policies, and administration in Asia: Evidence from 17 countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araral, Eduardo; Yu, David J.

    2013-09-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that improving water governance is the key to solving water insecurity in developing countries but there are also many disagreements on operational and methodological issues. In this paper, we build on the work of Saleth and Dinar and surveyed 100 water experts from 17 countries in Asia to compare 19 indicators of water laws, policies, and administration among and within countries from 2001 to 2010. We present the results of our study in a comparative dashboard and report how water governance indicators vary with a country's level of economic development, which ones do not and how and why some indicators change overtime in some countries. We have two main results. First, our initial findings suggest the possibility of water Kuznet's curve, i.e., certain water governance indicators vary with a country's level of economic development. However, more studies are needed given the caveats and limitations of our study. Second, the results have practical value for policy makers and researchers for benchmarking with other countries and tracking changes within their countries overtime. We conclude with implications for a second-generation research agenda on water governance.

  6. Characteristics of water erosion and conservation practice in arid regions of Central Asia: Xinjiang Province, China as an example

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Located in the inland arid area of central Asia and northwest China, Xinjiang is recently getting more concerns on soil water erosion issues, which is highly related with the sustainable utilization of barren soil and limited water resources. Historical soil erosion data were analyzed to determine t...

  7. Near-surface wetland sediments as a source of arsenic release to ground water in Asia.

    PubMed

    Polizzotto, Matthew L; Kocar, Benjamin D; Benner, Shawn G; Sampson, Michael; Fendorf, Scott

    2008-07-24

    Tens of millions of people in south and southeast Asia routinely consume ground water that has unsafe arsenic levels. Arsenic is naturally derived from eroded Himalayan sediments, and is believed to enter solution following reductive release from solid phases under anaerobic conditions. However, the processes governing aqueous concentrations and locations of arsenic release to pore water remain unresolved, limiting our ability to predict arsenic concentrations spatially (between wells) and temporally (future concentrations) and to assess the impact of human activities on the arsenic problem. This uncertainty is partly attributed to a poor understanding of groundwater flow paths altered by extensive irrigation pumping in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta, where most research has focused. Here, using hydrologic and (bio)geochemical measurements, we show that on the minimally disturbed Mekong delta of Cambodia, arsenic is released from near-surface, river-derived sediments and transported, on a centennial timescale, through the underlying aquifer back to the river. Owing to similarities in geologic deposition, aquifer source rock and regional hydrologic gradients, our results represent a model for understanding pre-disturbance conditions for other major deltas in Asia. Furthermore, the observation of strong hydrologic influence on arsenic behaviour indicates that release and transport of arsenic are sensitive to continuing and impending anthropogenic disturbances. In particular, groundwater pumping for irrigation, changes in agricultural practices, sediment excavation, levee construction and upstream dam installations will alter the hydraulic regime and/or arsenic source material and, by extension, influence groundwater arsenic concentrations and the future of this health problem.

  8. A new framework for resolving conflicts over transboundary rivers using bankruptcy methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, K.; Zarezadeh, M.; Morid, S.

    2014-08-01

    A novel bankruptcy approach is proposed for resolving transboundary river conflicts in which the total water demand or claim of the riparian parties is more than the available water. Bankruptcy solution methods can allocate the available water to the conflicting parties with respect to their claims. Four commonly used bankruptcy methods in the economic literature are used here to develop new river bankruptcy solution methods for allocating water to the riparian parties of river systems. Given the non-uniform spatial and temporal distribution of water across river basins, the proposed solution methods are formulated as non-linear network flow optimization models to allocate water with respect to time sensitivity of water deliveries at different locations in a river network during the planning horizon. Once allocation optimization solutions are developed, their acceptability and stability must be evaluated. Thus, a new bankruptcy allocation stability index (BASI) is developed for evaluating the acceptability of river bankruptcy solutions. To show how the proposed river bankruptcy framework can be helpful in practice, the suggested methods are applied to a real-world transboundary river system with eight riparians under various hydrologic regimes. Stability analysis based on the proposed stability evaluation method suggests that the acceptability of allocation rules is sensitive to hydrologic conditions and demand values. This finding has an important policy implication suggesting that fixed allocation rules and treaties may not be reliable for securing cooperation over transboundary water resources as they are vulnerable to changing socioeconomic and climatic conditions as well as hydrologic non-stationarity.

  9. Intercontinental trans-boundary contributions to ozone-induced crop yield losses in the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollaway, M. J.; Arnold, S. R.; Challinor, A. J.; Emberson, L. D.

    2012-01-01

    Using a global atmospheric chemistry model, we have quantified for the first time, intercontinental transboundary contributions to crop ozone exposure and subsequent yield reductions in the Northern Hemisphere. We apply four metrics (AOT40, M7, M12, W126) to assess the impacts of 100% reductions in anthropogenic NOx emissions from North (N) America, South East (SE) Asia and Europe on global and regional exposure of 6 major agricultural crop types to surface ozone, and resultant crop production losses during the year 2000 growing season. Using these metrics, model calculations show that for wheat, rice, cotton and potato, 100 % reductions in SE Asian anthropogenic NOx emissions tend to produce the greatest global reduction in crop production losses (42.3-95.2%), and a 100 % reduction to N~American anthropogenic NOx emissions results in the greatest global impact on crop production losses for maize and soybean (59.2-85.9%). A 100% reduction in N~American anthropogenic NOx emissions produces the largest transboundary impact, resulting in European production loss reductions of between 14.2% and 63.2%. European NOx emissions tend to produce a smaller transboundary impact, due to inefficiency of transport from the European domain. The threshold nature of the AOT40 ozone-exposure metric results in strong dependence of non-local emissions impacts on the local ozone concentration distribution. Our calculations of absolute crop production change under emission reduction scenarios differ between the metrics used, however we find the relative importance of each region's transboundary impact remains robust between metrics. Our results demonstrate that local air quality and emission control strategies have the potential to partly alleviate ozone-induced crop yield loss in continents downstream, in addition to effectively mitigating local ozone-induced production losses.

  10. Analysis of Water Use Efficiency derived from MODIS satellite image in Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Jang, K.; Kang, S.

    2014-12-01

    Water Use Efficiency (WUE) is defined as ratio of evapotranspriation (ET) to gross primary productivity (GPP). It can detect the changes of ecosystem properties due to the variability of enviromental condition, and provide a chance to understand the linkage between carbon and water processes in terrestrial ecosystem. In a changing climate, the understanding of ecosystem functional responses to climate variability is crucial for evaluating effect. However, continental or sub-continental scale WUE analysis is were rare. In this study, WUE was estimated in the Northeast Asia using satellite data from 2003 to 2010. ET and GPP were estimated using various MODIS products. The estimated ET and GPP showed favorable agreements with flux tower observations. WUE in the study domain showed considerable variations according to the plant functional types and climatic and elevational gradients. The results produced in this study indicate that satellite remote sensing provides a useful tool for monitoring variability of terrestrial ecosystem functions.

  11. The transboundary nature of seabird ecology: Chapter 8

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, Patrick G.; Suryan, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘seabird’ is generally applied to avian species that forage in the marine environment over open water. Seabirds typically nest in colonies and are long-lived species with low annual reproductive rates. Seabird breeding sites typically occur on islands or along coasts and as such are often at the boundaries of ecological or political zones. During the breeding season, seabirds cross a very distinct terrestrial/marine ecological boundary on a regular basis to forage. Even relatively ‘local’ species cross multiple jurisdictions within a day (e.g., state lands and waters, and federal waters) while pelagic species may transit through international waters on a daily, weekly, or monthly time-frame. Seabird life-histories expose individuals and populations to environmental conditions affecting both terrestrial and marine habitats. The wide-ranging and transboundary nature of seabird ecology also exposes these species to various environmental and anthropogenic forces such as contamination, commercial fisheries and climate forcing that also are transboundary in nature. Therefore, wherever conservation of seabirds or the management of their populations is the goal, consideration must be given to ecosystem dynamics on land and at sea. Because the jurisdiction of agencies does not cross the land-sea boundary in the same manner as the seabirds they are managing, these efforts are facilitated by multi-agency communication and collaboration. By their very nature and by the nature of the systems that they must function within, seabirds embody the complexity of wildlife ecology and conservation in the twenty-first century.

  12. The Influence of Summertime Convection Over Southeast Asia on Water Vapor in the Tropical Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, J. S.; Fu, R.; Fueglistaler, S.; Liu, Y. S.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The relative contributions of Southeast Asian convective source regions during boreal summer to water vapor in the tropical stratosphere are examined using Lagrangian trajectories. Convective sources are identified using global observations of infrared brightness temperature at high space and time resolution, and water vapor transport is simulated using advection-condensation. Trajectory simulations are driven by three different reanalysis data sets, GMAO MERRA, ERA-Interim, and NCEP/NCAR, to establish points of consistency and evaluate the sensitivity of the results to differences in the underlying meteorological fields. All ensembles indicate that Southeast Asia is a prominent boreal summer source of tropospheric air to the tropical stratosphere. Three convective source domains are identified within Southeast Asia: the Bay of Bengal and South Asian subcontinent (MON), the South China and Philippine Seas (SCS), and the Tibetan Plateau and South Slope of the Himalayas (TIB). Water vapor transport into the stratosphere from these three domains exhibits systematic differences that are related to differences in the bulk characteristics of transport. We find air emanating from SCS to be driest, from MON slightly moister, and from TIB moistest. Analysis of pathways shows that air detrained from convection over TIB is most likely to bypass the region of minimum absolute saturation mixing ratio over the equatorial western Pacific; however, the impact of this bypass mechanism on mean water vapor in the tropical stratosphere at 68 hPa is small 0.1 ppmv). This result contrasts with previously published hypotheses, and it highlights the challenge of properly quantifying fluxes of atmospheric humidity.

  13. The Influence of Summertime Convection Over Southeast Asia on Water Vapor in the Tropical Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, J. S.; Fu, R.; Fueglistaler, S.; Liu, Y. S.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The relative contributions of Southeast Asian convective source regions during boreal summer to water vapor in the tropical stratosphere are examined using Lagrangian trajectories. Convective sources are identified using global observations of infrared brightness temperature at high space and time resolution, and water vapor transport is simulated using advection-condensation. Trajectory simulations are driven by three different reanalysis data sets, GMAO MERRA, ERA-Interim, and NCEP/NCAR, to establish points of consistency and evaluate the sensitivity of the results to differences in the underlying meteorological fields. All ensembles indicate that Southeast Asia is a prominent boreal summer source of tropospheric air to the tropical stratosphere. Three convective source domains are identified within Southeast Asia: the Bay of Bengal and South Asian subcontinent (MON), the South China and Philippine Seas (SCS), and the Tibetan Plateau and South Slope of the Himalayas (TIB). Water vapor transport into the stratosphere from these three domains exhibits systematic differences that are related to differences in the bulk characteristics of transport. We find air emanating from SCS to be driest, from MON slightly moister, and from TIB moistest. Analysis of pathways shows that air detrained from convection over TIB is most likely to bypass the region of minimum absolute saturation mixing ratio over the equatorial western Pacific; however, the impact of this bypass mechanism on mean water vapor in the tropical stratosphere at 68 hPa is small 0.1 ppmv). This result contrasts with previously published hypotheses, and it highlights the challenge of properly quantifying fluxes of atmospheric humidity.

  14. Five-year interim report of the United States-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Program: 2007--2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary aquifers are an essential, and in many cases, singular source of water for United States – Mexico border communities, particularly in arid regions. Declining water levels, deteriorating water quality, and increasing use of groundwater resources by municipal, industrial, and agricultural water users on both sides of the international border have raised concerns about the long-term availability of this supply. Water quantity and quality are determining and limiting factors that ultimately control agriculture, future economic development, population growth, human health, and ecological conditions along the border. Knowledge about the extent, depletion rates, and quality of transboundary aquifers, however, is limited and, in some areas, completely absent. The U.S. – Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Act (Public Law 109-448), referred to in this report as “the Act,” was signed into law by the President of the United States on December 22, 2006, to conduct binational scientific research to systematically assess priority transboundary aquifers and to address water information needs of border communities. The Act authorizes the Secretary of the Interior, through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), to collaborate with the States of Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas through their Water Resources Research Institutes (WRRIs) and with the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC), stakeholders, and Mexican counterparts to provide new information and a scientific foundation for State and local officials to address pressing water-resource challenges along the U.S. – Mexico border.

  15. A global assessment of transboundary watersheds for potential hydro-political tensions using environmental, political, and economic indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sproles, E. A.; De Stefano, L.; Petersen-Perlman, J.; Eynard, J.; Wolf, A.

    2014-12-01

    Watersheds do not recognize political boundaries. However globally 286 of them extend across international borders. In these basins, transboundary water resources support an interdependent web of environmental, political, and economic systems that can enhance or destabilize a region. We present an integrated global-scale assessment of transboundary watersheds to identify regions more likely to experience hydro-political tensions over the next decade and beyond based upon environmental, political, and economic indicators. We apply NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data to bridge the sparse and inconsistent hydrologic monitoring networks that exist in many regions of the world. GRACE does not distinguish political boundaries, and provides novel insights into terrestrial water storage anomalies across and through a watershed. We combine GRACE measurements of changes in terrestrial water storage with metrics of projected climate change impacts on water variability, the institutional capacity of countries to manage shared water resources, the development of new water infrastructure, gross national income, domestic and international armed conflicts, and disputes over transboundary waters. Our analysis integrates political, economic and environmental metrics as part of the United Nation's Transboundary Waters Assessment Programme to provide the first global-scale assessment of its type.

  16. Proof in climatology for circulation effect of stalagmite δ18O in East Asia: analysis on the ratios among water vapor transport passageway intensities in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, S.; Tan, M.; Zhao, P.

    2013-07-01

    Further verification about the circulation effect of stalagmite δ18O in East Asian monsoon region needs the quantitative description for the proportion of water vapor transport (WVT) from different source regions. WVT passageway intensities are defined as regionally averaged WVT flux modes in this paper. The ratio between two WVT passageways' intensities represents relative intensity of the two WVT passageways. Using the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data for 1948-2011, the ratios of the intensities of three WVT passageways from low latitudes (the intensity of WVT from Bay of Bengal (IBOB), the intensity of WVT from South China Sea (ISCS) and the intensity of WVT from western North Pacific (IWNP) in summer are calculated. SB is for the ISCS-IBOB ratio, WB for the IWNP-IBOB ratio, and WS for the IWNP-ISCS ratio. The decadal increase occurs in the time series of WB and WS, with higher values in 1976-1995 and lower values in 1950-1975, probably resulting from the strengthening of WVT from WNP in the midterm of 1970s. East Asian atmospheric circulations, WVTs and previous SST characters corresponding to the ratios are analyzed. The result indicates that SB, WB and WS may properly reflect the relative intensities between ISCS and IBOB, between IWNP and IBOB, and between IWNP and ISCS, respectively. For high SB years, the Asian Low and the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) weaken. The southwesterly winds from BOB to the Yangtze River valley by the southeast of the Tibetan Plateau weaken and the WVT from BOB to East Asia weakens. The southwesterly winds from SCS to East Asia strengthen and the WVT from SCS to East Asia strengthens. In high WB years, the Asian Low weakens and the WPSH shifts westwards, enhances and enlarges. The WVT from WNP to East Asia increases because of the strengthening of the easterly winds on the south of the WPSH. The westerly winds from BOB to East Asia by Indo-China Peninsula decrease and the WVT from BOB to East Asia weakens. The atmospheric

  17. ASSESSING TRANSBOUNDARY INFLUENCES IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP) was a U.S.-Mexico Border XXI Program project to assess transboundary air pollution in and near Brownsville, Texas. The study used a three-site air monitoring network very close to the border to capture the d...

  18. ASSESSING TRANSBOUNDARY INFLUENCES IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP) was a U.S.-Mexico Border XXI Program project to assess transboundary air pollution in and near Brownsville, Texas. The study used a three-site air monitoring network very close to the border to capture the d...

  19. Feasibility of large-scale water monitoring and forecasting in the Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Peña-Arancibia, J. L.; Sardella, C. S. E.

    2012-04-01

    The Asian-Pacific region (including China, India and Pakistan) is home to 51% of the global population. It accounts for 53% of agricultural and 32% of domestic water use world wide. Due to the influence of Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean circulation patterns, the region experiences strong inter-annual variations in water availability and occurrence of drought, flood and severe weather. Some of the countries in the region have national water monitoring or forecasting systems, but they are typically of fairly narrow scope. We investigated the feasibility and utility of an integrated regional water monitoring and forecasting system for water resources, floods and drought. In particular, we assessed the quality of information that can be achieved by relying on internationally available data sources, including numerical weather prediction (NWP) and satellite observations of precipitation, soil moisture and vegetation. Combining these data sources with a large scale hydrological model, we produced monitoring and forecast information for selected retrospective case studies. The information was compared to that from national systems, both in terms of information content and system characteristics (e.g. scope, data sources, and information latency). While national systems typically have better access to national observation systems, they do not always make effective use of the available data, science and technology. The relatively slow changing nature of important Pacific and Indian Ocean circulation patterns adds meaningful seasonal forecast skill for some regions. Satellite and NWP precipitation estimates can add considerable value to the national gauge networks: as forecasts, as near-real time observations and as historic reference data. Satellite observations of soil moisture and vegetation are valuable for drought monitoring and underutilised. Overall, we identify several important opportunities for better water monitoring and forecasting in the Asia-Pacific region.

  20. Statistical prediction of seasonal discharge in the Naryn basin for water resources planning in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Heiko; Gafurov, Abror; Gerlitz, Lars; Unger-Shayesteh, Katy; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Merkushkin, Aleksandr; Merz, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The semi-arid regions of Central Asia crucially depend on the water resources supplied by the mountainous areas of the Tien-Shan and Pamirs. During the summer months the snow and glacier melt water of the rivers originating in the mountains provides the only water resource available for agricultural production but also for water collection in reservoirs for energy production in winter months. Thus a reliable seasonal forecast of the water resources is crucial for a sustainable management and planning of water resources.. In fact, seasonal forecasts are mandatory tasks of national hydro-meteorological services in the region. Thus this study aims at a statistical forecast of the seasonal water availability, whereas the focus is put on the usage of freely available data in order to facilitate an operational use without data access limitations. The study takes the Naryn basin as a test case, at which outlet the Toktogul reservoir stores the discharge of the Naryn River. As most of the water originates form snow and glacier melt, a statistical forecast model should use data sets that can serve as proxy data for the snow masses and snow water equivalent in late spring, which essentially determines the bulk of the seasonal discharge. CRU climate data describing the precipitation and temperature in the basin during winter and spring was used as base information, which was complemented by MODIS snow cover data processed through ModSnow tool, discharge during the spring and also GRACE gravimetry anomalies. For the construction of linear forecast models monthly as well as multi-monthly means over the period January to April were used to predict the seasonal mean discharge of May-September at the station Uchterek. An automatic model selection was performed in multiple steps, whereas the best models were selected according to several performance measures and their robustness in a leave-one-out cross validation. It could be shown that the seasonal discharge can be predicted with

  1. Assessing the Total Economic Value of Improving Water Quality to Inform Water Resources Management: Evidence and Challenges from Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalilov, S.; Fukushi, K.

    2016-12-01

    Population growth, high rates of economic development and rapid urbanization in the developing countries of Southeast Asia (SEA) have resulted in degradation and depletion of natural resources, including water resources and related ecosystem services. Many urban rivers in the region are highly polluted with domestic, industrial and agricultural wastes. Policymakers are often aware of the direct value of water resources for domestic and industrial consumption, but they often underestimate the indirect value of these functions, since they are not exchanged in the market and do not appear in national income accounts. Underestimation of pollution and over-exploitation of water resources result in a loss of these benefits and have adverse impacts on nearby residents, threatening the long-term sustainable development of natural resources in the region. Behind these constraints lies a lack of knowledge (ignorance) from governments that a clean water environment could bring significant economic benefits. This study has been initiated to tackle this issue and to foster a more rational approach for sustainable urban development in Metro Manila in the Philippines. We applied a Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) based on Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) technique. Results show that users are willing to pay up to PHP 102.42 (2.18) monthly to improve quality of urban waterbodies whereas nonusers are willing to pay up to PHP 366.53 (7.80) as one-time payment towards water quality improvement. The estimated monetary value of water quality improvements would be a useful variable in cost-benefit analyses of various water quality-related policies, in both public and private sectors in Metro Manila. This survey design could serve as a useful template for similar water quality studies in other SEA countries.

  2. Use of Atmospheric Budget to Reduce Uncertainty in Estimated Water Availability over South Asia from Different Reanalyses

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Dawn Emil; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-01-01

    Disagreements across different reanalyses over South Asia result into uncertainty in assessment of water availability, which is computed as the difference between Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (P–E). Here, we compute P–E directly from atmospheric budget with divergence of moisture flux for different reanalyses and find improved correlation with observed values of P–E, acquired from station and satellite data. We also find reduced closure terms for water cycle computed with atmospheric budget, analysed over South Asian landmass, when compared to that obtained with individual values of P and E. The P–E value derived with atmospheric budget is more consistent with energy budget, when we use top-of-atmosphere radiation for the same. For analysing water cycle, we use runoff from Global Land Data Assimilation System, and water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. We find improvements in agreements across different reanalyses, in terms of inter-annual cross correlation when atmospheric budget is used to estimate P–E and hence, emphasize to use the same for estimations of water availability in South Asia to reduce uncertainty. Our results on water availability with reduced uncertainty over highly populated monsoon driven South Asia will be useful for water management and agricultural decision making. PMID:27388837

  3. Use of Atmospheric Budget to Reduce Uncertainty in Estimated Water Availability over South Asia from Different Reanalyses.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Dawn Emil; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-07-08

    Disagreements across different reanalyses over South Asia result into uncertainty in assessment of water availability, which is computed as the difference between Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (P-E). Here, we compute P-E directly from atmospheric budget with divergence of moisture flux for different reanalyses and find improved correlation with observed values of P-E, acquired from station and satellite data. We also find reduced closure terms for water cycle computed with atmospheric budget, analysed over South Asian landmass, when compared to that obtained with individual values of P and E. The P-E value derived with atmospheric budget is more consistent with energy budget, when we use top-of-atmosphere radiation for the same. For analysing water cycle, we use runoff from Global Land Data Assimilation System, and water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. We find improvements in agreements across different reanalyses, in terms of inter-annual cross correlation when atmospheric budget is used to estimate P-E and hence, emphasize to use the same for estimations of water availability in South Asia to reduce uncertainty. Our results on water availability with reduced uncertainty over highly populated monsoon driven South Asia will be useful for water management and agricultural decision making.

  4. Risk assessment for transboundary rivers using fuzzy synthetic evaluation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Subash P.; Sharma, Nayan; Lohani, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    Large scale urbanization has resulted in greater withdrawals of shared waters and this withdrawal has been largely dependent on the hegemony of the riparian's. The last few decades has seen the upward surge of many countries in terms of development as well as hegemony. Existing structures of established water sharing framework typically evaluate only parameters related to historic water use such as historic water demand and supply, contribution to flow, and hydrology. Water conflicts and cooperation is affected by various issues related with development and hegemony. Characterization and quantification of development and hegemony parameters is a very complex process. This paper establishes a novel approach to predict river basins at risk; the approach addresses the issue of water conflict and cooperation within a methodologically more rigorous predictive framework. Fuzzy synthetic evaluation technique is used in this paper to undertake the risk assessment of international transboundary rivers. In this paper the fuzzy domain of risk consists of two fuzzy sets - hegemony and development, indices of which are developed with the help of fuzzy synthetic evaluation techniques. Then the compositional rule-base is framed to ascertain the fuzzy risk. This fuzzy risk can be further used to prioritize all the international river basins which can help in the identification of potentially high risk basins. Risk identification of international river basins is not only scientifically valuable, but also practically highly useful. Identifying those basins that are likely to be particularly prone to conflict or cooperation is of high interest to policy makers.

  5. Water-energy-food nexus for adopting sustainable development goals in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, M.

    2016-12-01

    Water, energy, and food are the most essential and fundamental resources for human well-beings, a sustainable society, and global sustainability. These are inextricably linked, and there are complex synergies and tradeoffs among the three resources. More issues arise and attention must be paid when it comes to the Water-Energy-Food (WEF) Nexus. Lack of integrated research between a nexus and policy implementation is the most concerning. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure prosperity for all, and are scheduled to be achieved by 2030. Of the 17 SDGs, Goal 2, 6 and 7 are directly related to food, water, and energy sectors. However, there are no integrated SDGs related to the Water-Energy-Food Nexus. Two different directions of nexus research exist in developing and industrialized worlds, and synthesis of both are needed. Developing countries are striving to increase their Human Development Index (HDI) while keeping Ecological Footprints, including Nexus Footprint, low. On the other hand, industrialized countries are targeting to maintain their high HDI and reduce their Ecological Footprints. Both are challenging tasks under the restrictions of planetary boundaries (limited nature) and doughnut economy (limited society). In this study, WEF Nexus research in Asian countries, including developing and industrialized countries, demonstrates the different types of nexus approaches to achieve SDGs through renewable energy, agriculture and aquaculture as food, and water management in Monsoon and semi-arid Asia. Mutual learning between the two types of nexus approaches can be made in the Asian area.

  6. Presence of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia in water samples from Southeast Asia: towards an integrated water detection system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Thulasi; Abd Majid, Mohamad Azlan; Onichandran, Subashini; Jaturas, Narong; Andiappan, Hemah; Salibay, Cristina C; Tabo, Hazel A L; Tabo, Norbel; Dungca, Julieta Z; Tangpong, Jitbanjong; Phiriyasamith, Sucheep; Yuttayong, Boonyaorn; Polseela, Raxsina; Do, Binh Nhu; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Tan, Tian-Chye; Lim, Yvonne A L; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot

    2016-01-13

    Access to clean and safe drinking water that is free from pathogenic protozoan parasites, especially Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia that cause gastrointestinal illness in humans, is still an issue in Southeast Asia (SEA). This study is the first attempt to detect the aforementioned protozoan parasites in water samples from countries in SEA, using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays. A total of 221 water samples of 10 l each were collected between April and October 2013 from Malaysia (53), Thailand (120), the Philippines (33), and Vietnam (15). A physicochemical analysis was conducted. The water samples were processed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's methods 1622/1623.1, microscopically observed and subsequently screened using qPCR assays. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in treated water samples from the Philippines (1/10), with a concentration of 0.06 ± 0.19 oocyst/L, and untreated water samples from Thailand (25/93), Malaysia (17/44), and the Philippines (11/23), with concentrations ranging from 0.13 ± 0.18 to 0.57 ± 1.41 oocyst/L. Giardia cysts were found in treated water samples from the Philippines (1/10), with a concentration of 0.02 ± 0.06 cyst/L, and in untreated water samples from Thailand (20/93), Vietnam (5/10), Malaysia (22/44), and the Philippines (16/23), with concentrations ranging from 0.12 ± 0.3 to 8.90 ± 19.65 cyst/L. The pathogens C. parvum and G. lamblia were detected using using qPCR assays by targeting the 138-bp fragment and the small subunit gene, respectively. C. parvum was detected in untreated water samples from the Philippines (1/23) and Malaysia (2/44), whilst, G. lamblia detected was detected in treated water samples from the Philippines (1/10) and in untreated water samples from Thailand (21/93), Malaysia (12/44), and the Philippines (17/23). Nitrate concentration was found to have a high positive correlation with (oo)cyst (0.993). The presence of

  7. The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, 1981-90, which has a diversity of objectives, takes a different form in each country. What makes this decade different from previous actions for water and sanitation is the way in which the programs, projects, and servces are to be conceived, planned, implemented, managed, operated, and maintained. The urban population to be covered by water and sanitation services, in the developing nations that have prepared plans for the Decade, is roughly between 280-290 million people. In rural areas, some 750 million people are to be provided with drinking water and around 300 million with sanitation facilities. The initial goal of 100% of the population to be provided with water and sanitation by 1990 is proving difficult to realize. Only a small proportion of developing nations have even planned for 100% coverage by 1990. The initial optimism arising from the declaration of the Decade and the expectations of increased aid has given way to realism in the face of the global recession and the scarcity of development capital. The Southeast Asia Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) covers 11 member countries with a combined population of over 1000 million people. Among the countries in Southeast Asia that have prepared Decade plans, the following populations are to be covered by 1990: urban water supply, 126 million; urban sanitation, 156 million; rural water supply, 585 million; and rural sanitation, 212 million. Such a challenge calls for a stock taking of the real issues in order to identify what action can be taken. The lack of up-to-date and comprehensive databases is a serious problem. The information system for the Decade should be and integral part of it, be timed to keep pace with it, and be developed from the lowest level. The annual investment needed during the Decade is estimated at over 4 times that prior to the Decade. The accepted strategy is to meet the minimum needs of the largest number of

  8. Natural attenuation of mining pollutants in the transboundary Save River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meck, M. L.; Masamba, W. R. L.; Atlhopheng, J.; Ringrose, S.

    The objective of the study was to investigate the role played by the natural environment in protecting the transboundary Save River from the impacts of metals derived from phosphate mining at Dorowa. The study is a follow up study from a previous one that noted that there is natural attenuation at Dorowa. Water and sediment samples were collected in the Save River and the streams that drain the Dorowa dumps. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to analyze the cations (Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Cu 2+, Co 2+, Fe 2+, Ni 2+, Zn 2+, Pb 2+, Sn 2+, Mn 2+, Cd 2+) in the samples. Major anions Cl -, SO42- and NO3- were analyzed by standard chromatography whilst CO32- and HCO3- were determined by titration. pH was measured on site. Geochemical modeling of the water composition was conducted with Visual Minteq. The results show that natural attenuation is being achieved through precipitation of solids from the water and subsequent deposition onto the sediments. Six of the metals are almost completely precipitated (Cu 99.99%, Fe 99.39%, Ni 91.24%, Pb 99.87%, Sn 99.99% and Zn 88.66%). However Mn, Co and Cd remain in solution. Thus the natural environment is protecting the Save River which is a transboundary river from the impacts of mining through precipitation of the metals. Users downstream of Dorowa mine are therefore not being affected by mining pollution. This study demonstrates that besides being a legitimate and important user of water, the natural environment can also play a significant role in protecting water quality by attenuating metals naturally. By analyzing costs incurred in several places where alternative methods are employed to remediate metal related pollution the study concludes that natural remediation at Dorowa is saving the nation in environmental costs. Therefore the paper advocates for appreciation of the role that the natural environment plays in protecting ecosystems from the impact of human developments and environmental costs

  9. Drinking water vulnerability to climate change and alternatives for adaptation in coastal South and South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M A; Scheelbeek, P F D; Vineis, P; Khan, A E; Ahmed, K M; Butler, A P

    Drinking water in much of Asia, particularly in coastal and rural settings, is provided by a variety of sources, which are widely distributed and frequently managed at an individual or local community level. Coastal and near-inland drinking water sources in South and South East (SSE) Asia are vulnerable to contamination by seawater, most dramatically from tropical cyclone induced storm surges. This paper assesses spatial vulnerabilities to salinisation of drinking water sources due to meteorological variability and climate change along the (ca. 6000 km) coastline of SSE Asia. The risks of increasing climatic stresses are first considered, and then maps of relative vulnerability along the entire coastline are developed, using data from global scale land surface models, along with an overall vulnerability index. The results show that surface and near-surface drinking water in the coastal areas of the mega-deltas in Vietnam and Bangladesh-India are most vulnerable, putting more than 25 million people at risk of drinking 'saline' water. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this problem, with adverse consequences for health, such as prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. There is a need for identifying locations that are most at risk of salinisation in order for policy makers and local officials to implement strategies for reducing these health impacts. To counter the risks associated with these vulnerabilities, possible adaptation measures are also outlined. We conclude that detailed and fine scale vulnerability assessments may become crucial for planning targeted adaptation programmes along these coasts.

  10. East Asia: Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-03

    JPRS-SEA-90-023 3 AUGUST 1990 !■■■■■ !■■■■■ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS 91$ East Asia Southeast Asia 19990510 139...DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 4 East Asia Southeast Asia JPRS-SEA-90-023 CONTENTS 3 A UGUST1990 INDONESIA East Timor Governor Describes Province’s...Sam Neua District. This did not include the small shops in front of houses. In one month they were able to collect 500,000 kip in taxes . The tax

  11. Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring of butyltin contamination in coastal waters of Asian developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Takahashi, Shin; Monirith, In; Ismail, Ahmad; Muchtar, Muswerry; Zheng, Jinshu; Richardson, Bruce J; Subramanian, Annamalai; Prudente, Maricar; Hue, Nguyen Duc; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2002-10-01

    Butyltin compounds (BTs) including mono-, di-, and tributyltin and total tin (sigmaSn), were determined in green mussels (Perna viridis) from various Asian developing countries, such as Cambodia, China (Hong Kong and southern China), Malaysia, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam, to elucidate the contamination status, distribution, and possible sources and to assess the risks on aquatic organisms and humans. Butyltin compounds were detected in green mussels collected from all the sampling location investigated, suggesting widespread contamination of BTs along the coastal waters of Asian developing countries. Among butyltin derivatives, tributyltin (TBT) was the predominant compound, indicating its ongoing usage and recent exposures in Asian coastal waters. Higher concentrations of BTs were found in mussels collected at locations with intensive maritime activities, implying that the usage of TBT as a biocide in antifouling paints was a major source of BTs. In addition, relatively high concentrations of BTs were observed in mussels from aquaculture areas in Hong Kong and Malaysia, as it has been reported in Thailand. With the recent improvement in economic status in Asia, it is probable that an increase in TBT usage will occur in aquaculture. Although contamination levels were generally low in mussel samples from most of the Asian developing countries, some of those from polluted areas in Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand revealed levels comparable to those in developed nations. Furthermore, the concentrations of TBT in some mussels from polluted areas exceeded the threshold for toxic effects on organisms and estimated tolerable average residue levels as seafoods for human consumption. A significant correlation was observed between the concentrations of sigmaBTs and sigmaSn in mussels, and sigmaBTs were made up mostly 100% of sigmaSn in mussels taken from locations having intensive maritime/human activities. This suggests that

  12. Projected impacts of climate change on hydrology, water resource use and adaptation needs for the Chu and Talas cross-border rivers basin, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamil Iliasov, Shamil; Dolgikh, Svetlana; Lipponen, Annukka; Novikov, Viktor

    2014-05-01

    The observed long-term trends, variability and projections of future climate and hydrology of the Chu and Talas transboundary rivers basin were analysed using a common approach for Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan parts of the basin. Historical, current and forecasted demands and main uses of water in the basin were elaborated by the joint effort of both countries. Such cooperative approach combining scientific data, water practitioners' outlook with decision making needs allowed the first time to produce a comprehensive assessment of climate change impacts on water resources in the Chu-Talas transboundary rivers basin, identify future needs and develop the initial set of adaptation measures and recommendations. This work was carried out under the project "Promoting Cooperation to Adapt to Climate Change in the Chu and Talas Transboundary Basin", supported by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Climate change projections, including air temperatures and rainfall in the 21st century were determined with a spatial resolution 0.5 degrees based on the integration of 15 climate change model outputs (derived from IPCC's 4th Assessment Report, and partially 5th Assessment Report) combined with locally-designed hydrology and glacier models. A significant increase in surface air temperatures by 3-6°C may be expected in the basin area, especially in summer and autumn. This change is likely to be accompanied by rainfall increase during the cold season and a decrease in the warm half of the year. As a result, a deterioration of moisture conditions during the summer-autumn period is possible. Furthermore, milder winters and hotter summers can be expected. Mountains will likely receive more liquid precipitation, than snow, while the area and volume of glaciers may significantly reduce. Projected changes in climate and glaciers have implications for river hydrology and different sectors of the economy dependent

  13. More than a drop in the bucket: decentralized membrane-based drinking water refill stations in southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Sima, Laura C; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-07-16

    Decentralized membrane-based water treatment and refill stations represent a viable and growing business model in Southeast Asia, which rely upon the purchase of water from refill stations by consumers. This feature article discusses these water treatment and refill stations, including the appropriateness of the technology, the suitability of the business models employed, and the long-term environmental and operational sustainability of these systems. We also provide an outlook for the sector, highlighting key technical challenges that need to be addressed in order to improve the capacity of these systems, such that they can become an effective and financially viable solution.

  14. Variability of cloud liquid water and ice over South Asia from TMI estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Chakraborty, A.; Venugopal, V.

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission based Microwave Imager estimates (2A12) have been used to compare and contrast the characteristics of cloud liquid water and ice over the Indian land region and the ocean surrounding it, during the premonsoon (May) and monsoon (June-September) seasons. Based on the spatial homogeneity of rainfall, we have selected five regions for our study (three over ocean, two over land). Comparison across three ocean regions suggests that the cloud liquid water (CLW) over the orographically influenced Arabian Sea (close to the Indian west coast) behaves differently from the CLW over a trapped ocean (Bay of Bengal) or an open ocean (equatorial Indian Ocean). Specifically, the Arabian Sea region shows higher liquid water for a lower range of rainfall, whereas the Bay of Bengal and the equatorial Indian Ocean show higher liquid water for a higher range of rainfall. Apart from geographic differences, we also documented seasonal differences by comparing CLW profiles between monsoon and premonsoon periods, as well as between early and peak phases of the monsoon. We find that the CLW during the lean periods of rainfall (May or June) is higher than during the peak and late monsoon season (July-September) for raining clouds. As active and break phases are important signatures of the monsoon progression, we also analysed the differences in CLW during various phases of the monsoon, namely, active, break, active-to-break and break-to-active transition phases. We find that the cloud liquid water content during the break-to-active transition phase is significantly higher than during the active-to-break transition phase over central India. We speculate that this could be attributed to higher amount of aerosol loading over this region during the break phase. We lend credence to this aerosol-CLW/rain association by comparing the central Indian CLW with that over southeast Asia (where the aerosol loading is significantly smaller) and find

  15. Quantifying the Impact of a Transboundary Streamflow Agreement on Groundwater Resources in the US High Plains Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deines, J.; Hyndman, D. W.; Kendall, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Many groundwater aquifers in important agricultural areas are exploited beyond their sustainable limits. Groundwater overuse can reduce streamflow across political boundaries, leading to transboundary management challenges. Although conflicts over transboundary water resources do arise, these conflicts can also prompt improved aquifer management. Portions of the Republican River Basin, which overlies the High Plains Aquifer in the central United States, have been under court-ordered groundwater restrictions to meet interstate streamflow requirements since 2004, following the 2002 Kansas v. Nebraska and Colorado Supreme Court case. We examined the impacts of these restrictions on groundwater levels, pumping volume, agricultural productivity, and streamflow in the Nebraska portion of the basin to assess how transboundary agreements can affect groundwater sustainability in agricultural systems. We synthesized available data for 1990-2014 to analyze trends before and after restrictions went into effect in 2004. After controlling for climate covariates, we found that restrictions reduced pumping volumes in the study area, resulting in increased streamflow across the Nebraska-Kansas border. Furthermore, restrictions appear to have reversed the declining trend in groundwater storage. Notably, this reversal contrasts with continuing decline in the unrestricted Kansas portion of the basin, suggesting the court-ordered restrictions have altered the sustainability trajectory of this region. The impacts of pumping restrictions on regional agricultural yields and productivity are examined. Our analysis of this system suggests that by setting external limits on resource use, enforceable transboundary water agreements can stimulate sustainable groundwater management and counter local incentives for overextraction.

  16. Laboratory Study on Water Uptake by Freshly Emitted Peat Smoke Particles in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Kuwata, M.; Itoh, M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical peatland burning activities in Southeast Asia, which can keep smouldering for a long time, have been becoming rather frequent during the last few decades. These combustions have released huge amounts of greenhouse gases and aerosol particles into the atmosphere, contributing large uncertainties to the global radiative forcing estimation. In addition, the gas and aerosol particles emitted from the peat-fire have caused environmental and human health issues. These regional and global impacts are closely tied to water uptake properties of aerosol particles, which alter their physical and chemical characteristics. However, hygroscopic property of peat burning aerosol particles has rarely been investigated. Here, we utilized a self-built Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA) to measure diameter growth factors of fresh peat burning particles, which were generated during laboratory peat combustion experiments under controlled conditions. Particle number size distribution and chemical composition were also measured using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and the Time of Flight - Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ToF-ACSM). Number size distribution demonstrated a bimodal pattern, with the mode diameters in the size ranges of 50-80 nm and 300-500 nm, respectively. The corresponding normalized volume size distribution was unimodal distributed with mode diameter at around 400-600nm. Water uptake of freshly emitted peat smoke aerosol particles was less hygroscopic, probably because fresh peat burning aerosol particles were predominantly composed of organic compounds and sulfates were negligible. The obtained information can be further applied into the studies on the influence of peat burning aerosol particles on regional and global climate.

  17. Observations and lessons learnt from more than a decade of water safety planning in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, David

    2017-09-01

    In many countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region, drinking water is not used directly from the tap and faecal contamination of water sources is prevalent. As reflected in Sustainable Development Goal 6, access to safer drinking water is one of the most successful ways of preventing disease. The WHO Water Safety Framework promotes the use of water safety plans (WSPs), which are structured tools that help identify and mitigate potential risks throughout a water-supply system, from the water source to the point of use. WSPs not only help prevent outbreaks of acute and chronic waterborne diseases but also improve water-supply management and performance. During the past 12 years, through the direct and indirect work of a water quality partnership supported by the Australian Government, more than 5000 urban and rural WSPs have been implemented in the region. An impact assessment based on pre- and post-WSP surveys suggests that WSPs have improved system operations and management, infrastructure and performance; leveraged donor funds; increased stakeholder communication and collaboration; increased testing of water quality; and increased monitoring of consumer satisfaction. These achievements, and their sustainability, are being achieved through national legislation and regulatory frameworks for water supply, including quality standards for drinking water; national training tools and extensive training of sector professionals and creation of WSP experts; model WSPs; WSP auditing systems; and the institution of longterm training and support. More than a decade of water safety planning using the WSP approach has shown that supplying safe drinking water at the tap throughout the WHO South-East Asia Region is a realistic goal.

  18. Influence of trans-boundary air pollution from China on multi-day high PM10 episodes in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, H. R.; Ho, C. H.; Kim, J.; Chen, D.; Lee, S.; Choi, Y. S.; Chang, L. S.; Song, C. K.

    2014-12-01

    Air quality problems have become a serious global issue as it causes over 3 million deaths per year all over the world. With generations of massive air pollutants in China, the effects of trans-boundary transports of air pollutants on human health have become a serious international concern in East Asia. However, only a limited number of studies are available for providing scientific evidences for quantifying the sources and transports of air pollutants over major countries in East Asia. Here, it is shown that particulate matters originated from China played major role in the occurrence of multi-day (≥ 4 days) severe air pollution episodes in Seoul, Korea, in which the concentration of particulate matter of diameters ≤ 10 μm exceeds 100 μg m-3. Observations show that these multi-day severe air quality episodes occur when a strong high-pressure system resides over the eastern China - Korea region. Such a weather condition confines air pollutants within the atmospheric boundary layer and spread them by slow westerlies within the boundary layer from China into the neighboring countries. Understanding such dynamical processes is a key for advancing the predictability of trans-boundary air pollutants and their health impacts in East Asia as well as developing international measures to improve air quality for the region.

  19. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This 2004 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  20. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment 2013

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This 2013 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  1. Projections of Water Stress Based on an Ensemble of Socioeconomic Growth and Climate Change Scenarios: A Case Study in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Fant, Charles; Schlosser, C. Adam; Gao, Xiang; Strzepek, Kenneth; Reilly, John

    2016-01-01

    The sustainability of future water resources is of paramount importance and is affected by many factors, including population, wealth and climate. Inherent in current methods to estimate these factors in the future is the uncertainty of their prediction. In this study, we integrate a large ensemble of scenarios—internally consistent across economics, emissions, climate, and population—to develop a risk portfolio of water stress over a large portion of Asia that includes China, India, and Mainland Southeast Asia in a future with unconstrained emissions. We isolate the effects of socioeconomic growth from the effects of climate change in order to identify the primary drivers of stress on water resources. We find that water needs related to socioeconomic changes, which are currently small, are likely to increase considerably in the future, often overshadowing the effect of climate change on levels of water stress. As a result, there is a high risk of severe water stress in densely populated watersheds by 2050, compared to recent history. There is strong evidence to suggest that, in the absence of autonomous adaptation or societal response, a much larger portion of the region’s population will live in water-stressed regions in the near future. Tools and studies such as these can effectively investigate large-scale system sensitivities and can be useful in engaging and informing decision makers. PMID:27028871

  2. Projections of water stress based on an ensemble of socioeconomic growth and climate change scenarios: A case study in Asia

    DOE PAGES

    Fant, Charles; Schlosser, C. Adam; Gao, Xiang; ...

