Science.gov

Sample records for asialoglycoprotein receptor mediates

  1. Asialoglycoprotein receptor mediated hepatocyte targeting - strategies and applications.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Anisha A; Devarajan, Padma V

    2015-04-10

    Hepatocyte resident afflictions continue to affect the human population unabated. The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) is primarily expressed on hepatocytes and minimally on extra-hepatic cells. This makes it specifically attractive for receptor-mediated drug delivery with minimum concerns of toxicity. ASGPR facilitates internalization by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and exhibits high affinity for carbohydrates specifically galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and glucose. Isomeric forms of sugar, galactose density and branching, spatial geometry and galactose linkages are key factors influencing ligand-receptor binding. Popular ligands for ASGPR mediated targeting are carbohydrate polymers, arabinogalactan and pullulan. Other ligands include galactose-bearing glycoproteins, glycopeptides and galactose modified polymers and lipids. Drug-ligand conjugates provide a viable strategy; nevertheless ligand-anchored nanocarriers provide an attractive option for ASGPR targeted delivery and are widely explored. The present review details various ligands and nanocarriers exploited for ASGPR mediated delivery of drugs to hepatocytes. Nanocarrier properties affecting ASGPR mediated uptake are discussed at length. The review also highlights the clinical relevance of ASGPR mediated targeting and applications in diagnostics. ASGPR mediated hepatocyte targeting provides great promise for improved therapy of hepatic afflictions.

  2. Susceptibility to T cell-mediated liver injury is enhanced in asialoglycoprotein receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    McVicker, Benita L; Thiele, Geoffrey M; Casey, Carol A; Osna, Natalia A; Tuma, Dean J

    2013-05-01

    T cell activation and associated pro-inflammatory cytokine production is a pathological feature of inflammatory liver disease. It is also known that liver injury is associated with marked impairments in the function of many hepatic proteins including a hepatocyte-specific binding protein, the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR). Recently, it has been suggested that hepatic ASGPRs may play an important role in the physiological regulation of T lymphocytes, leading to our hypothesis that ASGPR defects correlate with inflammatory-mediated events in liver diseases. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether changes in hepatocellular ASGPR expression were related to the dysregulation of intrahepatic T lymphocytes and correlate with the development of T-cell mediated hepatitis. Mice lacking functional ASGPRs (receptor-deficient, RD), and wild-type (WT) controls were intravenously injected with T-cell mitogens, Concanavalin A (Con A) or anti-CD3 antibody. As a result of T cell mitogen treatment, RD mice lacking hepatic ASGPRs displayed enhancements in liver pathology, transaminase activities, proinflammatory cytokine expression, and caspase activation compared to that observed in normal WT mice. Furthermore, FACS analysis demonstrated that T-cell mitogen administration resulted in a significant rise in the percentage of CD8+ lymphocytes present in the livers of RD animals versus WT mice. Since these two mouse strains differ only in whether they express the hepatic ASGPR, it can be concluded that proper ASGPR function exerts a protective effect against T cell mediated hepatitis and that impairments to this hepatic receptor could be related to the accumulation of cytotoxic T cells that are observed in inflammatory liver diseases.

  3. Asialoglycoprotein Receptor-Mediated Gene Delivery to Hepatocytes Using Galactosylated Polymers.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Bindu; Kumar, Piyush; Zeng, Hongbo; Narain, Ravin

    2015-09-14

    Highly efficient, specific, and nontoxic gene delivery vector is required for gene therapy to the liver. Hepatocytes exclusively express asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), which can recognize and bind to galactose or N-acetylgalactosamine. Galactosylated polymers are therefore explored for targeted gene delivery to the liver. A library of safe and stable galactose-based glycopolymers that can specifically deliver genes to hepatocytes were synthesized having different architectures, compositions, and molecular weights via the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer process. The physical and chemical properties of these polymers have a great impact on gene delivery efficacy into hepatocytes, as such block copolymers are found to form more stable complexes with plasmid and have high gene delivery efficiency into ASGPR expressing hepatocytes. Transfection efficiency and uptake of polyplexes with these polymers decreased significantly by preincubation of hepatocytes with free asialofetuin or by adding free asialofetuin together with polyplexes into hepatocytes. The results confirmed that polyplexes with these polymers were taken up specifically by hepatocytes via ASGPR-mediated endocytosis. The results from transfection efficiency and uptake of these polymers in cells without ASGPR, such as SK Hep1 and HeLa cells, further support this mechanism. Since in vitro cytotoxicity assays prove these glycopolymers to be nontoxic, they may be useful for delivery of clinically important genes specifically to the liver.

  4. Electrochemical evidence for asialoglycoprotein receptor--mediated hepatocyte adhesion and proliferation in three dimensional tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Vasanthan, Kirthanashri S; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Parthasarathy, Meera

    2015-08-26

    Asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) is one of the recognition motifs on the surface of hepatocytes, which promote their adhesion to extracellular matrix in liver tissue and appropriate artificial surfaces. ASGPR-mediated adhesion is expected to minimize trans-differentiation of hepatocytes in vitro that is generally observed in integrin-mediated adhesion. The aim of the present study is to verify the role of ASGPR in hepatocyte adhesion and proliferation in scaffolds for hepatic tissue engineering. Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (SECM) is emerging as a suitable non-invasive analytical tool due to its high sensitivity and capability to correlate the morphology and activity of live cells. HepG2 cells and rat primary hepatocytes cultured in Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/Gelatin hydrogel scaffolds with and without galactose (a ligand for ASGPR) modification are studied using SECM. Systematic investigation of live cells cultured for different durations in scaffolds of different compositions (9:1 and 8:2 PVA:Gelatin with and without galactose) reveals significant improvement in cell-cell communication and proliferation on galactose incorporated scaffolds, thereby demonstrating the positive influence of ASGPR-mediated adhesion. In this work, we have also developed a methodology to quantify the respiratory activity and intracellular redox activity of live cells cultured in porous tissue engineering scaffolds. Using this methodology, SECM results are compared with routine cell culture assays viz., MTS ((1-Oxyl-2,2,5,5,-tetramethyl-Δ3-pyrroline-3-methyl) Methanethiosulfonate) and Albumin assays to demonstrate the better sensitivity of SECM. In addition, the present study demonstrates SECM as a reliable and sensitive tool to monitor the activity of live cells cultured in scaffolds for tissue engineering, which could be used on a routine basis.

  5. Electrochemical evidence for asialoglycoprotein receptor--mediated hepatocyte adhesion and proliferation in three dimensional tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Vasanthan, Kirthanashri S; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Parthasarathy, Meera

    2015-08-26

    Asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) is one of the recognition motifs on the surface of hepatocytes, which promote their adhesion to extracellular matrix in liver tissue and appropriate artificial surfaces. ASGPR-mediated adhesion is expected to minimize trans-differentiation of hepatocytes in vitro that is generally observed in integrin-mediated adhesion. The aim of the present study is to verify the role of ASGPR in hepatocyte adhesion and proliferation in scaffolds for hepatic tissue engineering. Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (SECM) is emerging as a suitable non-invasive analytical tool due to its high sensitivity and capability to correlate the morphology and activity of live cells. HepG2 cells and rat primary hepatocytes cultured in Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/Gelatin hydrogel scaffolds with and without galactose (a ligand for ASGPR) modification are studied using SECM. Systematic investigation of live cells cultured for different durations in scaffolds of different compositions (9:1 and 8:2 PVA:Gelatin with and without galactose) reveals significant improvement in cell-cell communication and proliferation on galactose incorporated scaffolds, thereby demonstrating the positive influence of ASGPR-mediated adhesion. In this work, we have also developed a methodology to quantify the respiratory activity and intracellular redox activity of live cells cultured in porous tissue engineering scaffolds. Using this methodology, SECM results are compared with routine cell culture assays viz., MTS ((1-Oxyl-2,2,5,5,-tetramethyl-Δ3-pyrroline-3-methyl) Methanethiosulfonate) and Albumin assays to demonstrate the better sensitivity of SECM. In addition, the present study demonstrates SECM as a reliable and sensitive tool to monitor the activity of live cells cultured in scaffolds for tissue engineering, which could be used on a routine basis. PMID:26347169

  6. Fluorine-18 labeled galactosylated chitosan for asialoglycoprotein-receptor-mediated hepatocyte imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenjiang; Mou, Tiantian; Guo, Wenyan; Jing, Huihui; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Xianzhong; Ma, Yunchuan; Liu, Boli

    2010-08-15

    Galactosylated chitosan (GC) was prepared by reacting lactobionic acid with water-soluble chitosan. GC was labeled with fluorine-18 by conjugation with N-succinimidyl-4-(18)F-fluorobenzoate ([(18)F]SFB) under a slightly basic condition. After rapid purification with HiTrap desalting column, [(18)F]FB-GC was obtained with high radiochemical purity (>97%) determined by radio-HPLC. The total reaction time for [(18)F]FB-GC was about 150 min. Typical decay-corrected radiochemical yield was about 4-8%. Ex vivo biodistribution in normal mice showed that [(18)F]FB-GC had moderate activity accumulation in liver with very good retention (11.13+/-1.63, 10.97+/-1.90 and 10.77+/-0.95%ID/g at 10, 60, 120 min after injection, respectively). The other tissues except kidney showed relative low radioactivity accumulation. The high liver/background ratio affords promising biological properties to get clear images. The specific binding of this radiotracer to the ASGP receptor was confirmed by blocking experiment in mice. Compared with the non-blocking group the hepatic uptake of [(18)F]FB-GC significantly declined in all selected time points. The better liver retention properties of [(18)F]FB-GC than that of albumin based imaging agents may improve imaging quality and simplify pharmacokinetic model of liver function in the future application with PET imaging. PMID:20634070

  7. Glycomimetic ligands for the human asialoglycoprotein receptor.

    PubMed

    Mamidyala, Sreeman K; Dutta, Sanjay; Chrunyk, Boris A; Préville, Cathy; Wang, Hong; Withka, Jane M; McColl, Alexander; Subashi, Timothy A; Hawrylik, Steven J; Griffor, Matthew C; Kim, Sung; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Price, David A; Menhaji-Klotz, Elnaz; Mascitti, Vincent; Finn, M G

    2012-02-01

    The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) is a high-capacity galactose-binding receptor expressed on hepatocytes that binds its native substrates with low affinity. More potent ligands are of interest for hepatic delivery of therapeutic agents. We report several classes of galactosyl analogues with varied substitution at the anomeric, C2-, C5-, and C6-positions. Significant increases in binding affinity were noted for several trifluoromethylacetamide derivatives without covalent attachment to the protein. A variety of new ligands were obtained with affinity for ASGPR as good as or better than that of the parent N-acetylgalactosamine, showing that modification on either side of the key C3,C4-diol moiety is well tolerated, consistent with previous models of a shallow binding pocket. The galactosyl pyranose motif therefore offers many opportunities for the attachment of other functional units or payloads while retaining low-micromolar or better affinity for the ASGPR.

  8. Zonal differences in ethanol-induced impairments in receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoglycoproteins in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.A.; Kragskow, S.L.; Sorrell, M.F.; Tuma, D.J. )

    1991-02-01

    We have shown previously that ethanol-induced defects in receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoorosomucoid occurred as early as 1 wk after ethanol feeding. This study was undertaken as an initial attempt to establish a possible role of defective receptor-mediated endocytosis in liver injury by investigating whether differences exist in the effects of ethanol on receptor-mediated endocytosis in hepatocytes isolated from different regions of the liver. Perivenule cells, present in the distal half of the liver, are thought to be more susceptible to ethanol-induced liver injury than are the periportal cells located in the proximal half of the liver acini. For these studies, we fed male Sprague-Dawley rats for 7 days with liquid diets containing either ethanol (36% of calories) or isocaloric carbohydrate. Perivenule and periportal hepatocytes were then isolated using a digitonin-collagenase perfusion method. In control animals, cells isolated from the perivenule region bound significantly more ligand than did cells from the periportal region. Amounts of ligand internalized and degraded were also greater in perivenule than in periportal cells in these animals. After ethanol feeding, cells isolated from both the perivenule and periportal regions bound significantly less ligand than their respective controls. This impairment in surface and total binding was more pronounced in perivenule than in periportal cells. Internalization and degradation of the ligand were also more adversely affected in the centrilobular region as shown by decreases of greater than 60% in perivenule cells and by only 20% to 30% in periportal cells of ethanol-fed animals compared with controls.

  9. Effect of size and conformation of the ligand on asialoglycoprotein receptor-mediated ligand internalization and degradation in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.H.; Chang, T.M.

    1987-05-01

    The rates of internalization and degradation of /sup 125/-I-labeled desialylated cyanogen bromide fragment I of orosomucoid (AS-CNBr-I) and its reduced and carboxymethylated derivative (AS-RC-CNBr-I) were compared with those of /sup 125/I-labeled asialoorosomucoid (ASOR) in rat hepatocytes. At 30 nM the rates of internalization and degradation of /sup 125/I-AS-CNBr-I were greater than those of /sup 125/I-ASOR. /sup 125/I-AS-RC-CNBr-I also had a lower rate of internalization and degradation. In contrast to /sup 125/I-ASOR, when degradation was inhibited by 5 ..mu..M colchicine there was a significant intracellular accumulation of the smaller ligands. At 4/sup 0/C the hepatocytes were found to bind the fragmented ligands more than /sup 125/I-ASOR. Incubation of the cells with bound ligand at 37/sup 0/ indicated that diacytosis of /sup 125/I-ASOR was greater than the smaller ligands. Colchincine markedly enhanced diacytosis of /sup 125/I-ASOR. On the other hand, there were marked accumulation of the smaller ligands by colchicine. These results suggest that the rates of internalization, degradation and diacytosis of the ligand are affected by the size and conformation of the ligand through different rates of receptor binding and intracellular transport.

  10. Impact of asialoglycoprotein receptor deficiency on the development of liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Serene ML; Casey, Carol A; McVicker, Benita L

    2009-01-01

    The asialoglycoprotein (ASGP) receptor is a well-characterized hepatic receptor that is recycled via the common cellular process of receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME). The RME process plays an integral part in the proper trafficking and routing of receptors and ligands in the healthy cell. Thus, the mis-sorting or altered transport of proteins during RME is thought to play a role in several diseases associated with hepatocyte and liver dysfunction. Previously, we examined in detail alterations that occur in hepatocellular RME and associated receptor functions as a result of one particular liver injury, alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The studies revealed profound ethanol-mediated impairments to the ASGP receptor and the RME process, indicating the importance of this receptor and the maintenance of proper endocytic events in normal tissue. To further clarify these observations, studies were performed utilizing knockout mice (lacking a functional ASGP receptor) to which were administered several liver toxicants. In addition to alcohol, we examined the effects following administration of anti-Fas (CD95) antibody, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/galactosamine. The results of these studies demonstrated that the knockout mice sustained enhanced liver injury in response to all of the treatments, as shown by increased indices of liver damage, such as enhancement of serum enzyme levels, histopathological scores, as well as hepatocellular death. Overall, the work completed to date suggests a possible link between hepatic receptors and liver injury. In particular, adequate function and content of the ASGP receptor may provide protection against various toxin-mediated liver diseases. PMID:19291819

  11. Design of cholesterol arabinogalactan anchored liposomes for asialoglycoprotein receptor mediated targeting to hepatocellular carcinoma: In silico modeling, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Pankaj; Dhawan, Vivek; Magarkar, Aniket; Danne, Reinis; Govindarajan, Srinath; Ghosh, Sandipto; Steiniger, Frank; Chaudhari, Pradip; Gopal, Vijaya; Bunker, Alex; Róg, Tomasz; Fahr, Alfred; Nagarsenker, Mangal

    2016-07-25

    We have developed active targeting liposomes to deliver anticancer agents to ASGPR which will contribute to effective treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Active targeting is achieved through polymeric ligands on the liposome surface. The liposomes were prepared using reverse phase evaporation method and doxorubicin hydrocholoride, a model drug, was loaded using the ammonium sulphate gradient method. Liposomes loaded with DOX were found to have a particle size of 200nm with more than 90% entrapment efficiency. Systems were observed to release the drug in a sustained manner in acidic pH in vitro. Liposomes containing targeting ligands possessed greater and selective toxicity to ASGPR positive HepG2 cell lines due to specific ligand receptor interaction. Bio-distribution studies revealed that liposomes were concentrated in the liver even after 3h of administration, thus providing conclusive evidence of targeting potential for formulated nanosystems. Tumor regression studies indicated greater tumor suppression with targeted liposomes thereby establishing superiority of the liposomal system. In this work, we used a novel methodology to guide the determination of the optimal composition of the targeting liposomes: molecular dynamics (MD) simulation that aided our understanding of the behaviour of the ligand within the bilayer. This can be seen as a demonstration of the utility of this methodology as a rational design tool for active targeting liposome formulation. PMID:27231122

  12. Design of cholesterol arabinogalactan anchored liposomes for asialoglycoprotein receptor mediated targeting to hepatocellular carcinoma: In silico modeling, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Pankaj; Dhawan, Vivek; Magarkar, Aniket; Danne, Reinis; Govindarajan, Srinath; Ghosh, Sandipto; Steiniger, Frank; Chaudhari, Pradip; Gopal, Vijaya; Bunker, Alex; Róg, Tomasz; Fahr, Alfred; Nagarsenker, Mangal

    2016-07-25

    We have developed active targeting liposomes to deliver anticancer agents to ASGPR which will contribute to effective treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Active targeting is achieved through polymeric ligands on the liposome surface. The liposomes were prepared using reverse phase evaporation method and doxorubicin hydrocholoride, a model drug, was loaded using the ammonium sulphate gradient method. Liposomes loaded with DOX were found to have a particle size of 200nm with more than 90% entrapment efficiency. Systems were observed to release the drug in a sustained manner in acidic pH in vitro. Liposomes containing targeting ligands possessed greater and selective toxicity to ASGPR positive HepG2 cell lines due to specific ligand receptor interaction. Bio-distribution studies revealed that liposomes were concentrated in the liver even after 3h of administration, thus providing conclusive evidence of targeting potential for formulated nanosystems. Tumor regression studies indicated greater tumor suppression with targeted liposomes thereby establishing superiority of the liposomal system. In this work, we used a novel methodology to guide the determination of the optimal composition of the targeting liposomes: molecular dynamics (MD) simulation that aided our understanding of the behaviour of the ligand within the bilayer. This can be seen as a demonstration of the utility of this methodology as a rational design tool for active targeting liposome formulation.

  13. Tailored Presentation of Carbohydrates on a Coiled Coil-Based Scaffold for Asialoglycoprotein Receptor Targeting.

    PubMed

    Zacco, Elsa; Hütter, Julia; Heier, Jason L; Mortier, Jérémie; Seeberger, Peter H; Lepenies, Bernd; Koksch, Beate

    2015-09-18

    The coiled-coil folding motif represents an ideal scaffold for the defined presentation of ligands due to the possibility of positioning them at specific distances along the axis. We created a coiled-coil glycopeptide library to characterize the distances between the carbohydrate-binding sites of the asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPR) on hepatocytes. The components of the glycopeptide library vary for the number of displayed ligands (galactose), their position on the peptide sequence, and the space between peptide backbone and carbohydrate. We determined the binding of the glycopeptides to the hepatocytes, and we established the optimal distance and orientation of the galactose moieties for interaction with the ASGPR using flow cytometry. We confirmed that the binding occurs through endocytosis mediated by ASGPR via inhibition studies with cytochalasin D; fluorescence microscopy studies display the uptake of the carrier peptides inside the cell. Thus, this study demonstrates that the coiled-coil motif can be used as reliable scaffold for the rational presentation of ligands.

  14. Cholesterol anchored arabinogalactan for asialoglycoprotein receptor targeting: synthesis, characterization, and proof of concept of hepatospecific delivery.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Pankaj Omprakash; Nagarsenker, Mangal Shailesh; Barhate, Chandrashekhar Rishikant; Padhye, Sameer Govind; Dhawan, Vivek Vijay; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Viswanathan, C L; Steiniger, Frank; Fahr, Alfred

    2015-05-18

    Asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPR) are hepatocyte bound receptors, which exhibit receptor mediated endocytosis (RME) for galactose specific moieties. Arabinogalactan (AG), a liver specific high galactose containing branched polysaccharide was hydrophobized using cholesterol (CHOL) as a lipid anchor via a two step reaction process to yield the novel polysaccharide lipid conjugated ligand (CHOL-AL-AG). CHOL-AL-AG was characterized by Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy, (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (NMR), size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Conventional liposomes (CL) and surface modified liposomes (SML) containing CHOL-AL-AG were prepared using reverse phase evaporation technique. Effect of CHOL-AL-AG concentration on particle size and zeta potential of SML was evaluated. Surface morphology of CL and SML was studied using cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). In vitro binding affinity of SML and CL was evaluated using Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA) assay. Cellular uptake of SML and CL was determined on ASGPR expressing HepG2 cell lines by confocal laser scanning microscopy technique (CLSM). FTIR spectra revealed bands at 1736 cm(-1) and 1664 cm(-1) corresponding to ester and carbamate functional groups, respectively. Signals at δ 0.5-2.5 corresponding to the cholestene ring and δ 3-5.5 corresponding to the carbohydrate backbone were observed in (1)H NMR spectrum of the product. CHOL-AL-AG possessed a mean average molecular weight of 27 KDa as determined by size exclusion chromatography. An endothermic peak at 207 °C was observed in the DSC thermogram of CHOL-AL-AG, which was not observed in thermograms of reactants and intermediate product. Synthesized CHOL-AL-AG was successfully incorporated in liposomes to yield SML. Both CL and SML possessed a mean particle size of ∼ 200 nm with polydispersity index of ∼ 0.25. The zeta potential of CLs was observed to be -17 m

  15. Cholesterol anchored arabinogalactan for asialoglycoprotein receptor targeting: synthesis, characterization, and proof of concept of hepatospecific delivery.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Pankaj Omprakash; Nagarsenker, Mangal Shailesh; Barhate, Chandrashekhar Rishikant; Padhye, Sameer Govind; Dhawan, Vivek Vijay; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Viswanathan, C L; Steiniger, Frank; Fahr, Alfred

    2015-05-18

    Asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPR) are hepatocyte bound receptors, which exhibit receptor mediated endocytosis (RME) for galactose specific moieties. Arabinogalactan (AG), a liver specific high galactose containing branched polysaccharide was hydrophobized using cholesterol (CHOL) as a lipid anchor via a two step reaction process to yield the novel polysaccharide lipid conjugated ligand (CHOL-AL-AG). CHOL-AL-AG was characterized by Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy, (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (NMR), size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Conventional liposomes (CL) and surface modified liposomes (SML) containing CHOL-AL-AG were prepared using reverse phase evaporation technique. Effect of CHOL-AL-AG concentration on particle size and zeta potential of SML was evaluated. Surface morphology of CL and SML was studied using cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). In vitro binding affinity of SML and CL was evaluated using Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA) assay. Cellular uptake of SML and CL was determined on ASGPR expressing HepG2 cell lines by confocal laser scanning microscopy technique (CLSM). FTIR spectra revealed bands at 1736 cm(-1) and 1664 cm(-1) corresponding to ester and carbamate functional groups, respectively. Signals at δ 0.5-2.5 corresponding to the cholestene ring and δ 3-5.5 corresponding to the carbohydrate backbone were observed in (1)H NMR spectrum of the product. CHOL-AL-AG possessed a mean average molecular weight of 27 KDa as determined by size exclusion chromatography. An endothermic peak at 207 °C was observed in the DSC thermogram of CHOL-AL-AG, which was not observed in thermograms of reactants and intermediate product. Synthesized CHOL-AL-AG was successfully incorporated in liposomes to yield SML. Both CL and SML possessed a mean particle size of ∼ 200 nm with polydispersity index of ∼ 0.25. The zeta potential of CLs was observed to be -17 m

  16. Modulation of Mannose and Asialoglycoprotein Receptor Expression Determines Glycoprotein Hormone Half-life at Critical Points in the Reproductive Cycle*

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Yiling; Lin, Angela; Fiete, Dorothy; Steirer, Lindsay; Baenziger, Jacques U.

    2014-01-01

    The rate at which glycoproteins are cleared from the circulation has a critical impact on their biologic activity in vivo. We have shown that clearance rates for glycoproteins such as luteinizing hormone (LH) that undergo regulated release into the circulation determine their potency. Two highly abundant, carbohydrate-specific, endocytic receptors, the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGR) and the mannose receptor (ManR) are expressed in the liver by parenchymal and sinusoidal endothelial cells, respectively. We demonstrate that the ManR mediates the clearance of glycoproteins such as LH that bear N-linked glycans terminating with β1,4-linked GalNAc-4-SO4, as well as glycoproteins bearing glycans that terminate with Man. Steady state levels of mRNA encoding the ASGR and the ManR are regulated by progesterone in pregnant mice, reaching maximal levels on day 12.5 of pregnancy. Protein expression and glycan-specific binding activity also increase in the livers of pregnant mice. In contrast, ManR mRNA, but not ASGR mRNA, decreases in male mice at the time of sexual maturation. We show that levels of ManR and ASGR expression control the clearance rate for glycoproteins bearing recognized glycans. Thus, reduced expression of the ManR at the time of sexual maturation will increase the potency of LH in vivo, whereas increased expression during pregnancy will reduce LH potency until progesterone and receptor levels fall prior to parturition. PMID:24619407

  17. Modulation of mannose and asialoglycoprotein receptor expression determines glycoprotein hormone half-life at critical points in the reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Mi, Yiling; Lin, Angela; Fiete, Dorothy; Steirer, Lindsay; Baenziger, Jacques U

    2014-04-25

    The rate at which glycoproteins are cleared from the circulation has a critical impact on their biologic activity in vivo. We have shown that clearance rates for glycoproteins such as luteinizing hormone (LH) that undergo regulated release into the circulation determine their potency. Two highly abundant, carbohydrate-specific, endocytic receptors, the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGR) and the mannose receptor (ManR) are expressed in the liver by parenchymal and sinusoidal endothelial cells, respectively. We demonstrate that the ManR mediates the clearance of glycoproteins such as LH that bear N-linked glycans terminating with β1,4-linked GalNAc-4-SO4, as well as glycoproteins bearing glycans that terminate with Man. Steady state levels of mRNA encoding the ASGR and the ManR are regulated by progesterone in pregnant mice, reaching maximal levels on day 12.5 of pregnancy. Protein expression and glycan-specific binding activity also increase in the livers of pregnant mice. In contrast, ManR mRNA, but not ASGR mRNA, decreases in male mice at the time of sexual maturation. We show that levels of ManR and ASGR expression control the clearance rate for glycoproteins bearing recognized glycans. Thus, reduced expression of the ManR at the time of sexual maturation will increase the potency of LH in vivo, whereas increased expression during pregnancy will reduce LH potency until progesterone and receptor levels fall prior to parturition.

  18. Asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR): a peculiar target of liver-specific autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Roggenbuck, Dirk; Mytilinaiou, Maria G; Lapin, Sergey V; Reinhold, Dirk; Conrad, Karsten

    2012-12-01

    Asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) autoantibodies have been considered specific markers of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). The exact mechanisms responsible for the development of these autoantibodies and leading to autoimmunity to this peculiar liver receptor remain elusive. Furthermore, loss of T cell tolerance to ASGPR has been demonstrated in patients with AIH, but it is poorly understood whether such liver-specific T cell responses bear a pathogenic potential and/or participate in the precipitation of AIH. Newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays have led to the investigation of the sensitivity and specificity of anti-ASGPR antibodies for AIH. The present review provides an overview of the diagnostic and clinical relevance of anti-ASGPR antibodies. A thorough investigation of the autoreactivity against ASGPR may assist efforts to understand liver autoimmunity in susceptible individuals.

  19. (18)F-FBHGal for asialoglycoprotein receptor imaging in a hepatic fibrosis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kao, Hao-Wen; Chen, Chuan-Lin; Chang, Wen-Yi; Chen, Jenn-Tzong; Lin, Wuu-Jyh; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Wang, Hsin-Ell

    2013-02-15

    Quantification of the expression of asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), which is located on the hepatocyte membrane with high-affinity for galactose residues, can help assess ASGPR-related liver diseases. A hepatic fibrosis mouse model with lower asialoglycoprotein receptor expression was established by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) administration. This study developed and demonstrated that 4-(18)F-fluoro-N-(6-((3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)oxy)hexyl)benzamide ((18)F-FBHGal), a new (18)F-labeled monovalent galactose derivative, is an asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR)-specific PET probe in a normal and a hepatic fibrosis mouse models. Immunoassay exhibited a linear correlation between the accumulation of GalH-FITC, a fluorescent surrogate of FBHGal, and the amount of ASGPR. A significant reduction in HepG2 cellular uptake (P <0.0001) was observed using confocal microscopy when co-incubated with 0.5μM of asialofetuin, a well known ASGPR blocking agent. Animal studies showed the accumulation of (18)F-FBHGal in fibrosis liver (14.84±1.10 %ID/g) was appreciably decreased compared with that in normal liver (20.50±1.51 %ID/g, P <0.01) at 30min post-injection. The receptor indexes (liver/liver-plus-heart ratio at 30min post-injection) of hepatic fibrosis mice derived from both microPET imaging and biodistribution study were significantly lower (P <0.01) than those of normal mice. The pharmacokinetic parameters (T(1/2)α, T(1/2)β, AUC and Cl) derived from microPET images revealed prolonged systemic circulation of (18)F-FBHGal in hepatic fibrosis mice compared to that in normal mice. The findings in biological characterizations suggest that (18)F-FBHGal is a feasible agent for PET imaging of hepatic fibrosis in mice and may provide new insights into ASGPR-related liver dysfunction.

  20. (18)F-FBHGal for asialoglycoprotein receptor imaging in a hepatic fibrosis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kao, Hao-Wen; Chen, Chuan-Lin; Chang, Wen-Yi; Chen, Jenn-Tzong; Lin, Wuu-Jyh; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Wang, Hsin-Ell

    2013-02-15

    Quantification of the expression of asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), which is located on the hepatocyte membrane with high-affinity for galactose residues, can help assess ASGPR-related liver diseases. A hepatic fibrosis mouse model with lower asialoglycoprotein receptor expression was established by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) administration. This study developed and demonstrated that 4-(18)F-fluoro-N-(6-((3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)oxy)hexyl)benzamide ((18)F-FBHGal), a new (18)F-labeled monovalent galactose derivative, is an asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR)-specific PET probe in a normal and a hepatic fibrosis mouse models. Immunoassay exhibited a linear correlation between the accumulation of GalH-FITC, a fluorescent surrogate of FBHGal, and the amount of ASGPR. A significant reduction in HepG2 cellular uptake (P <0.0001) was observed using confocal microscopy when co-incubated with 0.5μM of asialofetuin, a well known ASGPR blocking agent. Animal studies showed the accumulation of (18)F-FBHGal in fibrosis liver (14.84±1.10 %ID/g) was appreciably decreased compared with that in normal liver (20.50±1.51 %ID/g, P <0.01) at 30min post-injection. The receptor indexes (liver/liver-plus-heart ratio at 30min post-injection) of hepatic fibrosis mice derived from both microPET imaging and biodistribution study were significantly lower (P <0.01) than those of normal mice. The pharmacokinetic parameters (T(1/2)α, T(1/2)β, AUC and Cl) derived from microPET images revealed prolonged systemic circulation of (18)F-FBHGal in hepatic fibrosis mice compared to that in normal mice. The findings in biological characterizations suggest that (18)F-FBHGal is a feasible agent for PET imaging of hepatic fibrosis in mice and may provide new insights into ASGPR-related liver dysfunction. PMID:23321012

  1. In vitro binding of the asialoglycoprotein receptor to the beta adaptin of plasma membrane coated vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Beltzer, J P; Spiess, M

    1991-01-01

    The asialoglycoprotein (ASGP) receptor was used to probe total clathrin-coated vesicle proteins and purified adaptor proteins (APs) which had been fractionated by gel electrophoresis and transferred to nitrocellulose. The receptor was found to interact with proteins of approximately 100 kDa. The cytoplasmic domain of the ASGP receptor subunit H1 fused to dihydrofolate reductase competed for receptor binding to the 100 kDa polypeptide in the plasma membrane-type AP complexes (AP-2). A fusion protein containing the cytoplasmic domain of the endocytic mutant haemagglutinin HA-Y543 also competed, but a protein with the wild-type haemagglutinin sequence did not. This indicates that the observed interaction is specific for the cytoplasmic domain of the receptor and involves the tyrosine signal for endocytosis. When fractionated by gel electrophoresis in the presence of urea, the ASGP receptor binding polypeptide displayed a characteristic shift in electrophoretic mobility identifying it as the beta adaptin. Partial proteolysis of the AP-2 preparation followed by the receptor binding assay revealed that the aminoterminal domain of the beta adaptin contains the binding site for receptors. Images PMID:1935897

  2. Endocytosis by the asialoglycoprotein receptor is independent of cytoplasmic serine residues.

    PubMed Central

    Geffen, I; Fuhrer, C; Spiess, M

    1991-01-01

    The human asialoglycoprotein (ASGP) receptor, like most other plasma membrane receptors, has previously been shown to be phosphorylated at serine residues within the cytoplasmic domain. Phorbol esters, which activate protein kinase C, cause hyperphosphorylation and down-regulation of the ASGP receptor in HepG2 cells. To test the importance of serine residues for receptor traffic and function, we have mutated all the cytoplasmic serines of the two receptor subunits H1 (at positions 16 and 37) and H2 (at positions 12, 13, and 55) to alanines or glycines. Stable transfected fibroblast cell lines expressing either mutant H1 alone or both mutant subunits together were created and compared to cell lines expressing the respective wild-type proteins. Mutant and wild-type subunits were found to have very similar distributions between the cell surface and intracellular compartments. Constitutive internalization of H1 alone and ligand uptake and degradation by cells expressing both receptor subunits were not affected by the mutations. Cytoplasmic serines and serine phosphorylation are thus not essential for receptor function and intracellular traffic. Analysis of individual serine mutations identified serine-12 of subunit H2 as the major site of phosphorylation in the ASGP receptor. Images PMID:1924301

  3. Asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) as target autoantigen in liver autoimmunity: lost and found.

    PubMed

    Rigopoulou, Eirini I; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Smyk, Daniel S; Liaskos, Christos; Mytilinaiou, Maria G; Feist, Eugen; Conrad, Karsten; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P

    2012-12-01

    Asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) has attracted the attention of liver immunologists for many years. This liver-specific lectin was found to be a major B and T cell autoantigenic target in patients with autoimmune liver diseases, and in particular in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). This review discusses the biological significance of ASGPR and its relevance to the pathogenesis of autoimmune and virus-triggered liver diseases. We also discuss emerging data on the diagnostic and clinical relevance of anti-ASGPR antibodies in light of recent reports based on commercially available anti-ASGPR enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Finally, we critically revisit the data reporting on disease-specific cellular immune responses against ASGPR and their relevance in relation to the pathogenesis of AIH.

  4. The unsialylated subpopulation of recombinant activated factor VII binds to the asialo-glycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) on primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Seested, Torben; Nielsen, Hanne M; Christensen, Erik I; Appa, Rupa S

    2010-12-01

    Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa; NovoSeven®) is a heterogeneously glycosylated serine protease used for treatment of haemophiliacs with inhibitors. The drug substance contains a subpopulation consisting of ~20% of rFVIIa molecules which are unsialylated and consists of carbohydrate moieties with terminally exposed galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc). Recently, data from an in situ perfused liver model showed that a subpopulation of rFVIIa, appearing to be unsialylated rFVIIa, was cleared by the liver, thus suggesting a carbohydrate-moiety mediated mechanism. The parenchymal cells of the liver, hepatocytes, are known to abundantly express functional carbohydrate-specific receptors and in this study we therefore used primary rat hepatocytes to study binding and intracellular fate of rFVIIa at a cellular level. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that rFVIIa was distributed into distinct intracellular vesicles and electron microscopic autoradiography revealed that radioiodinated rFVIIa distributed only into cytoplasmic free vesicles resembling endosomes and lysosomes. These findings suggest that endocytosis of rFVIIa in hepatocytes could be partly mediated via initial membrane binding to a receptor. Quantitative binding studies showed that the presence of excess unlabelled asialo-orosomucoid, asialo-rFVIIa and GalNAc significantly decreased binding of 125I-rFVIIa. An antibody which specifically binds to the carbohydrate recognition domain of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) significantly decreased binding of asialo-rFVIIa by ~36% and rFVIIa by ~19%. Together our data showed that a receptor-mediated mechanism involving the ASGPR is able to bind a subpopulation of unsialylated rFVIIa, while a hepatic mechanism for binding and clearing sialylated rFVIIa is still unknown.

  5. Targeted delivery of macromolecular drugs: asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) expression by selected hepatoma cell lines used in antiviral drug development.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Huang, Guifang; Diakur, James; Wiebe, Leonard I

    2008-10-01

    The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), an endocytotic cell surface receptor expressed by hepatocytes, is triggered by triantennary binding to galactose residues of macromolecules such as asialoorosomucoid (ASOR). The capacity of this receptor to import large molecules across the cellular plasma membrane makes it an enticing target for receptor-mediated drug delivery to hepatocytes and hepatoma cells via ASGPR-mediated endocytosis. This study describes the preparation and characterization of (125)I-ASOR, and its utility in the assessment of ASGPR expression by HepG2, HepAD38 and Huh5-2 human hepatoma cell lines. ASOR was prepared from human orosomucoid, using acid hydrolysis to remove sialic acid residues, then radioiodinated using iodogen. (125)I-ASOR was purified by gel column chromatography and characterized by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The ASOR yield by acid hydrolysis was 75%, with approximately 87 % of the sialic acid residues removed. Electrophoresis and gel chromatography demonstrated substantial differences in (125)I-ASOR quality depending on the method of radioiodination. ASGPR densities per cell were estimated at 76,000 (HepG2), 17,000 (HepAD38) and 3,000 (Huh-5-2). (125)I-ASOR binding to ASGPR on HepG2 cells was confirmed through galactose- and EDTA- challenge studies. It is concluded that (125)I-ASOR is a facilely-prepared, stable assay reagent for ASGPR expression if appropriately prepared, and that HepG2 cells, but not HepAD38 or Huh-5-2 cells, are suitable for studies exploiting the endocytotic ASGPR.

  6. Cloning, expression and polyclonal antibody preparation of the asialoglycoprotein receptor of Marmota himalayan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Huang, Huang; Zhang, Zhenghua; Wang, Baoju; Tian, Yongjun; Lu, Mengji; Yang, Dongliang

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study is to express the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) H1 and H2 subunits of Marmota himalayan in vitro, and develop polyclonal antibodies against the recombinant proteins. RT-PCR was used to amplify ASGPR CRDH1 and CRDH2 from the liver tissue of Marmota himalayan. The products of amplification were subcloned into prokaryotic expression vector pRSET-B, and expressed in E.coli BL21(DE3)plysS. The recombinant proteins were purified using Ni-NTA spin column. The purified proteins were inoculated into BALB/c mice to develop polyclonal antibodies. The sensitivity and specificity of antibodies were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The polyclonal antibodies showed high sensitivity and specificity against both denaturated and native ASGPR proteins. We successfully amplified and expressed the ASGPR CRDs of Marmota himalayan. The nucleic sequences of ASGPR CRDH1 and CRDH2 of Marmota himalayan have been submitted to Genbank and the sequence ID are DQ 845465 and DQ845466, respectively. The proteins and antibodies prepared can be used for targeting gene therapy in a new animal model-Marmota Himalayan-for the research of infectious diseases of hepatitis viruses and liver cancer treatment.

  7. Galactosylated manganese ferrite nanoparticles for targeted MR imaging of asialoglycoprotein receptor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung-Hyun; Heo, Dan; Lee, Eugene; Kim, Eunjung; Lim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Young Han; Haam, Seungjoo; Suh, Jin-Suck; Huh, Yong-Min; Yang, Jaemoon; Park, Sahng Wook

    2013-11-29

    Cancer cells can express specific biomarkers, such as cell membrane proteins and signaling factors. Thus, finding biomarkers and delivering diagnostic agents are important in the diagnosis of cancer. In this study, we investigated a biomarker imaging agent for the diagnosis of hepatic cancers. The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPr) was selected as a biomarker for hepatoma cells and the ASGPr-targetable imaging agent bearing a galactosyl group was prepared using manganese ferrite nanoparticles (MFNP) and galactosylgluconic acid. The utility of the ASGPr-targetable imaging agent, galactosylated MFNP (G-MFNP) was assessed by several methods in ASGPr-expressing HepG2 cells as target cells and ASGPr-deficient MCF7 cells. Physical and chemical properties of G-MFNP were examined using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. No significant cytotoxicity was observed in either cell line. Targeting ability was assessed using flow cytometry, magnetic resonance imaging, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, absorbance analysis, dark-field microscopy, Prussian blue staining, and transmission electron microscopy. We demonstrated that G-MFNP target successfully and bind to ASGPr-expressing HepG2 cells specifically. We suggest that these results will be useful in strategies for cancer diagnoses based on magnetic resonance imaging.

  8. Physiological roles of asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPRs) variants and recent advances in hepatic-targeted delivery of therapeutic molecules via ASGPRs.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing; Liu, Jia; Yang, Dongliang; Lu, Mengji; Yin, Jian

    2014-01-01

    The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) is a high-capacity C-type lectin receptor mainly expressed on mammalian hepatic cells. The physiological function of ASGPR has not been completely clarified and is thought to be specific binding and internalization of galactose (Gal) or N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-terminating glycoproteins by hepatocytes. The human ASGPR is comprised of two homologous polypeptides, H1 and H2. ASGPR H1 has two splice variants (H1a and H1b) and ASGPR H2 has three splice variants (H2a, H2b, and H2c). These variants have been discovered to exist both in human liver tissues and in human hepatoma cells. Variant H1b, which has an in-frame deletion of exon 2 resulting in the loss of the transmembrane domain and is secreted as a soluble protein, encodes functional soluble ASGPR (s- ASGPR). Based on our previous results, we proposed the possible physiological function of s-ASGPR, which is well interpreted in the Galactosyl Homeostasis Hypothesis proposed by Weigel. ASGPR is one of the most promising targets for hepatic delivery. In this review, the recent progresses of cationic polysomes and liposomes as effective non-viral delivery system via ASGPR are also presented.

  9. Detection of surface asialoglycoprotein receptor expression in hepatic and extra-hepatic cells using a novel monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Kil Lyong; Cho, Eun-Wie

    2006-07-01

    The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) is a heterodimeric membrane protein which is involved in the internalization of desialylated glycoproteins and also in the binding and uptake of various pathogenic viruses. To facilitate the analysis of ASGPR expression, we generated a monoclonal antibody, termed ASSA-1, that is specific to the ASGPR H1 subunit based on ELISA and Western blots analysis. ASSA-1 also reacted to surface-displayed ASGPR in live cells thus enabling analysis of ASGPR expression by immunofluorescence flow cytometry, which we used to analyze established human liver cell lines previously confirmed to be positive for ASGPR mRNA expression. In agreement with previous reports, surface ASGPR was also detected in extra-hepatic cells and, surprisingly, even in human T cell lines, which was then further confirmed in activated, but not in resting, primary human peripheral blood lymphocytes. These observations suggest that ASGPR has a broad pattern of expression that even extends into cells from the immune system, which biological meanings still have to be analyzed. We expect that monoclonal antibody ASSA-1 will serve as a new powerful tool in analyzing the biological role of ASGPR in hepatic and extra-hepatic cells.

  10. Asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 is a specific cell-surface marker for isolating hepatocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Peters, Derek T; Henderson, Christopher A; Warren, Curtis R; Friesen, Max; Xia, Fang; Becker, Caroline E; Musunuru, Kiran; Cowan, Chad A

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) are derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in vitro, but differentiation protocols commonly give rise to a heterogeneous mixture of cells. This variability confounds the evaluation of in vitro functional assays performed using HLCs. Increased differentiation efficiency and more accurate approximation of the in vivo hepatocyte gene expression profile would improve the utility of hPSCs. Towards this goal, we demonstrate the purification of a subpopulation of functional HLCs using the hepatocyte surface marker asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 (ASGR1). We analyzed the expression profile of ASGR1-positive cells by microarray, and tested their ability to perform mature hepatocyte functions (albumin and urea secretion, cytochrome activity). By these measures, ASGR1-positive HLCs are enriched for the gene expression profile and functional characteristics of primary hepatocytes compared with unsorted HLCs. We have demonstrated that ASGR1-positive sorting isolates a functional subpopulation of HLCs from among the heterogeneous cellular population produced by directed differentiation. PMID:27143754

  11. Epitope Structure of the Carbohydrate Recognition Domain of Asialoglycoprotein Receptor to a Monoclonal Antibody Revealed by High-Resolution Proteolytic Excision Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanescu, Raluca; Born, Rita; Moise, Adrian; Ernst, Beat; Przybylski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the H1 subunit of the carbohydrate recognition domain (H1CRD) of the asialoglycoprotein receptor is used as an entry site into hepatocytes by hepatitis A and B viruses and Marburg virus. Thus, molecules binding specifically to the CRD might exert inhibition towards these diseases by blocking the virus entry site. We report here the identification of the epitope structure of H1CRD to a monoclonal antibody by proteolytic epitope excision of the immune complex and high-resolution MALDI-FTICR mass spectrometry. As a prerequisite of the epitope determination, the primary structure of the H1CRD antigen was characterised by ESI-FTICR-MS of the intact protein and by LC-MS/MS of tryptic digest mixtures. Molecular mass determination and proteolytic fragments provided the identification of two intramolecular disulfide bridges (seven Cys residues), and a Cys-mercaptoethanol adduct formed by treatment with β-mercaptoethanol during protein extraction. The H1CRD antigen binds to the monoclonal antibody in both native and Cys-alkylated form. For identification of the epitope, the antibody was immobilized on N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated Sepharose. Epitope excision and epitope extraction with trypsin and FTICR-MS of affinity-bound peptides provided the identification of two specific epitope peptides (5-16) and (17-23) that showed high affinity to the antibody. Affinity studies of the synthetic epitope peptides revealed independent binding of each peptide to the antibody.

  12. Capturing intercellular sugar-mediated ligand-receptor recognitions via a simple yet highly biospecific interfacial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Deng, Si-Si; Zang, Yi; Gu, Zhen; He, Xiao-Peng; Chen, Guo-Rong; Chen, Kaixian; James, Tony D.; Li, Jia; Long, Yi-Tao

    2013-07-01

    Intercellular ligand-receptor recognitions are crucial natural interactions that initiate a number of biological and pathological events. We present here the simple construction of a unique class of biomimetic interfaces based on a graphene-mediated self-assembly of glycosyl anthraquinones to a screen-printed electrode for the detection of transmembrane glycoprotein receptors expressed on a hepatoma cell line. We show that an electroactive interface confined with densely clustered galactosyl ligands is able to ingeniously recognize the asialoglycoprotein receptors on live Hep-G2 cells employing simple electrochemical techniques. The only facility used is a personal laptop in connection with a cheap and portable electrochemical workstation.

  13. Simplified quantification method for in vivo SPECT/CT imaging of asialoglycoprotein receptor with 99mTc-p(VLA-co-VNI) to assess and stage hepatic fibrosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Deliang; Guo, Zhide; Zhang, Pu; Li, Yesen; Su, Xinhui; You, Linyi; Gao, Mengna; Liu, Chang; Wu, Hua; Zhang, Xianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop a noninvasive method of SPECT imaging to quantify and stage liver fibrosis with an Asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) targeting tracer—99mTc-p(VLA-co-VNI). ASGP-Rs are well known to specifically express in the mammalian liver. Here, we demonstrated ASGP-R expression decreased in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced mouse model. ASGP-R expression correlated with liver fibrosis progression. ASGP-R could be a useful marker in the stage of liver fibrosis. Liver uptake value (LUV) derived by SPECT imaging was used to assess liver fibrosis in the CCl4-induced mouse model. LUV = [radioactivity (liver uptake)/radioactivity (injected)] × 100/liver volume. The LUV decreased along with the disease progression. The relationships between LUV and liver hydroxyproline (i.e. collagen), as well as Sirius Red were established and verified. A strong negative linear correlation was found between LUV and hydroxyproline levels (r = −0.83) as well as LUV and Sirius Red quantification (r = −0.83). In conclusion, SPECT imaging with 99mTc-p(VLA-co-VNI) is useful in evaluating and staging liver fibrosis in vivo. PMID:27150943

  14. Receptor-mediated mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Osamu; Murakawa, Tomokazu; Nishida, Kazuhiko; Otsu, Kinya

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria are essential organelles that supply ATP through oxidative phosphorylation to maintain cellular homeostasis. Extrinsic or intrinsic agents can impair mitochondria, and these impaired mitochondria can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) as byproducts, inducing cellular damage and cell death. The quality control of mitochondria is essential for the maintenance of normal cellular functions, particularly in cardiomyocytes, because they are terminally differentiated. Accumulation of damaged mitochondria is characteristic of various diseases, including heart failure, neurodegenerative disease, and aging-related diseases. Mitochondria are generally degraded through autophagy, an intracellular degradation system that is conserved from yeast to mammals. Autophagy is thought to be a nonselective degradation process in which cytoplasmic proteins and organelles are engulfed by isolation membrane to form autophagosomes in eukaryotic cells. However, recent studies have described the process of selective autophagy, which targets specific proteins or organelles such as mitochondria. Mitochondria-specific autophagy is called mitophagy. Dysregulation of mitophagy is implicated in the development of chronic diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic diseases, and heart failure. In this review, we discuss recent progress in research on mitophagy receptors. PMID:27021519

  15. Fibronectin and asialoglyprotein receptor mediate hepatitis B surface antigen binding to the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Wang, Feng; Tian, Linlin; Su, Jing; Zhu, Xiangqian; Lin, Li; Ding, Xiaoran; Wang, Xuejun; Wang, Shengqi

    2010-06-01

    Both fibronectin and the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) have been identified by some investigators as partners for hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope proteins. Because fibronectin is a natural ligand for ASGPR, we speculated that HBV might attach to ASGPR expressed on the hepatocyte surface via fibronectin. To test this hypothesis, we first confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation that ASGPR, fibronectin and HBsAg bind to each other in HepG2.2.15 cells, and possible binding domains were identified by GST pull-down. In addition, by measuring binding of HBsAg to cells, we found that ASGPR and fibronectin enhanced the binding capability of HBsAg to HepG2 cells, and even to 293T and CHO cells, which normally do not bind HBV. In conclusion, our findings suggest that both fibronectin and ASGPR mediate HBsAg binding to the cell surface, which provides further evidence for the potential roles of these two proteins in mediating HBV binding to liver cells. PMID:20364278

  16. Tachykinin receptors mediating airway marcomolecular secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, S.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Three tachykinin receptor types, termed NK1, NK2, and NK3, can be distinguished by the relative potency of various peptides in eliciting tissue responses. Airway macromolecular secretion is stimulated by the tachykinin substance P (SP). The purposes of this study were to determine the tachykinin receptor subtype responsible for this stimulation, and to examine the possible involvement of other neurotransmitters in mediating this effect. Ferret tracheal explants maintained in organ culture were labeled with {sup 3}H-glucosamine, a precursor of high molecular weight glycoconjugates (HMWG) which are released by airway secretory cells. Secretion of labeled HMWG then was determined in the absence and presence of the tachykinins SP, neurokinin A (NKA), neurokinin B (NKB), physalaemin (PHY), and eledoisin (ELE). To evaluate the possible contribution of other mediators, tachykinin stimulation was examined in the presence of several receptor blockers.

  17. Antibody-directed complement-mediated cytotoxicity to hepatocytes from patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, T I; Lau, J Y; McFarlane, B M; Alexander, G J; Eddleston, A L; Williams, R

    1995-01-01

    The susceptibility of hepatocytes from patients with chronic hepatitis B to complement-dependent cytotoxicity mediated by heterologous antibodies to hepatitis B virus core (anti-HBc) and surface (anti-HBs) antigens and to hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor was examined using a microcytotoxicity assay. The anti-HBc-induced cytotoxicity was found to be markedly enhanced against hepatocytes isolated from patients with chronic active hepatitis (72.6 +/- 9.5% (mean +/- s.e.m.); n = 6) over that against hepatocytes from individuals with chronic persistent hepatitis or inactive liver cirrhosis (40.6 +/- 18.6%; n = 4) (P = 0.019). Overall, values of the anti-HBc-directed cytotoxicity were higher in patients positive for HBcAg in hepatocytes and seropositive for hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg). Hepatocytotoxicity was also exerted by anti-HBs and anti-asialoglycoprotein receptor antibodies in the presence of complement, but it was not seemingly related to disease activity. These results indicate that hepatitis B virus core and surface antigens and asialoglycoprotein receptor at the hepatocyte surface can be recognized by antibodies, and raise the possibility that complement-dependent cytolysis may contribute to the injury of hepatitis B virus-infected hepatocytes. The data also suggest that liver cells of patients with severe chronic hepatitis might be more susceptible to anti-HBc antibody-directed complement-mediated cytotoxicity than those with inactive liver histology. PMID:7743660

  18. Comparative analyses of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Ishii, Shoichi; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi; Kagawa, Nao; Katoh, Kazutaka

    2015-06-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid mediator that activates G protein-coupled LPA receptors to exert fundamental cellular functions. Six LPA receptor genes have been identified in vertebrates and are classified into two subfamilies, the endothelial differentiation genes (edg) and the non-edg family. Studies using genetically engineered mice, frogs, and zebrafish have demonstrated that LPA receptor-mediated signaling has biological, developmental, and pathophysiological functions. Computational analyses have also identified several amino acids (aa) critical for LPA recognition by human LPA receptors. This review focuses on the evolutionary aspects of LPA receptor-mediated signaling by comparing the aa sequences of vertebrate LPA receptors and LPA-producing enzymes; it also summarizes the LPA receptor-dependent effects commonly observed in mouse, frog, and fish. PMID:25732591

  19. Ethanol-induced impairments in receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoorosomucoid in isolated rat hepatocytes: Time course of impairments and recovery after ethanol withdrawal

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.A.; Kragskow, S.L.; Sorrell, M.F.; Tuma, D.J.

    1989-04-01

    Chronic ethanol administration markedly impairs the process of receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME) of a representative asialoglycoprotein, asialoorosomucoid (ASOR), by the liver. In this study, we further characterized these impairments by identifying the time of onset for ethanol-induced changes in RME as well as establishing the time course for recovery to normal endocytotic values after ethanol withdrawal. Ethanol administration for 3 days did not alter any aspect of endocytosis examined in this study. After feeding ethanol to rats for 7 days, however, significant decreases in amounts of ligand bound, internalized, and degraded were apparent. These impairments persisted throughout the 5-week feeding study although the effects were somewhat attenuated with more prolonged ethanol feeding. In addition, an accumulation of intracellular receptors was observed in ethanol-fed animals relative to controls after 7 days of ethanol feeding. In all cases, recovery of endocytotic values to control levels was partially completed after 2 to 3 days of refeeding control diet and was fully completed after 7 days of refeeding. These results indicate that ethanol feeding for as little as 7 days profoundly impairs the process of RME by the liver. These impairments can be reversed after refeeding control diet for 7 days.

  20. Co-receptors are dispensable for tethering receptor-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Park, B; Lee, J; Moon, H; Lee, G; Lee, D-H; Cho, J Hoon; Park, D

    2015-01-01

    During efferocytosis, phagocytic cells recognize dying cells by receptors binding to ligands specifically exposed on apoptotic cells. Multiple phagocytic receptors and some of their signaling pathways have been identified. However, the downstream pathways of tethering receptors that secure apoptotic cells remain elusive. It is generally assumed that tethering receptors induce signaling to mediate engulfment via interacting with co-receptors or other engulfment receptors located nearby. However, it is poorly understood whether co-receptors for tethering receptors exist during efferocytosis, and, if they do, whether they are indispensable for this process. Here, we address this issue using glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored annexin A5 (Anxa5-GPI), an artificial tethering receptor without a putative co-receptor. Phagocytes expressing Anxa5-GPI exhibited enhanced binding of apoptotic cells, resulting in promoted ingestion of apoptotic cells in a phosphatidylserine-dependent manner. Anxa5-GPI-induced phagocytosis of apoptotic cells relied on the known cytoskeletal engulfment machinery but partially depended on the Elmo-Dock-Rac module or the integrin pathway. In addition, Anxa5-GPI-mediated efferocytosis provoked anti-inflammatory responses. Taken together, our work suggests that co-receptors are dispensable for tethering receptor-induced efferocytosis and that tethering receptors mediate the engulfment of apoptotic cells through multiple engulfment signaling pathways.

  1. Principles of antibody-mediated TNF receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Wajant, H

    2015-01-01

    From the beginning of research on receptors of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), agonistic antibodies have been used to stimulate TNFRSF receptors in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, CD95, one of the first cloned TNFRSF receptors, was solely identified as the target of cell death-inducing antibodies. Early on, it became evident from in vitro studies that valency and Fcγ receptor (FcγR) binding of antibodies targeting TNFRSF receptors can be of crucial relevance for agonistic activity. TNFRSF receptor-specific antibodies of the IgM subclass and secondary cross-linked or aggregation prone dimeric antibodies typically display superior agonistic activity compared with dimeric antibodies. Likewise, anchoring of antibodies to cell surface-expressed FcγRs potentiate their ability to trigger TNFRSF receptor signaling. However, only recently has the relevance of oligomerization and FcγR binding for the in vivo activity of antibody-induced TNFRSF receptor activation been straightforwardly demonstrated in vivo. This review discusses the crucial role of oligomerization and/or FcγR binding for antibody-mediated TNFRSF receptor stimulation in light of current models of TNFRSF receptor activation and especially the overwhelming relevance of these issues for the rational development of therapeutic TNFRSF receptor-targeting antibodies. PMID:26292758

  2. Multiscale Modeling of Virus Entry via Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin

    2012-11-01

    Virus infections are ubiquitous and remain major threats to human health worldwide. Viruses are intracellular parasites and must enter host cells to initiate infection. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is the most common entry pathway taken by viruses, the whole process is highly complex and dictated by various events, such as virus motions, membrane deformations, receptor diffusion and ligand-receptor reactions, occurring at multiple length and time scales. We develop a multiscale model for virus entry through receptor-mediated endocytosis. The binding of virus to cell surface is based on a mesoscale three dimensional stochastic adhesion model, the internalization (endocytosis) of virus and cellular membrane deformation is based on the discretization of Helfrich Hamiltonian in a curvilinear space using Monte Carlo method. The multiscale model is based on the combination of these two models. We will implement this model to study the herpes simplex virus entry into B78 cells and compare the model predictions with experimental measurements.

  3. Regulation and ontogeny of subtypes of muscarinic receptors and muscarinic receptor-mediated

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.

    1989-01-01

    The densities of total and M1 muscarinic receptors were measured using the muscarinic receptor antagonists {sup 3}H-quinuclidinyl benzilate and {sup 3}H-pirenzepine, respectively. Thus, the difference between the density of {sup 3}H-quinuclidinyl benzilate and {sup 3}H-pirenzepine binding sites represents the density of M2 sites. In addition, there is no observable change in either acetylcholine-stimulated phosphoinositide breakdown (suggested to be an M1 receptor-mediated response) or in carbachol-mediated inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation (suggested to be an M2 receptor-mediated response) in slices of cortex+dorsal hippocampus following chronic atropine administration. In other experiments, it has been shown that the M1 and M2 receptors in rat cortex have different ontogenetic profiles. The M2 receptor is present at adult levels at birth, while the M1 receptor develops slowly from low levels at postnatal week 1 to adult levels at postnatal week 3. The expression of acetylcholine-stimulated phosphoinositide breakdown parallels the development of M1 receptors, while the development of carbachol-mediated inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation occurs abruptly between weeks 2 and 3 postnatally.

  4. Resveratrol inhibits glycine receptor-mediated ion currents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hwan; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Choi, Sun-Hye; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Jung, Seok-Won; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Joon-Hee; Kim, Hyung-Chun; Rhim, Hyewhon; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol is found in grapes, red wine, and berries. Resveratrol has been known to have many beneficial health effects, such as anti-cancer, neuroprotective, anti-nociceptive, and life-prolonging effects. However, the single cellular mechanisms by which resveratrol acts are relatively unknown, especially in terms of possible regulation of receptors involved in synaptic transmission. The glycine receptor is an inhibitory ligand-gated ion channel involved in fast synaptic transmission in spinal cord. In the present study, we investigated the effect of resveratrol on human glycine receptor channel activity. Glycine α1 receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and glycine receptor channel activity was measured using a two-electrode voltage clamp technique. Treatment with resveratrol alone had no effect on oocytes injected with H2O or on oocytes injected with glycine α1 receptor cRNA. In the oocytes injected with glycine α1 receptor cRNA, co- or pre-treatment of resveratrol with glycine inhibited the glycine-induced inward peak current (IGly) in a reversible manner. The inhibitory effect of resveratrol on IGly was also concentration dependent, voltage independent, and non-competitive. These results indicate that resveratrol regulates glycine receptor channel activity and that resveratrol-mediated regulation of glycine receptor channel activity is one of several cellular action mechanisms of resveratrol for pain regulation. PMID:24694604

  5. Retinoic Acid-mediated Nuclear Receptor Activation and Hepatocyte Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Bushue, Nathan; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Due to their well-known differentiation and apoptosis-inducing abilities, retinoic acid (RA) and its analogs have strong anti-cancer efficacy in human cancers. However, in vivo RA is a liver mitogen. While speculation has persisted that RA-mediated signaling is likely involved in hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration, direct evidence is still required. Findings in support of this proposition include observations that a release of retinyl palmitate (the precursor of RA) occurs in liver stellate cells following liver injury. Nevertheless, the biological action of this released vitamin A is virtually unknown. More likely is that the released vitamin A is converted to RA, the biological form, and then bound to a specific receptor (retinoid x receptor; RXRα), which is most abundantly expressed in the liver. Considering the mitogenic effects of RA, the RA-activated RXRα would likely then influence hepatocyte proliferation and liver tissue repair. At present, the mechanism by which RA stimulates hepatocyte proliferation is largely unknown. This review summarizes the activation of nuclear receptors (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α, pregnane x receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, and farnesoid x receptor) in an RXRα dependent manner to induce hepatocyte proliferation, providing a link between RA and its proliferative role.

  6. Receptor-mediated delivery of engineered nucleases for genome modification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong; Jaafar, Lahcen; Agyekum, Davies G; Xiao, Haiyan; Wade, Marlene F; Kumaran, R Ileng; Spector, David L; Bao, Gang; Porteus, Matthew H; Dynan, William S; Meiler, Steffen E

    2013-10-01

    Engineered nucleases, which incise the genome at predetermined sites, have a number of laboratory and clinical applications. There is, however, a need for better methods for controlled intracellular delivery of nucleases. Here, we demonstrate a method for ligand-mediated delivery of zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) proteins using transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis. Uptake is rapid and efficient in established mammalian cell lines and in primary cells, including mouse and human hematopoietic stem-progenitor cell populations. In contrast to cDNA expression, ZFN protein levels decline rapidly following internalization, affording better temporal control of nuclease activity. We show that transferrin-mediated ZFN uptake leads to site-specific in situ cleavage of the target locus. Additionally, despite the much shorter duration of ZFN activity, the efficiency of gene correction approaches that seen with cDNA-mediated expression. The approach is flexible and general, with the potential for extension to other targeting ligands and nuclease architectures.

  7. GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission: Not so simple after all.

    PubMed

    Knoflach, Frédéric; Hernandez, Maria-Clemencia; Bertrand, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    GABAA receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that form a fundamental component of inhibitory neurotransmission in the central and peripheral nervous systems. However, since the initial recordings of inhibitory electrical activity of neurons in response to GABA, these receptors have been found to play a more complex role and can, under some circumstances, function in an excitatory manner. This has been demonstrated via electrophysiological recordings conducted in both mature and developing neurons from different brain regions, as well as in various subcellular locations such as dendritic and axonal membranes. The balance between the inhibitory and excitatory effects mediated by GABAA receptor activation depends not only on multiple factors that govern the equilibrium of the transmembrane chloride gradient, but also on bicarbonate concentration. Moreover, electrophysiological and fluorescence measurements have revealed that a spatial distribution of the chloride gradient exists within neurons, which locally influences the effects mediated by GABAA receptor activation. In recent years, it has also become apparent that intra-neuronal chloride concentration is partially regulated by cation-chloride co-transporters (CCCs), in particular NKCC1 and KCC2. The aim of the present commentary is to discuss, in light of the latest findings, potential implications of the tight spatial and temporal regulation of chloride equilibrium in health and disease, as well as its relevance for the therapeutic effects of molecules acting at GABAA receptors. PMID:27002180

  8. Pharmacology of inflammatory pain: local alteration in receptors and mediators

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Peter; Holzer-Petsche, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Background Inflammation is commonly associated with hyperalgesia. Ideally, this change should abate once inflammation is resolved but this is not necessarily the case because phenotypic changes in the tissue can persist, as appears to be the case in postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome. Basically, all primary afferent neurons supplying the gut can sensitize in response to proinflammatory mediators, and the mechanisms whereby hypersensitivity is initiated and maintained are thus of prime therapeutic interest. Experimental and clinical findings There is a multitude of molecular nocisensors that can be responsible for the hypersensitivity of afferent neurons. These entities include: (i) receptors and sensors at the peripheral terminals of afferent neurons that are relevant to stimulus transduction, (ii) ion channels that govern the excitability and conduction properties of afferent neurons, and (iii) transmitters and transmitter receptors that mediate communication between primary afferents and second-order neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem. Persistent increases in the sensory gain may result from changes in the expression of transmitters, receptors and ion channels, changes in the subunit composition and biophysical properties of receptors and ion channels or changes in the structure, connectivity and survival of afferent neurons. Particular therapeutic potential is attributed to targets that are selectively expressed by afferent neurons and whose number and function are altered in abdominal hypersensitivity. Conclusion Emerging targets of therapeutic relevance include distinct members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family (TRPV1, TRPV4, TRPA1), acid-sensing ion channels, protease-activated receptors, corticotropin-releasing factor receptors and sensory neuron-specific sodium channels. PMID:20203494

  9. Cerebellar vermis H₂ receptors mediate fear memory consolidation in mice.

    PubMed

    Gianlorenço, A C L; Riboldi, A M; Silva-Marques, B; Mattioli, R

    2015-02-01

    Histaminergic fibers are present in the molecular and granular layers of the cerebellum and have a high density in the vermis and flocullus. Evidence supports that the cerebellar histaminergic system is involved in memory consolidation. Our recent study showed that histamine injections facilitate the retention of an inhibitory avoidance task, which was abolished by pretreatment with an H2 receptor antagonist. In the present study, we investigated the effects of intracerebellar post training injections of H1 and H2 receptor antagonists as well as the selective H2 receptor agonist on fear memory consolidation. The cerebellar vermi of male mice were implanted with guide cannulae, and after three days of recovery, the inhibitory avoidance test was performed. Immediately after a training session, animals received a microinjection of the following histaminergic drugs: experiment 1, saline or chlorpheniramine (0.016, 0.052 or 0.16 nmol); experiment 2, saline or ranitidine (0.57, 2.85 or 5.07 nmol); and experiment 3, saline or dimaprit (1, 2 or 4 nmol). Twenty-four hours later, a retention test was performed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's tests. Animals microinjected with chlorpheniramine did not show any behavioral effects at the doses that we used. Intra-cerebellar injection of the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine inhibited, while the selective H2 receptor agonist dimaprit facilitated, memory consolidation, suggesting that H2 receptors mediate memory consolidation in the inhibitory avoidance task in mice. PMID:25524412

  10. Cerebellar vermis H₂ receptors mediate fear memory consolidation in mice.

    PubMed

    Gianlorenço, A C L; Riboldi, A M; Silva-Marques, B; Mattioli, R

    2015-02-01

    Histaminergic fibers are present in the molecular and granular layers of the cerebellum and have a high density in the vermis and flocullus. Evidence supports that the cerebellar histaminergic system is involved in memory consolidation. Our recent study showed that histamine injections facilitate the retention of an inhibitory avoidance task, which was abolished by pretreatment with an H2 receptor antagonist. In the present study, we investigated the effects of intracerebellar post training injections of H1 and H2 receptor antagonists as well as the selective H2 receptor agonist on fear memory consolidation. The cerebellar vermi of male mice were implanted with guide cannulae, and after three days of recovery, the inhibitory avoidance test was performed. Immediately after a training session, animals received a microinjection of the following histaminergic drugs: experiment 1, saline or chlorpheniramine (0.016, 0.052 or 0.16 nmol); experiment 2, saline or ranitidine (0.57, 2.85 or 5.07 nmol); and experiment 3, saline or dimaprit (1, 2 or 4 nmol). Twenty-four hours later, a retention test was performed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's tests. Animals microinjected with chlorpheniramine did not show any behavioral effects at the doses that we used. Intra-cerebellar injection of the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine inhibited, while the selective H2 receptor agonist dimaprit facilitated, memory consolidation, suggesting that H2 receptors mediate memory consolidation in the inhibitory avoidance task in mice.

  11. Purinergic Receptors: Key Mediators of HIV-1 Infection and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Talia H.; Dubyak, George R.; Chen, Benjamin K.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) causes a chronic infection that afflicts more than 30 million individuals worldwide. While the infection can be suppressed with potent antiretroviral therapies, individuals infected with HIV-1 have elevated levels of inflammation as indicated by increased T cell activation, soluble biomarkers, and associated morbidity and mortality. A single mechanism linking HIV-1 pathogenesis to this inflammation has yet to be identified. Purinergic receptors are known to mediate inflammation and have been shown to be required for HIV-1 infection at the level of HIV-1 membrane fusion. Here, we review the literature on the role of purinergic receptors in HIV-1 infection and associated inflammation and describe a role for these receptors as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:26635799

  12. Free energy landscape of receptor-mediated cell adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tianyi; Zaman, Muhammad H.

    2007-01-01

    Receptor-mediated cell adhesion plays a critical role in cell migration, proliferation, signaling, and survival. A number of diseases, including cancer, show a strong correlation between integrin activation and metastasis. A better understanding of cell adhesion is highly desirable for not only therapeutic but also a number of tissue engineering applications. While a number of computational models and experimental studies have addressed the issue of cell adhesion to surfaces, no model or theory has adequately addressed cell adhesion at the molecular level. In this paper, the authors present a thermodynamic model that addresses receptor-mediated cell adhesion at the molecular level. By incorporating the entropic, conformational, solvation, and long- and short-range interactive components of receptors and the extracellular matrix molecules, they are able to predict adhesive free energy as a function of a number of key variables such as surface coverage, interaction distance, molecule size, and solvent conditions. Their method allows them to compute the free energy of adhesion in a multicomponent system where they can simultaneously study adhesion receptors and ligands of different sizes, chemical identities, and conformational properties. The authors' results not only provide a fundamental understanding of adhesion at the molecular level but also suggest possible strategies for designing novel biomaterials.

  13. Of pheromones and kairomones: what receptors mediate innate emotional responses?

    PubMed

    Fortes-Marco, Lluis; Lanuza, Enrique; Martinez-Garcia, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Some chemicals elicit innate emotionally laden behavioral responses. Pheromones mediate sexual attraction, parental care or agonistic confrontation, whereas predators' kairomones elicit defensive behaviors in their preys. This essay explores the hypothesis that the detection of these semiochemicals relies on highly specific olfactory and/or vomeronasal receptors. The V1R, V2R, and formyl-peptide vomeronasal receptors bind their ligands in highly specific and sensitive way, thus being good candidates for pheromone- or kairomone-detectors (e.g., secreted and excreted proteins, peptides and lipophilic volatiles). The olfactory epithelium also expresses specific receptors, for example trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR) and guanylyl cyclase receptors (GC-D and other types), some of which bind kairomones and putative pheromones. However, most of the olfactory neurons express canonical olfactory receptors (ORs) that bind many ligands with different affinity, being not suitable for mediating responses to pheromones and kairomones. In this respect, trimethylthiazoline (TMT) is considered a fox-derived kairomone for mice and rats, but it seems to be detected by canonical ORs. Therefore, we have reassessed the kairomonal nature of TMT by analyzing the behavioral responses of outbred (CD1) and inbred mice (C57BL/J6) to TMT. Our results confirm that both mouse strains avoid TMT, which increases immobility in C57BL/J6, but not CD1 mice. However, mice of both strains sniff at TMT throughout the test and show no trace of TMT-induced contextual conditioning (immobility or avoidance). This suggests that TMT is not a kairomone but, similar to a loud noise, in high concentrations it induces aversion and stress as unspecific responses to a strong olfactory stimulation.

  14. Virus-receptor interactions and receptor-mediated virus entry into host cells.

    PubMed

    Casasnovas, José M

    2013-01-01

    The virus particles described in previous chapters are vehicles that transmit the viral genome and the infection from cell to cell. To initiate the infective cycle, the viral genome must therefore translocate from the viral particle to the cytoplasm. Via distinct proteins or motifs in their outermost shell, the particles attach initially to specific molecules on the host cell surface. These virus receptors thus mediate penetration of the viral genome inside the cell, where the intracellular infective cycle starts. The presence of these receptors on the cell surface is a principal determinant of virus host tropism. Viruses can use diverse types of molecules to attach to and enter into cells. In addition, virus-receptor recognition can evolve over the course of an infection, and virus variants with distinct receptor-binding specificities and tropism can appear. The identification of virus receptors and the characterization of virus-receptor interactions have been major research goals in virology for the last two decades. In this chapter, we will describe, from a structural perspective, several virus-receptor interactions and the active role of receptor molecules in virus entry. PMID:23737061

  15. TRPA1 receptors mediate environmental irritant-induced meningeal vasodilatation

    PubMed Central

    Kunkler, Phillip Edward; Ballard, Carrie Jo; Oxford, Gerry Stephen; Hurley, Joyce Harts

    2010-01-01

    The TRPA1 receptor is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ion channels expressed in nociceptive neurons. TRPA1 receptors are targeted by pungent compounds from mustard and garlic and environmental irritants such as formaldehyde and acrolein. Ingestion or inhalation of these chemical agents causes irritation and burning in the nasal and oral mucosa and respiratory lining. Headaches have been widely reported to be induced by inhalation of environmental irritants, but it is unclear how these agents produce headache. Stimulation of trigeminal neurons releases CGRP and substance P and induces neurogenic inflammation associated with the pain of migraine. Here we test the hypothesis that activation of TRPA1 receptors are the mechanistic link between environmental irritants and peptide mediated neurogenic inflammation. Known TRPA1 agonists and environmental irritants stimulate CGRP release from dissociated rat trigeminal ganglia neurons and this release is blocked by a selective TRPA1 antagonist, HC-030031. Further, TRPA1 agonists and environmental irritants increase meningeal blood flow following intranasal administration. Prior dural application of the CGRP antagonist, CGRP8–37, or intranasal or dural administration of HC-030031, blocks the increases in blood flow elicited by environmental irritants. Together these results demonstrate that TRPA1 receptor activation by environmental irritants stimulates CGRP release and increases cerebral blood flow. We suggest that these events contribute to headache associated with environmental irritants. PMID:21075522

  16. H-Ras regulation of TRAIL death receptor mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun-Jie; Bozza, William P.; Di, Xu; Zhang, Yaqin; Hallett, William; Zhang, Baolin

    2014-01-01

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through the death receptors (DRs) 4 and/or 5 expressed on the cell surface. Multiple clinical trials are underway to evaluate the antitumor activity of recombinant human TRAIL and agonistic antibodies to DR4 or DR5. However, their therapeutic potential is limited by the high frequency of cancer resistance. Here we provide evidence demonstrating the role of H-Ras in TRAIL receptor mediated apoptosis. By analyzing the genome wide mRNA expression data of the NCI60 cancer cell lines, we found that H-Ras expression was consistently upregulated in TRAIL-resistant cell lines. By contrast, no correlation was found between TRAIL sensitivity and K-Ras expression levels or their mutational profiles. Notably, H-Ras upregulation associated with a surface deficiency of TRAIL death receptors. Selective inhibition of H-Ras activity in TRAIL-resistant cells restored the surface expression of both DR4 and DR5 without changing their total protein levels. The resulting cells became highly susceptible to both TRAIL and agonistic DR5 antibody, whereas K-Ras inhibition had little or no effect on TRAIL-induced apoptosis, indicating H-Ras plays a distinct role in the regulation of TRAIL death receptors. Further studies are warranted to determine the therapeutic potential of H-Ras-specific inhibitors in combination with TRAIL receptor agonists. PMID:25026275

  17. Formylpeptide receptors mediate rapid neutrophil mobilization to accelerate wound healing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingyong; Chen, Keqiang; Yoshimura, Teizo; Liu, Ying; Gong, Wanghua; Le, Yingying; Gao, Ji-Liang; Zhao, Jianhua; Wang, Ji Ming; Wang, Aimin

    2014-01-01

    Wound healing is a multi-phased pathophysiological process requiring chemoattractant receptor-dependent accumulation of myeloid cells in the lesion. Two G protein-coupled formylpeptide receptors Fpr1 and Fpr2 mediate rapid neutrophil infiltration in the liver of Listeria-infected mice by sensing pathogen-derived chemotactic ligands. These receptors also recognize host-derived chemotactic peptides in inflammation and injury. Here we report the capacity of Fprs to promote the healing of sterile skin wound in mice by initiating neutrophil infiltration. We found that in normal miceneutrophils rapidly infiltrated the dermis in the wound before the production of neutrophil-specific chemokines by the injured tissue. In contrast, rapid neutrophil infiltration was markedly reduced with delayed wound closure in mice deficient in both Fprs. In addition, we detected Fpr ligand activity that chemoattracted neutrophils into the wound tissue. Our study thus demonstrates that Fprs are critical for normal healing of the sterile skin wound by mediating the first wave of neutrophil infiltration.

  18. Hemoglobin uptake by Paracoccidioides spp. is receptor-mediated.

    PubMed

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Parente, Juliana Alves; Pigosso, Laurine Lacerda; de Castro, Kelly Pacheco; Fonseca, Fernanda Lopes; Silva-Bailão, Mirelle Garcia; Báo, Sônia Nair; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Hernandez, Orville; McEwen, Juan G; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida

    2014-05-01

    Iron is essential for the proliferation of fungal pathogens during infection. The availability of iron is limited due to its association with host proteins. Fungal pathogens have evolved different mechanisms to acquire iron from host; however, little is known regarding how Paracoccidioides species incorporate and metabolize this ion. In this work, host iron sources that are used by Paracoccidioides spp. were investigated. Robust fungal growth in the presence of the iron-containing molecules hemin and hemoglobin was observed. Paracoccidioides spp. present hemolytic activity and have the ability to internalize a protoporphyrin ring. Using real-time PCR and nanoUPLC-MSE proteomic approaches, fungal growth in the presence of hemoglobin was shown to result in the positive regulation of transcripts that encode putative hemoglobin receptors, in addition to the induction of proteins that are required for amino acid metabolism and vacuolar protein degradation. In fact, one hemoglobin receptor ortholog, Rbt5, was identified as a surface GPI-anchored protein that recognized hemin, protoporphyrin and hemoglobin in vitro. Antisense RNA technology and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation were used to generate mitotically stable Pbrbt5 mutants. The knockdown strain had a lower survival inside macrophages and in mouse spleen when compared with the parental strain, which suggested that Rbt5 could act as a virulence factor. In summary, our data indicate that Paracoccidioides spp. can use hemoglobin as an iron source most likely through receptor-mediated pathways that might be relevant for pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:24831516

  19. Receptor-mediated mitophagy in yeast and mammalian systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Sakakibara, Kaori; Chen, Quan; Okamoto, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Mitophagy, or mitochondria autophagy, plays a critical role in selective removal of damaged or unwanted mitochondria. Several protein receptors, including Atg32 in yeast, NIX/BNIP3L, BNIP3 and FUNDC1 in mammalian systems, directly act in mitophagy. Atg32 interacts with Atg8 and Atg11 on the surface of mitochondria, promoting core Atg protein assembly for mitophagy. NIX/BNIP3L, BNIP3 and FUNDC1 also have a classic motif to directly bind LC3 (Atg8 homolog in mammals) for activation of mitophagy. Recent studies have shown that receptor-mediated mitophagy is regulated by reversible protein phosphorylation. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) phosphorylates Atg32 and activates mitophagy in yeast. In contrast, in mammalian cells Src kinase and CK2 phosphorylate FUNDC1 to prevent mitophagy. Notably, in response to hypoxia and FCCP treatment, the mitochondrial phosphatase PGAM5 dephosphorylates FUNDC1 to activate mitophagy. Here, we mainly focus on recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the activation of receptor-mediated mitophagy and the implications of this catabolic process in health and disease. PMID:24903109

  20. Hemoglobin Uptake by Paracoccidioides spp. Is Receptor-Mediated

    PubMed Central

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Parente, Juliana Alves; Pigosso, Laurine Lacerda; de Castro, Kelly Pacheco; Fonseca, Fernanda Lopes; Silva-Bailão, Mirelle Garcia; Báo, Sônia Nair; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Hernandez, Orville; McEwen, Juan G.; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Iron is essential for the proliferation of fungal pathogens during infection. The availability of iron is limited due to its association with host proteins. Fungal pathogens have evolved different mechanisms to acquire iron from host; however, little is known regarding how Paracoccidioides species incorporate and metabolize this ion. In this work, host iron sources that are used by Paracoccidioides spp. were investigated. Robust fungal growth in the presence of the iron-containing molecules hemin and hemoglobin was observed. Paracoccidioides spp. present hemolytic activity and have the ability to internalize a protoporphyrin ring. Using real-time PCR and nanoUPLC-MSE proteomic approaches, fungal growth in the presence of hemoglobin was shown to result in the positive regulation of transcripts that encode putative hemoglobin receptors, in addition to the induction of proteins that are required for amino acid metabolism and vacuolar protein degradation. In fact, one hemoglobin receptor ortholog, Rbt5, was identified as a surface GPI-anchored protein that recognized hemin, protoporphyrin and hemoglobin in vitro. Antisense RNA technology and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation were used to generate mitotically stable Pbrbt5 mutants. The knockdown strain had a lower survival inside macrophages and in mouse spleen when compared with the parental strain, which suggested that Rbt5 could act as a virulence factor. In summary, our data indicate that Paracoccidioides spp. can use hemoglobin as an iron source most likely through receptor-mediated pathways that might be relevant for pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:24831516

  1. Bombesin receptor-mediated imaging and cytotoxicity: review and current status

    PubMed Central

    Sancho, Veronica; Di Florio, Alessia; Moody, Terry W.; Jensen, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    The three mammalian bombesin (Bn) receptors (gastrin-releasing peptide [GRP] receptor, neuromedin B [NMB] receptor, BRS-3) are one of the classes of G protein-coupled receptors that are most frequently over-express/ectopically expressed by common, important malignancies. Because of the clinical success of somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and cytotoxicity with neuroendocrine tumors, there is now increasing interest in pursuing a similar approach with Bn receptors. In the last few years then have been more than 200 studies in this area. In the present paper, the in vitro and in vivo results, as well as results of human studies from many of these studies are reviewed and the current state of Bn receptor-mediated imaging or cytotoxicity is discussed. Both Bn receptor-mediated imaging studies as well as Bn receptor-mediated tumoral cytotoxic studies using radioactive and non-radioactive Bn-based ligands are covered. PMID:21034419

  2. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and Brain Delivery of Therapeutic Biologics

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Guangqing

    2013-01-01

    Transport of macromolecules across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) requires both specific and nonspecific interactions between macromolecules and proteins/receptors expressed on the luminal and/or the abluminal surfaces of the brain capillary endothelial cells. Endocytosis and transcytosis play important roles in the distribution of macromolecules. Due to the tight junction of BBB, brain delivery of traditional therapeutic proteins with large molecular weight is generally not possible. There are multiple pathways through which macromolecules can be taken up into cells through both specific and nonspecific interactions with proteins/receptors on the cell surface. This review is focused on the current knowledge of receptor-mediated endocytosis/transcytosis and brain delivery using the Angiopep-2-conjugated system and the molecular Trojan horses. In addition, the role of neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) in regulating the efflux of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) from brain to blood, and approaches to improve the pharmacokinetics of therapeutic biologics by generating Fc fusion proteins, and increasing the pH dependent binding affinity between Fc and FcRn, are discussed. PMID:23840214

  3. [Glutamate receptor-mediated retinal neuronal injury in experimental glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong-Feng; Yang, Xiong-Li

    2016-08-25

    Glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness, is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by optic nerve degeneration related to apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In the pathogenesis of RGC death following the onset of glaucoma, functional changes of glutamate receptors are commonly regarded as important risk factors. During the past several years, we have explored the mechanisms underlying RGC apoptosis and retinal Müller cell reactivation (gliosis) in a rat chronic ocular hypertension (COH) model. We demonstrated that elevated intraocular pressure in COH rats may induce changes of various signaling pathways, which are involved in RGC apoptosis by modulating glutamate NMDA and AMPA receptors. Moreover, we also demonstrated that over-activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR I) by excessive extracellular glutamate in COH rats could contribute to Müller cell gliosis by suppressing Kir4.1 channels. In this review, incorporating our results, we discuss glutamate receptor- mediated RGC apoptosis and Müller cell gliosis in experimental glaucoma. PMID:27546508

  4. The mechanisms of HAMP-mediated signaling in transmembrane receptors.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Hedda U; Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanislaw; Mondéjar, Laura García; Hulko, Michael; Hantke, Klaus; Martin, Jörg; Schultz, Joachim E; Zeth, Kornelius; Lupas, Andrei N; Coles, Murray

    2011-03-01

    HAMP domains mediate signal transduction in over 7500 enzyme-coupled receptors represented in all kingdoms of life. The HAMP domain of the putative archaeal receptor Af1503 has a parallel, dimeric, four-helical coiled coil structure, but with unusual core packing, related to canonical packing by concerted axial rotation of the helices. This has led to the gearbox model for signal transduction, whereby the alternate packing modes correspond to signaling states. Here we present structures of a series of Af1503 HAMP variants. We show that substitution of a conserved small side chain within the domain core (A291) for larger residues induces a gradual transition in packing mode, involving both changes in helix rotation and bundle shape, which are most prominent at the C-terminal, output end of the domain. These are correlated with activity and ligand response in vitro and in vivo by incorporating Af1503 HAMP into mycobacterial adenylyl cyclase assay systems.

  5. VEGF receptors mediate hypoxic remodeling of adult ovine carotid arteries.

    PubMed

    Adeoye, Olayemi O; Bouthors, Vincent; Hubbell, Margaret C; Williams, James M; Pearce, William J

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that VEGF contributes to hypoxic remodeling of arterial smooth muscle, although hypoxia produces only transient increases in VEGF that return to normoxic levels despite sustained changes in arterial structure and function. To explore how VEGF might contribute to long-term hypoxic vascular remodeling, this study explores the hypothesis that chronic hypoxia produces sustained increases in smooth muscle VEGF receptor density that mediate long-term vascular effects of hypoxia. Carotid arteries from adult sheep maintained at sea level or altitude (3,820 m) for 110 days were harvested and denuded of endothelium. VEGF levels were similar in chronically hypoxic and normoxic arteries, as determined by immunoblotting. In contrast, VEGF receptor levels were significantly increased by 107% (VEGF-R1) and 156% (VEGF-R2) in hypoxic compared with normoxic arteries. In arteries that were organ cultured 24 h with 3 nM VEGF, VEGF replicated effects of hypoxia on abundances of smooth muscle α actin (SMαA), myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), and MLC20 and the effects of hypoxia on colocalization of MLC20 with SMαA, as measured via confocal microscopy. VEGF did not replicate the effects of chronic hypoxia on colocalization of MLCK with SMαA or MLCK with MLC20, suggesting that VEGF's role in hypoxic remodeling is highly protein specific, particularly for contractile protein organization. VEGF effects in organ culture were inhibited by VEGF receptor blockers vatalinib (240 nM) and dasatinib (6.3 nM). These findings support the hypothesis that long-term upregulation of VEGF receptors help mediate sustained effects of hypoxia on the abundance and colocalization of contractile proteins in arterial smooth muscle. PMID:25038104

  6. Crosstalk between purinergic receptors and lipid mediators in leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Mariana M; Canetti, Cláudio; Coutinho-Silva, Robson

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease affecting millions of people around the world caused by organisms of the genus Leishmania. Parasite escape mechanisms of the immune system confer the possibility of resistance and dissemination of the disease. A group of molecules that has become a target for Leishmania survival strategies are lipid mediators. Among them, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) has been described as a pro-inflammatory molecule capable of activating cells of the immune system to combat Leishmania. In an opposite way, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a lipid mediator described as a deactivator of macrophages and neutrophils. The balance of these two molecules can be generated by extracellular nucleotides, such as adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine (Ado), which activate the purinergic receptors system. Herein, we discuss the role of extracellular nucleotides and the resulting balance of LTB4 and PGE2 in Leishmania fate, survival or death. PMID:27595742

  7. P2y receptor-mediated angiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Rumjahn, Sharif M; Baldwin, Karla A; Buxton, Iain L O

    2007-01-01

    Pathological as well as physiological angiogenesis is known to be regulated by such factors as nucleotides and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). Activated P2Y nucleotide receptors have been observed to associate and transactivate VEGF Receptor 2 (VEGFR2), suggesting a cooperation between nucleotide and VEGF signaling in angiogenesis. P2YR mediated VEGFR2 signaling therefore may be important in describing the angiogenic signaling of nucleotides such as ATP. Here, we provide evidence that supports the notion of P2YR-VEGFR2 signaling. The significant angiogenic effect of P2Y1/2 receptor agonists (100 microM ATP and 10 microM 2MS-ATP) on endothelial cell tubulogenesis was suppressed back to near control levels upon addition of 1 microM SU1498 (specific VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor). We believe that this P2YR-VEFGR2 signaling is an important component of pathological, as well as physiological angiogenesis.

  8. Ionotropic Chemosensory Receptors Mediate the Taste and Smell of Polyamines

    PubMed Central

    Üçpunar, Habibe K.; Svensson, Thomas; Quillery, Elsa; Gompel, Nicolas; Ignell, Rickard; Grunwald Kadow, Ilona C.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to find and consume nutrient-rich diets for successful reproduction and survival is fundamental to animal life. Among the nutrients important for all animals are polyamines, a class of pungent smelling compounds required in numerous cellular and organismic processes. Polyamine deficiency or excess has detrimental effects on health, cognitive function, reproduction, and lifespan. Here, we show that a diet high in polyamine is beneficial and increases reproductive success of flies, and we unravel the sensory mechanisms that attract Drosophila to polyamine-rich food and egg-laying substrates. Using a combination of behavioral genetics and in vivo calcium imaging, we demonstrate that Drosophila uses multisensory detection to find and evaluate polyamines present in overripe and fermenting fruit, their favored feeding and egg-laying substrate. In the olfactory system, two coexpressed ionotropic receptors (IRs), IR76b and IR41a, mediate the long-range attraction to the odor. In the gustatory system, multimodal taste sensation by IR76b receptor and GR66a bitter receptor neurons is used to evaluate quality and valence of the polyamine providing a mechanism for the fly’s high attraction to polyamine-rich and sweet decaying fruit. Given their universal and highly conserved biological roles, we propose that the ability to evaluate food for polyamine content may impact health and reproductive success also of other animals including humans. PMID:27145030

  9. Ionotropic Chemosensory Receptors Mediate the Taste and Smell of Polyamines.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Ashiq; Zhang, Mo; Üçpunar, Habibe K; Svensson, Thomas; Quillery, Elsa; Gompel, Nicolas; Ignell, Rickard; Grunwald Kadow, Ilona C

    2016-05-01

    The ability to find and consume nutrient-rich diets for successful reproduction and survival is fundamental to animal life. Among the nutrients important for all animals are polyamines, a class of pungent smelling compounds required in numerous cellular and organismic processes. Polyamine deficiency or excess has detrimental effects on health, cognitive function, reproduction, and lifespan. Here, we show that a diet high in polyamine is beneficial and increases reproductive success of flies, and we unravel the sensory mechanisms that attract Drosophila to polyamine-rich food and egg-laying substrates. Using a combination of behavioral genetics and in vivo calcium imaging, we demonstrate that Drosophila uses multisensory detection to find and evaluate polyamines present in overripe and fermenting fruit, their favored feeding and egg-laying substrate. In the olfactory system, two coexpressed ionotropic receptors (IRs), IR76b and IR41a, mediate the long-range attraction to the odor. In the gustatory system, multimodal taste sensation by IR76b receptor and GR66a bitter receptor neurons is used to evaluate quality and valence of the polyamine providing a mechanism for the fly's high attraction to polyamine-rich and sweet decaying fruit. Given their universal and highly conserved biological roles, we propose that the ability to evaluate food for polyamine content may impact health and reproductive success also of other animals including humans. PMID:27145030

  10. Visualization of Receptor-mediated Endocytosis in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Mulholland, Jon; Konopka, James; Singer-Kruger, Birgit; Zerial, Marino; Botstein, David

    1999-01-01

    We studied the ligand-induced endocytosis of the yeast α-factor receptor Ste2p by immuno-electron microscopy. We observed and quantitated time-dependent loss of Ste2p from the plasma membrane of cells exposed to α-factor. This ligand-induced internalization of Ste2p was blocked in the well-characterized endocytosis-deficient mutant sac6Δ. We provide evidence that implicates furrow-like invaginations of the plasma membrane as the site of receptor internalization. These invaginations are distinct from the finger-like plasma membrane invaginations within actin cortical patches. Consistent with this, we show that Ste2p is not located within the cortical actin patch before and during receptor-mediated endocytosis. In wild-type cells exposed to α-factor we also observed and quantitated a time-dependent accumulation of Ste2p in intracellular, membrane-bound compartments. These compartments have a characteristic electron density but variable shape and size and are often located adjacent to the vacuole. In immuno-electron microscopy experiments these compartments labeled with antibodies directed against the rab5 homologue Ypt51p (Vps21p), the resident vacuolar protease carboxypeptidase Y, and the vacuolar H+-ATPase Vph1p. Using a new double-labeling technique we have colocalized antibodies against Ste2p and carboxypeptidase Y to this compartment, thereby identifying these compartments as prevacuolar late endosomes. PMID:10069819

  11. The type I interleukin-1 receptor mediates fever in the rat as shown by interleukin-1 receptor subtype selective ligands.

    PubMed

    Malinowsky, D; Chai, Z; Bristulf, J; Simoncsits, A; Bartfai, T

    1995-12-01

    The interleukin-1 (IL-1) system possesses two distinct receptors (type I and type II) which, together with the accessory protein, mediate a multitude of responses to IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta, including fever. So far, no receptor subtype-specific ligands have been described. Since both types of IL-1 receptors occur in the thermoregulatory areas it was unclear which IL-1 receptor type mediates fever. We report here that for a series of deletion mutants of human recombinant IL-1 beta (hrIL-1 beta), the affinity of these ligands for the type I IL-1 receptor correlates with their efficacy to evoke the fever response (hrIL-1 beta > des-SND52-54 > des-QGE48-50 > des-I56). Thus, the results suggest that agonist occupancy of the type I IL-1 receptor is essential for IL-1 beta-mediated fever.