    2016-03-30

    The sustainability of future water resources is of paramount importance and is affected by many factors, including population, wealth and climate. Inherent in current methods to estimate these factors in the future is the uncertainty of their prediction. In this study, we integrate a large ensemble of scenarios—internally consistent across economics, emissions, climate, and population—to develop a risk portfolio of water stress over a large portion of Asia that includes China, India, and Mainland Southeast Asia in a future with unconstrained emissions. We isolate the effects of socioeconomic growth from the effects of climate change in order to identify themore » primary drivers of stress on water resources. We find that water needs related to socioeconomic changes, which are currently small, are likely to increase considerably in the future, often overshadowing the effect of climate change on levels of water stress. As a result, there is a high risk of severe water stress in densely populated watersheds by 2050, compared to recent history. There is strong evidence to suggest that, in the absence of autonomous adaptation or societal response, a much larger portion of the region’s population will live in water-stressed regions in the near future. Lastly, tools and studies such as these can effectively investigate large-scale system sensitivities and can be useful in engaging and informing decision makers.« less

  3. Projections of water stress based on an ensemble of socioeconomic growth and climate change scenarios: A case study in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Fant, Charles; Schlosser, C. Adam; Gao, Xiang; Strzepek, Kenneth; Reilly, John; Ebi, Kristie L.

    2016-03-30

    The sustainability of future water resources is of paramount importance and is affected by many factors, including population, wealth and climate. Inherent in current methods to estimate these factors in the future is the uncertainty of their prediction. In this study, we integrate a large ensemble of scenarios—internally consistent across economics, emissions, climate, and population—to develop a risk portfolio of water stress over a large portion of Asia that includes China, India, and Mainland Southeast Asia in a future with unconstrained emissions. We isolate the effects of socioeconomic growth from the effects of climate change in order to identify the primary drivers of stress on water resources. We find that water needs related to socioeconomic changes, which are currently small, are likely to increase considerably in the future, often overshadowing the effect of climate change on levels of water stress. As a result, there is a high risk of severe water stress in densely populated watersheds by 2050, compared to recent history. There is strong evidence to suggest that, in the absence of autonomous adaptation or societal response, a much larger portion of the region’s population will live in water-stressed regions in the near future. Lastly, tools and studies such as these can effectively investigate large-scale system sensitivities and can be useful in engaging and informing decision makers.

  4. Projections of Water Stress Based on an Ensemble of Socioeconomic Growth and Climate Change Scenarios: A Case Study in Asia.

    PubMed

    Fant, Charles; Schlosser, C Adam; Gao, Xiang; Strzepek, Kenneth; Reilly, John

    2016-01-01

    The sustainability of future water resources is of paramount importance and is affected by many factors, including population, wealth and climate. Inherent in current methods to estimate these factors in the future is the uncertainty of their prediction. In this study, we integrate a large ensemble of scenarios--internally consistent across economics, emissions, climate, and population--to develop a risk portfolio of water stress over a large portion of Asia that includes China, India, and Mainland Southeast Asia in a future with unconstrained emissions. We isolate the effects of socioeconomic growth from the effects of climate change in order to identify the primary drivers of stress on water resources. We find that water needs related to socioeconomic changes, which are currently small, are likely to increase considerably in the future, often overshadowing the effect of climate change on levels of water stress. As a result, there is a high risk of severe water stress in densely populated watersheds by 2050, compared to recent history. There is strong evidence to suggest that, in the absence of autonomous adaptation or societal response, a much larger portion of the region's population will live in water-stressed regions in the near future. Tools and studies such as these can effectively investigate large-scale system sensitivities and can be useful in engaging and informing decision makers.

  5. Modeling water scarcity over south Asia: Incorporating crop growth and irrigation models into the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troy, Tara J.; Ines, Amor V. M.; Lall, Upmanu; Robertson, Andrew W.

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale hydrologic models, such as the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, are used for a variety of studies, from drought monitoring to projecting the potential impact of climate change on the hydrologic cycle decades in advance. The majority of these models simulates the natural hydrological cycle and neglects the effects of human activities such as irrigation, which can result in streamflow withdrawals and increased evapotranspiration. In some parts of the world, these activities do not significantly affect the hydrologic cycle, but this is not the case in south Asia where irrigated agriculture has a large water footprint. To address this gap, we incorporate a crop growth model and irrigation model into the VIC model in order to simulate the impacts of irrigated and rainfed agriculture on the hydrologic cycle over south Asia (Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra basin and peninsular India). The crop growth model responds to climate signals, including temperature and water stress, to simulate the growth of maize, wheat, rice, and millet. For the primarily rainfed maize crop, the crop growth model shows good correlation with observed All-India yields (0.7) with lower correlations for the irrigated wheat and rice crops (0.4). The difference in correlation is because irrigation provides a buffer against climate conditions, so that rainfed crop growth is more tied to climate than irrigated crop growth. The irrigation water demands induce hydrologic water stress in significant parts of the region, particularly in the Indus, with the streamflow unable to meet the irrigation demands. Although rainfall can vary significantly in south Asia, we find that water scarcity is largely chronic due to the irrigation demands rather than being intermittent due to climate variability.

  6. Satellite-Based Assessment of Possible Dust Aerosols Semi-Direct Effect on Cloud Water Path over East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jianping; Lin, Bing; Minnis, Patrick; Wang, Tainhe; Wang, Xin; Hu, Yongxiang; Yi, Yuhong; Ayers, J. Kirk

    2006-01-01

    The semi-direct effects of dust aerosols are analyzed over eastern Asia using 2 years (June 2002 to June 2004) of data from the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometer and MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite, and 18 years (1984 to 2001) of International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data. The results show that the water path of dust-contaminated clouds is considerably smaller than that of dust-free clouds. The mean ice water path (IWP) and liquid water path (LWP) of dusty clouds are less than their dust-free counterparts by 23.7% and 49.8%, respectively. The long-term statistical relationship derived from ISCCP also confirms that there is significant negative correlation between dust storm index and ISCCP cloud water path. These results suggest that dust aerosols warm clouds, increase the evaporation of cloud droplets and further reduce cloud water path, the so-called semi-direct effect. The semi-direct effect may play a role in cloud development over arid and semi-arid areas of East Asia and contribute to the reduction of precipitation.

  7. Effect of tropospheric models on derived precipitable water vapor over Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Zhoobin; Mohd Shafri, Helmi Zulhaidi; Othman, Faridah; Norman, Masayu

    2017-05-01

    An interesting subject in the field of GPS technology is estimating variation of precipitable water vapor (PWV). This estimation can be used as a data source to assess and monitor rapid changes in meteorological conditions. So far, numerous GPS stations are distributed across the world and the number of GPS networks is increasing. Despite these developments, a challenging aspect of estimating PWV through GPS networks is the need of tropospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, and relative humidity (Liu et al., 2015). To estimate the tropospheric parameters, global pressure temperature (GPT) model developed by Boehm et al. (2007) is widely used in geodetic analysis for GPS observations. To improve the accuracy, Lagler et al. (2013) introduced GPT2 model by adding annual and semi-annual variation effects to GPT model. Furthermore, Boehm et al. (2015) proposed the GPT2 wet (GPT2w) model which uses water vapor pressure to improve the calculations. The global accuracy of GPT2 and GPT2w models has been evaluated by previous researches (Fund et al., 2011; Munekane and Boehm, 2010); however, investigations to assess the accuracy of global tropospheric models in tropical regions such as Southeast Asia is not sufficient. This study tests and examines the accuracy of GPT2w as one of the most recent versions of tropospheric models (Boehm et al., 2015). We developed a new regional model called Malaysian Pressure Temperature (MPT) model, and compared this model with GPT2w model. The compared results at one international GNSS service (IGS) station located in the south of Peninsula Malaysia shows that MPT model has a better performance than GPT2w model to produce PWV during monsoon season. According to the results, MPT has improved the accuracy of estimated pressure and temperature by 30% and 10%, respectively, in comparison with GPT2w model. These results indicate that MPT model can be a good alternative tool in the absence of meteorological sensors at GPS stations in

  8. Horizontal motion in elastic response to seasonal loading of rain water in the Amazon Basin and monsoon water in Southeast Asia observed by GPS and inferred from GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yuning; Argus, Donald F.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Heflin, Michael B.

    2013-12-01

    find seasonal horizontal crustal motions observed by GPS positioning in elastic response to heavy rainfall in the Amazon Basin and to monsoons in Southeast Asia to be consistent with those inferred from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity observations of water mass loading. Solid Earth moves toward the Amazon during heavy spring rainfall and toward Southeast Asia during summer monsoons and back away from these areas 6 months later when the water load is minimum. Vertical oscillations observed by GPS and inferred from GRACE are 2 to 3 times larger than horizontal oscillation near the margins of the areas of large mass loading. Some discrepancies between GPS and GRACE are probably caused by local effects that influence GPS measurements, because the GPS sites that show significant discrepancies also do not match nearby GPS sites. However, when the load is short wavelength, the limited spatial resolution of GRACE can cause systematic misfits.

  9. Impacts of Global Change on Water Resources in Dryland East Asia

    Treesearch

    Ge Sun; Xiaoming Feng; Jingfeng Xiao; Alex Shiklomanov; Shengping Wang; Zhiqiang Zhang; Nan Lu; Shuai Wang; Liding Chen; Bojie Fu; Yaning Chen; Jiquan Chen

    2013-01-01

    The vast Dryland East Asia (DEA) area consists of several large geographic regions including the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Loess Plateau, and Mongolia Plateau. T he region is of great importance to the functioning of the earth system under a changing climate. In the past three decades, due to the unprecedented land use/land cover change, urbanization, industrialization...

  10. Impact of biomass burning on ocean water quality in Southeast Asia through atmospheric deposition: field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundarambal, P.; Balasubramanian, R.; Tkalich, P.; He, J.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric nutrients have recently gained considerable attention as a significant additional source of new nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading to the ocean. The effect of atmospheric macro nutrients on marine productivity depends on the biological availability of both inorganic and organic N and P forms. During October 2006, the regional smoke haze episodes in Southeast Asia (SEA) that resulted from uncontrolled forest and peat fires in Sumatra and Borneo blanketed large parts of the region. In this work, we determined the chemical composition of nutrients in aerosols and rainwater during hazy and non-hazy days to assess their impacts on aquatic ecosystem in SEA for the first time. We compared atmospheric dry and wet deposition of N and P species in aerosol and rainwater in Singapore between hazy and non-hazy days. Air mass back trajectories showed that large-scale forest and peat fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan were a significant source of atmospheric nutrients to aquatic environments in Singapore and SEA region on hazy days. It was observed that the average concentrations of nutrients increased approximately by a factor of 3 to 8 on hazy days when compared with non-hazy days. The estimated mean dry and wet atmospheric fluxes (mg/m2/day) of total nitrogen (TN) were 12.72 ± 2.12 and 2.49 ± 1.29 during non-hazy days and 132.86 ± 38.39 and 29.43 ± 10.75 during hazy days; the uncertainty estimates are represented as 1 standard deviation (1σ) here and throughout the text. The estimated mean dry and wet deposition fluxes (mg/m2/day) of total phosphorous (TP) were 0.82 ± 0.23 and 0.13 ± 0.03 for non-hazy days and 7.89 ± 0.80 and 1.56 ± 0.65 for hazy days. The occurrences of higher concentrations of nutrients from atmospheric deposition during smoke haze episodes may have adverse consequences on receiving aquatic ecosystems with cascading impacts on water quality.

  11. Increasing drought in Jordan: Climate change and cascading Syrian land-use impacts on reducing transboundary flow.

    PubMed

    Rajsekhar, Deepthi; Gorelick, Steven M

    2017-08-01

    In countries where severe drought is an anticipated effect of climate change and in those that heavily depend on upstream nations for fresh water, the effect of drier conditions and consequent changes in the transboundary streamflow regime induced by anthropogenic interventions and disasters leads to uncertainty in regional water security. As a case in point, we analyze Jordan's surface water resources and agricultural water demand through 2100, considering the combined impacts of climate change and land-use change driven by the Syrian conflict. We use bias-corrected regional climate simulations as input to high-resolution hydrologic models to assess three drought types: meteorological (rainfall decrease), agricultural (soil moisture deficit), and hydrologic (streamflow decline) under future scenarios. The historical baseline period (1981-2010) is compared to the future (2011-2100), divided into three 30-year periods. Comparing the baseline period to 2070-2100, average temperature increases by 4.5°C, rainfall decreases by 30%, and multiple drought-type occurrences increase from ~8 in 30 years to ~25 in 30 years. There is a significant increase in the contemporaneous occurrence of multiple drought types along with an 80% increase in simultaneous warm and dry events. Watershed simulations of future transboundary Yarmouk-Jordan River flow from Syria show that Jordan would receive 51 to 75% less Yarmouk water compared to historical flow. Recovery of Syrian irrigated agriculture to pre-conflict conditions would produce twice the decline in transboundary flow as that due to climate change. In Jordan, the confluence of limited water supply, future drought, and transboundary hydrologic impacts of land use severely challenges achieving freshwater sustainability.

  12. Increasing drought in Jordan: Climate change and cascading Syrian land-use impacts on reducing transboundary flow

    PubMed Central

    Rajsekhar, Deepthi; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    In countries where severe drought is an anticipated effect of climate change and in those that heavily depend on upstream nations for fresh water, the effect of drier conditions and consequent changes in the transboundary streamflow regime induced by anthropogenic interventions and disasters leads to uncertainty in regional water security. As a case in point, we analyze Jordan’s surface water resources and agricultural water demand through 2100, considering the combined impacts of climate change and land-use change driven by the Syrian conflict. We use bias-corrected regional climate simulations as input to high-resolution hydrologic models to assess three drought types: meteorological (rainfall decrease), agricultural (soil moisture deficit), and hydrologic (streamflow decline) under future scenarios. The historical baseline period (1981–2010) is compared to the future (2011–2100), divided into three 30-year periods. Comparing the baseline period to 2070–2100, average temperature increases by 4.5°C, rainfall decreases by 30%, and multiple drought-type occurrences increase from ~8 in 30 years to ~25 in 30 years. There is a significant increase in the contemporaneous occurrence of multiple drought types along with an 80% increase in simultaneous warm and dry events. Watershed simulations of future transboundary Yarmouk-Jordan River flow from Syria show that Jordan would receive 51 to 75% less Yarmouk water compared to historical flow. Recovery of Syrian irrigated agriculture to pre-conflict conditions would produce twice the decline in transboundary flow as that due to climate change. In Jordan, the confluence of limited water supply, future drought, and transboundary hydrologic impacts of land use severely challenges achieving freshwater sustainability. PMID:28875164

  13. Statistical study to identify the key factors governing ground water recharge in the watersheds of the arid Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Binq-Qi; Wang, Yue-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the source and recharge of ground waters is of great significance to our knowledge in hydrological cycles in arid environments over the world. Northern Xinjiang in northwestern China is a significant repository of information relating to the hydrological evolution and climatic changes in central Asia. In this study, two multivariate statistical techniques, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to assess the ground water recharge and its governing factors, with the principal idea of exploring the above techniques to utilize all available hydrogeochemical variables in the quality assessment, which are not considered in the conventional techniques like Stiff and Piper diagrams. Q-mode HCA and R-mode PCA were combined to partition the water samples into seven major water clusters (C1-C7) and three principal components (PC1-PC3, PC1 salinity, PC2 hydroclimate, PC3 contaminant). The water samples C1 + C4 were classified as recharge area waters (Ca-HCO3 water), C2 + C3 as transitional zone waters (Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 water), and C5 + C6 + C7 as discharge area waters (Na-SO4 water). Based on the Q-mode PCA scores, three groups of geochemical processes influencing recharge regimes were identified: geogenic (i.e., caused by natural geochemical processes), geomorphoclimatic (caused by topography and climate), and anthropogenic (caused by ground water contamination). It is proposed that differences in recharge mechanism and ground water evolution, and possible bedrock composition difference, are responsible for the chemical genesis of these waters. These will continue to influence the geochemistry of the northern Xinjiang drainage system for a long time due to its steady tectonics and arid climate. This study proved that the chemistry differentiation of ground water can effectively support the identification of ground water recharge and evolution patterns.

  14. Climatic Change, Conflict and Peace in Transboundary River Basins - A Theoretical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegfried, T. U.; Beck, L.; Koubi, V.; Bernauer, T.

    2011-12-01

    Recent research shows that one of the most significant risk for societal development pertains to water availability and that the greatest risks for unrest stemming from economic deprivation and the erosion of livelihoods is found in transboundary river basins in poor and politically unstable parts of the world. While until now, historic linkages between water scarcity and conflict were weak at best, there is growing fear that environmental change will increasingly lead to an entanglement of conflict and resources dynamics in the future. Where resources are not jointly managed in a cooperative way and resources sharing mechanisms not legislated by sound international institutions and were significant impacts from environmental change are expected, these developments give rise to concern. To study environmental change and conflict interlinkages, we develop a formal hydro-climatological model for transboundary freshwater resources and investigate theoretically how climate change translates into potential for conflict and peace, contingent on configurations of power between riparians. The model accounts for how upstream countries exercise power by using water whereas downstream countries use power to obtain water. We show that equilibrium water allocation outcomes are biased towards the more powerful riparian, and that absolute upstream or downstream river basin dominance are limiting cases of our general model. Our model suggests that the basin-wide conflict potential is always more sensitive to changes in relative power between riparian states than to impacts from climatic changes.

  15. On the relations between land-surface Water Use Efficiency and Asian dust storms in the Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Kang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Asian dust storm is one of major environmental issures in the Northeast Asia. The dust storm occurrence is typically influenced by both atmospheric (i.e. pressure, wind speed, precipitation, etc.) and land-surface conditions (i.e. vegetation cover and vitality, soil dryness, etc). Severe water stess in arid and semi-arid regions can resulted in reduction of vegetation cover fraction ultimately. Plant physiological change might however precede the vegetation structural change by regulating leaf stomatal resistance. In this study, we tested whether plant physiological index can be used for early indicator of plant recession causing dust storm increase. For the purpose, satellite-based eco-physiological variables such as gross primary production (GPP), evapotranspiration (ET), and water use efficiency (WUE) were prepared and then, compared their spatial and temporal variability with Synop dust storm data for the Northeast Asia. In results, the asian dust storms occurrence decreased in early 2000s but again increased, especially, in eastern mongolia during late 2000s. Our tentative result indicates that this region was appeared consistently low water use efficiency result during the period of late 2000s. In this study, the relations between WUE and dust sorm were interpreted and discussed as a tool for early indicator of land degradation of arid and semi-arid grasslands.

  16. Stable Carbon Isotope Evidence for Neolithic and Bronze Age Crop Water Management in the Eastern Mediterranean and Southwest Asia.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Michael P; Jones, Glynis; Charles, Michael; Fraser, Rebecca; Heaton, Tim H E; Bogaard, Amy

    2015-01-01

    In a large study on early crop water management, stable carbon isotope discrimination was determined for 275 charred grain samples from nine archaeological sites, dating primarily to the Neolithic and Bronze Age, from the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Asia. This has revealed that wheat (Triticum spp.) was regularly grown in wetter conditions than barley (Hordeum sp.), indicating systematic preferential treatment of wheat that may reflect a cultural preference for wheat over barley. Isotopic analysis of pulse crops (Lens culinaris, Pisum sativum and Vicia ervilia) indicates cultivation in highly varied water conditions at some sites, possibly as a result of opportunistic watering practices. The results have also provided evidence for local land-use and changing agricultural practices.

  17. Stable Carbon Isotope Evidence for Neolithic and Bronze Age Crop Water Management in the Eastern Mediterranean and Southwest Asia

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Michael P.; Jones, Glynis; Charles, Michael; Fraser, Rebecca; Heaton, Tim H. E.; Bogaard, Amy

    2015-01-01

    In a large study on early crop water management, stable carbon isotope discrimination was determined for 275 charred grain samples from nine archaeological sites, dating primarily to the Neolithic and Bronze Age, from the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Asia. This has revealed that wheat (Triticum spp.) was regularly grown in wetter conditions than barley (Hordeum sp.), indicating systematic preferential treatment of wheat that may reflect a cultural preference for wheat over barley. Isotopic analysis of pulse crops (Lens culinaris, Pisum sativum and Vicia ervilia) indicates cultivation in highly varied water conditions at some sites, possibly as a result of opportunistic watering practices. The results have also provided evidence for local land-use and changing agricultural practices. PMID:26061494

  18. Climate impact assessment on water resources and glacierization in the Naryn, Karadarya and Zerafshan basins, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafurov, Abror; Duethmann, Doris; Kriegel, David; Unger-Shayesteh, Katy; Huss, Matthias; Farinotti, Daniel; Vorogushyn, Sergiy

    2017-04-01

    Central Asian river basins with their runoff formation zones in high mountains are currently experiencing the impact of increasing temperatures and changes in precipitation. The headwaters thus exhibit negative glacier mass balances, decreasing glacierization, changes in snow cover characteristics and changing runoff response. These changes are likely to intensify in future, as temperatures are projected to grow further. Both hydropower industry and irrigated agriculture in the downstream areas strongly depend on the water availability, its seasonal and long-term distribution. In order to improve water management policy in the region, reliable assessments of water availability in the runoff formation zones of Central Asia are necessary. One of the approaches to assessment of water resources is the evaluation of climate scenarios using hydrological models. We present an assessment of climate impact on water resources and glacierization in the 21st century using the semi-distributed hydrological model WASA in the Naryn, Karadarya and Zerafshan basins in Central Asia. In order to constrain hydrological model parameters reliably, a multi-objective calibration approach using observed discharge, glacier mass balance and satellite snow cover data was applied. Consideration of initial glacier volume and its temporal dynamics can be essential for climate impact assessment in transient model simulations. Here, we used estimates of initial glacier thickness, calculated glacier mass balance, and the ∆h-approach to simulate the glacier evolution on an annual basis. Future climate scenarios based on the CMIP5 ensemble projections reflecting cold-wet, cold-dry, warm-wet, and warm-dry conditions were used and bias corrected with an empirical quantile mapping technique. The results indicate that the impact of changing climate varies regionally. Based on the ensemble mean of the simulated glacier area evolution, the glacier area retreat is fastest in the low-lying Karadarya basin

  19. Source apportionment of atmospheric water over East Asia - a source tracer study in CAM5.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Chen; Zhu, Bin; Gao, Jinhui; Kang, Hanqing

    2017-02-01

    The atmospheric water tracer (AWT) method is implemented in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5.1) to quantitatively identify the contributions of various source regions to precipitation and water vapour over East Asia. Compared to other source apportionment methods, the AWT method was developed based on detailed physical parameterisations, and can therefore trace the behaviour of atmospheric water substances directly and exactly. According to the simulation, the northern Indian Ocean (NIO) is the dominant oceanic moisture source region for precipitation over the Yangtze River valley (YRV) and southern China (SCN) in summer, while the north-western Pacific (NWP) dominates during other seasons. Evaporation over the South China Sea (SCS) is responsible for only 2.7-3.7 % of summer precipitation over the YRV and SCN. In addition, the Indo-China Peninsula is an important terrestrial moisture source region (annual contribution of ˜ 10 %). The overall relative contribution of each source region to the water vapour amount is similar to the corresponding contribution to precipitation over the YRV and SCN. A case study for the SCS shows that only a small part ( ≤ 5.5 %) of water vapour originates from local evaporation, whereas much more water vapour is supplied by the NWP and NIO. In addition, because evaporation from the SCS represents only a small contribution to the water vapour over the YRV and SCN in summer, the SCS mainly acts as a water vapour transport pathway where moisture from the NIO and NWP meet.

  20. Study on the water related disaster risks using the future socio-economic scenario in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, M.; Hatono, M.; Ikeuchi, H.; Nakamura, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, flood risks in the present and the end of the 21st century in Asia are estimated using a future socio-economic scenario. Using the runoff data of 7 GCMs (RCP 8.5) of CMIP5, the river discharge, inundation area, and inundation depth are calculated for the assessment of flood risk. Finally, the flood risk is estimated using a function of damage. The flood frequency in the end of the 21st century in Asia tends to increase. Inundation area in Japan, Taiwan, and Kyrgyz is almost unchanged. At the same time, that in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Laos, and Myanmar reached about 1.4-1.6 times compared to present. Damage cost is largely influenced by economic growth, however, we show that it is important that we distinguish the influence of climate change from economic development and evaluate it when we think about an adaptation.

  1. ACE-Asia Aerosol Optical Depth and Water Vapor Measured by Airborne Sunphotometers and Related to Other Measurements and Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, John M.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Eilers, J. A.; Ramirez, S. A.; Kahn, R.; Hegg, D.; Pilewskie, P.; Anderson, T.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In the Spring 2001 phase of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), the 6-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) operated on 15 of the 19 research flights of the NCAR C-130, while its 14-channel counterpart (AATS- 14) flew successfully on all 18 research flights of the CIRPAS Twin Otter. ACE-Asia studied aerosol outflow from the Asian continent to the Pacific basin. It was designed to integrate suborbital and satellite measurements and models so as to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosols. AATS-6 and AATS-14 measured solar beam transmission at 6 and 14 wavelengths (380-1021 and 354-1558 nm, respectively), yielding aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra and column water vapor (CWV). Vertical differentiation in profiles yielded aerosol extinction spectra and water vapor concentration. The wavelength dependence of these AOD and extinction spectra indicates that supermicron dust was often a major component of the ACE-Asia aerosol. Frequently this dust-containing aerosol extended to high altitudes. For example, in AATS- 14 profiles analyzed to date, 36% of full-column AOD at 525 nm was above 3 km. In contrast, only 10% of CWV was above 3 km. Analyses and applications of AATS-6 and AATS-14 data to date include comparisons to (i) extinction products derived using in situ measurements, (ii) extinction profiles derived from lidar measurements, and (iii) AOD retrievals from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) aboard the TERRA satellite. Other planned collaborative studies include comparisons to results from size spectrometers, chemical measurements, other satellite sensors, flux radiometers, and chemical transport models. Early results of these studies will be presented.

  2. ACE-Asia Aerosol Optical Depth and Water Vapor Measured by Airborne Sunphotometers and Related to Other Measurements and Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, John M.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Eilers, J. A.; Ramirez, S. A.; Kahn, R.; Hegg, D.; Pilewskie, P.; Anderson, T.; hide

    2001-01-01

    In the Spring 2001 phase of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), the 6-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) operated on 15 of the 19 research flights of the NCAR C-130, while its 14-channel counterpart (AATS- 14) flew successfully on all 18 research flights of the CIRPAS Twin Otter. ACE-Asia studied aerosol outflow from the Asian continent to the Pacific basin. It was designed to integrate suborbital and satellite measurements and models so as to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosols. AATS-6 and AATS-14 measured solar beam transmission at 6 and 14 wavelengths (380-1021 and 354-1558 nm, respectively), yielding aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra and column water vapor (CWV). Vertical differentiation in profiles yielded aerosol extinction spectra and water vapor concentration. The wavelength dependence of these AOD and extinction spectra indicates that supermicron dust was often a major component of the ACE-Asia aerosol. Frequently this dust-containing aerosol extended to high altitudes. For example, in AATS- 14 profiles analyzed to date, 36% of full-column AOD at 525 nm was above 3 km. In contrast, only 10% of CWV was above 3 km. Analyses and applications of AATS-6 and AATS-14 data to date include comparisons to (i) extinction products derived using in situ measurements, (ii) extinction profiles derived from lidar measurements, and (iii) AOD retrievals from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) aboard the TERRA satellite. Other planned collaborative studies include comparisons to results from size spectrometers, chemical measurements, other satellite sensors, flux radiometers, and chemical transport models. Early results of these studies will be presented.

  3. Advances in the Knowledge of Transboundary Aquifers Shared by Canada and the USA, through the UNESCO's IHP ISARM Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, A.

    2015-12-01

    Canada's involvement in the UNESCO IHP ISARM initiative prompted an accrued analysis on the knowledge and state of transboundary aquifers located along the Canada-USA border. As a result, 10 Transboundary Aquifer Systems (TAS) were identified and some have been assessed in cooperation with the United States. This study is a review of the current state of the 10 TAS. Documentation of scientifically-based knowledge on TAS is an important step in identifying potential issues in policies that might be adopted to address shared water-resource issues. The newly acquired hydrological insights for this very long international border emphasizes the need for more scientific data, widespread communication and information sharing between Canadian and American organizations, and a more clearly defined governments' role to manage groundwater at the international level. The study reviews the legal frameworks and summarises the current scientific knowledge for the TAS with respect to the hydrologic and geologic framework as well as some of the major drivers for supply and demand. It also describes the links, approach and relevance of studies on the TAS to the UN Law of Transboundary Aquifers and on how these might fit in the ISARM's regional strategy for the assessment and management of the TAS. Clear communication, shared knowledge and common objectives in the management of TAS will prepare the countries for future negotiations and cooperative binational programs. Encouraged by the ISARM approach of the International Hydrological Programme of UNESCO, Canada is now looking forward to playing a key regional role in improving water management, facilitating transboundary water sharing, and enhancing water research and data sharing in future relations between these two nations.

  4. The vertical structure of ozone and water vapor profiles in Lhasa within Asia summer monsoon anticyclone during the stratospheric intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dan; Vogel, Bärbel; Bian, Jianchun; Müller, Rolf; Günther, Gebhard; Bai, Zhixuan; Li, Qian; Fan, Qiujun; Zhang, Jinqiang

    2017-04-01

    A stratospheric intrusion process occurred over the southeastern side of the Asia summer monsoon (ASM) region is investigated using the balloon-borne measurements of ozone and water vapor during 18-20 August 2013. Data from Lhasa (29.66° N, 91.14° E, above sea level (asl.) 3,650 m) show that the positive relative change of the ozone mixing ratios in the tropopause layer attained to 90 % on 19 and 20 August. The backward trajectory calculation from CLaMS model and the satellite data from the ozone monitoring instrument (OMI) and the atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) indicate that the (stratospheric) air parcels intruded (originated) from the Northeast Asia to the southeastern edge of the ASM anticyclone. Meanwhile, typhoon Utor occurred over the sourtheastern edge of the ASM and lasted from 8 to 18 August 2013. The convection associated with Utor uplifted air with low ozone from the Western Pacific to the middle/upper troposphere. Air parcels with high ozone from the high latitude and with low ozone from the Western Pacific met at the sourtheastern side of the ASM and then transported westward to Lhasa over long-distances (˜2,000 km). In addition, the laminated identification method is used to identify the laminae structure of the ozone and water vapor profiles from the middle troposphere to the lower stratosphere in Lhasa, confirming the role of the dynamic disturbance (e.g., Rossby and gravity wave)

  5. GRACE Data-based Estimation of Spatial Variations in Water Storage over the Central Asia during 2003-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Q.; Tashpolat, T.; Ding, J. L.; Zhang, F.; Mamat, S.

    2014-11-01

    We used the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) satellite gravity data obtained from January 2003 to January 2013, with supports of other data, including the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) and CMAP (Climate Prediction Center's Merged Analysis of Precipitation) precipitation data, the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data, and the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data, to analyze the annual variations in water storage over central Asia. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. (1) The amplitudes of the annual variations in the water storage exhibit a general E-W increasing trend. (2) The water storage has an increasing trend in the following areas: the Balkhash Basin, the Ob River Basin, and the middle and lower reaches of the Yenisei River Basin. This is caused by the global warming, the melting of permafrost, and the vegetation coverage continued to increase, as well as the improved industrial technologies to reduce water usage, and the other natural and human factors. (3) The water storage has a decreasing trend in the following areas: the Syr Darya River Basin, the Amu Darya River Basin, and the conjunction area between the Euphrates-Tigris Basin and the southwestern shore of the Caspian Sea. (4) The water storage is primarily influenced by the precipitation, the evaporation, the vegetation coverage, and the topography. (5) The water storage maximum normally responds to the precipitation maximum with certain time lags.

  6. Hunza Landslide and Monsoon Flooding in Pakistan Call for International Attention to Transboundary Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Fink, W.; Furfaro, R.; Leonard, G. J.; Patterson, M.; Glims, Gaphaz

    2010-12-01

    rockslide-formed Lake Gojal and of the region’s glacier dynamics seen by satellite to show the promise of remote sensing to address disaster management and hazard identification. However, the biggest role of remote sensing should be in the identification of hazard-prone situations, such as areas where landslides or the development of dangerous glacier lakes is likely. Increased satellite surveillance and deployment of air- and land surface-borne sensor platforms, and in some cases surface or subsurface watercraft, may aid the characterization of the landscape, identify geologic and climatic instabilities, and identify vulnerabilities among the people and infrastructure. A broad-based remote sensing program should fit within a coherent regional/international approach to the key related issues of natural hazards, water resources, urban planning, food security, hydropower, and environmental conservation. Notably, these issues all are interlinked to transboundary hydrology and climate change.

  7. Potential effects of climate change and variability on watershed biogeochemical processes and water quality in Northeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Hyung; Duan, Lei; Kim, Bomchul; Mitchell, Myron J; Shibata, Hideaki

    2010-02-01

    An overview is provided of the potential effects of climate change on the watershed biogeochemical processes and surface water quality in mountainous watersheds of Northeast (NE) Asia that provide drinking water supplies for large populations. We address major 'local' issues with the case studies conducted at three watersheds along a latitudinal gradient going from northern Japan through the central Korean Peninsula and ending in southern China. Winter snow regimes and ground snowpack dynamics play a crucial role in many ecological and biogeochemical processes in the mountainous watersheds across northern Japan. A warmer winter with less snowfall, as has been projected for northern Japan, will alter the accumulation and melting of snowpacks and affect hydro-biogeochemical processes linking soil processes to surface water quality. Soils on steep hillslopes and rich in base cations have been shown to have distinct patterns in buffering acidic inputs during snowmelt. Alteration of soil microbial processes in response to more frequent freeze-thaw cycles under thinner snowpacks may increase nutrient leaching to stream waters. The amount and intensity of summer monsoon rainfalls have been increasing in Korea over recent decades. More frequent extreme rainfall events have resulted in large watershed export of sediments and nutrients from agricultural lands on steep hillslopes converted from forests. Surface water siltation caused by terrestrial export of sediments from these steep hillslopes is emerging as a new challenge for water quality management due to detrimental effects on water quality. Climatic predictions in upcoming decades for southern China include lower precipitation with large year-to-year variations. The results from a four-year intensive study at a forested watershed in Chongquing province showed that acidity and the concentrations of sulfate and nitrate in soil and surface waters were generally lower in the years with lower precipitation, suggesting year

  8. Terrestrial hydro-climatic change, lake shrinkage and water resource deterioration: Analysis of current to future drivers across Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarsjo, J.; Beygi, H.; Thorslund, J.

    2016-12-01

    Due to overlapping effects of different anthropogenic pressures and natural variability, main drivers behind on-going changes in the water cycle have in many cases not been identified, which complicates management of water resources. For instance, in many parts of the world, and not least in semi-arid and arid parts of Asia, lowered groundwater levels and shrinkage of surface water bodies with associated salinization and water quality deterioration constitute great challenges. With the aim to identify main drivers and mechanisms behind such changes, we here combine (i) historical observations of long-term, large scale change, (ii) ensemble projections of expected future change from the climate models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP 5) and (iii) output from water balance modelling. Our particular focus is on regions near shrinking lakes. For the principal Lake Urmia in Iran, results show that agricultural intensification including irrigation expansion has clearly contributed to the surprisingly rapid water quality deterioration and lake shrinkage, from 10% lake area reduction in 2002 to the current value of about 75% (leaving billion of tons of salt exposed in its basin). Nevertheless, runoff decrease due to climate change has had an even larger effect. For the Aral Sea in Central Asia, where problems accelerated much earlier (in the 1990's), land-use change and irrigation expansion can fully explain the disastrous surface water deficits and water quality problems in the extensive low-lying parts of the basin. However, projections show that climate-driven runoff decrease in the headwaters of the Aral Sea basin may become a dominant driver of continued change in the near-future. More generally, present results illustrate that mitigation measures that compensate only for land-use driven effects may not reverse current trends of decreasing water availability, due to increasingly strong impacts of climate-driven runoff decrease. This has

  9. Design, construction and operation of a new filter approach for treatment of surface waters in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, R. J.

    1981-05-01

    A simple, inexpensive, and efficient method of water treatment for rural communities in Southeast Asia was developed using local materials as filter media. The filter utilizes coconut fiber and burnt rice husks in a two-stage filtering process designed as a gravityfed system without the need for backwashing, and eliminates in most cases the need of any chemicals. The first-stage filter with coconut fiber acts essentially as a substitute for the coagulation and sedimentation phases of conventional water-treatment plants. The second-stage filter, using burnt rice husks, is similar to slow sand filtration with the additional benefits of taste, color and odor removals through the absorption properties of the activated carbon in the medium. This paper reports on the design, construction costs, and operating results of several village size units in Thailand and in the Philippines.

  10. Transboundary Air Pollution over the Central Himalayas: Monitoring network and Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qianggong; Kang, Shichang

    2016-04-01

    The Himalayas, stretching over 3000 kms along west-east, separates South Asia continent and the Tibetan Plateau with its extreme high altitudes. The South Asia is being increasingly recognized to be among the hotspots of air pollution, posing multi-effects on regional climate and environment. Recent monitoring and projection have indicated an accelerated decrease of glacier and increasing glacier runoff in the Himalayas, and a remarkable phenomenon has been recognized in the Himalayas that long-range transport atmospheric pollutants (e.g., black carbon and dust) deposited on glacier surface can promote glacier melt, and in turns, may liberate historical contaminant legacy in glaciers into downward ecosystems. To understand the air pollution variation and how they can infiltrate the Himalayas and beyond, we started to operate a coordinated atmospheric pollution monitoring network composing 11 sites with 5 in Nepal and 6 in Tibet since April 2013. Atmospheric total suspended particles ( TSP < 100 μm) are collected for 24h at an interval of 3-6 days at all sites. Black carbon, typical persistent organic pollutants (PAHs) and heavy metals (particulate-bounded mercury) are measured to reveal their spatial and temporal distributions. Results revealed a consistent gradient decrease in almost all analyzed parameters along south-north gradient across the Himalayas, with a clear seasonal variation of higher values in pre-monsoon seasons. Analysis of geochemical signatures of carbonaceous aerosols indicated dominant sources from biomass burning and vehicle exhaust. PAHs concentrations and signatures from soils and aerosols indicated that low-ring PAHs can readily transport across the Himalayas. Integrated analysis of satellite images and air mass trajectories suggested that the transboundary air pollution over the Himalayas is episodic and is likely concentrated in pre-monsoon seasons. Our results emphasis the potential transport and impact of air pollution from South Asia

  11. Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Home to beautiful jungles, booming industry, and age-old temples, Southeast Asia has become a confluence of ancient and modern life. This true-color image of mainland Southeast Asia was acquired on November 30, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The body of water in the upper righthand corner of the image is the Gulf of Tonkin. East and southeast of the gulf are the dark green jungles of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. The light brown Mekong River winds its way through the center of the Cambodian jungle and into southern Vietnam. The dark blue patch to the left of the river at the bottom of the image is the Tonle Sap. Literally translated to mean 'Great Lake,' the Tonle Sap is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia. During the rainy season from May to October, the lake will more than double in size growing from its wintertime extent of 3,000 square kilometers to over 7,500 square kilometers. North of the lake, approximately in the center of the image, is a saucer-shaped patch of reddish brown land known as the Khorat Plateau. Situated 90 to 200 meters above sea level in eastern Thailand, the dry plateau is mostly covered with farmland and savanna-type grasses and shrubs. Moving south again, the large body of light blue water at the bottom central portion of the image is the Gulf of Thailand. By switching to the full resolution image (250 meters per pixel) and following the Gulf of Thailand to its northernmost extent, one can see a pinkish beige patch of terrain covered by a faint latticework of fine lines. These are likely to be the network of roads that crisscross Bangkok and its surrounding suburbs and fertile farmland. The narrow strip of land to the east of the Gulf of Thailand is the Malay Peninsula. The body of water to the left of the peninsula is the Gulf of Martaban, which borders Myanmar (Burma). At the far upper lefthand corner of the image, the water has turned light brown from

  12. Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Home to beautiful jungles, booming industry, and age-old temples, Southeast Asia has become a confluence of ancient and modern life. This true-color image of mainland Southeast Asia was acquired on November 30, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The body of water in the upper righthand corner of the image is the Gulf of Tonkin. East and southeast of the gulf are the dark green jungles of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. The light brown Mekong River winds its way through the center of the Cambodian jungle and into southern Vietnam. The dark blue patch to the left of the river at the bottom of the image is the Tonle Sap. Literally translated to mean 'Great Lake,' the Tonle Sap is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia. During the rainy season from May to October, the lake will more than double in size growing from its wintertime extent of 3,000 square kilometers to over 7,500 square kilometers. North of the lake, approximately in the center of the image, is a saucer-shaped patch of reddish brown land known as the Khorat Plateau. Situated 90 to 200 meters above sea level in eastern Thailand, the dry plateau is mostly covered with farmland and savanna-type grasses and shrubs. Moving south again, the large body of light blue water at the bottom central portion of the image is the Gulf of Thailand. By switching to the full resolution image (250 meters per pixel) and following the Gulf of Thailand to its northernmost extent, one can see a pinkish beige patch of terrain covered by a faint latticework of fine lines. These are likely to be the network of roads that crisscross Bangkok and its surrounding suburbs and fertile farmland. The narrow strip of land to the east of the Gulf of Thailand is the Malay Peninsula. The body of water to the left of the peninsula is the Gulf of Martaban, which borders Myanmar (Burma). At the far upper lefthand corner of the image, the water has turned light brown from

  13. Intercontinental trans-boundary contributions to ozone-induced crop yield losses in the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollaway, M. J.; Arnold, S. R.; Challinor, A. J.; Emberson, L. D.

    2011-08-01

    Enhanced surface ozone concentrations are known to be harmful to vegetation, reducing crop growth and yields. Tropospheric ozone concentrations have increased steadily since pre-industrial times, driven by in-situ production from anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), CO and volatile organic compounds. Transport of ozone and its precursors between continents has been shown to contribute to surface ozone air quality exceedences in many regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Using a global atmospheric chemistry model, we have quantified for the first time, intercontinental contributions to crop ozone exposure and yield reduction in the Northern Hemisphere. We apply three metrics (AOT40/M7/M12) to assess the impacts of NOx emissions from each of the Northern Hemispheres three major industrialised regions (North (N) America, South East (SE) Asia and Europe) on global and regional exposure of 6 major agricultural crop types to harmful ozone concentrations, and the resultant yield losses during the 2000 growing season. Using these metrics, model calculations show that for wheat, rice, cotton and potato, 100 % reductions in SE Asian anthropogenic NOx emissions tend to produce the greatest global reduction in crop yield losses (48.8 to 94.7 %) with the same cuts to N American emissions resulting in the greatest global impact on crop yield reductions for maize and soybean (57.5 to 81.7 %). N American NOx emissions produce the largest transboundary impact, resulting in European yield loss reductions of between 12.4 % and 55.6 %, when a 100 % cut is applied to NOx emissions from the N American region. European NOx emissions tend to produce a smaller transboundary impact, due to inefficiency of transport from the European domain. The threshold nature of the AOT40 ozone-exposure metric, results in a strong dependence of the diagnosed impact from trans-boundary emissions on local ozone concentration. In addition, we find that in parts of the United States, biomass

  14. Transboundary movement of hazardous wastes into Lebanon: Part 2. Environmental impacts and the need for remedial actions.

    PubMed

    Jurdi, Mey

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the transboundary movement of hazardous wastes (the "silent trade") into Lebanon in terms of environmental impacts and remedial actions. It highlights the projected impacts on potable-water quality, the exposure of the groundwater aquifer, and the status of quality control programs. The public responses to these problems are presented and characterized in terms of mistrust and rejection. The constraints developing countries face in handling environmental impacts and undertaking remedial actions are emphasized. The vision derived from the decade covered (1990-2000) emphasizes the need for international collaboration, through Basel Convention efforts, to control the transboundary movement of hazardous wastes and the disposal of such wastes. The need for "global harmonization" should be given serious consideration.

  15. Daily and hourly chemical impact of springtime transboundary aerosols on Japanese air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, T.; Kojima, T.; Amato, F.; Lucarelli, F.; de la Rosa, J.; Calzolai, G.; Nava, S.; Chiari, M.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Gibbons, W.