  12. Regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated synaptic responses by adenosine receptors in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed Central

    Morton, R A; Davies, C H

    1997-01-01

    1. Intracellular current clamp recordings were made from CA1 pyramidal neurones in rat hippocampal slices. Experiments were performed in the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor antagonists to block all fast excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. A single stimulus, delivered extracellularly in the stratum oriens, caused a reduction in spike frequency adaptation in response to a depolarizing current step delivered 2 s after the stimulus. A 2- to 10-fold increase in stimulus intensity evoked a slow excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) which was associated with a small increase in input resistance. The peak amplitude of the EPSP occurred approximately 2.5 s after the stimulus and its magnitude (up to 30 mV) and duration (10-50 s) increased with increasing stimulus intensity. 2. The slow EPSP was unaffected by the metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist (+)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine ((+)-MCPG; 1000 microM) but was greatly enhanced by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine (1-5 microM). Both the slow EPSP and the stimulus-evoked reduction in spike frequency adaptation were inhibited by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist atropine (1-5 microM). These results are consistent with these effects being mediated by mAChRs. 3. Both the mAChR-mediated EPSP (EPSPm) and the associated reduction in spike frequency adaptation were reversibly depressed (up to 97%) by either adenosine (100 microM) or its non-hydrolysable analogue 2-chloroadenosine (CADO; 0.1-5.0 microM). These effects were often accompanied by postsynaptic hyperpolarization (up to 8 mV) and a reduction in input resistance (up to 11%). The selective adenosine A1 receptor agonists 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA; 0.1-0.4 microM) and R(-)N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)-adenosine (R-PIA; 1 microM) both depressed the EPSPm. In contrast, the adenosine A2A receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino-5

  13. Odorant receptor-mediated sperm activation in disease vector mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, R. Jason; Liu, Chao; Zhou, Xiaofan; Malpartida, Juan C.; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2014-01-01

    Insects, such as the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, depend upon chemoreceptors to respond to volatiles emitted from a range of environmental sources, most notably blood meal hosts and oviposition sites. A subset of peripheral signaling pathways involved in these insect chemosensory-dependent behaviors requires the activity of heteromeric odorant receptor (OR) ion channel complexes and ligands for numerous A. gambiae ORs (AgOrs) have been identified. Although AgOrs are expressed in nonhead appendages, studies characterizing potential AgOr function in nonolfactory tissues have not been conducted. In the present study, we explore the possibility that AgOrs mediate responses of spermatozoa to endogenous signaling molecules in A. gambiae. In addition to finding AgOr transcript expression in testes, we show that the OR coreceptor, AgOrco, is localized to the flagella of A. gambiae spermatozoa where Orco-specific agonists, antagonists, and other odorant ligands robustly activate flagella beating in an Orco-dependent process. We also demonstrate Orco expression and Orco-mediated activation of spermatozoa in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Moreover, we find Orco localization in testes across distinct insect taxa and posit that OR-mediated responses in spermatozoa may represent a general characteristic of insect reproduction and an example of convergent evolution. PMID:24550284

  14. NFAT regulates calcium-sensing receptor-mediated TNF production

    SciTech Connect

    abdullah, huda ismail; Pedraza, Paulina L.; Hao, Shoujin; Rodland, Karin D.; McGiff, John C.; Ferreri, Nicholas R.

    2006-05-01

    Because nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) has been implicated in TNF production as well as osmoregulation and salt and water homeostasis, we addressed whether calcium-sensing receptor (CaR)-mediated TNF production in medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL) cells was NFAT dependent. TNF production in response to addition of extracellular Ca2+ (1.2 mM) was abolished in mTAL cells transiently transfected with a dominant-negative CaR construct (R796W) or pretreated with the phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C (PI-PLC) inhibitor U-73122. Cyclosporine A (CsA), an inhibitor of the serine/threonine phosphatase calcineurin, and a peptide ligand, VIVIT, that selectively inhibits calcineurin-NFAT signaling, also prevented CaR-mediated TNF production. Increases in calcineurin activity in cells challenged with Ca2+ were inhibited after pretreatment with U-73122 and CsA, suggesting that CaR activation increases calcineurin activity in a PI-PLC-dependent manner. Moreover, U-73122, CsA, and VIVIT inhibited CaR-dependent activity of an NFAT construct that drives expression of firefly luciferase in transiently transfected mTAL cells. Collectively, these data verify the role of calcineurin and NFAT in CaR-mediated TNF production by mTAL cells. Activation of the CaR also increased the binding of NFAT to a consensus oligonucleotide, an effect that was blocked by U-73122 and CsA, suggesting that a calcineurin- and NFAT-dependent pathway increases TNF production in mTAL cells. This mechanism likely regulates TNF gene transcription as U-73122, CsA, and VIVIT blocked CaR-dependent activity of a TNF promoter construct. Elucidating CaR-mediated signaling pathways that regulate TNF production in the mTAL will be crucial to understanding mechanisms that regulate extracellular fluid volume and salt balance.

  15. Hepatoprotective actions of melatonin: Possible mediation by melatonin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mathes, Alexander M

    2010-01-01

    Melatonin, the hormone of darkness and messenger of the photoperiod, is also well known to exhibit strong direct and indirect antioxidant properties. Melatonin has previously been demonstrated to be a powerful organ protective substance in numerous models of injury; these beneficial effects have been attributed to the hormone’s intense radical scavenging capacity. The present report reviews the hepatoprotective potential of the pineal hormone in various models of oxidative stress in vivo, and summarizes the extensive literature showing that melatonin may be a suitable experimental substance to reduce liver damage after sepsis, hemorrhagic shock, ischemia/reperfusion, and in numerous models of toxic liver injury. Melatonin’s influence on hepatic antioxidant enzymes and other potentially relevant pathways, such as nitric oxide signaling, hepatic cytokine and heat shock protein expression, are evaluated. Based on recent literature demonstrating the functional relevance of melatonin receptor activation for hepatic organ protection, this article finally suggests that melatonin receptors could mediate the hepatoprotective actions of melatonin therapy. PMID:21182223

  16. ZINC-INDUCED EGF RECEPTOR SIGNALING REQUIRES SRC-MEDIATED PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE EGF RECEPTOR ON TYROSINE 845 (Y845)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ZINC-INDUCED EGF RECEPTOR SIGNALING REQUIRES Src-MEDIATED PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE EGF RECEPTOR ON TYROSINE 845 (Y845)
    Weidong Wu1, Lee M. Graves2, Gordon N. Gill3 and James M. Samet4 1Center for Environmental Medicine and Lung Biology; 2Department of Pharmacology, University o...

  17. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin and recycling of the transferrin receptor in rat reticulocytes

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    At 4 degrees C transferrin bound to receptors on the reticulocyte plasma membrane, and at 37 degrees C receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin occurred. Uptake at 37 degrees C exceeded binding at 4 degrees C by 2.5-fold and saturated after 20-30 min. During uptake at 37 degrees C, bound transferrin was internalized into a trypsin- resistant space. Trypsinization at 4 degrees C destroyed surface receptors, but with subsequent incubation at 37 degrees C, surface receptors rapidly appeared (albeit in reduced numbers), and uptake occurred at a decreased level. After endocytosis, transferrin was released, apparently intact, into the extracellular space. At 37 degrees C colloidal gold-transferrin (AuTf) clustered in coated pits and then appeared inside various intracellular membrane-bounded compartments. Small vesicles and tubules were labeled after short (5-10 min) incubations at 37 degrees C. Larger multivesicular endosomes became heavily labeled after longer (20-35 min) incubations. Multivesicular endosomes apparently fused with the plasma membrane and released their contents by exocytosis. None of these organelles appeared to be lysosomal in nature, and 98% of intracellular AuTf was localized in acid phosphatase-negative compartments. AuTf, like transferrin, was released with subsequent incubation at 37 degrees C. Freeze-dried and freeze-fractured reticulocytes confirmed the distribution of AuTf in reticulocytes and revealed the presence of clathrin-coated patches amidst the spectrin coating the inner surface of the plasma membrane. These data suggest that transferrin is internalized via coated pits and vesicles and demonstrate that transferrin and its receptor are recycled back to the plasma membrane after endocytosis. PMID:6309857

  18. Identification and Expression Analysis of Putative Chemosensory Receptor Genes in Microplitis mediator by Antennal Transcriptome Screening

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shan-Ning; Peng, Yong; Lu, Zi-Yun; Dhiloo, Khalid Hussain; Gu, Shao-Hua; Li, Rui-Jun; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Guo, Yu-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Host-seeking, ovipositional behavior and mating of insects are controlled mainly by odor perception through sensory organs such as antennae. Antennal chemoreception is extremely important for insect survival. Several antennal chemosensory receptors are involved in mediating the odor detection in insects, especially the odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs), to ensure the specificity of the olfactory sensory neuron responses. In the present study, we identified the chemosensory receptor gene repertoire of the parasitoid wasp Microplitis mediator, a generalist endoparasitoid that infests more than 40 types of Lepidopterous larvae and is widely distributed in the Palaearctic region. By transcriptome sequencing of male and female antennae we identified 60 candidate odorant receptors, six candidate ionotropic receptors and two gustatory receptors in M. mediator. The full-length sequences of these putative chemosensory receptor genes were obtained by using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR (RACE-PCR) method. We also conducted reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) combined with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for investigating the expression profiles of these chemosensory receptor genes in olfactory and non-olfactory tissues. The tissue- and sex-biased expression patterns may provide insights into the roles of the chemosensory receptor in M. mediator. Our findings support possible future study of the chemosensory behavior of M. mediator at the molecular level. PMID:26078716

  19. P2y Receptor-Mediated Angiogenesis via Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Rumjahn, Sharif M.; Baldwin, Karla A; Buxton, Iain L. O.

    2011-01-01

    Pathological as well as physiological angiogenesis is known to be regulated by such factors as nucleotides and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). Activated P2Y nucleotide receptors have been observed to associate and transactivate VEGF Receptor 2 (VEGFR2), suggesting a cooperation between nucleotide and VEGF signaling in angiogenesis. P2YR mediated VEGFR2 signaling therefore may be important in describing the angiogenic signaling of nucleotides such as ATP. Here, we provide evidence that supports the notion of P2YR-VEGFR2 signaling. The significant angiogenic effect of P2Y1/2 receptor agonists (100 μM ATP and 10 μM 2MS-ATP) on endothelial cell tubulogenesis was suppressed back to near control levels upon addition of 1 μM SU1498 (specific VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor). We believe that this P2YR-VEFGR2 signaling is an important component of pathological, as well as physiological angiogenesis. PMID:18605230

  20. CCR2 chemokine receptor signaling mediates pain in experimental osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Rachel E.; Tran, Phuong B.; Das, Rosalina; Ghoreishi-Haack, Nayereh; Ren, Dongjun; Miller, Richard J.; Malfait, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is one of the leading causes of chronic pain, but almost nothing is known about the mechanisms and molecules that mediate osteoarthritis-associated joint pain. Consequently, treatment options remain inadequate and joint replacement is often inevitable. Here, we use a surgical mouse model that captures the long-term progression of knee osteoarthritis to longitudinally assess pain-related behaviors and concomitant changes in the innervating dorsal root ganglia (DRG). We demonstrate that monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (CCL2) and its high-affinity receptor, chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2), are central to the development of pain associated with knee osteoarthritis. After destabilization of the medial meniscus, mice developed early-onset secondary mechanical allodynia that was maintained for 16 wk. MCP-1 and CCR2 mRNA, protein, and signaling activity were temporarily up-regulated in the innervating DRG at 8 wk after surgery. This result correlated with the presentation of movement-provoked pain behaviors, which were maintained up to 16 wk. Mice that lack Ccr2 also developed mechanical allodynia, but this started to resolve from 8 wk onwards. Despite severe allodynia and structural knee joint damage equal to wild-type mice, Ccr2-null mice did not develop movement-provoked pain behaviors at 8 wk. In wild-type mice, macrophages infiltrated the DRG by 8 wk and this was maintained through 16 wk after surgery. In contrast, macrophage infiltration was not observed in Ccr2-null mice. These observations suggest a key role for the MCP-1/CCR2 pathway in establishing osteoarthritis pain. PMID:23185004

  1. Presynaptic Kainate Receptor Mediation of Frequency Facilitation at Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Synapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Dietmar; Mellor, Jack; Nicoll, Roger A.

    2001-03-01

    Inhibition of transmitter release by presynaptic receptors is widespread in the central nervous system and is typically mediated via metabotropic receptors. In contrast, very little is known about facilitatory receptors, and synaptic activation of a facilitatory autoreceptor has not been established. Here we show that activation of presynaptic kainate receptors can facilitate transmitter release from hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. Synaptic activation of these presumed ionotropic kainate receptors is very fast (<10 ms) and lasts for seconds. Thus, these presynaptic kainate receptors contribute to the short-term plasticity characteristics of mossy fiber synapses, which were previously thought to be an intrinsic property of the synapse.

  2. The Orphan Nuclear Receptor ERRγ Regulates Hepatic CB1 Receptor-Mediated Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yoon Seok; Lee, Ji-Min; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Yong-Soo; Kim, Ki-Sun; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Jina; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, In-Kyu; Kim, Seong Heon; Cho, Sung Jin; Jeong, Won-Il; Lee, Chul-Ho; Harris, Robert A.; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a stress inducible hepatokine, is synthesized in the liver and plays important roles in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the mechanism of hepatic cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor-mediated induction of FGF21 gene expression is largely unknown. Results Activation of the hepatic CB1 receptor by arachidonyl-2’-chloroethylamide (ACEA), a CB1 receptor selective agonist, significantly increased FGF21 gene expression. Overexpression of estrogen-related receptor (ERR) γ increased FGF21 gene expression and secretion both in hepatocytes and mice, whereas knockdown of ERRγ decreased ACEA-mediated FGF21 gene expression and secretion. Moreover, ERRγ, but not ERRα and ERRβ, induced FGF21 gene promoter activity. In addition, deletion and mutation analysis of the FGF21 promoter identified a putative ERRγ-binding motif (AGGTGC, a near-consensus response element). A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed direct binding of ERRγ to the FGF21 gene promoter. Finally, GSK5182, an ERRγ inverse agonist, significantly inhibited hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated FGF21 gene expression and secretion. Conclusion Based on our data, we conclude that ERRγ plays a key role in hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated induction of FGF21 gene expression and secretion. PMID:27455076

  3. A novel member of the integrin receptor family mediates Arg-Gly-Asp- stimulated neutrophil phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Human neutrophils (PMN) express a heterodimeric receptor that has ligand binding specificity for the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence within many adhesive proteins. A monoclonal antibody, B6H12, which binds to this receptor, inhibits both RGD-mediated ligand binding and stimulation of IgG-mediated phagocytosis by fibronectin, fibrinogen, vitronectin, von Willebrand's factor, and collagen type IV. By several criteria this receptor is neither a known very late antigen, a known cytoadhesin (gp IIb/IIIa-vitronectin receptor), nor a member of the LFA- 1, Mac-1, p150,95 group of integrin receptors. Ligand binding via this receptor is rapidly inactivated by products of the myeloperoxidase- hydrogen peroxide-halide system of PMN. We conclude that this receptor, for which we propose the name leukocyte response integrin, is a signal- transducing molecule on PMN which may have a significant early role in modulation of PMN function at inflammatory sites. PMID:2785522

  4. Fluid Shear Stress Sensitizes Cancer Cells to Receptor-Mediated Apoptosis via Trimeric Death Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis, the process of cancer cell migration from a primary to distal location, typically leads to a poor patient prognosis. Hematogenous metastasis is initiated by intravasation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) into the bloodstream, which are then believed to adhere to the luminal surface of the endothelium and extravasate into distal locations. Apoptotic agents such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), whether in soluble ligand form or expressed on the surface of natural killer (NK) cells, have shown promise in treating CTCs to reduce the probability of metastasis. The role of hemodynamic shear forces in altering the cancer cell response to receptor-mediated apoptosis has not been previously investigated. Here, we report that human colon cancer COLO 205 and prostate cancer PC-3 cells exposed to a uniform fluid shear stress in a cone-and-plate viscometer become sensitized to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Shear-induced sensitization directly correlated with the application of fluid shear stress, and TRAIL-induced apoptosis increased in a fluid shear stress force- and time-dependent manner. In contrast, TRAIL-induced necrosis was not affected by the application fluid shear stress. Interestingly, fluid shear stress did not sensitize cancer cells to apoptosis when treated with doxorubicin, which also induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Caspase inhibition experiments revealed that shear stress-induced sensitization to TRAIL occurs via caspase-dependent apoptosis. These results suggest that physiological fluid shear force can modulate receptor-mediated apoptosis of cancer cells in the presence of apoptotic agents. PMID:25110459

  5. Targeting receptor-mediated endocytotic pathways with nanoparticles: rationale and advances

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shi; Olenyuk, Bogdan Z.; Okamoto, Curtis T.; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F.

    2012-01-01

    Targeting of drugs and their carrier systems by using receptor-mediated endocytotic pathways was in its nascent stages 25 years ago. In the intervening years, an explosion of knowledge focused on design and synthesis of nanoparticulate delivery systems as well as elucidation of the cellular complexity of what was previously-termed receptor-mediated endocytosis has now created a situation when it has become possible to design and test the feasibility of delivery of highly specific nanoparticle drug carriers to specific cells and tissue. This review outlines the mechanisms governing the major modes of receptor-mediated endocytosis used in drug delivery and highlights recent approaches using these as targets for in vivo drug delivery of nanoparticles. The review also discusses some of the inherent complexity associated with the simple shift from a ligand-drug conjugate versus a ligand-nanoparticle conjugate, in terms of ligand valency and its relationship to the mode of receptor-mediated internalization. PMID:23026636

  6. Clathrin-dependent endocytosis is required for immunity mediated by pattern recognition receptor kinases.

    PubMed

    Mbengue, Malick; Bourdais, Gildas; Gervasi, Fabio; Beck, Martina; Zhou, Ji; Spallek, Thomas; Bartels, Sebastian; Boller, Thomas; Ueda, Takashi; Kuhn, Hannah; Robatzek, Silke

    2016-09-27

    Sensing of potential pathogenic bacteria is of critical importance for immunity. In plants, this involves plasma membrane-resident pattern recognition receptors, one of which is the FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 (FLS2) receptor kinase. Ligand-activated FLS2 receptors are internalized into endosomes. However, the extent to which these spatiotemporal dynamics are generally present among pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and their regulation remain elusive. Using live-cell imaging, we show that at least three other receptor kinases associated with plant immunity, PEP RECEPTOR 1/2 (PEPR1/2) and EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), internalize in a ligand-specific manner. In all cases, endocytosis requires the coreceptor BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (BAK1), and thus depends on receptor activation status. We also show the internalization of liganded FLS2, suggesting the transport of signaling competent receptors. Trafficking of activated PRRs requires clathrin and converges onto the same endosomal vesicles that are also shared with the hormone receptor BRASSINOSTERIOD INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1). Importantly, clathrin-dependent endocytosis participates in plant defense against bacterial infection involving FLS2-mediated stomatal closure and callose deposition, but is uncoupled from activation of the flagellin-induced oxidative burst and MAP kinase signaling. In conclusion, immunity mediated by pattern recognition receptors depends on clathrin, a critical component for the endocytosis of signaling competent receptors into a common endosomal pathway. PMID:27651493

  7. Cardiomyocyte ryanodine receptor degradation by chaperone-mediated autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Pedrozo, Zully; Torrealba, Natalia; Fernández, Carolina; Gatica, Damian; Toro, Barbra; Quiroga, Clara; Rodriguez, Andrea E.; Sanchez, Gina; Gillette, Thomas G.; Hill, Joseph A.; Donoso, Paulina; Lavandero, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Time for primary review: 15 days Aims Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is a selective mechanism for the degradation of soluble cytosolic proteins bearing the sequence KFERQ. These proteins are targeted by chaperones and delivered to lysosomes where they are translocated into the lysosomal lumen and degraded via the lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP-2A). Mutations in LAMP2 that inhibit autophagy result in Danon disease characterized by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) plays a key role in cardiomyocyte excitation–contraction and its dysfunction can lead to cardiac failure. Whether RyR2 is degraded by CMA is unknown. Methods and results To induce CMA, cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were treated with geldanamycin (GA) to promote protein degradation through this pathway. GA increased LAMP-2A levels together with its redistribution and colocalization with Hsc70 in the perinuclear region, changes indicative of CMA activation. The inhibition of lysosomes but not proteasomes prevented the loss of RyR2. The recovery of RyR2 content after incubation with GA by siRNA targeting LAMP-2A suggests that RyR2 is degraded via CMA. In silico analysis also revealed that the RyR2 sequence harbours six KFERQ motifs which are required for the recognition Hsc70 and its degradation via CMA. Our data suggest that presenilins are involved in RyR2 degradation by CMA. Conclusion These findings are consistent with a model in which oxidative damage of the RyR2 targets it for turnover by presenilins and CMA, which could lead to removal of damaged or leaky RyR2 channels. PMID:23404999

  8. Opioid Receptors Mediate Direct Predictive Fear Learning: Evidence from One-Trial Blocking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Sindy; McNally, Gavan P.

    2007-01-01

    Pavlovian fear learning depends on predictive error, so that fear learning occurs when the actual outcome of a conditioning trial exceeds the expected outcome. Previous research has shown that opioid receptors, including [mu]-opioid receptors in the ventrolateral quadrant of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (vlPAG), mediate such predictive fear…

  9. Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate OFF responses in light-adapted ON bipolar cells

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Ji-Jie; Gao, Fan; Wu, Samuel M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that photoreceptor synaptic inputs to depolarizing bipolar cells (DBCs or ON bipolar cells) are mediated by mGluR6 receptors and those to hyperpolarizing bipolar cells (HBCs or OFF bipolar cells) are mediated by AMPA/kainate receptors. Here we show that in addition to mGluR6 receptors which mediate the sign-inverting, depolarizing light responses, subpopulations of cone-dominated and rod/cone mixed DBCs use GluR4 AMPA receptors to generate a transient sign-preserving OFF response under light adapted conditions. These AMPA receptors are located at the basal junctions postsynaptic to rods and they are silent under dark-adapted conditions, as tonic glutamate release in darkness desensitizes these receptors. Light adaptation enhances rod-cone coupling and thus allows cone photocurrents with an abrupt OFF depolarization to enter the rods. The abrupt rod depolarization triggers glutamate activation of unoccupied AMPA receptors, resulting in a transient OFF response in DBCs. It has been widely accepted that the DNQX-sensitive, OFF transient responses in retinal amacrine cells and ganglion cells are mediated exclusively by HBCs. Our results suggests that this view needs revision as AMPA receptors in subpopulations of DBCs are likely to significantly contribute to the DNQX-sensitive OFF transient responses in light-adapted third- and higher-order visual neurons. PMID:22842089

  10. Inhibition of pattern recognition receptor-mediated inflammation by bioactive phytochemicals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence reveals that pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins (NODs) mediate both infection-induced and sterile inflammation by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and endogenous molecules...

  11. DEPENDENCE OF PPAR LIGAND-INDUCED MAPK SIGNALING ON EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR TRANSACTIVATION HEPARIN-BINDING EGF CLEAVAGE MEDIATES ZINC-INDUCED EGF RECEPTOR PHOSPHORYLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that function as ligand-activated transcription factors regulating lipid metabolism and homeostasis. In addition to their ability to regulate PPAR-mediated gene transcription, PPARalpha and gamma li...

  12. IgM-Dependent Phagocytosis in Microglia Is Mediated by Complement Receptor 3, Not Fcα/μ Receptor.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Jonathan R; Quan, Yi; Hanson, Josiah F; Colonna, Lucrezia; Iorga, Michael; Honda, Shin-ichiro; Shibuya, Kazuko; Shibuya, Akira; Elkon, Keith B; Möller, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Microglia play an important role in receptor-mediated phagocytosis in the CNS. In brain abscess and other CNS infections, invading bacteria undergo opsonization with Igs or complement. Microglia recognize these opsonized pathogens by Fc or complement receptors triggering phagocytosis. In this study, we investigated the role of Fcα/μR, the less-studied receptor for IgM and IgA, in microglial phagocytosis. We showed that primary microglia, as well as N9 microglial cells, express Fcα/μR. We also showed that anti-Staphylococcus aureus IgM markedly increased the rate of microglial S. aureus phagocytosis. To unequivocally test the role of Fcα/μR in IgM-mediated phagocytosis, we performed experiments in microglia from Fcα/μR(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, we found that IgM-dependent phagocytosis of S. aureus was similar in microglia derived from wild-type or Fcα/μR(-/-) mice. We hypothesized that IgM-dependent activation of complement receptors might contribute to the IgM-mediated increase in phagocytosis. To test this, we used immunologic and genetic inactivation of complement receptor 3 components (CD11b and CD18) as well as C3. IgM-, but not IgG-mediated phagocytosis of S. aureus was reduced in wild-type microglia and macrophages following preincubation with an anti-CD11b blocking Ab. IgM-dependent phagocytosis of S. aureus was also reduced in microglia derived from CD18(-/-) and C3(-/-) mice. Taken together, our findings implicate complement receptor 3 and C3, but not Fcα/μR, in IgM-mediated phagocytosis of S. aureus by microglia.

  13. Glutamate mediates the function of melanocortin receptor 4 on sim1 neurons in body weight regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is a well-established mediator of body weight homeostasis. However, the neurotransmitter(s) that mediate MC4R function remain largely unknown; as a result, little is known about the second-order neurons of the MC4R neural pathway. Single-minded 1 (Sim1)-expressing ...

  14. Steroid receptor coactivator-1 mediates estrogenic actions to prevent body weight gain in female mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) expressed by hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin and steroidogenic factor-1 neurons largely mediates the antiobesity effects of estrogens in females. However, the critical molecular events that are coupled to ERalpha and mediate estrogenic effects on energy balance rem...

  15. Melanocortin MC(4) receptor-mediated feeding and grooming in rodents.

    PubMed

    Mul, Joram D; Spruijt, Berry M; Brakkee, Jan H; Adan, Roger A H

    2013-11-01

    Decades ago it was recognized that the pharmacological profile of melanocortin ligands that stimulated grooming behavior in rats was strikingly similar to that of Xenopus laevis melanophore pigment dispersion. After cloning of the melanocortin MC1 receptor, expressed in melanocytes, and the melanocortin MC4 receptor, expressed mainly in brain, the pharmacological profiles of these receptors appeared to be very similar and it was demonstrated that these receptors mediate melanocortin-induced pigmentation and grooming respectively. Grooming is a low priority behavior that is concerned with care of body surface. Activation of central melanocortin MC4 receptors is also associated with meal termination, and continued postprandial stimulation of melanocortin MC4 receptors may stimulate natural postprandial grooming behavior as part of the behavioral satiety sequence. Indeed, melanocortins fail to suppress food intake or induce grooming behavior in melanocortin MC4 receptor-deficient rats. This review will focus on how melanocortins affect grooming behavior through the melanocortin MC4 receptor, and how melanocortin MC4 receptors mediate feeding behavior. This review also illustrates how melanocortins were the most likely candidates to mediate grooming and feeding based on the natural behaviors they induced.

  16. Menthol enhances phasic and tonic GABAA receptor-mediated currents in midbrain periaqueductal grey neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Benjamin K; Karim, Shafinaz; Goodchild, Ann K; Vaughan, Christopher W; Drew, Geoffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Menthol, a naturally occurring compound in the essential oil of mint leaves, is used for its medicinal, sensory and fragrant properties. Menthol acts via transient receptor potential (TRPM8 and TRPA1) channels and as a positive allosteric modulator of recombinant GABAA receptors. Here, we examined the actions of menthol on GABAA receptor-mediated currents in intact midbrain slices. Experimental Approach Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings were made from periaqueductal grey (PAG) neurons in midbrain slices from rats to determine the effects of menthol on GABAA receptor-mediated phasic IPSCs and tonic currents. Key Results Menthol (150–750 μM) produced a concentration-dependent prolongation of spontaneous GABAA receptor-mediated IPSCs, but not non-NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs throughout the PAG. Menthol actions were unaffected by TRPM8 and TRPA1 antagonists, tetrodotoxin and the benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil. Menthol also enhanced a tonic current, which was sensitive to the GABAA receptor antagonists, picrotoxin (100 μM), bicuculline (30 μM) and Zn2+ (100 μM), but unaffected by gabazine (10 μM) and a GABAC receptor antagonist, 1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid hydrate (TPMPA; 50 μM). In addition, menthol potentiated currents induced by the extrasynaptic GABAA receptor agonist THIP/gaboxadol (10 μM). Conclusions and Implications These results suggest that menthol positively modulates both synaptic and extrasynaptic populations of GABAA receptors in native PAG neurons. The development of agents that potentiate GABAA-mediated tonic currents and phasic IPSCs in a manner similar to menthol could provide a basis for novel GABAA-related pharmacotherapies. PMID:24460753

  17. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediates benzene-induced hematotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Byung-Il; Hirabayashi, Yoko; Kawasaki, Yasushi; Kodama, Yukio; Kaneko, Toyozo; Kanno, Jun; Kim, Dae-Yong; Fujii-Kuriyama, Yoshiaki; Inoue, Tohru

    2002-11-01

    Benzene can induce hematotoxicity and leukemia in humans and mice. Since a review of the literature shows that the CYP2E1 knockout mouse is not known to possess any benzene toxicity, the metabolism of benzene by CYP2E1 in the liver is regarded to be prerequisite for its cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, although the mechanism is not fully understood yet. Because it was found some years ago that benzene was also a substrate for CYP1A1, we investigated the involvement of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in benzene hematotoxicity using AhR wild-type (AhR(+/+)), heterozygous (AhR(+/-)), and homozygous (AhR(-/-)) male mice. Interestingly, following a 2-week inhalation of 300 ppm benzene (a potent dose for leukemogenicity), no hematotoxicity was induced in AhR(-/-) mice. Further, there were no changes in cellularity of peripheral blood and bone marrow (BM), nor in levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units in BM. This lack of hematotoxicity was associated with the lack of p21 overexpression, which was regularly seen in the wild-type mice following benzene inhalation. Combined treatment with two major benzene metabolites, phenol and hydroquinone, induced hemopoietic toxicity, although it was not known whether this happened due to a surprising lack of expression of CYP2E1 by AhR knockout, or due to a lack of other AhR-mediated CYP enzymes, including 1A1 (i.e., a possible alternative pathway of benzene metabolism). The former possibility, evaluated in the present study, failed to show a significant relationship between AhR and the expression of CYP2E1. Furthermore, a subsequent evaluation of AhR expression after benzene inhalation tended to show higher but less significant expression in the liver, and none in the BM, compared with sham control. Although this study failed to identify the more likely of the above-mentioned two possibilities, the study using AhR knockout mice on benzene inhalation presents the unique possibility that the benzene toxicity may be

  18. Mechanisms of Biased β-Arrestin-Mediated Signaling Downstream from the Cannabinoid 1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Peraza, Francheska; Ahn, Kwang H.; Nogueras-Ortiz, Carlos; Mungrue, Imran N.; Mackie, Ken; Kendall, Debra A.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of G protein-coupled receptors results in multiple waves of signaling that are mediated by heterotrimeric G proteins and the scaffolding proteins β-arrestin 1/2. Ligands can elicit full or subsets of cellular responses, a concept defined as ligand bias or functional selectivity. However, our current understanding of β-arrestin-mediated signaling is still very limited. Here we provide a comprehensive view of β-arrestin-mediated signaling from the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R). By using a signaling biased receptor, we define the cascades, specific receptor kinases, and molecular mechanism underlying β-arrestin-mediated signaling: We identify the interaction kinetics of CB1R and β-arrestin 1 during their endocytic trafficking as directly proportional to its efficacy. Finally, we demonstrate that signaling results in the control of genes clustered around prosurvival and proapoptotic functions among others. Together, these studies constitute a comprehensive description of β-arrestin-mediated signaling from CB1Rs and suggest modulation of receptor endocytic trafficking as a therapeutic approach to control β-arrestin-mediated signaling. PMID:27009233

  19. MFR, a Putative Receptor Mediating the Fusion of Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Saginario, Charles; Sterling, Hyacinth; Beckers, Cornelius; Kobayashi, Ruji; Solimena, Michele; Ullu, Elisabetta; Vignery, Agnès

    1998-01-01

    We had previously identified a macrophage surface protein whose expression is highly induced, transient, and specific, as it is restricted to actively fusing macrophages in vitro and in vivo. This protein is recognized by monoclonal antibodies that block macrophage fusion. We have now purified this protein and cloned its corresponding cDNA. This protein belongs to the superfamily of immunoglobulins and is similar to immune antigen receptors such as the T-cell receptor, B-cell receptor, and viral receptors such as CD4. We have therefore named this protein macrophage fusion receptor (MFR). We show that the extracellular domain of MFR prevents fusion of macrophages in vitro and therefore propose that MFR belongs to the fusion machinery of macrophages. MFR is identical to SHPS-1 and BIT and is a homologue of P84, SIRPα, and MyD-1, all of which have been recently cloned and implicated in cell signaling and cell-cell interaction events. PMID:9774638

  20. Nicotine impairs cyclooxygenase-2-dependent kinin-receptor-mediated murine airway relaxations

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yuan Cardell, Lars-Olaf

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: Cigarette smoke induces local inflammation and airway hyperreactivity. In asthmatics, it worsens the symptoms and increases the risk for exacerbation. The present study investigates the effects of nicotine on airway relaxations in isolated murine tracheal segments. Methods: Segments were cultured for 24 h in the presence of vehicle, nicotine (10 μM) and/or dexamethasone (1 μM). Airway relaxations were assessed in myographs after pre-contraction with carbachol (1 μM). Kinin receptors, cyclooxygenase (COX) and inflammatory mediator expressions were assessed by real-time PCR and confocal-microscopy-based immunohistochemistry. Results: The organ culture procedure markedly increased bradykinin- (selective B{sub 2} receptor agonist) and des-Arg{sup 9}-bradykinin- (selective B{sub 1} receptor agonist) induced relaxations, and slightly increased relaxation induced by isoprenaline, but not that induced by PGE{sub 2}. The kinin receptor mediated relaxations were epithelium-, COX-2- and EP2-receptor-dependent and accompanied by drastically enhanced mRNA levels of kinin receptors, as well as inflammatory mediators MCP-1 and iNOS. Increase in COX-2 and mPGES-1 was verified both at mRNA and protein levels. Nicotine selectively suppressed the organ-culture-enhanced relaxations induced by des-Arg{sup 9}-bradykinin and bradykinin, at the same time reducing mPGES-1 mRNA and protein expressions. α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitors α-bungarotoxin and MG624 both blocked the nicotine effects on kinin B{sub 2} receptors, but not those on B{sub 1}. Dexamethasone completely abolished kinin-induced relaxations. Conclusion: It is tempting to conclude that a local inflammatory process per se could have a bronchoprotective component by increasing COX-2 mediated airway relaxations and that nicotine could impede this safety mechanism. Dexamethasone further reduced airway inflammation together with relaxations. This might contribute to the steroid resistance seen in

  1. Drosophila Lipophorin Receptors Recruit the Lipoprotein LTP to the Plasma Membrane to Mediate Lipid Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Míriam; Mejía-Morales, John E.; Culi, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    Lipophorin, the main Drosophila lipoprotein, circulates in the hemolymph transporting lipids between organs following routes that must adapt to changing physiological requirements. Lipophorin receptors expressed in developmentally dynamic patterns in tissues such as imaginal discs, oenocytes and ovaries control the timing and tissular distribution of lipid uptake. Using an affinity purification strategy, we identified a novel ligand for the lipophorin receptors, the circulating lipoprotein Lipid Transfer Particle (LTP). We show that specific isoforms of the lipophorin receptors mediate the extracellular accumulation of LTP in imaginal discs and ovaries. The interaction requires the LA-1 module in the lipophorin receptors and is strengthened by a contiguous region of 16 conserved amino acids. Lipophorin receptor variants that do not interact with LTP cannot mediate lipid uptake, revealing an essential role of LTP in the process. In addition, we show that lipophorin associates with the lipophorin receptors and with the extracellular matrix through weak interactions. However, during lipophorin receptor-mediated lipid uptake, LTP is required for a transient stabilization of lipophorin in the basolateral plasma membrane of imaginal disc cells. Together, our data suggests a molecular mechanism by which the lipophorin receptors tether LTP to the plasma membrane in lipid acceptor tissues. LTP would interact with lipophorin particles adsorbed to the extracellular matrix and with the plasma membrane, catalyzing the exchange of lipids between them. PMID:26121667

  2. AMPA receptor-mediated miniature synaptic calcium transients in GluR2 null mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sabrina; Jia, Zhengping; Roder, John; Murphy, Timothy H

    2002-07-01

    AMPA-type glutamate receptors are normally Ca(2+) impermeable due to the expression of the GluR2 receptor subunit. By using GluR2 null mice we were able to detect miniature synaptic Ca(2+) transients (MSCTs) associated with AMPA-type receptor-mediated miniature synaptic currents at single synapses in primary cortical cultures. MSCTs and associated Ca(2+) transients were monitored under conditions that isolated responses mediated by AMPA or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. As expected, addition of the antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxalene-2,3-dione (CNQX, 3 microM) blocked the AMPA receptor-mediated MSCTs. Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels did not contribute to AMPA MSCTs because CdCl(2) (0.1-0.2 mM) did not significantly alter the frequency or the amplitude of the MSCTs. The amplitude of AMPA MSCTs appeared to be regulated independently from event frequency since the two measures were not correlated (R = 0.023). Synapses were identified that only expressed MSCTs attributed to either NMDA or AMPA receptors. At synapses with only NMDA responses, MSCT amplitude was significantly lower (by 40%) than synapses expressing both NMDA and AMPA responses. At synapses that showed MSCTs mediated by both AMPA and NMDA receptors, the amplitude of the transients in each condition was positively correlated (R = 0.94). Our results suggest that when AMPA and NMDA receptors are co-expressed at synapses, mechanisms exist to ensure proportional scaling of each receptor type that are distinct from the presynaptic factors controlling the frequency of miniature release. PMID:12091530

  3. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-induced CCR2B receptor desensitization mediated by the G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Aragay, A. M.; Mellado, M.; Frade, J. M. R.; Martin, A. M.; Jimenez-Sainz, M. C.; Martinez-A, C.; Mayor, F.

    1998-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is a member of the chemokine cytokine family, whose physiological function is mediated by binding to the CCR2 and CCR4 receptors, which are members of the G protein-coupled receptor family. MCP-1 plays a critical role in both activation and migration of leukocytes. Rapid chemokine receptor desensitization is very likely essential for accurate chemotaxis. In this report, we show that MCP-1 binding to the CCR2 receptor in Mono Mac 1 cells promotes the rapid desensitization of MCP-1-induced calcium flux responses. This desensitization correlates with the Ser/Thr phosphorylation of the receptor and with the transient translocation of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2, also called β-adrenergic kinase 1 or βARK1) to the membrane. We also demonstrate that GRK2 and the uncoupling protein β-arrestin associate with the receptor, forming a macromolecular complex shortly after MCP-1 binding. Calcium flux responses to MCP-1 in HEK293 cells expressing the CCR2B receptor were also markedly reduced upon cotransfection with GRK2 or the homologous kinase GRK3. Nevertheless, expression of the GRK2 dominant-negative mutant βARK-K220R did not affect the initial calcium response, but favored receptor response to a subsequent challenge by agonists. The modulation of the CCR2B receptor by GRK2 suggests an important role for this kinase in the regulation of monocyte and lymphocyte response to chemokines. PMID:9501202

  4. EphB3 receptors function as dependence receptors to mediate oligodendrocyte cell death following contusive spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Tsenkina, Y; Ricard, J; Runko, E; Quiala- Acosta, M M; Mier, J; Liebl, D J

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that EphB3 receptors mediate oligodendrocyte (OL) cell death in the injured spinal cord through dependence receptor mechanism. OLs in the adult spinal cord express EphB3 as well as other members of the Eph receptor family. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with tissue damage, cellular loss and disturbances in EphB3-ephrinB3 protein balance acutely (days) after the initial impact creating an environment for a dependence receptor-mediated cell death to occur. Genetic ablation of EphB3 promotes OL survival associated with increased expression of myelin basic protein and improved locomotor function in mice after SCI. Moreover, administration of its ephrinB3 ligand to the spinal cord after injury also promotes OL survival. Our in vivo findings are supported by in vitro studies showing that ephrinB3 administration promotes the survival of both oligodendroglial progenitor cells and mature OLs cultured under pro-apoptotic conditions. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates a novel dependence receptor role of EphB3 in OL cell death after SCI, and supports further development of ephrinB3-based therapies to promote recovery. PMID:26469970

  5. Benzodiazepine receptor ligand influences on acquisition: suggestion of an endogenous modulatory mechanism mediated by benzodiazepine receptors.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, I; Pereira, M E; Medina, J H

    1990-07-01

    In rats, pretraining ip administration of the central benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, flumazenil (5.0 mg/kg), or of the inverse agonist, n-butyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (BCCB) (0.2 or 0.5 mg/kg), facilitated retention of a step-down inhibitory avoidance task; the central agonists, clonazepam and diazepam (0.4 or 1.0 mg/kg), had an opposite effect, and the peripheral agonist, 4'-chlordiazepam (1.25 or 6.25 mg/kg), was without effect. Pre- but not post-training flumazenil (2.0 mg/kg) blocked the effect of BCCB (0.5 mg/kg), clonazepam (1.0 mg/kg), or diazepam (1.0 mg/kg) given also pretraining. The post-training administration of all of these drugs had no effect on retention of the avoidance task. Flumazenil (5.0 mg/kg) and BCCB (0.5 mg/kg), given before training, enhanced retention test performance of habituation to a buzzer but not of habituation to an open field. In the three tasks studied, none of the drugs used had any appreciable effect on training session parameters. These results suggest that there is an endogenous mechanism mediated by benzodiazepine agonists, sensitive to inverse agonists, that normally down-regulates acquisition of certain behaviors; this mechanism becomes activated only when the tasks involve or occur with a certain degree of stress or anxiety (i.e., inhibitory avoidance or habituation to the buzzer) and not in less stressful or anxiogenic tasks (i.e., habituation to an open field).

  6. The Ionotropic Receptors IR21a and IR25a mediate cool sensing in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Lina; Klein, Mason; Svec, Kathryn V; Budelli, Gonzalo; Chang, Elaine C; Ferrer, Anggie J; Benton, Richard; Samuel, Aravinthan DT; Garrity, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Animals rely on highly sensitive thermoreceptors to seek out optimal temperatures, but the molecular mechanisms of thermosensing are not well understood. The Dorsal Organ Cool Cells (DOCCs) of the Drosophila larva are a set of exceptionally thermosensitive neurons critical for larval cool avoidance. Here, we show that DOCC cool-sensing is mediated by Ionotropic Receptors (IRs), a family of sensory receptors widely studied in invertebrate chemical sensing. We find that two IRs, IR21a and IR25a, are required to mediate DOCC responses to cooling and are required for cool avoidance behavior. Furthermore, we find that ectopic expression of IR21a can confer cool-responsiveness in an Ir25a-dependent manner, suggesting an instructive role for IR21a in thermosensing. Together, these data show that IR family receptors can function together to mediate thermosensation of exquisite sensitivity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13254.001 PMID:27126188

  7. G-1-activated membrane estrogen receptors mediate increased contractility of the human myometrium.

    PubMed

    Maiti, K; Paul, J W; Read, M; Chan, E C; Riley, S C; Nahar, P; Smith, R

    2011-06-01

    Estrogens are key mediators of increased uterine contractility at labor. We sought to determine whether membrane-associated estrogen receptors, such as the recently described seven-transmembrane receptor G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), mediated some of this effect. Using human myometrium obtained at term cesarean section before or after the onset of labor, we demonstrated the presence of GPR30 mRNA and protein using quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. GPR30 receptor was localized to the cell membrane and often colocalized with calveolin-1. Using the specific estrogen membrane receptor agonist G-1 and myometrial explants, we showed that membrane receptor activation led to phosphorylation of MAPK and the actin-modifying small heat shock protein 27. Using myometrial strips incubated with G-1 or vehicle we demonstrated that estrogen membrane receptor activation increased the myometrial contractile response to oxytocin. These data suggest that activation of the plasma membrane estrogen receptor GPR30 likely participates in the physiology of the human myometrium during pregnancy and identifies it as a potential target to modify uterine activity. PMID:21427217

  8. Corticotropin-releasing factor CRF1, but not CRF2, receptors mediate anxiogenic-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, S C; Lapsansky, J; Lovenberg, T W; De Souza, E B; Chalmers, D T

    1997-07-23

    The recent identification and differential localization in brain of three binding sites for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-like peptides (CRF1 and CRF2 receptors as well as CRF-binding protein) suggest the existence of functionally distinct neurobiological systems which mediate CRF activation. For instance, evidence from receptor knockdown and pharmacological studies suggest involvement of the CRF1 receptor in anxiogenic-like behavior and the CRF-binding protein in learning and memory processes. The present studies examined the potential functional significance of the CRF2 receptor in relation to the CRF1 receptor using two animal models of anxiety and endocrine reactivity to a stressor. CRF1 and CRF2 receptor knockdown was achieved and confirmed autoradiographically within brain regions relevant to behavioral reactivity to stressors by chronic, central administration of antisense oligonucleotides. CRF1 but not CRF2, know down produced a significant anxiolytic-like effect in the Defensive Withdrawal relative to vehicle-treated and two missense oligonucleotide negative control groups. In contrast, neither antisense treatment altered endocrine or behavioral reactivity to a swim stressor. Thus, the present data support the reported role of CRF1 receptors in the mediation of anxiogenic-like behavior and suggest a functionally distinct for role for CRF2 receptors in brain.

  9. Testin, a novel binding partner of the calcium-sensing receptor, enhances receptor-mediated Rho-kinase signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Magno, Aaron L.; Ingley, Evan; Brown, Suzanne J.; Conigrave, Arthur D.; Ratajczak, Thomas; Ward, Bryan K.

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} A yeast two-hybrid screen revealed testin bound to the calcium-sensing receptor. {yields} The second zinc finger of LIM domain 1 of testin is critical for interaction. {yields} Testin bound to a region of the receptor tail important for cell signalling. {yields} Testin and receptor interaction was confirmed in mammalian (HEK293) cells. {yields} Overexpression of testin enhanced receptor-mediated Rho signalling in HEK293 cells. -- Abstract: The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) plays an integral role in calcium homeostasis and the regulation of other cellular functions including cell proliferation and cytoskeletal organisation. The multifunctional nature of the CaR is manifested through ligand-dependent stimulation of different signalling pathways that are also regulated by partner binding proteins. Following a yeast two-hybrid library screen using the intracellular tail of the CaR as bait, we identified several novel binding partners including the focal adhesion protein, testin. Testin has not previously been shown to interact with cell surface receptors. The sites of interaction between the CaR and testin were mapped to the membrane proximal region of the receptor tail and the second zinc-finger of LIM domain 1 of testin, the integrity of which was found to be critical for the CaR-testin interaction. The CaR-testin association was confirmed in HEK293 cells by coimmunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy studies. Ectopic expression of testin in HEK293 cells stably expressing the CaR enhanced CaR-stimulated Rho activity but had no effect on CaR-stimulated ERK signalling. These results suggest an interplay between the CaR and testin in the regulation of CaR-mediated Rho signalling with possible effects on the cytoskeleton.

  10. Enhancement of steroid receptor-mediated transcription for the development of highly responsive bioassays.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, Philippe; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Martial, Joseph A; Muller, Marc

    2005-06-01

    We have previously generated several transformed human mammary cell lines for the detection of steroid receptor-mediated activities and used these cell lines to detect and characterize steroid hormone (ant)agonistic compounds. In this report, we describe the specific optimization procedures used to enhance receptor-mediated transcription through the human glucocorticoid, progesterone and androgen receptors, respectively. Sodium arsenite-induced chemical stress leads to a substantial and specific increase in the glucocorticoid receptor-mediated transcription, resulting in maximal stimulations of more than 2000-fold by the agonist dexamethasone. Similarly, a combined treatment with forskolin (an activator of adenylate cyclase) and trichostatin A (an inhibitor of histone deacetylases) leads to a synergistic enhancement of progesterone or androgen stimulation, resulting in a maximal induction of more than 200-fold or about 100-fold, respectively. The enhanced responses to specific steroids are mediated by the corresponding nuclear receptor. We show that by using these enhanced transcriptional stimulation protocols, it is possible to detect lower amounts of steroid hormones without substantially affecting the relative biological activities of various agonists. Finally, the application of these enhanced reporter cell assays to real biological samples from meat-producing animals is evaluated, and some validation parameters are presented.

  11. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase mediated signaling in lobster olfactory receptor neurons.

    PubMed

    Corey, Elizabeth A; Bobkov, Yuriy; Pezier, Adeline; Ache, Barry W

    2010-04-01

    In vertebrates and some invertebrates, odorant molecules bind to G protein-coupled receptors on olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) to initiate signal transduction. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity has been implicated physiologically in olfactory signal transduction, suggesting a potential role for a G protein-coupled receptor-activated class I PI3K. Using isoform-specific antibodies, we identified a protein in the olfactory signal transduction compartment of lobster ORNs that is antigenically similar to mammalian PI3Kgamma and cloned a gene for a PI3K with amino acid homology with PI3Kbeta. The lobster olfactory PI3K co-immunoprecipitates with the G protein alpha and beta subunits, and an odorant-evoked increase in phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate can be detected in the signal transduction compartment of the ORNs. PI3Kgamma and beta isoform-specific inhibitors reduce the odorant-evoked output of lobster ORNs in vivo. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that PI3K is indeed activated by odorant receptors in lobster ORNs and further support the potential involvement of G protein activated PI3K signaling in olfactory transduction.