    2013-02-01

    The regular eastward drift of transboundary aerosol intrusions from the Asian mainland into the NW Pacific region has a pervasive impact on air quality in Japan, especially during springtime. Analysis of 24-h filter samples with Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), and hourly Streaker with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) samples collected continuously for six weeks reveal the chemistry of successive waves of natural mineral desert dust ("Kosa") and metalliferous sulphatic pollutants arriving in western Japan during spring 2011. The main aerosol sources recognised by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of Streaker data are mineral dust and fresh sea salt (both mostly in the coarser fraction PM2.5-10), As-bearing sulphatic aerosol (PM0.1-2.5), metalliferous sodic particulate matter (PM) interpreted as aged, industrially contaminated marine aerosol, and ZnCu-bearing aerosols. Whereas mineral dust arrivals are typically highly transient, peaking over a few hours, sulphatic intrusions build up and decline more slowly, and are accompanied by notable rises in ambient concentrations of metallic trace elements such as Pb, As, Zn, Sn and Cd. The magnitude of the loss in regional air quality due to the spread and persistence of pollution from mainland Asia is especially clear when cleansing oceanic air advects westward across Japan, removing the continental influence and reducing concentrations of the undesirable metalliferous pollutants by over 90%. Our new chemical database, especially the Streaker data, demonstrates the rapidly changing complexity of ambient air inhaled during these transboundary events, and implicates Chinese coal combustion as the main source of the anthropogenic aerosol component.

  16. Transboundary Climate Change Effects on the Hydrologic Regime in the Rio Conchos Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinney, D.; Ingol-Blanco, E.

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents results of research to assess potential effects of climate change on the hydrology and water resources in the Rio Conchos basin, with special emphasis on impacts on the transboundary water treaty signed between the US and Mexico in 1944. The Rio Conchos watershed, the main tributary of the lower portion of the bi-national Rio Grande/Bravo river basin, is located in Chihuahua state in northern Mexico. It has a surface drainage of 67,800 km2, with a river length of 750 km. One of the problems most relevant to the study basin is the frequent occurrence of long drought periods such as those that occurred in 1950s, 1960s, and the most recent from 1992 to 2002. Coupled with increased water demand and low irrigation efficiencies means that competition for water resources is high on both sides of the border. Furthermore, this hydrological behavior has contributed to the difficulty of Mexico meeting the treaty requirements, and accumulating substantial water deficits as a result. These facts have motivated this research, whose main objectives are: 1) develop a model of the hydrological behavior of the Rio Conchos basin; 2) downscale climate data for the basin from General Circulation Models (GCMs) for climate change emission scenarios; 3) simulate the basin under the climate change scenarios; 4) assess climate change impacts on hydrology and water resources in the basin; and 5) simulate and evaluate water management scenarios that may help to mitigate the climate change effects in the next decades. A methodology is proposed that includes hydrologic and water allocation modeling, downscaling, simulation, and evaluation of climate change impacts on the transboundary treaty and some water management strategies to mitigate negative effects of climate change.

  17. Evaluation of transboundary environmental issues in Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, D.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A.; Meganck, R.A.; Garrison, J.G.; Glicken, J.; Hostetler, C.J.; Lawrence, S.

    1997-05-01

    Central Europe has experienced environmental degradation for hundreds of years. The proximity of countries, their shared resources, and transboundary movement of environmental pollution, create the potential for regional environmental strife. The goal of this project was to identify the sources and sinks of environmental pollution in Central Europe and evaluate the possible impact of transboundary movement of pollution on the countries of Central Europe. In meeting the objectives of identifying sources of contaminants, determining transboundary movement of contaminants, and assessing socio-economic implications, large quantities of disparate data were examined. To facilitate use of the data, the authors refined mapping procedures that enable processing information from virtually any map or spreadsheet data that can be geo-referenced. Because the procedure is freed from a priori constraints of scale that confound most Geographical Information Systems, they have the capacity to generate new projections and apply sophisticated statistical analyses to the data. The analysis indicates substantial environmental problems. While transboundary pollution issues may spawn conflict among the Central European countries and their neighbors, it appears that common environmental problems facing the entire region have had the effect of bringing the countries together, even though opportunities for deteriorating relationships may still arise.

  18. 40 CFR 761.99 - Other transboundary shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., through the United States (e.g., from Mexico to Canada, from Canada to Mexico). (c) PCB waste transported... of this subpart, the following transboundary shipments are not considered exports or imports: (a) PCB waste generated in the United States, transported outside the Customs Territory of the United...

  19. Climate change impacts on water availability: developing regional scenarios for agriculture of the Former Soviet Union countries of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilenko, A.; Dronin, N.

    2010-12-01

    Water is the major factor, limiting agriculture of the five Former Soviet Union (FSU) of Central Asia. Elevated topography prevents moist and warm air from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans from entering the region.With exception of Kazakhstan, agriculture is generally restricted to oases and irrigated lands along the major rivers and canals. Availability of water for irrigation is the major factor constraining agriculture in the region, and conflicts over water are not infrequent. The current water crisis in the region is largely due to human activity; however the region is also strongly impacted by the climate. In multiple locations, planned and autonomous adaptations to climate change have already resulted in changes in agriculture, such as a dramatic increase in irrigation, or shift in crops towards the ones better suited for warmer and dryer climate; however, it is hard to differentiate between the effects of overall management improvement and the avoidance of climate-related losses. Climate change will contribute to water problems, escalating irrigation demand during the drought period, and increasing water loss with evaporation. The future of the countries of the Aral Sea basin then depends on both the regional scenario of water management policy and a global scenario of climate change, and is integrated with global socioeconomic scenarios. We formulate a set of regional policy scenarios (“Business as Usual”, “Falling Behind” and “Closing the Gap”) and demonstrate how each of them corresponds to IPCC SRES scenarios, the latter used as an input to the General Circulation Models (GCMs). Then we discuss the relative effectiveness of the introduced scenarios for mitigating water problems in the region, taking into account the adaptation through changing water demand for agriculture. Finally, we introduce the results of multimodel analysis of GCM climate projections, especially in relation to the change in precipitation and frequency of droughts, and

  20. Future of water resources in the Aral Sea Region, Central Asia - Reality-checked climate model projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asokan, Shilpa M.; Destouni, Georgia

    2014-05-01

    The future of water resources in a region invariably depends on its historic as well as present water use management policy. In order to understand the past hydro-climatic conditions and changes, one needs to analyze observation data and their implications for climate and hydrology, such as Temperature, Precipitation, Runoff and Evapotranspiration in the region. In addition to the changes in climate, human re-distribution of water through land- and water­use changes is found to significantly alter the water transfer from land to atmosphere through an increase or decrease in evapotranspiration. The Aral region in Central Asia, comprising the Aral Sea Drainage Basin and the Aral Sea, is an example case where the human induced changes in water-use have led to one of the worst environmental disasters of our time, the desiccation of the Aral Sea. Identification of the historical hydro-climatic changes that have happened in this region and their drivers is required before one can project future changes to water and its availability in the landscape. Knowledge of the future of water resources in the Aral region is needed for planning to meet increasing water and food demands of the growing population in conjunction with ecosystem sustainability. In order to project future scenarios of water on land, the Global Climate Model (GCM) ensemble of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) was analyzed for their performance against hydrologically important, basin-scale observational climate and hydrological datasets. We found that the ensemble mean of 22 GCMs over-estimated the observed temperature by about 1°C for the historic period of 1961-1990. For the future extreme climate scenario RCP8.5 the increase in temperature was projected to be about 5°C by 2070-2099, the accuracy of which is questionable from identified biases of GCMs and their ensemble results compared with observations for the period 1961-1990. In particular, the water balance components

  1. Lead isotope ratios in six lake sediment cores from Japan Archipelago: Historical record of trans-boundary pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Hosono, Takahiro; Alvarez, Kelly; Kuwae, Michinobu

    2016-07-15

    Sediment cores from six lakes situated from north to south on the Japanese Archipelago were collected during 2009-2010 to investigate the hypothesis that deposition of lead (Pb) was coming from East Asia (including China, South Korea and eastern part of Russia). Accumulation rates and ages of the lake sediment were estimated by the (210)Pb constant rate of supply model and (137)Cs inputs to reconstruct the historical trends of Pb accumulation. Cores from four lakes located in the north and central Japan, showed clear evidence of Pb pollution with a change in the (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb ratios in the recent sediment as compared to the deeper sediment. Among the six studied lakes, significant inputs of anthropogenic lead emissions were observed at Lake Mikazuki (north Hokkaido in north Japan), Lake Chokai (north of Honshu), and Lake Mikuriga (central part of Honshu). Pb isotopic comparison of collected core sediment and previously reported data for wet precipitation and aerosols from different Asian regions indicate that, before 1900, Pb accumulated in these three lakes was not affected by trans-boundary sources. Lake Mikazuki started to receive Pb emissions from Russia in early 1900s, and during the last two decades, this lake has been affected by trans-boundary Pb pollution from northern China. Lake Chokai has received Pb pollutant from northern China since early 1900s until 2009, whereas for the Lake Mikuriga the major Pb contaminant was transported from southern China during the past 100years. The results of our study demonstrate that Japan Archipelago has received trans-boundary Pb emissions from different parts of East Asian region depending on location, and the major source region has changed historically. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Mahomet aquifer: A transboundary resource in east-central Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.R.; Mehnert, E.; Herzog, B.L.

    2003-01-01

    Emerging intrastate transboundary issues focus on use of the Mahomet aquifer, which underlies about fifteen counties and many other political entities in east-central Illinois. This sand and gravel aquifer in the lower part of the buried Mahomet Bedrock Valley ranges between four and fourteen miles wide and from about 50 to 200 feet thick. Much of the region's rural population, several large communities, and many small towns obtain water from the Mahomet aquifer, as do industrial, agricultural, and commercial users. Increased development of the Mahomet aquifer to meet growing demands for water has caused conflicts over real or perceived adverse effects. One result has been the creation of fifteen resource protection zones and twelve water authorities. For groundwater supplies, resource protection zones help municipalities protect water-supply wells from potential adverse impacts. Many resource protection zones overlap one another, however, so this situation could lead to disputes over use of the resource. The reason that several of the twelve water authorities were organized was to meet a challenge perceived from a demand to be placed on the aquifer, in other words, a potential for conflict of use. Complicating the situation is that some of the water authorities overlap the resource protection zones. This could lead to disputes not only about water use, but also over which jurisdiction has the authority to settle a dispute. The Mahomet Aquifer Consortium was recently organized by concerned people representing diverse groundwater interests at the local level, including the private sector, professional organizations, and various governmental units. The consortium brings together representatives of some groups that typically did not communicate with each other in the past. The consortium may provide a forum through which emerging transboundary issues pertaining to use of the Mahomet aquifer can be addressed. Because the consortium is a voluntary organization that

  3. Modelling climate change impacts on the seasonality of water resources in the Upper Ca River Watershed in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Giang, Pham Quy; Toshiki, Kosuke; Sakata, Masahiro; Kunikane, Shoichi; Vinh, Tran Quoc

    2014-01-01

    The impact of climate change on the seasonality of water resources in the Upper Ca River Watershed in mainland Southeast Asia was assessed using downscaled global climate models coupled with the SWAT model. The results indicated that temperature and evapotranspiration will increase in all months of future years. The area could warm as much as 3.4(°)C in the 2090 s, with an increase of annual evapotranspiration of up to 23% in the same period. We found an increase in the seasonality of precipitation (both an increase in the wet season and a decrease in the dry season). The greatest monthly increase of up to 29% and the greatest monthly decrease of up to 30% are expected in the 2090 s. As a result, decreases in dry season discharge and increases in wet season discharge are expected, with a span of ± 25% for the highest monthly changes in the 2090 s. This is expected to exacerbate the problem of seasonally uneven distribution of water resources: a large volume of water in the wet season and a scarcity of water in the dry season, a pattern that indicates the possibility of more frequent floods in the wet season and droughts in the dry season.

  4. Modelling Climate Change Impacts on the Seasonality of Water Resources in the Upper Ca River Watershed in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Giang, Pham Quy; Sakata, Masahiro; Vinh, Tran Quoc

    2014-01-01

    The impact of climate change on the seasonality of water resources in the Upper Ca River Watershed in mainland Southeast Asia was assessed using downscaled global climate models coupled with the SWAT model. The results indicated that temperature and evapotranspiration will increase in all months of future years. The area could warm as much as 3.4°C in the 2090s, with an increase of annual evapotranspiration of up to 23% in the same period. We found an increase in the seasonality of precipitation (both an increase in the wet season and a decrease in the dry season). The greatest monthly increase of up to 29% and the greatest monthly decrease of up to 30% are expected in the 2090s. As a result, decreases in dry season discharge and increases in wet season discharge are expected, with a span of ±25% for the highest monthly changes in the 2090s. This is expected to exacerbate the problem of seasonally uneven distribution of water resources: a large volume of water in the wet season and a scarcity of water in the dry season, a pattern that indicates the possibility of more frequent floods in the wet season and droughts in the dry season. PMID:25243206

  5. Hydrogeology of a Transboundary Sandstone Aquifer, Quebec - New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastev, M.; Lamontagne, C.; Morin, R.; Williams, J.; Lavigne, M.; Croteau, A.; Tremblay, T.; Godin, R.; Dagenais, M.; Rouleau, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Potsdam sandstone aquifer of Cambrian age straddles southern Quebec and northern New York in a region known for its abundant and good quality groundwater, a resource that recently has been coveted by several bottling companies. The potential conflicts and concerns of the mainly rural and groundwater dependent population about the possible overuse of this resource has led the Quebec Ministry of Environment, Geological Survey of Canada and the U. S. Geological Survey to jointly carry out a transboundary hydrogeological study of the Potsdam sandstone aquifer. The Potsdam sandstone aquifer consists of a lower unit of arkose and conglomerate and an upper unit of well-cemented quartz arenite. The thickness of the regional aquifer ranges from nil at the base of Adirondacks to more than 500 m near the St. Lawrence River. Glacial till, littoral sand and gravel, and marine silt and clay discontinuously overlie the aquifer. The aquifer's water budget is characterized by low rates of surface runoff and high rates of infiltration and sub-surface runoff. Major recharge areas are present at higher altitudes near and to the south of the border. Strong downward hydraulic gradients in these areas result in cascading water and water-level depths of more than 30 m in deep wells. Bedding in the Potsdam sandstone is gently dipping with fractures along sub-horizontal bedding planes forming major flow conduits. Bedrock folds and faults, mainly developed by east-west compression during the Appalachian orogenies, locally complicates aquifer geometry and groundwater flow. Hydraulic tests (pump, slug, flowmeter and straddle packer) indicate similar horizontal transmissivities in the lower and upper aquifer units. However, differences in lithology and structure of the aquifer units impose some apparent differences in hydraulic properties and groundwater flow patterns. In the lower unit, regional flow appears to be sustained by a limited number of laterally extensive bedding-plane fractures

  6. Colored dissolved organic matter dynamics and anthropogenic influences in a major transboundary river and its coastal wetland

    PubMed Central

    Zeri, Christina; Dimitriou, Elias; Ding, Yan; Jaffé, Rudolf; Anagnostou, Emmanouil; Pitta, Elli; Mentzafou, Angeliki

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Most transboundary rivers and their wetlands are subject to considerable anthropogenic pressures associated with multiple and often conflicting uses. In the Eastern Mediterranean such systems are also particularly vulnerable to climate change, posing additional challenges for integrated water resources management. Comprehensive measurements of the optical signature of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were combined with measurements of river discharges and water physicochemical and biogeochemical properties, to assess carbon dynamics, water quality, and anthropogenic influences in a major transboundary system of the Eastern Mediterranean, the Evros (or, Марица or, Meriç) river and its Ramsar protected coastal wetland. Measurements were performed over three years, in seasons characterized by different hydrologic conditions and along transects extending more than 70 km from the freshwater end‐member to two kilometers offshore in the Aegean Sea. Changes in precipitation, anthropogenic dissolved organic matter (DOM) inputs from the polluted Ergene tributary, and the irregular operation of a dam were key factors driving water quality, salinity regimes, and biogeochemical properties in the Evros delta and coastal waters. Marsh outwelling affected coastal carbon quality, but the influence of wetlands was often masked by anthropogenic DOM contributions. A distinctive five‐peak CDOM fluorescence signature was characteristic of upstream anthropogenic inputs and clearly tracked the influence of freshwater discharges on water quality. Monitoring of this CDOM fluorescence footprint could have direct applications to programs focusing on water quality and environmental assessment in this and other transboundary rivers where management of water resources remains largely ineffective. PMID:27656002

  7. Science for informed decision: A 3D unified conceptual model of the Milk River Transboundary Aquifer (Alberta-Montana)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, A.; Pétré, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Milk River transboundary aquifer straddles southern Alberta (Canada) and northern Montana (United States), in a semi-arid region considered water short. This confined sandstone aquifer is a source for municipal supply and agricultural uses on the Canadian side, as well as for secondary oil recovery on the US-side of the border. The extensive use of this resource since the mid 1950's has led to a dramatic drop in the water level in some places and concerns about the durability of the resource have risen. The Milk River aquifer has been the object of many studies during the 20th century; however most of them were limited by the USCanada border, preventing a sound understanding of the global dynamics of the aquifer. The objectives of this transboundary study are to better understand the dynamics of the Milk River aquifer, following its natural limits, in order to make recommendations for a sustainable management and its good governance by the two international jurisdictions, as recommended in the UNGA resolution 63/124 on the Law of Transboundary Aquifers. Since 2009, the Milk River transboundary aquifer is part of the inventory of UNESCO ISARM-Americas initiative, which encourages riparian states to work cooperatively toward mutually beneficial and sustainable aquifer development However, the use of this shared resource is not ruled by any international agreement or convention between the USA and the Canada. Stakeholders from the two countries have been involved, at various levels of jurisdictions (municipal, provincial, state, federal) to establish a strong cooperation. In these contexts, models can constitute useful tools for informed decisions. In the case of the Milk River aquifer, models could support scientists and managers from both countries in avoiding potential tensions linked to the water shortage context in this region. Models can determine the conditions of overexploitation and provide an assessment of a sustainable yield. A unified conceptual model

  8. Ebola: Facing a New Transboundary Animal Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Feldmann, F.; Feldmann, H.

    2016-01-01

    Ebola viruses are zoonotic pathogens with the potential of causing severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. Bats have been identified as a reservoir for Ebola viruses but it remains unclear if transmission to an end host involves intermediate hosts. Recently, one of the Ebola species has been found in Philippine pigs raising concerns regarding animal health and food safety. Diagnostics have so far focused on human application, but enhanced pig surveillance and diagnostics, particularly in Asia, for Ebola virus infections seem to be needed to establish reasonable guidelines for public and animal health and food safety. Livestock vaccination against Ebola seems currently not justified but proper preparedness may include experimental vaccine approaches. PMID:23689898

  9. Seeing beyond borders: a game theoretic approach to anticipate the effect of satellite monitoring data on transboundary freshwater allocation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, M. F.; Gorelick, S.; Muller-Itten, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The allocation of transboundary freshwater resources is a ubiquitous challenge with direct repercussions on the political stability of the concerned region. Under the right conditions, the need to share scarce water resources can act as a catalyst for dialogue between otherwise hostile neighbors. Yet the strategic reluctance of the involved parties to share water diversion and use data remains a major barrier that raises the probability of conflict. In that context, high-quality satellite data are progressively available to monitor water resources beyond political boundaries. These datasets have an increasing role to play in the allocation of shared waters. We develop a game theoretical framework to predict their effect on transboundary water negotiations. We consider repetitions of a game between two countries that have a water allocation agreement for transboundary river flow. The upstream country can observe the available flow in any given year and decide whether or not to provide her neighbor with the agreed upon river discharge. The downstream country cannot observe the initially available flow. He only observes the water allocated provided by his upstream neighbor and can take actions to impose a sanction on her if he can confidently determine that the agreement has been breached. In that context, satellite monitoring data will affect the informational advantage of the upstream country and increase her probability of either abiding by the agreement or being caught when breaching it. We find that the informed equilibrium will produce a lower probability of conflict, but changes in both players' positions regarding equitable allocation may destabilize the existing agreement in the short term.

  10. Water uptake depth analyses using stable water isotopes in rice-based cropping systems in Southeastern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahindawansha, Amani; Kraft, Philipp; Orlowski, Natalie; Racela, Healthcliff S. U.; Breuer, Lutz

    2017-04-01

    Rice is one of the most water-consuming crop in the world. Understanding water source utilization of rice-based cropping systems will help to improve water use efficiency (WUE) in paddy management. The objectives of our study were to (1) determine the contributions of various water sources to plant growth in diversified rice-based production systems (wet rice, aerobic rice) (2) investigate water uptake depths at different maturity periods during wet and dry conditions, and (3) calculate WUE of the cropping systems. Our field experiment is based on changes of stable water isotope concentrations in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum due to transpiration and evaporation. Soil samples were collected together with root sampling from nine different depths under vegetative, reproductive, and matured periods of plant growth together with stem samples. Soil and plant samples were extracted by cryogenic vacuum extraction. Groundwater, surface water, rain, and irrigation water were sampled weekly. All water samples were analyzed for hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios (δ2H and δ18O) via a laser spectroscope (Los Gatos DLT100). The direct inference approach, which is based on comparing isotopic compositions between plant stem water and soil water, were used to determine water sources taken up by plant. Multiple-source mass balance assessment can provide the estimated range of potential contributions of water from each soil depth to root water uptake of a crop. These estimations were used to determine the proportion of water from upper soil horizons and deep horizons for rice in different maturity periods during wet and dry seasons. Shallow soil water has the higher evaporation than from deeper soil water where the highest evaporation effect is at 5 cm depth (drying front). Water uptake is mostly taking place from surface water in the vegetative and between 5-10 cm in the reproductive period, since roots have grown widely and deeper in the reproductive stage. This will be

  11. Airborne Sunphotometer Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth and Water Vapor in ACE-Asia and Their Comparisons to Correlative Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J.; Russell, P.; Hegg, D.; Wang, J.; Kahn, R.; Hsu, C.; Masonis, S.; Murayama, T.; hide

    2002-01-01

    In the Spring 2001 phase of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), the 6-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) operated on 15 of the 19 research flights of the NCAR C-130, while its 14-channel counterpart (AATS-14) flew successfully on all 19 research flights of the CIRPAS Twin Otter. ACE-Asia studied aerosol outflow from the Asian continent to the Pacific basin. It was designed to integrate suborbital and satellite measurements and models to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosols. AATS-6 and AATS-14 measured solar beam transmission at six and 14 wavelengths (380-1021 and 354-1558 nm, respectively), yielding aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra and columnar water vapor (CWV). Vertical differentiation in profiles yielded aerosol extinction spectra and water vapor concentration. In this paper, we plan to present examples of the following, preliminary findings that are based in part on our airborne sunphotometer measurements: (1) The wavelength dependence of sunphotometer-derived AOD and extinction indicates that supermicron dust was often a major component of the aerosol, frequently extending to high altitudes. The percentage of full-column AOD (525 nm) that Jay above 3 km was typically 34+/-13%. In contrast, the analogous percentage of columnar water vapor was only 10+/-4%; (2) Initial comparison studies between AOD data obtained by AATS-6 and AATS-14 during coordinated low-level flight legs show agreement well within the instruments' error bars; (3) Aerosol extinction has been derived from airborne in situ measurements of scattering (nephelometers) and absorption (particle soot/ absorption photometer, PSAP) or calculated from particle size distribution measurements (mobility analyzers and aerodynamic particle sizers). Comparison with corresponding extinction values derived from the Ames airborne sunphotometer measurements shows good agreement for the vertical distribution

  12. Central Asia Environmental Security Technical Workshop: Responding to the CENTCOM Vision

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R

    2002-08-01

    Environmental security is not formally classified as a ''vital mission'' in the USCENTCOM ranking of priorities in its area of responsibility. Rather, it is ranked as an ''other/important'' mission in Central Asia, thereby supporting the war making efforts in the region by improving stability of the regimes in the region. Environmental security is, however, the USCENTCOM primary mechanism for engagement in the region. USCENTCOM sees environmental issues as among the most destabilizing issues in the region; anything that can be done to ameliorate them, works to enhance stability. By environmental issues, USCENTCOM includes: water access, quality, and control, transboundary resource competition, migration of pollutants, land use, public health/HIV/Famine, and industrial pollution. Objectives of USCENTCOM work in Central Asia are: improving resource use, disaster response, international cooperation, and civil-military cooperation, particularly with the local military and between the local civilians and the U.S. military. Activities to date include assistance, education, and military-to-military contacts, bilateral and multilateral conferences on the issues, and interagency coordination in the region. The Comprehensive Threat Reduction program has been the backbone of its Central Asian funding.

  13. Optimizing water management practices for enhancing rice production and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in Asia: The food-water-climate nexus approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Tian, H.; Lu, C.; Yang, J.; Ren, W.

    2015-12-01

    Rice fields, supporting over half of the global population, consumed around 30% of the freshwater used for global crop growth and identified as one of the major methane (CH4) sources. Asia, in where 90% of rice is consumed, took over 90% of the total CH4 emission from the global rice field. With the increasing water scarcity and rapidly growth population, it is urgent to address how to simultaneously maintain or even increase food production, reduce water consumption, and benefit climate. In this study, we used a process-based model (Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model), which has the capability to simultaneously simulate the carbon, water, and nitrogen fluxes and storages within the terrestrial ecosystem, and also the exchanges of greenhouse gases between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, to quantify the magnitude, spatial and temporal variation of rice production and CH4 emissions under different water management practices. Simulated results have been evaluated against field observations, inventory-based and atmospheric inversion estimates. By implementing a set of experimental simulations, the results could provide insights for reasonable implementation of optimum water management practices, which is also crucial for policy maker to make trade-off decisions to increase yield and reduce GHG emissions through effective mitigation strategies.

  14. Tropical organic soils ecosystems in relation to regional water resources in southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Armentano, T. V.

    1982-01-01

    Tropical organic soils have functioned as natural sinks for carbon, nitrogen, slfur and other nutrients for the past 4000 years or more. Topographic evolution in peat swamp forests towards greater oligotrophy has concentrated storage of the limited nutrient stock in surface soils and biota. Tropical peat systems thus share common ecosystem characteristics with northern peat bogs and certain tropical oligotrophic forests. Organic matter accumulation and high cation-exchange-capacity limit nutrient exports from undisturbed organic soils, although nutrient retention declines with increasing eutrophy and wetland productivity. Peat swamps are subject to irreversible degradation if severely altered because disturbance of vegetation, surface peats and detritus can disrupt nuttrient cycles and reduce forest recovery capacity. Drainage also greatly increases exports of nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients and leads to downstream eutrophication and water quality degradation. Regional planning for clean water supplies must recognize the benefits provided by natural peatlands in balancing water supplies and regulating water chemistry.

  15. Satellite-Based Analysis of Evapotranspiration and Water Balance in the Grassland Ecosystems of Dryland East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jiangzhou; Liang, Shunlin; Chen, Jiquan; Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Li, Linghao; Cai, Wenwen; Zhang, Li; Fu, Yang; Zhao, Tianbao; Feng, Jinming; Ma, Zhuguo; Ma, Mingguo; Liu, Shaomin; Zhou, Guangsheng; Asanuma, Jun; Chen, Shiping; Du, Mingyuan; Davaa, Gombo; Kato, Tomomichi; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Suhong; Li, Shenggong; Shao, Changliang; Tang, Yanhong; Zhao, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    The regression tree method is used to upscale evapotranspiration (ET) measurements at eddy-covariance (EC) towers to the grassland ecosystems over the Dryland East Asia (DEA). The regression tree model was driven by satellite and meteorology datasets, and explained 82% and 76% of the variations of ET observations in the calibration and validation datasets, respectively. The annual ET estimates ranged from 222.6 to 269.1 mm yr−1 over the DEA region with an average of 245.8 mm yr−1 from 1982 through 2009. Ecosystem ET showed decreased trends over 61% of the DEA region during this period, especially in most regions of Mongolia and eastern Inner Mongolia due to decreased precipitation. The increased ET occurred primarily in the western and southern DEA region. Over the entire study area, water balance (the difference between precipitation and ecosystem ET) decreased substantially during the summer and growing season. Precipitation reduction was an important cause for the severe water deficits. The drying trend occurring in the grassland ecosystems of the DEA region can exert profound impacts on a variety of terrestrial ecosystem processes and functions. PMID:24845063

  16. Water, sanitation and hygiene: The unfinished agenda in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Indira; Bhattacharya, Animesh; Das, Saurabh K

    2017-09-01

    Access to adequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) is essential for the health, well-being and dignity of all people. The World Health Organization South-East Asia Region has made considerable progress in WASH provision during the past two decades. However, compared with increases in coverage of improved drinking water, in some parts of the region, access to adequate sanitation remains low, with continued prevalence of open defecation. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have set ambitious targets for WASH services to be achieved by 2030. Examples of major health outcomes that would benefit from meeting these targets are diarrhoea and nutrition status. Although the total number of deaths attributable to diarrhoea declined substantially between 1990 and 2012, inadequate WASH still accounts for more than 1000 child deaths each day worldwide. And, despite the reductions in mortality, diarrhoea morbidity attributable to diarrhoea remains unchanged at around 1.7 billion cases per year. It has been known for decades that repeated episodes of diarrhoea increase a child's risk of long-term undernutrition, reduced growth and impaired cognitive development. Nutritional effects of inadequate WASH also include environmental enteropathy, leading to chronic intestinal inflammation, malnutrition and developmental deficits in young children. Inadequate WASH also contributes to iron deficiency anaemia resulting from infestation with soil-transmitted helminths. The cross-sectoral emphasis of the SDGs should act as a stimulus for intersectoral collaboration on research and interventions to reduce all inequities that result from inadequate WASH.

  17. Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring contamination of persistent organochlorine compounds in coastal waters of Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Monirith, In; Ueno, Daisuke; Takahashi, Shin; Nakata, Haruhiko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Subramanian, Annamalai; Karuppiah, Subramanian; Ismail, Ahmad; Muchtar, Muswerry; Zheng, Jinshu; Richardson, Bruce J; Prudente, Maricar; Hue, Ngyen Duc; Tana, Touch Seang; Tkalin, Alexander V; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2003-03-01

    Contamination of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) were examined in mussels collected from coastal waters of Asian countries such as Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Far East Russia, Singapore, and Vietnam in 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2001 to elucidate the contamination status, distribution and possible pollution sources and to assess the risks on aquatic organisms and human. OCs were detected in all mussels collected from all the sampling sites investigated. Considerable residue levels of p,p(')-DDT and alpha-HCH were found in mussels and the concentrations of DDTs and HCHs found in mussels from Asian developing countries were higher than those in developed nations suggesting present usage of DDTs and HCHs along the coastal waters of Asian developing countries. On the other hand, lower concentrations of PCBs detected in mussels from Asian developing countries than those in developed countries indicate that PCBs contamination in mussels is strongly related to industrial and activities. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive report on monitoring OCs pollution in the Asia-Pacific region.

  18. Satellite-based analysis of evapotranspiration and water balance in the grassland ecosystems of Dryland East Asia.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jiangzhou; Liang, Shunlin; Chen, Jiquan; Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Li, Linghao; Cai, Wenwen; Zhang, Li; Fu, Yang; Zhao, Tianbao; Feng, Jinming; Ma, Zhuguo; Ma, Mingguo; Liu, Shaomin; Zhou, Guangsheng; Asanuma, Jun; Chen, Shiping; Du, Mingyuan; Davaa, Gombo; Kato, Tomomichi; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Suhong; Li, Shenggong; Shao, Changliang; Tang, Yanhong; Zhao, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    The regression tree method is used to upscale evapotranspiration (ET) measurements at eddy-covariance (EC) towers to the grassland ecosystems over the Dryland East Asia (DEA). The regression tree model was driven by satellite and meteorology datasets, and explained 82% and 76% of the variations of ET observations in the calibration and validation datasets, respectively. The annual ET estimates ranged from 222.6 to 269.1 mm yr(-1) over the DEA region with an average of 245.8 mm yr(-1) from 1982 through 2009. Ecosystem ET showed decreased trends over 61% of the DEA region during this period, especially in most regions of Mongolia and eastern Inner Mongolia due to decreased precipitation. The increased ET occurred primarily in the western and southern DEA region. Over the entire study area, water balance (the difference between precipitation and ecosystem ET) decreased substantially during the summer and growing season. Precipitation reduction was an important cause for the severe water deficits. The drying trend occurring in the grassland ecosystems of the DEA region can exert profound impacts on a variety of terrestrial ecosystem processes and functions.

  19. Estimation of water storage changes in small endorheic lakes in Burabay National Nature Park (Northern Kazakhstan, Central Asia); the effect of climate change and anthropogenic influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yapiyev, Vadim; Sagintayev, Zhanay; Verhoef, Anne; Samarkhanov, Kanat; Jumassultanova, Saltanat

    2017-04-01

    Both climate change and anthropogenic activities contribute to deterioration of terrestrial water resources and ecosystems worldwide. It has been observed in recent decades that water-limited steppe regions of Central Asia are among ecosystems found to exhibit enhanced responses to climate variability. In fact, the largest share of worldwide net loss of permanent water extent is geographically concentrated in the Central Asia and Middle East regions attributed to both climate variability/change and human activities impacts. We used a digital elevation model, digitized bathymetry maps and high resolution Landsat images to estimate the areal water cover extent and volumetric storage changes in small terminal lakes in Burabay National Nature Park (BNNP), located in Northern Central Asia, for the period 2000-2016. Based on the analysis of long-term climatic data from meteorological stations, hydrometeorological network observations as well as regional climate model projections we evaluate the impacts of past thirty years and future climatic conditions on the water balance of BNNP lake catchments. The anthropogenic water consumption was estimated based on data collected at a local water supply company and regulation authorities. One the one hand historical in-situ observations and future climate projections do not show a significant change in precipitation in BNNP. On the other hand both observations and the model demonstrate steadily rising air temperatures in the area. It is concluded that the long-term decline in water levels for most of these lakes can be largely attributed to climate change (but only via changes in air temperature, causing evaporation to exceed precipitation) and not to direct anthropogenic influences such as increased water withdrawals. In addition, the two largest lakes, showing the highest historical water level decline, do not have sufficient water drainage basin area to sustain water levels under increased evaporation rates.

  20. Helium Isotopes and Noble Gas Abundances of Cave Dripping Water in Three Caves in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A. T.; Shen, C. C.; Tan, M.; Li, T.; Uemura, R.; Asami, R.

    2015-12-01

    Paleo-temperature recorded in nature archives is a critical parameter to understand climate change in the past. With advantages of unique inert chemical characteristics and sensitive solubilities with temperature, dissolved noble gases in speleothem inclusion water were recently proposed to retrieve terrestrial temperature history. In order to accurately apply this newly-developed speleothem noble gas temperature (NGT) as a reliable proxy, a fundamental issue about behaviors of noble gases in the karst should be first clarified. In this study, we measured noble gas contents in air and dripping water to evaluate any ratio deviation between noble gases. Cave dripping water samples was collected from three selected caves, Shihua Cave in northern China, Furong Cave in southwestern, and Gyukusen Cave in an island located in the western Pacific. For these caves are characterized by a thorough mixing and long-term storage of waters in a karst aquifer by the absence of seasonal oxygen isotope shifts. Ratios of dripping water noble gases are statistically insignificant from air data. Helium isotopic ratios in the dripping water samples match air value. The results indicate that elemental and isotopic signatures of noble gases from air can be frankly preserved in the epikarst and support the fidelity of NGT techniques.

  1. Impact of biomass burning on ocean water quality in Southeast Asia through atmospheric deposition: eutrophication modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundarambal, P.; Tkalich, P.; Balasubramanian, R.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition of nutrients (N and P species) can intensify anthropogenic eutrophication of coastal waters. It was found that the atmospheric wet and dry depositions of nutrients was remarkable in the Southeast Asian region during the course of smoke haze events, as discussed in a companion paper on field observations (Sundarambal et al., 2010b). The importance of atmospheric deposition of nutrients in terms of their biological responses in the coastal waters of the Singapore region was investigated during hazy days in relation to non-hazy days. The influence of atmospherically-derived, bio-available nutrients (both inorganic and organic nitrogen and phosphorus species) on the coastal water quality between hazy and non-hazy days was studied. A numerical modeling approach was employed to provide qualitative and quantitative understanding of the relative importance of atmospheric and ocean nutrient fluxes in this region. A 3-D eutrophication model, NEUTRO, was used with enhanced features to simulate the spatial distribution and temporal variations of nutrients, plankton and dissolved oxygen due to atmospheric nutrient loadings. The percentage increase of the concentration of coastal water nutrients relative to the baseline due to atmospheric deposition was estimated between hazy and non-hazy days. Model computations showed that atmospheric deposition fluxes of nutrients might account for up to 17 to 88% and 4 to 24% of total mass of nitrite + nitrate-nitrogen in the water column, during hazy days and non-hazy days, respectively. The results obtained from the modeling study could be used for a better understanding of the energy flow in the coastal zone system, exploring various possible scenarios concerning the atmospheric deposition of nutrients onto the coastal zone and studying their impacts on water quality.

  2. Impacts of climate and land use change on ecosystem hydrology and net primary productivity: Linking water availability to food security in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangal, S. R. S.; Tian, H.; Pan, S.; Zhang, B.; Yang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The nexus approach to food, water and energy security in Asia is extremely important and relevant as the region has to feed two-third of the world's population and accounts for 59% of the global water consumption. The distribution pattern of food, water and energy resources have been shaped by the legacy effect of both natural and anthropogenic disturbances and therefore are vulnerable to climate change and human activities including land use/cover change (LUCC) and land management (irrigation and nitrogen fertilization). In this study, we used the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) to examine the effects of climate change, land use/cover change, and land management practices (irrigation and nitrogen fertilization) on the spatiotemporal trends and variability in water availability and its role in limiting net primary productivity (NPP) and food security in the 20th and early 21st centuries. Our specific objectives are to quantify how climate change, LUCC and other environmental changes have interactively affected carbon and water dynamics across the Asian region. In particular, we separated the Asian region into several sub-region based on the primary limiting factor - water, food and energy. We then quantified how changes in environmental factors have altered the water and food resources during the past century. We particularly focused on Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and water cycle (Evapotranspiration, discharge, and runoff) as a measure of available food and water resources, respectively while understanding the linkage between food and water resources in Asia.

  3. Water Productivity Mapping (WPM) Using Landsat ETM+ Data for the Irrigated Croplands of the Syrdarya River Basin in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Platonov, Alexander; Thenkabail, Prasad S; Biradar, Chandrashekhar M; Cai, Xueliang; Gumma, Muralikrishna; Dheeravath, Venkateswarlu; Cohen, Yafit; Alchanatis, Victor; Goldshlager, Naftali; Ben-Dor, Eyal; Vithanage, Jagath; Manthrithilake, Herath; Kendjabaev, Shavkat; Isaev, Sabirjan

    2008-12-10

    The overarching goal of this paper was to espouse methods and protocols for water productivity mapping (WPM) using high spatial resolution Landsat remote sensing data. In a world where land and water for agriculture are becoming increasingly scarce, growing "more crop per drop" (increasing water productivity) becomes crucial for food security of future generations. The study used time-series Landsat ETM+ data to produce WPMs of irrigated crops, with emphasis on cotton in the Galaba study area in the Syrdarya river basin of Central Asia. The WPM methods and protocols using remote sensing data consisted of: (1) crop productivity (ton/ha) maps (CPMs) involvingcrop type classification, crop yield and biophysical modeling, and extrapolating yield models to larger areas using remotely sensed data; (2) crop water use (m³/ha) maps (WUMs) (or actual seasonal evapotranspiration or actual ET) developed through Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model; and (3) water productivity (kg/m³) maps (WPMs) produced by dividing raster layers of CPMs by WUMs. The SSEB model calculated WUMs (actual ET) by multiplying the ET fractionby reference ET. The ETfraction was determined using Landsat thermal imagery by selecting the "hot" pixels (zero ET) and "cold" pixels (maximum ET). The grass reference ET was calculated by FAO Penman-Monteith method using meteorological data. The WPMs for the Galaba study area demonstrated a wide variations (0-0.54 kg/m³) in water productivity of cotton fields with overwhelming proportion (87%) of the area having WP less than 0.30 kg/m³, 11% of the area having WP in range of 0.30-0.36 kg/m³, and only 2% of the area with WP greater than 0.36 kg/m³. These results clearly imply that there are opportunities for significant WP increases in overwhelming proportion of the existing croplands. The areas of low WP are spatially pin-pointed and can be used as focus for WP improvements through better land and water management practices.

  4. Water Productivity Mapping (WPM) Using Landsat ETM+ Data for the Irrigated Croplands of the Syrdarya River Basin in Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Platonov, Alexander; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Biradar, Chandrashekhar M.; Cai, Xueliang; Gumma, Muralikrishna; Dheeravath, Venkateswarlu; Cohen, Yafit; Alchanatis, Victor; Goldshlager, Naftali; Ben-Dor, Eyal; Vithanage, Jagath; Manthrithilake, Herath; Kendjabaev, Shavkat; Isaev, Sabirjan

    2008-01-01

    The overarching goal of this paper was to espouse methods and protocols for water productivity mapping (WPM) using high spatial resolution Landsat remote sensing data. In a world where land and water for agriculture are becoming increasingly scarce, growing “more crop per drop” (increasing water productivity) becomes crucial for food security of future generations. The study used time-series Landsat ETM+ data to produce WPMs of irrigated crops, with emphasis on cotton in the Galaba study area in the Syrdarya river basin of Central Asia. The WPM methods and protocols using remote sensing data consisted of: (1) crop productivity (ton/ha) maps (CPMs) involving crop type classification, crop yield and biophysical modeling, and extrapolating yield models to larger areas using remotely sensed data; (2) crop water use (m3/ha) maps (WUMs) (or actual seasonal evapotranspiration or actual ET) developed through Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model; and (3) water productivity (kg/m3) maps (WPMs) produced by dividing raster layers of CPMs by WUMs. The SSEB model calculated WUMs (actual ET) by multiplying the ET fraction by reference ET. The ET fraction was determined using Landsat thermal imagery by selecting the “hot” pixels (zero ET) and “cold” pixels (maximum ET). The grass reference ET was calculated by FAO Penman-Monteith method using meteorological data. The WPMs for the Galaba study area demonstrated a wide variations (0-0.54 kg/m3) in water productivity of cotton fields with overwhelming proportion (87%) of the area having WP less than 0.30 kg/m3, 11% of the area having WP in range of 0.30-0.36 kg/m3, and only 2% of the area with WP greater than 0.36 kg/m3. These results clearly imply that there are opportunities for significant WP increases in overwhelming proportion of the existing croplands. The areas of low WP are spatially pin-pointed and can be used as focus for WP improvements through better land and water management practices. PMID:27873981

  5. Precipitation variability in High Mountain Asia from multiple datasets and implication for water balance analysis in large lake basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chunqiao; Huang, Bo; Ke, Linghong; Ye, Qinghua

    2016-10-01

    For the period 1979-2011, eight gridded monthly precipitation datasets, including GPCP, CMAP-1/2, TRMM, PREC/L, APHRODITE, NCEP-2 and ERA-Interim, are inter-compared with each other and station observations over High Mountain Asia (HMA). The precipitation variability from the first six gauge-based or merged analysis datasets agree better with each other than with the two reanalysis data. The long-term trend analysis of GPCP, CMAP-1, PREC/L and APHRODITE precipitation datasets consistently reveals moderate increases in the inner and northeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) and northwest Xinjiang, and obvious decreases in the southeast TP. However, in the Himalayas and Karakorum, there are large discrepancies among different datasets, where GPCP and APHRODITE precipitation datasets show significant decreases along the Himalayas while other datasets show strong spatial heterogeneity or slight variations. The larger uncertainties in the rugged area may be largely attributed to scarce station observations, as well as the stronger snow-induced scattering by microwave measurement. To assess which precipitation datasets tend to be more suitable for hydrologic analysis in HMA, we further investigate the accuracy of precipitation estimates at basin scale by comparing with gauge-based observations, and examine the coherences of annual lake water budgets and precipitation variability over four large closed lake catchments. The results indicate that two reanalysis precipitation datasets show evidently weaker correlations with station observations; the other six datasets perform better in indicating inter-annual variations of lake water budgets. It suggests that these merged analysis precipitation datasets, especially for GPCP, CMAP-1/2 and PREC/L, have the potential in examining regional water balances of the inner basins in HMA.

  6. Transboundary hazardous waste management. Part I: Waste management policy of importing countries.

    PubMed

    Fan, Kuo-Shuh; Chang, Tien Chin; Ni, Shih-Piao; Lee, Ching-Hwa

    2005-12-01

    Mixed metal-containing waste, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) containing capacitors, printed circuit boards, steel mill dust and metal sludge were among the most common wastes exported from Taiwan. Before the implementation of the self-monitoring model programme of the Basel Convention (secretariat of the Basel Convention 2001) in the Asia region, Taiwan conducted a comprehensive 4-year follow-up project involving government authorities and the waste disposal facilities of the importing countries. A total of five countries and nine plants were visited in 2001-2002. The following outcomes can be drawn from these investigations. The Chinese government adopts the strategies of 'on-site processing' and 'relative centralization' on the waste management by tightening permitting and increasing site inspection. A three-level reviewing system is adopted for the import application. The United States have not signed the Basel Convention yet; the procedures of hazardous waste import rely on bilateral agreements. Importers are not required to provide official notification from the waste exporting countries. The operation, administration, monitoring and licensing of waste treatment plants are governed by the state environmental bureau. Finland, France and Belgium are members of the European Union. The procedures and policies of waste import are similar. All of the documents associated with transboundary movement require the approval of each government involved. Practically, the notification forms and tracking forms effectively manage the waste movement.

  7. Report: transboundary hazardous waste management. part II: performance auditing of treatment facilities in importing countries.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tien-Chin; Ni, Shih-Piao; Fan, Kuo-Shuh; Lee, Ching-Hwa

    2006-06-01

    Before implementing the self-monitoring model programme of the Basel Convention in the Asia, Taiwan has conducted a comprehensive 4-year follow-up project to visit the governmental authorities and waste-disposal facilities in the countries that import waste from Taiwan. A total of nine treatment facilities, six of which are reported in this paper, and the five countries where the plants are located were visited in 2001-2002. France, Belgium and Finland primarily handled polychlorinated biphenyl capacitors, steel mill dust and metal waste. The United States accepted metal sludge, mainly electroplating sludge, from Taiwan. Waste printed circuit boards, waste wires and cables, and a mixture of waste metals and electronics were the major items exported to China. Relatively speaking, most treatment plants for hazardous waste paid close attention to environmental management, such as pollution control and monitoring, site zoning, system management regarding occupational safety and hygiene, data management, permits application, and image promotion. Under the tight restrictions formulated by the central environment agency, waste treatment plants in China managed the environmental issues seriously. For example, one of the treatment plants had ISO 14001 certification. It is believed that with continuous implementation of regulations, more improvement is foreseeable. Meanwhile, Taiwan and China should also continuously enhance their collaboration regarding the transboundary management of hazardous waste.

  8. Space-based monitoring of land-use/land-cover in the Upper Rio Grande Basin: An opportunity for understanding urbanization trends in a water-scarce transboundary river basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubako, S. T.; Hargrove, W. L.; Heyman, J. M.; Reyes, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Urbanization is an area of growing interest in assessing the impact of human activities on water resources in arid regions. Remote sensing techniques provide an opportunity to analyze land cover change over time, and are useful in monitoring areas undergoing rapid urban growth. This case study for the water-scarce Upper Rio Grande River Basin uses a supervised classification algorithm to quantify the rate and evaluate the pattern of urban sprawl. A focus is made on the fast growing El-Paso-Juarez metropolitan area on the US-Mexico border and the City of Las Cruces in New Mexico, areas where environmental challenges and loss of agricultural and native land to urban development are major concerns. Preliminary results show that the land cover is dominantly native with some significant agriculture along the Rio Grande River valley. Urban development across the whole study area expanded from just under 3 percent in 1990, to more than 11 percent in 2015. The urban expansion is occurring mainly around the major urban areas of El Paso, Ciudad Juarez, and Las Cruces, although there is visible growth of smaller urban settlements scattered along the Rio Grande River valley during the same analysis period. The proportion of native land cover fluctuates slightly depending on how much land is under crops each analysis year, but there is a decreasing agricultural land cover trend suggesting that land from this sector is being lost to urban development. This analysis can be useful in planning to protect the environment, preparing for growth in infrastructure such as schools, increased traffic demands, and monitoring availability of resources such as groundwater as the urban population grows.

  9. Pathogenic landscape of transboundary zoonotic diseases in the Mexico-U.S. border along the Rio Grande

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and inc...

  10. Statistical Analyses of d18O in Meteoric Waters From the Western US and East Asia: Implications for Paleoaltimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechler, A. R.; Niemi, N. A.

    2008-12-01

    Questions on the timing of Tibetan Plateau uplift and its associated influence on the development of the Indian and Asian monsoons are best addressed through accurate determinations of regional paleoelevation. Previous determinations of paleoaltimetry utilized the stable isotopic composition of paleo-meteoric waters as recorded in various proxies (authigenic minerals, fossils, etc.), in combination with empirically and model determined elevation isotopic lapse rates. However, the applicability of these lapse rates, derived principally from orogenic settings, to high continental plateaus remains uncertain. Our research aims to gain a better understanding of the potential controls on the δ18O composition of meteoric waters over continental plateaus through a principal component analysis (PCA) of modern waters from eastern Asia and the western US. In particular, we investigate how various environmental parameters (elevation, latitude, longitude, MAP, and MAT) influence the δ18O composition of these waters. First, these analyses reveal that elevation and latitude are the primary controls on isotopic composition in all regions investigated, as expected. Second, PCA results yield elevation lapse rates from orogenic settings (i.e. Sierra Nevada, Himalaya) of ~ -3‰/km, in strong agreement with both empirical and Rayleigh distillation model derived lapse rates. The Great Plains of the US, although not an orogenic setting, represents a monotonic topographic rise, and is also characterized by a ~ -3‰/km lapse rate. In high, arid plateau regions (Basin and Range, Tibet), however, elevation lapse rates are ~ -1.5‰/km, half that of orogenic settings. An empirically derived lapse rate from small source area springs collected over a 2 km elevation change from a single mountain range in the Basin and Range yields an identical rate. One clue as to the source of this lowered lapse rate is eastern China, which also displays an elevation lapse rate of ~ -1.5‰/km, despite

  11. Transboundary Groundwater Body Karavanke/Karawanken Between Austria and Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brencic, M.; Poltnig, W.

    2009-04-01

    low water discharge measurements followed this stage. Samples were taken for basic chemistry and stable isotope determination of water as well as some more sophisticated analyses (e.g. isotope analyses of noble gases) in the area of mineral waters appearance. Important part of investigations was production and compilation of new geological map based on older published and unpublished geological maps from both sides of the state border. This map represented background for the definition of hydrogeological and other detailed and specific maps (e.g. risk potential and vulnerability maps). Based on these results basic hydrological balance of the area was calculated, identification of cross border flow was performed and finally protection measures were suggested. A large part of Karavanke/Karawanken is built from karstified carbonate rocks of limestone and dolomite with underlying Paleozoic limestones. The largest part of karstified rocks lies in the area of North Karavanke/Karawanken, the Košuta unit and the Kamnik-Savinja Alps. About 3600 springs were recorded in the area of Karavanke/Karawanken on both sides of the Austrian-Slovenian state border from 1990 to 2002. For each spring, water flow, electrical conductivity and water temperature were determined. Mostly the springs have a small water flow. Only some very large springs flowing from a karstic aquifer were found to have a recharge area extending across the state border. In 2004 based on the bilateral agreement between Republic of Slovenia and Republic of Austria the common transboundary groundwater body Karavanke/Karawanken was defined. The body is defined according to the Water Framework Directive requirements and extends to the area of the main border ridge. It is divided on areas, where prevails the surface water outflow, which depends only on the surface form and areas, where groundwater outflow is present. Within the area of common water body of the Karavanke/Karawanken five cross-border aquifers were

  12. Data sharing in international transboundary contexts: The Vietnamese perspective on data sharing in the Lower Mekong Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thu, Hang Ngo; Wehn, Uta

    2016-05-01

    Transboundary data sharing is widely recognised as a necessary element in the successful handling of water-related climate change issues, as it is a means towards integrated water resources management (IWRM). However, in practice it is often a challenge to achieve it. The Mekong River Commission (MRC), an inter-governmental agency established by Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand and Vietnam, has adopted IWRM in its water strategy plan in order to properly manage the transboundary waters of the Mekong River. In this context, data sharing procedures were institutionalised and have been officially implemented by the four member countries since 2001. This paper uses a systematic approach to identify the extent of data sharing and the factors influencing the willingness of key individuals in the Vietnam National Mekong Committee and its Primary Custodians to share data. We find that the initial objectives of the Procedures for Data and Information Exchange and Sharing (PDIES) have not been fully achieved and, further, that Vietnam has much to gain and little to lose by engaging in data sharing in the MRC context. The primary motivation for data sharing stems from the desire to protect national benefits and to prevent upstream countries from overexploiting the shared water resources. However, data sharing is hindered by a lack of national regulations in the Vietnam context concerning data sharing between state agencies and outdated information management systems.

  13. Asia-Pacific mussel watch for emerging pollutants: Distribution of synthetic musks and benzotriazole UV stabilizers in Asian and US coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Haruhiko; Shinohara, Ryu-Ichi; Nakazawa, Yusuke; Isobe, Tomohiko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Zheng, Gene J; Lam, Paul K S; Kim, Eun Young; Min, Byung-Yoon; We, Sung-Ug; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Touch Seang; Prudente, Maricar; Frank, Donnell; Lauenstein, Gunnar; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2012-10-01

    We analyzed 68 green and blue mussels collected from Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam and the USA during 2003 and 2007, to elucidate the occurrence and widespread distributions of emerging pollutants, synthetic musks and benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BUVSs) in Asia-Pacific coastal waters. Synthetic musks and BUVSs were detected in mussels from all countries, suggesting their ubiquitous contamination and widespread distribution. High concentrations of musks and BUVSs were detected in mussels from Japan and Korea, where the levels were comparable or greater than those of PCBs, DDTs and PBDEs. Significant correlations were found between the concentrations of HHCB and AHTN, and also between the concentrations of UV-327 and UV-328, which suggest similar sources and compositions of these compounds in commercial and industrial products. To our knowledge, this is the first study of large-scale monitoring of synthetic musks and BUVSs in Asia-Pacific coastal waters.

  14. Enhancing resilience to water flow uncertainty by integrating environmental flows into water management in the Amudarya River, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüter, Maja; Khasankhanova, Gulchekhra; Talskikh, Vladislav; Taryannikova, Raisa; Agaltseva, Natalya; Joldasova, Ilya; Ibragimov, Rustam; Abdullaev, Umid

    2013-11-01

    The wetlands of the Amudarya River delta in Uzbekistan provide valuable ecosystem services to the local human population which has suffered severely from the loss of the Aral Sea, desertification and the post-soviet socio-economic transition. The region is also particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change as a recent severe drought has shown. In this contribution, we assess the potential and implications of incorporating environmental flows into management of the Amudarya River for improving the provision of wetland ecosystem services and enhancing resilience of the social-ecological system to river runoff uncertainty. Our assessment is based on analyses of 1) the current vulnerability of deltaic wetlands to years of low water availability, 2) expected regional climate change and its impact on water flows to the wetlands, and 3) alternative water use options to enhance environmental flows under a changing climate. The results provide a ranking of these options with respect to their benefits for the provision of environmental flows and implications for agriculture. Their realization, however, poses challenges that cannot be tackled by technical interventions of redistribution and efficiency increase alone but call for institutional changes and moves towards multi-purpose water use. The diversification of impacts and livelihood options would allow enhancing the resilience of the social-ecological system to climate or socio-politically induced changes in water flow.

  15. LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY TRANSBOUNDARY AIR POLLUTION PROJECT (TAPP) (MAIN REPORT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP) was to obtain air quality data for a full year at three border monitoring sites to assess anthropogenic and biogenic emission impacts and transboundary air pollution transport in the Lower Rio...

  16. LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY TRANSBOUNDARY AIR POLLUTION PROJECT (TAPP) (MAIN REPORT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP) was to obtain air quality data for a full year at three border monitoring sites to assess anthropogenic and biogenic emission impacts and transboundary air pollution transport in the Lower Rio...

  17. Seasonal snow cover and glacier change impact on water and energy cycle of Central Asia Endorheic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisen, Vladimir; Eisen, Elena

    2010-05-01

    High mountains of Central Asia Endorheic Basin (CAEB) hold one of the greatest in the World concentration of snow and glacier ice water resources at mid- latitudes thousands of miles from the oceans providing up to 80% of total river runoff. The total external atmospheric moisture flow over the CAEB comprises approximately 200 billion cubic meters per year. The glaciers of CAEB receive and retain annually up to 10% of moisture transferred over the mountains. However, the area of seasonal snow and glaciers has declining rapidly as result of recent climatic change causes by increase in air temperature and precipitation partitioning between snow and rain, and evaporation fluxes. Based on remote sensing data CAEB glaciers shrunk by 5% between the middle of 1940th and 1970th and 10% during the next 30 years. Evaluation of seasonal snow cover for the same period revealed 20% seasonal snow covered area reduction. During the last thirty years, the duration of snow melt reduced by 30 days from the date of maximum snow cover to the date of its disappearance. Further decrease in seasonal snow cover will be accelerated due to increase of rainfall instead of snowfall in early spring months at high elevations, and consequently a lesser heat expenditure for snowmelt. At high mountains, about 40% of snow ablated during the penultimate 10 days of snow cover. During ablation season, the amount of energy used to melt snow and glacier ice is in the same order as the combination of other components of the heat budget (e.g., heat associated with atmospheric advection, radiation balance and turbulent heat exchange). Heating of the air would have been 3 times higher if snow and glacier ice melt had not occurred. Analysis of shallow ice-cores from high elevation snow/ice fields of CAEB has helped determining the climatic processes controlling hydrological regimes via the changes in global and regional atmospheric circulation patterns and simulates impact of these changes on water and

  18. Assessment of temporal hydrologic anomalies coupled with drought impact for a transboundary river flow regime: The Diyala watershed case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Faraj, Furat A. M.; Scholz, Miklas

    2014-09-01

    Recent increases in human activities in shared river basins have unquestionably raised concerns about potential hydrological impacts, especially impacts of dams and large-scale water withdrawal schemes in the highlands. Anthropogenic pressures twinned with drought impacts have exacerbated water management challenges. This article assesses the cumulative consequences of upstream anthropogenic pressures and drought spells on temporal river flow regimes for the downstream country. The size and complexity of problems confronting transboundary river watersheds makes it necessary to use a representative example basin to study the problems and potential solutions. The Diyala (Sīrvān) river basin, which shares dozens of transboundary watersheds between Iraq and Iran, has been selected as a representative case study. A subset of the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) was utilised and climate variability was considered in assessing the combined effect of various forms of upstream human-river regulations and climatic conditions on natural flow regimes in the downstream state. Findings indicated that the anthropogenic river-regulation coupled with the impact of drought periods have noticeably modified the natural flow paradigm. The yearly average runoffs, which are no longer available for the downstream country, have soared to very high levels, particularly over the last fifteen years. More adverse impacts were detected in the non-rainy season. Findings reveal also that damming and considerable water diversion to large-scale irrigation projects in the upstream state are the main regulations affecting the management of shared water resources in the downstream country.

  19. Inter-annual variability of air mass and acidified pollutants transboundary exchange in the north-eastern part of the EANET region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, Sergey A.; Trifonova-Yakovleva, Alisa; Gromov, Sergey S.

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic emissions, be it exhaust gases or aerosols, stem from multitude of sources and may survive long-range transport within the air masses they were emitted into. So they follow regional and global transport pathways varying under different climatological regimes. Transboundary transfer of pollutants occurs this way and has a significant impact on the ecological situation of the territories neighbouring those of emission sources, as found in a few earlier studies examining the environmental monitoring data [1]. In this study, we employ a relatively facile though robust technique for estimating the transboundary air and concomitant pollutant fluxes using actual or climatological meteorological and air pollution monitoring data. Practically, we assume pollutant transfer being proportional to the horizontal transport of air enclosed in the lower troposphere and to the concentration of the pollutant of interest. The horizontal transport, in turn, is estimated using the mean layer wind direction and strength, or their descriptive statistics at the individual transects of the boundary of interest. The domain of our interest is the segment of Russian continental border in East Asia spanning from 88° E (southern Middle Siberia) to 135° E (Far East at Pacific shore). The data on atmospheric pollutants concentration are available from the Russian monitoring sites of the region-wide Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET, http://www.eanet.asia/) Mondy (Baikal area) and Primorskaya (near Vladivostok). The data comprises multi-year continuous measurement of gas-phase and particulate species abundances in air with at least biweekly sampling rate starting from 2000. In the first phase of our study, we used climatological dataset on winds derived from the aerological soundings at Russian stations along the continental border for the 10-year period (1961-1970) by the Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information - World Data Centre (RIHMI-WDC) [3

  20. Decentralized and efficient control of transboundary pollution in federal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, E.C.D.

    1997-01-01

    Decentralized control of transboundary pollution in federal systems can be efficient when population crowding is socially costly. In this paper, an upstream region abates pollution or makes an interregional income transfer to the downstream region with the sole intent of deterring immigration. Because either instrument, abatement expenditure or interregional income transfer, alone implements an efficient population distribution between the regions, interregional income transfers are unnecessary for efficiency. Without explicit income transfers, each region provides the efficient portion of the aggregate level of pollution abatement in the Nash equilibrium. 12 refs.

  1. Flow status of three transboundary rivers in Northern Greece as a tool for hydro-diplomacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzigiannakis, Eyaggelos; Hatzispiroglou, Ioannis; Arampatzis, Georgios; Ilia, Andreas; Pantelakis, Dimitrios; Filintas, Agathos; Panagopoulos, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine how the river flow monitoring consists a tool for hydro-diplomacy. Management of transboundary catchments and the demand of common water resources, often comprise the cause of conflicts and tension threatening the peaceful coexistence of nations. The Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EU sets a base for water management contributing to common approaches, common goals, common principles as well as providing new definitions and measures for Europe's water resources. In northern Greece the main renewable resources are "imported" (over 25% of its water reserves) and for this reason the implementation of continuous flow measurements throughout the year is necessary, even though difficult to achieve. This paper focuses on the three largest transboundary rivers in Northern Greece. Axios and Strymonas river flow across the region of Central Macedonia in Northern Greece. Axios flows from FYROM to Greece, and Strymonas from Bulgaria to Greece. Nestos river flows from Bulgaria to Greece. The Greek part is in the region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace in Northern Greece. Significant productive agricultural areas around these rivers are irrigated from them so they are very important for the local society. Measurements of the river flow velocity and the flow depth have been made at bridges. The frequency of the measurements is roughly monthly, because it is expected a significant change in the depth flow and discharge. A series of continuously flow measure-ments were performed during 2013 and 2014 using flowmeters (Valeport and OTT type). The cross-section characteristics, the river flow velocity of segments and the mean water flow velocity and discharge total profile were measured and calculated re-spectively. Measurements are conducted in the framework of the national water resources monitoring network, which is realised in compliance to the Water Framework Directive under the supervision and coordination of the Hellenic Ministry for the

  2. Integrated hydrologic modeling of a transboundary aquifer system —Lower Rio Grande

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Randall T.; Schmid, Wolfgang; Knight, Jacob E.; Maddock, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    For more than 30 years the agreements developed for the aquifer systems of the lower Rio Grande and related river compacts of the Rio Grande River have evolved into a complex setting of transboundary conjunctive use. The conjunctive use now includes many facets of water rights, water use, and emerging demands between the states of New Mexico and Texas, the United States and Mexico, and various water-supply agencies. The analysis of the complex relations between irrigation and streamflow supplyand-demand components and the effects of surface-water and groundwater use requires an integrated hydrologic model to track all of the use and movement of water. MODFLOW with the Farm Process (MFFMP) provides the integrated approach needed to assess the stream-aquifer interactions that are dynamically affected by irrigation demands on streamflow allotments that are supplemented with groundwater pumpage. As a first step to the ongoing full implementation of MF-FMP by the USGS, the existing model (LRG_2007) was modified to include some FMP features, demonstrating the ability to simulate the existing streamflow-diversion relations known as the D2 and D3 curves, departure of downstream deliveries from these curves during low allocation years and with increasing efficiency upstream, and the dynamic relation between surface-water conveyance and estimates of pumpage and recharge. This new MF-FMP modeling framework can now internally analyze complex relations within the Lower Rio Grande Hydrologic Model (LRGHM_2011) that previous techniques had limited ability to assess.

  3. Resilience in Transboundary Water Governance: the Okavango River Basin…

    EPA Science Inventory

    When the availability of a vital resource varies between times of overabundance and extreme scarcity, management regimes must manifest flexibility and authority to adapt while maintaining legitimacy. Unfortunately, the need for adaptability often conflicts with the desire for cer...

  4. Resilience in Transboundary Water Governance: the Okavango River Basin…

    EPA Science Inventory

    When the availability of a vital resource varies between times of overabundance and extreme scarcity, management regimes must manifest flexibility and authority to adapt while maintaining legitimacy. Unfortunately, the need for adaptability often conflicts with the desire for cer...

  5. Field Studies for Secondary Organic Aerosol in the Transboundary Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irei, S.; Takami, A.; Sadanaga, Y.; Nozoe, S.; Hayashi, M.; Hara, K.; Arakaki, T.; Hatakeyama, S.; Miyoshi, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Bandow, H.

    2014-12-01

    To study formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the air outflowed from the Chinese continent and its fraction in an urban city located in downwind, we have conducted field studies at two background sites and one urban site in the western Japan: the Cape Hedo Aerosol and Atmospheric Monitoring Station (26.9˚N, 128.3˚E), the Fukue Atmospheric Monitoring Station (32.8˚N, 128.7˚E), and Fukuoka University (33.6˚N, 130.4˚E), respectively. During the studies, stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) of low-volatile water-soluble organic carbon (LV-WSOC) was measured in 24 h collected filter samples of total suspended particulate matter. Concentration of fine organic aerosol and the proportion of the signal at m/z 44 (ions from the carboxyl group) in the organic mass spectra (f44) were also measured by Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometers. Limited to the Fukue site only, mixing ratios of trace gas species, such as aromatic hydrocarbons, NOx, and NOy, were also measured using GC-FID and NOx and NOyanalyzers for estimation of photochemical age (t[OH]). A case study in December 2010 showed that plots of δ13C versus f44 showed systematic variations at Hedo and Fukue. However, their trends were opposite. At Fukue the trend was consistent in the plot of δ13C of LV-WSOC versus t[OH] estimated by the NOx/NOy or the hydrocarbon ratios, indicating influence of SOA. The systematic trends aforementioned qualitatively agreed with a binary mixture model of SOA with background LV-WSOC having the f44 of ~0.06 and the δ13C of -17‰ or higher, implication of some influence of primary emission associated with C4plants. Given that the LV-WSOC at the urban Fukuoka site was a binary mixture, a mass balance for δ13C was constructed below. In the equation, δ13CMix, δ13CLocal, δ13CTrans, and FLocal are δ13C of binary LV-WSOC mixture, δ13C of LV-WSOC from local emission origin, δ13C of LV-WSOC from transboundary pollution origin, and a fraction of LV-WSOC from local emission

  6. Canada-wide standards and innovative transboundary air quality initiatives.

    PubMed

    Barton, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Canada's approach to air quality management is one that has brought with it opportunities for the development of unique approaches to risk management. Even with Canada's relatively low levels of pollution, science has demonstrated clearly that air quality and ecosystem improvements are worthwhile. To achieve change and address air quality in Canada, Canadian governments work together since, under the constitution, they share responsibility for the environment. At the same time, because air pollution knows no boundaries, working with the governments of other nations is essential to get results. International cooperation at all levels provides opportunities with potential for real change. Cooperation within transboundary airsheds is proving a fruitful source of innovative opportunities to reduce cross-border barriers to air quality improvements. In relation to the NERAM Colloquium objective to establish principles for air quality management based on the identification of international best practice in air quality policy development and implementation, Canada has developed, both at home and with the United States, interesting air management strategies and initiatives from which certain lessons may be taken that could be useful in other countries with similar situations. In particular, the Canada-wide strategies for smog and acid rain were developed by Canadian governments, strategies that improve and protect air quality at home, while Canada-U.S. transboundary airshed projects provide examples of international initiatives to improve air quality.

  7. Assessment of the uncertainties in air mass and pollutants transboundary exchange over the continental part of the EANET region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, Sergey S.; Trifonova-Yakovleva, Alisa; Gromov, Sergey A.

    2017-04-01

    dynamics that favour non-equilibrium air transport mostly at daytime. The BL transport reaches at most 2\\cdot 106 km3/month in April-May during air export from Russia at the IR segment and re-import from China at the VL, respectively. A non-negligible BL air import from China into Russia occurs also over the IR segment throughout winter (at a 0.7-1.5 of 106 km3/month rate). Using the data from the stations of the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET, www.eanet.asia), we estimate the transboundary pollution fluxes of S- and N-bearing gaseous compounds (SO2, NOx, etc.) and particulate matter (SO4-, ammonia nitrate). The co-occurrence of the high pollutants load and significant non-equilibrium air exchange renders pollutant net transport a rather non-linear problem. We derive the uncertainties associated with different assumptions on plum vertical location (i.e., in the BL-only vs. free troposphere). Finally, we derive the transient record of pollution transport for 2000-2015 for the IR and VL transboundary segments. References: Brukhan, F.F.: Aeroclimatic Characteristics of the Mean Winds over USSR (ed. Ignatjushina E.N.). Gidrometeoizdat, Moscow, 54 p., 1984 (in Russian).Izrael, Yu.A., et al.: Monitoring of the Transboundary Air Pollution Transport. Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 303 p., 187 (in Russian). em Dee, D. P., et al.: The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system, Quart. J. Royal Met. Soc., 137, 553-597, doi: 10.1002/qj.828, 2011.

  8. Effects of Ocean Climate on Transboundary Movement of Coastal Pelagic Resources Between the EEZs of Mexico and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, T. R.; Garcia, J.; Sanchez, C.; Lo, N. C.; Charter, R.

    2007-05-01

    Interannual to multidecadal changes in ocean climate directly impact access to transboundary coastal pelagic resources between fisheries operating in U.S. and Mexican waters. This study provides a preliminary analysis of the scale of year-to-year shifts in the distribution of the Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax caeruleus) with data from 2002 and 2003. One of the purposes of this initiative is to provide a template for collaborative research to guide regional policy development for responsible and sustainable utilization of the shared resource. This work is based on coordinated quarterly ocean surveys run by Mexican (the IMECOCAL program=Investigaciones Mexicanas de la Corriente de California) and U.S. scientists (the CalCOFI program=California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations) allowing us to evaluate the annual state of the pelagic ecosystem from northern California to southern Baja California. The subject of this study is the "subarctic stock" of the Pacific sardine which is centered off California in the U.S. and extends southwards to the region off central Baja California. Estimates of sardine biomass in U.S. and Mexican waters, based on the rates of egg production measured during the IMECOCAL and CalCOFI surveys of April 2002 and April 2003, show order of magnitude differences in the relative proportions of biomass in the Mexican EEZ that is associated with the contrasts in ocean climate resulting from the regional effects of El Niño during April 2003. Results indicate a significant northward shift of the sardine stock off Mexico during 2003: we estimate that approximately 20 percent of the total biomass of the stock was located in the Mexican EEZ during spring of 2002 while the shift in ocean climate resulted in the presence of only 2 percent of the biomass of the stock in Mexican waters during April, 2003. A second, more southerly sardine stock extended from southern to central Baja California in April, 2003, but it was out of reach of the fleet

  9. Composition and mixing states of brown haze particle over the Himalayas along two transboundary south-north transects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhiwen; Kang, Shichang; Guo, Junming; Zhang, Qianggong; Wang, Xuejia; Qin, Dahe

    2017-05-01

    Pollutants that are usually transported from southern Asia to the Tibetan Plateau deposit on the Plateau surface, change snow albedo and thereby surface radiative flux. This results numerous climatic implications like as erratic monsoon, perturbation in hydrological cycle, etc. However, the accurate estimation of these climatic implications is not well understood, because the atmospheric pollution is a heterogeneous mixture of various particle types. Therefore, this part of climate research requires a detailed investigation of physical and chemical properties of atmospheric pollutants. This study aimed to examine the physical and chemical properties of atmospheric pollutants across the Himalayan regions along two transboundary south-north transects. The information of individual-particles was obtained using microscopy-based techniques that comprises transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX). Study capture the signatures of various types of atmospheric species such as black carbon (BC), mineral dust, fly ash, organic matter, sulfate, nitrite, ammonium, and NaCl. Microscopy-based techniques confirm that these particles were generally in mixing state, for example salt-coated particles accounting for 25-56% of the total particles in sampled locations. Our analysis shows that urban and rural locations are characterized with atmospheric particles which sourced from anthropogenic activities, whereas remote locations with those released from natural crustal. However, the relative contributions of anthropogenic particles were higher than that of particles released from natural crustal. The presence of such particles over remote locations of Himalayan region provides an evidence of prevailing atmospheric transport processes, which further need to be well understood. It is expected that this work would be helpful in understanding the regional atmospheric conditions and the transboundary transport process of haze particles. As these

  10. Forecasting the Depletion of Transboundary Groundwater Resources in Hyper-Arid Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoni, A.; Heggy, E.

    2014-12-01

    The increase in awareness about the overexploitation of transboundary groundwater resources in hyper-arid environments that occurred in the last decades has highlighted the need to better map, monitor and manage these resources. Climate change, economic and population growth are driving forces that put more pressure on these fragile but fundamental resources. The aim of our approach is to address the question of whether or not groundwater resources, especially non-renewable, could serve as "backstop" water resource during water shortage periods that would probably affect the drylands in the upcoming 100 years. The high dependence of arid regions on these resources requires prudent management to be able to preserve their fossil aquifers and exploit them in a more sustainable way. We use the NetLogo environment with the FAO Aquastat Database to evaluate if the actual trends of extraction, consumption and use of non-renewable groundwater resources would remain feasible with the future climate change impacts and the population growth scenarios. The case studies selected are three: the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System, shared between Egypt, Libya, Sudan and Chad; the North Western Sahara Aquifer System, with Algeria, Tunisia and Libya and the Umm Radhuma Dammam Aquifer, in its central part, shared between Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Bahrain. The reason these three fossil aquifers were selected are manifold. First, they represent properly transboundary non-renewable groundwater resources, with all the implications that derive from this, i.e. the necessity of scientific and socio-political cooperation among riparians, the importance of monitoring the status of shared resources and the need to elaborate a shared management policy. Furthermore, each country is characterized by hyper-arid climatic conditions, which will be exacerbated in the next century by climate change and lead to probable severe water shortage periods. Together with climate change, the rate of population

  11. Eradication of Transboundary Animal Diseases: Can the Rinderpest Success Story be Repeated?

    PubMed

    Thomson, G R; Fosgate, G T; Penrith, M-L

    2017-04-01

    A matrix system was developed to aid in the evaluation of the technical amenability to eradication, through mass vaccination, of transboundary animal diseases (TADs). The system involved evaluation of three basic criteria - disease management efficiency, surveillance and epidemiological factors - each in turn comprised of a number of elements (17 in all). On that basis, 25 TADs that have occurred or do occur in southern Africa and for which vaccines are available, in addition to rinderpest (incorporated as a yardstick because it has been eradicated worldwide), were ranked. Cluster analysis was also applied using the same criteria to the 26 diseases, creating division into three groups. One cluster contained only diseases transmitted by arthropods (e.g. African horse sickness and Rift Valley fever) and considered difficult to eradicate because technologies for managing parasitic arthropods on a large scale are unavailable, while a second cluster contained diseases that have been widely considered to be eradicable [rinderpest, canine rabies, the Eurasian serotypes of foot and mouth disease virus (O, A, C & Asia 1) and peste des petits ruminants] as well classical swine fever, Newcastle disease and lumpy skin disease. The third cluster contained all the other TADs evaluated with the implication that these constitute TADs that would be more difficult to eradicate. However, it is acknowledged that the scores assigned in the course of this study may be biased. The point is that the system proposed offers an objective method for assessment of the technical eradicability of TADs; the rankings and groupings derived during this study are less important than the provision of a systematic approach for further development and evaluation. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Impact of the Syrian refugee crisis on land use and transboundary freshwater resources.

    PubMed

    Müller, Marc François; Yoon, Jim; Gorelick, Steven M; Avisse, Nicolas; Tilmant, Amaury

    2016-12-27

    Since 2013, hundreds of thousands of refugees have migrated southward to Jordan to escape the Syrian civil war that began in mid-2011. Evaluating impacts of conflict and migration on land use and transboundary water resources in an active war zone remains a challenge. However, spatial and statistical analyses of satellite imagery for the recent period of Syrian refugee mass migration provide evidence of rapid changes in land use, water use, and water management in the Yarmouk-Jordan river watershed shared by Syria, Jordan, and Israel. Conflict and consequent migration caused ∼50% decreases in both irrigated agriculture in Syria and retention of winter rainfall in Syrian dams, which gave rise to unexpected additional stream flow to downstream Jordan during the refugee migration period. Comparing premigration and postmigration periods, Syrian abandonment of irrigated agriculture accounts for half of the stream flow increase, with the other half attributable to recovery from a severe drought. Despite this increase, the Yarmouk River flow into Jordan is still substantially below the volume that was expected by Jordan under the 1953, 1987, and 2001 bilateral agreements with Syria.

  13. Impact of the Syrian refugee crisis on land use and transboundary freshwater resources

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Marc François; Yoon, Jim; Gorelick, Steven M.; Avisse, Nicolas; Tilmant, Amaury

    2016-01-01

    Since 2013, hundreds of thousands of refugees have migrated southward to Jordan to escape the Syrian civil war that began in mid-2011. Evaluating impacts of conflict and migration on land use and transboundary water resources in an active war zone remains a challenge. However, spatial and statistical analyses of satellite imagery for the recent period of Syrian refugee mass migration provide evidence of rapid changes in land use, water use, and water management in the Yarmouk–Jordan river watershed shared by Syria, Jordan, and Israel. Conflict and consequent migration caused ∼50% decreases in both irrigated agriculture in Syria and retention of winter rainfall in Syrian dams, which gave rise to unexpected additional stream flow to downstream Jordan during the refugee migration period. Comparing premigration and postmigration periods, Syrian abandonment of irrigated agriculture accounts for half of the stream flow increase, with the other half attributable to recovery from a severe drought. Despite this increase, the Yarmouk River flow into Jordan is still substantially below the volume that was expected by Jordan under the 1953, 1987, and 2001 bilateral agreements with Syria. PMID:27930317

  14. Determination of dominant sources of nitrate contamination in transboundary (Russian Federation/Ukraine) catchment with heterogeneous land use.

    PubMed

    Vystavna, Y; Diadin, D; Grynenko, V; Yakovlev, V; Vergeles, Y; Huneau, F; Rossi, P M; Hejzlar, J; Knöller, K

    2017-09-18

    Nitrate contamination of surface water and shallow groundwater was studied in transboundary (Russia/Ukraine) catchment with heterogeneous land use. Dominant sources of nitrate contamination were determined by applying a dual δ (15)N-NO3 and δ (18)O-NO3 isotope approach, multivariate statistics, and land use analysis. Nitrate concentration was highly variable from 0.25 to 22 mg L(-1) in surface water and from 0.5 to 100 mg L(-1) in groundwater. The applied method indicated that sewage to surface water and sewage and manure to groundwater were dominant sources of nitrate contamination. Nitrate/chloride molar ratio was added to support the dual isotope signature and indicated the contribution of fertilizers to the nitrate content in groundwater. Groundwater temperature was found to be an additional indicator of manure and sewerage leaks in the shallow aquifer which has limited protection and is vulnerable to groundwater pollution.

  15. Transboundary effects on health care services in the European Community.

    PubMed

    du Pré, F M

    1993-01-01

    This article deals with the rights that community law gives to the medical and allied professions to exercise their professional activities in a member state other than their state of origin. Firstly, the scope of the general economic provisions of the European Community (EC) Treaty is broadly described. Secondly, the specific rules of the EC secondary legislation concerning the harmonization of the national legislations on professional qualifications in the health care sector are reviewed. Lastly, an example is given of the application of these rules in the health care sector by the Court of Justice of the European Community. It is submitted that the exercise of these rights can contribute to transboundary cooperation within the EC in the rendering of health care services to patients in the member states. This is specially relevant in frontier areas.

  16. The relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, and water resources in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries.

    PubMed

    Rafindadi, Abdulkadir Abdulrashid; Yusof, Zarinah; Zaman, Khalid; Kyophilavong, Phouphet; Akhmat, Ghulam

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, water resources, and natural resource rents in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries, over a period of 1975-2012. The study includes number of variables in the model for robust analysis. The results of cross-sectional analysis show that there is a significant relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water productivity in the individual countries of Asia-Pacific. However, the results of each country vary according to the time invariant shocks. For this purpose, the study employed the panel least square technique which includes the panel least square regression, panel fixed effect regression, and panel two-stage least square regression. In general, all the panel tests indicate that there is a significant and positive relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water resources in the region. The fossil fuel energy consumption has a major dominating impact on the changes in the air pollution in the region.

  17. Trophic State Evolution and Nutrient Trapping Capacity in a Transboundary Subtropical Reservoir: A 25-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Davi Gasparini Fernandes; Benassi, Simone Frederigi; de Falco, Patrícia Bortoletto; Calijuri, Maria do Carmo

    2016-03-01

    Artificial reservoirs have been used for drinking water supply, other human activities, flood control and pollution abatement worldwide, providing overall benefits to downstream water quality. Most reservoirs in Brazil were built during the 1970s, but their long-term patterns of trophic status, water chemistry, and nutrient removal are still not very well characterized. We aimed to evaluate water quality time series (1985-2010) data from the riverine and lacustrine zones of the transboundary Itaipu Reservoir (Brazil/Paraguay). We examined total phosphorus and nitrogen, chlorophyll a concentrations, water transparency, and phytoplankton density to look for spatial and temporal trends and correlations with trophic state evolution and nutrient retention. There was significant temporal and spatial water quality variation (P < 0.01, ANCOVA). The results indicated that the water quality and structure of the reservoir were mainly affected by one internal force (hydrodynamics) and one external force (upstream cascading reservoirs). Nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations tended to be lower in the lacustrine zone and decreased over the 25-year timeframe. Reservoir operational features seemed to be limiting primary production and phytoplankton development, which exhibited a maximum density of 6050  org/mL. The relatively small nutrient concentrations in the riverine zone were probably related to the effect of the cascade reservoirs upstream of Itaipu and led to relatively low removal percentages. Our study suggested that water quality problems may be more pronounced immediately after the filling phase of the artificial reservoirs, associated with the initial decomposition of drowned vegetation at the very beginning of reservoir operation.

  18. Trophic State Evolution and Nutrient Trapping Capacity in a Transboundary Subtropical Reservoir: A 25-Year Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Davi Gasparini Fernandes; Benassi, Simone Frederigi; de Falco, Patrícia Bortoletto; do Carmo Calijuri, Maria

    2016-03-01

    Artificial reservoirs have been used for drinking water supply, other human activities, flood control and pollution abatement worldwide, providing overall benefits to downstream water quality. Most reservoirs in Brazil were built during the 1970s, but their long-term patterns of trophic status, water chemistry, and nutrient removal are still not very well characterized. We aimed to evaluate water quality time series (1985-2010) data from the riverine and lacustrine zones of the transboundary Itaipu Reservoir (Brazil/Paraguay). We examined total phosphorus and nitrogen, chlorophyll a concentrations, water transparency, and phytoplankton density to look for spatial and temporal trends and correlations with trophic state evolution and nutrient retention. There was significant temporal and spatial water quality variation ( P < 0.01, ANCOVA). The results indicated that the water quality and structure of the reservoir were mainly affected by one internal force (hydrodynamics) and one external force (upstream cascading reservoirs). Nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations tended to be lower in the lacustrine zone and decreased over the 25-year timeframe. Reservoir operational features seemed to be limiting primary production and phytoplankton development, which exhibited a maximum density of 6050 org/mL. The relatively small nutrient concentrations in the riverine zone were probably related to the effect of the cascade reservoirs upstream of Itaipu and led to relatively low removal percentages. Our study suggested that water quality problems may be more pronounced immediately after the filling phase of the artificial reservoirs, associated with the initial decomposition of drowned vegetation at the very beginning of reservoir operation.

  19. Endocrine disrupting compounds in streams in Israel and the Palestinian West Bank: Implications for transboundary basin management.

    PubMed

    Dotan, Pniela; Yeshayahu, Maayan; Odeh, Wa'd; Gordon-Kirsch, Nina; Groisman, Ludmila; Al-Khateeb, Nader; Abed Rabbo, Alfred; Tal, Alon; Arnon, Shai

    2017-09-12

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) frequently enter surface waters via discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), as well as from industrial and agricultural activities, creating environmental and health concerns. In this study, selected EDCs were measured in water and sediments along two transboundary streams flowing from the Palestinian Authority (PA) into Israel (the Zomar-Alexander and Hebron-Beer Sheva Streams). We assessed how the complicated conflict situation between Israel and the PA and the absence of a coordinated strategy and joint stream management commission influence effective EDC control. Both streams receive raw Palestinian wastewater in their headwaters, which flows through rural areas and is treated via sediment settling facilities after crossing the 1949 Armistice Agreement Line. Four sampling campaigns were conducted over two years, with concentrations of selected EDCs measured in both the water and the sediments. Results show asymmetrical pollution profiles due to socio-economic differences and contrasting treatment capacities. No in-stream attenuation was observed along the stream and in the sediments within the Palestinian region. After sediment settling in treatment facilities at the Israeli border, however, significant reductions in the EDC concentrations were measured both in the sediments and in the water. Differences in sedimentation technologies had a substantial effect on EDC removal at the treatment location, positively affecting the streams' ability to further remove EDCs downstream. The prevailing approach to addressing the Israeli-Palestinian transboundary wastewater contamination reveals a narrow perspective among water managers who on occasion only take local interests into consideration, with interventions focused solely on improving stream water quality in isolated segments. Application of the "proximity principle" through the establishment of WWTPs at contamination sources constitutes a preferable strategy for

  20. Transboundary study of the Milk River aquifer (Canada, USA): geological, conceptual and numerical models for the sound management of the regional groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pétré, Marie-Amélie; Rivera, Alfonso; Lefebvre, René

    2016-04-01

    The Milk River transboundary aquifer straddles southern Alberta (Canada) and northern Montana (United States), a semi-arid and water-short region. The extensive use of this regional sandstone aquifer over the 20th century has led to a major drop in water levels locally, and concerns about the durability of the resources have been raised since the mid-1950. Even though the Milk River Aquifer (MRA) has been studied for decades, most of the previous studies were limited by the international border, preventing a sound understanding of the aquifer dynamics. Yet, a complete portrait of the aquifer is required for proper management of this shared resource. The transboundary study of the MRA aims to overcome transboundary limitations by providing a comprehensive characterization of the groundwater resource at the aquifer scale, following a three-stage approach: 1) The development of a 3D unified geological model of the MRA (50,000 km2). The stratigraphic framework on both sides of the border was harmonized and various sources of geological data were unified to build the transboundary geological model. The delineation of the aquifer and the geometry and thicknesses of the geological units were defined continuously across the border. 2) Elaboration of a conceptual hydrogeological model by linking hydrogeological and geochemical data with the 3D unified geological model. This stage is based on a thorough literature review and focused complementary field work on both sides of the border. The conceptual model includes the determination of the groundwater flow pattern, the spatial distribution of hydraulic properties, a groundwater budget and the definition of the groundwater types. Isotopes (3H, 14C, 36Cl) were used to delineate the recharge area as well as the active and low-flow areas. 3) The building of a 3D numerical groundwater flow model of the MRA (26,000 km2). This model is a transposition of the geological and hydrogeological conceptual models. A pre

  1. Radiative forcing by dust and black carbon in snow of High Mountain Asia: Implications for glaciers and water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, Thomas; Qian, Yun

    2017-04-01

    Snow and ice of High Mountain Asia provide critical freshwater supply to over a billion people and provide climate influence through higher albedo and lower thermal conductivity. High Mountain Asia holds the greatest amount of ice outside of Earth's polar region and as such has great potential to contribute to sea level rise. Snow cover and glaciers have been in general negative trend across the Anthropocene, yet there are large uncertainties in the scale of that retreat, the magnitude of the resulting contribution to sea-level rise, and in particular the causes. Our overarching science goal is to better understand the physical processes that are driving changes in High Mountain Asia snow and ice. Here, we present analysis of our NASA remote sensing retrievals of radiative forcing by dust and black carbon in snow and ice from MODIS, VIIRS, and Landsat 8 in the study domain of the NASA High Mountain Asia program. We also evaluate the simulations of radiative forcing by impurities in snow from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with its chemistry component (Chem), the land surface scheme of the Community Land Model (CLM), and the snow, ice, and aerosol radiative transfer model SNICAR. The unique suite of remote sensing products are (1) the MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain size (MODSCAG) from which we calculate fractional snow covered area and the spatial bulk surface snow grain size of that fractional cover, and (2) the MODIS Dust Radiative Forcing in Snow (MODDRFS) from which we calculate clear-sky radiative forcing by impurities in snow. The analysis will be cast in context of our understanding of at-surface radiative forcing by anomalies in greenhouse gases and give us insight into the controls on snow and glacier retreat.