  12. Glucocorticoid receptor-mediated induction of glutamine synthetase in skeletal muscle cells in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, Stephen R.; Thomas, John W.; Banner, Carl; Vitkovic, Ljubisa; Konagaya, Masaaki

    1987-01-01

    The regulation by glucocorticoids of glutamine synthetase in L6 muscle cells in culture is studied. Glutamine synthetase activity was strikingly enhanced by dexamethasone. The dexamethasone-mediated induction of glutamine synthetase activity was blocked by RU38486, a glucocorticoid antagonist, indicating the involvement of intracellular glucocorticoid receptors in the induction process. RU38486 alone was without effect. Northern blot analysis revealed that dexamethasone-mediated enhancement of glutamine synthetase activity involves increased levels of glutamine synthetase mRNA. Glucocorticoids regulate the expression of glutamine synthetase mRNA in cultured muscle cells via interaction with intracellular receptors. Such regulation may be relevant to control of glutamine production by muscle.

  13. Nucleus incertus Orexin2 receptors mediate alcohol seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Kastman, Hanna E; Blasiak, Anna; Walker, Leigh; Siwiec, Marcin; Krstew, Elena V; Gundlach, Andrew L; Lawrence, Andrew J

    2016-11-01

    Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder and a major global health problem. Stress is a key precipitant of relapse in human alcoholics and in animal models of alcohol seeking. The brainstem nucleus incertus (NI) contains a population of relaxin-3 neurons that are highly responsive to psychological stressors; and the ascending NI relaxin-3/RXFP3 signalling system is implicated in stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. The NI receives orexinergic innervation and expresses orexin1 (OX1) and orexin2 (OX2) receptor mRNA. In alcohol-preferring (iP) rats, we examined the impact of yohimbine-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking on orexin neuronal activation, and the effect of bilateral injections into NI of the OX1 receptor antagonist, SB-334867 (n = 16) or the OX2 receptor antagonist, TCS-OX2-29 (n = 8) on stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. We also assessed the effects of orexin-A on NI neuronal activity and the involvement of OX1 and OX2 receptors using whole cell patch-clamp recordings in rat brain slices. Yohimbine-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking activated orexin neurons. Bilateral NI injections of TCS-OX2-29 attenuated yohimbine-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. In contrast, intra-NI injection of SB-334867 had no significant effect. In line with these data, orexin-A (600 nM) depolarized a majority of NI neurons recorded in coronal brain slices (18/28 cells), effects prevented by bath application of TCS-OX2-29 (10 μM), but not SB-334867 (10 μM). These data suggest an excitatory orexinergic input to NI contributes to yohimbine-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking, predominantly via OX2 receptor signalling. PMID:27395787

  14. Studies of the cAMP mediated aggregation in Dictyostelium discoideum: receptor mediated activation of the adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Theibert, W.E.A.B.

    1985-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum, a eukaryotic amoeba of the cellular slime mold family, provides an interesting paradigm in developmental biology. During development, hundreds of thousands of cells aggregate to form a multicellular aggregate. Aggregation is mediated by chemotaxis and chemical signaling. Waves of adenosine 3'-5' cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) propagate through the monolayer and provide transient gradients for chemotaxis. The author has used a reversible inhibitor of the cAMP signaling response to demonstrate that adaptation to cAMP is independent of the activation of the adenylate cyclase and therefore is not caused by the rise in intracellular cAMP. Next, it is shown that adenosine inhibits the cAMP signaling response. Inhibition is rapid, reversible, and depends on the cAMP stimulus concentration. Then the specificity of the cAMP receptors which mediates signaling is determined and compared with the receptors which mediate chemotaxis, the cGMP response, and cAMP binding antagonism. The cAMP surface receptor has been identified by photoaffinity labeling intact cells with (/sup 32/P)-8-N/sub 3/-cAMP using an ammonium sulfate binding stabilization technique. The photoactivated ligand specifically labels a polypeptide, localized to the membrane fraction, which migrates as a closely spaced doublet on SDS Page.

  15. Dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton mediates receptor cross talk: An emerging concept in tuning receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, Pieta K.; Batista, Facundo D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence implicates the actin cytoskeleton in the control of receptor signaling. This may be of particular importance in the context of immune receptors, such as the B cell receptor, where dysregulated signaling can result in autoimmunity and malignancy. Here, we discuss the role of the actin cytoskeleton in controlling receptor compartmentalization, dynamics, and clustering as a means to regulate receptor signaling through controlling the interactions with protein partners. We propose that the actin cytoskeleton is a point of integration for receptor cross talk through modulation of protein dynamics and clustering. We discuss the implication of this cross talk via the cytoskeleton for both ligand-induced and low-level constitutive (tonic) signaling necessary for immune cell survival. PMID:26833785

  16. Comparison of Lentiviral and Sleeping Beauty Mediated αβ T Cell Receptor Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Field, Anne-Christine; Vink, Conrad; Gabriel, Richard; Al-Subki, Roua; Schmidt, Manfred; Goulden, Nicholas; Stauss, Hans; Thrasher, Adrian; Morris, Emma; Qasim, Waseem

    2013-01-01

    Transfer of tumour antigen-specific receptors to T cells requires efficient delivery and integration of transgenes, and currently most clinical studies are using gamma retroviral or lentiviral systems. Whilst important proof-of-principle data has been generated for both chimeric antigen receptors and αβ T cell receptors, the current platforms are costly, time-consuming and relatively inflexible. Alternative, more cost-effective, Sleeping Beauty transposon-based plasmid systems could offer a pathway to accelerated clinical testing of a more diverse repertoire of recombinant high affinity T cell receptors. Nucleofection of hyperactive SB100X transposase-mediated stable transposition of an optimised murine-human chimeric T cell receptor specific for Wilm’s tumour antigen from a Sleeping Beauty transposon plasmid. Whilst transfer efficiency was lower than that mediated by lentiviral transduction, cells could be readily enriched and expanded, and mediated effective target cells lysis in vitro and in vivo. Integration sites of transposed TCR genes in primary T cells were almost randomly distributed, contrasting the predilection of lentiviral vectors for transcriptionally active sites. The results support exploitation of the Sleeping Beauty plasmid based system as a flexible and adaptable platform for accelerated, early-phase assessment of T cell receptor gene therapies. PMID:23840834

  17. κ-Opioid receptors within the nucleus accumbens shell mediate pair bond maintenance.

    PubMed

    Resendez, Shanna L; Kuhnmuench, Morgan; Krzywosinski, Tarin; Aragona, Brandon J

    2012-05-16

    The prairie vole is a socially monogamous species in which breeder pairs typically show strong and selective pair bonds. The establishment of a pair bond is associated with a behavioral transition from general affiliation to aggressive rejection of novel conspecifics. This "selective aggression" is indicative of mate guarding that is necessary to maintain the initial pair bond. In the laboratory, the neurobiology of this behavior is studied using resident-intruder testing. Although it is well established that social behaviors in other species are mediated by endogenous opioid systems, opiate regulation of pair bond maintenance has never been studied. Here, we used resident-intruder testing to determine whether endogenous opioids within brain motivational circuitry mediate selective aggression in prairie voles. We first show that peripheral blockade of κ-opioid receptors with the antagonist norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI; 100 mg/kg), but not with the preferential μ-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (1, 10, or 30 mg/kg), decreased selective aggression in males. We then provide the first comprehensive characterization of κ- and μ-opioid receptors in the prairie vole brain. Finally, we demonstrate that blockade of κ-opioid receptors (500 ng nor-BNI) within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell abolishes selective aggression in both sexes, but blockade of these receptors within the NAc core enhances this behavior specifically in females. Blockade of κ-opioid receptors within the ventral pallidum or μ-opioid receptors with the specific μ-opioid receptor antagonist H-D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-PenThr-NH2 (1 ng CTAP) within the NAc shell had no effect in either sex. Thus, κ-opioid receptors within the NAc shell mediate aversive social motivation that is critical for pair bond maintenance. PMID:22593047

  18. A(2B) receptors mediate antimitogenesis in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Dubey, R K; Gillespie, D G; Shue, H; Jackson, E K

    2000-01-01

    Adenosine inhibits growth of vascular smooth muscle cells. The goals of this study were to determine which adenosine receptor subtype mediates the antimitogenic effects of adenosine and to investigate the signal transduction mechanisms involved. In rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells, platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) (25 ng/mL) stimulated DNA synthesis ([(3)H]thymidine incorporation), cellular proliferation (cell number), collagen synthesis ([(3)H]proline incorporation), total protein synthesis ([(3)H]leucine incorporation), and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity. The adenosine receptor agonists 2-chloroadenosine and 5'-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine, but not N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine or CGS21680, inhibited the growth effects of PDGF-BB, an agonist profile consistent with an A(2B) receptor-mediated effect. The adenosine receptor antagonists KF17837 and 1,3-dipropyl-8-p-sulfophenylxanthine, but not 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxanthine, blocked the growth-inhibitory effects of 2-chloroadenosine and 5'-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine, an antagonist profile consistent with an A(2) receptor-mediated effect. Antisense, but not sense or scrambled, oligonucleotides to the A(2B) receptor stimulated basal and PDGF-induced DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, and MAP kinase activity. Moreover, the growth-inhibitory effects of 2-chloroadenosine, 5'-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine, and erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine plus iodotubericidin (inhibitors of adenosine deaminase and adenosine kinase, respectively) were abolished by antisense, but not scrambled or sense, oligonucleotides to the A(2B) receptor. Our findings strongly support the hypothesis that adenosine causes inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell growth by activating A(2B) receptors coupled to inhibition of MAP kinase activity. Pharmacological or molecular biological activation of A(2B) receptors may prevent vascular remodeling associated with hypertension, atherosclerosis, and restenosis

  19. Receptor and non-receptor mediated formation of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in neutrophils of intensive care patients.

    PubMed

    Manhart, N; Oismüller, C; Lassnig, A; Spittler, A; Sautner, T; Götzinger, P; Függer, R; Roth, E

    1998-11-27

    Generation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) has been implicated in tissue damage in a variety of disease states including sepsis and trauma. On the other hand, generation of ROI in polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) presents a crucial element in the defence of the host against invading microorganisms. In the present study we investigated the generation of superoxide anions (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by neutrophils (PMN)5 of 17 critically ill patients treated at a intensive care unit (ICU) after polytrauma (n = 6), heart operation (n = 6) or during septic shock (n = 5) using flow cytometry. O2- production of PMN from ICU patients was significantly lower (p < 0.01) than that in healthy volunteers (HV) during non-receptor mediated stimulation with phorbol-myristate-acetate (PMA) but higher (p < 0.001) during receptor mediated stimulation with formylmethionine-leucine-phenylalanine (FMLP). H2O2 generation of PMN from ICU patients was increased after stimulation with FMLP (p < 0.01) and remained unchanged after stimulation with PMA. Patients in septic shock had lower O2(-)-generation of PMN than did injured patients and patients after heart operations. We conclude that receptor mediated formation of O2- and H2O2 is stimulated in ICU patients. However, in patients in septic shock O2(-)-generation decreases, which potentially might contribute to the immunoparalysis present in septic shock.

  20. Thyroid hormone receptor can modulate retinoic acid-mediated axis formation in frog embryogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Banker, D E; Eisenman, R N

    1993-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptor acts as a hormone-dependent transcriptional transactivator and as a transcriptional repressor in the absence of thyroid hormone. Specifically, thyroid hormone receptor can repress retinoic acid-induced gene expression through interactions with retinoic acid receptor. (Retinoic acid is a potent teratogen in the frog Xenopus laevis, acting at early embryonic stages to interfere with the formation of anterior structures. Endogenous retinoic acid is thought to act in normal anterior-posterior axis formation.) We have previously shown that thyroid hormone receptor RNA (alpha isotype) is expressed and polysome-associated during Xenopus embryogenesis preceding thyroid gland maturation and endogenous thyroid hormone production (D. E. Banker, J. Bigler, and R. N. Eisenman, Mol. Cell. Biol. 11:5079-5089, 1991). To determine whether thyroid hormone receptor might influence the effects of retinoic acid in early frog development, we have examined the results of ectopic thyroid hormone receptor expression on retinoic acid teratogenesis. We demonstrate that microinjections of full-length thyroid hormone receptor RNA protect injected embryos from retinoic acid teratogenesis. DNA binding is apparently essential to this protective function, as truncated thyroid hormone receptors, lacking DNA-binding domains but including hormone-binding and dimerization domains, do not protect from retinoic acid. We have shown that microinjections of these dominant-interfering thyroid hormone receptors, as well as anti-thyroid hormone receptor antibodies, increase retinoic acid teratogenesis in injected embryos, presumably by inactivating endogenous thyroid hormone receptor. This finding suggests that endogenous thyroid hormone receptors may act to limit retinoic acid sensitivity. On the other hand, after thyroid hormone treatment, ectopic thyroid hormone receptor mediates teratogenesis that is indistinguishable from the dorsoanterior deficiencies produced in retinoic acid

  1. Hypotensive effects of ghrelin receptor agonists mediated through a novel receptor

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, Brid; Kosari, Samin; Pustovit, Ruslan V; Sartor, Daniela M; Ferens, Dorota; Ban, Kung; Baell, Jonathan; Nguyen, Trung V; Rivera, Leni R; Brock, James A; Furness, John B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Some agonists of ghrelin receptors cause rapid decreases in BP. The mechanisms by which they cause hypotension and the pharmacology of the receptors are unknown. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of ligands of ghrelin receptors were investigated in rats in vivo, on isolated blood vessels and on cells transfected with the only molecularly defined ghrelin receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a). KEY RESULTS Three agonists of GHSR1a receptors, ulimorelin, capromorelin and CP464709, caused a rapid decrease in BP in the anaesthetized rat. The effect was not reduced by either of two GHSR1a antagonists, JMV2959 or YIL781, at doses that blocked effects on colorectal motility, in vivo. The rapid hypotension was not mimicked by ghrelin, unacylated ghrelin or the unacylated ghrelin receptor agonist, AZP531. The early hypotension preceded a decrease in sympathetic nerve activity. Early hypotension was not reduced by hexamethonium or by baroreceptor (sino-aortic) denervation. Ulimorelin also relaxed isolated segments of rat mesenteric artery, and, less potently, relaxed aorta segments. The vascular relaxation was not reduced by JMV2959 or YIL781. Ulimorelin, capromorelin and CP464709 activated GHSR1a in transfected HEK293 cells at nanomolar concentrations. JMV2959 and YIL781 both antagonized effects in these cells, with their pA2 values at the GHSR1a receptor being 6.55 and 7.84. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our results indicate a novel vascular receptor or receptors whose activation by ulimorelin, capromorelin and CP464709 lowered BP. This receptor is activated by low MW GHSR1a agonists, but is not activated by ghrelin. PMID:24670149

  2. Dynamics of receptor-mediated nanoparticle internalization into endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Barakat, Abdul I

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles offer a promising medical tool for targeted drug delivery, for example to treat inflamed endothelial cells during the development of atherosclerosis. To inform the design of such therapeutic strategies, we develop a computational model of nanoparticle internalization into endothelial cells, where internalization is driven by receptor-ligand binding and limited by the deformation of the cell membrane and cytoplasm. We specifically consider the case of nanoparticles targeted against ICAM-1 receptors, of relevance for treating atherosclerosis. The model computes the kinetics of the internalization process, the dynamics of binding, and the distribution of stresses exerted between the nanoparticle and the cell membrane. The model predicts the existence of an optimal nanoparticle size for fastest internalization, consistent with experimental observations, as well as the role of bond characteristics, local cell mechanical properties, and external forces in the nanoparticle internalization process.

  3. Receptors, Mediators, and Mechanisms Involved in Bacterial Sepsis and Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Van Amersfoort, Edwin S.; Van Berkel, Theo J. C.; Kuiper, Johan

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial sepsis and septic shock result from the overproduction of inflammatory mediators as a consequence of the interaction of the immune system with bacteria and bacterial wall constituents in the body. Bacterial cell wall constituents such as lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycans, and lipoteichoic acid are particularly responsible for the deleterious effects of bacteria. These constituents interact in the body with a large number of proteins and receptors, and this interaction determines the eventual inflammatory effect of the compounds. Within the circulation bacterial constituents interact with proteins such as plasma lipoproteins and lipopolysaccharide binding protein. The interaction of the bacterial constituents with receptors on the surface of mononuclear cells is mainly responsible for the induction of proinflammatory mediators by the bacterial constituents. The role of individual receptors such as the toll-like receptors and CD14 in the induction of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules is discussed in detail. In addition, the roles of a number of other receptors that bind bacterial compounds such as scavenger receptors and their modulating role in inflammation are described. Finally, the therapies for the treatment of bacterial sepsis and septic shock are discussed in relation to the action of the aforementioned receptors and proteins. PMID:12857774

  4. An histidine covalent receptor and butenolide complex mediates strigolactone perception.

    PubMed

    de Saint Germain, Alexandre; Clavé, Guillaume; Badet-Denisot, Marie-Ange; Pillot, Jean-Paul; Cornu, David; Le Caer, Jean-Pierre; Burger, Marco; Pelissier, Frank; Retailleau, Pascal; Turnbull, Colin; Bonhomme, Sandrine; Chory, Joanne; Rameau, Catherine; Boyer, François-Didier

    2016-10-01

    Strigolactone plant hormones control plant architecture and are key players in both symbiotic and parasitic interactions. They contain an ABC tricyclic lactone connected to a butenolide group, the D ring. The DWARF14 (D14) strigolactone receptor belongs to the superfamily of α/β-hydrolases, and is known to hydrolyze the bond between the ABC lactone and the D ring. Here we characterized the binding and catalytic functions of RAMOSUS3 (RMS3), the pea (Pisum sativum) ortholog of rice (Oryza sativa) D14 strigolactone receptor. Using new profluorescent probes with strigolactone-like bioactivity, we found that RMS3 acts as a single-turnover enzyme that explains its apparent low enzymatic rate. We demonstrated the formation of a covalent RMS3-D-ring complex, essential for bioactivity, in which the D ring was attached to histidine 247 of the catalytic triad. These results reveal an undescribed mechanism of plant hormone reception in which the receptor performs an irreversible enzymatic reaction to generate its own ligand.

  5. An histidine covalent receptor and butenolide complex mediates strigolactone perception.

    PubMed

    de Saint Germain, Alexandre; Clavé, Guillaume; Badet-Denisot, Marie-Ange; Pillot, Jean-Paul; Cornu, David; Le Caer, Jean-Pierre; Burger, Marco; Pelissier, Frank; Retailleau, Pascal; Turnbull, Colin; Bonhomme, Sandrine; Chory, Joanne; Rameau, Catherine; Boyer, François-Didier

    2016-10-01

    Strigolactone plant hormones control plant architecture and are key players in both symbiotic and parasitic interactions. They contain an ABC tricyclic lactone connected to a butenolide group, the D ring. The DWARF14 (D14) strigolactone receptor belongs to the superfamily of α/β-hydrolases, and is known to hydrolyze the bond between the ABC lactone and the D ring. Here we characterized the binding and catalytic functions of RAMOSUS3 (RMS3), the pea (Pisum sativum) ortholog of rice (Oryza sativa) D14 strigolactone receptor. Using new profluorescent probes with strigolactone-like bioactivity, we found that RMS3 acts as a single-turnover enzyme that explains its apparent low enzymatic rate. We demonstrated the formation of a covalent RMS3-D-ring complex, essential for bioactivity, in which the D ring was attached to histidine 247 of the catalytic triad. These results reveal an undescribed mechanism of plant hormone reception in which the receptor performs an irreversible enzymatic reaction to generate its own ligand. PMID:27479744

  6. Functional profile of the binary brain corticosteroid receptor system: mediating, multitasking, coordinating, integrating.

    PubMed

    de Kloet, E R

    2013-11-01

    This contribution is focused on the action of the naturally occurring corticosteroids, cortisol and corticosterone, which are secreted from the adrenals in hourly pulses and after stress with the goal to maintain resilience and health. To achieve this goal the action of the corticosteroids displays an impressive diversity, because it is cell-specific and context-dependent in coordinating the individual's response to changing environments. These diverse actions of corticosterone are mediated by mineralocorticoid- and glucocorticoid-receptors that operate as a binary system in concert with neurotransmitter and neuropeptide signals to activate and inhibit stress reactions, respectively. Classically MR and GR are gene transcription factors, but recently these receptors appear to mediate also rapid non-genomic actions on excitatory neurotransmission suggesting that they integrate functions over time. Hence the balance of receptor-mediated actions is crucial for homeostasis. This balanced function of mineralo- and glucocorticoid-receptors can be altered epigenetically by a history of traumatic (early) life events and the experience of repeated stressors as well as by predisposing genetic variants in signaling pathways of these receptors. One of these variants, mineralocorticoid receptor haplotype 2, is associated with dispositional optimism in appraisal of environmental challenges. Imbalance in receptor-mediated corticosterone actions was found to leave a genomic signature highlighting the role of master switches such as cAMP response element-binding protein and mammalian target of rapamycin to compromise health, and to promote vulnerability to disease. Diabetic encephalopathy is a pathology of imbalanced corticosterone action, which can be corrected in its pre-stage by a brief treatment with the antiglucocorticoid mifepristone.

  7. G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase-mediated Phosphorylation Regulates Post-endocytic Trafficking of the D2 Dopamine Receptor*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Namkung, Yoon; Dipace, Concetta; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Sibley, David R.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the role of G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)-mediated phosphorylation in agonist-induced desensitization, arrestin association, endocytosis, and intracellular trafficking of the D2 dopamine receptor (DAR). Agonist activation of D2 DARs results in rapid and sustained receptor phosphorylation that is solely mediated by GRKs. A survey of GRKs revealed that only GRK2 or GRK3 promotes D2 DAR phosphorylation. Mutational analyses resulted in the identification of eight serine/threonine residues within the third cytoplasmic loop of the receptor that are phosphorylated by GRK2/3. Simultaneous mutation of these eight residues results in a receptor construct, GRK(-), that is completely devoid of agonist-promoted GRK-mediated receptor phosphorylation. We found that both wild-type (WT) and GRK(-) receptors underwent a similar degree of agonist-induced desensitization as assessed using [35S]GTPγS binding assays. Similarly, both receptor constructs internalized to the same extent in response to agonist treatment. Furthermore, using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays to directly assess receptor association with arrestin3, we found no differences between the WT and GRK(-) receptors. Thus, phosphorylation is not required for arrestin-receptor association or agonist-induced desensitization or internalization. In contrast, when we examined recycling of the D2 DARs to the cell surface, subsequent to agonist-induced endocytosis, the GRK(-) construct exhibited less recycling in comparison with the WT receptor. This impairment appears to be due to a greater propensity of the GRK(-) receptors to down-regulate once internalized. In contrast, if the receptor is highly phosphorylated, then receptor recycling is promoted. These results reveal a novel role for GRK-mediated phosphorylation in regulating the post-endocytic trafficking of a G protein-coupled receptor. PMID:19332542

  8. Neuropeptide Y receptor mediates activation of ERK1/2 via transactivation of the IGF receptor.

    PubMed

    Lecat, Sandra; Belemnaba, Lazare; Galzi, Jean-Luc; Bucher, Bernard

    2015-07-01

    Neuropeptide Y binds to G-protein coupled receptors whose action results in inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity. Using HEK293 cells stably expressing the native neuropeptide Y Y1 receptors, we found that the NPY agonist elicits a transient phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2). We first show that ERK1/2 activation following Y1 receptor stimulation is dependent on heterotrimeric Gi/o since it is completely inhibited by pre-treatment with pertussis toxin. In addition, ERK1/2 activation is internalization-independent since mutant Y1 receptors unable to recruit β-arrestins, can still activate ERK signaling to the same extent as wild-type receptors. We next show that this activation of the MAPK pathway is inhibited by the MEK inhibitor U0126, is not dependent on calcium signaling at the Y1 receptor (no effect upon inhibition of phospholipase C, protein kinase C or protein kinase D) but instead dependent on Gβ/γ and associated signaling pathways that activate PI3-kinase. Although inhibition of the epidermal-growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase did not influence NPY-induced ERK1/2 activation, we show that the inhibition of insulin growth factor receptor IGFR by AG1024 completely blocks activation of ERK1/2 by the Y1 receptor. This Gβ/γ-PI3K-AG1024-sensitive pathway does not involve activation of IGFR through the release of a soluble ligand by metalloproteinases since it is not affected by the metalloproteinase inhibitor marimastat. Finally, we found that a similar pathway, sensitive to wortmannin-AG1024 but insensitive to marimastat, is implicated in activation of ERK signaling in HEK293 cells by endogenously expressed GPCRs coupled to Gq-protein (muscarinic M3 receptors) or coupled to Gs-protein (endothelin ETB receptors). Our analysis is the first to show that β-arrestin recruitment to the NPY Y1 receptor is not necessary for MAPK activation by this receptor but that transactivation of the IGFR receptor is required.

  9. Regulation of T cell receptor complex-mediated signaling by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifications

    PubMed Central

    Friend, Samantha F; Deason-Towne, Francina; Peterson, Lisa K; Berger, Allison J; Dragone, Leonard L

    2014-01-01

    Post-translational protein modifications are a dynamic method of regulating protein function in response to environmental signals. As with any cellular process, T cell receptor (TCR) complex-mediated signaling is highly regulated, since the strength and duration of TCR-generated signals governs T cell development and activation. While regulation of TCR complex-mediated signaling by phosphorylation has been well studied, regulation by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifiers is still an emerging area of investigation. This review will examine how ubiquitin, E3 ubiquitin ligases, and other ubiquitin-like modifications such as SUMO and NEDD8 regulate TCR complex-mediated signaling. PMID:25628960

  10. Regulation of T cell receptor complex-mediated signaling by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifications.

    PubMed

    Friend, Samantha F; Deason-Towne, Francina; Peterson, Lisa K; Berger, Allison J; Dragone, Leonard L

    2014-01-01

    Post-translational protein modifications are a dynamic method of regulating protein function in response to environmental signals. As with any cellular process, T cell receptor (TCR) complex-mediated signaling is highly regulated, since the strength and duration of TCR-generated signals governs T cell development and activation. While regulation of TCR complex-mediated signaling by phosphorylation has been well studied, regulation by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifiers is still an emerging area of investigation. This review will examine how ubiquitin, E3 ubiquitin ligases, and other ubiquitin-like modifications such as SUMO and NEDD8 regulate TCR complex-mediated signaling.

  11. Regulation of T cell receptor complex-mediated signaling by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifications.

    PubMed

    Friend, Samantha F; Deason-Towne, Francina; Peterson, Lisa K; Berger, Allison J; Dragone, Leonard L

    2014-01-01

    Post-translational protein modifications are a dynamic method of regulating protein function in response to environmental signals. As with any cellular process, T cell receptor (TCR) complex-mediated signaling is highly regulated, since the strength and duration of TCR-generated signals governs T cell development and activation. While regulation of TCR complex-mediated signaling by phosphorylation has been well studied, regulation by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifiers is still an emerging area of investigation. This review will examine how ubiquitin, E3 ubiquitin ligases, and other ubiquitin-like modifications such as SUMO and NEDD8 regulate TCR complex-mediated signaling. PMID:25628960

  12. Scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis by sinusoidal cells in rat bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffroy, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Endocytosis of serum albumin by sinusoidal endothelial cells in rat bone marrow was investigated initially at the ultrastructural level with subsequent biochemical investigation of the specificity mediating this event. Bovine serum albumin adsorbed to 20nm colloidal gold particles (AuBSA) was chosen as the electron microscopic probe. Morphological data strongly suggested that a receptor was involved in uptake of AuBSA. Confirmation of receptor involvement in the uptake of AuBSA by marrow sinusoidal endothelial cells was achieved utilizing an in situ isolated hind limb perfusion protocol in conjunction with unlabeled, radiolabeled, and radio-/colloidal gold labeled probes. The major findings of competition and saturation experiments were: (1) endocytosis of AuBSA was mediated by a receptor for modified/treated serum albumin; (2) endocytosis of formaldehyde-treated serum albumin was mediated by a binding site which may be the same or closely related to the site responsible for the uptake of AuBSA; and (3) endocytosis of native untreated albumin was not mediated by receptor and probably represents fluid-phase pinocitosis.

  13. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors mediate donepezil-induced oligodendrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Osamu; Arai, Masaaki; Dateki, Minori; Ogata, Toru; Uchida, Ryuji; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Takishima, Kunio

    2015-12-01

    Oligodendrocytes are the myelin-forming cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Failure of myelin development and oligodendrocyte loss results in serious human disorders, including multiple sclerosis. Here, we show that donepezil, an acetlycholinesterase inhibitor developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, can stimulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation of neural stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells without affecting proliferation or cell viability. Transcripts for essential myelin-associated genes, such as PLP, MAG, MBP, CNPase, and MOG, in addition to transcription factors that regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination, were rapidly increased after treatment with donepezil. Furthermore, luciferase assays confirmed that both MAG and MBP promoters display increased activity upon donepezil-induced oligodendrocytes differentiation, suggesting that donepezil increases myelin gene expression mainly through enhanced transcription. We also found that the increase in the number of oligodendrocytes observed following donepezil treatment was significantly inhibited by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist mecamylamine, but not by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist scopolamine. Moreover, donepezil-induced myelin-related gene expression was suppressed by mecamylamine at both the mRNA and protein level. These results suggest that donepezil stimulates oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelin-related gene expression via nAChRs in neural stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. We show that donepezil, a drug for the treatment of Alzheimer disease, can stimulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Transcripts for essential myelin-associated genes, such as PLP, MAG, MBP, CNPase and MOG in addition to transcripton factors that regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination were rapidly increased after treatment with donepezil

  14. CD44, α4 integrin, and fucoidin receptor-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jacob D.; Hess, Krista L.; Cook-Mills, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    Various types of phagocytes mediate the clearance of apoptotic cells. We previously reported that human and murine high endothelial venule (HEV) cells ingest apoptotic cells. In this report, we examined endothelial cell fucoidin receptor-mediated phagocytosis using a murine endothelial cell model mHEV. mHEV cell recognition of apoptotic leukocytes was blocked by fucoidin but not by other phagocytic receptor inhibitors such as mannose, fucose, N-acetylglucosamine, phosphatidylserine (PS), or blocking anti-PS receptor antibodies. Thus, the mHEV cells used fucoidin receptors for recognition and phagocytosis of apoptotic leukocytes. The fucoidin receptor-mediated endothelial cell phagocytosis was specific for apoptotic leukocytes, as necrotic cells were not ingested. This is in contrast to macrophages, which ingest apoptotic and necrotic cells. Endothelial cell phagocytosis of apoptotic cells did not alter viable lymphocyte migration across these endothelial cells. Antibody blocking of CD44 and α4 integrin on the apoptotic leukocyte inhibited this endothelial cell phagocytosis, suggesting a novel function for these adhesion molecules in the removal of apoptotic targets. The removal of apoptotic leukocytes by endothelial cells may protect the microvasculature, thus ensuring that viable lymphocytes can successfully migrate into tissues. PMID:12960273

  15. Macrophage/cancer cell interactions mediate hormone resistance by a nuclear receptor derepression pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ping; Baek, Sung Hee; Bourk, Eliot M; Ohgi, Kenneth A; Garcia-Bassets, Ivan; Sanjo, Hideki; Akira, Shizuo; Kotol, Paul F; Glass, Christopher K; Rosenfeld, Michael G; Rose, David W

    2006-02-10

    Defining the precise molecular strategies that coordinate patterns of transcriptional responses to specific signals is central for understanding normal development and homeostasis as well as the pathogenesis of hormone-dependent cancers. Here we report specific prostate cancer cell/macrophage interactions that mediate a switch in function of selective androgen receptor antagonists/modulators (SARMs) from repression to activation in vivo. This is based on an evolutionarily conserved receptor N-terminal L/HX7LL motif, selectively present in sex steroid receptors, that causes recruitment of TAB2 as a component of an N-CoR corepressor complex. TAB2 acts as a sensor for inflammatory signals by serving as a molecular beacon for recruitment of MEKK1, which in turn mediates dismissal of the N-CoR/HDAC complex and permits derepression of androgen and estrogen receptor target genes. Surprisingly, this conserved sensor strategy may have arisen to mediate reversal of sex steroid-dependent repression of a limited cohort of target genes in response to inflammatory signals, linking inflammatory and nuclear receptor ligand responses to essential reproductive functions.

  16. Leukocyte opioid receptors mediate analgesia via Ca(2+)-regulated release of opioid peptides.

    PubMed

    Celik, Melih Ö; Labuz, Dominika; Henning, Karen; Busch-Dienstfertig, Melanie; Gaveriaux-Ruff, Claire; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Zimmer, Andreas; Machelska, Halina

    2016-10-01

    Opioids are the most powerful analgesics. As pain is driven by sensory transmission and opioid receptors couple to inhibitory G proteins, according to the classical concept, opioids alleviate pain by activating receptors on neurons and blocking the release of excitatory mediators (e.g., substance P). Here we show that analgesia can be mediated by opioid receptors in immune cells. We propose that activation of leukocyte opioid receptors leads to the secretion of opioid peptides Met-enkephalin, β-endorphin and dynorphin A (1-17), which subsequently act at local neuronal receptors, to relieve pain. In a mouse model of neuropathic pain induced by a chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve, exogenous agonists of δ-, μ- and κ-opioid receptors injected at the damaged nerve infiltrated by opioid peptide- and receptor-expressing leukocytes, produced analgesia, as assessed with von Frey filaments. The analgesia was attenuated by pharmacological or genetic inactivation of opioid peptides, and by leukocyte depletion. This decrease in analgesia was restored by the transfer of wild-type, but not opioid receptor-lacking leukocytes. Ex vivo, exogenous opioids triggered secretion of opioid peptides from wild-type immune cells isolated from damaged nerves, which was diminished by blockade of Gαi/o or Gβγ (but not Gαs) proteins, by chelator of intracellular (but not extracellular) Ca(2+), by blockers of phospholipase C (PLC) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors, and was partially attenuated by protein kinase C inhibitor. Similarly, the leukocyte depletion-induced decrease in exogenous opioid analgesia was re-established by transfer of immune cells ex vivo pretreated with extracellular Ca(2+) chelator, but was unaltered by leukocytes pretreated with intracellular Ca(2+) chelator or blockers of Gαi/o and Gβγ proteins. Thus, both ex vivo opioid peptide release and in vivo analgesia were mediated by leukocyte opioid receptors coupled to the G

  17. Leukocyte opioid receptors mediate analgesia via Ca(2+)-regulated release of opioid peptides.

    PubMed

    Celik, Melih Ö; Labuz, Dominika; Henning, Karen; Busch-Dienstfertig, Melanie; Gaveriaux-Ruff, Claire; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Zimmer, Andreas; Machelska, Halina

    2016-10-01

    Opioids are the most powerful analgesics. As pain is driven by sensory transmission and opioid receptors couple to inhibitory G proteins, according to the classical concept, opioids alleviate pain by activating receptors on neurons and blocking the release of excitatory mediators (e.g., substance P). Here we show that analgesia can be mediated by opioid receptors in immune cells. We propose that activation of leukocyte opioid receptors leads to the secretion of opioid peptides Met-enkephalin, β-endorphin and dynorphin A (1-17), which subsequently act at local neuronal receptors, to relieve pain. In a mouse model of neuropathic pain induced by a chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve, exogenous agonists of δ-, μ- and κ-opioid receptors injected at the damaged nerve infiltrated by opioid peptide- and receptor-expressing leukocytes, produced analgesia, as assessed with von Frey filaments. The analgesia was attenuated by pharmacological or genetic inactivation of opioid peptides, and by leukocyte depletion. This decrease in analgesia was restored by the transfer of wild-type, but not opioid receptor-lacking leukocytes. Ex vivo, exogenous opioids triggered secretion of opioid peptides from wild-type immune cells isolated from damaged nerves, which was diminished by blockade of Gαi/o or Gβγ (but not Gαs) proteins, by chelator of intracellular (but not extracellular) Ca(2+), by blockers of phospholipase C (PLC) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors, and was partially attenuated by protein kinase C inhibitor. Similarly, the leukocyte depletion-induced decrease in exogenous opioid analgesia was re-established by transfer of immune cells ex vivo pretreated with extracellular Ca(2+) chelator, but was unaltered by leukocytes pretreated with intracellular Ca(2+) chelator or blockers of Gαi/o and Gβγ proteins. Thus, both ex vivo opioid peptide release and in vivo analgesia were mediated by leukocyte opioid receptors coupled to the G

  18. Mediators, Receptors, and Signalling Pathways in the Anti-Inflammatory and Antihyperalgesic Effects of Acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, John L.; Cripps, Allan W.; Smith, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture has been used for millennia to treat allergic diseases including both intermittent rhinitis and persistent rhinitis. Besides the research on the efficacy and safety of acupuncture treatment for allergic rhinitis, research has also investigated how acupuncture might modulate immune function to exert anti-inflammatory effects. A proposed model has previously hypothesized that acupuncture might downregulate proinflammatory neuropeptides, proinflammatory cytokines, and neurotrophins, modulating transient receptor potential vallinoid (TRPV1), a G-protein coupled receptor which plays a central role in allergic rhinitis. Recent research has been largely supportive of this model. New advances in research include the discovery of a novel cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway activated by acupuncture. A chemokine-mediated proliferation of opioid-containing macrophages in inflamed tissues, in response to acupuncture, has also been demonstrated for the first time. Further research on the complex cross talk between receptors during inflammation is also helping to elucidate the mediators and signalling pathways activated by acupuncture. PMID:26339274

  19. Fc alpha receptors mediate release of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 by human monocytes following receptor aggregation.

    PubMed Central

    Patry, C; Herbelin, A; Lehuen, A; Bach, J F; Monteiro, R C

    1995-01-01

    The functional capacity of the human monocyte receptor for the Fc portion of IgA (Fc alpha R) in mediating signal transduction was evaluated by cytokine release. F(ab')2 fragments of anti-Fc alpha R monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were used as specific probes to induce release of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Multivalent cross-linking by a secondary anti-mouse antibody [F(ab')2 fragments] induced a significant release of TNF-alpha and IL-6 by human blood mononuclear cells, indicating requirements for Fc alpha R aggregation on the cell surface to transmit signals. Both cytokines were released exclusively by adherent cells, identifying monocytes as the responding cells within the mononuclear cell population. This cytokine release could not be due to contaminating endotoxins, because it was not abolished by polymyxin B, a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibitor. Moreover, purified recombinant soluble Fc alpha R inhibited the anti-Fc alpha R mAb-mediated cytokine release from blood monocytes, demonstrating that TNF-alpha and IL-6 were released in a receptor-specific manner. Our data suggest that Fc alpha R, through its capacity to mediate secretion of IL-6, may play an important role in B-cell proliferation and immunoglobulin production. On the other hand, release of TNF-alpha following stimulation of Fc alpha R molecules directly implicates these receptors in amplification and regulation of the inflammatory process occurring during IgA-mediated host defence. PMID:7590867

  20. Cannabinoid receptor 1 is a major mediator of renal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Lecru, Lola; Desterke, Christophe; Grassin-Delyle, Stanislas; Chatziantoniou, Christos; Vandermeersch, Sophie; Devocelle, Aurore; Vernochet, Amelia; Ivanovski, Ninoslav; Ledent, Catherine; Ferlicot, Sophie; Dalia, Meriem; Saïd, Myriam; Beaudreuil, Séverine; Charpentier, Bernard; Vazquez, Aimé; Giron-Michel, Julien; Azzarone, Bruno; Durrbach, Antoine; François, Hélène

    2015-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease, secondary to renal fibrogenesis, is a burden on public health. There is a need to explore new therapeutic pathways to reduce renal fibrogenesis. To study this, we used unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in mice as an experimental model of renal fibrosis and microarray analysis to compare gene expression in fibrotic and normal kidneys. The cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) was among the most upregulated genes in mice, and the main endogenous CB1 ligand (2-arachidonoylglycerol) was significantly increased in the fibrotic kidney. Interestingly, CB1 expression was highly increased in kidney biopsies of patients with IgA nephropathy, diabetes, and acute interstitial nephritis. Both genetic and pharmacological knockout of CB1 induced a profound reduction in renal fibrosis during UUO. While CB2 is also involved in renal fibrogenesis, it did not potentiate the role of CB1. CB1 expression was significantly increased in myofibroblasts, the main effector cells in renal fibrogenesis, upon TGF-β1 stimulation. The decrease in renal fibrosis during CB1 blockade could be explained by a direct action on myofibroblasts. CB1 blockade reduced collagen expression in vitro. Rimonabant, a selective CB1 endocannabinoid receptor antagonist, modulated the macrophage infiltrate responsible for renal fibrosis in UUO through a decrease in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 synthesis. Thus, CB1 has a major role in the activation of myofibroblasts and may be a new target for treating chronic kidney disease.

  1. Hypersensitivity Induced by Activation of Spinal Cord PAR2 Receptors Is Partially Mediated by TRPV1 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mrozkova, Petra; Spicarova, Diana; Palecek, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Protease-activated receptors 2 (PAR2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors in the peripheral nerve endings are implicated in the development of increased sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli, especially during inflammatory states. Both PAR2 and TRPV1 receptors are co-expressed in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons on their peripheral endings and also on presynaptic endings in the spinal cord dorsal horn. However, the modulation of nociceptive synaptic transmission in the superficial dorsal horn after activation of PAR2 and their functional coupling with TRPV1 is not clear. To investigate the role of spinal PAR2 activation on nociceptive modulation, intrathecal drug application was used in behavioural experiments and patch-clamp recordings of spontaneous, miniature and dorsal root stimulation-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs, mEPSCs, eEPSCs) were performed on superficial dorsal horn neurons in acute rat spinal cord slices. Intrathecal application of PAR2 activating peptide SLIGKV-NH2 induced thermal hyperalgesia, which was prevented by pretreatment with TRPV1 antagonist SB 366791 and was reduced by protein kinases inhibitor staurosporine. Patch-clamp experiments revealed robust decrease of mEPSC frequency (62.8 ± 4.9%), increase of sEPSC frequency (127.0 ± 5.9%) and eEPSC amplitude (126.9 ± 12.0%) in dorsal horn neurons after acute SLIGKV-NH2 application. All these EPSC changes, induced by PAR2 activation, were prevented by SB 366791 and staurosporine pretreatment. Our results demonstrate an important role of spinal PAR2 receptors in modulation of nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord dorsal horn at least partially mediated by activation of presynaptic TRPV1 receptors. The functional coupling between the PAR2 and TRPV1 receptors on the central branches of DRG neurons may be important especially during different pathological states when it may enhance pain perception. PMID:27755539

  2. NPY/Y1 receptor-mediated vasoconstrictory and proliferative effects in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Crnkovic, S; Egemnazarov, B; Jain, P; Seay, U; Gattinger, N; Marsh, L M; Bálint, Z; Kovacs, G; Ghanim, B; Klepetko, W; Schermuly, R T; Weissmann, N; Olschewski, A; Kwapiszewska, G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Pulmonary arteries (PAs) are innervated, but little is known about the role of neuronal axis in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Here, we have examined the role of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its Y1 receptor in PH pathogenesis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH NPY was localized by immunofluorescence. Expression of NPY and Y1 receptor were determined by quantitative PCR. Cellular response to NPY stimulation was assessed by Western blotting, thymidine incorporation and calcium imaging. Wire myography and isolated perfused mouse lung were applied to study pulmonary vasoactive effects of NPY. Selective receptor antagonists were used to assess the contribution of receptor subtypes in mediating NPY effects. KEY RESULTS Samples from PH patients showed increased NPYergic innervation within the PA wall and higher Y1 receptor expression, compared with donors. However, NPY levels were unchanged in both PA and serum. In the chronic hypoxic mouse model, Y1 receptor were up-regulated, while expression of both NPY and Y1 receptor was increased in the lungs of monocrotaline and SU5416-hypoxia rats. On a functional level, NPY acutely increased intracellular calcium levels and enhanced vasoconstriction of lung vessels preconstricted with adrenaline. Furthermore, NPY stimulated proliferation of human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells and activated p38 and PKD pathways. Correspondingly, higher phosphorylation of PKD was observed in remodelled vessels from PH patients. The selective Y1 receptor antagonist, BIBO 3304, concentration-dependently inhibited vasoconstrictive and proliferative effects of NPY. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS NPY and Y1 receptor are possible mediators of both vasoconstriction and pulmonary vascular remodelling in PH. PMID:24779394

  3. Intracellular Ca2+ release through ryanodine receptors contributes to AMPA receptor-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress in oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, A; Matute, C; Alberdi, E

    2010-01-01

    Overactivation of ionotropic glutamate receptors in oligodendrocytes induces cytosolic Ca2+ overload and excitotoxic death, a process that contributes to demyelination and multiple sclerosis. Excitotoxic insults cause well-characterized mitochondrial alterations and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction, which is not fully understood. In this study, we analyzed the contribution of ER-Ca2+ release through ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) to excitotoxicity in oligodendrocytes in vitro. First, we observed that oligodendrocytes express all previously characterized RyRs and IP3Rs. Blockade of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release by TMB-8 following α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) receptor-mediated insults attenuated both oligodendrocyte death and cytosolic Ca2+ overload. In turn, RyR inhibition by ryanodine reduced as well the Ca2+ overload whereas IP3R inhibition was ineffective. Furthermore, AMPA-triggered mitochondrial membrane depolarization, oxidative stress and activation of caspase-3, which in all instances was diminished by RyR inhibition. In addition, we observed that AMPA induced an ER stress response as revealed by α subunit of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2α phosphorylation, overexpression of GRP chaperones and RyR-dependent cleavage of caspase-12. Finally, attenuating ER stress with salubrinal protected oligodendrocytes from AMPA excitotoxicity. Together, these results show that Ca2+ release through RyRs contributes to cytosolic Ca2+ overload, mitochondrial dysfunction, ER stress and cell death following AMPA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity in oligodendrocytes. PMID:21364659

  4. Aripiprazole has functionally selective actions at dopamine D2 receptor-mediated signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Urban, Jonathan D; Vargas, Gabriel A; von Zastrow, Mark; Mailman, Richard B

    2007-01-01

    Aripiprazole is a unique atypical antipsychotic drug with an excellent side-effect profile presumed, in part, to be due to lack of typical D(2) dopamine receptor antagonist properties. Whether aripiprazole is a typical D(2) partial agonist, or a functionally selective D(2) ligand, remains controversial (eg D(2)-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase is system dependent; aripiprazole antagonizes D(2) receptor-mediated G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels and guanosine triphosphate nucleotide (GTP)gammaS coupling). The current study examined the D(2L) receptor binding properties of aripiprazole, as well as the effects of the drug on three downstream D(2) receptor-mediated functional effectors: mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, potentiation of arachidonic acid (AA) release, and D(2) receptor internalization. Unlike quinpirole (a full D(2) agonist) or (-)3PPP (S(-)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-propylpiperidine hydrochloride, a D(2) partial agonist), the apparent D(2) affinity of aripiprazole was not decreased significantly by GTP. Moreover, full or partial agonists are expected to have Hill slopes <1.0, yet that of aripiprazole was significantly >1.0. Whereas aripiprazole partially activated both the MAPK and AA pathways, its potency vs MAPK phosphorylation was much lower relative to potencies in assays either of AA release or inhibition of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate accumulation. In addition, unlike typical agonists, neither aripiprazole nor (-)3PPP produced significant internalization of the D(2L) receptor. These data are clear evidence that aripiprazole affects D(2L)-mediated signaling pathways in a differential manner. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that aripiprazole is a functionally selective D(2) ligand rather than a simple partial agonist. Such data may be useful in understanding the novel clinical actions of this drug.