  2. Transboundary Irtysh River Basin: UNESCO-IHP to enhance research and data sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagintayev, Z.; Mashtayeva, S., Sr.

    2015-12-01

    Transboundary Irtysh River Basin, which is shared by China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and Russia, is under intensive anthropogenic stress. We are working on the comprehensive study using multiple approaches that integrate observations extracted from remote sensing with traditional approaches (surficial geology, hydrogeology, geochemistry, GIS, and hydrologic modeling) to gain a comprehensive understanding of the response of a large-scale Irtysh River Basin hydrologic system to a variety of climatic and anthropic forcing parameters. Global warming over the study area could cause higher temperatures, increased evaporation, decreased precipitation, and droughts. On the other hand, the impacts could be just the opposite, increased precipitation rates and floods. Anthropic forcing influences over the Irtysh River Basin could result from impoundment of surface water by dams or decreased flow due to water diversion projects and excessive groundwater extraction from the surrounding aquifers. The ultimate objective of these investigations will be a predictive capability that can relate forcing by climate change and anthropic activities to anticipated hydrologic system responses. UNESCO-IHP network and cooperation support can very helpful for this complex research work. The current research findings will be shared during the meeting.

  3. Inventory of current environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C.S.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Chapman, E.G.

    1986-05-01

    This document presents the results of a study commissioned to survey and summarize major environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region. Projects with field sites located within 400 km (250 mi) of the border and active after 1980 were reviewed. The types of projects included: ambient air-quality monitoring, ambient water-quality monitoring, deposition monitoring, forest/vegetation monitoring and research, soil studies, and ecosystem studies. Ecosystem studies included projects involving the measurement of parameters from more than one monitoring category (e.g., studies that measured both water and soil chemistry). Individual descriptions were formulated for 184 projects meeting the spatial and temporal criteria. Descriptions included the official title for the project, its common abbreviation, program emphasis, monitoring site locations, time period conducted, parameters measured, protocols employed, frequency of sample collection, data storage information, and the principal contact for the project. A summary inventory subdivided according to the six monitoring categories was prepared using a computerized data management system. Information on major centralized data bases in the field of environmental monitoring was also obtained, and summary descriptions were prepared. The inventory and data base descriptions are presented in appendices to this document.

  4. Occurrence of pesticides in transboundary aquifers of North-eastern Greece.

    PubMed

    Vryzas, Zisis; Papadakis, Emmanuel N; Vassiliou, George; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2012-12-15

    A five-year groundwater monitoring program undertaken in Evros (north-east Greece), showed a diversification in the levels of pesticide residues detected in adjacent transboundary aquifers. During the first two years 37 wells, including irrigation, drinking water and artesian wells were monitored while the next three years the survey was focused on the 11 most contaminated wells. The presence of pesticide residues was also monitored in the phreatic horizon (shallow groundwater) of four experimental boreholes drilled in the respective margins of four fields. Among the compounds found alachlor, metolachlor, atrazine, desethylatrazine (DEA), desisopropylatrazine (DIA) and caffeine were constantly detected. Pesticide concentrations were much lower (up to 1.54 μg/L) in the water of the monitored drinking water wells (deep groundwater aquifers) compared to those found in the phreatic horizon (experimental boreholes) of the respective areas (up to 5.20 μg/L). DEA to atrazine concentration ratios (DAR) determined for the phreatic horizon of the three boreholes and respective wells were lower than 1, indicating that preferential flow was the cause of the fast downward movement of atrazine to the phreatic horizon. In contrast the DAR for the fourth borehole and the adjacent well were greater than 1 indicating the absence of preferential flow of atrazine. Catabolic processes of the soil converted atrazine to DEA which is more mobile than atrazine itself through chromatographic (darcian) flow. This differential behavior of pesticides in adjacent aquifers (3 km) was further investigated by determining the apparent age of water in the two wells. The apparent age of the water present in the first aquifer was 21.7 years whereas the apparent age of that in the second aquifer was approximately 1.2 years. The faster replenishing rate of the latter is an indication that this aquifer is very vulnerable to contamination with pollutants present in the infiltrated soil water.

  5. Effects of climate change and population growth on the transboundary Santa Cruz aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Christopher A.; Megdal, Sharon; Oroz, Lucas Antonio; Callegary, James; Vandervoet, Prescott

    2012-01-01

    The USA and Mexico have initiated comprehensive assessment of 4 of the 18 aquifers underlying their 3000 km border. Binational management of groundwater is not currently proposed. University and agency researchers plus USA and Mexican federal, state, and local agency staff have collaboratively identified key challenges facing the Santa Cruz River Valley Aquifer located between the states of Arizona and Sonora. The aquifer is subject to recharge variability, which is compounded by climate change, and is experiencing growing urban demand for groundwater. In this paper, we briefly review past, current, and projected pressures on Santa Cruz groundwater. We undertake first-order approximation of the relative magnitude of climate change and human demand drivers on the Santa Cruz water balance. Global circulation model output for emissions scenarios A1B, B1, and A2 present mixed trends, with annual precipitation projected to vary by ±20% over the 21st century. Results of our analysis indicate that urban water use will experience greater percentage change than climate-induced recharge (which remains the largest single component of the water balance). In the Mexican portion of the Santa Cruz, up to half of future total water demand will need to be met from non-aquifer sources. In the absence of water importation and with agricultural water use and rights increasingly appropriated for urban demand, wastewater is increasingly seen as a resource to meet urban demand. We consider decision making on both sides of the border and conclude by identifying short- and longer-term opportunities for further binational collaboration on transboundary aquifer assessment.

  6. Column Closure Studies of Lower Tropospheric Aerosol and Water Vapor During ACE-Asia Using Airborne Sunphotometer, Airborne In-Situ and Ship-Based Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Hegg, A.; Wang, J.; Bates, D.; Redemann, J.; Russells, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Jonsson, H. H.; Welton, E. J.; Seinfield, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    We assess the consistency (closure) between solar beam attenuation by aerosols and water vapor measured by airborne sunphotometry and derived from airborne in-situ, and ship-based lidar measurements during the April 2001 Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia). The airborne data presented here were obtained aboard the Twin Otter aircraft. Comparing aerosol extinction o(550 nm) from four different techniques shows good agreement for the vertical distribution of aerosol layers. However, the level of agreement in absolute magnitude of the derived aerosol extinction varied among the aerosol layers sampled. The sigma(550 nm) computed from airborne in-situ size distribution and composition measurements shows good agreement with airborne sunphotometry in the marine boundary layer but is considerably lower in layers dominated by dust if the particles are assumed to be spherical. The sigma(550 nm) from airborne in-situ scattering and absorption measurements are about approx. 13% lower than those obtained from airborne sunphotometry during 14 vertical profiles. Combining lidar and the airborne sunphotometer measurements reveals the prevalence of dust layers at altitudes up to 10 km with layer aerosol optical depth (from 3.5 to 10 km altitude) of approx. 0.1 to 0.2 (500 nm) and extinction-to-backscatter ratios of 59-71 sr (523 nm). The airborne sunphotometer aboard the Twin Otter reveals a relatively dry atmosphere during ACE- Asia with all water vapor columns less than 1.5 cm and water vapor densities w less than 12 g/cu m. Comparing layer water vapor amounts and w from the airborne sunphotometer to the same quantities measured with aircraft in-situ sensors leads to a high correlation (r(sup 3)=0.96) but the sunphotometer tends to underestimate w by 7%.

  7. Energy use, emissions and air pollution reduction strategies in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Foell, W.; Green, C.; Sarkar, A.; Legler, J.

    1995-12-31

    The pace of economic progress and development experienced in many Asian countries has not occurred without costs to the natural environment. In particular, energy policies and technologies are a primary driving force behind air pollution problems arising from air pollution emissions in Asia. Economic growth, energy use, and reliance on fossil fuels are experiencing extremely high growth throughout most of the continent. Electric power expansion plans in many countries of Asia, particularly China and India, call for substantial increases in coal combustion. In the 1990`s, two-thirds of all power related investments in developing countries will be in Asia. In contrast to the situation in Europe and North America, emissions of air pollution species in Asia are increasing rapidly, resulting in both local air pollution problems and higher acidic deposition in many regions. In general, most Asian countries do not have a strong scientific nor public constituency for addressing potentially serious air pollution problems impacting important economic and cultural activities such as forestry, agriculture, and tourism. The complex political ramifications of trans-boundary air pollution in Asia have not yet begun to be addressed.

  8. Identifying transboundary aquifers in need of international resource management in the Southern African Development Community region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Jeff; Robins, Nick S.; Farr, John; Sorensen, James; Beetlestone, Philip; Cobbing, Jude E.

    2013-03-01

    Transboundary aquifer (TBA) management, in part, seeks to mitigate degradation of groundwater resources caused either by an imbalance of abstraction between countries or by cross-border pollution. Fourteen potential TBAs were identified within a hydrogeological mapping programme based on simple hydrogeological selection criteria for the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region. These have been reassessed against a set of data associated with five categories: (1) groundwater flow and vulnerability (which is perceived as the over-arching influence on the activity level of each TBA), (2) knowledge and understanding, (3) governance capability, (4) socio-economic/water-demand factors, and (5) environmental issues. These assessments enable the TBAs to be classified according to their need for cross-border co-operation and management. The study shows that only two of the 14 TBAs have potential to be the cause of tension between neighbouring states, while nine are potentially troublesome and three are unlikely to become problematic even in the future. The classification highlights the need to focus on data gathering to enable improved understanding of the TBAs that could potentially become troublesome in the future due to, for example, change in demographics and climate.

  9. Surface sediments of transboundary Lake Peipsi: composition, dynamics and role in matter cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punning, Jaan-Mati; Raukas, Anto; Terasmaa, Jaanus; Vaasma, Tiit

    2009-04-01

    To describe and analyse the role of sediments in the matter cycling in large shallow transboundary Lake Peipsi (L. Peipsi) in north-eastern Europe, detailed surface-sediment mapping was conducted. On the basis of grain size the surface sediments fall into three groups: coarse-grained sediments (prevailingly sands in the lake’s southern part), fine-grained sediments (mainly silts) and silty sands, both in the central deeper part within the 8-m depth contour. The groups of deposits have a distinct spatial distribution, determined mainly by the current system in the lake. The main source of bottom sediments is the erosion of the lake floor and shores, the role of the river input seems to be limited. Fine-grained organic-rich sediments are very cohesive, playing the main role in the circulation of various inorganic and organic pollutants like nutrients and xenobiotics. Due to the cohesive character of the sediments their physical and chemical properties are extremely diverse and if the near-bottom shear stress increases (extreme meteorological events, changes in the water level, etc.), the lake floor may be subjected to episodic erosion and resuspension, which may cause remobilisation of impurities in muddy sediments and their return to the food chain.

  10. Seasonal changes in antifreeze protein gene transcription and water content of beetle Microdera punctipennis (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) from Gurbantonggut desert in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Hou, F; Ma, J; Liu, X; Wang, Y; Liu, X N; Zhang, F C

    2010-01-01

    Desert beetle Microdera punctipennis (Coleoptera: Tenebriondae) is a special species in Gurbantonggut Desert in Central Asia. To investigate the possible strategy it employs for cold survival, seasonal changes in supercooling point (SCP), body water content, haemolymph osmolality and antifreeze protein gene (Mpafp) expression were measured over 13 months. Our results show SCPs in M. punctipennis adults changed from -8.0°C in summer to -18.7°C in winter. During winter, adults endured modest water loss; total water decreased from 65.4 percent in summer to 55.9% in winter. Mpafp mRNAs level increased by 13.1 fold from summer to early winter, and haemolymph osmolality increased accordingly from 550 mOsm to 1486 mOsm. Correlation coefficient of Mpafp mRNAs level and SCP indicates that Mpafp mRNA explained 65.3 percent of the variation in SCPs. The correlation between Mpafp mRNA level and total water reflected an indirect influence of antifreeze protein on water content via reducing SCP.

  11. System dynamics modeling of transboundary systems: the bear river basin model.

    PubMed

    Sehlke, Gerald; Jacobson, Jake

    2005-01-01

    System dynamics is a computer-aided approach to evaluating the interrelationships of different components and activities within complex systems. Recently, system dynamics models have been developed in areas such as policy design, biological and medical modeling, energy and the environmental analysis, and in various other areas in the natural and social sciences. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, a multipurpose national laboratory managed by the Department of Energy, has developed a system dynamics model in order to evaluate its utility for modeling large complex hydrological systems. We modeled the Bear River basin, a transboundary basin that includes portions of Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming. We found that system dynamics modeling is very useful for integrating surface water and ground water data and for simulating the interactions between these sources within a given basin. In addition, we also found that system dynamics modeling is useful for integrating complex hydrologic data with other information (e.g., policy, regulatory, and management criteria) to produce a decision support system. Such decision support systems can allow managers and stakeholders to better visualize the key hydrologic elements and management constraints in the basin, which enables them to better understand the system via the simulation of multiple "what-if" scenarios. Although system dynamics models can be developed to conduct traditional hydraulic/hydrologic surface water or ground water modeling, we believe that their strength lies in their ability to quickly evaluate trends and cause-effect relationships in large-scale hydrological systems, for integrating disparate data, for incorporating output from traditional hydraulic/hydrologic models, and for integration of interdisciplinary data, information, and criteria to support better management decisions.

  12. Isla Hispaniola: A trans-boundary flood risk mitigation plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandimarte, Luigia; Brath, Armando; Castellarin, Attilio; Baldassarre, Giuliano Di

    It is sadly known that over the past decades Isla Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic) has been exposed to the devastating passage of several hurricanes and tropical storms. Territories that are economically weak and extremely poor in terms of natural resources have been shaken by severe flood events that caused the loss of thousands of human lives, displacement of people and damage to the environment. On May 24th 2004, the flooding of the trans-boundary river Soliette killed over 1000 Haitian and Dominican people, wiping out villages and leaving behind desolation and poverty. After this catastrophic flood event, the General Direction for Development and Cooperation of the Italian Department of Foreign Affairs funded through the Istituto Italo-Latino Americano (IILA, www.iila.org) an international cooperation initiative (ICI), coordinated and directed by the University of Bologna. The ICI involved Haitian and Dominican institutions and was twofold: (a) institutional capacity building on flood risk management and mitigation measures and policies; (b) hydrological and hydraulic analysis of the May 2004 flood event aimed at formulating a suitable and affordable flood risk mitigation plan, consisting of structural and non-structural measures.

  13. Assessing the Roles of Regional Climate Uncertainty, Policy, and Economics on Future Risks to Water Stress: A Large-Ensemble Pilot Case for Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, C. A.; Strzepek, K. M.; Gao, X.; Fant, C. W.; Blanc, E.; Monier, E.; Sokolov, A. P.; Paltsev, S.; Arndt, C.; Prinn, R. G.; Reilly, J. M.; Jacoby, H.

    2013-12-01

    The fate of natural and managed water resources is controlled to varying degrees by interlinked energy, agricultural, and environmental systems, as well as the hydro-climate cycles. The need for risk-based assessments of impacts and adaptation to regional change calls for likelihood quantification of outcomes via the representation of uncertainty - to the fullest extent possible. A hybrid approach of the MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) framework provides probabilistic projections of regional climate change - generated in tandem with consistent socio-economic projections. A Water Resources System (WRS) then tracks water allocation and availability across these competing demands. As such, the IGSM-WRS is an integrated tool that provides quantitative insights on the risks and sustainability of water resources over large river basins. This pilot project focuses the IGSM-WRS on Southeast Asia (Figure 1). This region presents exceptional challenges toward sustainable water resources given its texture of basins that traverse and interconnect developing nations as well as large, ascending economies and populations - such as China and India. We employ the IGSM-WRS in a large ensemble of outcomes spanning hydro-climatic, economic, and policy uncertainties. For computational efficiency, a Gaussian Quadrature procedure sub-samples these outcomes (Figure 2). The IGSM-WRS impacts are quantified through frequency distributions of water stress changes. The results allow for interpretation of: the effects of policy measures; impacts on food production; and the value of design flexibility of infrastructure/institutions. An area of model development and exploration is the feedback of water-stress shocks to economic activity (i.e. GDP and land use). We discuss these further results (where possible) as well as other efforts to refine: uncertainty methods, greater basin-level and climate detail, and process-level representation glacial melt-water sources. Figure 1 Figure 2

  14. Assessing the benefits of Transboundary Protected Areas: a questionnaire survey in the Americas and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Jamie W; Vasilijević, Maja; Cuthill, Innes

    2015-02-01

    There are more than 3000 protected areas (PAs) situated on or near international boundaries, and amongst them there is an increasing trend towards the establishment of transboundary cooperation initiatives. Proponents of Transboundary PAs (TBPAs) highlight the potential for biodiversity protection through spatial, management and socio-economic benefits. However, there have been few formal studies that assess these benefits. It is possible that the relaxation of boundary controls to optimise transboundary connectivity may increase the risk of impacts from invasive species or illegal human incursion. We sought to investigate the validity of these proposed benefits and potential risks through a questionnaire survey of 113 PAs, of which 39 responded and met our inclusion criteria. 82% felt that transboundary cooperation has benefits for biodiversity and, across PAs, the self-reported level of transboundary communication was positively associated with some improved spatial, management and socio-economic benefits. However, 26% of PAs reported that they never communicated with their internationally adjoining protected area, indicating unrealised potential for greater gains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluating the impacts of climate and land-use change on the hydrology and nutrient yield in a transboundary river basin: A case study in the 3S River Basin (Sekong, Sesan, and Srepok).

    PubMed

    Trang, Nguyen Thi Thuy; Shrestha, Sangam; Shrestha, Manish; Datta, Avishek; Kawasaki, Akiyuki

    2017-01-15

    Assessment of the climate and land-use change impacts on the hydrology and water quality of a river basin is important for the development and management of water resources in the future. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of climate and land-use change on the hydrological regime and nutrient yield from the 3S River Basin (Sekong, Srepok, and Sesan) into the 3S River system in Southeast Asia. The 3S Rivers are important tributaries of the Lower Mekong River, accounting for 16% of its annual flow. This transboundary basin supports the livelihoods of nearly 3.5 million people in the countries of Laos, Vietnam, and Cambodia. To reach a better understanding of the process and fate of pollution (nutrient yield) as well as the hydrological regime, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate water quality and discharge in the 3S River Basin. Future scenarios were developed for three future periods: 2030s (2015-2039), 2060s (2045-2069), and 2090s (2075-2099), using an ensemble of five GCMs (General Circulation Model) simulations: (HadGEM2-AO, CanESM2, IPSL-CM5A-LR, CNRM-CM5, and MPI-ESM-MR), driven by the climate projection for RCPs (Representative Concentration Pathways): RCP4.5 (medium emission) and RCP8.5 (high emission) scenarios, and two land-use change scenarios. The results indicated that the climate in the study area would generally become warmer and wetter under both emission scenarios. Discharge and nutrient yield is predicted to increase in the wet season and decrease in the dry. Overall, the annual discharge and nutrient yield is projected to increase throughout the twenty-first century, suggesting sensitivity in the 3S River Basin to climate and land-use change. The results of this study can assist water resources managers and planners in developing water management strategies for uncertain climate change scenarios in the 3S River Basin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Numerical Modeling for Flood Mapping under Climate Change Impacts: Transboundary Dniester River Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheleznyak, Mark; Kolomiets, Pavlo; Dzjuba, Natalia; Ievgen, Ievgen; Sorokin, Maxim; Denisov, Nickolai; Ischuk, Oleksiy; Koeppel, Sonja

    2015-04-01

    The Dniester river is shared by Ukraine and Moldova. Ukraine being both upstream and downstream of Moldova. The basin is especially suffering from heavy floods, often with transboundary impacts: in Ukraine, disastrous floods in July 2008, which were possibly partly caused or exacerbated by climate change. Within the UNECE | ENVSEC project "Reducing vulnerability to extreme floods and climate change in the Dniester river basin" the numerical flood risks mapping for several "hot spots" along the Dniester river was initiated Two transboundary sites: "Mohyliv Podylskiy- Ataki" and "Dubossary HPP-, Mayaki" (in the delta zone) were chosen for flood risk modelling/mapping. . Floodplain inundation at Mohyliv Podylskiy- Ataki during historical and projected extreme floods scenarios is simulated by 2D model COASTOX -UN based on the numerical solution of shallow water equations on unstructured grid. The scenario of extreme flood, July 2008 that caused hazardous flooding of the riverside areas of Mohyliv Podylskiy has been used for model verification and calibration. The floodmarks of the inundated in 2008 streets have been collected and GIS processed to be used together with the data from the city's water gage station for model testing. The comparison of the simulated dynamics of floodplain inundation during 2008 flood with the observed data show good accuracy of the model. The technologies of the flood modeling and GIS based risk assessments verified for this site are implemented for analyses of the vulnerability to extreme floods for Q=7600 m3 / sec inflow to Dniester reservoir ( 1% flood for contemporary climate assessment) and for Q=8700 m3 / sec. that is considered as projection of 1% flood maximum for XXI century The detailed flood mapping was provided for all cases and was shown that 13% increase in water elevation for future extreme flood scenario will provide at 20% increasing of flooded areas in Mohilev Podolsky. For the site Dubossary NPP in Moldova downstream till

  17. Proceedings of a USGS Workshop on Facing Tomorrow's Challenges Along the U.S.-Mexico Border - Monitoring, Modeling, and Forecasting Change Within the Arizona-Sonora Transboundary Watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Hirsch, Derrick D.; Ward, A. Wesley

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO THE WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS Competition for water resources, habitats, and urban areas in the Borderlands has become an international concern. In the United States, Department of Interior Bureaus, Native American Tribes, and other State and Federal partners rely on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide unbiased science and leadership in the Borderlands region. Consequently, the USGS hosted a workshop, ?Facing Tomorrow?s Challenges along the U.S.-Mexico Border,? on March 20?22, 2007, in Tucson, Ariz., focused specifically on monitoring, modeling, and forecasting change within the Arizona-Sonora Transboundary Watersheds

  18. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-03-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world's largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  19. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modelin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-01-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world’s largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  20. One-year Characterization of PM2.5 Chemical Composition Influenced by Transboundary Haze in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, M.; Fujii, Y.; Tohno, S.; Sakai, N.; Sulong, N. A.; A Wahab, M. I.; Latif, M. T.

    2016-12-01

    A one-year field sampling campaign was performed in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from June, 2015 to May, 2016. The purpose of the campaign was chemical characterization and source apportionment of PM2.5 influenced by the Indonesian peatland fires during dry season. PM2.5 aerosols were collected on quartz fiber filters and PTFE filters with high and low volume air samplers, respectively. Five to fifteen sets of PM2.5 filter samples were obtained every month. PTFE filters were weighed with a microbalance under a temperature and humidity controlled atmosphere before and after the samplings to determine PM2.5 mass concentrations. Quartz fiber filters were subjected to different analyses, including water-soluble inorganic ions, carbonaceous components (EC and OC) and some specific organic components indicating biomass burning origin (biomarkers) by ion chromatography, thermal-optical analysis, and gas chromatograph mass spectrometry, respectively. Annual average PM2.5 mass concentration was 39 μg m-3. However, PM2.5 mass concentrations during June to October showed much higher levels and the levels were sometimes elevated to over 200 μg m-3 in September and October. Additionally, concentrations of sulfate ions also increased up to over 3 μg m-3 in September. Potassium ion, indicator of biomass burning did not exhibit significant difference from the mean annual level. Satellite images showed many hotspots of peatland fires have been detected in the Sumatra and Kalimantan Islands in Indonesia from June to October of dry season. Remarkable increase of PM2.5 levels in Kuala Lumpur can be attributed to the transboundary haze from Indonesian peatland fires by southwestern monsoon. Influence of the transboundary haze on PM2.5 in Malaysia is comprehensively discussed in combination with carbonaceous components and biomarkers data.

  1. Statistical prediction of seasonal discharge in Central Asia for water resources management: development of a generic (pre-)operational modeling tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Heiko; Baimaganbetov, Azamat; Kalashnikova, Olga; Gavrilenko, Nadejda; Abdykerimova, Zharkinay; Agalhanova, Marina; Gerlitz, Lars; Unger-Shayesteh, Katy; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Gafurov, Abror

    2017-04-01

    The semi-arid regions of Central Asia crucially depend on the water resources supplied by the mountainous areas of the Tien-Shan and Pamirs. During the summer months the snow and glacier melt dominated river discharge originating in the mountains provides the main water resource available for agricultural production, but also for storage in reservoirs for energy generation during the winter months. Thus a reliable seasonal forecast of the water resources is crucial for a sustainable management and planning of water resources. In fact, seasonal forecasts are mandatory tasks of all national hydro-meteorological services in the region. In order to support the operational seasonal forecast procedures of hydromet services, this study aims at the development of a generic tool for deriving statistical forecast models of seasonal river discharge. The generic model is kept as simple as possible in order to be driven by available hydrological and meteorological data, and be applicable for all catchments with their often limited data availability in the region. As snowmelt dominates summer runoff, the main meteorological predictors for the forecast models are monthly values of winter precipitation and temperature as recorded by climatological stations in the catchments. These data sets are accompanied by snow cover predictors derived from the operational ModSnow tool, which provides cloud free snow cover data for the selected catchments based on MODIS satellite images. In addition to the meteorological data antecedent streamflow is used as a predictor variable. This basic predictor set was further extended by multi-monthly means of the individual predictors, as well as composites of the predictors. Forecast models are derived based on these predictors as linear combinations of up to 3 or 4 predictors. A user selectable number of best models according to pre-defined performance criteria is extracted automatically by the developed model fitting algorithm, which includes a test

  2. Evaluation of seasonal water body extents in Central Asia over the past 27 years derived from medium-resolution remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Igor; Dietz, Andreas J.; Gessner, Ursula; Galayeva, Anastassiya; Myrzakhmetov, Akhan; Kuenzer, Claudia

    2014-02-01

    In this study medium resolution remote sensing data of the AVHRR and MODIS sensors were used for derivation of inland water bodies extents over a period from 1986 till 2012 for the region of Central Asia. Daily near-infrared (NIR) spectra from the AVHRR sensor with 1.1 km spatial resolution and 8-day NIR composites from the MODIS sensor with 250 m spatial resolution for the months April, July and September were used as input data. The methodological approach uses temporal dynamic thresholds for individual data sets, which allows detection of water pixel independent from differing conditions or sensor differences. The individual results are summed up and combined to monthly composites of areal extent of water bodies. The presented water masks for the months April, July, and September were chosen to detect seasonal patterns as well as inter-annual dynamics and show diverse behaviour of static, decreasing, or dynamic water bodies in the study region. The size of the Southern Aral Sea, as the most popular example for an ecologic catastrophe, is decreasing significantly throughout all seasons (R2 0.96 for April; 0.97 for July; 0.96 for September). Same is true for shallow natural lakes in the northern Kazakhstan, exemplary the Tengiz-Korgalzhyn lake system, which have been shrinking in the last two decades due to drier conditions (R2 0.91 for July; 0.90 for September). On the contrary, water reservoirs show high seasonality and are very dynamic within one year in their areal extent with maximum before growing season and minimum after growing season. Furthermore, there are water bodies such as Alakol-Sasykol lake system and natural mountainous lakes which have been stable in their areal extent throughout the entire time period. Validation was performed based on several Landsat images with 30 m resolution and reveals an overall accuracy of 83% for AVHRR and 91% for MODIS monthly water masks. The results should assist for climatological and ecological studies, land and

  3. Trans-Boundary Transport of Nutrients in the North Sea: a model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Molen, Johan; Ruardij, Piet; van Leeuwen, Sonja M.; Coughlan, Clare; Mills, David K.

    2010-05-01

    typically originating from the English Channel, and UK rivers contributing to UK coastal waters and waters described elsewhere as the East Anglian Plume. For coastal areas, anthropogenic Nitrogen contribute up to 70% to the total Nitrogen content, whereas for offshore areas the anthropogenic Nitrogen contribution was typically less than 30%. The results address a specific request of OSPAR to quantify the level of transboundary nutrient transport required in order to develop robust mitigation strategies required to eliminate eutrophication where it is has been detected.

  4. Water-soluble dicarboxylic acids and ketocarboxylic acids in the aerosols collected during ACE-Asia/C-130 aircraft campaign 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Mochida, M.; Uemoto, N.; Bertram, T.; Huebert, B.

    2001-12-01

    During the ACE-Asia campaign with C-130 aircraft, aerosol samples were collected over the western North Pacific, East China Sea, and Japan Sea, as well as over Japanese Islands and Korean Peninsula in 8 April to 3 May 2001. The filter samples (N=15) were extracted with organic-free pure water to separate water-soluble dicarboxylic acids and related compounds. The extracts were reacted with 14% BF3 in n-butanol and the dibutyl esters and other derivatives were determined using a capillary GC and GC/MS. The results showed that 14 species of diacids (C2-C11) and 4 species of ketoacids (C2-C4) were detected in the aerosols over the East Asia. Total concentrations of the diacids were 113-500 (av. 330) ng/m3 whereas those of ketoacids were 43-260 (av. 103) ng/m3. The concentrations are equivalent to or more abundant than those reported for the urban Tokyo atmosphere in this season on the ground level. All the samples showed that oxalic acid (C2) is the most abundant diacid, which accounted for 58-83% of total diacids. These values are greater than that (ca. 50%) reported in the urban air near the ground, suggesting that oxalic acid is preferentially produced and/or longer diacids are selectively decomposed in the upper troposphere. Malonic (C3) acid is the second most abundant species followed by succinic (C4) acid. Longer diacids are less abundant, but azelaic (C9) acid is generally more abundant than C6-C8 diacids. Glyoxylic acid (C2) is the most abundant ketoacid followed by pyruvic acid. However, C3 and C4 omega-oxoacids were found as minor species. Although oxalic acid is the dominant component in the aerosols, few samples showed the predominance of glyoxylic acid over oxalic acid. This feature has not been reported for the urban aerosols collected near the ground level. We will discuss a potential photochemical production of water-soluble organic acids in the upper troposphere over the eastern ridge of the Asian continent.

  5. Study on resources and environmental data integration towards data warehouse construction covering trans-boundary area of China, Russia and Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Song, J.; Gao, M.; Zhu, L.

    2014-02-01

    The trans-boundary area between Northern China, Mongolia and eastern Siberia of Russia is a continuous geographical area located in north eastern Asia. Many common issues in this region need to be addressed based on a uniform resources and environmental data warehouse. Based on the practice of joint scientific expedition, the paper presented a data integration solution including 3 steps, i.e., data collection standards and specifications making, data reorganization and process, data warehouse design and development. A series of data collection standards and specifications were drawn up firstly covering more than 10 domains. According to the uniform standard, 20 resources and environmental survey databases in regional scale, and 11 in-situ observation databases were reorganized and integrated. North East Asia Resources and Environmental Data Warehouse was designed, which included 4 layers, i.e., resources layer, core business logic layer, internet interoperation layer, and web portal layer. The data warehouse prototype was developed and deployed initially. All the integrated data in this area can be accessed online.

  6. Hemodialysis in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Narayan; Jha, Vivekanand

    2015-01-01

    from South and South-East Asia can offer access to HD only to a limited fraction of the patients in need. Even though the annual costs of HD are much lower in less developed countries (for instance 30 times lower in India compared to the US), patients often cannot afford costs not covered by health insurance. (2) The recommended dialysis pattern in the West is at least three sessions weekly with high-flux dialyzers. Studies from Shanghai and Taiwan might however indicate a benefit of twice versus thrice weekly sessions. In less developed Asian countries, a twice weekly pattern is common, sometimes with dialyzer reuse and inadequate water treatment. A majority of patients decrease session frequency or discontinue the program due to financial constraint. (3) As convective therapies are gaining popularity in Europe, penetration in Asia is low and limited by costs. (4) In Asian countries, in particular in the South and South-East, hepatitis and tuberculosis infections in HD patients are higher than in the West and substantially increase mortality. (5) Progress has recently been made in countries like Thailand and Brunei to provide universal HD access to all patients in need. Nevertheless, well-trained personnel, reliable registries and better patient follow-up would improve outcomes in low-income Asian countries. PMID:27536677

  7. ASSESSING TRANSBOUNDARY INFLUENCES IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY (COMMUNITY SUMMARY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP) was done to determine if movement of air pollutants across the U.S.-Mexico border was occurring in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (hereinafter called "the Valley") and, if so, the extent. The study w...

  8. Transboundary protected area proposals along the Southern Andes of Chile and Argentina: Status of current efforts

    Treesearch

    Peter Keller

    2007-01-01

    An evolving network of protected areas along the southern Andes of Chile and Argentina-the heart of Patagonia-are in various stages of evaluation and potential Transboundary Protected Area designations. This paper examines three such efforts. The first proposal is the North Andean-Patagonia Regional Eco-Corridor, which was the subject of a recent bilateral meeting...

  9. ASSESSING TRANSBOUNDARY INFLUENCES IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY (COMMUNITY SUMMARY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP) was done to determine if movement of air pollutants across the U.S.-Mexico border was occurring in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (hereinafter called "the Valley") and, if so, the extent. The study w...

  10. Transboundary Influences on Ozone Pollution in the United States: Present Conditions and Future Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Sager, P.; Wang, H.; Jacob, D. J.; Park, R. J.

    2007-12-01

    The GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model (v7-02-01) with 1° x1° horizontal resolution over North America is used to investigate the influence of transboundary pollution from Canada and Mexico on surface ozone in the United States. We conduct a series of 4 simulations for present day conditions: (1) a standard simulation with 2001 anthropogenic emissions worldwide, (2) with zero U.S. anthropogenic emissions, (3) with zero anthropogenic emission in North America (Canada, U.S. and Mexico), and (4) with 2006 East Asian emissions and no emission in North America. For future projections, we repeat (1)-(3) with a 2020 worldwide emissions inventory, in addition to a run with U.S. Power plant emissions switched off. The standard simulation is evaluated with observations for U.S. regions most sensitive to transboundary pollution (northeast for Canada, southwest for Mexico). Monthly mean ozone enhancements from transboundary pollution are in the 5-10 ppb range for these regions in June-August, but can exceed 30 ppbv under conditions when ozone is above the U.S. air quality standard (84 ppbv). Unlike intercontinental pollution influence which mainly contributes to the ozone background and is depleted during regional smog episodes, transboundary pollution influence from Canada and Mexico is highly variable and can contribute significantly to these episodes.

  11. Aerosols over Eastern Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of eastern Asia from October 14, 2001, shows large amounts of aerosol in the air. A few possible point sources of smoke, probably fires, are visible north of the Amur River at the very top of the image. One of the larger of these plumes can be seen down river of the confluence of the Songhua and Amur rivers. At lower left, the Yangtze River plume in the East China Sea is also very prominent. Sediment suspended in the ocean water is quite brown near the shore, but becomes much greener as it diffuses into the water. The increasing greenness of the river plume is probably an indication of enhanced phytoplankton growth driven by the nutrients in the river runoff. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  12. Hydrogeological typologies of the Indo-Gangetic basin alluvial aquifer, South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonsor, H. C.; MacDonald, A. M.; Ahmed, K. M.; Burgess, W. G.; Basharat, M.; Calow, R. C.; Dixit, A.; Foster, S. S. D.; Gopal, K.; Lapworth, D. J.; Moench, M.; Mukherjee, A.; Rao, M. S.; Shamsudduha, M.; Smith, L.; Taylor, R. G.; Tucker, J.; van Steenbergen, F.; Yadav, S. K.; Zahid, A.

    2017-08-01

    The Indo-Gangetic aquifer is one of the world's most important transboundary water resources, and the most heavily exploited aquifer in the world. To better understand the aquifer system, typologies have been characterized for the aquifer, which integrate existing datasets across the Indo-Gangetic catchment basin at a transboundary scale for the first time, and provide an alternative conceptualization of this aquifer system. Traditionally considered and mapped as a single homogenous aquifer of comparable aquifer properties and groundwater resource at a transboundary scale, the typologies illuminate significant spatial differences in recharge, permeability, storage, and groundwater chemistry across the aquifer system at this transboundary scale. These changes are shown to be systematic, concurrent with large-scale changes in sedimentology of the Pleistocene and Holocene alluvial aquifer, climate, and recent irrigation practices. Seven typologies of the aquifer are presented, each having a distinct set of challenges and opportunities for groundwater development and a different resilience to abstraction and climate change. The seven typologies are: (1) the piedmont margin, (2) the Upper Indus and Upper-Mid Ganges, (3) the Lower Ganges and Mid Brahmaputra, (4) the fluvially influenced deltaic area of the Bengal Basin, (5) the Middle Indus and Upper Ganges, (6) the Lower Indus, and (7) the marine-influenced deltaic areas.

  13. Hydrogeological typologies of the Indo-Gangetic basin alluvial aquifer, South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonsor, H. C.; MacDonald, A. M.; Ahmed, K. M.; Burgess, W. G.; Basharat, M.; Calow, R. C.; Dixit, A.; Foster, S. S. D.; Gopal, K.; Lapworth, D. J.; Moench, M.; Mukherjee, A.; Rao, M. S.; Shamsudduha, M.; Smith, L.; Taylor, R. G.; Tucker, J.; van Steenbergen, F.; Yadav, S. K.; Zahid, A.

    2017-02-01

    The Indo-Gangetic aquifer is one of the world's most important transboundary water resources, and the most heavily exploited aquifer in the world. To better understand the aquifer system, typologies have been characterized for the aquifer, which integrate existing datasets across the Indo-Gangetic catchment basin at a transboundary scale for the first time, and provide an alternative conceptualization of this aquifer system. Traditionally considered and mapped as a single homogenous aquifer of comparable aquifer properties and groundwater resource at a transboundary scale, the typologies illuminate significant spatial differences in recharge, permeability, storage, and groundwater chemistry across the aquifer system at this transboundary scale. These changes are shown to be systematic, concurrent with large-scale changes in sedimentology of the Pleistocene and Holocene alluvial aquifer, climate, and recent irrigation practices. Seven typologies of the aquifer are presented, each having a distinct set of challenges and opportunities for groundwater development and a different resilience to abstraction and climate change. The seven typologies are: (1) the piedmont margin, (2) the Upper Indus and Upper-Mid Ganges, (3) the Lower Ganges and Mid Brahmaputra, (4) the fluvially influenced deltaic area of the Bengal Basin, (5) the Middle Indus and Upper Ganges, (6) the Lower Indus, and (7) the marine-influenced deltaic areas.

  14. Selected water-soluble organic compounds found in size-resolved aerosols collected from urban, mountain and marine atmospheres over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gehui; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Xie, Mingjie; Hu, Shuyuan; Li, Jianjun; Zhou, Bianhong; Cao, Junji; An, Zhisheng

    2011-07-01

    Primary (i.e. sugars and sugar-alcohols) and secondary (i.e. carboxylic acids) water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) in size-segregated aerosols from the urban and mountain atmosphere of China and from the marine atmosphere in the outflow region of East Asia were characterized on a molecular level. Levoglucosan is the most abundant compound among the quantified WSOCs in the urban and mountain atmosphere, whose concentration at the urban site was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that at the mountain and marine sites. In contrast, malic, succinic and phthalic acids were dominant among the measured WSOCs at the marine site. In the urban air, sugars except levoglucosan gave a bimodal size distribution with a large peak in fine range (<2.1 μm) and a small peak in coarse range (≥2.1 μm) during winter, being opposite to those in spring. In contrast, these WSOCs at the mountain and marine sites dominated in the coarse range but diminished and even disappeared in the fine range. Geometric mean diameters (GMDs) of the measured WSOCs in the fine mode at the urban site were larger in winter than in spring. Levoglucosan and carboxylic acids except for azelaic and benzoic acids showed a larger GMD in the coarse mode at the marine site probably due to an increased hygroscopic growth.

  15. Feasibility of Rainwater Harvesting to fulfill potable water demand using quantitative water management in low-lying delta regions of Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, A.; Hossain, F.

    2016-12-01

    Low-lying deltas of Asian region are usually densely populated and located in developing countries situated at the downstream end of major rivers. Extensive dam construction by the upstream countries has now caused water scarcity in large portions of low-lying deltas. Most inhabitants depend on shallow tube well for safe drinking water that tend to suffer from water quality issues (e.g. Arsenic contamination). In addition, people also get infected from water borne diseases like Cholera and Typhoid due to lack of safe drinking water. Developing a centralized piped network based water supply system is often not a feasible option in rural regions. Due to social acceptability, environment friendliness, lower capital and maintenance cost, rainwater harvesting can be the most sustainable option to supply safe drinking water in rural areas. In this study, first we estimate the monthly rainfall variability using long precipitation climatology from satellite precipitation data. The upper and lower bounds of monthly harvestable rainwater were estimated for each satellite precipitation grid. Taking this lower bound of monthly harvestable rainwater as input, we use quantitative water management concept to determine the percent of the time of the year potable water demand can be fulfilled. Analysis indicates that a 6 m³ reservoir tank can fulfill the potable water demand of a 6 person family throughout a year in almost all parts of this region.

  16. Dam effects on droughts magnitude and duration in a transboundary basin: The Lower River Tagus, Spain and Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Moreno, J. I.; Vicente-Serrano, S. M.; BegueríA, S.; GarcíA-Ruiz, J. M.; Portela, M. M.; Almeida, A. B.

    2009-02-01

    This study examines the effects of a large dam on hydrological droughts in the transboundary Tagus River, central Spain and Portugal. The magnitude and duration of droughts are analyzed by comparing a monthly drought index calculated for the flow series upstream and downstream of the Alcántara reservoir. The dam was built in 1969, and the reservoir is the second largest in Europe (3,162 hm3). Water management in the area is complex because of large seasonal and interannual variability in the flow regime, which is characteristic of Mediterranean environments. This paper demonstrates that, as a result of exploitation of the Alcántara reservoir, (1) during periods of water scarcity, the releases in winter and spring are reduced dramatically and the magnitude and duration of summer low flow show a slight increase and (2) the nature of droughts along the Tagus river basin downstream of the dam has shown severe changes since construction of the dam. In fact, during the predam period (1943-1969), droughts were longer and more intense in the Spanish part of the basin than that in the Portuguese part. Since the construction of the Alcántara dam, however, the Portuguese part of the basin has experienced more severe droughts than did the upstream part in terms of both magnitude and duration.

  17. International borders, ground water flow, and hydroschizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Todd; Giordano, Mark; Puri, Shammy; Matsumoto, Kyoko; Wolf, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    A substantial body of research has been conducted on transboundary water, transboundary water law, and the mitigation of transboundary water conflict. However, most of this work has focused primarily on surface water supplies. While it is well understood that aquifers cross international boundaries and that the base flow of international river systems is often derived in part from ground water, transboundary ground water and surface water systems are usually managed under different regimes, resulting in what has been described as "hydroschizophrenia." Adding to the problem, the hydrologic relationships between surface and ground water supplies are only known at a reconnaissance level in even the most studied international basins, and thus even basic questions regarding the territorial sovereignty of ground water resources often remain unaddressed or even unasked. Despite the tensions inherent in the international setting, riparian nations have shown tremendous creativity in approaching regional development, often through preventive diplomacy, and the creation of "baskets of benefits," which allow for positive-sum, integrative allocations of joint gains. In contrast to the notion of imminent water wars, the history of hydropolitical relations worldwide has been overwhelmingly cooperative. Limited ground water management in the international arena, coupled with the fact that few states or countries regulate the use of ground water, begs the question: will international borders serve as boundaries for increased "flows" of hydrologic information and communication to maintain strategic aquifers, or will increased competition for shared ground water resources lead to the potential loss of strategic aquifers and "no flows" for both ground water users?

  18. Transboundary fisheries science: Meeting the challenges of inland fisheries management in the 21st century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Midway, Stephen R.; Wagner, Tyler; Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Irwin, Brian J.; Paukert, Craig P.

    2016-01-01

    Managing inland fisheries in the 21st century presents several obstacles, including the need to view fisheries from multiple spatial and temporal scales, which usually involves populations and resources spanning sociopolitical boundaries. Though collaboration is not new to fisheries science, inland aquatic systems have historically been managed at local scales and present different challenges than in marine or large freshwater systems like the Laurentian Great Lakes. Therefore, we outline a flexible strategy that highlights organization, cooperation, analytics, and implementation as building blocks toward effectively addressing transboundary fisheries issues. Additionally, we discuss the use of Bayesian hierarchical models (within the analytical stage), due to their flexibility in dealing with the variability present in data from multiple scales. With growing recognition of both ecological drivers that span spatial and temporal scales and the subsequent need for collaboration to effectively manage heterogeneous resources, we expect implementation of transboundary approaches to become increasingly critical for effective inland fisheries management.