  5. Hippocampus NMDA receptors selectively mediate latent extinction of place learning.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Jarid; Gabriele, Amanda; Packard, Mark G

    2016-09-01

    Extinction of maze learning may be achieved with or without the animal performing the previously acquired response. In typical "response extinction," animals are given the opportunity to make the previously acquired approach response toward the goal location of the maze without reinforcement. In "latent extinction," animals are not given the opportunity to make the previously acquired response and instead are confined to the previous goal location without reinforcement. Previous evidence indicates that the effectiveness of these protocols may depend on the type of memory being extinguished. Thus, one aim of the present study was to further examine the effectiveness of response and latent extinction protocols across dorsolateral striatum (DLS)-dependent response learning and hippocampus-dependent place learning tasks. In addition, previous neural inactivation experiments indicate a selective role for the hippocampus in latent extinction, but have not investigated the precise neurotransmitter mechanisms involved. Thus, the present study also examined whether latent extinction of place learning might depend on NMDA receptor activity in the hippocampus. In experiment 1, adult male Long-Evans rats were trained in a response learning task in a water plus-maze, in which animals were reinforced to make a consistent body-turn response to reach an invisible escape platform. Results indicated that response extinction, but not latent extinction, was effective at extinguishing memory in the response learning task. In experiment 2, rats were trained in a place learning task, in which animals were reinforced to approach a consistent spatial location containing the hidden escape platform. In experiment 2, animals also received intra-hippocampal infusions of the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphopentanoic acid (AP5; 5.0 or 7.5 ug/0.5 µg) or saline vehicle immediately before response or latent extinction training. Results indicated that both extinction protocols were

  6. Hippocampus NMDA receptors selectively mediate latent extinction of place learning.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Jarid; Gabriele, Amanda; Packard, Mark G

    2016-09-01

    Extinction of maze learning may be achieved with or without the animal performing the previously acquired response. In typical "response extinction," animals are given the opportunity to make the previously acquired approach response toward the goal location of the maze without reinforcement. In "latent extinction," animals are not given the opportunity to make the previously acquired response and instead are confined to the previous goal location without reinforcement. Previous evidence indicates that the effectiveness of these protocols may depend on the type of memory being extinguished. Thus, one aim of the present study was to further examine the effectiveness of response and latent extinction protocols across dorsolateral striatum (DLS)-dependent response learning and hippocampus-dependent place learning tasks. In addition, previous neural inactivation experiments indicate a selective role for the hippocampus in latent extinction, but have not investigated the precise neurotransmitter mechanisms involved. Thus, the present study also examined whether latent extinction of place learning might depend on NMDA receptor activity in the hippocampus. In experiment 1, adult male Long-Evans rats were trained in a response learning task in a water plus-maze, in which animals were reinforced to make a consistent body-turn response to reach an invisible escape platform. Results indicated that response extinction, but not latent extinction, was effective at extinguishing memory in the response learning task. In experiment 2, rats were trained in a place learning task, in which animals were reinforced to approach a consistent spatial location containing the hidden escape platform. In experiment 2, animals also received intra-hippocampal infusions of the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphopentanoic acid (AP5; 5.0 or 7.5 ug/0.5 µg) or saline vehicle immediately before response or latent extinction training. Results indicated that both extinction protocols were

  7. PTEN regulates AMPA receptor-mediated cell viability in iPS-derived motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Yang, D-J; Wang, X-L; Ismail, A; Ashman, C J; Valori, C F; Wang, G; Gao, S; Higginbottom, A; Ince, P G; Azzouz, M; Xu, J; Shaw, P J; Ning, K

    2014-02-27

    Excitatory transmission in the brain is commonly mediated by the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), AMPA receptors allow cytotoxic levels of calcium into neurons, contributing to motor neuron injury. We have previously shown that oculomotor neurons resistant to the disease process in ALS show reduced AMPA-mediated inward calcium currents compared with vulnerable spinal motor neurons. We have also shown that PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) knockdown via siRNA promotes motor neuron survival in models of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and ALS. It has been reported that inhibition of PTEN attenuates the death of hippocampal neurons post injury by decreasing the effective translocation of the GluR2 subunit into the membrane. In addition, leptin can regulate AMPA receptor trafficking via PTEN inhibition. Thus, we speculate that manipulation of AMPA receptors by PTEN may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for neuroprotective intervention in ALS and other neurodegenerative disorders. To this end, the first step is to establish a fibroblast-iPS-motor neuron in vitro cell model to study AMPA receptor manipulation. Here we report that iPS-derived motor neurons from human fibroblasts express AMPA receptors. PTEN depletion decreases AMPA receptor expression and AMPA-mediated whole-cell currents, resulting in inhibition of AMPA-induced neuronal death in primary cultured and iPS-derived motor neurons. Taken together, our results imply that PTEN depletion may protect motor neurons by inhibition of excitatory transmission that represents a therapeutic strategy of potential benefit for the amelioration of excitotoxicity in ALS and other neurodegenerative disorders.

  8. Allosteric modulation of sigma-1 receptors by SKF83959 inhibits microglia-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhuang; Li, Linlang; Zheng, Long-Tai; Xu, Zhihong; Guo, Lin; Zhen, Xuechu

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that sigma-1 receptor orthodox agonists can inhibit neuroinflammation. SKF83959 (3-methyl-6-chloro-7,8-hydroxy-1-[3-methylphenyl]-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine), an atypical dopamine receptor-1 agonist, has been recently identified as a potent allosteric modulator of sigma-1 receptor. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of SKF83959 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia. Our results indicated that SKF83959 significantly suppressed the expression/release of the pro-inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species. All of these responses were blocked by selective sigma-1 receptor antagonists (BD1047 or BD1063) and by ketoconazole (an inhibitor of enzyme cytochrome c17 to inhibit the synthesis of endogenous dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA). Additionally, we found that SKF83959 promoted the binding activity of DHEA with sigma-1 receptors, and enhanced the inhibitory effects of DHEA on LPS-induced microglia activation in a synergic manner. Furthermore, in a microglia-conditioned media system, SKF83959 inhibited the cytotoxicity of conditioned medium generated by LPS-activated microglia toward HT-22 neuroblastoma cells. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence that allosteric modulation of sigma-1 receptors by SKF83959 inhibits microglia-mediated inflammation. SKF83959 is a potent allosteric modulator of sigma-1 receptor. Our results indicated that SKF83959 enhanced the activity of endogenous dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in a synergic manner, and inhibited the activation of BV2 microglia and the expression/release of the pro-inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).

  9. Modulation of AMPA receptor mediated current by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in layer I neurons of rat prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Bo; Luo, Dong; Yang, Jie; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Bing-Lin; Wang, Xue-Feng; Yan, Zhen; Chen, Guo-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Layer I neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) exhibit extensive synaptic connections with deep layer neurons, implying their important role in the neural circuit. Study demonstrates that activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) increases excitatory neurotransmission in this layer. Here we found that nicotine selectively increased the amplitude of AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated current and AMPA/NMDA ratio, while without effect on NMDA receptor-mediated current. The augmentation of AMPAR current by nicotine was inhibited by a selective α7-nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) and intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA. In addition, nicotinic effect on mEPSC or paired-pulse ratio was also prevented by MLA. Moreover, an enhanced inward rectification of AMPAR current by nicotine suggested a functional role of calcium permeable and GluA1 containing AMPAR. Consistently, nicotine enhancement of AMPAR current was inhibited by a selective calcium-permeable AMPAR inhibitor IEM-1460. Finally, the intracellular inclusion of synthetic peptide designed to block GluA1 subunit of AMPAR at CAMKII, PKC or PKA phosphorylation site, as well as corresponding kinase inhibitor, blocked nicotinic augmentation of AMPA/NMDA ratio. These results have revealed that nicotine increases AMPAR current by modulating the phosphorylation state of GluA1 which is dependent on α7-nAChR and intracellular calcium. PMID:26370265

  10. Muscarinic receptor binding and muscarinic receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase in rat brain myelin

    SciTech Connect

    Larocca, J.N.; Ledeen, R.W.; Dvorkin, B.; Makman, M.H.

    1987-12-01

    High-affinity muscarinic cholinergic receptors were detected in myelin purified from rat brain stem with use of the radioligands /sup 3/H-N-methylscopolamine (/sup 3/H-NMS), /sup 3/H-quinuclidinyl benzilate (/sup 3/H-QNB), and /sup 3/H-pirenzepine. /sup 3/H-NMS binding was also present in myelin isolated from corpus callosum. In contrast, several other receptor types, including alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, present in the starting brain stem, were not detected in myelin. Based on Bmax values from Scatchard analyses, /sup 3/H-pirenzepine, a putative M1 selective ligand, bound to about 25% of the sites in myelin labeled by /sup 3/H-NMS, a nonselective ligand that binds to both M1 and M2 receptor subtypes. Agonist affinity for /sup 3/H-NMS binding sites in myelin was markedly decreased by Gpp(NH)p, indicating that a major portion of these receptors may be linked to a second messenger system via a guanine-nucleotide regulatory protein. Purified myelin also contained adenylate cyclase activity; this activity was stimulated several fold by forskolin and to small but significant extents by prostaglandin E1 and the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Myelin adenylate cyclase activity was inhibited by carbachol and other muscarinic agonists; this inhibition was blocked by the antagonist atropine. Levels in myelin of muscarinic receptors were 20-25% and those of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase 10% of the values for total particulate fraction of whole brain stem. These levels in myelin are appreciably greater than would be predicted on the basis of contamination. Also, additional receptors and adenylate cyclase, added by mixing nonmyelin tissue with whole brain stem, were quantitatively removed during the purification procedure.

  11. GSG1L suppresses AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and uniquely modulates AMPA receptor kinetics in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xinglong; Mao, Xia; Lussier, Marc P; Hutchison, Mary Anne; Zhou, Liang; Hamra, F Kent; Roche, Katherine W; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated synaptic transmission is a key mechanism for synaptic plasticity. In the brain, AMPARs assemble with a number of auxiliary subunits, including TARPs, CNIHs and CKAMP44, which are important for AMPAR forward trafficking to synapses. Here we report that the membrane protein GSG1L negatively regulates AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission. Overexpression of GSG1L strongly suppresses, and GSG1L knockout (KO) enhances, AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission. GSG1L-dependent regulation of AMPAR synaptic transmission relies on the first extracellular loop domain and its carboxyl-terminus. GSG1L also speeds up AMPAR deactivation and desensitization in hippocampal CA1 neurons, in contrast to the effects of TARPs and CNIHs. Furthermore, GSG1L association with AMPARs inhibits CNIH2-induced slowing of the receptors in heterologous cells. Finally, GSG1L KO rats have deficits in LTP and show behavioural abnormalities in object recognition tests. These data demonstrate that GSG1L represents a new class of auxiliary subunit with distinct functional properties for AMPARs. PMID:26932439

  12. GSG1L suppresses AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and uniquely modulates AMPA receptor kinetics in hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xinglong; Mao, Xia; Lussier, Marc P.; Hutchison, Mary Anne; Zhou, Liang; Hamra, F. Kent; Roche, Katherine W.; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated synaptic transmission is a key mechanism for synaptic plasticity. In the brain, AMPARs assemble with a number of auxiliary subunits, including TARPs, CNIHs and CKAMP44, which are important for AMPAR forward trafficking to synapses. Here we report that the membrane protein GSG1L negatively regulates AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission. Overexpression of GSG1L strongly suppresses, and GSG1L knockout (KO) enhances, AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission. GSG1L-dependent regulation of AMPAR synaptic transmission relies on the first extracellular loop domain and its carboxyl-terminus. GSG1L also speeds up AMPAR deactivation and desensitization in hippocampal CA1 neurons, in contrast to the effects of TARPs and CNIHs. Furthermore, GSG1L association with AMPARs inhibits CNIH2-induced slowing of the receptors in heterologous cells. Finally, GSG1L KO rats have deficits in LTP and show behavioural abnormalities in object recognition tests. These data demonstrate that GSG1L represents a new class of auxiliary subunit with distinct functional properties for AMPARs. PMID:26932439

  13. Antihistamine terfenadine potentiates NMDA receptor-mediated calcium influx, oxygen radical formation, and neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Trelles, R; Novelli, A; Vega, J A; Marini, A; Fernández-Sánchez, M T

    2000-10-13

    We previously reported that the histamine H1 receptor antagonist terfenadine enhances the excitotoxic response to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonists in cerebellar neurons. Here we investigated whether this unexpected action of terfenadine relates to its antihistamine activity, and which specific events in the signal cascade coupled to NMDA receptors are affected by terfenadine. Low concentrations of NMDA (100 microM) or glutamate (15 microM) that were only slightly (<20%) toxic when added alone, caused extensive cell death in cultures pre-exposed to terfenadine (5 microM) for 5 h. Terfenadine potentiation of NMDA receptor response was mimicked by other H1 antagonists, including chlorpheniramine (25 microM), oxatomide (20 microM), and triprolidine (50 microM), was prevented by histamine (1 mM), and did not require RNA synthesis. Terfenadine increased NMDA-mediated intracellular calcium and cGMP synthesis by approximately 2.4 and 4 fold respectively. NMDA receptor-induced cell death in terfenadine-treated neurons was associated with a massive production of hydrogen peroxides, and was significantly inhibited by the application of either (+)-alpha-tocopherol (200 microM) or the endogenous antioxidant melatonin (200 microM) 15 min before or up to 30 min after receptor stimulation. This operational time window suggests that an enduring production of reactive oxygen species is critical for terfenadine-induced NMDA receptor-mediated neurodegeneration, and strengthens the importance of antioxidants for the treatment of excitotoxic injury. Our results also provide direct evidence for antihistamine drugs enhancing the transduction signaling activated by NMDA receptors in cerebellar neurons.

  14. Contractions of the mouse prostate elicited by acetylcholine are mediated by M(3) muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    White, Carl W; Short, Jennifer L; Haynes, John M; Matsui, Minoru; Ventura, Sabatino

    2011-12-01

    Increased smooth muscle tone in the human prostate contributes to the symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. In the mouse prostate gland, cholinergic innervation is responsible for a component of the nerve-mediated contractile response. This study investigates the muscarinic receptor subtype responsible for the cholinergic contractile response in the mouse prostate gland. To characterize the muscarinic receptor subtype, mouse prostates taken from wild-type or M(3) muscarinic receptor knockout mice were mounted in organ baths. The isometric force that tissues developed in response to electrical-field stimulation or exogenously applied cholinergic agonists in the presence or absence of a range of muscarinic receptor antagonists was evaluated. Carbachol elicited reproducible and concentration-dependent contractions of the isolated mouse prostate, which were antagonized by the presence of muscarinic receptor antagonists. Calculation of antagonist affinities (pA(2) values) indicated a rank order of antagonist potencies in the mouse prostate of: darifenacin (9.08) = atropine (9.07) = 1,1-dimethyl-4-diphenylacetoxypiperidinium iodide (9.02) > cyclohexyl-hydroxy-phenyl-(3-piperidin-1-ylpropyl)silane (7.85) > cyclohexyl-(4-fluorophenyl)-hydroxy-(3-piperidin-1-ylpropyl)silane (7.39) > himbacine (7.19) > pirenzipine (6.88) > methoctramine (6.20). Furthermore, genetic deletion of the M(3) muscarinic receptor inhibited prostatic contractions to electrical-field stimulation or exogenous administration of acetylcholine. In this study we identified that the cholinergic component of contraction in the mouse prostate is mediated by the M(3) muscarinic receptor subtype. Pharmacological antagonism of the M(3) muscarinic receptor may be a beneficial additional target for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in the human prostate gland.

  15. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors are essential mediators of eyelid closure during embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Herr, Deron R; Lee, Chang-Wook; Wang, Wei; Ware, Adam; Rivera, Richard; Chun, Jerold

    2013-10-11

    The fetal development of the mammalian eyelid involves the expansion of the epithelium over the developing cornea, fusion into a continuous sheet covering the eye, and a splitting event several weeks later that results in the formation of the upper and lower eyelids. Recent studies have revealed a significant number of molecular signaling components that are essential mediators of eyelid development. Receptor-mediated sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling is known to influence diverse biological processes, but its involvement in eyelid development has not been reported. Here, we show that two S1P receptors, S1P2 and S1P3, are collectively essential mediators of eyelid closure during murine development. Homozygous deletion of the gene encoding either receptor has no apparent effect on eyelid development, but double-null embryos are born with an "eyes open at birth" defect due to a delay in epithelial sheet extension. Both receptors are expressed in the advancing epithelial sheet during the critical period of extension. Fibroblasts derived from double-null embryos have a deficient response to epidermal growth factor, suggesting that S1P2 and S1P3 modulate this essential signaling pathway during eyelid closure.

  16. Molecular mechanisms involving sigma receptor-mediated induction of MCP-1: implication for increased monocyte transmigration.

    PubMed

    Yao, Honghong; Yang, Yanjing; Kim, Kee Jun; Bethel-Brown, Crystal; Gong, Nan; Funa, Keiko; Gendelman, Howard E; Su, Tsung-Ping; Wang, John Q; Buch, Shilpa

    2010-06-10

    Cocaine abuse hastens the neurodegeneration often associated with advanced HIV-1 infection. The mechanisms, in part, revolve around the neuroinflammatory processes mediated by the chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2). Understanding factors that modulate MCP-1 and, in turn, facilitate monocyte extravasation in the brain is thus of paramount importance. We now demonstrate that cocaine induces MCP-1 in rodent microglia through translocation of the sigma receptor to the lipid raft microdomains of the plasma membrane. Sequential activation of Src, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and phosphatidylinositol-3' kinase (PI3K)/Akt and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathways resulted in increased MCP-1 expression. Furthermore, conditioned media from cocaine-exposed microglia increased monocyte transmigration, and thus was blocked by antagonists for CCR2 or sigma receptor. These findings were corroborated by demonstrating increased monocyte transmigration in mice exposed to cocaine, which was attenuated by pretreatment of mice with the sigma receptor antagonist. Interestingly, cocaine-mediated transmigratory effects were not observed in CCR2 knockout mice. We conclude that cocaine-mediated induction of MCP-1 accelerates monocyte extravasation across the endothelium. Understanding the regulation of MCP-1 expression and functional changes by cocaine/sigma receptor system may provide insights into the development of potential therapeutic targets for HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. PMID:20354174

  17. The wedelolactone derivative inhibits estrogen receptor-mediated breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer cells growth.

    PubMed

    Xu, Defeng; Lin, Tzu-Hua; Yeh, Chiuan-Ren; Cheng, Max A; Chen, Lu-Min; Chang, Chawnshang; Yeh, Shuyuan

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen and estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated signaling pathways play important roles in the etiology and progression of human breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers. Attenuating ER activities by natural products and their derivatives is a relatively practical strategy to control and reduce breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer risk. Here, we found 3-butoxy-1,8,9-trihydroxy-6H-benzofuro[3,2-c]benzopyran-6-one (BTB), a new derivative of wedelolactone, could effectively inhibit the 17-estradiol (E2)-induced ER transactivation and suppress the growth of breast cancer as well as endometrial and ovarian cancer cells. Our results indicate that 2.5 μM BTB effectively suppresses ER-positive, but not ER-negative, breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, our data indicate that BTB can modulate ER transactivation and suppress the expression of E2-mediated ER target genes (Cyclin D1, E2F1, and TERT) in the ER-positive MCF-7, Ishikawa, and SKOV-3 cells. Importantly, this BTB mediated inhibition of ER activity is selective since BTB does not suppress the activities of other nuclear receptors, including glucocorticoid receptor and progesterone receptor, suggesting that BTB functions as a selective ER signaling inhibitor with the potential to treat breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers.

  18. beta-Arrestin mediates beta1-adrenergic receptor-epidermal growth factor receptor interaction and downstream signaling.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Douglas G; Kim, Il-Man; Patel, Priyesh A; Violin, Jonathan D; Rockman, Howard A

    2009-07-24

    beta1-Adrenergic receptor (beta1AR) stimulation confers cardioprotection via beta-arrestin-de pend ent transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs), however, the precise mechanism for this salutary process is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the beta1AR and EGFR form a complex that differentially directs intracellular signaling pathways. beta1AR stimulation and EGF ligand can each induce equivalent EGFR phosphorylation, internalization, and downstream activation of ERK1/2, but only EGF ligand causes translocation of activated ERK to the nucleus, whereas beta1AR-stimulated/EGFR-transactivated ERK is restricted to the cytoplasm. beta1AR and EGFR are shown to interact as a receptor complex both in cell culture and endogenously in human heart, an interaction that is selective and undergoes dynamic regulation by ligand stimulation. Although catecholamine stimulation mediates the retention of beta1AR-EGFR interaction throughout receptor internalization, direct EGF ligand stimulation initiates the internalization of EGFR alone. Continued interaction of beta1AR with EGFR following activation is dependent upon C-terminal tail GRK phosphorylation sites of the beta1AR and recruitment of beta-arrestin. These data reveal a new signaling paradigm in which beta-arrestin is required for the maintenance of a beta1AR-EGFR interaction that can direct cytosolic targeting of ERK in response to catecholamine stimulation.

  19. 5-HT2 receptors mediate functional modulation of GABAa receptors and inhibitory synaptic transmissions in human iPS-derived neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haitao; Hu, Lingli; Liu, Chunhua; Su, Zhenghui; Wang, Lihui; Pan, Guangjin; Guo, Yiping; He, Jufang

    2016-01-01

    Neural progenitors differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) hold potentials for treating neurological diseases. Serotonin has potent effects on neuronal functions through multiple receptors, underlying a variety of neural disorders. Glutamate and GABA receptors have been proven functional in neurons differentiated from iPS, however, little is known about 5-HT receptor-mediated modulation in such neuronal networks. In the present study, human iPS were differentiated into cells possessing featured physiological properties of cortical neurons. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording was used to examine the involvement of 5-HT2 receptors in functional modulation of GABAergic synaptic transmission. We found that serotonin and DOI (a selective agonist of 5-HT2A/C receptor) reversibly reduced GABA-activated currents, and this 5-HT2A/C receptor mediated inhibition required G protein, PLC, PKC, and Ca2+ signaling. Serotonin increased the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), which could be mimicked by α-methylserotonin, a 5-HT2 receptor agonist. In contrast, DOI reduced both frequency and amplitude of mIPSCs. These findings suggested that in iPS-derived human neurons serotonin postsynaptically reduced GABAa receptor function through 5-HT2A/C receptors, but presynaptically other 5-HT2 receptors counteracted the action of 5-HT2A/C receptors. Functional expression of serotonin receptors in human iPS-derived neurons provides a pre-requisite for their normal behaviors after grafting. PMID:26837719

  20. Intracellular Zinc Modulates Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor-mediated Calcium Release*

    PubMed Central

    Woodier, Jason; Rainbow, Richard D.; Stewart, Alan J.; Pitt, Samantha J.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant Zn2+ homeostasis is a hallmark of certain cardiomyopathies associated with altered contractile force. In this study, we addressed whether Zn2+ modulates cardiac ryanodine receptor gating and Ca2+ dynamics in isolated cardiomyocytes. We reveal that Zn2+ is a high affinity regulator of RyR2 displaying three modes of operation. Picomolar free Zn2+ concentrations potentiate RyR2 responses, but channel activation is still dependent on the presence of cytosolic Ca2+. At concentrations of free Zn2+ >1 nm, Zn2+ is the main activating ligand, and the dependence on Ca2+ is removed. Zn2+ is therefore a higher affinity activator of RyR2 than Ca2+. Millimolar levels of free Zn2+ were found to inhibit channel openings. In cardiomyocytes, consistent with our single channel results, we show that Zn2+ modulates both the frequency and amplitude of Ca2+ waves in a concentration-dependent manner and that physiological levels of Zn2+ elicit Ca2+ release in the absence of activating levels of cytosolic Ca2+. This highlights a new role for intracellular Zn2+ in shaping Ca2+ dynamics in cardiomyocytes through modulation of RyR2 gating. PMID:26041778

  1. Ghrelin-induced hypophagia is mediated by the β2 adrenergic receptor in chicken.

    PubMed

    Zendehdel, Morteza; Hassanpour, Shahin

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of intracerebroventricular injection of metoprolol (a β1 adrenergic receptor antagonist), ICI 118,551 (a β2 adrenergic receptor antagonist), and SR 59230R (a β3 adrenergic receptor antagonist) on ghrelin-induced food and water intake by 3-h food-deprived (FD3) cockerels. The chickens were randomly allocated to 4 treatment groups with 8 replicates in each group. A cannula was surgically implanted into the lateral ventricle of the brain. In experiment 1, chickens received the β1 adrenergic receptor antagonist (24 nmol) before injection of the ghrelin (0.6 nmol). In experiment 2, chickens received the β2 adrenergic receptor antagonist (5 nmol) before injection of the ghrelin (0.6 nmol). In experiment 3, birds were injected with ghrelin (0.6 nmol) after the β3 adrenergic receptor antagonist (20 nmol). Cumulative food and water intake were recorded 3-h post injection and analyzed by two-way analysis of variance. According to the results, ghrelin injection reduced food and water intake by broiler cockerels (p≤0.05). The effect of ghrelin on food intake was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with the β2 receptor antagonist (p≤0.05). Furthermore, the β2 receptor antagonist had no effect on water intake induced by ghrelin. Also, pretreatment with the β1 and β3 receptors antagonists had no effect on ghrelin-induced food and water intake. These results suggest that the effect of ghrelin on cumulative food intake by cockerels is mediated via β2 adrenergic receptors.

  2. NOP receptor mediates anti-analgesia induced by agonist-antagonist opioids.

    PubMed

    Gear, R W; Bogen, O; Ferrari, L F; Green, P G; Levine, J D

    2014-01-17

    Clinical studies have shown that agonist-antagonist opioid analgesics that produce their analgesic effect via action on the kappa-opioid receptor, produce a delayed-onset anti-analgesia in men but not women, an effect blocked by co-administration of a low dose of naloxone. We now report the same time-dependent anti-analgesia and its underlying mechanism in an animal model. Using the Randall-Selitto paw-withdrawal assay in male rats, we found that nalbuphine, pentazocine, and butorphanol each produced analgesia during the first hour followed by anti-analgesia starting at ∼90min after administration in males but not females, closely mimicking its clinical effects. As observed in humans, co-administration of nalbuphine with naloxone in a dose ratio of 12.5:1 blocked anti-analgesia but not analgesia. Administration of the highly selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 produced analgesia without subsequent anti-analgesia, and confirmed by the failure of the selective kappa antagonist nor-binaltorphimine to block nalbuphine-induced anti-analgesia, indicating that anti-analgesia is not mediated by kappa-opioid receptors. We therefore tested the role of other receptors in nalbuphine anti-analgesia. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) and sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors were chosen on the basis of their known anti-analgesic effects and receptor binding studies. The selective NOP receptor antagonists, JTC801, and J-113397, but not the sigma receptor antagonist, BD 1047, antagonized nalbuphine anti-analgesia. Furthermore, the NOP receptor agonist NNC 63-0532 produced anti-analgesia with the same delay in onset observed with the three agonist-antagonists, but without producing preceding analgesia and this anti-analgesia was also blocked by naloxone. These results strongly support the suggestion that clinically used agonist-antagonists act at the NOP receptor to produce anti-analgesia. PMID:24188792

  3. IL12-mediated sensitizing of T-cell receptor-dependent and -independent tumor cell killing.

    PubMed

    Braun, Matthias; Ress, Marie L; Yoo, Young-Eun; Scholz, Claus J; Eyrich, Matthias; Schlegel, Paul G; Wölfl, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin 12 (IL12) is a key inflammatory cytokine critically influencing Th1/Tc1-T-cell responses at the time of initial antigen encounter. Therefore, it may be exploited for cancer immunotherapy. Here, we investigated how IL12, and other inflammatory cytokines, shape effector functions of human T-cells. Using a defined culture system, we followed the gradual differentiation and function of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells from their initial activation as naïve T cells through their expansion phase as early memory cells to full differentiation as clonally expanded effector T cells. The addition of IL12 8 days after the initial priming event initiated two mechanistically separate events: First, IL12 sensitized the T-cell receptor (TCR) for antigen-specific activation, leading to an approximately 10-fold increase in peptide sensitivity and, in consequence, enhanced tumor cell killing. Secondly, IL12 enabled TCR/HLA-independent activation and cytotoxicity: this "non-specific" effect was mediated by the NK cell receptor DNAM1 (CD226) and dependent on ligand expression of the target cells. This IL12 regulated, DNAM1-mediated killing is dependent on src-kinases as well as on PTPRC (CD45) activity. Thus, besides enhancing TCR-mediated activation, we here identified for the first time a second IL12 mediated mechanism leading to activation of a receptor-dependent killing pathway via DNAM1. PMID:27622043

  4. Asymmetrical macromolecular complex formation of lysophosphatidic acid receptor 2 (LPA2) mediates gradient sensing in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ren, Aixia; Moon, Changsuk; Zhang, Weiqiang; Sinha, Chandrima; Yarlagadda, Sunitha; Arora, Kavisha; Wang, Xusheng; Yue, Junming; Parthasarathi, Kaushik; Heil-Chapdelaine, Rick; Tigyi, Gabor; Naren, Anjaparavanda P

    2014-12-26

    Chemotactic migration of fibroblasts toward growth factors relies on their capacity to sense minute extracellular gradients and respond to spatially confined receptor-mediated signals. Currently, mechanisms underlying the gradient sensing of fibroblasts remain poorly understood. Using single-particle tracking methodology, we determined that a lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) gradient induces a spatiotemporally restricted decrease in the mobility of LPA receptor 2 (LPA2) on chemotactic fibroblasts. The onset of decreased LPA2 mobility correlates to the spatial recruitment and coupling to LPA2-interacting proteins that anchor the complex to the cytoskeleton. These localized PDZ motif-mediated macromolecular complexes of LPA2 trigger a Ca(2+) puff gradient that governs gradient sensing and directional migration in response to LPA. Disruption of the PDZ motif-mediated assembly of the macromolecular complex of LPA2 disorganizes the gradient of Ca(2+) puffs, disrupts gradient sensing, and reduces the directional migration of fibroblasts toward LPA. Our findings illustrate that the asymmetric macromolecular complex formation of chemoattractant receptors mediates gradient sensing and provides a new mechanistic basis for models to describe gradient sensing of fibroblasts.

  5. Tonic GABAA Receptor-Mediated Inhibition in the Rat Dorsal Motor Nucleus of the Vagus

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Type A γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors expressed in the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus (DMV) critically regulate the activity of vagal motor neurons and, by inference, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Two types of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition have been identified in the brain, represented by phasic (Iphasic) and tonic (Itonic) inhibitory currents. The hypothesis that Itonic regulates neuron activity was tested in the DMV using whole cell patch-clamp recordings in transverse brain stem slices from rats. An Itonic was present in a subset of DMV neurons, which was determined to be mediated by different receptors than those mediating fast, synaptic currents. Preapplication of tetrodotoxin significantly decreased the resting Itonic amplitude in DMV neurons, suggesting that most of the current was due to action potential (AP)–dependent GABA release. Blocking GABA transport enhanced Itonic and multiple GABA transporters cooperated to regulate Itonic. The Itonic was composed of both a gabazine-insensitive component that was nearly saturated under basal conditions and a gabazine-sensitive component that was activated when extracellular GABA concentration was elevated. Perfusion of THIP (10 μM) significantly increased Itonic amplitude without increasing Iphasic amplitude. The Itonic played a major role in determining the overall excitability of DMV neurons by contributing to resting membrane potential and AP frequency. Our results indicate that Itonic contributes to DMV neuron membrane potential and activity and is thus an important regulator of vagally mediated GI function. PMID:20018836

  6. Asymmetrical macromolecular complex formation of lysophosphatidic acid receptor 2 (LPA2) mediates gradient sensing in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ren, Aixia; Moon, Changsuk; Zhang, Weiqiang; Sinha, Chandrima; Yarlagadda, Sunitha; Arora, Kavisha; Wang, Xusheng; Yue, Junming; Parthasarathi, Kaushik; Heil-Chapdelaine, Rick; Tigyi, Gabor; Naren, Anjaparavanda P

    2014-12-26

    Chemotactic migration of fibroblasts toward growth factors relies on their capacity to sense minute extracellular gradients and respond to spatially confined receptor-mediated signals. Currently, mechanisms underlying the gradient sensing of fibroblasts remain poorly understood. Using single-particle tracking methodology, we determined that a lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) gradient induces a spatiotemporally restricted decrease in the mobility of LPA receptor 2 (LPA2) on chemotactic fibroblasts. The onset of decreased LPA2 mobility correlates to the spatial recruitment and coupling to LPA2-interacting proteins that anchor the complex to the cytoskeleton. These localized PDZ motif-mediated macromolecular complexes of LPA2 trigger a Ca(2+) puff gradient that governs gradient sensing and directional migration in response to LPA. Disruption of the PDZ motif-mediated assembly of the macromolecular complex of LPA2 disorganizes the gradient of Ca(2+) puffs, disrupts gradient sensing, and reduces the directional migration of fibroblasts toward LPA. Our findings illustrate that the asymmetric macromolecular complex formation of chemoattractant receptors mediates gradient sensing and provides a new mechanistic basis for models to describe gradient sensing of fibroblasts. PMID:25542932

  7. Kainate receptors mediate signaling in both transient and sustained OFF bipolar cell pathways in mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Borghuis, Bart G; Looger, Loren L; Tomita, Susumu; Demb, Jonathan B

    2014-04-30

    A fundamental question in sensory neuroscience is how parallel processing is implemented at the level of molecular and circuit mechanisms. In the retina, it has been proposed that distinct OFF cone bipolar cell types generate fast/transient and slow/sustained pathways by the differential expression of AMPA- and kainate-type glutamate receptors, respectively. However, the functional significance of these receptors in the intact circuit during light stimulation remains unclear. Here, we measured glutamate release from mouse bipolar cells by two-photon imaging of a glutamate sensor (iGluSnFR) expressed on postsynaptic amacrine and ganglion cell dendrites. In both transient and sustained OFF layers, cone-driven glutamate release from bipolar cells was blocked by antagonists to kainate receptors but not AMPA receptors. Electrophysiological recordings from bipolar and ganglion cells confirmed the essential role of kainate receptors for signaling in both transient and sustained OFF pathways. Kainate receptors mediated responses to contrast modulation up to 20 Hz. Light-evoked responses in all mouse OFF bipolar pathways depend on kainate, not AMPA, receptors.

  8. Only high-affinity receptors for interleukin 2 mediate internalization of ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Weissman, A.M.; Harford, J.B.; Svetlik, P.B.; Leonard, W.L.; Depper, J.M.; Waldmann, T.A.; Greene, W.C.; Klausner, R.D.

    1986-03-01

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptors are expressed on activated T cells and in select T-cell leukemias. Recently, it has been demonstrated that at least two classes of receptor for IL-2 exist with markedly different affinities for ligand. All known biological actions of IL-2 have been correlated with occupancy of high-affinity sites; the function of the low-affinity sites remains unknown. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is the primary means of internalization of cell-surface receptors and their ligands. The internalization of IL-2 bound to high- and low-affinity receptor sites was studied in a human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected human T-cell leukemia cell line and in a cloned murine cytotoxic T-cell line (CTLL). Internalization of IL-2 occurred only when bound to high-affinity sites. In addition, an anti-receptor antibody (anti-Tac), which binds equally well to high- and low-affinity sites, demonstrated no detectable internalization. The implications of these findings as they relate to IL-2 receptor structure and function are discussed.

  9. Sex mediates dopamine and adrenergic receptor expression in adult rats exposed prenatally to cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Mark J.; Mactutus, Charles F.; Silvers, Janelle M.; Hasselrot, Ulla; Strupp, Barbara J.; Booze, Rosemarie M.

    2010-01-01

    The extent of catecholaminergic receptor and respective behavioral alterations associated with prenatal cocaine exposure varies according to exogenous factors such as the amount, frequency, and route of maternal exposure, as well as endogenous factors such as specific brain regions under consideration and sex of the species. The goal of the current study was to use autoradiography to delineate possible moderators of dopaminergic and adrenergic receptor expression in adult rat offspring exposed to cocaine in utero. The current study demonstrated sex-dependent D1 receptor, α2, and noradrenergic transporter binding alterations in prelimbic, hippocampus, and anterior cingulate regions of adult rat brains exposed to cocaine during gestational days 8–21. Of further interest was the lack of alterations in the nucleus accumbens for nearly all receptors/transporters investigated, as well as the lack of alterations in D3 receptor binding in nearly all of the regions investigated (nucleus accumbens, prelimbic region, hippocampus, and cingulate gyrus). Thus, the current investigation demonstrated persistent receptor and transporter alterations that extend well into adulthood as a result of cocaine exposure in utero. Furthermore, the demonstration that sex played a mediating role in prenatal cocaine-induced, aberrant receptor/transporter expression is of primary importance for future studies that seek to control for sex in either design or analysis. PMID:17933484

  10. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated osteoclastogenesis is mediated by tumor necrosis factor via its P55 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Amer, Y; Ross, F P; Edwards, J; Teitelbaum, S L

    1997-01-01

    Chronic bone infection, as attends periodontitis, is often complicated by severe osteolysis. While LPS is believed to be central to the pathogenesis of the osteolytic lesion, the mechanisms by which this bacteria-derived molecule promotes bone resorption are unknown. We find that LPS induces bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) to express c-src, a protooncogene product that we demonstrate is a specific marker of commitment to the osteoclast phenotype. We next turned to possible soluble mediators of LPS-induced c-src. Of a number of osteoclastogenic cytokines tested, only TNF-alpha mirrors the c-src-enhancing effect of LPS. Suggesting that LPS augmentation of c-src is TNF-mediated, endotoxin sequentially induces BMM expression of TNF, followed by c-src. TNF and c-src expression, by cultured BMMs derived from LPS-injected mice, reflects duration of exposure to circulating endotoxin, intimating that endotoxin's effect in vivo is also mediated by TNF. Consistent with these findings, thalidomide (which antagonizes TNF action) attenuates c-src induction by LPS. An anti-TNF antibody blocks LPS enhancement of c-src mRNA, validating the cytokine's modulating role in vitro. Using BMMs of TNF receptor-deleted mice, we demonstrate that TNF induction of c-src is transmitted through the cytokine's p55, but not p75, receptor. Most importantly, LPS administered to wild-type mice prompts osteoclast precursor differentiation, manifest by profound osteoclastogenesis in marrow cultured ex vivo, and by a profusion of marrow-residing cells expressing the osteoclast marker tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, in vivo. In contrast, LPS does not substantially enhance osteoclast proliferation in mice lacking the p55TNF receptor, confirming that LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis is mediated by TNF in vivo via this receptor. Thus, therapy targeting TNF and/or its p55 receptor presents itself as a means of preventing the osteolysis of chronic bacterial infection. PMID:9294124

  11. Protein phosphatase 2A mediates resensitization of the neurokinin 1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Jane E.; Roosterman, Dirk; Cottrell, Graeme S.; Padilla, Benjamin E.; Feld, Micha; Brand, Eva; Cedron, Wendy J.; Steinhoff, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are phosphorylated and interact with β-arrestins, which mediate desensitization and endocytosis. Endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) degrades neuropeptides in endosomes and can promote recycling. Although endocytosis, dephosphorylation, and recycling are accepted mechanisms of receptor resensitization, a large proportion of desensitized receptors can remain at the cell surface. We investigated whether reactivation of noninternalized, desensitized (phosphorylated) receptors mediates resensitization of the substance P (SP) neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R). Herein, we report a novel mechanism of resensitization by which protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is recruited to dephosphorylate noninternalized NK1R. A desensitizing concentration of SP reduced cell-surface SP binding sites by only 25%, and SP-induced Ca2+ signals were fully resensitized before cell-surface binding sites started to recover, suggesting resensitization of cell-surface-retained NK1R. SP induced association of β-arrestin1 and PP2A with noninternalized NK1R. β-Arrestin1 small interfering RNA knockdown prevented SP-induced association of cell-surface NK1R with PP2A, indicating that β-arrestin1 mediates this interaction. ECE-1 inhibition, by trapping β-arrestin1 in endosomes, also impeded SP-induced association of cell-surface NK1R with PP2A. Resensitization of NK1R signaling required both PP2A and ECE-1 activity. Thus, after stimulation with SP, PP2A interacts with noninternalized NK1R and mediates resensitization. PP2A interaction with NK1R requires β-arrestin1. ECE-1 promotes this process by releasing β-arrestin1 from NK1R in endosomes. These findings represent a novel mechanism of PP2A- and ECE-1-dependent resensitization of GPCRs. PMID:21795521

  12. Protein phosphatase 2A mediates resensitization of the neurokinin 1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jane E; Roosterman, Dirk; Cottrell, Graeme S; Padilla, Benjamin E; Feld, Micha; Brand, Eva; Cedron, Wendy J; Bunnett, Nigel W; Steinhoff, Martin

    2011-10-01

    Activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are phosphorylated and interact with β-arrestins, which mediate desensitization and endocytosis. Endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) degrades neuropeptides in endosomes and can promote recycling. Although endocytosis, dephosphorylation, and recycling are accepted mechanisms of receptor resensitization, a large proportion of desensitized receptors can remain at the cell surface. We investigated whether reactivation of noninternalized, desensitized (phosphorylated) receptors mediates resensitization of the substance P (SP) neurokinin 1 receptor (NK(1)R). Herein, we report a novel mechanism of resensitization by which protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is recruited to dephosphorylate noninternalized NK(1)R. A desensitizing concentration of SP reduced cell-surface SP binding sites by only 25%, and SP-induced Ca(2+) signals were fully resensitized before cell-surface binding sites started to recover, suggesting resensitization of cell-surface-retained NK(1)R. SP induced association of β-arrestin1 and PP2A with noninternalized NK(1)R. β-Arrestin1 small interfering RNA knockdown prevented SP-induced association of cell-surface NK(1)R with PP2A, indicating that β-arrestin1 mediates this interaction. ECE-1 inhibition, by trapping β-arrestin1 in endosomes, also impeded SP-induced association of cell-surface NK(1)R with PP2A. Resensitization of NK(1)R signaling required both PP2A and ECE-1 activity. Thus, after stimulation with SP, PP2A interacts with noninternalized NK(1)R and mediates resensitization. PP2A interaction with NK(1)R requires β-arrestin1. ECE-1 promotes this process by releasing β-arrestin1 from NK(1)R in endosomes. These findings represent a novel mechanism of PP2A- and ECE-1-dependent resensitization of GPCRs.

  13. Brain stem adenosine receptors modulate centrally mediated hypotensive responses in conscious rats: A review.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Noha N; Abdel-Rahman, Abdel A

    2015-05-01

    Adenosine is implicated in the modulation of cardiovascular responses either at the peripheral or at central level in experimental animals. However, there are no dedicated reviews on the involvement of adenosine in mediating the hypotensive response of centrally administered clonidine in general and specifically in aortically barodenervated rats (ABD). The conscious ABD rat model exhibits surgically induced baroreflex dysfunction and exaggerated hypotensive response, compared with conscious sham-operated (SO) rats. The current review focuses on, the role of adenosine receptors in blood pressure (BP) regulation and their possible crosstalk with other receptors e.g. imidazoline (I1) and alpha (α2A) adrenergic receptor (AR). The former receptor is a molecular target for clonidine, whose hypotensive effect is enhanced approx. 3-fold in conscious ABD rats. We also discussed how the balance between the brain stem adenosine A1 and A2A receptors is regulated by baroreceptors and how such balance influences the centrally mediated hypotensive responses. The use of the ABD rat model yielded insight into the downstream signaling cascades following clonidine-evoked hypotension in a surgical model of baroreflex dysfunction. PMID:26257930

  14. Dual role of dopamine D(2)-like receptors in the mediation of conditioned and unconditioned fear.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Marcus Lira; de Oliveira, Amanda Ribeiro; Muthuraju, Sangu; Colombo, Ana Caroline; Saito, Viviane Mitsuko; Talbot, Teddy

    2015-11-14

    A reduction of dopamine release or D2 receptor blockade in the terminal fields of the mesolimbic system, particularly the amygdala, clearly reduces conditioned fear. Similar D2 receptor antagonism in the neural substrates of fear in the midbrain tectum attenuates the processing of unconditioned aversive information. However, the implications of the interplay between opposing actions of dopamine in the rostral and caudal segments of the dopaminergic system are still unclear. Previous studies from this laboratory have reported the effects of dopaminergic drugs on behavior in rats in the elevated plus maze, auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) recorded from the midbrain tectum, fear-potentiated startle, and conditioned freezing. These findings led to an interesting framework on the functional roles of dopamine in both anxiety and fear states. Dopamine D2 receptor inhibition in the terminal fields of the mesolimbic dopamine system generally causes anxiolytic-like effects, whereas the activity of midbrain substrates of unconditioned fear are enhanced by D2 receptor antagonists, suggesting that D2 receptor-mediated mechanisms play opposing roles in fear/anxiety processes, depending on the brain region under study. Dopamine appears to mediate conditioned fear by acting at rostral levels of the brain and regulate unconditioned fear at the midbrain level, likely by reducing the sensorimotor gating of aversive events.

  15. Receptor-mediated delivery of photoprotective agents by low-density lipoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Mosley, S.T.; Yang, Y.L.; Falck, J.R.; Anderson, R.G.W.

    1984-12-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) has been used to deliver toxic molecules to cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. In these studies, the cholesteryl ester core of LDL was replaced with a lipophilic, toxic molecule. The authors report that photoprotective azo dyes can be stably incorporated into LDL, and that this reconstituted LDL protects cells from the photosensitizing action of pyrene methanol (PM) in a receptor-dependent process. The photoprotective action of the azo dye is due to its ability to scavenge singlet oxygen that is produced by the photosensitive agent in response to UV light.

  16. Investigations of receptor-mediated phagocytosis by hormone-induced (imprinted) Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    PubMed

    Kovács, P; Sundermann, C A; Csaba, G

    1996-08-15

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis by Tetrahvmena pyriformis was studied using tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate-labeled concanavalin A (TRITC-Con A) with fluorescence and confocal microscopy. In the presence of insulin, or 24 h after insulin pretreatment (hormonal imprinting), the binding and uptake of TRITC-Con A increased when compared to controls, owing to the binding of TRITC-Con A to sugar oligomers of insulin receptors. Mannose inhibited the binding of Con A, thus demonstrating the specificity of binding. Histamine, a phagocytosis-promoting factor in mammals and Tetrahymena, and galactose, did not influence the uptake of TRITC-Con A.

  17. Receptor-Mediated Drug Delivery to Macrophages in Chemotherapy of Leishmaniasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha; Chaudhuri, Gautam; Arora, Sunil K.; Sehgal, Shobha; Basu, Sandip K.

    1989-05-01

    Methotrexate coupled to maleylated bovine serum albumin was taken up efficiently through the ``scavenger'' receptors present on macrophages and led to selective killing of intracellular Leishmania mexicana amazonensis amastigotes in cultured hamster peritoneal macrophages. The drug conjugate was nearly 100 times as effective as free methotrexate in eliminating the intracellular parasites. Furthermore, in a model of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in hamsters, the drug conjugate brought about more than 90% reduction in the size of footpad lesions within 11 days. In contrast, the free drug at a similar concentration did not significantly affect lesion size. These studies demonstrate the potential of receptor-mediated drug delivery in the therapy of macrophage-associated diseases.

  18. Protein kinase C regulates tonic GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition in the hippocampus and thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Damian P; Smart, Trevor G

    2013-01-01

    Tonic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) is an important regulator of neuronal excitability. Phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC) provides a key mode of regulation for synaptic GABAARs underlying phasic inhibition; however, less attention has been focused on the plasticity of tonic inhibition and whether this can also be modulated by receptor phosphorylation. To address this issue, we used whole-cell patch clamp recording in acute murine brain slices at both room and physiological temperatures to examine the effects of PKC-mediated phosphorylation on tonic inhibition. Recordings from dentate gyrus granule cells in the hippocampus and dorsal lateral geniculate relay neurons in the thalamus demonstrated that PKC activation caused downregulation of tonic GABAAR-mediated inhibition. Conversely, inhibition of PKC resulted in an increase in tonic GABAAR activity. These findings were corroborated by experiments on human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing recombinant α4β2δ GABAARs, which represent a key extrasynaptic GABAAR isoform in the hippocampus and thalamus. Using bath application of low GABA concentrations to mimic activation by ambient neurotransmitter, we demonstrated a similar inhibition of receptor function following PKC activation at physiological temperature. Live cell imaging revealed that this was correlated with a loss of cell surface GABAARs. The inhibitory effects of PKC activation on α4β2δ GABAAR activity appeared to be mediated by direct phosphorylation at a previously identified site on the β2 subunit, serine 410. These results indicate that PKC-mediated phosphorylation can be an important physiological regulator of tonic GABAAR-mediated inhibition. PMID:24102973

  19. Roles of OA1 octopamine receptor and Dop1 dopamine receptor in mediating appetitive and aversive reinforcement revealed by RNAi studies.