  19. Impacts of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution on air quality in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bull, Keith; Johansson, Matti; Krzyzanowski, Michal

    2008-01-01

    The Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution has been one of the main ways of protecting the environment in Europe from air pollution. This convention has successfully bridged different political systems even through times of political change, and is a prime example of what can be achieved through intergovernmental cooperation. Through creating an effective framework for controlling and reducing the damage to human health and the environment from transboundary air pollution, this convention has proved successful. This article considers the development of the convention and its work on adverse air pollution effects, in particular on activities related to quantifying effects on human health as carried out by the convention's joint (with WHO) Task Force on the Health Effects of Air Pollution (Task Force on Health), and concludes with some indications of the convention's future priorities.

  20. JPRS Report East Asia Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-17

    aqua EAST EUROPE gold SOVIET UNION salmon EAST ASIA yellow NEAR EAST £ SOUTH ASIA. ..blue LATIN AMERICA pink WEST EUROPE ivory AFRICA (SUB...established with a view to improving technical knowledge. Then unified accounting was set up, particularly on behalf of the cadres who go out to...has reduced their number from 23 to 11, etc. In terms of management, through accounting and financial planning, it is possible to ascertain the

  1. JPRS Report, East Asia Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-14

    JPRS-SEA-90-017 14 JUNE 1990 JPRS Report— East Asia Southeast Asia REPRODUCED BY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION ...Rangoon THE WORKING PEOPLE’S DAILY in English 31 Mar 90 pp 12, 4, 6 [Excerpts] Yangon, 30 March—The Information Com- mittee of the State Law and Order...is found that rooms for tourists are insufficient. Hence, the Ministry of Trade is making arrangements for building new hotels in Yangon, Mandalay

  2. JPRS Report: East Asia, Southeast Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-13

    are a number of knowledgeable and well-educated people who don’t dare give their views. They are afraid of being branded as bad. They are afraid...exempts the eldest sons of war dead families), the children of Class-1 and Class-2 disabled veterans and Class-1 ill soldiers, and people with blood...19980515 091 East Asia Southeast Asia JPRS-SEA-91-003 CONTENTS 13 February 1991 BURMA Report on Border Area Development [THE WORKING PEOPLES DAILY

  3. Pathogenic Landscape of Transboundary Zoonotic Diseases in the Mexico-US Border Along the Rio Grande.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas-Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico-US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders.

  4. Pathogenic Landscape of Transboundary Zoonotic Diseases in the Mexico–US Border Along the Rio Grande

    PubMed Central

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P.; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas–Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico–US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders. PMID:25453027

  5. Communication strategy of transboundary air pollution findings in a US-Mexico Border XXI program project.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, Shaibal

    2002-01-01

    From 1996 to 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) conducted an air quality study known as the Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP). The study was a US-Mexico Border XXI program project and was developed in response to local community requests on a need for more air quality measurements and concerns about the health impact of local air pollutants; this included concerns about emissions from border-dependent industries in Mexico, known as maquiladoras. The TAPP was a follow-up study to environmental monitoring done by EPA in this area in 1993 and incorporated scientific and community participation in development, review of results, and public presentation of findings. In spite of this, critical remarks were leveled by community activists against the study's preliminary "good news" findings regarding local air quality and the influence of transboundary air pollution. To resolve these criticisms and to refine the findings to address these concerns, analyses included comparisons of daily and near real-time measurements to TNRCC effects screening levels and data from other studies along with wind sector analyses. Reassessment of the data suggested that although regional source emissions occurred and outliers of elevated pollutant levels were found, movement of air pollution across the border did not appear to cause noticeable deterioration of air quality. In spite of limitations stated to the community, the TAPP was presented as establishing a benchmark to assess current and future transboundary air quality in the Valley. The study has application in Border XXI Program or other air quality studies where transboundary transport is a concern since it involved interagency coordination, public involvement, and communication of scientifically sound results for local environmental protection efforts.

  6. Estimation of transboundary SO2 fluxes in Siberia and Russian Far East using EANET and OMI observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonova-Yakovleva, Alisa; Gromov, Sergey S.; Gromov, Sergey A.

    2017-04-01

    transport, respectively). This implies that the available satellite data covers well the periods of non-equilibrium air transport with elevated SO2 burdens, which to a certain extent is intrinsic to the PBL diurnal dynamics. The largest SO2 PBL import flux into Russia of about 80•103 tons/month is diagnosed in April and is nearly equally shared between the border segments with Chinese North and Russian Far East. The general circulation pattern renders import of SO2 into Russia prevailing throughout April-June and September-October, whilst smaller export fluxes of up to 20•103 tons/month are reckoned for February and November, respectively. Owing to the more scarcely available OMI data (corresponding to <5% of total net air transport), SO2 transport in January and December is poorly quantifiable. At last, we verify the reconstructed PBL mixing ratios from OMI and EI data against the SO2 observations available at selected background monitoring stations of the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET, http://www.eanet.asia/). Taking into account the substantial uncertainties (noise levels) inherited from the OMI-derived data, we ascertain that realistic distributions (viz. medians and interquartile ranges) were used for the calculations in this study. Overall, we conclude that similar analysis may be employed for other species of interest (e.g. ozone or ammonia), and the first attempt was already done [3]. Conjoint use of the EI, OMI and EANET data allows analysing transboundary fluxes of SO2 for the period extending beyond past decade. 0.1 References 1. Dee, D. P., et al.: The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system, Quart. J. Royal Met. Soc., 137, 553597, doi: 10.1002/qj.828, 2011. 2. Krotkov, N. A., et al.: Aura OMI observations of regional SO2 and NO2 pollution changes from 2005 to 2015, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4605-4629, doi: 10.5194/acp-16-4605-2016, 2016. 3. Gromov, S. A., et al.: Evaluation of tropospheric

  7. An Agent-Based Modeling Approach for Determining Corn Stover Removal Rate and Transboundary Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Jianbang; Langeveld, J. W. A.; Smith, C. T.

    2014-02-01

    Bioenergy production involves different agents with potentially different objectives, and an agent's decision often has transboundary impacts on other agents along the bioenergy value chain. Understanding and estimating the transboundary impacts is essential to portraying the interactions among the different agents and in the search for the optimal configuration of the bioenergy value chain. We develop an agent-based model to mimic the decision making by feedstock producers and feedstock-to-biofuel conversion plant operators and propose multipliers (i.e., ratios of economic values accruing to different segments and associated agents in the value chain) for assessing the transboundary impacts. Our approach is generic and thus applicable to a variety of bioenergy production systems at different sites and geographic scales. We apply it to the case of producing ethanol using corn stover in Iowa, USA. The results from the case study indicate that stover removal rate is site specific and varies considerably with soil type, as well as other factors, such as stover price and harvesting cost. In addition, ethanol production using corn stover in the study region would have strong positive ripple effects, with the values of multipliers varying with greenhouse gas price and national energy security premium. The relatively high multiplier values suggest that a large portion of the value associated with corn stover ethanol production would accrue to the downstream end of the value chain instead of stover producers.

  8. An agent-based modeling approach for determining corn stover removal rate and transboundary effects.

    PubMed

    Gan, Jianbang; Langeveld, J W A; Smith, C T

    2014-02-01

    Bioenergy production involves different agents with potentially different objectives, and an agent's decision often has transboundary impacts on other agents along the bioenergy value chain. Understanding and estimating the transboundary impacts is essential to portraying the interactions among the different agents and in the search for the optimal configuration of the bioenergy value chain. We develop an agent-based model to mimic the decision making by feedstock producers and feedstock-to-biofuel conversion plant operators and propose multipliers (i.e., ratios of economic values accruing to different segments and associated agents in the value chain) for assessing the transboundary impacts. Our approach is generic and thus applicable to a variety of bioenergy production systems at different sites and geographic scales. We apply it to the case of producing ethanol using corn stover in Iowa, USA. The results from the case study indicate that stover removal rate is site specific and varies considerably with soil type, as well as other factors, such as stover price and harvesting cost. In addition, ethanol production using corn stover in the study region would have strong positive ripple effects, with the values of multipliers varying with greenhouse gas price and national energy security premium. The relatively high multiplier values suggest that a large portion of the value associated with corn stover ethanol production would accrue to the downstream end of the value chain instead of stover producers.

  9. How Widely Applicable is River Basin Management? An Analysis of Wastewater Management in an Arid Transboundary Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombrowsky, Ines; Almog, Ram; Becker, Nir; Feitelson, Eran; Klawitter, Simone; Lindemann, Stefan; Mutlak, Natalie

    2010-05-01

    The basin scale has been promoted universally as the optimal management unit that allows for the internalization of all external effects caused by multiple water uses. However, the basin scale has been put forward largely on the basis of experience in temperate zones. Hence whether the basin scale is the best scale for management in other settings remains questionable. To address these questions this paper analyzes the economic viability and the political feasibility of alternative management options in the Kidron/Wadi Nar region. The Kidron/Wadi Nar is a small basin in which wastewater from eastern Jerusalem flows through the desert to the Dead Sea. Various options for managing these wastewater flows were analyzed ex ante on the basis of both a cost benefit and a multi-criteria analysis. The paper finds that due to economies of scale, a pure basin approach is not desirable from a physical and economic perspective. Furthermore, in terms of political feasibility, it seems that the option which prompts the fewest objections from influential stakeholder groups in the two entities under the current asymmetrical political setting is not a basin solution either, but a two plant solution based on an outsourcing arrangement. These findings imply that the river basin management approach can not be considered the best management approach for the arid transboundary case at hand, and hence is not unequivocally universally applicable.

  10. RAINS-ASIA: An assessment model for acid deposition in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, R.J.; Ramankutty, R.; Shah, J.J.

    1997-08-31

    Asia`s rapid economic growth has fueled a growing appetite for commercial energy, which is satisfied by fossil fuels that emit pollutants. These pollutants are oxidized and transported into the atmosphere, creating acidic depositions known as acid rain that can damage foliage, soils, and surface waters. At current energy consumption growth rates, by the year 2000 sulfur dioxide emissions from Asia will surpass the emissions of North America and Europe combined. RAINS-ASIA is an assessment tool developed by the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, and donors to study the implications of alternative energy development strategies for air pollution and acid rain and to help identify cost-effective abatement methods. This report provides an overview of the model and some results of analyses that have been conducted as part of the RAINS-ASIA program.

  11. Allocating responsibility for environmental risks: A comparative analysis of examples from water governance.

    PubMed

    Doorn, Neelke

    2017-03-01

    The focus of the present study is on the allocation of responsibilities for addressing environmental risks in transboundary water governance. Effective environmental management in transboundary situations requires coordinated and cooperative action among diverse individuals and organizations. Currently, little insight exists on how to foster collective action such that individuals and organizations take the responsibility to address transboundary environmental risks. On the basis of 4 cases of transboundary water governance, it will be shown how certain allocation principles are more likely to encourage cooperative action. The main lesson from these case studies is that the allocation of responsibilities should be seen as a risk distribution problem, including considerations of effectiveness, efficiency, and fairness. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:371-375. © 2016 SETAC.

  12. Is Central Asia really exsiccating?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E. M.; Surazakov, A. B.

    2008-12-01

    At the end of 20th and the beginning of 21st century central Asia oases suffered from serious drought caused lack of water for agriculture, economy growth and population increase. However, people of this region always experienced lack of water for irrigation and fought a war over the rights to control river streams. The drying up of central Asian rivers is not a new phenomenon according to the ancient manuscripts. Thus, lets see about what has happened with the past century climate and water resources of central Asia using the long-term observational data. We analyzed data from more than 200 meteorological stations and stream gauges over the central Asia in elevation range from 25 m. b.s.l. to 4,000 m. a.s.l. to understand the last 100 years variability in climate and water resources, examining changes in the extreme and mean monthly air temperatures, precipitation and river runoff. The evaluation of seasonal snow and glacier's covered areas between 1970th and 2007th in central Asia derived from AVHRR, MODIS, Hexagon KH-9, Landsat ETM and ASTER data exhibit 15% reduction of the seasonal snow covered area and 10.1% of the glacier area. It has been found that during last twenty years the duration of snowmelt, from the date of maximum snow cover to date of its disappearance, reduced by 30 days and in 2007 was equal to 138 days in the central Asian mountains. The decrease of seasonal snow cover is not a linear process. The further decrease may be accelerated due to increase of rainfall instead of snowfall in early spring months at high elevations, and consequently a lesser heat expenditure for the snowmelt. The growth in summer air temperatures, especially observable since the 1970th, accompanied by increase of evapotranspiration and precipitation, notably in summer and autumn, and at high elevations over 3,000 m, and at the western peripheral mountain ridges. Average difference in the means of annual air temperatures for the two thirty-year periods before and after

  13. Radiocarbon-Based Source Apportionment of the Water-Soluble Organic Carbon (wsoc) of Atmospheric Aerosols in South and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillova, E. N.; Sheesley, R. J.; Andersson, A.; Gustafsson, O.; Safai, P. D.; Budhavant, K.; Rao, P. S.; Kang, E.; Han, J.; Lee, M.

    2011-12-01

    The air quality and regional climate in South and East Asia are considerably affected by atmospheric aerosols produced by anthropogenic activities. Recent studies have investigated the sources of the black carbon aerosol component in these regions. This study seeks to make progress in apportioning the sources of the water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) component, which makes up 20-65% of the carbonaceous aerosol mass in these areas. WSOC is important as it enhances the ability of particles to serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and, therefore, has an impact on regional climate and radiative forcing. Atmospheric particulate matter was collected during fifteen-month continuous sampling campaigns Jan 2008 - March 2009 at both the Maldives Climate Observatory at Hannimaadho (MCOH) and at the Sinhagad hilltop sampling site of the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (SIN) in central-western India. The radiocarbon method is an ideal approach to identify fossil sources (14C "dead") compared to biogenic and biomass combustion products (with a contemporary 14C signal). WSOC is a large fraction of organic aerosols and its annual average contribution to TOC during 2008 is 26% at MCOH and 40% at SIN. There is a distinct seasonal variability in WSOC concentrations at both sites with high concentrations during the winter season (0.92±0.49μg m-3 at MCOH and 3.5±2.0μg m-3 at SIN) and very low concentrations during the summer monsoon season (0.08±0.04μg m-3 at MCOH and 0.27±0.20μg m-3 at SIN). The radiocarbon source apportionment of WSOC in winter dry season was similar at MCOH and SIN with 80-85% from biogenic/biomass combustion and the rest from fossil fuel precursors. For the rest of the year, the biogenic/biomass contribution to WSOC is higher at the Indian Ocean site (86-93%) compared to the Indian site (74-83%). In March 2011 the GoPoEx2011 intensive sampling campaign at the Gosan ABC Superstation, Jeju Island, South Korea was dedicated to study atmospheric

  14. Unification of South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-03

    time. Even protest movements that sprang from its fold, like Jainism and Buddhism, remained part of the Hindu fold. These protestant religions were more...Asia: for example, Jainism , Buddhism, Sikhism and Christians. The Hindus are the descendants of the Aryans, nomadic people of Central Asia who

  15. AED in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is an independent, nonprofit, charitable organization that operates development programs in the United States and throughout the world. This directory presents an overview of AED endeavors in Asia. AED's work in Asia has centered on institution-building, taking advantage of its…

  16. Transboundary movement of marine litter in an estuarine gradient: Evaluating sources and sinks using hydrodynamic modelling and ground truthing estimates.

    PubMed

    Krelling, Allan Paul; Souza, Mihael Machado; Williams, Allan Thomas; Turra, Alexander

    2017-06-15

    Marine debris' transboundary nature and new strategies to identify sources and sinks in coastal areas were investigated along the Paranaguá estuarine gradient (southern Brazil), through integration of hydrodynamic modelling, ground truthing estimates and regressive vector analysis. The simulated release of virtual particles in different parts of the inner estuary suggests a residence time shorter than 5days before being exported through the estuary mouth (intermediate compartment) to the open ocean. Stranded litter supported this pathway, with beaches in the internal compartment presenting proportionally more items from domestic sources, while fragmented items with unknown sources were proportionally more abundant in the oceanic beaches. Regressive vector analysis reinforced the inner estuarine origin of the stranded litter in both estuarine and oceanic beaches. These results support the applicability of simple hydrodynamic models to address marine debris' transboundary issues in the land-sea transition zone, thus supporting an ecosystem transboundary (and not territorial) management approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Vietnam: TAP CHI CONG SAN, No. 1, January 1989 %

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 xmcQuiim Brazil ) 1 East Asia Southeast Asia Vietnam: TAP CHI CONG SAN No 1 January...regions. Tobacco accounts for 17 percent of the area and 32 percent of the yield. Jute accounts for 14 percent of the yield. Coconuts account for 90...Besides this, Seaprodex helped the Nam Can joint ven- ture import 558 generators of various sizes, 458 "may thuy" [ water machines] of various

  18. Contributions of trans-boundary transport to summertime air quality in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiarui; Li, Guohui; Cao, Junji; Bei, Naifang; Wang, Yichen; Feng, Tian; Huang, Rujin; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Qiang; Tie, Xuexi

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, the WRF-CHEM model is used to evaluate the contributions of trans-boundary transport to the air quality in Beijing during a persistent air pollution episode from 5 to 14 July 2015 in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), China. Generally, the predicted temporal variations and spatial distributions of PM2.5 (fine particulate matter), O3 (ozone), and NO2 are in good agreement with observations in BTH. The WRF-CHEM model also reproduces reasonably well the temporal variations of aerosol species compared to measurements in Beijing. The factor separation approach is employed to evaluate the contributions of trans-boundary transport of non-Beijing emissions to the PM2.5 and O3 levels in Beijing. On average, in the afternoon during the simulation episode, the local emissions contribute 22.4 % to the O3 level in Beijing, less than 36.6 % from non-Beijing emissions. The O3 concentrations in Beijing are decreased by 5.1 % in the afternoon due to interactions between local and non-Beijing emissions. The non-Beijing emissions play a dominant role in the PM2.5 level in Beijing, with a contribution of 61.5 %, much higher than 13.7 %, from Beijing local emissions. The emission interactions between local and non-Beijing emissions enhance the PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing, with a contribution of 5.9 %. Therefore, the air quality in Beijing is generally determined by the trans-boundary transport of non-Beijing emissions during summertime, showing that the cooperation with neighboring provinces to mitigate pollutant emissions is key for Beijing to improve air quality.

  19. Overview of the perceived risk of transboundary pig diseases in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mokoele, Japhta M; Janse van Rensburg, Leana; van Lochem, Shanie; Bodenstein, Heinz; du Plessis, Jacolette; Carrington, Chris A P; Spencer, B Tom; Fasina, Folorunso O

    2015-05-22

    Pig production is one of the most important animal agricultural activities in South Africa, and plays a definite role in providing food security for certain population groups in the country. As with all animal production systems, it is subject to the risk of outbreak of transboundary diseases. In the present overview, evaluations of the perceived risk of selected transboundary animal diseases of pigs, as collated from the willing participants from the provincial veterinary services of South Africa, are presented. A scenario tree revealed that infected but undetected pigs were the greatest perceived threat. The provincial veterinary services, according to participants in the study, face certain difficulties, including the reporting of disease and the flow of disease information amongst farmers. Perceived strengths in surveillance and disease monitoring include the swiftness of sample despatch to the national testing laboratory, as well as the ease of flow of information between the provincial and national agricultural authorities. The four factors were identified that were perceived to most influence animal health-service delivery: transport, access, livestock policy and resources. African swine fever was perceived to be the most important pig disease in South Africa. Because the decentralisation of veterinary services in South Africa was identified as a potential weakness, it is recommended that national and provincial veterinary services need to work together and interdependently to achieve centrally controlled surveillance systems. Regionally-coordinated surveillance activities for certain transboundary diseases were identified as needing priority for the southern African region. It is proposed that an emergency preparedness document be made available and regularly revised according to the potential risks identified on a continuous basis for South Africa.

  20. Neurology in Asia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chong-Tin

    2015-02-10

    Asia is important as it accounts for more than half of the world population. The majority of Asian countries fall into the middle income category. As for cultural traditions, Asia is highly varied, with many languages spoken. The pattern of neurologic diseases in Asia is largely similar to the West, with some disease features being specific to Asia. Whereas Asia constitutes 60% of the world's population, it contains only 20% of the world's neurologists. This disparity is particularly evident in South and South East Asia. As for neurologic care, it is highly variable depending on whether it is an urban or rural setting, the level of economic development, and the system of health care financing. To help remedy the shortage of neurologists, most counties with larger populations have established training programs in neurology. These programs are diverse, with many areas of concern. There are regional organizations serving as a vehicle for networking in neurology and various subspecialties, as well as an official journal (Neurology Asia). The Asian Epilepsy Academy, with its emphasis on workshops in various locations, EEG certification examination, and fellowships, may provide a template of effective regional networking for improving neurology care in the region.

  1. Anticipating Central Asian Water Stress: Variation in River Flow Dependency on Melt Waters from Alpine to Plains in the Remote Tien Shan Range, Kyrgyzstan Using a Rapid Hydro Assessment Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, A. F.; Wilson, A. M.; Williams, M. W.

    2016-12-01

    The future of mountain water resources in High Asia is of high interest to water managers, development organizations and policy makers given large populations downstream reliant on snow and ice sourced river flow. Together with historical and cultural divides among ex-Soviet republics, a lack of central water management following the Soviet break-up has led to water stress as trans-boundary waters weave through and along borders. New upstream hydropower development, a thirsty downstream agricultural sector and a shrinking Aral Sea has led to increasing tension in the region. Despite these pressures and in contrast to eastern High Asia's Himalayan basins (Ganges, Brahmaputra), little attention has been given to western High Asia draining the Pamir and Tien Shan ranges (Syr Darya and Amu Darya basins) to better understand the hydrology of this vast and remote area. Difficult access and challenging terrain exacerbate challenges to working in this remote mountain region. As part of the Contributions to High Asia Runoff from Ice and Snow (CHARIS) project, we asked how does river flow source water composition change over an alpine-to-plains domain of Kyrgyzstan's Naryn River in the Syr Darya basin? In addition, what may the future hold for river flow in Central Asia given the differing responses of snow and ice to climate changes? Utilizing a Rapid Hydrologic Assessment methodology including a suite of pre-field mapping techniques we collected in situ water chemistry data at targeted, remote mountain sites over 450km of the Naryn River over an elevation gradient from glacial headwaters to the lower lying areas - places where people, hydropower and agriculture utilize water. Chemical and isotope tracers were used to separate stream flow to understand relative dependency on melt waters as the river moves downstream from glaciers and snow covered areas. This case study demonstrates a technique to acquire field data over large scales in remote regions that facilitates

  2. Border Security Fencing and Wildlife: The End of the Transboundary Paradigm in Eurasia?

    PubMed

    Linnell, John D C; Trouwborst, Arie; Boitani, Luigi; Kaczensky, Petra; Huber, Djuro; Reljic, Slaven; Kusak, Josip; Majic, Aleksandra; Skrbinsek, Tomaz; Potocnik, Hubert; Hayward, Matt W; Milner-Gulland, E J; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Olson, Kirk A; Badamjav, Lkhagvasuren; Bischof, Richard; Zuther, Steffen; Breitenmoser, Urs

    2016-06-01

    The ongoing refugee crisis in Europe has seen many countries rush to construct border security fencing to divert or control the flow of people. This follows a trend of border fence construction across Eurasia during the post-9/11 era. This development has gone largely unnoticed by conservation biologists during an era in which, ironically, transboundary cooperation has emerged as a conservation paradigm. These fences represent a major threat to wildlife because they can cause mortality, obstruct access to seasonally important resources, and reduce effective population size. We summarise the extent of the issue and propose concrete mitigation measures.

  3. The art of trans-boundary governance: the case of synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Joy Y

    2013-09-01

    Synthetic biology raises few, if any, social concerns that are distinctively new. Similar to many other convergent technologies, synthetic biology's interface across various scientific communities and interests groups presents an incessant challenge to political and conceptual boundaries. However, the scale and intensity of these interfaces seem to necessitate a reflection over how corresponding governance capacities can be developed. This paper argues that, in addition to existing regulatory approaches, such capacities may be gained through the art of trans-boundary governance, which is not only attentive to the crossing and erosion of particular boundaries but also adept in keeping up with the dynamics among evolving networks of actors.

  4. Border Security Fencing and Wildlife: The End of the Transboundary Paradigm in Eurasia?

    PubMed Central

    Linnell, John D. C.; Trouwborst, Arie; Boitani, Luigi; Kaczensky, Petra; Kusak, Josip; Skrbinsek, Tomaz; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Bischof, Richard; Breitenmoser, Urs

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing refugee crisis in Europe has seen many countries rush to construct border security fencing to divert or control the flow of people. This follows a trend of border fence construction across Eurasia during the post-9/11 era. This development has gone largely unnoticed by conservation biologists during an era in which, ironically, transboundary cooperation has emerged as a conservation paradigm. These fences represent a major threat to wildlife because they can cause mortality, obstruct access to seasonally important resources, and reduce effective population size. We summarise the extent of the issue and propose concrete mitigation measures. PMID:27331878

  5. Terrorism in Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-11-18

    Asia , particularly those in the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia , and, to a lesser extent, Thailand, that are known or alleged to have ties to the...Southeast Asia ,” Heritage Lectures, No.773, Delivered December 13, 2002, [http://www.heritage.org (continued...) Malaysia Malaysia’s former Prime...Relations. CRS Report RS20572. Indonesian Separatist Movement in Aceh. CRS Issue Brief IB97004. Japan-U.S. Relations. CRS-32 Figure 1. Southeast Asia Maps CRS-33 Figure 2. Indonesia CRS-34 Figure 3. Malaysia

  6. Zika virus in Asia.

    PubMed

    Duong, Veasna; Dussart, Philippe; Buchy, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored.

  7. Planning and Design of Water Resources Systems Under Climate Change and Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzepek, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Regional and local water supplies and demands are impacted by global and national systems: climate, economics, population and energy as well as policies: development, energy, and environmental. These drivers can result in complex interactions that require deeper understanding in order to provide actionable information for water planners and stakeholders to develop strategic plans in the face of a changing and growing world. To add more complexity to this issue is the fact that all these drivers are uncertain and the type of uncertainty is not the same. This talk will address approaches to Water Resource Planning at sub-national water regions, national levels and trans-boundary river basins under a non-stationary hydro-climatic future. Additionally the talk will address the design of specific water resource projects such as reservoirs and hydroplants that are being designed now but will operate far in the future when the hydro-climatology will be very different. Examples will be drawn from recent work in Africa, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, and North America and some insights and outstanding questions will be presented.

  8. Pass Over Southeastern Asia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This video over Southeastern Asia was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Oct. 7, 2011, from 12:41:10 to 12:50:46 GMT, on ...

  9. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-12

    South - East Asia unloading dollars in the expectation that the US currency will fall still further. In Tokyo, the US dollar closed at 222.10 yen after a...consideration of the fact that South - East Asia, despite the concept of Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality (ZOPFAN), is still a zone of...at McMurdo and South Pole, I accepted in microseconds and waited some months with impatience. Christchurch, in New Zealand’s South Island, is the US

  10. Long range transport of nitrate in the low atmosphere over Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jikang; Xu, Jun; He, Youjiang; Chen, Yunbo; Meng, Fan

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the source-relationships were established for surface nitrate concentrations in Northeast Asia, using the Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) in the CAMx (a regional chemical transport model). Both of the local emissions and Chinese emissions were important among the sources of the particle nitrate in Japan and South Korea, accounting for 27.9-62.9% and 22.9-50.5% respectively. The local contributions of nitrate were 4-20% higher than the figures of sulfate, and this was caused by the different chemical processes and emissions involved. The seasonal variation of the nitrate concentration in East Asia led to different amounts of nitrate being attributed to long-range transport, and was higher in winter (>53%) than in summer (<41%). The interactions between ammonia/ammonium, sulfate and nitrate were also discussed. The distribution of degree of sulfate neutralization (DSN) and the adjusted gas ratio (AdjGR) in East Asia suggested that the particle nitrate concentration was most sensitive to changes in the total ammonia in most parts of Japan and some regions of South Korea. And that was different in most parts of East Asia, where there were large quantities of ammonia. The ammonia from local emissions were most likely responsible for some particulate nitrate being transformed from trans-boundary gaseous nitric, which signified that local emissions of ammonia increased the contribution of China to the nitrate concentrations in Japan and South Korea.

  11. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-15

    Louangphachit [PASASON 18 Nov] ...., 21 MALAYSIA ECONOMIC Proton To Start Plant in Chile [BERITA HARIAN 14 Nov] 22 THAILAND MILITARY Opinion...Minister of Defense and Security] L.B. Murdani said that sociocultural problems are latent throughout the Asia Pacific area, including Southeast...can learn that the country disintegrated because of sociocultural problems and not because of military, sociopolitical, or socioeconomic issues. He

  12. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-23

    interests of socialism and peace and stability in the region and the world over." /12913 CSO: 4209/663 PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF KAMPUCHEA KAMPUCHEA...will be further strengthened and developed for the social development of each country and for peace and stability in the region and the world. [Text...contributed to the safeguarding of peace and stability in Indochina, Southeast Asia and the world. We are very proud of these successes and consider

  13. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Economic Management 7 PASASON Sees Need for Enterprises To Adopt Capitalist Expertise 7 MALAYSIA Mahathir Hands Over $100,000 to PLO 9 Libyan...Diplomats in Malaysia Spearhead Asia-Pacific ’Offensive’ 9 Mahathir Warns Japanese Investors About ’Western Media Distortion’ 10 Negotiations To...9604 JPRS-SEA-88-033 10 August 1988 FIJI Study of Nation’s Leadership 42130148a Kuala Lumpur UTUSAN MALAYSIA in Malay 2 Jun 88 p 6 [Article by

  14. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    facilities, facilities which have proven to be reliable and far less expensive. And to sweeten the pot the Soviet Union also offered to let...interior of Sichuan Province, and this facility has even launched a U.S. artificial satellite. The AsiaSat 1 satellite was launched there recently...rockets to launch its artificial satellites. Its concern has been that sophisticated satellite technology will fall into the hands of an enemy. JPRS

  15. Modeling and Computation of Transboundary Industrial Pollution with Emission Permits Trading by Stochastic Differential Game

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM). We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations satisfied by the value functions for the cooperative and the noncooperative games, respectively, and then propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve it. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. The two regions’ cooperative and noncooperative optimal emission paths, which maximize the regions’ discounted streams of the net revenues, together with the value functions, are obtained. Additionally, we can also obtain the threshold conditions for the two regions to decide whether they cooperate or not in different cases. The effects of parameters in the established model on the results have been also examined. All the results demonstrate that the stochastic emission permits prices can motivate the players to make more flexible strategic decisions in the games. PMID:26402322

  16. Modeling and Computation of Transboundary Industrial Pollution with Emission Permits Trading by Stochastic Differential Game.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shuhua; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM). We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations satisfied by the value functions for the cooperative and the noncooperative games, respectively, and then propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve it. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. The two regions' cooperative and noncooperative optimal emission paths, which maximize the regions' discounted streams of the net revenues, together with the value functions, are obtained. Additionally, we can also obtain the threshold conditions for the two regions to decide whether they cooperate or not in different cases. The effects of parameters in the established model on the results have been also examined. All the results demonstrate that the stochastic emission permits prices can motivate the players to make more flexible strategic decisions in the games.

  17. Flood mapping of the trans-boundary river Soliette (Haiti and the Dominican Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandimarte, L.

    2009-04-01

    Over the last decades, Isla Hispaniola (i.e. the territory shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic) has been sadly affected by several hydro-geological disasters. In fact, the island has been involuntary protagonist of the international chronicles for being hit by the passage of several devastating hurricanes. Incalculable damages to structures and environment and thousand fatalities are the results of such events. A recent and glaring example is that of May 2004, when extreme and intense precipitations, originated by a tropical depression in the Caribbean Sea, occurred over the island, producing a devastating flash-flooding of the river Soliette trans-boundary catchment. The flooding destroyed most of the cities of Jimaní and Fond Verrettes and killed over 1,000 Haitian and Dominican people. The same event also killed 414 people in the Dominican Republic. This presentation shows the analysis of the hydrological and hydraulic behaviour of the river Soliette aimed at modelling the flood event of May 2004 and formulating a trans-boundary flood mitigation plan.

  18. Climate science: The future of Asia's glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogley, J. Graham

    2017-09-01

    Glaciers in the high mountains of Asia are a crucial water resource, but are at risk from global warming. Modelling suggests that the glaciers will shed mass in direct proportion to the warming to which they are exposed. See Letter p.257

  19. Projected effect of 2000-2050 changes in climate and emissions on aerosol levels in China and associated transboundary transport

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigate projected 2000–2050 changes in concentrations of aerosols in China and the associated transboundary aerosol transport by using the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem driven by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM) 3 at 4° × ...

  20. COMMUNICATION STRATEGY OF TRANSBOUNDARY AIR POLLUTION FINDINGS IN A U.S.-MEXICO BORDER XXI PROGRAM PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 1996 to 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) conducted an air quality study known as the Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP). The study was a U.S.-Mexico Border X...

  1. Projected effect of 2000-2050 changes in climate and emissions on aerosol levels in China and associated transboundary transport

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigate projected 2000–2050 changes in concentrations of aerosols in China and the associated transboundary aerosol transport by using the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem driven by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM) 3 at 4° × ...

  2. COMMUNICATION STRATEGY OF TRANSBOUNDARY AIR POLLUTION FINDINGS IN A U.S.-MEXICO BORDER XXI PROGRAM PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 1996 to 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) conducted an air quality study known as the Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP). The study was a U.S.-Mexico Border X...

  3. Nitrogen input inventory in the Nooksack-Abbotsford-Sumas Transboundary Region: Key component of an international nitrogen management study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential biological element, so optimizing N use for food production while minimizing the release of N and co-pollutants to the environment is an important challenge. The Nooksack-Abbotsford-Sumas Transboundary (NAS) Region, spanning a portion of the western...

  4. Plan of Korean Geostationary Environment Satellite over Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sukjo; Hong, Youdeog; Song, Chang-Keun; Lee, Joonsuk; Choi, Won-Jun; Kim, Dukrae; Moon, Kyung-Jung; Kim, Jhoon

    2010-05-01

    National Institute of Environmental Research(NIER/Ministry of Environment Korea) is planning GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer) program to be launched in 2017-2018 onboard a MP-GEOSAT(Multi-Purpose GEOstationary SATellite) which is supposed to be the successive mission of COMS(Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite). GEMS is a scanning UV-Visible Spectrometer to monitor trans-boundary pollution events in Asia-Pacific region, together with ABI(Advanced Baseline Imager) and GOCI-2 (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager). The objective of GEMS is to provide high resolution atmospheric chemistry measurements, to monitor regional and transboundary events, to understand on interactions between atmospheric chemistry and climate, and to improve chemical weather forecast with constraining hourly emissions and data assimilation of chemical observations. Opportunity of international collaboration with NASA and ESA, for the constellation with the GEMS of Korea, Japanese air quality mission, GEO-CAPE of U.S.A and Sentennial-4 of Europe planned to be launched in 2017- 2020 time frame, which can make great synergistic outcomes for better understanding in global air quality and climate change issues.

  5. Radiocarbon-based Source Apportionment of Organic, Elemental and Water-soluble Organic Carbon Aerosols and the Light Absorption of Water-soluble Organic Carbon Aerosols in the East Asia High-intensity Winter Campaigns in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, W.; Andersson, A.; Zheng, M.; Lee, M.; Kim, S. W.; Du, K.; Gustafsson, O.

    2016-12-01

    Improved understanding of anthropogenic aerosol effects on atmospheric chemistry and climate as well as efficient mitigation actions are hampered by the limited comprehension of the relative contributions of different sources of carbonaceous aerosols and of their subsequent atmospheric processing. Here, we present dual carbon isotope constrained source apportionment and optical properties of carbonaceous aerosols simultaneously both at urban and rural receptor sites, includes North China Plain (NCP, Beijing and Tianjin), Yangtze River Delta (YRD, Shanghai, Zhejiang), and Jeju Island (Korea Climate Observatory at Gosan) during January 2014 field campaigns. The radiocarbon (∆14C) data show that fossil combustions contribute equally ˜80 ± 5% to elemental carbon (EC) aerosol in Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai, and 66 ± 9% to Gosan-EC aerosol, while the specific sources of the dominant fossil fuel component were dramatically different among these sites. The mean fraction coal combustion of Beijing-EC, Tianjin-EC, and Gosan-EC is double that of Shanghai-EC. The other large fraction (72―92%) of carbonaceous aerosol is organic carbon (OC) aerosol which contains water soluble and water insoluble organic carbon (WSOC and WISOC). OC, WISOC, and WSOC in Beijing and Gosan sites were still observed largely from fossil sources (53―75%). The more 13C-enriched signature of Gosan-WSOC (-22.8 ± 0.2‰) compared to Gosan-EC (-23.9 ± 0.4‰) and Beijing-WSOC (-23.5 ± 0.7‰) reflects that WSOC is likely more affected by atmospheric aging during long-rang transport than is EC. The high light absorption coefficients of PM2.5, PM1, and TSP were observed at Gosan during this study and was frequently reaching 20―60 Mm-1 by aethalometer and continuous light absorption photometer. The mass absorption cross section of WSOC (MAC365) for above sites is high (1.5 ± 0.8 m2/g), accounted for ˜14 ± 5% of the total direct absorbance relative to EC, which is significantly higher than

  6. Tobacco control in Asia.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Judith; Ritthiphakdee, Bungon; Reddy, K Srinath

    2013-05-04

    For the purpose of this article, Asia refers to WHO's combined South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions and thus includes Australia and New Zealand. Asia has the highest number of tobacco users and is the prime target of transnational tobacco companies. The future of global tobacco control rests in this region and the challenges are clear. China, India, and Indonesia are key markets and Asia is a frontrunner in tobacco control measures, such as plain packaging of cigarettes. Some countries in Asia have a long history of tobacco control activities beginning in the 1970s, and WHO's Western Pacific Region is still the only region where all countries have ratified WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. We reviewed the history, research, epidemiology, tobacco control action, obstacles, and potential responses and solutions to the tobacco epidemic in this region. Levels of development, systems of government, and population size are very different between countries, with population size ranging from 1500 to 1·3 billion, but similarities exist in aspects of the tobacco epidemic, harms caused, obstacles faced, and tobacco control actions needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydro-Chemical Characterization and Microbiology Monitoring to Determine Optimal Restoration Strategies for the Ephemeral Hebron-Besor Transboundary Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaf, L.; Nagouker, N.; Angel, R.; Ronen, Z.; Nejidat, A.; Tal, A.; Laronne, J.; Al Khateeb, N.

    2006-12-01

    The Hebron/Besor drainage basin is the largest watershed flowing to the Mediterranean, in Israel and the Palestinian Authority (3,500 Km2). The basin receives high pollution loads both from point and non-point sources. The main sources are: untreated domestic wastewater from the PA city of Hebron and slurry from stone cutting industry, estimated jointly to be 15,000 m3/day. On-going discharge of untreated wastewater to the stream has completely altered its morphology and ecology. From a quasi-natural ephemeral wadi eco- system it became one with perennial and polluted flow. The research was conducted along ~100km of the stream and included measurements of stream discharge, standard chemical parameters, organic C content of the sediments and molecular analysis of the ammonia oxidizing bacteria community (AOB). At the upper sections of the watershed (in the Palestinian authority), the water quality was very low, dominated by the presence of raw sewage. High levels of BOD and COD were found in the water, Nitrosomonas eutropha sequences were present in the stream sediments and were absent in both the bank soils and the unpolluted spring. Our measurements indicated that in the upper part of the watershed 62-75% of the sewage infiltrates and pollutes the subsurface all year around. The water quality improved along the flow-pass (in Israeli territory) in most common effluent parameters (eg BOD, COD, Ammonia). The improvement was most prominent following the sedimentation of the stone cutting slurry, which resulted in nitrification of the organic material. Even so, organic loads and pollution levels in the middle and the lower sections of the stream were higher than the recommended standard. Our findings emphasize that progress in river restoration requires cooperation between Israelis and Palestinians due to the transboundary nature of the surface water resources. Wastewater facilities in the middle part of the stream, as planned by the Israeli government, will not solve

  8. Epilepsy: Asia versus Africa.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Devender; Tchalla, Achille Edem; Marin, Benoît; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Tan, Chong Tin; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2014-09-01

    Is epilepsy truly an "African ailment"? We aimed to determine this, since international health agencies often refer to epilepsy as an African disease and the scientific literature has spoken the same tone. Various published materials, mainly reports, articles, were used to gather Asian and African evidence on various aspects of epilepsy and many of its risk and associated factors. Our results suggest that in no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment and such characterization is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. In comparison to Africa, Asia has a 5.0% greater burden from all diseases, and is 17.0% more affected from neuropsychiatric disorders (that include epilepsy). Given that more countries in Asia are transitioning, there may be large demographic and lifestyle changes in the near future. However these changes are nowhere close to those expected in Africa. Moreover, 23 million Asians have epilepsy in comparison to 3.3 million Africans and 1.2 million sub-Saharan Africans. In comparison to Africa, Asia has more untreated patients, 55.0% more additional epilepsy cases every year, because of its larger population, with greater treatment cost and possibly higher premature mortality. Of several associated factors discussed herein, many have more importance for Asia than Africa. The current state of epilepsy in Asia is far less than ideal and there is an urgent need to recognize and accept the importance of epilepsy in Asia. In no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment. This is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here.

  9. Workshop 7 (synthesis): role and governance implications of virtual water trade.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, J; Furuyashiki, K

    2004-01-01

    Virtual water trade (VWT) is a powerful concept which stimulates fresh thinking about water scarcity and management. It is a potential solution for water-short countries to achieve food security. VWT may also have the potential to play a key role in international negotiations over management of transboundary water resources.

  10. Significant geographic gradients in particulate sulfate over Japan determined from multiple-site measurements and a chemical transport model: Impacts of transboundary pollution from the Asian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikawa, Masahide; Ohara, Toshimasa; Hiraki, Takatoshi; Oishi, Okihiro; Tsuji, Akihiro; Yamagami, Makiko; Murano, Kentaro; Mukai, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    We found a significant geographic gradient (longitudinal and latitudinal) in the sulfate (SO 42-) concentrations measured at multiple sites over the East Asian Pacific Rim region. Furthermore, the observed gradient was well reproduced by a regional chemical transport model. The observed and modeled SO 42- concentrations were higher at the sites closer to the Asian continent. The concentrations of SO 42- from China as calculated by the model also showed the fundamental features of the longitudinal/latitudinal gradient. The proportional contribution of Chinese SO 42- to the total in Japan throughout the year was above 50-70% in the control case, using data for Chinese sulfur dioxide (SO 2) emission from the Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (40-60% in the low Chinese emissions case, using Chinese SO 2 emissions data from the State Environmental Protection Administration of China), with a winter maximum of approximately 65-80%, although the actual concentrations of SO 42- from China were highest in summer. The multiple-site measurements and the model analysis strongly suggest that the SO 42- concentrations in Japan were influenced by the outflow from the Asian continent, and this influence was greatest in the areas closer to the Asian continent. In contrast, we found no longitudinal/latitudinal gradient in SO 2 concentrations; instead SO 2 concentrations were significantly correlated with local SO 2 emissions. Our results show that large amounts of particulate sulfate are transported over long distances from the East Asian Pacific Rim region, and consequently the SO 42- concentrations in Japan are controlled by the transboundary outflow from the Asian continent.

  11. Water stress, energy security and adaptation under changing climate: case study of Zeravshan river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khujanazarov, T.; Namura, R.; Touge, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Toderich, K.