    PubMed

    Awata, Hiroko; Wakuda, Ryo; Ishimaru, Yoshiyasu; Matsuoka, Yuji; Terao, Kanta; Katata, Satomi; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro; Mizunami, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Revealing reinforcing mechanisms in associative learning is important for elucidation of brain mechanisms of behavior. In mammals, dopamine neurons are thought to mediate both appetitive and aversive reinforcement signals. Studies using transgenic fruit-flies suggested that dopamine neurons mediate both appetitive and aversive reinforcements, through the Dop1 dopamine receptor, but our studies using octopamine and dopamine receptor antagonists and using Dop1 knockout crickets suggested that octopamine neurons mediate appetitive reinforcement and dopamine neurons mediate aversive reinforcement in associative learning in crickets. To fully resolve this issue, we examined the effects of silencing of expression of genes that code the OA1 octopamine receptor and Dop1 and Dop2 dopamine receptors by RNAi in crickets. OA1-silenced crickets exhibited impairment in appetitive learning with water but not in aversive learning with sodium chloride solution, while Dop1-silenced crickets exhibited impairment in aversive learning but not in appetitive learning. Dop2-silenced crickets showed normal scores in both appetitive learning and aversive learning. The results indicate that octopamine neurons mediate appetitive reinforcement via OA1 and that dopamine neurons mediate aversive reinforcement via Dop1 in crickets, providing decisive evidence that neurotransmitters and receptors that mediate appetitive reinforcement indeed differ among different species of insects. PMID:27412401

  20. Roles of OA1 octopamine receptor and Dop1 dopamine receptor in mediating appetitive and aversive reinforcement revealed by RNAi studies

    PubMed Central

    Awata, Hiroko; Wakuda, Ryo; Ishimaru, Yoshiyasu; Matsuoka, Yuji; Terao, Kanta; Katata, Satomi; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro; Mizunami, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Revealing reinforcing mechanisms in associative learning is important for elucidation of brain mechanisms of behavior. In mammals, dopamine neurons are thought to mediate both appetitive and aversive reinforcement signals. Studies using transgenic fruit-flies suggested that dopamine neurons mediate both appetitive and aversive reinforcements, through the Dop1 dopamine receptor, but our studies using octopamine and dopamine receptor antagonists and using Dop1 knockout crickets suggested that octopamine neurons mediate appetitive reinforcement and dopamine neurons mediate aversive reinforcement in associative learning in crickets. To fully resolve this issue, we examined the effects of silencing of expression of genes that code the OA1 octopamine receptor and Dop1 and Dop2 dopamine receptors by RNAi in crickets. OA1-silenced crickets exhibited impairment in appetitive learning with water but not in aversive learning with sodium chloride solution, while Dop1-silenced crickets exhibited impairment in aversive learning but not in appetitive learning. Dop2-silenced crickets showed normal scores in both appetitive learning and aversive learning. The results indicate that octopamine neurons mediate appetitive reinforcement via OA1 and that dopamine neurons mediate aversive reinforcement via Dop1 in crickets, providing decisive evidence that neurotransmitters and receptors that mediate appetitive reinforcement indeed differ among different species of insects. PMID:27412401

  1. Glutamate receptor-mediated oligodendrocyte toxicity in periventricular leukomalacia: a protective role for topiramate.

    PubMed

    Follett, Pamela L; Deng, Wenbin; Dai, Weimin; Talos, Delia M; Massillon, Leon J; Rosenberg, Paul A; Volpe, Joseph J; Jensen, Frances E

    2004-05-01

    Periventricular leukomalacia is a form of hypoxic-ischemic cerebral white matter injury seen most commonly in premature infants and is the major antecedent of cerebral palsy. Glutamate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity is a predominant mechanism of hypoxic-ischemic injury to developing cerebral white matter. We have demonstrated previously the protective effect of AMPA-kainate-type glutamate receptor blockade in a rodent model of periventricular leukomalacia. The present study explores the therapeutic potential of glutamate receptor blockade for hypoxic-ischemic white matter injury. We demonstrate that AMPA receptors are expressed on developing human oligodendrocytes that populate fetal white matter at 23-32 weeks gestation, the period of highest risk for periventricular leukomalacia. We show that the clinically available anticonvulsant topiramate, when administered post-insult in vivo, is protective against selective hypoxic-ischemic white matter injury and decreases the subsequent neuromotor deficits. We further demonstrate that topiramate attenuates AMPA-kainate receptor-mediated cell death and calcium influx, as well as kainate-evoked currents in developing oligodendrocytes, similar to the AMPA-kainate receptor antagonist 6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo-(f)quinoxaline-2,3-dione (NBQX). Notably, protective doses of NBQX and topiramate do not affect normal maturation and proliferation of oligodendrocytes either in vivo or in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that AMPA-kainate receptor blockade may have potential for translation as a therapeutic strategy for periventricular leukomalacia and that the mechanism of protective efficacy of topiramate is caused at least in part by attenuation of excitotoxic injury to premyelinating oligodendrocytes in developing white matter.

  2. Receptor-mediated control of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and apoptotic volume decrease (AVD).

    PubMed

    Okada, Y; Maeno, E; Shimizu, T; Dezaki, K; Wang, J; Morishima, S

    2001-04-01

    A fundamental property of animal cells is the ability to regulate their own cell volume. Even under hypotonic stress imposed by either decreased extracellular or increased intracellular osmolarity, the cells can re-adjust their volume after transient osmotic swelling by a mechanism known as regulatory volume decrease (RVD). In most cell types, RVD is accomplished mainly by KCl efflux induced by parallel activation of K+ and Cl- channels. We have studied the molecular mechanism of RVD in a human epithelial cell line (Intestine 407). Osmotic swelling results in a significant increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and thereby activates intermediate-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ (IK) channels. Osmotic swelling also induces ATP release from the cells to the extracellular compartment. Released ATP stimulates purinergic ATP (P2Y2) receptors, thereby inducing phospholipase C-mediated Ca2+ mobilization. Thus, RVD is facilitated by stimulation of P2Y2 receptors due to augmentation of IK channels. In contrast, stimulation of another G protein-coupled Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaR) enhances the activity of volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying Cl- channels, thereby facilitating RVD. Therefore, it is possible that Ca2+ efflux stimulated by swelling-induced and P2Y2 receptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization activates the CaR, thereby secondarily upregulating the volume-regulatory Cl- conductance. On the other hand, the initial process towards apoptotic cell death is coupled to normotonic cell shrinkage, called apoptotic volume decrease (AVD). Stimulation of death receptors, such as TNF receptor and Fas, induces AVD and thereafter biochemical apoptotic events in human lymphoid (U937), human epithelial (HeLa), mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma hybrid (NG108-15) and rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells. In those cells exhibiting AVD, facilitation of RVD is always observed. Both AVD induction and RVD facilitation as well as succeeding apoptotic events can be abolished by

  3. H2 receptor-mediated facilitation and H3 receptor-mediated inhibition of noradrenaline release in the guinea-pig brain.

    PubMed

    Timm, J; Marr, I; Werthwein, S; Elz, S; Schunack, W; Schlicker, E

    1998-03-01

    , hippocampal or hypothalamic slices were used instead of cortical slices. The Ca2+-induced tritium overflow in guinea-pig cortex slices was inhibited by histamine (in the presence of ranitidine); this effect was abolished by clobenpropit. In slices superfused in the presence of clobenpropit, impromidine failed to facilitate the Ca2+-evoked tritium overflow. The electrically evoked tritium overflow in mouse brain cortex slices was inhibited by histamine by about 60% (both in the absence or presence of ranitidine). The inhibitory effect of histamine was abolished (but not reversed) by clobenpropit. In conclusion, noradrenaline release in the guinea-pig brain cortex is inhibited via presynaptic H3 receptors and facilitated via H2 receptors not located presynaptically. In the mouse brain cortex, only inhibitory H3 receptors occur. The extent of the H3 receptor-mediated effect is more marked in the mouse than in the guinea-pig brain cortex.

  4. Bradykinin as a pain mediator: receptors are localized to sensory neurons, and antagonists have analgesic actions

    SciTech Connect

    Steranka, L.R.; Manning, D.C.; DeHaas, C.J.; Ferkany, J.W.; Borosky, S.A.; Connor, J.R.; Vavrek, R.J.; Stewart, J.M.; Snyder, S.H.

    1988-05-01

    Autoradiographic studies localize (/sup 3/H)bradykinin receptor binding sites to the substantia gelatinosa, dorsal root, and a subset of small cells in both the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia of the guinea pig. (/sup 3/H)Bradykinin labeling is also observed over myocardinal/coronary visceral afferent fibers. The localization of (/sup 3/H)bradykinin receptors to nociceptive pathways supports a role for bradykinin in pain mediation. Several bradkykinin antagonists block bradykinin-induced acute vascular pain in the rat. The bradykinin antagonists also relieve bradykinin- and urate-induced hyperalgesia in the rat paw. These results indicate that bradykinin is a physiologic mediator of pain and that bradykinin antagonists have analgesic activity in both acute and chronic pain models.

  5. An engineered substance P variant for receptor-mediated delivery of synthetic antibodies into tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Shahir S; Luchniak, Anna; Uysal, Serdar; Brawley, Crista M; Rock, Ronald S; Kossiakoff, Anthony A

    2009-07-01

    We have developed and tested a robust delivery method for the transport of proteins to the cytoplasm of mammalian cells without compromising the integrity of the cell membrane. This receptor-mediated delivery (RMD) technology utilizes a variant of substance P (SP), a neuropeptide that is rapidly internalized upon interaction with the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R). Cargos in the form of synthetic antibody fragments (sABs) were conjugated to the engineered SP variant (SPv) and efficiently internalized by NK1R-expressing cells. The sABs used here were generated to bind specific conformational forms of actin. The internalized proteins appear to escape the endosome and retain their binding activity within the cells as demonstrated by co-localization with the actin cytoskeleton. Further, since the NK1R is over-expressed in many cancers, SPv-mediated delivery provides a highly specific method for therapeutic utilization of affinity reagents targeting intracellular processes in diseased tissue.

  6. Retinoic acid receptor alpha mediates growth inhibition by retinoids in human colon carcinoma HT29 cells.

    PubMed

    Nicke, B; Kaiser, A; Wiedenmann, B; Riecken, E O; Rosewicz, S

    1999-08-11

    Although retinoids have been suggested to inhibit chemically induced colon carcinogenesis, the molecular mechanisms underlying retinoid-mediated growth regulation in colon carcinoma cells are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the biological effects of retinoids on growth in HT29 colon carcinoma cells. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment of HT29 cells resulted in a profound inhibition of anchorage-independent growth without biochemical or morphological evidence for induction of differentiation. Treatment with the selective RARalpha agonist Ro 40-6055 completely mimicked the effects of ATRA on growth and transactivation of a betaRAREx2-luciferase reporter construct, while RARbeta- and gamma-specific analogues were ineffective. Furthermore, ATRA-regulated growth and transactivation could be completely blocked by a RARalpha-selective receptor antagonist. Thus, ATRA potently inhibits anchorage-independent growth in HT29 cells and this effect is mainly if not exclusively mediated by the retinoic acid receptor alpha.

  7. Essential role of endocytosis for interleukin-4-receptor-mediated JAK/STAT signalling.

    PubMed

    Kurgonaite, Kristina; Gandhi, Hetvi; Kurth, Thomas; Pautot, Sophie; Schwille, Petra; Weidemann, Thomas; Bökel, Christian

    2015-10-15

    Many important signalling cascades operate through specialized signalling endosomes, but a corresponding mechanism has as yet not been described for hematopoietic cytokine receptors. Based on live-cell affinity measurements, we recently proposed that ligand-induced interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) complex formation and thus JAK/STAT pathway activation requires a local subcellular increase in receptor density. Here, we show that this concentration step is provided by the internalization of IL-4R subunits through a constitutive, Rac1-, Pak- and actin-mediated endocytosis route that causes IL-4R subunits to become enriched by about two orders of magnitude within a population of cortical endosomes. Consistently, ligand-induced receptor dimers are preferentially detected within these endosomes. IL-4 signalling can be blocked by pharmacological inhibitors targeting the actin polymerization machinery driving receptor internalization, placing endocytosis unambigously upstream of receptor activation. Taken together, these observations demonstrate a role for endocytosis that is mechanistically distinct from the scaffolding function of signalling endosomes in other pathways.

  8. Metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated signaling dampens the HPA axis response to restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Evanson, Nathan K; Herman, James P

    2015-10-15

    Glutamate is an important neurotransmitter in the regulation of the neural portion of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, and signals through ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. In the current studies we investigated the role of hypothalamic paraventricular group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in the regulation of the HPA axis response to restraint stress in rats. Direct injection of the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) into the PVN prior to restraint leads to blunting of the HPA axis response in awake animals. Consistent with this result, infusion of the group I receptor antagonist hexyl-homoibotenic acid (HIBO) potentiates the HPA axis response to restraint. The excitatory effect of blocking paraventricular group I metabotropic glutamate signaling is blocked by co-administration of dexamethasone into the PVN. However, the inhibitory effect of DHPG is not affected by co-administration of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM-251 into the PVN. Together, these results suggest that paraventricular group I metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling acts to dampen HPA axis reactivity. This effect appears to be similar to the rapid inhibitory effect of glucocorticoids at the PVN, but is not mediated by endocannabinoid signaling.

  9. New Insights into VacA Intoxication Mediated through Its Cell Surface Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yahiro, Kinnosuke; Hirayama, Toshiya; Moss, Joel; Noda, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a major cause of gastroduodenal diseases, produces VacA, a vacuolating cytotoxin associated with gastric inflammation and ulceration. The C-terminal domain of VacA plays a crucial role in receptor recognition on target cells. We have previously identified three proteins (i.e., RPTPα, RPTPβ, and LRP1) that serve as VacA receptors. These receptors contribute to the internalization of VacA into epithelial cells, activate signal transduction pathways, and contribute to cell death and gastric ulceration. In addition, other factors (e.g., CD18, sphingomyelin) have also been identified as cell-surface, VacA-binding proteins. Since we believe that, following interactions with its host cell receptors, VacA participates in events leading to disease, a better understanding of the cellular function of VacA receptors may provide valuable information regarding the mechanisms underlying the pleiotropic actions of VacA and the pathogenesis of H. pylori-mediated disease. In this review, we focus on VacA receptors and their role in events leading to cell damage. PMID:27187473

  10. Functional inactivation of CXC chemokine receptor 4-mediated responses through SOCS3 up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Silvia F; Hernanz-Falcón, Patricia; Rodríguez-Frade, José Miguel; De Ana, Ana Martín; Garzón, Ruth; Carvalho-Pinto, Carla; Vila-Coro, Antonio J; Zaballos, Angel; Balomenos, Dimitrios; Martínez-A, Carlos; Mellado, Mario

    2002-08-01

    Hematopoietic cell growth, differentiation, and chemotactic responses require coordinated action between cytokines and chemokines. Cytokines promote receptor oligomerization, followed by Janus kinase (JAK) kinase activation, signal transducers and transactivators of transcription (STAT) nuclear translocation, and transcription of cytokine-responsive genes. These include genes that encode a family of negative regulators of cytokine signaling, the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins. After binding their specific receptors, chemokines trigger receptor dimerization and activate the JAK/STAT pathway. We show that SOCS3 overexpression or up-regulation, stimulated by a cytokine such as growth hormone, impairs the response to CXCL12, measured by Ca(2+) flux and chemotaxis in vitro and in vivo. This effect is mediated by SOCS3 binding to the CXC chemokine receptor 4 receptor, blocking JAK/STAT and Galpha(i) pathways, without interfering with cell surface chemokine receptor expression. The data provide clear evidence for signaling cross-talk between cytokine and chemokine responses in building a functional immune system.

  11. Distinct combinations of variant ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate thermosensation and hygrosensation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Knecht, Zachary A; Silbering, Ana F; Ni, Lina; Klein, Mason; Budelli, Gonzalo; Bell, Rati; Abuin, Liliane; Ferrer, Anggie J; Samuel, Aravinthan DT; Benton, Richard; Garrity, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Ionotropic Receptors (IRs) are a large subfamily of variant ionotropic glutamate receptors present across Protostomia. While these receptors are most extensively studied for their roles in chemosensory detection, recent work has implicated two family members, IR21a and IR25a, in thermosensation in Drosophila. Here we characterize one of the most evolutionarily deeply conserved receptors, IR93a, and show that it is co-expressed and functions with IR21a and IR25a to mediate physiological and behavioral responses to cool temperatures. IR93a is also co-expressed with IR25a and a distinct receptor, IR40a, in a discrete population of sensory neurons in the sacculus, a multi-chambered pocket within the antenna. We demonstrate that this combination of receptors is required for neuronal responses to dry air and behavioral discrimination of humidity differences. Our results identify IR93a as a common component of molecularly and cellularly distinct IR pathways important for thermosensation and hygrosensation in insects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17879.001 PMID:27656904

  12. Modeling of cell adhesion and deformation mediated by receptor-ligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Golestaneh, Amirreza F; Nadler, Ben

    2016-04-01

    The current work is devoted to studying adhesion and deformation of biological cells mediated by receptors and ligands in order to enhance the existing models. Due to the sufficient in-plane continuity and fluidity of the phospholipid molecules, an isotropic continuum fluid membrane is proposed for modeling the cell membrane. The developed constitutive model accounts for the influence of the presence of receptors on the deformation and adhesion of the cell membrane through the introduction of spontaneous area dilation. Motivated by physics, a nonlinear receptor-ligand binding force is introduced based on charge-induced dipole interaction. Diffusion of the receptors on the membrane is governed by the receptor-ligand interaction via Fick's Law and receptor-ligand interaction. The developed model is then applied to study the deformation and adhesion of a biological cell. The proposed model is used to study the role of the material, binding, spontaneous area dilation and environmental properties on the deformation and adhesion of the cell.

  13. Modeling of cell adhesion and deformation mediated by receptor-ligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Golestaneh, Amirreza F; Nadler, Ben

    2016-04-01

    The current work is devoted to studying adhesion and deformation of biological cells mediated by receptors and ligands in order to enhance the existing models. Due to the sufficient in-plane continuity and fluidity of the phospholipid molecules, an isotropic continuum fluid membrane is proposed for modeling the cell membrane. The developed constitutive model accounts for the influence of the presence of receptors on the deformation and adhesion of the cell membrane through the introduction of spontaneous area dilation. Motivated by physics, a nonlinear receptor-ligand binding force is introduced based on charge-induced dipole interaction. Diffusion of the receptors on the membrane is governed by the receptor-ligand interaction via Fick's Law and receptor-ligand interaction. The developed model is then applied to study the deformation and adhesion of a biological cell. The proposed model is used to study the role of the material, binding, spontaneous area dilation and environmental properties on the deformation and adhesion of the cell. PMID:26093646

  14. Characterization of the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor which mediates contraction of the human isolated basilar artery.

    PubMed

    Parsons, A A; Whalley, E T

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study which investigated the identity of the receptor involved in 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) mediated contraction of the human basilar artery in vitro. 5-HT and a variety of 5-HT receptor agonists contracted human isolated basilar artery with a rank order of agonist potency: 5-carboxamidotryptamine greater than 5-HT greater than GR43175 much much greater than 2-methyl-5-HT. The maximum response produced by these agonists differed. The contractile responses to both 5-HT and GR43175 were resistant to antagonism by the 5-HT2 antagonist ketanserin and the 5-HT3 antagonist GR38032, indicating that neither 5-HT nor GR43175 activate 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors in this tissue. In striking contrast, methiothepin (an antagonist at 5-HT1-like receptors) proved a potent antagonist of the contractile actions of both 5-HT and GR43175. Methiothepin did not antagonize the contractile response to the thromboxane-A2 mimetic U-46619. It is concluded that 5-HT and GR43175 contract the human isolated basilar artery by activating 5-HT1-like receptors. It is suggested that the antimigraine action of GR43175 may reflect its ability to constrict certain cranial arteries via 5-HT1-like receptor activation. PMID:2544283

  15. Augmentation of Antigen Receptor–mediated Responses by Histamine H1 Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Banu, Yasmin; Watanabe, Takeshi

    1999-01-01

    Histamine is considered one of the important mediators of immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation, and acts via G protein–coupled receptors. Here, we report that histamine may affect antigen receptor–mediated immune responses of T and B cells via a signal(s) from histamine H1 receptors (H1Rs). Histamine exhibited enhancing effects on the in vitro proliferative responses of anti-CD3ε– or anti-IgM–stimulated spleen T and B cells, respectively, at the culture condition that the fetal calf serum was dialyzed before culture and c-kit–positive cells were depleted from the spleen cells. In studies of histamine H1R knockout mice, H1R-deficient T cells had low proliferative responses to anti-CD3ε cross-linking or antigen stimulation in vitro. B cells from H1R-deficient mice were also affected, demonstrating low proliferative responses to B cell receptor cross-linking. Antibody production against trinitrophenyl-Ficoll was reduced in H1R-deficient mice. Other aspects of T and B cell function were normal in the H1R knockout mice. H1R-deficient T and B cells showed normal responses upon stimulation with interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, CD40 ligand, CD40 ligand plus IL-4, and lipopolysaccharide. Collectively, these results imply that the signal generated by histamine through H1R augments antigen receptor–mediated immune responses, suggesting cross-talk between G protein–coupled receptors and antigen receptor–mediated signaling. PMID:9989982

  16. Receptor-mediated uptake of low density lipoprotein stimulates bile acid synthesis by cultured rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Junker, L.H.; Davis, R.A. )

    1989-12-01

    The cellular mechanisms responsible for the lipoprotein-mediated stimulation of bile acid synthesis in cultured rat hepatocytes were investigated. Adding 280 micrograms/ml of cholesterol in the form of human or rat low density lipoprotein (LDL) to the culture medium increased bile acid synthesis by 1.8- and 1.6-fold, respectively. As a result of the uptake of LDL, the synthesis of (14C)cholesterol from (2-14C)acetate was decreased and cellular cholesteryl ester mass was increased. Further studies demonstrated that rat apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich high density lipoprotein (HDL) both stimulated bile acid synthesis 1.5-fold, as well as inhibited the formation of (14C)cholesterol from (2-14C)acetate. Reductive methylation of LDL blocked the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, as well as the stimulation of bile acid synthesis, suggesting that these processes require receptor-mediated uptake. To identify the receptors responsible, competitive binding studies using 125I-labeled apoE-free LDL and 125I-labeled apoE-rich HDL were performed. Both apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich HDL displayed an equal ability to compete for binding of the other, suggesting that a receptor or a group of receptors that recognizes both apolipoproteins is involved. Additional studies show that hepatocytes from cholestyramine-treated rats displayed 2.2- and 3.4-fold increases in the binding of apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich HDL, respectively. These data show for the first time that receptor-mediated uptake of LDL by the liver is intimately linked to processes activating bile acid synthesis.

  17. P2U-receptor mediated endothelium-dependent but nitric oxide-independent vascular relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Malmsjö, M; Edvinsson, L; Erlinge, D

    1998-01-01

    −3 M) totally abolished the remaining ATP and UTP-dilatation. This indicates a dilatation mediated by an endothelium-dependent non-NO factor, probably EDHF. Agonist potency (UTP>ATP≈#62;2-MeSATP), indicates that the EDHF-mediated dilatation was stimulated by a P2U-receptor, possibly by a selective pyrimidine-receptor. In contrast, a P2Y-receptor stimulated NO-mediated dilatation (2-MeSATP=ATP>UTP). In conclusion, the dilator effects of ATP and especially UTP can be mediated by an endothelium-dependent non-NO-mediated mechanism, probably EDHF, mediated by a P2U-receptor, possibly a selective pyrimidine-receptor, while NO-mediated dilatation is stimulated mainly by a P2Y1-receptor. Furthermore, the EDHF-dilatation is dependent on the resting tone of the blood vessel. PMID:9517392

  18. P2U-receptor mediated endothelium-dependent but nitric oxide-independent vascular relaxation.

    PubMed

    Malmsjö, M; Edvinsson, L; Erlinge, D

    1998-02-01

    (-3) M) totally abolished the remaining ATP and UTP-dilatation. This indicates a dilatation mediated by an endothelium-dependent non-NO factor, probably EDHF. 5. Agonist potency (UTP>ATP>2-MeSATP), indicates that the EDHF-mediated dilatation was stimulated by a P2U-receptor, possibly by a selective pyrimidine-receptor. In contrast, a P2Y-receptor stimulated NO-mediated dilatation (2-MeSATP=ATP>UTP). 6. In conclusion, the dilator effects of ATP and especially UTP can be mediated by an endothelium-dependent non-NO-mediated mechanism, probably EDHF, mediated by a P2U-receptor, possibly a selective pyrimidine-receptor, while NO-mediated dilatation is stimulated mainly by a P2Y1-receptor. Furthermore, the EDHF-dilatation is dependent on the resting tone of the blood vessel.

  19. GRK2 protein-mediated transphosphorylation contributes to loss of function of μ-opioid receptors induced by neuropeptide FF (NPFF2) receptors.

    PubMed

    Moulédous, Lionel; Froment, Carine; Dauvillier, Stéphanie; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Zajac, Jean-Marie; Mollereau, Catherine

    2012-04-13

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) interacts with specific receptors to modulate opioid functions in the central nervous system. On dissociated neurons and neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) transfected with NPFF receptors, NPFF acts as a functional antagonist of μ-opioid (MOP) receptors by attenuating the opioid-induced inhibition of calcium conductance. In the SH-SY5Y model, MOP and NPFF(2) receptors have been shown to heteromerize. To understand the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-opioid activity of NPFF, we have investigated the phosphorylation status of the MOP receptor using phospho-specific antibody and mass spectrometry. Similarly to direct opioid receptor stimulation, activation of the NPFF(2) receptor by [D-Tyr-1-(NMe)Phe-3]NPFF (1DMe), an analog of NPFF, induced the phosphorylation of Ser-377 of the human MOP receptor. This heterologous phosphorylation was unaffected by inhibition of second messenger-dependent kinases and, contrarily to homologous phosphorylation, was prevented by inactivation of G(i/o) proteins by pertussis toxin. Using siRNA knockdown we could demonstrate that 1DMe-induced Ser-377 cross-phosphorylation and MOP receptor loss of function were mediated by the G protein receptor kinase GRK2. In addition, mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the phosphorylation pattern of MOP receptors was qualitatively similar after treatment with the MOP agonist Tyr-D-Ala-Gly (NMe)-Phe-Gly-ol (DAMGO) or after treatment with the NPFF agonist 1DMe, but the level of multiple phosphorylation was more intense after DAMGO. Finally, NPFF(2) receptor activation was sufficient to recruit β-arrestin2 to the MOP receptor but not to induce its internalization. These data show that NPFF-induced heterologous desensitization of MOP receptor signaling is mediated by GRK2 and could involve transphosphorylation within the heteromeric receptor complex. PMID:22375000

  20. GRK2 protein-mediated transphosphorylation contributes to loss of function of μ-opioid receptors induced by neuropeptide FF (NPFF2) receptors.

    PubMed

    Moulédous, Lionel; Froment, Carine; Dauvillier, Stéphanie; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Zajac, Jean-Marie; Mollereau, Catherine

    2012-04-13

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) interacts with specific receptors to modulate opioid functions in the central nervous system. On dissociated neurons and neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) transfected with NPFF receptors, NPFF acts as a functional antagonist of μ-opioid (MOP) receptors by attenuating the opioid-induced inhibition of calcium conductance. In the SH-SY5Y model, MOP and NPFF(2) receptors have been shown to heteromerize. To understand the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-opioid activity of NPFF, we have investigated the phosphorylation status of the MOP receptor using phospho-specific antibody and mass spectrometry. Similarly to direct opioid receptor stimulation, activation of the NPFF(2) receptor by [D-Tyr-1-(NMe)Phe-3]NPFF (1DMe), an analog of NPFF, induced the phosphorylation of Ser-377 of the human MOP receptor. This heterologous phosphorylation was unaffected by inhibition of second messenger-dependent kinases and, contrarily to homologous phosphorylation, was prevented by inactivation of G(i/o) proteins by pertussis toxin. Using siRNA knockdown we could demonstrate that 1DMe-induced Ser-377 cross-phosphorylation and MOP receptor loss of function were mediated by the G protein receptor kinase GRK2. In addition, mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the phosphorylation pattern of MOP receptors was qualitatively similar after treatment with the MOP agonist Tyr-D-Ala-Gly (NMe)-Phe-Gly-ol (DAMGO) or after treatment with the NPFF agonist 1DMe, but the level of multiple phosphorylation was more intense after DAMGO. Finally, NPFF(2) receptor activation was sufficient to recruit β-arrestin2 to the MOP receptor but not to induce its internalization. These data show that NPFF-induced heterologous desensitization of MOP receptor signaling is mediated by GRK2 and could involve transphosphorylation within the heteromeric receptor complex.

  1. B-type receptor for platelet-derived growth factor mediates a chemotactic response by means of ligand-induced activation of the receptor protein-tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Westermark, B; Siegbahn, A; Heldin, C H; Claesson-Welsh, L

    1990-01-01

    Porcine aorta endothelial cells are devoid of receptors for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). We have transfected such cells with cDNA for the PDGF B-type receptor, both the wild-type receptor and a mutant form of the receptor (K634A), in which the putative nucleotide-binding lysine of the protein-tyrosine domain has been changed to alanine. Immunoprecipitation studies of metabolically labeled cells showed that both types of receptors were synthesized and processed to the mature form of Mr 190,000. In cells expressing the wild-type receptor, PDGF-BB, the natural ligand for the B-type receptor, induced membrane ruffling and reorganization of actin. Such a response has previously been seen in cells expressing the natural PDGF B-type receptor in response to PDGF-BB. No such effect was induced in nontransfected cells or in cells expressing the K634A mutant receptor. PDGF was also shown to be chemotactic for cells expressing the wild-type receptor, whereas no chemotactic response was elicited in control cells or in cells expressing the K634A mutant receptor. Our study thus provides formal evidence that the PDGF B-type receptor mediates a motility response including actin reorganization and chemotaxis. Furthermore, the results establish a role for the receptor-associated protein-tyrosine kinase in the transduction of the chemotactic signal. Images PMID:2153283

  2. Posttranslational Modification of HOIP Blocks Toll-Like Receptor 4-Mediated Linear-Ubiquitin-Chain Formation

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, James; Rodgers, Mary A.; Shi, Mude; Amatya, Rina; Hostager, Bruce; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Gao, Shou-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Linear ubiquitination is an atypical posttranslational modification catalyzed by the linear-ubiquitin-chain assembly complex (LUBAC), containing HOIP, HOIL-1L, and Sharpin. LUBAC facilitates NF-κB activation and inflammation upon receptor stimulation by ligating linear ubiquitin chains to critical signaling molecules. Indeed, linear-ubiquitination-dependent signaling is essential to prevent pyogenic bacterial infections that can lead to death. While linear ubiquitination is essential for intracellular receptor signaling upon microbial infection, this response must be measured and stopped to avoid tissue damage and autoimmunity. While LUBAC is activated upon bacterial stimulation, the mechanisms regulating LUBAC activity in response to bacterial stimuli have remained elusive. We demonstrate that LUBAC activity itself is downregulated through ubiquitination, specifically, ubiquitination of the catalytic subunit HOIP at the carboxyl-terminal lysine 1056. Ubiquitination of Lys1056 dynamically altered HOIP conformation, resulting in the suppression of its catalytic activity. Consequently, HOIP Lys1056-to-Arg mutation led not only to persistent LUBAC activity but also to prolonged NF-κB activation induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide-mediated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) stimulation, whereas it showed no effect on NF-κB activation induced by CD40 stimulation. This study describes a novel posttranslational regulation of LUBAC-mediated linear ubiquitination that is critical for specifically directing TLR4-mediated NF-κB activation. PMID:26578682

  3. Slit2 involvement in glioma cell migration is mediated by Robo1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Mertsch, Sonja; Schmitz, Nicole; Jeibmann, Astrid; Geng, Jian-Guo; Paulus, Werner; Senner, Volker

    2008-03-01

    Slit and Robo proteins are evolutionarily conserved molecules whose interaction underlies axon guidance and neuronal precursor cell migration. During development secreted Slit proteins mediate chemorepulsive signals on cells expressing Robo receptors. Because similar molecular mechanisms may be utilized in glioma cell invasion and neuroblast migration, we studied the expression of Slit2 and its transmembrane receptor Robo1 as well as their functional role in migration in glioma cells. qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry of human specimens revealed that Slit2 was distinctly expressed by non-neoplastic neurons, but at only very low levels in fibrillary astrocytoma and glioblastoma. Robo1 also was mainly restricted to neurons in the normal brain, whereas astrocytic tumor cells in situ as well as glioblastoma cell lines overexpressed Robo1 at mRNA and protein levels. Recombinant human Slit2 in a concentration of 0.45 nM was repulsive for glioma cell lines in a modified Boyden chamber assay. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Robo1 in glioma cell lines neutralized the repulsive effect of Slit2, demonstrating that Robo1 served as the major Slit2 receptor. Our findings suggest that a chemorepulsive effect mediated by interaction of Slit2 and Robo1 participates in glioma cell guidance in the brain.

  4. Nanoscale imaging and mechanical analysis of Fc receptor-mediated macrophage phagocytosis against cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Mi; Liu, Lianqing; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yuechao; Xiao, Xiubin; Zhang, Weijing

    2014-02-18

    Fc receptor-mediated macrophage phagocytosis against cancer cells is an important mechanism in the immune therapy of cancers. Traditional research about macrophage phagocytosis was based on optical microscopy, which cannot reveal detailed information because of the 200-nm-resolution limit. Quantitatively investigating the macrophage phagocytosis at micro- and nanoscale levels is still scarce. The advent of atomic force microscopy (AFM) offers an excellent analytical instrument for quantitatively investigating the biological processes at single-cell and single-molecule levels under native conditions. In this work, we combined AFM and fluorescence microscopy to visualize and quantify the detailed changes in cell morphology and mechanical properties during the process of Fc receptor-mediated macrophage phagocytosis against cancer cells. Lymphoma cells were discernible by fluorescence staining. Then, the dynamic process of phagocytosis was observed by time-lapse optical microscopy. Next, AFM was applied to investigate the detailed cellular behaviors during macrophage phagocytosis under the guidance of fluorescence recognition. AFM imaging revealed the distinct features in cellular ultramicrostructures for the different steps of macrophage phagocytosis. AFM cell mechanical property measurements indicated that the binding of cancer cells to macrophages could make macrophages become stiffer. The experimental results provide novel insights in understanding the Fc-receptor-mediated macrophage phagocytosis.

  5. The miR-199-dynamin regulatory axis controls receptor-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Juan F; Canfrán-Duque, Alberto; Goedeke, Leigh; Suárez, Yajaira; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression that modulate many physiological processes; however, their role in regulating intracellular transport remains largely unknown. Intriguingly, we found that the dynamin (DNM) genes, a GTPase family of proteins responsible for endocytosis in eukaryotic cells, encode the conserved miR-199a and miR-199b family of miRNAs within their intronic sequences. Here, we demonstrate that miR-199a and miR-199b regulate endocytic transport by controlling the expression of important mediators of endocytosis such as clathrin heavy chain (CLTC), Rab5A, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and caveolin-1 (Cav-1). Importantly, miR-199a-5p and miR-199b-5p overexpression markedly inhibits CLTC, Rab5A, LDLR and Cav-1 expression, thus preventing receptor-mediated endocytosis in human cell lines (Huh7 and HeLa). Of note, miR-199a-5p inhibition increases target gene expression and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Taken together, our work identifies a new mechanism by which microRNAs regulate intracellular trafficking. In particular, we demonstrate that the DNM, miR-199a-5p and miR-199b-5p genes act as a bifunctional locus that regulates endocytosis, thus adding an unexpected layer of complexity in the regulation of intracellular trafficking.

  6. Localization of endothelin ETA and ETB receptor-mediated constriction in the renal microcirculation of rats.

    PubMed Central

    Endlich, K; Hoffend, J; Steinhausen, M

    1996-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to visualize endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated constriction in renal vessels of cortical and juxtamedullary glomeruli in the split hydronephrotic rat kidney in vivo and to functionally characterize the ET receptor subtypes involved. 2. ET-1 (10(-9) M) constricted preglomerular vessels (by 6-18%) and efferent arterioles (by 11-13%), and decreased glomerular blood flow (GBF, by 55%) of cortical and juxtamedullary glomeruli. 3. The ETA antagonist BQ-123 (10(-6) M), as well as the ETB antagonist BQ-788 (2 x 10(-7) M) and IRL 1038 (10(-6) M), shifted the concentration-response curve of GBF for ET-1 to the right by one order of magnitude. While BQ-123 antagonized ET-1 constriction only in preglomerular vessels, BQ-788 and IRL 1038 were effective both in preglomerular vessels and efferent arterioles. 4. The ETB agonist IRL 1620 (10(-8) M) reduced GBF by 50% and constricted efferent arterioles (by 20-33%) about two times more than preglomerular vessels (by 6-14%). 5. Our results suggest that in renal cortical and juxtamedullary vessels of rats, ET-1-induced preglomerular vasoconstriction is mediated by ETA and ETB receptors, while efferent vasoconstriction is predominantly mediated by ETB receptors, which might have important consequences for the regulation of glomerular filtration pressure by ET. PMID:8951723

  7. Cloning and expression profile of ionotropic receptors in the parasitoid wasp Microplitis mediator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan-Ning; Peng, Yong; Lu, Zi-Yun; Dhiloo, Khalid Hussain; Zheng, Yao; Shan, Shuang; Li, Rui-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Guo, Yu-Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Ionotropic receptors (IRs) mainly detect the acids and amines having great importance in many insect species, representing an ancient olfactory receptor family in insects. In the present work, we performed RNAseq of Microplitis mediator antennae and identified seventeen IRs. Full-length MmedIRs were cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the Hymenoptera IRs revealed that ten MmedIR genes encoded "antennal IRs" and seven encoded "divergent IRs". Among the IR25a orthologous groups, two genes, MmedIR25a.1 and MmedIR25a.2, were found in M. mediator. Gene structure analysis of MmedIR25a revealed a tandem duplication of IR25a in M. mediator. The tissue distribution and development specific expression of the MmedIR genes suggested that these genes showed a broad expression profile. Quantitative gene expression analysis showed that most of the genes are highly enriched in adult antennae, indicating the candidate chemosensory function of this family in parasitic wasps. Using immunocytochemistry, we confirmed that one co-receptor, MmedIR8a, was expressed in the olfactory sensory neurons. Our data will supply fundamental information for functional analysis of the IRs in parasitoid wasp chemoreception. PMID:27208597

  8. NK-1 receptor mediation of neurogenic plasma extravasation in rat skin.

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, P. V.; Helme, R. D.; Thomas, K. L.

    1989-01-01

    1. Plasma extravasation was induced by electrical nerve stimulation and by perfusion of tachykinins over a vacuum-induced blister base on rat footpad. 2. Stimulation of the sciatic nerve (18 V, 15 Hz, 0.5 ms) for 20 min produced a significant increase in the protein content of the perfusate. The response in capsaicin pretreated rats was only 4% of the control response. This indicates that the electrically-induced plasma extravasation response was mediated by capsaicin-sensitive sensory fibres. 3. Exogenous perfusion of the mammalian tachykinins substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B and the non-mammalian tachykinins physalaemin, kassinin and eledoisin was used to determine the tachykinin receptor type mediating the plasma extravasation response. Dose-response curves of the tachykinins (10(-9) M-10(-4) M) gave a rank order of potency of substance P = physalaemin greater than eledoisin greater than or equal to kassinin greater than neurokinin B = neurokinin A. 4. In addition, specific agonists of neurokinin receptors were perfused. Perfusion of [Glp6, D-Pro9] SP6-11 and [Glp6, L-Pro9]SP6-11 demonstrated that the L-Pro isomer was much more potent than the D-Pro isomer. 5. The rank order of potency and the greater potency of [Glp6, L-Pro9]SP6-11 over its D-isomer indicate an NK-1 neurokinin receptor mediates plasma extravasation in rat footpad skin. PMID:2477105

  9. PreBotzinger complex neurokinin-1 receptor-expressing neurons mediate opioid-induced respiratory depression.

    PubMed

    Montandon, Gaspard; Qin, Wuxuan; Liu, Hattie; Ren, Jun; Greer, John J; Horner, Richard L

    2011-01-26

    The analgesic properties of the opium poppy Papever somniferum were first mentioned by Hippocrates around 400 BC, and opioid analgesics remain the mainstay of pain management today. These drugs can cause the serious side-effect of respiratory depression that can be lethal with overdose, however the critical brain sites and neurochemical identity of the neurons mediating this depression are unknown. By locally manipulating neurotransmission in the adult rat, we identify the critical site of the medulla, the preBötzinger complex, that mediates opioid-induced respiratory depression in vivo. Here we show that opioids at the preBötzinger complex cause respiratory depression or fatal apnea, with anesthesia and deep-sleep being particularly vulnerable states for opioid-induced respiratory depression. Importantly, we establish that the preBötzinger complex is fully responsible for respiratory rate suppression following systemic administration of opioid analgesics. The site in the medulla most sensitive to opioids corresponds to a region expressing neurokinin-1 receptors, and we show in rhythmically active brainstem section in vitro that neurokinin-1 receptor-expressing preBötzinger complex neurons are selectively inhibited by opioids. In summary, neurokinin-1 receptor-expressing preBötzinger complex neurons constitute the critical site mediating opioid-induced respiratory rate depression, and the key therapeutic target for its prevention or reversal.

  10. Inflammatory mediators and insulin resistance in obesity: role of nuclear receptor signaling in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Lucía; Roszer, Tamás; Ricote, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    Visceral obesity is coupled to a general low-grade chronic inflammatory state characterized by macrophage activation and inflammatory cytokine production, leading to insulin resistance (IR). The balance between proinflammatory M1 and antiinflammatory M2 macrophage phenotypes within visceral adipose tissue appears to be crucially involved in the development of obesity-associated IR and consequent metabolic abnormalities. The ligand-dependent transcription factors peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) have recently been implicated in the determination of the M1/M2 phenotype. Liver X receptors (LXRs), which form another subgroup of the nuclear receptor superfamily, are also important regulators of proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. Disregulation of macrophage-mediated inflammation by PPARs and LXRs therefore underlies the development of IR. This review summarizes the role of PPAR and LXR signaling in macrophages and current knowledge about the impact of these actions in the manifestation of IR and obesity comorbidities such as liver steatosis and diabetic osteopenia.

  11. Transferrin protein nanospheres: a nanoplatform for receptor-mediated cancer cell labeling and gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Michael A.; Spurlin, Tighe A.; Tona, Alessandro; Elliott, John T.; Halter, Michael; Plant, Anne L.

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents preliminary results on the use of transferrin protein nanospheres (TfpNS) for targeting cancer cells in vitro. Protein nanospheres represent an easily prepared and modifiable nanoplatform for receptor-specific targeting, molecular imaging and gene delivery. Rhodamine B isothiocyanate conjugated TfpNS (RBITC-TfpNS) show significantly enhanced uptake in vitro in SK-MEL-28 human malignant melanoma cells known to overexpress transferrin receptors compared to controls. RBITCTfpNS labeling of the cancer cells is due to transferrin receptor-mediated uptake, as demonstrated by competitive inhibition with native transferrin. Initial fluorescence microscopy studies indicate GFP plasmid can be transfected into melanoma cells via GFP plasmid encapsulated by TfpNS.

  12. Receptor mediated uptake of paclitaxel from a synthetic high density lipoprotein nanocarrier.

    PubMed

    Mooberry, Linda K; Nair, Maya; Paranjape, Sulabha; McConathy, Walter J; Lacko, Andras G

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine the mechanism(s) whereby paclitaxel (PTX), is taken up by cancer cells, once encapsulated into synthetic/reconstituted high density lipoprotein (rHDL). The uptake of PTX was found to be facilitated by the scavenger receptor type B-1 (SR-B1) when drug-loaded rHDL particles were incubated with cells that express the SRB1 receptor. Studies with double-labeled, PTX containing rHDL nanoparticles showed that prostate cancer (PC-3) cells incorporated PTX primarily via a selective (SR-B1 type) uptake mechanism. In the presence of a 10-fold excess of plasma HDL, PTX uptake decreased to 30% of the control. These findings suggest that the incorporation of lipophilic drugs by cancer cells from rHDL nanoparticles is facilitated by a receptor mediated (SR-B1) mechanism.

  13. Facilitation of AMPA receptor-mediated steady-state current by extrasynaptic NMDA receptors in supraoptic magnocellular neurosecretory cells

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Yoon Hyoung; Lim, Chae Seong; Park, Kyung-Ah; Cho, Hyun Sil; Lee, Gyu-Seung; Shin, Yong Sup; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2016-01-01

    In addition to classical synaptic transmission, information is transmitted between cells via the activation of extrasynaptic receptors that generate persistent tonic current in the brain. While growing evidence supports the presence of tonic NMDA current (INMDA) generated by extrasynaptic NMDA receptors (eNMDARs), the functional significance of tonic INMDA in various brain regions remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that activation of eNMDARs that generate INMDA facilitates the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionate receptor (AMPAR)-mediated steady-state current in supraoptic nucleus (SON) magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs). In low-Mg2+ artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), glutamate induced an inward shift in Iholding (IGLU) at a holding potential (Vholding) of –70 mV which was partly blocked by an AMPAR antagonist, NBQX. NBQX-sensitive IGLU was observed even in normal aCSF at Vholding of –40 mV or –20 mV. IGLU was completely abolished by pretreatment with an NMDAR blocker, AP5, under all tested conditions. AMPA induced a reproducible inward shift in Iholding (IAMPA) in SON MNCs. Pretreatment with AP5 attenuated IAMPA amplitudes to ~60% of the control levels in low-Mg2+ aCSF, but not in normal aCSF at Vholding of –70 mV. IAMPA attenuation by AP5 was also prominent in normal aCSF at depolarized holding potentials. Memantine, an eNMDAR blocker, mimicked the AP5-induced IAMPA attenuation in SON MNCs. Finally, chronic dehydration did not affect IAMPA attenuation by AP5 in the neurons. These results suggest that tonic INMDA, mediated by eNMDAR, facilitates AMPAR function, changing the postsynaptic response to its agonists in normal and osmotically challenged SON MNCs. PMID:27382359

  14. Hepatocyte-mediated cytotoxicity and host defense mechanisms in the alcohol-injured liver.

    PubMed

    McVicker, Benita L; Thiele, Geoffrey M; Tuma, Dean J; Casey, Carol A

    2014-09-01

    The consumption of alcohol is associated with many health issues including alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The natural history of ALD involves the development of steatosis, inflammation (steatohepatitis), fibrosis and cirrhosis. During the stage of steatohepatitis, the combination of inflammation and cellular damage can progress to a severe condition termed alcoholic hepatitis (AH). Unfortunately, the pathogenesis of AH remains uncharacterized. Some modulations have been identified in host defense and liver immunity mechanisms during AH that highlight the role of intrahepatic lymphocyte accumulation and associated inflammatory cytokine responses. Also, it is hypothesized that alcohol-induced injury to liver cells may significantly contribute to the aberrant lymphocytic distribution that is seen in AH. In particular, the regulation of lymphocytes by hepatocytes may be disrupted in the alcoholic liver resulting in altered immunologic homeostasis and perpetuation of disease. In recent studies, it was demonstrated that the direct killing of activated T lymphocytes by hepatocytes is facilitated by the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR). The ASGPR is a well-characterized glycoprotein receptor that is exclusively expressed by hepatocytes. This hepatic receptor is known for its role in the clearance of desialylated glycoproteins or cells, yet neither its physiological function nor its role in disease states has been determined. Interestingly, alcohol markedly impairs ASGPR function; however, the effect alcohol has on ASGPR-mediated cytotoxicity of lymphocytes remains to be elucidated. This review discusses the contribution of hepatocytes in immunological regulation and, importantly, how pathological effects of ethanol disrupt hepatocellular-mediated defense mechanisms.

  15. Endocytosis of Ligand-Activated Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 1 Mediated by the Clathrin-Pathway.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Patrick M; Kang, Yuan-Lin; Kirchhausen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) is one of five G protein-coupled receptors activated by the lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Stimulation of S1PR1 by binding S1P or the synthetic agonist FTY720P results in rapid desensitization, associated in part with depletion of receptor from the cell surface. We report here combining spinning disc confocal fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry to show that rapid internalization of activated S1PR1 relies on a functional clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway. Uptake of activated S1PR1 was strongly inhibited in cells disrupted in their clathrin-mediated endocytosis by depleting clathrin or AP-2 or by treating cells with dynasore-OH. The uptake of activated S1P1R was strongly inhibited in cells lacking both β-arrestin 1 and β-arrestin 2, indicating that activated S1PR1 follows the canonical route of endocytosis for G-protein coupled receptor's (GPCR)'s.

  16. Role of the hinge region of glucocorticoid receptor for HEXIM1-mediated transcriptional repression

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Noritada; Shimizu, Noriaki; Sano, Motoaki; Ohnuma, Kei; Iwata, Satoshi; Hosono, Osamu; Fukuda, Keiichi; Morimoto, Chikao

    2008-06-20

    We previously reported that HEXIM1 (hexamethylene bisacetamide-inducible protein 1), which suppresses transcription elongation via sequestration of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) using 7SK RNA as a scaffold, directly associates with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to suppress glucocorticoid-inducible gene activation. Here, we revealed that the hinge region of GR is essential for its interaction with HEXIM1, and that oxosteroid receptors including GR show sequence homology in their hinge region and interact with HEXIM1, whereas the other members of nuclear receptors do not. We also showed that HEXIM1 suppresses GR-mediated transcription in two ways: sequestration of P-TEFb by HEXIM1 and direct interaction between GR and HEXIM1. In contrast, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}-dependent gene expression is negatively modulated by HEXIM1 solely via sequestration of P-TEFb. We, therefore, conclude that HEXIM1 may act as a gene-selective transcriptional regulator via direct interaction with certain transcriptional regulators including GR and contribute to fine-tuning of, for example, glucocorticoid-mediated biological responses.

  17. Mechanism of HSV infection through soluble adapter-mediated virus bridging to the EGF receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Kenji; Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro; Nakanishi, Takeshi; Asano, Ryutaro; Kumagai, Izumi; Tahara, Hideaki; Kuwano, Michihiko; Cohen, Justus B.; Glorioso, Joseph C.

    2011-04-25

    Herpes simplex virus entry into cells requires the binding of envelope glycoprotein D (gD) to an entry receptor. Depending on the cell, entry occurs by different mechanisms, including fusion at the cell surface or endocytosis. Here we examined the entry mechanism through a non-HSV receptor mediated by a soluble bi-specific adapter protein composed of recognition elements for gD and the EGF receptor (EGFR). Virus entered into endosomes using either EGF or an EGFR-specific single chain antibody (scFv) for receptor recognition. Infection was less efficient with the EGF adapter which could be attributed to its weaker binding to a viral gD. Infection mediated by the scFv adapter was pH sensitive, indicating that gD-EGFR bridging alone was insufficient for capsid release from endosomes. We also show that the scFv adapter enhanced infection of EGFR-expressing tumor tissue in vivo. Our results indicate that adapters may retarget HSV infection without drastically changing the entry mechanism.

  18. IL-6 Overexpression in ERG-Positive Prostate Cancer Is Mediated by Prostaglandin Receptor EP2.

    PubMed

    Merz, Constanze; von Mässenhausen, Anne; Queisser, Angela; Vogel, Wenzel; Andrén, Ove; Kirfel, Jutta; Duensing, Stefan; Perner, Sven; Nowak, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the most diagnosed cancer in men and multiple risk factors and genetic alterations have been described. The TMPRSS2-ERG fusion event and the overexpression of the transcription factor ERG are present in approximately 50% of all prostate cancer patients, however, the clinical outcome is still controversial. Prostate tumors produce various soluble factors, including the pleiotropic cytokine IL-6, regulating cellular processes such as proliferation and metastatic segregation. Here, we used prostatectomy samples in a tissue microarray format and analyzed the co-expression and the clinicopathologic data of ERG and IL-6 using immunohistochemical double staining and correlated the read-out with clinicopathologic data. Expression of ERG and IL-6 correlated strongly in prostate tissue samples. Forced expression of ERG in prostate tumor cell lines resulted in significantly increased secretion of IL-6, whereas the down-regulation of ERG decreased IL-6 secretion. By dissecting the underlying mechanism in prostate tumor cell lines we show the ERG-mediated up-regulation of the prostanoid receptors EP2 and EP3. The prostanoid receptor EP2 was overexpressed in human prostate cancer tissue. Furthermore, the proliferation rate and IL-6 secretion in DU145 cells was reduced after treatment with EP2-receptor antagonist. Collectively, our study shows that the expression of ERG in prostate cancer is linked to the expression of IL-6 mediated by the prostanoid receptor EP2.

  19. Structural Basis for Receptor-Mediated Selective Autophagy of Aminopeptidase I Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Akinori; Watanabe, Yasunori; Adachi, Wakana; Suzuki, Kuninori; Matoba, Kazuaki; Kirisako, Hiromi; Kumeta, Hiroyuki; Nakatogawa, Hitoshi; Ohsumi, Yoshinori; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Noda, Nobuo N

    2016-06-28

    Selective autophagy mediates the degradation of various cargoes, including protein aggregates and organelles, thereby contributing to cellular homeostasis. Cargo receptors ensure selectivity by tethering specific cargo to lipidated Atg8 at the isolation membrane. However, little is known about the structural requirements underlying receptor-mediated cargo recognition. Here, we report structural, biochemical, and cell biological analysis of the major selective cargo protein in budding yeast, aminopeptidase I (Ape1), and its complex with the receptor Atg19. The Ape1 propeptide has a trimeric coiled-coil structure, which tethers dodecameric Ape1 bodies together to form large aggregates. Atg19 disassembles the propeptide trimer and forms a 2:1 heterotrimer, which not only blankets the Ape1 aggregates but also regulates their size. These receptor activities may promote elongation of the isolation membrane along the aggregate surface, enabling sequestration of the cargo with high specificity. PMID:27320913

  20. Tissue plasminogen activator inhibits NMDA-receptor-mediated increases in calcium levels in cultured hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Samuel D.; Lee, Tet Woo; Christie, David L.; Birch, Nigel P.

    2015-01-01

    NMDA receptors (NMDARs) play a critical role in neurotransmission, acting as essential mediators of many forms of synaptic plasticity, and also modulating aspects of development, synaptic transmission and cell death. NMDAR-induced responses are dependent on a range of factors including subunit composition and receptor location. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease that has been reported to interact with NMDARs and modulate NMDAR activity. In this study we report that tPA inhibits NMDAR-mediated changes in intracellular calcium levels in cultures of primary hippocampal neurons stimulated by low (5 μM) but not high (50 μM) concentrations of NMDA. tPA also inhibited changes in calcium levels stimulated by presynaptic release of glutamate following treatment with bicucculine/4-aminopyridine (4-AP). Inhibition was dependent on the proteolytic activity of tPA but was unaffected by α2-antiplasmin, an inhibitor of the tPA substrate plasmin, and receptor-associated protein (RAP), a pan-ligand blocker of the low-density lipoprotein receptor, two proteins previously reported to modulate NMDAR activity. These findings suggest that tPA can modulate changes in intracellular calcium levels in a subset of NMDARs expressed in cultured embryonic hippocampal neurons through a mechanism that involves the proteolytic activity of tPA and synaptic NMDARs. PMID:26500501

  1. Contribution of the P2Y12 receptor-mediated pathway to platelet hyperreactivity in hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Béla; Jin, Jianguo; Ashby, Barrie; Reilly, Michael P.; Kunapuli, Satya P.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background In hypercholesterolemia, platelets demonstrate increased reactivity and promote the development of cardiovascular disease. Objective This study was carried out to investigate the contribution of the ADP receptor P2Y12-mediated pathway in platelet hyperreactivity due to hypercholesterolemia. Methods Low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient mice and C57Bl/6 wild type mice were fed on normal chow and high-fat (Western or Paigen) diets for 8 weeks to generate differently elevated cholesterol levels. P2Y12 receptor induced functional responses via Gi signaling were studied ex vivo when washed murine platelets were activated by 2MeSADP and PAR4 agonist AYPGKF in the presence and absence of indomethacin. Platelet aggregation, secretion, αIIbβ3 receptor activation and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and Akt were analyzed. Results Plasma cholesterol levels ranged from 69±10 to 1011±185 mg/dl depending on diet in mice with different genotypes. Agonist-dependent aggregation, dense and α-granule secretion and JON/A binding were gradually and significantly (P < 0.05) augmented at low agonist concentration in correlation with the increasing plasma cholesterol levels even if elevated thromboxane generation was blocked. These functional responses were induced via increased level of Gi mediated ERK and Akt phosphorylation in hypercholesterolemic mice versus normocholesterolemic animals. In addition, blocking of the P2Y12 receptor by AR-C69931MX (Cangrelor) resulted in strongly reduced platelet aggregation in mice with elevated cholesterol levels compared to normocholesterolemic controls. Conclusions These data revealed that the P2Y12 receptor pathway was substantially involved in platelet hyperreactivity associated with mild and severe hypercholesterolemia. PMID:21261805

  2. Multiple receptor subtypes mediate the effects of serotonin on rat subfornical organ neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scrogin, K. E.; Johnson, A. K.; Schmid, H. A.

    1998-01-01

    The subfornical organ (SFO) receives significant serotonergic innervation. However, few reports have examined the functional effects of serotonin on SFO neurons. This study characterized the effects of serotonin on spontaneously firing SFO neurons in the rat brain slice. Of 31 neurons tested, 80% responded to serotonin (1-100 microM) with either an increase (n = 15) or decrease (n = 10) in spontaneous activity. Responses to serotonin were dose dependent and persisted after synaptic blockade. Excitatory responses could also be mimicked by the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A/2C receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI; 1-10 microM) and could be blocked by the 5-HT2A/2C-receptor antagonist LY-53,857 (10 microM). LY-53,857 unmasked inhibitory responses to serotonin in 56% of serotonin-excited cells tested. Serotonin-inhibited cells were also inhibited by the 5-HT1A-receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT; 1-10 microM; n = 7). The data indicate that SFO neurons are responsive to serotonin via postsynaptic activation of multiple receptor subtypes. The results suggest that excitatory responses to serotonin are mediated by 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors and that inhibitory responses may be mediated by 5-HT1A receptors. In addition, similar percentages of serotonin-excited and -inhibited cells were also sensitive to ANG II. As such the functional relationship between serotonin and ANG II in the SFO remains unclear.

  3. Direct muscarinic and nicotinic receptor-mediated excitation of rat medial vestibular nucleus neurons in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelan, K. D.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    We have utilized intracellular recording techniques to investigate the cholinoceptivity of rat medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons in a submerged brain slice preparation. Exogenous application of the mixed cholinergic agonists, acetylcholine (ACh) or carbachol (CCh), produced predominantly membrane depolarization, induction of action potential firing, and decreased input resistance. Application of the selective muscarinic receptor agonist muscarine (MUSC), or the selective nicotinic receptor agonists nicotine (NIC) or 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium (DMPP) also produced membrane depolarizations. The MUSC-induced depolarization was accompanied by decreased conductance, while an increase in conductance appeared to underlie the NIC- and DMPP-induced depolarizations. The muscarinic and nicotinic receptor mediated depolarizations persisted in tetrodotoxin and/or low Ca2+/high Mg2+ containing media, suggesting direct postsynaptic receptor activation. The MUSC-induced depolarization could be reversibly blocked by the selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist, atropine, while the DMPP-induced depolarization could be reversibly suppressed by the selective ganglionic nicotinic-receptor antagonist, mecamylamine. Some neurons exhibited a transient membrane hyperpolarization during the depolarizing response to CCh or MUSC application. This transient inhibition could be reversibly blocked by the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonist, bicuculline, suggesting that the underlying hyperpolarization results indirectly from the endogenous release of GABA acting at GABA receptors. This study confirms the cholinoceptivity of MVN neurons and establishes that individual MVN cells possess muscarinic as well as nicotinic receptors. The data provide support for a prominent role of cholinergic mechanisms in the direct and indirect regulation of the excitability of MVN neurons.

  4. Angiotensin II AT2 receptors regulate NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth via the NO-cGMP pathway.

    PubMed

    Hashikawa-Hobara, Narumi; Hashikawa, Naoya

    2016-09-16

    We investigated whether Angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor activation was involved in NGF-induced nerve regeneration. NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth in cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells was significantly inhibited by AT2 receptor antagonist (PD123,319) treatment. AT2 receptor knockdown also inhibited NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth. To determine the mechanisms, we analyzed the NO-cGMP pathway. The cGMP analog increased NGF-mediated nerve elongation, which inhibited by PD123,319. Furthermore, soluble guanylate cyclase expression was significantly less in NGF and PD123,319 treatment DRG than in NGF treatment alone. These results suggest that NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth is suppressed by AT2 receptor signaling via the NO-cGMP-PKG pathway. PMID:27524238

  5. Liver X receptor agonists decrease ENaC-mediated sodium transport in collecting duct cells.

    PubMed

    Soodvilai, Sunhapas; Jia, Zhanjun; Fongsupa, Somsak; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Yang, Tianxin

    2012-12-15

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are nuclear receptors that regulate cholesterol, fatty acid, and glucose metabolism in various tissues. However, the renal action of LXRs is not well understood. Here we investigated the effects of LXR-activating ligands on modulation of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)-mediated sodium transport in collecting duct cells. Exposure of the M1 cells to the synthetic LXR agonists T0901317 and GW3965 or the natural ligand 22R-hydroxycholesterol for 24 h decreased amiloride-sensitive sodium transport, corresponding with an increase of transepithelial resistance. The inhibition of amiloride-sensitive sodium transport after incubation with T0901317 or GW3965 was not mediated by a reduction of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase-mediated basolateral sodium transport. On the other hand, T0901317 and GW3965 decreased mRNA abundance and membrane expression of ENaC. Preincubation the monolayer with GW3965 attenuated aldosterone-induced stimulation sodium transport. In primary cultures of collecting duct cells, T0901317 and GW3965 similarly inhibited ENaC transport function as in M1 cells. This is the first evidence showing LXR-activating ligands modulate ENaC-mediated sodium transport in collecting duct cells. These results suggest that LXRs may represent a novel therapeutic target for treatment of conditions with dysregulation of ENaC such as hypertension.

  6. Proteinase-activated receptors 1 and 2 mediate contraction of human oesophageal muscularis mucosae.

    PubMed

    Chang, B-S; Chang, J-C; Huang, S-C

    2010-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors 1 and 2 mediate contraction of the human gallbladder. In the present study, we investigated effects mediated by proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) in the human oesophagus by measuring contraction of muscularis mucosae strips isolated from the human oesophagus. Both PAR(1) agonists (thrombin, SFLLRN-NH(2) and TFLLR-NH(2)) and PAR(2) agonists (trypsin, 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH(2) and SLIGKV-NH(2)) caused concentration-dependent contraction. In contrast, PAR(1) and PAR(2) control peptides did not cause contraction. The existence of PAR(1) and PAR(2) in the human oesophageal muscularis mucosae was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. On the other hand, PAR(4) agonists, GYPGKF-NH(2), GYPGQV-NH(2) and AYPGKF-NH(2), did not cause contraction or relaxation in resting or carbachol-contracted muscularis mucosae strips, suggesting that PAR(4) is not involved in human oesophageal motility. The contractile responses to SFLLRN-NH(2) and trypsin in the human oesophagus were insensitive to atropine and tetrodotoxin, indicating that the contractile response was not neurally mediated. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PAR(1) and PAR(2) but not PAR(4) mediate contraction in human oesophageal muscularis mucosae. PAR(1) and PAR(2) may influence human oesophageal motility. PMID:19694963

  7. Promiscuous Dimerization of the Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor (GHS-R1a) Attenuates Ghrelin-mediated Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Schellekens, Harriët; van Oeffelen, Wesley E. P. A.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as the ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a), the melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3), and the serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2C), are well known for their key role in the homeostatic control of food intake and energy balance. Ghrelin is the only known gut peptide exerting an orexigenic effect and has thus received much attention as an anti-obesity drug target. In addition, recent data have revealed a critical role for ghrelin in dopaminergic mesolimbic circuits involved in food reward signaling. This study investigates the downstream signaling consequences and ligand-mediated co-internalization following heterodimerization of the GHS-R1a receptor with the dopamine 1 receptor, as well as that of the GHS-R1a-MC3 heterodimer. In addition, a novel heterodimer between the GHS-R1a receptor and the 5-HT2C receptor was identified. Interestingly, dimerization of the GHS-R1a receptor with the unedited 5-HT2C-INI receptor, but not with the partially edited 5-HT2C-VSV isoform, significantly reduced GHS-R1a agonist-mediated calcium influx, which was completely restored following pharmacological blockade of the 5-HT2C receptor. These results combined suggest a potential novel mechanism for fine-tuning GHS-R1a receptor-mediated activity via promiscuous dimerization of the GHS-R1a receptor with other G protein-coupled receptors involved in appetite regulation and food reward. These findings may uncover novel mechanisms of significant relevance for the future pharmacological targeting of the GHS-R1a receptor in the homeostatic regulation of energy balance and in hedonic appetite signaling, both of which play a significant role in the development of obesity. PMID:23161547

  8. M1 muscarinic receptor activation mediates cell death in M1-HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Graham, E Scott; Woo, Kerhan K; Aalderink, Miranda; Fry, Sandie; Greenwood, Jeffrey M; Glass, Michelle; Dragunow, Mike

    2013-01-01

    HEK293 cells have been used extensively to generate stable cell lines to study G protein-coupled receptors, such as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). The activation of M1 mAChRs in various cell types in vitro has been shown to be protective. To further investigate M1 mAChR-mediated cell survival, we generated stable HEK293 cell-lines expressing the human M1 mAChR. M1 mAChRs were efficiently expressed at the cell surface and efficiently internalised within 1 h by carbachol. Carbachol also induced early signalling cascades similar to previous reports. Thus, ectopically expressed M1 receptors behaved in a similar fashion to the native receptor over short time periods of analysis. However, substantial cell death was observed in HEK293-M1 cells within 24 h after carbachol application. Death was only observed in HEK cells expressing M1 receptors and fully blocked by M1 antagonists. M1 mAChR-stimulation mediated prolonged activation of the MEK-ERK pathway and resulted in prolonged induction of the transcription factor EGR-1 (>24 h). Blockade of ERK signalling with U0126 did not reduce M1 mAChR-mediated cell-death significantly but inhibited the acute induction of EGR-1. We investigated the time-course of cell death using time-lapse microscopy and xCELLigence technology. Both revealed the M1 mAChR cytotoxicity occurs within several hours of M1 activation. The xCELLigence assay also confirmed that the ERK pathway was not involved in cell-death. Interestingly, the MEK blocker did reduce carbachol-mediated cleaved caspase 3 expression in HEK293-M1 cells. The HEK293 cell line is a widely used pharmacological tool for studying G-protein coupled receptors, including mAChRs. Our results highlight the importance of investigating the longer term fate of these cells in short term signalling studies. Identifying how and why activation of the M1 mAChR signals apoptosis in these cells may lead to a better understanding of how mAChRs regulate cell-fate decisions.

  9. α4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulated by galantamine on nigrostriatal terminals regulates dopamine receptor-mediated rotational behavior.

    PubMed

    Inden, Masatoshi; Takata, Kazuyuki; Yanagisawa, Daijiro; Ashihara, Eishi; Tooyama, Ikuo; Shimohama, Shun; Kitamura, Yoshihisa

    2016-03-01

    Galantamine, an acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibitor used to treat dementia symptoms, also acts as an allosteric potentiating ligand (APL) at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). This study was designed to evaluate the allosteric effect of galantamine on nAChR regulation of nigrostrial dopaminergic neuronal function in the hemiparkinsonian rat model established by unilateral nigral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injection. Methamphetamine, a dopamine releaser, induced ipsilateral rotation, whereas dopamine agonists apomorphine (a non-selective dopamine receptor agonist), SKF38393 (a selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist), and quinpirole (a selective dopamine D2 receptor agonist) induced contralateral rotation. When 6-OHDA-injected rats were co-treated with nomifensine, a dopamine transporter inhibitor, a more pronounced and a remarkable effect of nicotine and galantamine was observed. Under these conditions, the combination of nomifensine with nicotine or galantamine induced the ipsilateral rotation similar to the methamphetamine-induced rotational behavior, indicating that nicotine and galantamine also induce dopamine release from striatal terminals. Both nicotine- and galantamine-induced rotations were significantly blocked by flupenthixol (an antagonist of both D1 and D2 dopamine receptors) and mecamylamine (an antagonist of nAChRs), suggesting that galantamine modulation of nAChRs on striatal dopaminergic terminals regulates dopamine receptor-mediated movement. Immunohistochemical staining showed that α4 nAChRs were highly expressed on striatal dopaminergic terminals, while no α7 nAChRs were detected. Pretreatment with the α4 nAChR antagonist dihydroxy-β-erythroidine significantly inhibited nicotine- and galantamine-induced rotational behaviors, whereas pretreatment with the α7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine was ineffective. Moreover, the α4 nAChR agonist ABT-418 induced ipsilateral rotation, while the α7 nAChR agonist PNU282987 had no

  10. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor mediates glucocorticoid effects on hormone secretion induced by volume and osmotic changes.

    PubMed

    Ruginsk, S G; Uchoa, E T; Elias, L L K; Antunes-Rodrigues, J

    2012-02-01

    The present study provides the first in vivo evidence that the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor mediates the effects of dexamethasone on hormone release induced by changes in circulating volume and osmolality. Male adult rats were administered with the CB(1) receptor antagonist rimonabant (10 mg/Kg, p.o.), followed or not in 1 hour by dexamethasone (1 mg/Kg, i.p.). Extracellular volume expansion (EVE, 2 mL/100 g of body weight, i.v.) was performed 2 hours after dexamethasone or vehicle treatment using either isotonic (I-EVE, 0.15 mol/L) or hypertonic (H-EVE, 0.30 mol/L) NaCl solution. Five minutes after EVE, animals were decapitated and trunk blood was collected for all plasma measurements. Rimonabant potentiated oxytocin (OT) secretion induced by H-EVE and completely reversed the inhibitory effects of dexamethasone in response to the same stimulus. These data suggest that glucocorticoid modulation of OT release is mediated by the CB(1) receptor. Although dexamethasone did not affect vasopressin (AVP) secretion induced by H-EVE, the administration of rimonabant potentiated AVP release in response to the same stimulus, supporting the hypothesis that the CB(1) receptor regulates AVP secretion independently of glucocorticoid-mediated signalling. Dexamethasone alone did not affect atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) release stimulated by I-EVE or H-EVE. However, pretreatment with rimonabant potentiated ANP secretion induced by H-EVE, suggesting a possible role for the CB(1) receptor in the control of peripheral factors that modulate cardiovascular function. Rimonabant also reversed the inhibitory effects of dexamethasone on H-EVE-induced corticosterone secretion, reinforcing the hypothesis that the CB(1) receptor may be involved in the negative feedback exerted by glucocorticoids on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Collectively, the results of the present study indicate that the CB(1) receptor modulates neurohypophyseal hormone secretion and

  11. Peripheral tackykinin and excitatory amino acid receptors mediate hyperalgesia induced by Phoneutria nigriventer venom.

    PubMed

    Zanchet, Eliane Maria; Cury, Yara

    2003-04-25

    The generation of hyperalgesia by Phoneutria nigriventer venom was investigated in rats using the paw pressure test, through the intraplantar injection of the venom. Hyperalgesia was significantly inhibited by N-[2-(4-chlorophenyl) ethyl]-1,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-2H-2-benzazepine-2-carbothioamide (capsazepine), a vanilloid receptor antagonist, by the local administration of pGlu-Ala-Asp-Pro-Asn-Lys-Phe-Tyr-Pro (spiro-gamma-lactam) Leu-Trp-NH(2) (GR82334) or of Phenyl-CO-Ala-Ala-D-Trp-Phe-D-Pro-Pro-Nle-NH(2) (GR94800), inhibitors of tachykinin NK(1) and NK(2) receptors, respectively, or by the local injection of dizocilpine (MK 801), (+/-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid ((+/-)-AP-5), or 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), antagonists of NMDA and non-NMDA excitatory amino acid receptors. The correlation between hyperalgesia and the inflammatory response induced by the venom was also investigated. The venom-induced edematogenic response was not modified by the pharmacological treatments. These results suggest that hyperalgesia induced by P. nigriventer venom is mediated by stimulation of capsaicin-sensitive neurons, with activation of peripheral tachykinin NK(1) and NK(2) receptors and of both the NMDA and AMPA receptors. Distinct mechanisms are involved in the development of hyperalgesia and edema induced by the venom.

  12. Mechanisms mediating regional sympathoactivatory responses to stimulation of NTS A(1) adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Scislo, Tadeusz J; O'Leary, Donal S

    2002-10-01

    Selective activation of adenosine A(1) and A(2a) receptors in the subpostremal nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) increases and decreases mean arterial pressure (MAP), respectively, and decreases heart rate (HR). We have previously shown that the decreases in MAP evoked by NTS A(2a) receptor stimulation were accompanied with differential sympathetic responses in renal (RSNA), lumbar (LSNA), and preganglionic adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (pre-ASNA). Therefore, now we investigated whether stimulation of NTS A(1) receptors via unilateral microinjection of N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) elicits differential activation of the same sympathetic outputs in alpha-chloralose-urethane-anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. CPA (0.33-330.0 pmol in 50 nl) evoked dose-dependent increases in MAP, variable decreases in HR, and differential increases in all recorded sympathetic outputs: upward arrow pre-ASNA > upward arrow RSNA > or = upward arrow LSNA. Sinoaortic denervation + vagotomy abolished the MAP and LSNA responses, reversed the normal increases in RSNA into decreases, and significantly attenuated increases in pre-ASNA. NTS ionotropic glutamatergic receptor blockade with kynurenate sodium (4.4 nmol/100 nl) reversed the responses in MAP, LSNA, and RSNA and attenuated the responses in pre-ASNA. We conclude that afferent inputs and intact glutamatergic transmission in the NTS are necessary to mediate the pressor and differential sympathoactivatory responses to stimulation of NTS A(1) receptors.

  13. Alpha adrenergic receptor mediation of cardiovascular and metabolic responses to alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Brackett, D.J.; Gauvin, D.V.; Lerner, M.R.; Holloway, F.H.; Wilson, M.F. Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Oklahoma City, OK )

    1992-02-26

    The role of alpha adrenergic receptors in acute cardiovascular and metabolic responses to alcohol (ETOH) have not been clearly defined. In this study two groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were given intravenous phentolamine mesylate or saline prior to intragastric alcohol to blockade of alpha receptors during alcohol intoxication in conscious rats. ETOH alone evoked an increase in systemic vascular resistance (SVR), heart rate (HR), and blood glucose concentrations (G) and a decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), central venous pressure (CVP), respiration rate (RR) and cardiac stroke volume (SV). Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) peaked at 30 min and remained elevated for the four hrs of monitoring. Phentolamine pretreatment produced a decrease in MAP and SV and an increase in HR. However, antagonism of the alpha receptor blocked the decrease in CO and the increase in SVR and G. The decrease in CVP was unaffected. Surprisingly, the early rise and peak in BAC in the phentolamine treated group was attenuated, but was the same as the untreated group during the final 3 hrs. These data suggest that alpha receptors are significant mediators of cardiovascular and glucoregulatory responses elicited by alcohol. Furthermore, alpha receptor blockade appears to effect the absorption and/or distribution of intragastrically administered alcohol.

  14. Resolvin E1 and chemokine-like receptor 1 mediate bone preservation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Faibish, Dan; Fredman, Gabrielle; Herrera, Bruno S; Chiang, Nan; Serhan, Charles N; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Gyurko, Robert

    2013-01-15

    The polyunsaturated ω-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid-derived resolvin E1 (RvE1) enhances resolution of inflammation, prevents bone loss, and induces bone regeneration. Although the inflammation-resolving actions of RvE1 are characterized, the molecular mechanism of its bone-protective actions are of interest. To test the hypothesis that receptor-mediated events impact bone changes, we prepared transgenic mice overexpressing the RvE1 receptor chemokine-like receptor 1 (chemR23) on leukocytes. In zymosan-initiated peritonitis, neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration in response to RvE1 was limited requiring log order lower doses in chemR23tg mice. Ligature-induced alveolar bone loss was diminished in chemR23tg mice. Local RvE1 treatment of uniform craniotomy in the parietal bone significantly accelerated regeneration of the bone defect. In in vitro bone cultures, RvE1 significantly enhanced expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) without inducing change in receptor activator of NF-κB ligand levels, whereas the osteogenic markers alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, and Runt-related transcription factor 2 remained unchanged. These results indicate that RvE1 modulates osteoclast differentiation and bone remodeling by direct actions on bone, rescuing OPG production and restoring a favorable receptor activator of NF-κB ligand/OPG ratio, in addition to known anti-inflammatory and proresolving actions. PMID:23241890

  15. Receptor subtypes mediating depressor responses to microinjections of nicotine into medial NTS of the rat.

    PubMed

    Dhar, S; Nagy, F; McIntosh, J M; Sapru, H N

    2000-07-01

    Microinjections (50 nl) of nicotine (0.01-10 microM) into the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) of adult, urethan-anesthetized, artificially ventilated, male Wistar rats, elicited decreases in blood pressure and heart rate. Prior microinjections of alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BT) and alpha-conotoxin ImI (specific toxins for nicotinic receptors containing alpha7 subunits) elicited a 20-38% reduction in nicotine responses. Similarly, prior microinjections of hexamethonium, mecamylamine, and alpha-conotoxin AuIB (specific blockers or toxin for nicotinic receptors containing alpha3beta4 subunits) elicited a 47-79% reduction in nicotine responses. Nicotine responses were completely blocked by prior sequential microinjections of alpha-BT and mecamylamine into the NTS. Complete blockade of excitatory amino acid receptors (EAARs) in the NTS did not attenuate the responses to nicotine. It was concluded that 1) the predominant type of nicotinic receptor in the NTS contains alpha3beta4 subunits, 2) a smaller proportion contains alpha7 subunits, 3) the presynaptic nicotinic receptors in the NTS do not contribute to nicotine-induced responses, and 4) EAARs in the NTS are not involved in mediating responses to nicotine.

  16. Characterization of NPY receptors mediating contraction in rat intramyocardial coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Prieto, D; García-Sacristán, A; Simonsen, U

    1998-09-25

    In vitro experiments in a microvascular myograph were designed in order to characterize the receptor subtypes and the mechanisms underlying the contractions induced by neuropeptide Y (NPY) in rat coronary small arteries. The rank order of potency for NPY-receptor agonist-induced increases in tension in endothelium-intact preparations was polypeptide Y (PYY)> NPY > or = [Leu31Pro34]NPY, while NPY(13-36) only induced small contractions at the highest concentration applied. The selective neuropeptide Y1 receptor antagonist, BIBP 3226, caused rightward shifts in the concentration-response curves for NPY and the slope of the Schild plot was not significantly different from unity. The pA2 value for BIBP 3226 against NPY was 7.88+/-0.15 (n = 6). We have earlier shown that endothelial cell removal does not change the contractile responses induced by NPY, but indomethacin (3 x 10(-6) M) significantly reduced the contractions induced by the peptide. In contrast, the thromboxane receptor antagonist, SQ29548, which abolished the contractions induced by the thromboxane analogue, U46619, did not change the concentration-response curves for NPY. In conclusion, the present study suggests that Y1 receptors mediate NPY-induced contractions in rat coronary resistance arteries, and that a non-thromboxane prostanoid is involved in the contractile mechanism.

  17. The nuclear architectural protein HMGA1a triggers receptor-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wuwei; Wan, Wei; Li, Alexander D Q

    2009-11-01

    High mobility group proteins A (HMGA), nuclear architectural factors, locate in the cell nuclei and mostly execute gene-regulation function. However, our results reveal that a HMGA member (HMGA1a) has a unique plasma membrane receptor; this receptor specifically binds to HMGA-decorated species, effectively mediates endocytosis, and internalizes extracellular HMGA-functionalized cargoes. Indeed, dyes or nanoparticles labeled with HMGA1a protein readily enter Hela cells. Using a stratagem chemical cross-linker, we covalently bonded the HMGA receptor to the HMGA1a-GFP fusion protein, thus capturing the plasma membrane receptor. Subsequent Western blots and SDS-PAGE gel revealed that the HMGA receptor is a 26-kDa protein. Confocal live-cell microscopic imaging was used to monitor the whole endocytic process, in which the internalized HMGA1a-decorated species are transported by motor proteins on microtubules and eventually arrive at the late endosomes/lysosomes. Cell viability assays also suggested that extracellular HMGA1a protein directly influences the survival ability of Hela cells in a dose-dependent manner, implying versatility of HMGA1a protein and its potent role to suppress cancer cell survivability and to regulate growth. PMID:19739099

  18. Neuronal protease-activated receptor 1 drives synaptic retrograde signaling mediated by the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Hashimotodani, Yuki; Ohno-Shosaku, Takako; Yamazaki, Maya; Sakimura, Kenji; Kano, Masanobu

    2011-02-23

    Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is a member of the G-protein coupled receptors that are proteolytically activated by serine proteases. Recent studies suggest a definite contribution of PAR1 to brain functions, including learning and memory. However, cellular mechanisms by which PAR1 activation influences neuronal activity are not well understood. Here we show that PAR1 activation drives retrograde endocannabinoid signaling and thereby regulates synaptic transmission. In cultured hippocampal neurons from rat, PAR1 activation by thrombin or PAR1-specific peptide agonists transiently suppressed inhibitory transmission at cannabinoid-sensitive, but not cannabinoid-insensitive, synapses. The PAR1-induced suppression of synaptic transmission was accompanied by an increase in paired-pulse ratio, and was blocked by a cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist. The PAR1-induced suppression was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of postsynaptic diacylglycerol lipase (DGL), a key enzyme for biosynthesis of the major endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and was absent in knock-out mice lacking the α isoform of DGL. The PAR1-induced IPSC suppression remained intact under the blockade of metabotropic glutamate receptors and was largely resistant to the treatment that blocked Ca(2+) elevation in glial cells following PAR1 activation, which excludes the major contribution of glial PAR1 in IPSC suppression. We conclude that activation of neuronal PAR1 triggers retrograde signaling mediated by 2-AG, which activates presynaptic CB(1) receptors and suppresses transmitter release at hippocampal inhibitory synapses.

  19. Receptor-mediated adhesion phenomena. Model studies with the Radical-Flow Detachment Assay.

    PubMed

    Cozens-Roberts, C; Quinn, J A; Lauffenberger, D A

    1990-07-01

    Receptor-mediated cell adhesion phenomena play a vital role in many physiological and biotechnology-related processes. To investigate the physical and chemical factors that influence the cell/surface interaction, we have used a radial flow device, a so-called Radial-Flow Detachment Assay (RFDA). The RFDA allows us to make direct observations of the detachment process under specified experimental conditions. In results reported here, we have studied the detachment of receptor-coated latex beads (prototype cells) from ligand-coated glass surfaces. The receptors and ligands used in this work are complementary antibodies. The beads enable us to examine several aspects of the adhesion process with particles having uniform properties that can be varied systematically. Advantages of the RFDA are many, especially direct observation of cell detachment over a range of shear stresses with quantitative measurement of the adhesive force. We focus our studies on the effects of ligand and receptor densities, along with the influence of pH and ionic strength of the medium. These data are analyzed with a mathematical model based on the theoretical framework of Bell, G. I. (1978. Science [Wash. DC]. 200:618-627) and Hammer, D. A. and D. A. Lauffenburger (1987. Biophys. J. 52:475-487). We demonstrate experimental validation of a theoretical expression for the critical shear stress for particle detachment, and show that it is consistent with reasonable estimates for the receptor-ligand bond affinity.

  20. Involvement of NMDA receptors in nicotine-mediated central control of hypotensive effects.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ling-Zong; Cheng, Pei-Wen; Cheng, Wen-Han; Chen, Siang-Ru; Wang, Ling-Lin; Tseng, Ching-Jiunn

    2012-10-31

    It is known that enrichment of glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) plays an important role in central cardiovascular regulation. Our previous study demonstrated that nicotine decreased blood pressure and heart rate in the NTS probably acting via the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs)-Ca²⁺-calmodulin-eNOS-NO signaling pathway. The possible relationship between glutamate and nicotine in the NTS for cardiovascular regulation is poorly understood. This study investigated the involvement of glutamate receptors in the cardiovascular effects of nicotine in the NTS. Nicotine (a non-selective nAChRs agonist), MK801 (a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist), APV (a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist), or NBQX (a selective AMPA receptor antagonist) was microinjected into the NTS of anesthetized Wistar-Kyoto rats. Microinjection of nicotine (1.5 pmol) into the NTS produced decreases in blood pressure and heart rate. The hypotensive and bradycardic effects of nicotine were abolished by prior administration of MK801 (1 nmol) and APV (10 nmol), but was completely restored after 60 min of recovery. In contrast, prior administration of NBQX (10 pmol) into the NTS did not alter the cardiovascular effects of nicotine. The nitrate (served as total NO) production in response to nicotine microinjection into the NTS was suppressed by prior administration of APV. These results suggest that the hypotensive and bradycardic effects of nicotine in the NTS might be mediated through NMDA receptors, and that the nAChRs-NMDA receptor-NO pathway could be involved.

  1. Increased desensitization of dopamine D₂ receptor-mediated response in the ventral tegmental area in the absence of adenosine A(2A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Al-Hasani, R; Foster, J D; Metaxas, A; Ledent, C; Hourani, S M O; Kitchen, I; Chen, Y

    2011-09-01

    G-protein coupled receptors interact to provide additional regulatory mechanisms for neurotransmitter signaling. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are expressed at a high density in striatal neurons, where they closely interact with dopamine D₂ receptors and modulate effects of dopamine and responses to psychostimulants. A(2A) receptors are expressed at much lower densities in other forebrain neurons but play a more prominent yet opposing role to striatal receptors in response to psychostimulants in mice. It is, therefore, possible that A(2A) receptors expressed at low levels elsewhere in the brain may also regulate neurotransmitter systems and modulate neuronal functions. Dopamine D₂ receptors play an important role in autoinhibition of neuronal firing in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dopamine release in other brain areas. Here, we examined the effect of A(2A) receptor deletion on D₂ receptor-mediated inhibition of neuronal firing in dopamine neurons in the VTA. Spontaneous activity of dopamine neurons was recorded in midbrain slices, and concentration-dependent effects of the dopamine D₂ receptor agonist, quinpirole, was compared between wild-type and A(2A) knockout mice. The potency of quinpirole applied in single concentrations and the expression of D₂ receptors were not altered in the VTA of the knockout mice. However, quinpirole applied in stepwise escalating concentrations caused significantly reduced maximal inhibition in A(2A) knockout mice, indicating an enhanced agonist-induced desensitization of D₂ receptors in the absence of A(2A) receptors. The A(2A) receptor agonist, CGS21680, did not exert any effect on dopamine neuron firing or response to quinpirole, revealing a novel non-pharmacological interaction between adenosine A(2A) receptors and dopaminergic neurotransmission in midbrain dopamine neurons. Altered D₂ receptor desensitization may result in changes in dopamine neuron firing rate and pattern and dopamine

  2. Real-Time Imaging of Discrete Exocytic Events Mediating Surface Delivery of AMPA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yudowski, Guillermo A.; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A.; Leonoudakis, Dmitri; Panicker, Sandip; Thorn, Kurt S.; Beattie, Eric C.; von Zastrow, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We directly resolved discrete exocytic fusion events mediating insertion of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) to the somatodendritic surface of rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons, in slice and dissociated cultures, using protein tagging with a pH-sensitive GFP (green fluorescent protein) variant and rapid (10 frames/s) fluorescence microscopy. AMPAR-containing exocytic events occurred under basal culture conditions in both the cell body and dendrites; potentiating chemical stimuli produced an NMDA receptor-dependent increase in the frequency of individual exocytic events. The number of AMPARs inserted per exocytic event, estimated using single-molecule analysis, was quite uniform but individual events differed significantly in kinetic properties affecting the subsequent surface distribution of receptors. “Transient” events, from which AMPARs dispersed laterally immediately after surface insertion, generated a pronounced but short-lived (dissipating within ~1 s) increase in surface AMPAR fluorescence extending locally (2–5µm) from the site of exocytosis. “Persistent” events, from which inserted AMPARs dispersed slowly (typically over 5–10 s), affected local surface receptor concentration to a much smaller degree. Both modes of exocytic insertion occurred throughout the dendritic shaft, but remarkably, neither mode of insertion was observed directly into synaptic spines. AMPARs entered spines preferentially from transient events occurring in the adjoining dendritic shaft, driven apparently by mass action and short-range lateral diffusion, and locally delivered AMPARs remained mostly in the mobile fraction. These results suggest a highly dynamic mechanism for both constitutive and activity-dependent surface delivery of AMPARs, mediated by kinetically distinct exocytic modes that differ in propensity to drive lateral entry of receptors to nearby synapses. PMID:17928453

  3. The CB1 cannabinoid receptor mediates excitotoxicity-induced neural progenitor proliferation and neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Tania; Romero, Eva; Monory, Krisztina; Palazuelos, Javier; Sendtner, Michael; Marsicano, Giovanni; Lutz, Beat; Guzmán, Manuel; Galve-Roperh, Ismael

    2007-08-17

    Endocannabinoids are lipid signaling mediators that exert an important neuromodulatory role and confer neuroprotection in several types of brain injury. Excitotoxicity and stroke can induce neural progenitor (NP) proliferation and differentiation as an attempt of neuroregeneration after damage. Here we investigated the mechanism of hippocampal progenitor cell engagement upon excitotoxicity induced by kainic acid administration and the putative involvement of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in this process. Adult NPs express kainate receptors that mediate proliferation and neurosphere generation in vitro via CB1 cannabinoid receptors. Similarly, in vivo studies showed that excitotoxicity-induced hippocampal NPs proliferation and neurogenesis are abrogated in CB1-deficient mice and in wild-type mice administered with the selective CB1 antagonist rimonabant (N-piperidino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-3-pyrazolecarboxamide; SR141716). Kainate stimulation increased basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expression in cultured NPs in a CB1-dependent manner as this response was prevented by rimonabant and mimicked by endocannabinoids. Likewise, in vivo analyses showed that increased hippocampal expression of bFGF, as well as of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and epidermal growth factor, occurs upon excitotoxicity and that CB1 receptor ablation prevents this induction. Moreover, excitotoxicity increased the number of CB1+ bFGF+ cells, and this up-regulation preceded NP proliferation. In summary, our results show the involvement of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in NP proliferation and neurogenesis induced by excitotoxic injury and support a role for bFGF signaling in this process.

  4. Pharmacological and biochemical characterization of the D-1 dopamine receptor mediating acetylcholine release in rabbit retina

    SciTech Connect

    Hensler, J.G.; Cotterell, D.J.; Dubocovich, M.L.

    1987-12-01

    Superfusion with dopamine (0.1 microM-10 mM) evokes calcium-dependent (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine release from rabbit retina labeled in vitro with (/sup 3/H)choline. This effect is antagonized by the D-1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH 23390. Activation or blockade of D-2 dopamine, alpha-2 or beta receptors did not stimulate or attenuate the release of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine from rabbit retina. Dopamine receptor agonists evoke the release of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine with the following order of potency: apomorphine less than or equal to SKF(R)82526 < SKF 85174 < SKF(R)38393 less than or equal to pergolide less than or equal to dopamine (EC50 = 4.5 microM) < SKF(S)82526 less than or equal to SKF(S)38393. Dopamine receptor antagonists inhibited the dopamine-evoked release of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine: SCH 23390 (IC50 = 1 nM) < (+)-butaclamol less than or equal to cis-flupenthixol < fluphenazine < perphenazine < trans-flupenthixol < R-sulpiride. The potencies of dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists at the dopamine receptor mediating (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine release is characteristic of the D-1 dopamine receptor. These potencies were correlated with the potencies of dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists at the D-1 dopamine receptor in rabbit retina as labeled by (/sup 3/H)SCH 23390, or as determined by adenylate cyclase activity. (/sup 3/H)SCH 23390 binding in rabbit retinal membranes was stable, saturable and reversible. Scatchard analysis of (/sup 3/H)SCH 23390 saturation data revealed a single high affinity binding site (Kd = 0.175 +/- 0.002 nM) with a maximum binding of 482 +/- 12 fmol/mg of protein. The potencies of dopamine receptor agonists to stimulate (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine release were correlated with their potencies to stimulate adenylate cyclase (r = 0.784, P less than .05, n = 7) and with their affinities at (/sup 3/H)SCH 23390 binding sites (r = 0.755, P < .05, n = 8).

  5. The syndecan family of proteoglycans. Novel receptors mediating internalization of atherogenic lipoproteins in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Fuki, I V; Kuhn, K M; Lomazov, I R; Rothman, V L; Tuszynski, G P; Iozzo, R V; Swenson, T L; Fisher, E A; Williams, K J

    1997-01-01

    Cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been shown to participate in lipoprotein catabolism, but the roles of specific proteoglycan classes have not been examined previously. Here, we studied the involvement of the syndecan proteoglycan family. First, transfection of CHO cells with expression vectors for several syndecan core proteins produced parallel increases in the cell association and degradation of lipoproteins enriched in lipoprotein lipase, a heparan-binding protein. Second, a chimeric construct, FcR-Synd1, that consists of the ectodomain of the IgG Fc receptor Ia linked to the highly conserved transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of syndecan-1 directly mediated efficient internalization, in a process triggered by ligand clustering. Third, internalization of lipase-enriched lipoproteins via syndecan-1 and of clustered IgGs via the chimera showed identical kinetics (t1/2 = 1 h) and identical dose-response sensitivities to cytochalasin B, which disrupts microfilaments, and to genistein, which inhibits tyrosine kinases. In contrast, internalization of the receptor-associated protein, which proceeds via coated pits, showed a t1/2 < 15 min, limited sensitivity to cytochalasin B, and complete insensitivity to genistein. Thus, syndecan proteoglycans can directly mediate ligand catabolism through a pathway with characteristics distinct from coated pits, and might act as receptors for atherogenic lipoproteins and other ligands in vivo. PMID:9294130

  6. Fenugreek induced apoptosis in breast cancer MCF-7 cells mediated independently by fas receptor change.

    PubMed

    Alshatwi, Ali Abdullah; Shafi, Gowhar; Hasan, Tarique Noorul; Syed, Naveed Ahmed; Khoja, Kholoud Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Trigonella foenum in graecum (Fenugreek) is a traditional herbal plant used to treat disorders like diabetes, high cholesterol, wounds, inflammation, gastrointestinal ailments, and it is believed to have anti-tumor properties, although the mechanisms for the activity remain to be elucidated. In this study, we prepared a methanol extract from Fenugreek whole plants and investigated the mechanism involved in its growth-inhibitory effect on MCF- 7 human breast cancer cells. Apoptosis of MCF-7 cells was evidenced by investigating trypan blue exclusion, TUNEL and Caspase 3, 8, 9, p53, FADD, Bax and Bak by real-time PCR assays inducing activities, in the presence of FME at 65 μg/mL for 24 and 48 hours. FME induced apoptosis was mediated by the death receptor pathway as demonstrated by the increased level of Fas receptor expression after FME treatment. However, such change was found to be absent in Caspase 3, 8, 9, p53, FADD, Bax and Bak, which was confirmed by a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. In summary, these data demonstrate that at least 90% of FME induced apoptosis in breast cell is mediated by Fas receptor-independently of either FADD, Caspase 8 or 3, as well as p53 interdependently. PMID:24289578

  7. CRTH2, a prostaglandin D2 receptor, mediates depression-related behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Onaka, Yusuke; Shintani, Norihito; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Haba, Ryota; Ago, Yukio; Wang, Hyper; Kanoh, Takuya; Hayata-Takano, Atsuko; Hirai, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Kin-Ya; Nakamura, Masataka; Hashimoto, Ryota; Matsuda, Toshio; Waschek, James A; Kasai, Atsushi; Nagayasu, Kazuki; Baba, Akemichi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi

    2015-05-01

    Depression is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder with an unclear molecular etiology. Inflammatory cytokines and molecular intermediates (including prostaglandins) are suggested to be involved in depression; however, the roles of prostaglandins and their respective receptors are largely unknown in depression. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we show here that chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T helper type 2 cells (CRTH2), a second receptor for prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), mediates depression-related behavior in mice. CRTH2-deficient (CRTH2(-/-)) mice showed antidepressant-like activity in a chronic corticosterone treatment-induced depression. Consistent with this observation, the pharmacological inhibition of CRTH2 via the clinically available drug ramatroban also rescued abnormal social interaction and depression-related behavior in well-established models, including chronic corticosterone-, lipopolysaccharide-, and tumor-induced pathologically relevant depression models. Importantly, chronic stress via corticosterone treatment increased mRNA levels in PGD2-producing enzymes, such as cyclooxygenase-2 and lipocalin-type PGD2 synthase, in the brain. Furthermore, the activity of the hippocampal noradrenergic system but not the dopaminergic or serotonergic systems was increased in CRTH2(-/-) mice. Together with the observation that untreated CRTH2(-/-) mice showed antidepressant-like activity in the forced swim test, these results provide evidence that central CRTH2-mediated signaling is critically involved in depression-related behavior. PMID:25698598

  8. Neuropilin-1 mediates vascular permeability independently of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 activation.