    2014-12-01

    Zeravshan a transboundary river in Central Asia is a snow-glacier fed river originating in Tajikistan that use only 4% of its resources, further flows to Uzbekistan who fully utilize river resources for irrigation. Such disparity in river usage causes Tajikistan to consider heavy investments in hydropower dams that will increase social and political tension between counterparts. Traditional irrigation under arid climate causes high rates of water losses in infiltration and evapotranspiration leading to land. Water stress analysis and water resources distribution under climate change and possible adaptation measures were investigated. The framework includes model to analyze available water resources and assessment of the basin efficiency including dam operation and irrigation demand, based on it adaptation measures were suggested. Comparison of the increasing irrigation efficiency in downstream to the 10% rate can decrease water requirements on early stages, however there are still large deficiency of the water resources in the peak irrigation season. Dam operation to benefit irrigation has positive impact while can't compensate the needs of energy in winter months. Cooperation of the both sides are required to address such changes in river flow as interest lies on opposite side. Increasing irrigation efficiency through using return marginal waters and salt tolerant crops under water stress were suggested. The plants were tested on several sites in the downstream of the river using mineralized return waters. The results suggest that using such plants can provide additional outcome for the local community while decreasing demand of the water resources and improving soil conditions. Combination of dam operation for energy production and increasing irrigation efficiency additionally by using return waters can provide a beneficial scenario for the region under future climate change. However, it will require strong political will to address energy swap to achieve nexus

  12. The identity of ` Berkeleya scopulorum' from Northeast Asia: Report on Climaconeis mabikii sp. nov. from temperate marine waters with notes on biogeography of the genus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jinsoon; Lee, Jin Hwan; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-12-01

    While there have been many reports of the species ` Berkeleya scopulorum' from Northeast Asia mainly as Navicula scopulorum, the observation of the living specimen of the species has revealed that the species should be the member of the genus Climaconeis. Here we describe the species as Climaconeis mabikii sp. nov. based on microscopic observations by means of both light (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). As part of the review, the regional distribution of C. mabikii as well as the worldwide biogeography of the taxa belonging to the genus Climaconeis are discussed. Newly described C. mabikii from the present study is the seventeenth member of the genus. The discovery of the true identity of the diatom identified for a long time as ` Berkeleya scopulorum' and its description as a new Climaconeis species contributes to the proper appreciation of the diversity of the Northeast Asian diatom assemblage and fills old gaps in the published records.

  13. Transboundary movement of hazardous wastes into Lebanon: Part 1. The silent trade.

    PubMed

    Jurdi, Mey

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the transboundary movement of hazardous wastes into developing countries, frequently referred to as the "silent trade," and the new efforts by the Basel Convention to control the international movement of hazardous wastes. The importation of hazardous wastes into Lebanon is examined in terms of waste trade activities (e.g., types, quantities, and management responses) as of 1987. The focus is on the national response, the roles played by different parties (e.g., politicians, expert groups, nongovernmental organizations, international organizations, and mass media) and their impact on the current status of events. Key challenges facing developing countries in managing silent-trade activity are identified in terms of environmental health and safety implications.

  14. Anomalous transboundary transport of the products of biomass burning from North American wildfires to Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnov, S. A.; Mokhov, I. I.

    2017-07-01

    An analysis of smoke in the atmosphere over the Russian Far East and Eastern Siberia in August 2004 was carried out. The results of the analysis indicate that the cause of the smoke in the atmosphere over these regions (with the values of aerosol optical depth exceeding 4 over the north of Kamchatka Krai) was the long-range transboundary transport of combustion products from North American wildfires. The anomalous (westward) long-range transport of the products of biomass burning was caused by atmospheric circulation characteristic for the atmospheric blocking of the dipole-type with a high-pressure region over the Chukchi Sea and a low pressure region over the south of the Bering Sea.

  15. Transboundary smoke haze pollution in Malaysia: inpatient health impacts and economic valuation.

    PubMed

    Othman, Jamal; Sahani, Mazrura; Mahmud, Mastura; Ahmad, Md Khadzir Sheikh

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed the economic value of health impacts of transboundary smoke haze pollution in Kuala Lumpur and adjacent areas in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Daily inpatient data from 2005, 2006, 2008, and 2009 for 14 haze-related illnesses were collected from four hospitals. On average, there were 19 hazy days each year during which the air pollution levels were within the Lower Moderate to Hazardous categories. No seasonal variation in inpatient cases was observed. A smoke haze occurrence was associated with an increase in inpatient cases by 2.4 per 10,000 populations each year, representing an increase of 31 percent from normal days. The average annual economic loss due to the inpatient health impact of haze was valued at MYR273,000 ($91,000 USD).

  16. Enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins: experiences from the Lower Mekong River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douven, W.; Mul, M. L.; Fernández-Álvarez, B.; Hung, S. Lam; Bakker, N.; Radosevich, G.; van der Zaag, P.

    2012-09-01

    This paper analyses the design and impact of capacity building programmes aimed at enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins. The case study is a programme developed by the Mekong River Commission (MRC). A post-training evaluation was applied to assess its impact in terms of individual capacity enhancement and change (use and application of knowledge, factors hampering application, and change in function and opportunities within the organisation). The design of the Capacity Building Programme of the MRC Flood Management and Mitigation Programme required a well balanced range of subjects (such as IWRM (integrated water resources management), model and decision support systems, and international water law). The post-training evaluation, 6 months after the last training workshop, showed an increase in familiarity with the topics for all 37 respondents, with the highest increase for the respondents with few years of working experience and from training and education institutions. The relevance of the subjects taught was highlighted by 95% of the respondents, and 78% of the participants had already used some of the acquired knowledge in their job. The respondents indicated that they did not have sufficient opportunities to apply all knowledge. The phased implementation and training of lecturers during the training workshops had a good impact, directly through increasing involvement in facilitation and delivery of the capacity building programme and through the use of the knowledge gained in short courses and development of curricula at their institute. For these types of capacity building programmes, a few recommendations can be made. The selection of participants is crucial for the application of the learned knowledge in their work. The integrative nature of transboundary water issues calls for a capacity building programme addressing a wide range of subjects, which can be understood by a

  17. Technology, public policy and control of transboundary livestock diseases in our lifetimes.

    PubMed

    Breeze, R G

    2006-04-01

    There are no technological barriers to eliminating major transboundary livestock diseases. 'Elimination' means that diseases no longer threaten livestock in the developed world nor the livelihoods of hundreds of millions of small farmers elsewhere. The problem is not lack of technology but failure of public policy. Developed country policy should actively combat accidental and intentional introductions; protect livestock against future advanced biological weapons; minimise the economic impacts after introduction by any means; abandon mass slaughter as a control tool; engage in disease removal in pursuit of a global economic, societal, and environmental agenda; and make appropriate national and cooperative investments. This is the moment for policy change because transboundary livestock disease elimination now involves powerful government ministries outside ministries of agriculture that are concerned about disease threats from many sources. Change can acquire support from the public and many organisations with shared interests. New policy is needed to change the belief that government is solely responsible for excluding disease, responding to introductions, and compensating farmers for losses during eradication. Effective border control and domestic preparedness programmes depend upon government and industry working together with costs falling upon those responsible in the form of 'user fees'. Compensation for stock slaughtered during outbreak control should be covered by private insurance. Government and industry should share the costs of an effective surveillance, diagnostic and response system. Surveillance must achieve or approach real-time understanding of the disease situation at all stages and in all places and be accessible over the Internet by diverse government agencies and stakeholders in-country and abroad. Traditional responses must be abandoned because they encourage terrorism. Regulatory approval processes must be modernized because they cannot keep

  18. Armenia-To Trans-Boundary Fault: AN Example of International Cooperation in the Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakhanyan, A.; Avagyan, A.; Avanesyan, M.; Elashvili, M.; Godoladze, T.; Javakishvili, Z.; Korzhenkov, A.; Philip, S.; Vergino, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    Studies of a trans-boundary active fault that cuts through the border of Armenia to Georgia in the area of the Javakheti volcanic highland have been conducted since 2007. The studies have been implemented based on the ISTC 1418 and NATO SfP 983284 Projects. The Javakheti Fault is oriented to the north-northwest and consists of individual segments displaying clear left-stepping trend. Fault mechanism is represented by right-lateral strike-slip with normal-fault component. The fault formed distinct scarps, deforming young volcanic and glacial sediments. The maximum-size displacements are recorded in the central part of the fault and range up to 150-200 m by normal fault and 700-900 m by right-lateral strike-slip fault. On both flanks, fault scarps have younger appearance, and displacement size there decreases to tens of meters. Fault length is 80 km, suggesting that maximum fault magnitude is estimated at 7.3 according to the Wells and Coppersmith (1994) relation. Many minor earthquakes and a few stronger events (1088, Mw=6.4, 1899 Mw=6.4, 1912, Mw=6.4 and 1925, Mw=5.6) are associated with the fault. In 2011/2012, we conducted paleoseismological and archeoseismological studies of the fault. By two paleoseismological trenches were excavated in the central part of the fault, and on its northern and southern flanks. The trenches enabled recording at least three strong ancient earthquakes. Presently, results of radiocarbon age estimations of those events are expected. The Javakheti Fault may pose considerable seismic hazard for trans-boundary areas of Armenia and Georgia as its northern flank is located at the distance of 15 km from the Baku-Ceyhan pipeline.

  19. Remote Sensing and River Discharge Forecasting for Major Rivers in South Asia (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, P. J.; Hopson, T. M.; Hirpa, F. A.; Brakenridge, G. R.; De-Groeve, T.; Shrestha, K.; Gebremichael, M.; Restrepo, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    The South Asia is a flashpoint for natural disasters particularly flooding of the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra has profound societal impacts for the region and globally. The 2007 Brahmaputra floods affecting India and Bangladesh, the 2008 avulsion of the Kosi River in India, the 2010 flooding of the Indus River in Pakistan and the 2013 Uttarakhand exemplify disasters on scales almost inconceivable elsewhere. Their frequent occurrence of floods combined with large and rapidly growing populations, high levels of poverty and low resilience, exacerbate the impact of the hazards. Mitigation of these devastating hazards are compounded by limited flood forecast capability, lack of rain/gauge measuring stations and forecast use within and outside the country, and transboundary data sharing on natural hazards. Here, we demonstrate the utility of remotely-derived hydrologic and weather products in producing skillful flood forecasting information without reliance on vulnerable in situ data sources. Over the last decade a forecast system has been providing operational probabilistic forecasts of severe flooding of the Brahmaputra and Ganges Rivers in Bangldesh was developed (Hopson and Webster 2010). The system utilizes ECMWF weather forecast uncertainty information and ensemble weather forecasts, rain gauge and satellite-derived precipitation estimates, together with the limited near-real-time river stage observations from Bangladesh. This system has been expanded to Pakistan and has successfully forecast the 2010-2012 flooding (Shrestha and Webster 2013). To overcome the in situ hydrological data problem, recent efforts in parallel with the numerical modeling have utilized microwave satellite remote sensing of river widths to generate operational discharge advective-based forecasts for the Ganges and Brahmaputra. More than twenty remotely locations upstream of Bangldesh were used to produce stand-alone river flow nowcasts and forecasts at 1-15 days lead time. showing that

  20. ESP in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crooks, Tony, Ed.

    Seven conference papers discuss English language training and political development in Asia, including language project design and evaluation, counterparting, sustainability, appropriate technology, and languages and the politics of development. Papers included are: "Linguistic and Cultural Considerations of Writing ELT Texts for Use in…

  1. Performance Theory: Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Michael, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Focusing on the contemporary theatre in Southeast Asia, this journal issue sheds light on the intercultural relationships that exist between that part of the world and the Western world. In addition to a transcript of a Balinese "topeng" (storytelling) performance, the journal contains eight articles that provide information on the…

  2. Literature of Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echols, John M.

    This paper provides a brief description of the literature of Southeast Asia. This area, which embraces the region south of China and east of India, includes the modern nations of Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, The Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. The earliest historical influence came from India around the beginnings of the…

  3. Multicultural Central Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Eric D.

    This article addresses the multicultural aspect of Central Asia in response to the discussion on diversity in U.S. classrooms. Many areas of the world are more diverse than the U.S., and these areas experience successes and failures with many of the same issues the U.S. is currently struggling with. Comparing the U.S. diversity debate with similar…

  4. HRD Issues in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on human resource development (HRD) issues in Asia. "The Japanese Human Resource Development System" (Kiyoe Harada) provides a comprehensive model of the Japanese HRD system based on the current state of the art, including management practices and issues and trends in Japanese HRD.…

  5. Performance Theory: Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Michael, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Focusing on the contemporary theatre in Southeast Asia, this journal issue sheds light on the intercultural relationships that exist between that part of the world and the Western world. In addition to a transcript of a Balinese "topeng" (storytelling) performance, the journal contains eight articles that provide information on the…

  6. HRD Issues in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on human resource development (HRD) issues in Asia. "The Japanese Human Resource Development System" (Kiyoe Harada) provides a comprehensive model of the Japanese HRD system based on the current state of the art, including management practices and issues and trends in Japanese HRD.…

  7. OCLC in Asia Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Min-min

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) and the changing Asia Pacific library scene under the broad headings of the three phases of technology innovation. Highlights include WorldCat and the OCLC shared cataloging system; resource sharing and interlibrary loan; enriching OCLC online catalog with Asian collections; and future outlooks.…

  8. New Confrontations in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thien, Ton That

    1978-01-01

    Examines political, social, and economic developments in Southeast Asia under Communist forces which conquered Southeast Asia after the American disengagement. Topics discussed include refugees, Vietnamese who have chosen to live in exile, civil administration in Vietnam, Sino-Soviet relations, and predictions about the future of Southeast Asia.…

  9. Burden of Disease from Rising Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Koplitz, Shannon N; Jacob, Daniel J; Sulprizio, Melissa P; Myllyvirta, Lauri; Reid, Colleen

    2017-02-07

    Southeast Asia has a very high population density and is on a fast track to economic development, with most of the growth in electricity demand currently projected to be met by coal. From a detailed analysis of coal-fired power plants presently planned or under construction in Southeast Asia, we project in a business-as-usual scenario that emissions from coal in the region will triple to 2.6 Tg a(-1) SO2 and 2.6 Tg a(-1) NOx by 2030, with the largest increases occurring in Indonesia and Vietnam. Simulations with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model show large resulting increases in surface air pollution, up to 11 μg m(-3) for annual mean fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in northern Vietnam and up to 15 ppb for seasonal maximum 1 h ozone in Indonesia. We estimate 19 880 (11 400-28 400) excess deaths per year from Southeast Asian coal emissions at present, increasing to 69 660 (40 080-126 710) by 2030. 9000 of these excess deaths in 2030 are in China. As Chinese emissions from coal decline in coming decades, transboundary pollution influence from rising coal emissions in Southeast Asia may become an increasing issue.

  10. Modeling study of surface ozone source-receptor relationships in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.

    2016-12-01

    Ozone source-receptor relationships over East Asia have been quantitatively investigated using a chemical transport model including an on-line tracer-tagged procedure, with a particular focus on the source regions of different daily ozone mixing ratios.Comparison with observations showed that the model reproduced surface ozone and tropospheric nitrogen dioxide column densities.Long-range transport from outside East Asia contributed the greatest fraction to annual surface ozone over remote regions, the Korean peninsula, and Japan, reaching 50%-80% of total ozone.Self-contributions accounted for 5%-20% ozonein the Korean peninsula and Japan, whereas the contribution of trans-boundary transport from photochemical production in China was less than 5%-10%. At extra-high ozone levels, self-contributions reached 50%-60% in the Korean peninsula.Ozone source-receptor relationships showed high seasonal variability over East Asia.Significant transport was also found between sub-regions in China, which presents a great challenge to policy-makers because most current control strategies are confined to specific regions.

  11. Enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins: experiences from the Lower Mekong River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douven, W.; Mul, M. L.; Álvarez, B. F.; Son, L. H.; Bakker, N.; Radosevich, G.; van der Zaag, P.

    2012-03-01

    This paper analyses the design and impact of capacity building programmes aimed at enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins. Case study is a programme developed by the Mekong River Commission (MRC). A post training evaluation was applied to assess its impact in terms of individual capacity enhancement and change (use and application of knowledge, factors hampering application, and change in function and opportunities within their organisation). The design of the Capacity Building Programme of the MRC Flood Management and Mitigation Programme showed a well balanced range of subjects (such as IWRM, models and decision support systems and international water law) which are required for such an integrated topic. The post training evaluation, 6 months after the last training workshop, showed the increase in familiarity of the topics for all 37 respondents, with highest increase for the respondents with few years of working experience and from training and educational institutions. The relevance of the subjects taught is shown by the fact that 95% of the respondents indicated they saw the relevance of the subjects and 78% had already used some knowledge acquired in their job. The respondents also indicated that they did not have sufficient opportunities to apply all knowledge acquired. The phased implementation and training of lecturers during the training workshops, had a good impact, directly through increasing involvement in facilitation and delivery of the capacity building programme and through the use of the knowledge gained in short courses and development of curricula at their training institute. For these types of capacity building programmes, a few recommendations can be made. The selection of participants is crucial for the application of the learned knowledge in their work. The integrative nature of transboundary water issues calls for a capacity building programme addressing a

  12. Cloud Microphysical Characteristics over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J.; Wang, D.; Zhai, G.

    2012-04-01

    A survey of the existing literature on in-situ measurements of cloud-precipitation microphysical properties was undertaken. Then, a database was established to contain microphysical properties for raindrop, cloud droplet, fog, ice nuclei (IN), snow crystal, as well as the relationship between radar reflectivity (Z) and rainfall rate (R). The time span of the in-situ probe measurements ranges from 1960 to 2008 over East Asia and from 1940 to 2008 in the other regions (which is defined as those include the Americas, Europe, and Australia). From the datasets, dividing the data coverage into East Asia and the other regions, several parameters are presented, including mean concentration of hydrometeor particles, liquid water content (LWC), as well as functional fit parameters of particles size distributions. The main properties of hydrometeor particles were presented, and the functional fitted parameters of particle size distributions over East Asia have been compared with those over the other regions. Note that the all measurements taken in other regions do not mean that all cloud systems in the other regions are similar. Our main method of the present study is to put all measurement results taken in different regions over the world together. If the cloud systems over East Asia have their own characteristics, it will be grouped together. Thus, the difference between East Asia and other regions is readily discernible. The results show that there are differences, sometimes even large differences, between East Asia and the other regions in terms of these cloud-precipitation microphysical characteristics. More specific conclusions are as follows: (1) Both exponential- and gamma-size distributions are used to fit RSD of rains originating from stratiform clouds. Average intercept N0 of exponential-size distribution over East Asia is one order of magnitude smaller than that over the other regions, and average slope λ is slight smaller. As for gamma-size distributions, the

  13. Asia's communications market booms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Neil W.

    1995-01-01

    Asia's communications and direct broadcasting satellite business markets has bloomed, with a growing number of Asian-owned communications satellites launched and others purchased for imminent use. Ironically, Hong Kong now possesses Asia's most successful satellite TV broadcasting firm, even though it does not hold the keys to the actual technology. In contrast, Japan holds virtually all the technical keys but companies are bogged down by financial trouble, the absence of a local enterprise equivalent to telecommunications, and bureaucratic intervention. Due to large trade deficits vis-a-vis Tokyo and lower prices offered by US and European telecom equipment suppliers, Asian countries are not buying from Japan. Currently, excessive competition is likely to come from other Asian countries, prompting Japanese firms surprised by this development to attempt at 'bridging' the competition gap with the US and European suppliers.

  14. Asbestos in Asia.

    PubMed

    Leong, Su Lyn; Zainudin, Rizka; Kazan-Allen, Laurie; Robinson, Bruce W

    2015-05-01

    Asbestos is a global killer. Despite lessons learned in the developed world on the use of asbestos and its hazardous pulmonary consequences, its use continues to increase in Asia. Although some countries such as Japan, Korea and Singapore have curtailed the use of this mineral, there are numerous countries in Asia that continue to mine, import and use this fibre, particularly China, which is one of the largest consumers in the world. Numerous factors ranging from political and economic to the lack of understanding of asbestos and the management of asbestos-related lung disease are keys to this observed trend. Awareness of these factors combined with early intervention may prevent the predicted Asian 'tsunami' of asbestos diseases. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  15. Acid rain in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.

    1992-07-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized world—which necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)—the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

  16. Southeast Asia Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ASIA REPORT CONTENTS FIJI Briefs Objection to French Nuclear Testing 1 Solution to Unemployment Proposed 1 INDONESIA Minister Addresses U.S...27 Feb 84) 39 Government Willing To Mediate Between Irian Jaya Rebels and Indonesia (PAPUA NEW GUINEA POST COURIER, 2 Mar 84) 41 Legal...CSO: 4200/593 INDONESIA MINISTER ADDRESSES U.S. PRIVATE INVESTMENT MISSION Jakarta MERDEKA in Indonesian 6 Dec 83 pp 1, 11 [Text] Prof Dr J.B

  17. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    JPRS-SEA-85-128 20 August 1985 SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT CONTENTS INDONESIA U.S. Textile ’Protectionism’ Explained (KOMPAS, 13 Jun 85) 1...Australian Opposition Leader on Ties With Indonesia (KOMPAS, 12 Jun 85) 4 Syarikat Islam Accepts Pancasila, Elects Executive Officers (ANTARA NEWS...Minister 31 Indonesia Not a Threat 32 Main Naval Base 32 LPA Arms Misused; U.S. Blamed for Environmental Damage (VIENTIANE MAI, 15, 17 Jun 85) 33 Nghe

  18. Terrorism in Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-07

    September 2001, the United States has been concerned with radical Islamist groups in Southeast Asia, particularly those in the Philippines, Indonesia ...in its camps in Afghanistan, and by financing and cooperating with indigenous radical Islamist groups. Indonesia and the southern Philippines have been...against Western targets. These include the deadliest terrorist attack since September 2001: the October 12, 2002 bombing in Bali, Indonesia , that

  19. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-17

    Indonesia ," according to Sukarno, must be nationalism, "neither Javanese nationalism, nor Sumatran nationalism, nor the nationalism of Borneo, or of...1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-SEA-87-038 17 MARCH 1987 SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT CONTENTS INDONESIA LAOS ’Extremist...Assistance (Tran Ngoc Chuc; TAP CHI HOAT DONG KHOA HOC, Dec 86) 113 /9987 d - INDONESIA •EXTREMIST’ ISLAMIC BOARDING SCHOOL UNDERGOING

  20. Southeast Asia Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT CONTENTS INDONESIA Briefs Radiation-Free Certificates for Imported Foodstuff 1 Japan To Import 1.95 Million Tons of LPG 1...1 August X986 INDONESIA BRIEFS RADIATION-FREE CERTIFICATES FOR IMPORTED FOODSTUFF—Jakarta, June 5 (ANTARA)—The ministry of health will request to...to the press in Jakarta Thursday that the ministry of health’s request was a preventive measure from Indonesia against possible pollution danger

  1. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    September 1985 SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT CONTENTS AUSTRALIA Briefs i Oil Exploration Talks With SRV j- New Helicopters for Navy LAOS MALAYSIA 2...the People of Malaysia , 5 Aug 85) 24 USNO, Berjaya Bosses Step Down (N. V. Raman; THE STAR, 24 Jun 85) 26 Chemical Warfare Studies for...SAN PATHET LAO in Lao 21 Jun 85 p A5] 12597 CSO: 4206/148 15 JPRS-SEA-85-136 4 September 1985 MALAYSIA MUSLIM RADICAL GROUP UNDER PROBE Kuala

  2. Terrorism in South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-09

    and their supporters in South Asia is identified as a threat to both regional stability and to the attainment of central U.S. policy goals. Al Qaeda...forces that fled from Afghanistan with their Taliban supporters remain active on Pakistani territory, and Al Qaeda is believed to have links with...portion of Pakistan’s ethnic Pashtun population is reported to sympathize with the Taliban and even Al Qaeda. The United States maintains close

  3. Allergic conjunctivitis in Asia.

    PubMed

    Thong, Bernard Yu-Hor

    2017-04-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC), which may be acute or chronic, is associated with rhinitis in 30%-70% of affected individuals, hence the term allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C). Seasonal and perennial AC is generally milder than the more chronic and persistent atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Natural allergens like house dust mites (HDM), temperate and subtropical grass and tree pollen are important triggers that drive allergic inflammation in AC in the Asia-Pacific region. Climate change, environmental tobacco smoke, pollutants derived from fuel combustion, Asian dust storms originating from central/north Asia and phthalates may also exacerbate AR/C. The Allergies in Asia Pacific study and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood provide epidemiological data on regional differences in AR/C within the region. AC significantly impacts the quality of life of both children and adults, and these can be measured by validated quality of life questionnaires on AR/C. Management guidelines for AC involve a stepped approach depending on the severity of disease, similar to that for allergic rhinitis and asthma. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are effective in certain types of persistent AC, and sublingual immunotherapy is emerging as an effective treatment option in AR/C to grass pollen and HDM. Translational research predominantly from Japan and Korea involving animal models are important for the potential development of targeted pharmacotherapies for AC.

  4. Allergic conjunctivitis in Asia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC), which may be acute or chronic, is associated with rhinitis in 30%–70% of affected individuals, hence the term allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C). Seasonal and perennial AC is generally milder than the more chronic and persistent atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Natural allergens like house dust mites (HDM), temperate and subtropical grass and tree pollen are important triggers that drive allergic inflammation in AC in the Asia-Pacific region. Climate change, environmental tobacco smoke, pollutants derived from fuel combustion, Asian dust storms originating from central/north Asia and phthalates may also exacerbate AR/C. The Allergies in Asia Pacific study and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood provide epidemiological data on regional differences in AR/C within the region. AC significantly impacts the quality of life of both children and adults, and these can be measured by validated quality of life questionnaires on AR/C. Management guidelines for AC involve a stepped approach depending on the severity of disease, similar to that for allergic rhinitis and asthma. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are effective in certain types of persistent AC, and sublingual immunotherapy is emerging as an effective treatment option in AR/C to grass pollen and HDM. Translational research predominantly from Japan and Korea involving animal models are important for the potential development of targeted pharmacotherapies for AC. PMID:28487836

  5. Afghanistan and Stability in Central Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-23

    especially Pakistan and Iran, where they got support from the United States, China , Saudi Arabia and some other countries. The main support lines, especially...to riches, be it Alexander the Great attempting to go to Central Asia, the Mongol route to India , or the Soviet Union wanting to taste the warm waters... overpopulation resulting in corruption and poverty. Extremism and intolerance is the second cause of terrorism, and finally, atrocity is the third cause1. The

  6. Panel Analyzes Pakistan's Internal Water Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-06-01

    Although transboundary water issues between Pakistan and neighboring countries may be exciting and interesting, Pakistan's real water and security nexus is at the local level, according to Daanish Mustafa, coauthor of a new report, "Understanding Pakistan's Water-Security Nexus." Mustafa, a reader in politics and environment at King's College, London, U.K., was a panelist at a 30 May forum in Washington, D. C., sponsored by the United States Institute of Peace, which published the report.

  7. Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution of Oil-Gas Industry Emissions from North Caspian region of Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakarin, E.; Balakay, L.; Mirkarimova, B.; Mahura, A.; Baklanov, A.; Sorensen, J. H.

    2012-04-01

    with wet (65 vs. 35%) which is due to significantly smaller precipitation in this country. Considering total deposition during transboundary atmospheric transport, it should be noted that 80.3% of transported sulphates will be deposited over territories of Kazakhstan, 13.8% - Russia, about 2% each - Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, and less than 1% over other countries. Among considered 14 Regions of Kazakhstan and 8 Federal District of Russia, the highest concentrations and depositions were identified in the Atyraus and Magistaus regions of Kazakhstan as well as in the South Federal District of Russia. For Kazakhstan, the lowest values were identified in the Almaty, East-Kazakhstan, Dzhambul and Pavlodar regions. Among most populated cities the city of Atyrau (Kazakhstan), Astrakhan (Russia) and Baku (Azerbaijan) showed the largest concentrations during transboundary atmospheric transport.

  8. Regional and international approaches on prevention and control of animal transboundary and emerging diseases.

    PubMed

    Domenech, J; Lubroth, J; Eddi, C; Martin, V; Roger, F

    2006-10-01

    Transboundary animal diseases pose a serious risk to the world animal agriculture and food security and jeopardize international trade. The world has been facing devastating economic losses from major outbreaks of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) such as foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, rinderpest, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), and Rift Valley fever. Lately the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) due to H5N1 virus, has become an international crisis as all regions around the world can be considered at risk. In the past decades, public health authorities within industrialized countries have been faced with an increasing number of food safety issues. The situation is equally serious in developing countries. The globalization of food (and feed) trade, facilitated by the liberalization of world trade, while offering many benefits and opportunities, also represents new risks. The GF-TADs Global Secretariat has carried out several regional consultations for the identification of priority diseases and best ways for their administration, prevention and control. In the questionnaires carried out and through the consultative process, it was noted that globally, FMD was ranked as the first and foremost priority. Rift Valley fever, and today highly pathogenic avian influenza, are defined as major animal diseases which also affect human health. PPR and CBPP, a disease which is particularly serious in Africa and finally, African swine fever (ASF) and classical swine fever (CSF) are also regionally recognised as top priorities on which the Framework is determined to work. The FAO philosophy--shared by the OIE--embraces the need to prevent and control TADs and emerging diseases at their source, which is most of the time in developing countries. Regional and international approaches have to be followed, and the FAO and OIE GF-TADs initiative provides the appropriate concepts and objectives as well as an organizational framework to link international and

  9. The FAO/NACA Asia Regional Technical Guidelines on Health Management for the Responsible Movement of Live Aquatic Animals: lessons learned from their development and implementation.

    PubMed

    Subasinghe, R P; Bondad-Reantaso, M G

    2008-04-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food producing sector in the world and it is expected to produce significant quantities of fish in the coming years to meet the growing global demand for aquatic animal products. The expansion and diversification of the sector, along with globalisation and trade liberalisation have resulted in aquatic animals and animal products moving around the world rapidly, causing serious disease outbreaks stemming from incursions of pathogens through unregulated transboundary movements. It has become necessary to develop appropriate guidelines for establishing national regulatory frameworks to improve responsibility in transboundary movement of live aquatic animals. In 2000, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), in collaboration with the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) and in partnership with 21 Asian countries, developed the Asia Regional Technical Guidelines on Health Management for the Responsible Movement of Live Aquatic Animals. The present article outlines the development process of the guidelines, the lessons learned from their implementation at national level and the way forward.

  10. Conceptual models and sustainable groundwater resource indicators as transfer tools to stakeholders of the Lake Champlain transboundary aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, René; Rivard, Christine; Carrier, Marc-André; Parent, Michel; Laurencelle, Marc; Beaudry, Châtelaine; Martin, Alex; Bleser, Joshua; Lavoie, Roxane; Bourque, Édith; Ouellet, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Regional aquifer assessments produce a wealth of scientific and technical information that is essential for the sound management of groundwater resources. However, regional water stakeholders are not generally groundwater specialists and cannot be expected to readily handle specialized hydrogeological maps and data. Without efficient information transfer, groundwater resources cannot be adequately considered in water governance by watershed organizations and in land-use planning by regional municipalities. This presentation provides an overview of the efforts undertaken to transfer information as part of a four-year regional aquifer assessment in the transboundary Canada-USA Champlain Lake watershed, with an emphasis on the southern Quebec part. This project was part of both the provincial aquifer assessment program (Programme d'acquisition des connaissances sur les eaux souterraines, PACES) of the Quebec Environment Ministry and the National inventory of regional key aquifers of Natural Resources Canada. In Quebec, the study area extends over 9 000 km2 and includes three major watersheds and 106 municipalities with 792 000 inhabitants. Five distinct hydrogeological contexts were defined based on bedrock geology and hydrogeological conditions: St. Lawrence Lowlands (North and South), Appalachian Piedmont, Appalachian Uplands, and Monteregian Hills. Extensive fieldwork filled knowledge and spatial data gaps identified during the compilation of existing data. To illustrate hydrogeological contexts, two conceptual models of different areas were developed. These conceptual models reflect three aspects of aquifer conditions: geological context, groundwater dynamics and groundwater quality. The first representation of the conceptual model presents the geological context including typical surficial geology units as well as major bedrock geology units (including faults and dykes). The second representation shows schematic groundwater flow paths, relative well yields of

  11. Glaciers of Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2010-01-01

    -glacier systems of the world including the Himalaya, Karakorum, Tien Shan and Altay mountain ranges. The glaciers are widely scattered and cover an area of about 59,425 km2. The mountain glaciers may be classified as maritime, subcontinental or extreme continental. In Afghanistan, more than 3,000 small glaciers occur in the Hindu Kush and Pamir mountains. Most glaciers occur on north-facing slopes shaded by mountain peaks and on east and southeast slopes that are shaded by monsoon clouds. The glaciers provide vital water resources to the region and cover an area of about 2,700 km2. Glaciers of northern Pakistan are some of the largest and longest mid-latitude glaciers on Earth. They are located in the Hindu Kush, Himalaya, and Karakoram mountains and cover an area of about 15,000 km2. Glaciers here are important for their role in providing water resources and their hazard potential. The glaciers in India are located in the Himalaya and cover about 8,500 km2. The Himalaya contains one of the largest reservoirs of snow and ice outside the polar regions. The glaciers are a major source of fresh water and supply meltwater to all the rivers in northern India, thereby affecting the quality of life of millions of people. In Nepal, the glaciers are located in the Himalaya as individual glaciers; the glacierized area covers about 5,324 km2. The region is the highest mountainous region on Earth and includes the Mt. Everest region. Glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya have a total area of about 1,317 km2. Many recent glacier studies are focused on glacier lakes that have the potential of generating dangerous glacier lake outburst floods. Research on the glaciers of the middle-latitude, high-mountain glaciers of Asia has also focused on the information contained in the ice cores from the glaciers. This information helps in the reconstruction of paleoclimatic records, and the computer modeling of global climate change.

  12. JPRS Report, East Asia: Southeast Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Toll Road is for supporting transportation of products from the Bandung area to Tanjung Priok. The Umbulan Drinking Water Project in Pasuruan will...in Increase of Imports [KOMPAS 10 Oct] 4 Metal Corrosion Expense 1 Percent of GNP [KOMPAS 9 Oct] 5 MALAYSIA ECONOMIC Vietnamese Officials...Region), the Cikampek-Padalarang Toll Road, the Umbulan Drinking Water Project (East Java), and the Single Buoy Mooring Project at Cilacap (Central

  13. Global atmospheric emissions and transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Evaluation of modeling and transboundary pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu

    2014-05-01

    Global atmospheric emissions of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from 69 major sources were estimated for a period from 1960 to 2030. Regression models and a technology split method were used to estimated country and time specific emission factors, resulting in a new estimate of PAH emission factor variation among different countries and over time. PAH emissions in 2007 were spatially resolved to 0.1° × 0.1° grids based on a newly developed global high-resolution fuel combustion inventory (PKU-FUEL-2007). MOZART-4 (The Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4) was applied to simulate the global tropospheric transport of Benzo(a)pyrene, one of the high molecular weight carcinogenic PAHs, at a horizontal resolution of 1.875° (longitude) × 1.8947° (latitude). The reaction with OH radical, gas/particle partitioning, wet deposition, dry deposition, and dynamic soil/ocean-air exchange of PAHs were considered. The simulation was validated by observations at both background and non-background sites, including Alert site in Canadian High Arctic, EMEP sites in Europe, and other 254 urban/rural sites reported from literatures. Key factors effecting long-range transport of BaP were addressed, and transboundary pollution was discussed.

  14. Devastating Transboundary Impacts of Sea Star Wasting Disease on Subtidal Asteroids.

    PubMed

    Montecino-Latorre, Diego; Eisenlord, Morgan E; Turner, Margaret; Yoshioka, Reyn; Harvell, C Drew; Pattengill-Semmens, Christy V; Nichols, Janna D; Gaydos, Joseph K

    2016-01-01

    Sea star wasting disease devastated intertidal sea star populations from Mexico to Alaska between 2013-15, but little detail is known about its impacts to subtidal species. We assessed the impacts of sea star wasting disease in the Salish Sea, a Canadian / United States transboundary marine ecosystem, and world-wide hotspot for temperate asteroid species diversity with a high degree of endemism. We analyzed roving diver survey data for the three most common subtidal sea star species collected by trained volunteer scuba divers between 2006-15 in 5 basins and on the outer coast of Washington, as well as scientific strip transect data for 11 common subtidal asteroid taxa collected by scientific divers in the San Juan Islands during the spring/summer of 2014 and 2015. Our findings highlight differential susceptibility and impact of sea star wasting disease among asteroid species populations and lack of differences between basins or on Washington's outer coast. Specifically, severe depletion of sunflower sea stars (Pycnopodia helianthoides) in the Salish Sea support reports of major declines in this species from California to Alaska, raising concern for the conservation of this ecologically important subtidal predator.

  15. Background concentrations of heavy metals in benthos from transboundary rivers of the Transbaikalia region, Russia.

    PubMed

    Kuklin, Aleksei Petrovich; Matafonov, Petr Viktorovich

    2014-02-01

    The concentrations (mg/kg dry weight) of Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were measured in benthic macroalgae and invertebrates collected in the upper transboundary tributaries of the Onon River, Transbaikalia, Russia. The background concentration ranges in Cladophora fracta, Ulothrix zonata and Zygnemataceae were: 6.4-9.1 for Cu, 27.2-73.1 for Zn, 0.4-0.9 for Cd, 6.7-35.3 for As, 0.01-0.02 for Hg, and 1.9-4.3 for Pb. In Brachycentrus americanus and Lymnaea media the concentration ranges were: 9.0-25.5 for Cu, 21.4-96.0 for Zn, 0.1-0.3 for Cd, 1.7-5.6 for As, 0.004-0.02 for Hg, and 0.4-2.2 for Pb. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg were consistent with data for uncontaminated areas. Under contamination conditions the concentrations in C. fracta were: 938 for Zn, 513 for Pb, and 9.5 for Cd; in Lymnaea media were: 46.8 for Cu, 176 for Zn, 52.3 for Pb, and 3.0 for Cd. All the organisms showed a common response to contamination, and consequently can be used as biomonitors of contamination by heavy metals.

  16. Devastating Transboundary Impacts of Sea Star Wasting Disease on Subtidal Asteroids

    PubMed Central

    Montecino-Latorre, Diego; Eisenlord, Morgan E.; Turner, Margaret; Yoshioka, Reyn; Harvell, C. Drew; Pattengill-Semmens, Christy V.; Nichols, Janna D.

    2016-01-01

    Sea star wasting disease devastated intertidal sea star populations from Mexico to Alaska between 2013–15, but little detail is known about its impacts to subtidal species. We assessed the impacts of sea star wasting disease in the Salish Sea, a Canadian / United States transboundary marine ecosystem, and world-wide hotspot for temperate asteroid species diversity with a high degree of endemism. We analyzed roving diver survey data for the three most common subtidal sea star species collected by trained volunteer scuba divers between 2006–15 in 5 basins and on the outer coast of Washington, as well as scientific strip transect data for 11 common subtidal asteroid taxa collected by scientific divers in the San Juan Islands during the spring/summer of 2014 and 2015. Our findings highlight differential susceptibility and impact of sea star wasting disease among asteroid species populations and lack of differences between basins or on Washington’s outer coast. Specifically, severe depletion of sunflower sea stars (Pycnopodia helianthoides) in the Salish Sea support reports of major declines in this species from California to Alaska, raising concern for the conservation of this ecologically important subtidal predator. PMID:27783620

  17. The convention on long-range transboundary air pollution`s sulfur protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Leaf, D.

    1995-12-31

    The US is a signatory to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe`s Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air pollution (LRTAP). The signatories to the LRTAP Convention include most European countries, as well as the US and Canada. Over the past decade two Sulfur Protocols have been negotiated under the auspices of LRTAP; both were based on acidification concerns. The first, signed in 1985, committed countries to a 30% decrease in sulfur emissions relative to a 1980 baseline. The second, signed in 1994, committed countries to a 50--80% reduction in sulfur emissions. The latest protocol was based on the effects-based concept of critical loads of sulfur for protecting ecosystems from the effects of acidification. The US did not sign either sulfur protocol, but has participated in discussions leading up to both. This paper will present a discussion of the LRTAP Convention, the two sulfur protocols, the NO{sub x} Protocol, the US-Canada relationship on acid rain, the critical loads concept, and US participation in the LRTAP process (including the relationship between the sulfur protocols and Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990). The focus will be on key scientific and policy issues.

  18. Trans-boundary Air Quality and Health Impacts of Emissions in Various Regions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Yim, S. H. L.

    2015-12-01

    In last few decades, China has gone through a rapid development, resulting in urbanization and industrialization. However, the abundant economic achievements were gained at the cost of a sharp deterioration of air quality. Previous research has reported the adverse health outcome from outdoor air pollution in China. Nevertheless, the trans-boundary air quality and health impacts due to emissions in various regions in China have yet fully understood. Our study aims to comprehensively apportion the attribution of emissions in seven regions in China, which are defined based on their geographical locations, to air pollutions, as well as the resultant health impacts in their local areas and other regions, provinces, and cities in China. A regional air quality model is applied to simulate the physical and chemical processes of various pollutants in the atmosphere. The resultant health outcome, such as premature death, is estimated by using the concentration-response functions reported in the literature. We anticipate that our results would serve as a critical reference for research community and policy makers to mitigate the air quality and health impacts of emissions in China.

  19. Projections of suitable habitat under climate change scenarios: Implications for trans-boundary assisted colonization.

    PubMed

    Ledig, F Thomas; Rehfeldt, Gerald E; Jaquish, Barry

    2012-07-01

    Climate change may threaten endemic species with extinction, particularly relicts of the Arcto-Tertiary Forest, by elimination of their contemporary habitat. Projections of future habitat are necessary to plan for conservation of these species. We used spline climatic models and modified Random Forests statistical procedures to predict suitable habitats for Brewer spruce (Picea breweriana), which is endemic to the Klamath Region of California and Oregon. We used three general circulation models and two sets of carbon emission scenarios (optimistic and pessimistic) for future climates. Our procedures predicted present occurrence of Brewer spruce perfectly. For the decades 2030, 2060, and 2090, its projected range within the Klamath Region progressively declined, to the point of disappearance in the decade 2090. The climate niche was projected to move north to British Columbia, the Yukon Territory, and southeastern Alaska. The results emphasize the necessity of assisted colonization and trans-boundary movement to prevent extinction of Brewer spruce. The projections provide a framework for formulating conservation plans, but planners must also consider regulations regarding international plant transfers.

  20. Gondwana to Asia: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Sanghoon; Kim, Sung Won; Santosh, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Korean Peninsula, China, Japan, India, Sri Lanka, and Timor, among other regions, preserve important clues for the tectonic evolution of present-day Asia derived from the break-up of Mesozoic supercontinent Pangea. Evidence for the formation, evolution, and destruction of Earth's first coherent supercontinent Columbia during Paleoproterozoic, followed by the Neoproterozoic Rodinia and late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Gondwana supercontinents are also recorded in many of these regions. The debates surrounding some of these aspects and the state-of-the-art knowledge from these terranes were the focal themes of discussion during the "2013 Annual Convention of the International Association for Gondwana Research (IAGR) and the 10th Gondwana to Asia International Conference" held at the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Korea during September 30th to October 2nd 2013. The conference was attended by more than 200 delegates representing 11 countries. The discussion continued at the "International conference on Continental Dynamics" held in Xian, China during April 2014. This special issue of Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, assembling 24 research papers is an outcome of the deliberations under various sessions of the above conferences. In assembling this special issue, we attempt to provide evidence-driven discussions on the construction and destruction of Precambrian and Paleozoic supercontinents preserved in present-day Asian continents. We also address a variety of themes including magmatic, metamorphic and metallogenic processes, as well as issues related to natural environment. We hope that the papers assembled in this special issue offer new insights into some of the key issues surrounding the geological, geophysical and geodynamic milieu in Asia, and a better understanding of analogous processes in other parts of the world.

  1. Southeast Asia Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-29

    even mystical. When pressed the Middle Forces will emerge. Unorganized, it will consolidate (although we shouldn t press our luck too far on that...195012 JPRS-SEA-87-062 29 APRIL 1987 Southeast Asia Report ty< ’ T ~ T ;;"rTnrT ^yZfTjZ-^v "]£ Approved ic; wtshlic celnos.s; Distnbuüon ü...in English Mar 87 pp 8-14 « t «i*: [Text] following," S*. * translation of thei ’opening speech delivered by Secretary of the Council of State u

  2. Underground laboratories in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  3. Underground laboratories in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  4. Mortality in Asia.

    PubMed

    1981-01-01

    Although the general trend in mortality between 1950 and 1975 in South and East Asia has been downward, there is considerable country-to-country variation in the rate of decline. In countries where combined economic, social, and political circumstances resulted in controlling the disease spectrum (e.g., China, Malaysia, Sri Lanka), mortality levels declined to those seen in low-mortality countries. In most of the large countries of the region however, mortality declined at a slower rate, even slowing down considerably in the 1970's while the death rates remained high (e.g., India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Philippines); this slowing down of mortality level is attributed essentially to the poverty-stricken masses of society which were not able to take advantage of social, technological, and health-promoting behavioral changes conducive to mortality decline. Infant mortality levels, although declining since 1950, followed the same dismal pattern of the general mortality level. The rate varies from less than 10/1000 live births (Japan) to more than 140/1000 (Bangladesh, Laos, Nepal). Generally, rural areas exhibited higher infant mortality than urban areas. The level of child mortality declines with increases in the mother's educational level in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The largest decline in child mortality occurs when at least 1 parent has secondary education. The premature retardation of mortality decline is caused by several factors: economic development, nutrition and food supply, provision and adequacy of health services, and demographic trends. The outlook for the year 2000 for most of Asia's countries will depend heavily on significant population increases. In most countries, particularly in South Asia, population is expected to increase by 75%, much of it in rural areas and among poorer socioeconomic groups. In view of this, Asia's health planners and policymakers will have to develop health policies which will strike a balance

  5. South Asia: Danger Ahead?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    2011 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE South Asia: Danger Ahead? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...its opponent and preclude a devastating retaliatory response. 4 Fundamen­ tally, both countries are restricted to use their nuclear forces to threaten...threaten India’s hold in the Kashmir Valley; to control a part of the Himalayan Range to facili­ tate insurgent movement into the Kashmir Valley and the

  6. Characterization of potent odorants in male giant water bug (Lethocerus indicus Lep. and Serv.), an important edible insect of Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kiatbenjakul, Patthamawadi; Intarapichet, Kanok-Orn; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-02-01

    Potent odorants in frozen fresh (FFB) and salted boiled (SBB) male giant water bugs (Lethocerus indicus), or 'Maengdana' in Thai, were characterized by application of direct solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). Twenty and 27 potent odorants were detected in FFB and SBB, respectively. Most odorants were lipid-derived compounds, including the two most abundant volatile components (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenyl butanoate, which contributed banana-like odours. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, responsible for popcorn-like odours, were detected in SBB only. An aroma reconstitution model of SBB was constructed in an oil-in-water emulsion matrix using 12 selected potent odorants based on the results of AEDA, accurate compound quantification and the calculated odour-activity values (OAV). Omission studies were carried out to verify the significance of esters, particularly (E)-2-hexenyl acetate was determined to be an important character-impact odorant in male giant water bug aroma.

  7. Pharmacovigilance in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Pipasha

    2013-01-01

    An increase in drug safety concerns in recent years with some high profile drug withdrawals have led to raising the bar by various stakeholders more importantly by the regulatory authorities. The number of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) reported have also resulted in an increase in the volume of data handled and to understand pharmacovigilance a high level of expertise is required to rapidly detect drug risks as well as to defend the product against an inappropriate removal. Proactive pharmacovigilance throughout the product life cycle is the way forward and the future direction for drug safety in Asia. It has been a constant challenge to standardize pharmacovigilance in Asia, in the context of clinical trials and post-marketing pharmacovigilance due to varied geaographical, cultural and medical practices in these regioon. While major advancements of the discipline of pharmacovigilance have taken place in the West, not much has been achieved in Asian countries, though several attempts have been taken. However, with more clinical trials and clinical research activity being conducted in the Asian continent, there is an immense need to understand and implement pharmacovigilance. For this to happen, the mind set of people working in regulatory agencies, the Pharmaceutical companies, prescribers and patients/consumers need to change. PMID:24347987

  8. Pharmacovigilance in Asia.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Pipasha

    2013-12-01

    An increase in drug safety concerns in recent years with some high profile drug withdrawals have led to raising the bar by various stakeholders more importantly by the regulatory authorities. The number of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) reported have also resulted in an increase in the volume of data handled and to understand pharmacovigilance a high level of expertise is required to rapidly detect drug risks as well as to defend the product against an inappropriate removal. Proactive pharmacovigilance throughout the product life cycle is the way forward and the future direction for drug safety in Asia. It has been a constant challenge to standardize pharmacovigilance in Asia, in the context of clinical trials and post-marketing pharmacovigilance due to varied geaographical, cultural and medical practices in these regioon. While major advancements of the discipline of pharmacovigilance have taken place in the West, not much has been achieved in Asian countries, though several attempts have been taken. However, with more clinical trials and clinical research activity being conducted in the Asian continent, there is an immense need to understand and implement pharmacovigilance. For this to happen, the mind set of people working in regulatory agencies, the Pharmaceutical companies, prescribers and patients/consumers need to change.

  9. Haemoglobinopathies in southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Fucharoen, Suthat; Winichagoon, Pranee

    2011-10-01

    In Southeast Asia α-thalassaemia, β-thalassaemia, haemoglobin (Hb) E and Hb Constant Spring (CS) are prevalent. The abnormal genes in different combinations lead to over 60 different thalassaemia syndromes, making Southeast Asia the locality with the most complex thalassaemia genotypes. The four major thalassaemic diseases are Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis (homozygous α-thalassaemia 1), homozygous β-thalassaemia, β-thalassaemia/Hb E and Hb H diseases. α-Thalassaemia, most often, occurs from gene deletions whereas point mutations and small deletions or insertions in the β-globin gene sequence are the major molecular defects responsible for most β-thalassaemias. Clinical manifestations of α-thalassaemia range from asymptomatic cases with normal findings to the totally lethal Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis syndrome. Homozygosity of β-thalassaemia results in a severe thalassaemic disease while the patients with compound heterozygosity, β-thalassaemia/Hb E, present variable severity of anaemia, and some can be as severe as homozygous β-thalassaemia. Concomitant inheritance of α-thalassaemia and increased production of Hb F are responsible for mild clinical phenotypes in some patients. However, there are still some unknown factors that can modulate disease severity in both α- and β-thalassaemias. Therefore, it is possible to set a strategy for prevention and control of thalassaemia, which includes population screening for heterozygotes, genetic counselling and foetal diagnosis with selective abortion of affected pregnancies.

  10. Haemoglobinopathies in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Fucharoen, Suthat; Winichagoon, Pranee

    2011-01-01

    In Southeast Asia α-thalassaemia, β-thalassaemia, haemoglobin (Hb) E and Hb Constant Spring (CS) are prevalent. The abnormal genes in different combinations lead to over 60 different thalassaemia syndromes, making Southeast Asia the locality with the most complex thalassaemia genotypes. The four major thalassaemic diseases are Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis (homozygous α-thalassaemia 1), homozygous β-thalassaemia, β-thalassaemia/Hb E and Hb H diseases. α-Thalassaemia, most often, occurs from gene deletions whereas point mutations and small deletions or insertions in the β-globin gene sequence are the major molecular defects responsible for most β-thalassaemias. Clinical manifestations of α-thalassaemia range from asymptomatic cases with normal findings to the totally lethal Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis syndrome. Homozygosity of β-thalassaemia results in a severe thalassaemic disease while the patients with compound heterozygosity, β-thalassaemia/Hb E, present variable severity of anaemia, and some can be as severe as homozygous β-thalassaemia. Concomitant inheritance of α-thalassaemia and increased production of Hb F are responsible for mild clinical phenotypes in some patients. However, there are still some unknown factors that can modulate disease severity in both α- and β-thalassaemias. Therefore, it is possible to set a strategy for prevention and control of thalassaemia, which includes population screening for heterozygotes, genetic counselling and foetal diagnosis with selective abortion of affected pregnancies. PMID:22089614

  11. Uniportal VATS in Asia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The history of uniportal Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) stretches back almost a decade with the treatment of simple thoracic conditions. As the technique matures with increasing ability to tackle the full spectrum of thoracic surgical diseases, most notably major lung resections for lung tumours, the spread of uniportal VATS across the globe has been phenomenal. VATS centres in Asia are now performing uniportal VATS, and developing their individual styles and techniques with great successes. The enthusiasm from surgeons, demand from patients, as well as the dynamism and diversity of uniportal VATS in the region have helped fuel this excitement and change. The 1st Asian Single Port VATS Symposium in 2013 heralded the beginning of academic exchange between uniportal VATS centres in Asia and experts from around the world. Wetlabs in the region will provide further training for thoracic surgeons interested in super-specializing in uniportal VATS. The future of this approach will hinge on good regional collaboration, research and training. PMID:24040529

  12. Asia Wise Workbook Number One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasmanian Education Dept., Hobart (Australia).

    This workbook is a compilation of work sheets from the teacher's sections of the 1989 issues of "Asia Wise," an Auatralian magazine devoted to the study of Asia. Profiles and worksheets are provided for the countries of China, Indo-China, Indonesia, Japan, Philippines, and Thailand. Worksheets feature the following themes: Asian…

  13. Hygroscopic growth of water-soluble matter extracted from remote marine aerosols over the western North Pacific: Influence of pollutants transported from East Asia.

    PubMed

    Boreddy, S K R; Kawamura, K

    2016-07-01

    We examined the hygroscopic properties of water-soluble matter (WSM) nebulized from water extracts of total suspended particles (TSP) collected at Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific during January to September 2003. The hygroscopic growth factor g(RH) of the aerosol particles was measured using a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) with an initial dry particle diameter of 100nm and relative humidity (RH) of 5-95%. The measured growth factor at 90% RH, g(90%), ranged from 1.51 to 2.14 (mean: 1.76±0.15), significantly lower than that of sea salts (2.1), probably owing to the heterogeneous reactions associated with chloride depletion in sea-salt particles and water-soluble organic matter (WSOM). The g(90%) maximized in summer and minimized in spring. The decrease in spring was most likely explained by the formation of less hygroscopic salts or particles via organometallic reactions during the long-range transport of Asian dust. Cl(-) and Na(+) dominate the mass fractions of WSM, followed by nss-SO4(2-) and WSOM. Based on regression analysis, we confirmed that g(90%) at Chichijima Island largely increased due to the dominant sea spray; however, atmospheric processes associated with chloride depletion in sea salts and WSOM often suppressed g(90%). Furthermore, we explored the deviation (average: 18%) between the measured and predicted g(90%) by comparing measured and model growth factors. The present study demonstrates that long-range atmospheric transport of anthropogenic pollutants (SO2, NOx, organics, etc.) and the interactions with sea-salt particles often suppress the hygroscopic growth of marine aerosols over the western North Pacific, affecting the remote background conditions. The present study also suggests that the HCl liberation leads to the formation of less hygroscopic aerosols over the western North Pacific during long-range transport.

  14. Anthropogenic and Climatic Influence on Vegetation Fires in Peatland of Insular Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, S.; Miettinen, J.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.

    2011-12-01

    Fire is traditionally used as a tool in land clearing by farmers and shifting cultivators in Southeast Asia. However, the small scale clearing of land is increasingly being replaced by modern large-scale conversion of forests into plantations/agricultural land, usually also by fires. Fires get out of control in periods of extreme drought, especially during the El Nino periods, resulting in severe episodes of transboundary air pollution in the form of smoke haze. We use the MODIS active fires product (hotspots) to establish correlations between the temporal and spatial patterns of vegetation fires with climatic variables, land cover change and soil type (peat or non-peat) in the western part of Insular Southeast Asia for a decade from 2001 to 2010. Fire occurrence exhibits a negative correlation with rainfall, and is more severe overall during the El-Nino periods. However, not all regions are equally affected by El-Nino. In Southern Sumatra and Southern Borneo the correlation with El-Nino is high. However, fires in some regions such as the peatland in Riau, Jambi and Sarawak do not appear to be influenced by El-Nino. These regions are also experiencing rapid conversion of forest to large scale plantations.

  15. Monitoring Air Quality from Geostationary Orbit in Asia-Pacific region by MP-GEOSAT (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Park, R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Yong, S.; Song, C.; Hong, Y.; Lee, S.; Ryoo, S.; Lee, M.; Kim, J.; Woo, J.; Kim, Y. J.; Song, C. H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, K.; Ho, C.; Park, S. K.; Lee, Y.; Lee, J.; Eom, Y.; Suh, A.; Ahn, Y.

    2009-12-01

    To date, atmospheric chemistry measurements have been carried out by many satellite programs to monitor air quality including O3, NO2, SO2, HCHO, CO including OMI, GOME, SCHIAMACHY, MOPITT, and TES. These measurements have provided extensive dataset to monitor daily to annual changes of pollutant distributions, but are lack of capability in detecting the diurnal variation of pollutant’s concentration thus in providing constraints on their sources. Asia, where both anthropogenic and natural sources of pollutants dominate throughout the year, is an important region to understand tropospheric air pollution in global scale. A scanning UV-Visible Spectrometer, named GEMS (Geostationary Environment Spectrometer) is being planned to be launched in 2017-2018 onboard a geostationary satellite, MP-GEOSAT by KARI(Korea Aerospace Research Institute), together with ABI(Advanced Baseline Imager) and GOCI-2 (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager). Synchronous measurements of air pollutants together with the meteorological variables and ocean color information are expected to contribute to better scientific understanding on the distribution and transboundary transportation of air pollution, and on interactions between meteorology and air chemistry in the Asia-Pacific region. This mission is expected to improve the accuracy of air quality forecasting and reduce current discrepancy between the model and observation. Furthermore, constellation of the MP-GEOSAT with GEOCAPE in America and Sentennial-4 in Europe starting in 2017- 2018 time frame can result in great synergistic outcomes including enhancing significantly our understanding in globalization of tropospheric pollution.

  16. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    and liberties. He said the decree was a clear signal that the regime did not want Fijian Indians to remain. "The Indian community is being put on...caused by competition for position and authority. Only Strong Medicine Can Cure the Disease, Painful To Say President Ho Chi Minh and the party...and employees of the Hau Giang fresh water plant , etc. in order to clear them. The slogan of "Everything for the happiness of the people" has

  17. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    improving. For convenience the factory was set up on the shore of the Tonle Sap. The factory uses a great deal of water in washing the glass used...supplied by the Lao-Vietnam Trade Cooperation Company of Binh Tri Thien Province. Goods include crabs , shrimp, and dry and fresh octopus; also...institutions like the World Bank or the Asian Bank for Development," said one source. Battle for Foreign Money 42000022b Bangkok BANGKOK POST in

  18. Symposium: "Oncology Leadership in Asia".

    PubMed

    Noh, Dong-Young; Roh, Jae Kyung; Kim, Yeul Hong; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Baba, Hideo; Samson-Fernando, Marie Cherry Lynn; Misra, Sanjeev; Aziz, Zeba; Umbas, Rainy; P Singh, Yogendra; Shu Kam Mok, Tony; Yang, Han-Kwang; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2017-03-09

    The Symposium on "Oncology Leadership in Asia" was held as part of the official program of the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Korean Cancer Association. Given the increasing incidence of cancer in all countries and regions of Asia, regardless of developmental stage, and also in light of the recognized need for Asian countries to enhance collaboration in cancer prevention, research, treatment and follow-up, the symposium was held with the aim of bringing together oncology specialists from eight countries and regions in Asia to present the status in their own national context and discuss the key challenges and requirements in order to establish a greater Asian presence in the area of cancer control and research. The task of bringing together diverse countries and regions is made all the more urgent in that while Asia now accounts for more than half of all new cancer cases globally, clinical guidelines are based predominantly on practices adopted in western countries, which may not be optimized for unique ethnic, pharmacogenomic and cultural characteristics in Asia. Recognizing the need for Asia to better gather information and data for the compilation of Asia-specific clinical guidelines, the participants discussed the current status in Asia in the national and regional contexts and identified future steps towards integrated and collaborative initiatives in Asia. A key outcome of the symposium was a proposal to combine and integrate the activities of existing pan-Asian societies, including the Asia Pacific Federation of Organizations for Cancer Research and Control (APFOCC) and Asian Clinical Oncology Society (ACOS). Further proposals included the expansion of pan-Asian society membership to include individuals and the essential need to encourage the participation of young researchers in order to ensure self-sustainability of cancer control efforts in the future.

  19. Investigating the haze transport from 1997 biomass burning in Southeast Asia: its impact upon Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koe, Lawrence C. C.; Arellano, Avelino F.; McGregor, John L.

    The 1997 Indonesia forest fires was an environmental disaster of exceptional proportions. Such a disaster caused massive transboundary air pollution and indiscriminate destruction of biodiversity in the world. The immediate consequence of the fires was the production of large amounts of haze in the region, causing visibility and health problems within Southeast Asia. Furthermore, fires of these magnitudes are potential contributors to global warming and climate change due to the emission of large amounts of greenhouse gases and other pyrogenic products.The long-range transport of fire-related haze in the region is investigated using trajectories from the CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research Limited Area Model (DARLAM). Emission scenarios were constructed for hotspot areas in Sumatra and Kalimantan for the months of September and October 1997 to determine the period and fire locations most critical to Singapore. This study also examines some transport issues raised from field observations. Results show that fires in the coastal areas of southeast Sumatra and southwest Kalimantan can be potential contributors to transboundary air pollution in Singapore. Singapore was directly affected by haze from these areas whereas Kuala Lumpur was heavily affected by the haze coming from Sumatra. In most cases, Singapore was more affected by fires from Kalimantan than was Kuala Lumpur. This was mainly a result of the shifting of monsoons. The transition of monsoons resulted in weaker low-level winds and shifted convergence zones near to the southeast of Peninsular Malaysia. In addition to severe drought and massive fire activity in 1997, the timing of the monsoon transition has a strong influence on haze transport in the region.

  20. Emergency Prevention System (EMPRES) for transboundary animal and plant pests and diseases. The EMPRES-livestock: an FAO initiative.

    PubMed

    Welte, Valdir Roberto; Vargas Terán, Moisés

    2004-10-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) decided that the Organization should be focusing on the goal of enhancing world food security and the fight against transboundary animal diseases and plant pests. A mandate was obtained from the Governing Council and Conference to establish two new Special Programmes to address these fundamental issues. The first is the Special Programme on Food Security and the second is the Emergency Prevention System against transboundary animal and plant pests and diseases (EMPRES). EMPRES has two components, created after 1994 by a new policy of the Director-General of the FAO to better direct the FAO: the plant pest component focuses on the desert locust, whereas the animal diseases component focuses primarily on rinderpest but also on other epidemic diseases (e.g., contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, foot-and-mouth disease, peste de petit ruminants). For the program as a whole, a high-level EMPRES Steering Committee was established. This is chaired by the FAO Director-General and consists of the heads of key departments (Assistant Directors-General) and Divisional Directors. For the animal diseases component (hereafter referred to as EMPRES-Livestock Programme), FAO established a management unit within its Animal Health Service (AGAH), that is, the Infectious Diseases-EMPRES Group, to be responsible for implementation, including liaison with the Joint FAO-International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Division in Vienna for some of the functions suballocated there. This paper briefly describes FAO EMPRES Livestock, its vision, its mission, and its activities to assist FAO developing member countries and regions in improving the ability of veterinary services to reduce the risks of introduction and/or dissemination of transboundary animal disease, by preventing, controlling, and eradicating those diseases, assisting countries in building their own surveillance/early warning systems, establishing contingency plans

  1. The air quality and health impacts of domestic trans-boundary pollution in various regions of China.

    PubMed

    Gu, Y; Yim, S H L

    2016-12-01

    Air pollution is one of the most pressing environmental problems in China. Literature has reported that outdoor air pollution leads to adverse health problems every year in China. Recent measurement studies found the important regional nature of particulates in China. Trans-boundary air pollution within China has yet to be fully understood. This study aimed to comprehensively understand the processes of domestic trans-boundary air pollution in China and to apportion the impacts of emissions in different regions on air quality and public health. We applied a state-of-the-art air quality model to simulate air quality in China and then adapted a form of integrated concentration-response function for China to estimate the resultant amount of premature mortality due to exposures to PM2.5. Our findings show that domestic trans-boundary impacts (TBI), on average, account for 27% of the total PM2.5 in China. We estimated that outdoor air pollution caused ~870,000 (95% CI: 130,000-1500,000) premature mortalities in China in 2010, of which on average 18% are attributed to TBI. Among all the regions, North China is the largest contributor to TBI due to 41% of the health impacts of its emissions occurring in other regions. Taiwan (TW) is the smallest contributor to TBI occurring in China, contributing 2% of the national TBI, while TBI causes 22% of the premature mortalities due to outdoor air pollution in TW. Our findings pinpoint the significant impacts of TBI on public health in China, indicating the need for cross-region cooperation to mitigate the air quality impacts and the nation's resultant health problems.

  2. Transboundary Air-Pollution Transport in the Czech-Polish Border Region between the Cities of Ostrava and Katowice.

    PubMed

    Černikovský, Libor; Krejčí, Blanka; Blažek, Zdeněk; Volná, Vladimíra

    2016-12-01

    The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) estimated the transboundary transport of air pollution between the Czech Republic and Poland by assessing relationships between weather conditions and air pollution in the area as part of the "Air Quality Information System in the Polish-Czech border of the Silesian and Moravian-Silesian region" project (http://www.air-silesia.eu). Estimation of cross-border transport of pollutants is important for Czech-Polish negotiations and targeted measures for improving air quality. Direct measurement of PM10 and sulphur dioxide (SO2) concentrations and the direction and wind speed from measuring stations in the vicinity of the Czech-Polish state border in 2006-2012. Taking into account all the inaccuracies, simplifications and uncertainties, by which all of the measurements are affected, it is possible to state that the PM10 transboundary transport was greater from the direction of Poland to the Czech Republic, rather than the other way around. Nevertheless, the highest share of the overall PM10 concentration load was recorded on days with a vaguely estimated airflow direction. This usually included days with changing wind direction or days with a distinct wind change throughout the given day. A changeable wind is most common during low wind speeds. It can be assumed that during such days with an ambiguous daily airflow, the polluted air saturated with sources on both sides of the border moves from one country to the other. Therefore, we could roughly ascribe an equal level of these concentrations to both the Czech and Polish side. PM10 transboundary transport was higher from Poland to the Czech Republic than from the opposite direction, despite the predominant air flow from the Czech Republic to Poland.

  3. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-29

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  4. Are Village Animal Health Workers Able to Assist in Strengthening Transboundary Animal Disease Control in Cambodia?

    PubMed

    Stratton, J; Toribio, J-A L M L; Suon, S; Young, J R; Cowled, B; Windsor, P A

    2017-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 445 Village Animal Health Workers (VAHWs) from 19 provinces in Cambodia was undertaken. The aim was to establish their levels of training, farm visit frequency, reasons for visits and disease reporting practices, enabling the strengths and weaknesses of the VAHW system in Cambodia to be determined, in providing both a fee-based smallholder livestock clinical service and a government partnership in transboundary animal disease (TAD) surveillance and control. The study used 'guided group interviews' and identified that VAHWs had good contact with farmers with 61.5% making more than one farm visit daily. However, incomes from services remained low, with 45% VAHWs obtaining between 20 and 40% of their household income from VAHW activities. VAHWs recorded relatively high rates of disease reporting, with 72% claiming they report diseases immediately and 74% undertaking monthly reporting to veterinary authorities. Logistic regression analysis revealed VAHW contact frequency with district and/or provincial officers was associated with more VAHW farm visits, and frequency of VAHW visits to smallholder farms was positively associated with average monthly expenditure on animal medication and equipment. This suggests that increased veterinary extension to VAHWs and access to veterinary equipment, vaccines and drugs may further increase VAHW-farmer engagement. VAHWs provide an accessible, market-based, animal health 'treatment and reporting' service linked to livestock smallholders across Cambodia. However, for improved TAD prevention and more efficient control of outbreaks, research that assesses provision of an animal health 'preventive-based' business model is urgently needed to reduce both the costs to farmers and the risks to the economy due to foot-and-mouth disease and other TADs in Cambodia. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J.; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-01

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  6. Transboundary conservation: An ecoregional approach to protect neotropical migratory birds in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, Roberto; Adkins, Leslie; Wurschy, Maria Christina; Skerl, Kevin

    1996-11-01

    Future conservation efforts will need to transcend geopolitical boundaries in efforts to protect entire landscapes and ecosystems. Neotropical migratory birds are as a group a useful conservation tool for linking diverse landscapes and people due to their dependence on multiple habitats, sensitivity to habitat changes, and universal public appeal. The conservation of neotropical migrants can therefore function as a powerful hemispheric umbrella for ecosystem protection. Efforts to protect neotropical migratory birds on their nonbreeding grounds have traditionally been focused on Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. To assess the importance of South America to neotropical migrants, an ecoregional classification system was used to determine species distributions in the Andean/Southern Cone Region (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela). The occurrence of migrants in protected areas that are part of The Nature Conservancy's Parks in Peril program was also assessed. Of the 406 neotropical migrant species, nearly one third (132) occur as regular nonbreeding residents in the region and for almost half of these species (53), South America is their main nonbreeding ground. All Parks in Peril sites were found to harbor neotropical migrants. Forty-eight species (36%) have declining longterm North American Breeding Bird Survey population trends and/or high Partners in Flight concern scores and thus are of significant conservation concern. Most importantly, 29 species (22%) of conservation concern use South America as their primary nonbreeding ground, indicating a need for focused conservation action. The nature of the ecoregional approach used in this endeavor makes future prioritization of ecoregions and conservation strategies for neotropical migrants across national boundaries possible. The ability to link diverse landscapes using a common element such as migratory birds allows for unique transboundary partnerships and opportunities for habitat

  7. Transboundary movement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Kuroshio Sphere of the western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hu-Ching; Lee, Chon-Lin; Lai, Chin-Hsing; Fang, Meng-Der; Lai, I.-Chien

    2012-07-01

    Atmospheric PAHs in the Kuroshio Sphere of southern Taiwan were measured and characterized using samples collected simultaneously at four sites from February to October in 2007. Higher PAH concentrations occurred in winter (range 2.41 ± 1.85 to 40.8 ± 6.97 ng m-3) and autumn (range 1.21 ± 0.32 to 65.1 ± 57.4 ng m-3) than in summer (range 0.87 ± 0.36 to 17.7 ± 2.88 ng m-3). Comparison of the total PAH concentrations from the four sampling sites showed that the total PAH concentrations from the Kaohsiung urban site (KHU) were 1.7-4.4 times higher than those from the Kaohsiung coastal site (KHC), 3.6-26 times those from a rural coastal site (Kenting, KT), and 16.9-53.8 times those from an offshore island site (Lanyu, LY). The PAH compositional pattern, diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis indicated that the major sources of PAHs in the study area can be classified into three categories. The first is vehicular sources from local traffic, the second is natural soils, and the third is industrial activities including coke ovens and incinerator emissions. The results from back trajectories also demonstrated that atmospheric PAHs were produced by local sources but were also influenced by transboundary movement of terrestrial pollutants. The characteristics and sources of atmospheric PAHs identified in this study provide useful information for estimating the effects and transportation of PAHs in the Kuroshio Sphere.

  8. Impact of Trans-Boundary Emissions on Modelled Air Pollution in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Moran, Mike; Zhang, Junhua; Zheng, Qiong; Menard, Sylvain; Anselmo, David; Davignon, Didier

    2014-05-01

    The operational air quality model GEM-MACH is run twice daily at the Canadian Meteorological Centre in Montreal, Quebec to produce 48-hour forecasts of hourly O3, NO2, and PM2.5 fields over a North American domain. The hourly gridded anthropogenic emissions fields needed by GEM-MACH are currently based on the 2006 Canadian emissions inventory, a 2012 projected U.S. inventory, and the 1999 Mexican inventory. The Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) processing package was used to process these three national emissions inventories to create the GEM-MACH emissions fields. While Canada is the second-largest country in the world by total area, its population and its emissions of criteria contaminants are both only about one-tenth of U.S. values and roughly 80% of the Canadian population lives within 150 km of the international border with the U.S. As a consequence, transboundary transport of air pollution has a major impact on air quality in Canada. To quantify the impact of non-Canadian emissions on forecasted pollutant levels in Canada, the following two tests were performed: (a) all U.S. and Mexican anthropogenic emissions were switched off; and (b) anthropogenic emissions from the southernmost tier of U.S. states and Mexico were switched off. These sensitivity tests were performed for the summer and winter periods of 2012 or 2011. The results obtained show that the impact of non-Canadian sources on forecasted pollution is generally larger in summer than in winter, especially in south-eastern parts of Canada. For the three pollutants considered in the Canadian national Air Quality Health Index, PM2.5 is impacted the most (up to 80%) and NO2 the least (<10%). Emissions from the southern U.S. and Mexico do impact Canadian air quality, but the sign may change depending on the season (i.e., increase vs. decrease), reflecting chemical processing en route.

  9. Huntington Disease in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Miao; Wu, Zhi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to review the major differences of Huntington disease (HD) in Asian population from those in the Caucasian population. Data Sources: Data cited in this review were obtained from PubMed database and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) from 1994 to 2014. All the papers were written in English or Chinese languages, with the terms of Asia/Asian, HD, genotype, epidemiology, phenotype, and treatment used for the literature search. Study Selection: From the PubMed database, we included the articles and reviews which contained the HD patients’ data from Asian countries. From the CNKI, we excluded the papers which were not original research. Due to the language's restrictions, those data published in other languages were not included. Results: In total, 50 papers were cited in this review, authors of which were from the mainland of China, Japan, India, Thailand, Taiwan (China), Korea, and western countries. Conclusions: The lower epidemiology in Asians can be partly explained by the less cytosine-adenine-guanine repeats, different haplotypes, and CCG polymorphisms. For the physicians, atypical clinical profiles such as the initial symptom of ataxia, movement abnormalities of Parkinsonism, dystonia, or tics need to be paid more attention to and suggest gene testing if necessary. Moreover, some pathogenesis studies may help progress some new advanced treatments. The clinicians in Asian especially in China should promote the usage of genetic testing and put more effects in rehabilitation, palliative care, and offer comfort of patients and their families. The unified HD rating scale also needs to be popularized in Asia to assist in evaluating the progression of HD. PMID:26112725

  10. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-31

    Revived 11 Comments on Status of Former UMNO Members in Parliament 11 Speaker of Parliament’s Statement 11 Statement by Attorney General 12 New...UMNO’s Policy 12 First General Assembly of New UMNO To Meet 13 Youth, Women’s Movement Heads of New UMNO Named 14 Report on Gas, Water, Ferry...17 THAILAND Editorial Hails USSR Ties, Sees U.S. Domination 19 Columnist Cites U.S. Support of Dictators, Loss of Influence "!"™!!"!!! Z ! Z """"["! 19

  11. East Asia: Southeast Asia, Autobiography of Chamlong.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Chinese owner of a jute mill to open a spinning mill beneath my grandmother’s house. The machines were operated by pedal. This was a new occupation...with which we were unfamiliar. Everything had to be learned anew. We picked up the jute from the Chinese, soaked it in water, and then unraveled...little money. It took many days of practice to learn how to do this. During the first few days, we didn’t earn much, because the jute that we spun

  12. Participatory Modeling Processes to Build Community Knowledge Using Shared Model and Data Resources and in a Transboundary Pacific Northwest Watershed (Nooksack River Basin, Washington, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandaragoda, C.; Dumas, M.

    2014-12-01

    As with many western US watersheds, the Nooksack River Basin faces strong pressures associated with climate variability and change, rapid population growth, and deep-rooted water law. This transboundary basin includes contributing areas in British Columbia, Canada, and has a long history of joint data collection, model development, and facilitated communication between governmental (federal, tribal, state, local), environmental, timber, agricultural, and recreational user groups. However, each entity in the watershed responds to unique data coordination, information sharing, and adaptive management regimes and thresholds, further increasing the complexity of watershed management. Over the past four years, participatory methods were used to compile and review scientific data and models, including fish habitat (endangered salmonid species), channel hydraulics, climate data, agricultural, municipal and industrial water use, and integrated watershed scale distributed hydrologic models from over 15 years of projects (from jointly funded to independent shared work by individual companies, agencies, and universities). A specific outcome of the work includes participatory design of a collective problem statement used for guidance on future investment of shared resources and development of a data-generation process where modeling results are communicated in a three-tiers for 1) public/decision-making, 2) technical, and 3) research audiences. We establish features for successful participation using tools that are iteratively developed, tested for usability through incremental knowledge building, and designed to provide rigor in modeling. A general outcome of the work is ongoing support by tribal, state, and local governments, as well as the agricultural community, to continue the generation of shared watershed data using models in a dynamic legal and regulatory setting, where two federally recognized tribes have requested federal court resolution of federal treaty rights

  13. Pollution control costs of a transboundary river basin: Empirical tests of the fairness and stability of cost allocation mechanisms using game theory.

    PubMed

    Shi, Guang-Ming; Wang, Jin-Nan; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Yong-Liang

    2016-07-15

    With rapid economic growth, transboundary river basin pollution in China has become a very serious problem. Based on practical experience in other countries, cooperation among regions is an economic way to control the emission of pollutants. This study develops a game theoretic simulation model to analyze the cost effectiveness of reducing water pollutant emissions in four regions of the Jialu River basin while considering the stability and fairness of four cost allocation schemes. Different schemes (the nucleolus, the weak nucleolus, the Shapley value and the Separable Cost Remaining Benefit (SCRB) principle) are used to allocate regionally agreed-upon water pollutant abatement costs. The main results show that the fully cooperative coalition yielded the highest incremental gain for regions willing to cooperate if each region agreed to negotiate by transferring part of the incremental gain obtained from the cooperation to cover the losses of other regions. In addition, these allocation schemes produce different outcomes in terms of their fairness to the players and in terms of their derived stability, as measured by the Shapley-Shubik Power Index and the Propensity to Disrupt. Although the Shapley value and the SCRB principle exhibit superior fairness and stabilization to the other methods, only the SCRB principle may maintains full cooperation among regions over the long term. The results provide clear empirical evidence that regional gain allocation may affect the sustainability of cooperation. Therefore, it is implied that not only the cost-effectiveness but also the long-term sustainability should be considered while formulating and implementing environmental policies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of collective impact of upstream watershed development and basin-wide successive droughts on downstream flow regime: The Lesser Zab transboundary basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Faraj, Furat A. M.; Al-Dabbagh, Bassam N. S.

    2015-11-01

    Rapid population growth and socio-economic development coupled with climate change and variability have observably impaired the natural characteristics of hydrological regimes of most of large rivers worldwide. The Lesser Zab shared between Iraq and Iran was one of the few remaining rather intact transboundary river watersheds. The unregulated natural flow pattern, however, has been shifted mainly due to recent upstream anthropogenic factors incorporated with successive droughts. A new generic approach was introduced through integrating a subset of the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) into three generic empirical equations coupled with the application of two universally endorsed drought indices to assess the changes in hydrological patterns prior to, and after upstream watershed development twinned with consecutive drought spells. A departure of about -16% was detected in the long-term median annual runoff in the artificially impaired periods. Alterations ranged from -3.4% to -41.7% were linked to monthly medians. The 1- to 90-day minimum runoffs were dropped between -33.3% and -53.8% over the regulated period. More substantial shifts were perceived between 1999 and 2013. The rates of anomaly ranged from -55.6% to -73.1%. The extreme minimum flows were experienced low to high alterations, while low to moderate degree of anomalies were associated with 1- to 90-day maximum flows. This rate of increased water withdrawal is anticipated to develop and the vulnerability degree of the downstream riparian country is projected to increase. Findings reveal that the impact of successive basin-wide drought episodes has considerably outweighed the effect of current recent upstream damming and water withdrawals.

  15. An Analysis of Historical Impacts of Water Resources Development on Water Levels of the Mekong River (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, T. A.; Arias, M. E.; Piman, T.

    2013-12-01

    The rapid rate of water resources development in the Mekong basin of Southeast Asia is a cause for concern due to potential impacts on highly valued fisheries and natural ecosystems. Historical water levels of the Mekong were analyzed by comparing pre and post 1991 daily data of 6 stations along the mainstream from Chiang Sean, in northern Lao PDR and Thailand, to Stung Treng, in Cambodia, and the Pre Kdam station near the Tonle Sap Lake in the lower Mekong floodplain using the Indicators of Hydrological Alteration (IHA) software. The year 1991 marks a turning point in the rate of development in the basin, with the start of development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong and accelerated hydropower and irrigation development in key tributaries. Observed changes in water level patterns along the Mekong were linked to temporal and spatial water resources development from 1960 to 2010. Variations in climate were accounted for and are important, but they were not observed to be the main causes of changes in key hydrological indicators related to ecosystem productivity. The development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong basin in the post 1991 period resulted in a significant change of seasonal water levels, raise rates, fall rates, and the number of water level fluctuations at Chiang Sean. This effect diminishes downstream until it becomes negligible at the Mukdahan monitoring station in Thailand, which represents a drainage area of over 50% of the total Mekong Basin. Further downstream at Pakse station in Southern Lao PDR, changes in hydrological indicators post 1991 were observed to be significant again, which can be directly attributed to water resource development in the Chi and Mun River basins in Northeastern Thailand. A reduction of 23% and 11% in water level raising rates and fall rates, respectively at Prek Kdam, provides clear evidence of a diminished flood pulse of the Tonle Sap Lake in the post 1991 period. Given the observed water level alterations

  16. Acid deposition in Asia: Emissions, deposition, and ecosystem effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Lei; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Zifa; Pan, Yuepeng; Larssen, Thorjørn; Tang, Jie; Mulder, Jan

    2016-12-01

    We review and synthesize the current state of knowledge regarding acid deposition and its environmental effects across Asia. The extent and magnitude of acid deposition in Asia became apparent only about one decade after this issue was well described in Europe and North America. In addition to the temperate zone, much of eastern and southern Asia is situated in the tropics and subtropics, climate zones hitherto little studied with respect to the effects of high loads of acid deposition. Surface waters across Asia are generally not sensitive to the effects of acid deposition, whereas soils in some regions are sensitive to acidification due to low mineral weathering. However, soil acidification was largely neutralized by such processes as base cation deposition, nitrate (NO3-) denitrification, and sulfate (SO42-) adsorption. Accompanying the decrease in S deposition in recent years, N deposition is of increasing concern in Asia. The acidifying effect of N deposition may be more important than S deposition in well drained tropical/subtropical soils due to high SO42- adsorption. The risk of regional soil acidification is a major threat in Eastern Asia, indicated by critical load exceedance in large areas.

  17. NASA's Impacts Towards Improving International Water Management Using Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toll, D. L.; Doorn, B.; Searby, N. D.; Entin, J. K.; Lawford, R. G.; Mohr, K. I.; Lee, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Key objectives of the NASA's Water Resources and Capacity Building Programs are to discover and demonstrate innovative uses and practical benefits of NASA's advanced system technologies for improved water management. This presentation will emphasize NASA's water research, applications, and capacity building activities using satellites and models to contribute to water issues including water availability, transboundary water, flooding and droughts to international partners, particularly developing countries. NASA's free and open exchange of Earth data observations and products helps engage and improve integrated observation networks and enables national and multi-national regional water cycle research and applications that are especially useful in data sparse regions of most developing countries. NASA satellite and modeling products provide a huge volume of valuable data extending back over 50 years across a broad range of spatial (local to global) and temporal (hourly to decadal) scales and include many products that are available in near real time (see earthdata.nasa.gov). To further accomplish these objectives NASA works to actively partner with public and private groups (e.g. federal agencies, universities, NGO's, and industry) in the U.S. and internationally to ensure the broadest use of its satellites and related information and products and to collaborate with regional end users who know the regions and their needs best. The event will help demonstrate the strong partnering and the use of satellite data to provide synoptic and repetitive spatial coverage helping water managers' deal with complex issues. This presentation will outline and describe NASA's international water related research, applications and capacity building programs' efforts to address developing countries critical water challenges in Asia, African and Latin America. This will specifically highlight impacts and case studies from NASA's programs in Water Resources (e.g., drought, snow

  18. Long-range transport of mutagens and other air pollutants from mainland East Asia to western Japan.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, Souleymane; Minami, Hiroki; Abe, Maho; Hasei, Tomohiro; Oro, Tadashi; Funasaka, Kunihiro; Asakawa, Daichi; Watanabe, Masanari; Honda, Naoko; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Watanabe, Tetsushi

    2015-01-01

    Asian dust events, transport of dust particles from arid and semi-arid areas in China and Mongolia to the east by prevailing westerlies, are often observed in Japan in spring. In recent decades, consumption of fossil fuels has markedly increased in mainland East Asia with rapid economic growth, and severe air pollution has occurred. A part of air pollutants including mutagens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), generated in mainland East Asia are thought to be transported to Japan by the prevailing westerlies, like Asian dust, and winter monsoon. The objective of this study was to clarify the long-range transport of mutagens and other air pollutants in East Asia. Thus, we collected total suspended particles (TSP) at a rural town in western Japan, namely, Yurihama in Tottori Prefecture, for 1 year (June 2012-May 2013), and investigated their chemical constituents and mutagenicity. Many TSP collected from January to March showed high mutagenicity toward Salmonella typhimurium YG1024 with and without S9 mix, and high levels of lead (Pb) and sulfate ions (SO4 (2-)), which are indicators of transboundary air pollutions from mainland East Asia, were detected in those TSP. A large amount of iron, which is an indicator of sand, was found in highly mutagenic TSP collected in March, but not in TSP collected in January and February. High levels of PAHs were detected in highly mutagenic TSP collected from January to March. The ratios of the concentration of fluoranthene to those of fluoranthene and pyrene suggested that the main source of PAHs in TSP collected in winter and spring was coal and biomass combustion. Backward trajectories of air masses on days when high levels of mutagenicity were found indicated that these air masses had traveled from eastern or northern China to Yurihama. These results suggest that high levels of mutagens were transported from mainland East Asia to western Japan, and this transportation accompanied Asian dust in March, but not in

  19. Burkholderia acidipaludis sp. nov., aluminum-tolerant bacteria isolated from Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) growing in highly acidic swamps in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Tomoko; Bao Ve, Nguyen; Vijarnsorn, Pisoot; Nakajima, Mutsuyasu; Sunairi, Michio

    2010-09-01

    Two strains of aluminium-tolerant bacteria, SA33(T) and 7A078, were isolated from Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) growing in highly acidic swamps (pH 2-4) in actual acid sulfate soil areas of Vietnam (SA33(T)) and Thailand (7A078). The strains were Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming rods, 0.6-0.7 mum wide and 1.3-1.7 mum long. These strains showed good growth at pH 3.0-8.0 and 17-37 degrees C. The organisms contained ubiquinone Q-8 as the predominant isoprenoid quinone and C(16 : 0), C(18 : 1) ω 7c and C(17 : 0) cyclo as the major fatty acids. Their fatty acid profiles were similar to those reported for other Burkholderia species. The DNA G+C content of these strains was 64 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the strains were shown to belong to the genus Burkholderia. Although the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values calculated for strain SA33(T) to 7A078 and the type strains of Burkholderia kururiensis, B. sacchari and B. tuberum were 100, 97.3, 97.1 and 97.0 %, respectively, strains SA33(T) and 7A078 formed a group that was distinct in the phylogenetic trees; the DNA-DNA relatedness of strain SA33(T) to 7A078 and these three type strains were respectively 90, 47, 46 and 45 %. The results of physiological and biochemical tests, including whole-cell protein pattern analysis, allowed phenotypic differentiation of these strains from described Burkholderia species. Therefore, strains SA33(T) and 7A078 represent a novel species, for which the name Burkholderia acidipaludis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SA33(T) (=NBRC 101816(T) =VTCC-D6-6(T)). Strain 7A078 (=NBRC 103872 =BCC 36999) is a reference strain.

  20. Southwest Asia assessment.

    PubMed

    Devendra, T

    1984-06-01

    Southwest Asia, which support 1/3 of the world's population, is acutely aware of the consequences of rapid and excessive population growth. No other region has consciously devoted so much of its resources to stemming excessive population growth. India, with a population of 684 million, formulated a policy of population limitation in the 1950s. The 1980 government rededicated itself to voluntary family planning and rebuilt the broad coalition of an excellent infrastructure of government institutions, voluntary organizations, and international agencies. Government support for family planning clinics began in Bangladesh in the 1960s. A strong institutional structure has been established under the supervision of the National Population Council. Innovative approaches to family planning service delivery have been initiated by an admirable array of institutions. Pakistan's Population Welfare Plan provides substantial funds and an administrative structure to make maternal/child helath care and family planning services available in rural areas. Another welfare program encourages smaller families through projects to enhance the status of women by improving literacy, establishing rural industries, and advocating late marriage. Nepal has had to struggle with a poor administrative structure, grossly insufficient medical services, and an inadequate database for policy formulation. Family planning services are now a component of the overall health program. The family planning services of the pioneer Afghan Family Guidance Association, established in 1968, have been incorported into the national maternal/child health program. The present government of Iran views foreign assistance as an unacceptable form of persuasion and has phased out all international funded family planning programs. Sri Lanka is the only country in the region to have made the demographic transition to fertility decline. An impressive health infrastructure delivers family planning services at every level using

  1. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Water-Soluble Anions and Organic Carbons in Bulk Aerosols Collected at the Ryukyu Islands, Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somada, Y.; Azechi, S.; Ijyu, M.; Nakaema, F.; Handa, D.; Oshiro, Y.; Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.; Furukawa, M.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols pose health risks to humans and change global climate. Ryukyu Islands in Japan are mainly covered with maritime air mass in summer and continental air mass for the rest of the seasons. Thus, it is possible to estimate the origins of chemical components, in particular transboundary air pollutants from East Asia. Ryukyu Islands are one of the best locations for monitoring the changes in Asia's at