    PubMed

    Roth, Lise; Prahst, Claudia; Ruckdeschel, Tina; Savant, Soniya; Weström, Simone; Fantin, Alessandro; Riedel, Maria; Héroult, Mélanie; Ruhrberg, Christiana; Augustin, Hellmut G

    2016-04-26

    Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) regulates developmental and pathological angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, and vascular permeability, acting as a coreceptor for semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) and the 165-amino acid isoform of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A165). NRP1 is also the receptor for the CendR peptides, a class of cell- and tissue-penetrating peptides with a specific R-x-x-R carboxyl-terminal motif. Because the cytoplasmic domain of NRP1 lacks catalytic activity, NRP1 is mainly thought to act through the recruitment and binding to other receptors. We report here that the NRP1 intracellular domain mediates vascular permeability. Stimulation with VEGF-A165, a ligand-blocking antibody, and a CendR peptide led to NRP1 accumulation at cell-cell contacts in endothelial cell monolayers, increased cellular permeability in vitro and vascular leakage in vivo. Biochemical analyses, VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) silencing, and the use of a specific VEGFR blocker established that the effects induced by the CendR peptide and the antibody were independent of VEGFR-2. Moreover, leakage assays in mice expressing a mutant NRP1 lacking the cytoplasmic domain revealed that this domain was required for NRP1-induced vascular permeability in vivo. Hence, these data define a vascular permeability pathway mediated by NRP1 but independent of VEGFR-2 activation.

  9. Scavenger Receptor C-Type Lectin Binds to the Leukocyte Cell Surface Glycan Lewis By a Novel Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, H.; Taylor, M.E.; Weis, W.I.; /Stanford U., Med. School /Imperial Coll., London

    2007-07-10

    The scavenger receptor C-type lectin (SRCL) is unique in the family of class A scavenger receptors, because in addition to binding sites for oxidized lipoproteins it also contains a C-type carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) that interacts with specific glycans. Both human and mouse SRCL are highly specific for the Lewis(x) trisaccharide, which is commonly found on the surfaces of leukocytes and some tumor cells. Structural analysis of the CRD of mouse SRCL in complex with Lewis(x) and mutagenesis show the basis for this specificity. The interaction between mouse SRCL and Lewis(x) is analogous to the way that selectins and DC-SIGN bind to related fucosylated glycans, but the mechanism of the interaction is novel, because it is based on a primary galactose-binding site similar to the binding site in the asialoglycoprotein receptor. Crystals of the human receptor lacking bound calcium ions reveal an alternative conformation in which a glycan ligand would be released during receptor-mediated endocytosis.

  10. Calmodulin physically interacts with the erythropoietin receptor and enhances Jak2-mediated signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Kakihana, Kazuhiko; Yamamoto, Masahide; Iiyama, Mitsuko; Miura, Osamu . E-mail: miura.hema@tmd.ac.jp

    2005-09-23

    Stimulation of the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) induces a transient increase in intracellular Ca{sup 2+} level as well as activation of the Jak2 tyrosine kinase to stimulate various downstream signaling pathways. Here, we demonstrate that the universal Ca{sup 2+} receptor calmodulin (CaM) binds EpoR in a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent manner in vitro. Binding studies using various EpoR mutants in hematopoietic cells showed that CaM binds the membrane-proximal 65-amino-acid cytoplasmic region (amino acids 258-312) of EpoR that is critical for activation of Jak2-mediated EpoR signaling. Structurally unrelated CaM antagonists, W-13 and CMZ, inhibited activation of Jak2-mediated EpoR signaling pathways, whereas W-12, a W-13 analog, did not show any significant inhibitory effect. Moreover, overexpression of CaM augmented Epo-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the EpoR. W-13, but not W-12, also inhibited Epo-induced proliferation and survival. Together, these results indicate that CaM binds to the membrane-proximal EpoR cytoplasmic region and plays an essential role in activation of Jak2-mediated EpoR signaling.

  11. Killing of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis by receptor-mediated drug delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.; Basu, S.K. )

    1991-01-01

    p-Aminosalicylic acid (PAS) conjugated to maleylated bovine serum albumin (MBSA) was taken up efficiently through high-affinity MBSA-binding sites on macrophages. Binding of the radiolabeled conjugate to cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages at 4 degrees C was competed for by MBSA but not by PAS. At 37 degrees C, the radiolabeled conjugate was rapidly degraded by the macrophages, leading to release of acid-soluble degradation products in the medium. The drug conjugate was nearly 100 times as effective as free PAS in killing the intracellular mycobacteria in mouse peritoneal macrophages infected in culture with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The killing of intracellular mycobacteria mediated by the drug conjugate was effectively prevented by simultaneous addition of excess MBSA (100 micrograms/ml) or chloroquine (3 microM) to the medium, whereas these agents did not affect the microbicidal action of free PAS. These results suggest that (i) uptake of the PAS-MBSA conjugate was mediated by cell surface receptors on macrophages which recognize MBSA and (ii) lysosomal hydrolysis of the internalized conjugate resulted in intracellular release of a pharmacologically active form of the drug, which led to selective killing of the M. tuberculosis harbored by mouse macrophages infected in culture. This receptor-mediated modality of delivering drugs to macrophages could contribute to greater therapeutic efficacy and minimization of toxic side effects in the management of tuberculosis and other intracellular mycobacterial infections.

  12. Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2 mediates dimethyl fumarate’s protective effect in EAE

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Assmann, Julian C.; Krenz, Antje; Rahman, Mahbubur; Grimm, Myriam; Karsten, Christian M.; Köhl, Jörg; Offermanns, Stefan; Wettschureck, Nina; Schwaninger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Taken orally, the drug dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has been shown to improve functional outcomes for patients with MS; however, it is unclear how DMF mediates a protective effect. DMF and, more so, its active metabolite, monomethyl fumarate, are known agonists of the hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCA2), a G protein–coupled membrane receptor. Here, we evaluated the contribution of HCA2 in mediating the protective effect afforded by DMF in EAE, a mouse model of MS. DMF treatment reduced neurological deficit, immune cell infiltration, and demyelination of the spinal cords in wild-type mice, but not in Hca2–/– mice, indicating that HCA2 is required for the therapeutic effect of DMF. In particular, DMF decreased the number of infiltrating neutrophils in a HCA2-dependent manner, likely by interfering with neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells and chemotaxis. Together, our data indicate that HCA2 mediates the therapeutic effects of DMF in EAE. Furthermore, identification of HCA2 as a molecular target may help to optimize MS therapy. PMID:24691444

  13. Comparative study on transcriptional activity of 17 parabens mediated by estrogen receptor α and β and androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoko; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Shinji; Uramaru, Naoto; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2013-07-01

    The structure-activity relationships of parabens which are widely used as preservatives for transcriptional activities mediated by human estrogen receptor α (hERα), hERβ and androgen receptor (hAR) were investigated. Fourteen of 17 parabens exhibited hERα and/or hERβ agonistic activity at concentrations of ≤ 1 × 10(-5)M, whereas none of the 17 parabens showed AR agonistic or antagonistic activity. Among 12 parabens with linear alkyl chains ranging in length from C₁ to C₁₂, heptylparaben (C₇) and pentylparaben (C₅) showed the most potent ERα and ERβ agonistic activity in the order of 10(-7)M and 10(-8)M, respectively, and the activities decreased in a stepwise manner as the alkyl chain was shortened to C₁ or lengthened to C₁₂. Most parabens showing estrogenic activity exhibited ERβ-agonistic activity at lower concentrations than those inducing ERα-agonistic activity. The estrogenic activity of butylparaben was markedly decreased by incubation with rat liver microsomes, and the decrease of activity was blocked by a carboxylesterase inhibitor. These results indicate that parabens are selective agonists for ERβ over ERα; their interactions with ERα/β are dependent on the size and bulkiness of the alkyl groups; and they are metabolized by carboxylesterases, leading to attenuation of their estrogenic activity.

  14. Asialoglycoprotein receptor-magnetic dual targeting nanoparticles for delivery of RASSF1A to hepatocellular carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Wan-Jiang; Feng, Ying; Wang, Fei; Guo, Yi-Bing; Li, Peng; Wang, Lei; Liu, Yi-Fei; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Yu-Min; Mao, Qin-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    We developed a nanovector with double targeting properties for efficiently delivering the tumor suppressor gene RASSF1A specifically into hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells by preparing galactosylated-carboxymethyl chitosan-magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Gal-CMCS-Fe3O4-NPs). After conjugating galactose and CMCS to the surface of Fe3O4-NPs, we observed that Gal-CMCS-Fe3O4-NPs were round with a relatively stable zeta potential of +6.5 mV and an mean hydrodynamic size of 40.1 ± 5.3 nm. Gal-CMCS-Fe3O4-NPs had strong DNA condensing power in pH 7 solution and were largely nontoxic. In vitro experiments demonstrated that Gal-CMCS-Fe3O4-NPs were highly selective for HCC cells and liver cells. In vivo experiments showed the specific accumulation of Gal-CMCS-Fe3O4-NPs in HCC tissue, especially with the aid of an external magnetic field. Nude mice with orthotopically transplanted HCC received an intravenous injection of the Gal-CMCS-Fe3O4-NPs/pcDNA3.1(+)RASSF1A compound and intraperitoneal injection of mitomycin and had an external magnetic field applied to the tumor area. These mice had the smallest tumors, largest percentage of TUNEL-positive cells, and highest caspase-3 expression levels in tumor tissue compared to other groups of treated mice. These results suggest the potential application of Gal-CMCS-Fe3O4-NPs for RASSF1A gene delivery for the treatment of HCC.

  15. Dual effects of nicotine on dopamine neurons mediated by different nicotinic receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Schilström, Björn; Rawal, Nina; Mameli-Engvall, Monica; Nomikos, George G; Svensson, Torgny H

    2003-03-01

    Burst firing of dopaminergic neurons has been found to represent a particularly effective means of increasing dopamine release in terminal areas as well as activating immediate early genes in dopaminoceptive cells. Spontaneous burst firing is largely controlled by the level of activation of NMDA receptors in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) as a consequence of glutamate released from afferents arising mainly in the prefrontal cortex. Nicotine has been found to effectively increase burst firing of dopaminergic cells. This effect of nicotine may be due to an alpha 7 nicotinic receptor-mediated presynaptic facilitation of glutamate release in the VTA. By the use of in-vivo single-cell recordings and immunohistochemistry we here evaluated the role of alpha 7 nicotinic receptors in nicotine-induced burst firing of dopamine cells in the VTA and the subsequent activation of immediate early genes in dopaminoceptive target areas. Nicotine (0.5 mg/kg s.c.) was found to increase firing rate and burst firing of dopaminergic neurons. In the presence of methyllycaconitine (MLA, 6.0 mg/kg i.p.) nicotine only increased firing rate. Moreover, in the presence of dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DH beta E, 1.0 mg/kg i.p.), an antagonist at non-alpha 7 nicotinic receptors, nicotine produced an increase in burst firing without increasing the firing rate. Nicotine also increased Fos-like immunoreactivity in dopamine target areas, an effect that was antagonized with MLA but not with DH beta E. Our data suggest that nicotine's augmenting effect on burst firing is, indeed, due to stimulation of alpha 7 nicotinic receptors whereas other nicotinic receptors seem to induce an increase in firing frequency.

  16. Estrogen and Estrogen Receptor-α-Mediated Transrepression of Bile Salt Export Pump

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan; Vasilenko, Alex; Song, Xiulong; Valanejad, Leila; Verma, Ruchi; You, Sangmin; Yan, Bingfang; Shiffka, Stephanie; Hargreaves, Leeza; Nadolny, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Among diseases unique to pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is the most prevalent disorder with elevated serum bile acid levels. We have previously shown that estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2) transrepresses bile salt export pump (BSEP) through an interaction between estrogen receptor (ER)-α and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and transrepression of BSEP by E2/ERα is an etiological contributing factor to intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Currently the mechanistic insights into such transrepression are not fully understood. In this study, the dynamics of coregulator recruitment to BSEP promoter after FXR activation and E2 treatment were established with quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 was predominantly recruited to the BSEP promoter upon FXR activation, and its recruitment was decreased by E2 treatment. Meanwhile, recruitment of nuclear receptor corepressor was markedly increased upon E2 treatment. Functional evaluation of ERα and ERβ chimeras revealed that domains AC of ERα are the determinants for ERα-specific transrepression on BSEP. Further studies with various truncated ERα proteins identified the domains in ERα responsible for ligand-dependent and ligand-independent transrepression. Truncated ERα-AD exhibited potent ligand-independent transrepressive activity, whereas ERα-CF was fully capable of transrepressing BSEP ligand dependently in vitro in Huh 7 cells and in vivo in mice. Both ERα-AD and ERα-CF proteins were associated with FXR in the coimmunoprecipitation assays. In conclusion, E2 repressed BSEP expression through diminishing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 recruitment with a concurrent increase in nuclear receptor corepressor recruitment to the BSEP promoter. Domains AD and CF in ERα mediated ligand-independent and ligand-dependent transrepression on BSEP, respectively, through interacting with FXR. PMID:25675114

  17. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediates raloxifene-induced apoptosis in estrogen receptor-negative hepatoma and breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, E F; Koch, D C; Bisson, W H; Jang, H S; Kolluri, S K

    2014-01-01

    Identification of new molecular targets for the treatment of breast cancer is an important clinical goal, especially for triple-negative breast cancer, which is refractory to existing targeted treatments. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor known primarily as the mediator of dioxin toxicity. However, the AhR can also inhibit cellular proliferation in a ligand-dependent manner and act as a tumor suppressor in mice, and thus may be a potential anticancer target. To investigate the AhR as an anticancer target, we conducted a small molecule screen to discover novel AhR ligands with anticancer properties. We identified raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator currently used in the clinic for prevention of ER-positive breast cancer and osteoporosis in post-menopausal women, as an AhR activator. Raloxifene directly bound the AhR and induced apoptosis in ER-negative mouse and human hepatoma cells in an AhR-dependent manner, indicating that the AhR is a molecular target of raloxifene and mediates raloxifene-induced apoptosis in the absence of ER. Raloxifene selectively induced apoptosis of triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells compared with non-transformed mammary epithelial cells via the AhR. Combined with recent data showing that raloxifene inhibits triple-negative breast cancer xenografts in vivo (Int J Oncol. 43(3):785-92, 2013), our results support the possibility of repurposing of raloxifene as an AhR-targeted therapeutic for triple-negative breast cancer patients. To this end, we also evaluated the role of AhR expression on survival of patients diagnosed with breast cancer. We found that higher expression of the AhR is significantly associated with increased overall survival and distant metastasis-free survival in both hormone-dependent (ER-positive) and hormone-independent (ER and progesterone receptor (PR)-negative) breast cancers. Together, our data strongly support the possibility of using the Ah

  18. Receptor-Mediated Entry of Pristine Octahedral DNA Nanocages in Mammalian Cells.

    PubMed

    Vindigni, Giulia; Raniolo, Sofia; Ottaviani, Alessio; Falconi, Mattia; Franch, Oskar; Knudsen, Birgitta R; Desideri, Alessandro; Biocca, Silvia

    2016-06-28

    DNA offers excellent programming properties for the generation of nanometer-scaled polyhedral structures with a broad variety of potential applications. Translation to biomedical applications requires improving stability in biological fluids, efficient and selective cell binding, and/or internalization of the assembled DNA nanostructures. Here, we report an investigation on the selective mechanism of cellular uptake of pristine DNA nanocages in cells expressing the receptor "oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1" (LOX-1), a scavenger receptor associated with cardiovascular diseases and, more recently, identified as a tumor marker. For this purpose a truncated octahedral DNA nanocage functionalized with a single biotin molecule, which allows DNA cage detection through the biotin-streptavidin assays, was constructed. The results indicate that DNA nanocages are stable in biological fluids, including human serum, and are selectively bound and very efficiently internalized in vesicles only in LOX-1-expressing cells. The amount of internalized cages is 30 times higher in LOX-1-expressing cells than in normal fibroblasts, indicating that the receptor-mediated uptake of pristine DNA nanocages can be pursued for a selective cellular internalization. These results open the route for a therapeutic use of pristine DNA cages targeting LOX-1-overexpressing tumor cells. PMID:27214742

  19. The Fc and not CD4 Receptor Mediates Antibody Enhancement of HIV Infection in Human Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homsy, Jacques; Meyer, Mia; Tateno, Masatoshi; Clarkson, Sarah; Levy, Jay A.

    1989-06-01

    Antibodies that enhance human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectivity have been found in the blood of infected individuals and in infected or immunized animals. These findings raise serious concern for the development of a safe vaccine against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. To address the in vivo relevance and mechanism of this phenomenon, antibody-dependent enhancement of HIV infectivity in peripheral blood macrophages, lymphocytes, and human fibroblastoid cells was studied. Neither Leu3a, a monoclonal antibody directed against the CD4 receptor, nor soluble recombinant CD4 even at high concentrations prevented this enhancement. The addition of monoclonal antibody to the Fc receptor III (anti-FcRIII), but not of antibodies that react with FcRI or FcRII, inhibited HIV type 1 and HIV type 2 enhancement in peripheral blood macrophages. Although enhancement of HIV infection in CD4+ lymphocytes could not be blocked by anti-FcRIII, it was inhibited by the addition of human immunoglobulin G aggregates. The results indicate that the FcRIII receptor on human macrophages and possibly another Fc receptor on human CD4+ lymphocytes mediate antibody-dependent enhancement of HIV infectivity and that this phenomenon proceeds through a mechanism independent of the CD4 protein.

  20. Identification of the ETA receptor subtype that mediates endothelin induced autocrine proliferation of normal human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Bagnato, A; Venuti, A; Di Castro, V; Marcante, M L

    1995-04-01

    Endothelin-1 has a wide range of pharmacological effects in various tissues and acts as autocrine/paracrine factor. The potential of ET-1 to function as an autocrine growth factor was evaluated in normal human keratinocytes. Radioligand binding studies showed that 125I-ET-1 bound to a single class of high-affinity-binding sites on the surface of the cells. The dissociation constant was 0.045 nM with receptor numbers of 1700 sites/cell. Treatment with serum caused increases in expression of binding sites (3500 sites/cell), with no change in binding affinity. ET-1 stimulated thymidine incorporation in these cells that expressed ET receptors. An ET antagonist selective for the ETA receptor subtype (BQ 123) inhibited DNA synthesis stimulated by ET-1 and reduced the basal growth rate of unstimulated cells. These data suggest that the ET-1 induced DNA synthesis is mediated by ETA receptor subtype and that endogenously produced ET-1 promotes the autocrine proliferation of keratinocytes.

  1. Tissue kallikrein mediates neurite outgrowth through epidermal growth factor receptor and flotillin-2 pathway in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhengyu; Cui, Mei; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Tao; Shen, Yan; Dong, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    Tissue kallikrein (TK) was previously shown to take most of its biological effects through bradykinin receptors. In this study, we assumed that TK mediated neurite outgrowth was independent of bradykinin receptors. To test the hypothesis, we investigated TK-induced neurite outgrowth and its signaling mechanisms in cultured primary neurons and human SH-SY5Y cells. We found that TK stimulation could increase the number of processes and mean process length of primary neurons, which were blocked by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor or down-regulation, small interfering RNA for flotillin-2 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 inhibitor. Moreover, TK-induced neurite outgrowth was associated with EGFR and ERK1/2 activation, which were inhibited by EGFR antagonist or RNA interference and flotillin-2 knockdown. Interestingly, inhibition of bradykinin receptors had no significant effects on EGFR and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In the present research, our data also suggested that EGFR and flotillin-2 formed constitutive complex that translocated to around the nuclei in the TK stimulation. In sum, our findings provided evidence that TK could promote neurite outgrowth via EGFR, flotillin-2 and ERK1/2 signaling pathway in vitro. PMID:24211626

  2. Exchange factors directly activated by cAMP mediate melanocortin 4 receptor-induced gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Glas, Evi; Mückter, Harald; Gudermann, Thomas; Breit, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Gs protein-coupled receptors regulate many vital body functions by activation of cAMP response elements (CRE) via cAMP-dependent kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of the CRE binding protein (CREB). Melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4R) are prototypical Gs-coupled receptors that orchestrate the hypothalamic control of food-intake and metabolism. Remarkably, the significance of PKA for MC4R-induced CRE-dependent transcription in hypothalamic cells has not been rigorously interrogated yet. In two hypothalamic cell lines, we observed that blocking PKA activity had only weak or no effects on reporter gene expression. In contrast, inhibitors of exchange factors directly activated by cAMP-1/2 (EPAC-1/2) mitigated MC4R-induced CRE reporter activation and mRNA induction of the CREB-dependent genes c-fos and thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Furthermore, we provide first evidence that extracellular-regulated kinases-1/2 (ERK-1/2) activated by EPACs and not PKA are the elusive CREB kinases responsible for MC4R-induced CREB/CRE activation in hypothalamic cells. Overall, these data emphasize the pivotal role of EPACs rather than PKA in hypothalamic gene expression elicited by a prototypical Gs-coupled receptor. PMID:27612207

  3. Modulation of receptor-mediated gonadotropin action in rat testes by dietary fat.

    PubMed

    Sebokova, E; Garg, M L; Clandinin, M T

    1988-06-01

    The effect of feeding diets enriched with 18:2 omega 6, 18:3 omega 3, or saturated fatty acids on lipid composition and receptor-mediated action of luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin (LH/hCG) in rat testicular plasma membranes was investigated. Linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid treatments reduced total phospholipid and cholesterol content of the testicular plasma membrane and altered membrane phospholipid composition. Change in phospholipid and cholesterol content after feeding the polyunsaturated fats decreased cholesterol to phospholipid ratios and binding capacity of the LH/hCG receptor in the testicular plasma membrane. LH-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was decreased in animals fed the linolenic acid-rich diet. NaF-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was decreased in animals fed diets high in either polyunsaturated fatty acid. Decreased plasma membrane LH/hCG receptor content was associated with decreased testosterone production in Leydig cells in response to LH in the linolenic acid-fed group. It is suggested that change in cholesterol-to-phospholipid ratios alters the physical properties of testicular plasma membranes in a manner that influences accessibility of LH/hCG receptors in testicular tissue. PMID:2897795

  4. Lactate Modulates the Activity of Primary Cortical Neurons through a Receptor-Mediated Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bozzo, Luigi; Puyal, Julien; Chatton, Jean-Yves

    2013-01-01

    Lactate is increasingly described as an energy substrate of the brain. Beside this still debated metabolic role, lactate may have other effects on brain cells. Here, we describe lactate as a neuromodulator, able to influence the activity of cortical neurons. Neuronal excitability of mouse primary neurons was monitored by calcium imaging. When applied in conjunction with glucose, lactate induced a decrease in the spontaneous calcium spiking frequency of neurons. The effect was reversible and concentration dependent (IC50 ∼4.2 mM). To test whether lactate effects are dependent on energy metabolism, we applied the closely related substrate pyruvate (5 mM) or switched to different glucose concentrations (0.5 or 10 mM). None of these conditions reproduced the effect of lactate. Recently, a Gi protein-coupled receptor for lactate called HCA1 has been introduced. To test if this receptor is implicated in the observed lactate sensitivity, we incubated cells with pertussis toxin (PTX) an inhibitor of Gi-protein. PTX prevented the decrease of neuronal activity by L-lactate. Moreover 3,5-dyhydroxybenzoic acid, a specific agonist of the HCA1 receptor, mimicked the action of lactate. This study indicates that lactate operates a negative feedback on neuronal activity by a receptor-mediated mechanism, independent from its intracellular metabolism. PMID:23951229

  5. Agonist mediated conformational changes of solubilized calf forebrain muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Vanderheyden, P; Andre, C; de Backer, J P; Vauquelin, G

    1984-10-01

    Muscarinic receptors in calf forebrain membranes can be identified by the specific binding of the radiolabelled antagonist [3H]dexetimide. These receptors (2.8 pM/mg protein) comprise two non-interconvertible subpopulations with respectively high and low agonist affinity but with the same antagonist affinity. For all the agonists tested the low affinity sites represent 85 +/- 5% of the total receptor population. 0.5% Digitonin solubilized extracts contain 0.8 pM muscarinic receptor/mg protein. In contrast with the membranes, these extracts contain only sites with low agonist affinity. The alkylating reagent N-ethylmaleimide causes an increase of the acetylcholine affinity for the low affinity sites in membranes as well as for the solubilized sites. This effect is time dependent until a maximal 3-fold increase in affinity is attained. The rate of N-ethylmaleimide action is enhanced by the concomitant presence of agonists. In contrast, N-ethylmaleimide does not affect antagonist binding. This suggests that agonists mediate a conformational change of both the membrane bound low affinity muscarinic sites and of the solubilized sites, resulting in their increased susceptibility towards NEM alkylation. PMID:6487351

  6. Adrenergic and serotoninergic receptors mediate the immunological activation of corticosterone secretion in male rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, A L; Petraglia, F; Criscuolo, M; Ficarra, G; Salvestroni, C; Nappi, R E; Trentini, G P; Genazzani, A R

    1996-06-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanism of action of immune agents on corticosterone secretion, the present study evaluated the possible involvement of some neuronal pathways (serotoninergic, noradrenergic/adrenergic) in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced corticosterone release in male rats. Serotoninergic antagonists, mianserin (5-HT2C receptor blocker) or pindolol (5HT1A receptor blocker) or noradrenergic/adrenergic antagonists, prazosin (alpha 1-adrenoceptor blocker) or propranolol (beta-adrenoceptor blocker), were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected before (5 min) the administration of LPS. In each experiment a group of rats i.p. injected with vehicle served as controls. Animals were sacrificed by decapitation 90 min after administration of LPS and trunk blood was collected for corticosterone radioimmunoassay. Results showed that pretreatment with mianserin, but not with pindolol, significantly reduced plasma corticosterone levels following administration of LPS (p < 0.05); prazosin attenuated the plasma corticosterone response to LPS (p < 0.05), while propranolol did not induce significant change. The present study indicated that serotoninergic and noradrenergic/adrenergic pathways are involved in the immunoneuroendocrine modulation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal function in rats. In particular, it is probably mediated by the activation of 5-HT2C receptors and of alpha 1-adrenoceptors, while type 1A serotonin receptors or beta-adrenoceptors do not seem to be involved in such a phenomenon.

  7. Exchange factors directly activated by cAMP mediate melanocortin 4 receptor-induced gene expression.

    PubMed

    Glas, Evi; Mückter, Harald; Gudermann, Thomas; Breit, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Gs protein-coupled receptors regulate many vital body functions by activation of cAMP response elements (CRE) via cAMP-dependent kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of the CRE binding protein (CREB). Melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4R) are prototypical Gs-coupled receptors that orchestrate the hypothalamic control of food-intake and metabolism. Remarkably, the significance of PKA for MC4R-induced CRE-dependent transcription in hypothalamic cells has not been rigorously interrogated yet. In two hypothalamic cell lines, we observed that blocking PKA activity had only weak or no effects on reporter gene expression. In contrast, inhibitors of exchange factors directly activated by cAMP-1/2 (EPAC-1/2) mitigated MC4R-induced CRE reporter activation and mRNA induction of the CREB-dependent genes c-fos and thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Furthermore, we provide first evidence that extracellular-regulated kinases-1/2 (ERK-1/2) activated by EPACs and not PKA are the elusive CREB kinases responsible for MC4R-induced CREB/CRE activation in hypothalamic cells. Overall, these data emphasize the pivotal role of EPACs rather than PKA in hypothalamic gene expression elicited by a prototypical Gs-coupled receptor. PMID:27612207

  8. Ultraslow Water-Mediated Transmembrane Interactions Regulate the Activation of A2A Adenosine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoonji; Kim, Songmi; Choi, Sun; Hyeon, Changbong

    2016-09-20

    Water molecules inside a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) have recently been spotlighted in a series of crystal structures. To decipher the dynamics and functional roles of internal water molecules in GPCR activity, we studied the A2A adenosine receptor using microsecond molecular-dynamics simulations. Our study finds that the amount of water flux across the transmembrane (TM) domain varies depending on the receptor state, and that the water molecules of the TM channel in the active state flow three times more slowly than those in the inactive state. Depending on the location in solvent-protein interface as well as the receptor state, the average residence time of water in each residue varies from ∼O(10(2)) ps to ∼O(10(2)) ns. Especially, water molecules, exhibiting ultraslow relaxation (∼O(10(2)) ns) in the active state, are found around the microswitch residues that are considered activity hotspots for GPCR function. A continuous allosteric network spanning the TM domain, arising from water-mediated contacts, is unique in the active state, underscoring the importance of slow water molecules in the activation of GPCRs. PMID:27653477

  9. Augmentation of glycine receptor alpha3 currents suggests a mechanism for glucose-mediated analgesia.

    PubMed

    Breitinger, Ulrike; Breitinger, Hans-Georg

    2016-01-26

    The inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR) mediates rapid synaptic inhibition in the mammalian central nervous system. Recently, glucose was identified as a positive modulator of α1 GlyRs. Here, recombinant human α3GlyRs with and without glucose treatment were studied using patch clamp methods. Similar to α1GlyRs, receptor variants α3L and α3K were potentiated by sugar. Glucose treatment reduced EC50 values of GlyR α3L and α3K by a factor of 4.5 and 3.3, respectively, without affecting maximum currents or desensitization. The high-activity mutant α3L(P185L) was not further potentiated by glucose. Potentiation of glycinergic signalling may underlie some of the analgetic effects of glucose. PMID:26656729

  10. The complexity of signalling mediated by the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Madeleine M; Halls, Michelle L; Christopoulos, Arthur; Sexton, Patrick M; Wootten, Denise

    2016-04-15

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a class B GPCR that is a major therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The receptor is activated by the incretin peptide GLP-1 promoting a broad range of physiological effects including glucose-dependent insulin secretion and biosynthesis, improved insulin sensitivity of peripheral tissues, preservation of β-cell mass and weight loss, all of which are beneficial in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Despite this, existing knowledge surrounding the underlying signalling mechanisms responsible for the physiological actions downstream of GLP-1R activation is limited. Here, we review the current understanding around GLP-1R-mediated signalling, in particular highlighting recent contributions to the field on biased agonism, the spatial and temporal aspects for the control of signalling and how these concepts may influence future drug development. PMID:27068973

  11. Learning, AMPA receptor mobility and synaptic plasticity depend on n-cofilin-mediated actin dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rust, Marco B; Gurniak, Christine B; Renner, Marianne; Vara, Hugo; Morando, Laura; Görlich, Andreas; Sassoè-Pognetto, Marco; Banchaabouchi, Mumna Al; Giustetto, Maurizio; Triller, Antoine; Choquet, Daniel; Witke, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal plasticity is an important process for learning, memory and complex behaviour. Rapid remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton in the postsynaptic compartment is thought to have an important function for synaptic plasticity. However, the actin-binding proteins involved and the molecular mechanisms that in vivo link actin dynamics to postsynaptic physiology are not well understood. Here, we show that the actin filament depolymerizing protein n-cofilin is controlling dendritic spine morphology and postsynaptic parameters such as late long-term potentiation and long-term depression. Loss of n-cofilin-mediated synaptic actin dynamics in the forebrain specifically leads to impairment of all types of associative learning, whereas exploratory learning is not affected. We provide evidence for a novel function of n-cofilin function in synaptic plasticity and in the control of extrasynaptic excitatory AMPA receptors diffusion. These results suggest a critical function of actin dynamics in associative learning and postsynaptic receptor availability. PMID:20407421

  12. Administration of pyrene lipids by receptor-mediated endocytosis and their degradation in skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Agmon, V.; Dinur, T.; Cherbu, S.; Dagan, A.; Gatt, S. )

    1991-10-01

    Sphingomyelin and seven glycosphingolipids were labeled with the fluorescent probe pyrene and administered into cultured fibroblasts by receptor-mediated endocytosis. For this purpose pyrene sphingomyelin or mixtures of pyrene glycolipid and unlabeled sphingomyelin were dispersed as small, unilamellar liposomes. Apolipoprotein E was then added and the receptor for this ligand on the cell surface was utilized for uptake of the liposomes and their transport to the lysosomes, where the respective pyrene lipids were degraded. Following incubation with each of the respective pyrene lipids, only the administered compound and the pyrene ceramide were present; intermediate hydrolysis products were not detected. This indicated that, in skin fibroblasts, the lysosomal ceramidase was limiting and controlled the rate of total degradation of the pyrene sphingolipids.

  13. Presynaptic long-term depression mediated by Gi/o-coupled receptors

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Brady K.; Lovinger, David M.; Mathur, Brian N.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) of the efficacy of synaptic transmission is now recognized as an important mechanism for regulation of information storage and control of actions, as well as synapse, neuron, and circuit development. Studies of LTD mechanisms have focused mainly on postsynaptic AMPA receptor trafficking. However, the focus has now expanded to include presynaptically expressed plasticity; the predominant form being initiated by presynaptically expressed Gi/o-coupled metabotropic receptor (Gi/o-GPCR) activation. Several forms of LTD involving activation of different presynaptic Gi/o-GPCRs as a “common pathway” are described. Here, we review the literature on presynaptic Gi/o-GPCR-mediated LTD, discuss known mechanisms, gaps in our knowledge, and evaluate if all Gi/o-GPCR are capable of inducing presynaptic LTD. PMID:25160683

  14. Augmentation of glycine receptor alpha3 currents suggests a mechanism for glucose-mediated analgesia.

    PubMed

    Breitinger, Ulrike; Breitinger, Hans-Georg

    2016-01-26

    The inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR) mediates rapid synaptic inhibition in the mammalian central nervous system. Recently, glucose was identified as a positive modulator of α1 GlyRs. Here, recombinant human α3GlyRs with and without glucose treatment were studied using patch clamp methods. Similar to α1GlyRs, receptor variants α3L and α3K were potentiated by sugar. Glucose treatment reduced EC50 values of GlyR α3L and α3K by a factor of 4.5 and 3.3, respectively, without affecting maximum currents or desensitization. The high-activity mutant α3L(P185L) was not further potentiated by glucose. Potentiation of glycinergic signalling may underlie some of the analgetic effects of glucose.

  15. Effects of 2-phenoxyethanol on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated ion currents.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, U; Madeja, M; Binding, N; Witting, U; Speckmann, E J

    1999-02-01

    The actions were examined of 17 frequently used glycol ether compounds on the glutamate receptor-mediated ion currents. The receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injection of rat brain mRNA. Most of the 17 glycol ethers exerted no effects on the glutamate subreceptors activated by kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), whereas 2-phenoxyethanol (ethylene glycol monophenyl ether) caused a considerable reduction of NMDA-induced membrane currents in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner. The threshold concentration of the ethylene glycol monophenyl ether effect was < 10 mumol/l. The concentration for a 50% inhibition (IC50) was approximately 360 mumol/l. The results indicate a neurotoxic potential for 2-phenoxyethanol.

  16. Truncated SRA RNA derivatives inhibit estrogen receptor-α-mediated transcription.

    PubMed

    Jung, Euihan; Jang, Seonghui; Lee, Jungmin; Kim, Youngmi; Shin, Heegwon; Park, Hee-Sung; Lee, Younghoon

    2016-10-01

    The steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA) is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that acts as a putative coactivator for steroid receptor-mediated transcription. A recent study showed that SRA RNA can be structurally dissected into four domains comprising various secondary structures, but the contribution of each domain to the coactivation ability of SRA RNA was previously unknown. Here, we assessed the functional contributions of the various domains of SRA. We examined the effects of each domain on the coactivation of estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-mediated transcription of a luciferase reporter gene in HeLa cells. Then the detailed domain analysis was focused on domain III (D3) not only with the reporter gene in HeLa cells, but also with ERα-responsive genes in MCF7 breast cancer cells. Domain deletion analysis showed that the deletion of any domain decreased the luciferase activity, and that deletion of D3 caused the largest decrease. This D3 deletion effect was not recovered by co-expression of D3 alone; moreover, the expression of D3 fragments (particularly helices H15-H18, which are highly conserved across vertebrates) inhibited luciferase expression in HeLa cells. Moreover, a fragment containing helices H15-H18 reduced ERα-responsive gene expression in MCF7 breast cancer cells. Our findings indicate that D3 inhibited ERα-mediated transcription of a reporter gene in HeLa cells and that helices H15-H18, as a core element responsible for the D3-driven inhibition, reduced expression of ERα-responsive genes in breast cancer cells.

  17. Scavenger Receptors Mediate the Role of SUMO and Ftz-f1 in Drosophila Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Talamillo, Ana; Herboso, Leire; Pirone, Lucia; Pérez, Coralia; González, Monika; Sánchez, Jonatan; Mayor, Ugo; Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Rodriguez, Manuel S.; Sutherland, James D.; Barrio, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    SUMOylation participates in ecdysteroid biosynthesis at the onset of metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Silencing the Drosophila SUMO homologue smt3 in the prothoracic gland leads to reduced lipid content, low ecdysone titers, and a block in the larval–pupal transition. Here we show that the SR-BI family of Scavenger Receptors mediates SUMO functions. Reduced levels of Snmp1 compromise lipid uptake in the prothoracic gland. In addition, overexpression of Snmp1 is able to recover lipid droplet levels in the smt3 knockdown prothoracic gland cells. Snmp1 expression depends on Ftz-f1 (an NR5A-type orphan nuclear receptor), the expression of which, in turn, depends on SUMO. Furthermore, we show by in vitro and in vivo experiments that Ftz-f1 is SUMOylated. RNAi–mediated knockdown of ftz-f1 phenocopies that of smt3 at the larval to pupal transition, thus Ftz-f1 is an interesting candidate to mediate some of the functions of SUMO at the onset of metamorphosis. Additionally, we demonstrate that the role of SUMOylation, Ftz-f1, and the Scavenger Receptors in lipid capture and mobilization is conserved in other steroidogenic tissues such as the follicle cells of the ovary. smt3 knockdown, as well as ftz-f1 or Scavenger knockdown, depleted the lipid content of the follicle cells, which could be rescued by Snmp1 overexpression. Therefore, our data provide new insights into the regulation of metamorphosis via lipid homeostasis, showing that Drosophila Smt3, Ftz-f1, and SR-BIs are part of a general mechanism for uptake of lipids such as cholesterol, required during development in steroidogenic tissues. PMID:23637637

  18. Prolactin mediates neuroprotection against excitotoxicity in primary cell cultures of hippocampal neurons via its receptor.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Castañeda, E; Grattan, D R; Pasantes-Morales, H; Pérez-Domínguez, M; Cabrera-Reyes, E A; Morales, T; Cerbón, M

    2016-04-01

    Recently it has been reported that prolactin (PRL) exerts a neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity in hippocampus in the rat in vivo models. However, the exact mechanism by which PRL mediates this effect is not completely understood. The aim of our study was to assess whether prolactin exerts neuroprotection against excitotoxicity in an in vitro model using primary cell cultures of hippocampal neurons, and to determine whether this effect is mediated via the prolactin receptor (PRLR). Primary cell cultures of rat hippocampal neurons were used in all experiments, gene expression was evaluated by RT-qPCR, and protein expression was assessed by Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. Cell viability was assessed by using the MTT method. The results demonstrated that PRL treatment of neurons from primary cultures did not modify cell viability, but that it exerted a neuroprotective effect, with cells treated with PRL showing a significant increase of viability after glutamate (Glu)--induced excitotoxicity as compared with neurons treated with Glu alone. Cultured neurons expressed mRNA for both PRL and its receptor (PRLR), and both PRL and PRLR expression levels changed after the excitotoxic insult. Interestingly, the PRLR protein was detected as two main isoforms of 100 and 40 kDa as compared with that expressed in hypothalamic cells, which was present only as a 30 kDa variant. On the other hand, PRL was not detected in neuron cultures, either by western blot or by immunohistochemistry. Neuroprotection induced by PRL was significantly blocked by specific oligonucleotides against PRLR, thus suggesting that the PRL role is mediated by its receptor expressed in these neurons. The overall results indicated that PRL induces neuroprotection in neurons from primary cell cultures. PMID:26874070

  19. Prolactin mediates neuroprotection against excitotoxicity in primary cell cultures of hippocampal neurons via its receptor.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Castañeda, E; Grattan, D R; Pasantes-Morales, H; Pérez-Domínguez, M; Cabrera-Reyes, E A; Morales, T; Cerbón, M

    2016-04-01

    Recently it has been reported that prolactin (PRL) exerts a neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity in hippocampus in the rat in vivo models. However, the exact mechanism by which PRL mediates this effect is not completely understood. The aim of our study was to assess whether prolactin exerts neuroprotection against excitotoxicity in an in vitro model using primary cell cultures of hippocampal neurons, and to determine whether this effect is mediated via the prolactin receptor (PRLR). Primary cell cultures of rat hippocampal neurons were used in all experiments, gene expression was evaluated by RT-qPCR, and protein expression was assessed by Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. Cell viability was assessed by using the MTT method. The results demonstrated that PRL treatment of neurons from primary cultures did not modify cell viability, but that it exerted a neuroprotective effect, with cells treated with PRL showing a significant increase of viability after glutamate (Glu)--induced excitotoxicity as compared with neurons treated with Glu alone. Cultured neurons expressed mRNA for both PRL and its receptor (PRLR), and both PRL and PRLR expression levels changed after the excitotoxic insult. Interestingly, the PRLR protein was detected as two main isoforms of 100 and 40 kDa as compared with that expressed in hypothalamic cells, which was present only as a 30 kDa variant. On the other hand, PRL was not detected in neuron cultures, either by western blot or by immunohistochemistry. Neuroprotection induced by PRL was significantly blocked by specific oligonucleotides against PRLR, thus suggesting that the PRL role is mediated by its receptor expressed in these neurons. The overall results indicated that PRL induces neuroprotection in neurons from primary cell cultures.

  20. Effect of pregnane X receptor ligands on transport mediated by human OATP1B1 and OATP1B3

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Chunshan; Miao, Yi; Thompson, Lucas; Wahlgren, Bret; Mock, Melissa; Stieger, Bruno; Hagenbuch, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is abundantly expressed in hepatocytes. Numerous drugs are pregnane X receptor ligands. To bind to their receptor they must cross the sinusoidal membrane. Organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3 (OATP1B1 and OATP1B3) are polyspecific transporters expressed at the sinusoidal membrane of human hepatocytes. They mediate transport of a variety of drugs including the pregnane X receptor ligands rifampicin and dexamethasone. To test whether additional pregnane X receptor ligands interact with OATP1B1- and 1B3-mediated transport, we developed Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines stably expressing OATP1B1 or 1B3 at high levels. OATP1B1- and 1B3-mediated estradiol-17β-glucuronide uptake was inhibited by several pregnane X receptor ligands in a concentration dependent way. IC50 values for rifampicin, paclitaxel, mifepristone, and troglitazone were within their respective pharmacological free plasma concentrations. Kinetic analysis revealed that clotrimazole inhibits OATP1B1-mediated estradiol-17β-glucuronide transport with a Ki of 7.7 ± 0.3 μM in a competitive way. However, uptake of OATP1B3-mediated estradiol-17β-glucuronide was stimulated and this stimulation was due to an increased apparent affinity. Transport of estrone-3-sulfate was hardly affected while all other substrates tested were inhibited. Additional azoles like fluconazole, ketoconazole and miconazole did not stimulate OATP1B3-mediated estradiol-17β-glucuronide transport. In summary, these results demonstrate that pregnane X receptor ligands, by inhibiting or stimulating OATP-mediated uptake, can lead to drug-drug interactions at the transporter level. PMID:18321482

  1. Differential expression of adenosine A3 receptors controls adenosine A2A receptor-mediated inhibition of TLR responses in microglia.

    PubMed

    van der Putten, Céline; Zuiderwijk-Sick, Ella A; van Straalen, Linda; de Geus, Eveline D; Boven, Leonie A; Kondova, Ivanela; IJzerman, Ad P; Bajramovic, Jeffrey J

    2009-06-15

    Microglia activation is a prominent feature in many neuroinflammatory disorders. Unrestrained activation can generate a chronic inflammatory environment that might lead to neurodegeneration and autoimmunity. Extracellular adenosine modulates cellular activation through adenosine receptor (ADORA)-mediated signaling. There are four ADORA subtypes that can either increase (A(2A) and A(2B) receptors) or decrease (A(1) and A(3) receptors) intracellular cyclic AMP levels. The expression pattern of the subtypes thus orchestrates the cellular response to extracellular adenosine. We have investigated the expression of ADORA subtypes in unstimulated and TLR-activated primary rhesus monkey microglia. Activation induced an up-regulation of A(2A) and a down-regulation of A(3) receptor (A(3)R) levels. The altered ADORA-expression pattern sensitized microglia to A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R)-mediated inhibition of subsequent TLR-induced cytokine responses. By using combinations of subtype-specific agonists and antagonists, we revealed that in unstimulated microglia, A(2A)R-mediated inhibitory signaling was effectively counteracted by A(3)R-mediated signaling. In activated microglia, the decrease in A(3)R-mediated signaling sensitized them to A(2A)R-mediated inhibitory signaling. We report a differential, activation state-specific expression of ADORA in microglia and uncover a role for A(3)R as dynamically regulated suppressors of A(2A)R-mediated inhibition of TLR-induced responses. This would suggest exploration of combinations of A(2A)R agonists and A(3)R antagonists to dampen microglial activation during chronic neuroinflammatory conditions.

  2. Med1 subunit of the mediator complex in nuclear receptor-regulated energy metabolism, liver regeneration, and hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yuzhi; Viswakarma, Navin; Reddy, Janardan K

    2014-01-01

    Several nuclear receptors regulate diverse metabolic functions that impact on critical biological processes, such as development, differentiation, cellular regeneration, and neoplastic conversion. In the liver, some members of the nuclear receptor family, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), liver X receptor (LXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and others, regulate energy homeostasis, the formation and excretion of bile acids, and detoxification of xenobiotics. Excess energy burning resulting from increases in fatty acid oxidation systems in liver generates reactive oxygen species, and the resulting oxidative damage influences liver regeneration and liver tumor development. These nuclear receptors are important sensors of exogenous activators as well as receptor-specific endogenous ligands. In this regard, gene knockout mouse models revealed that some lipid-metabolizing enzymes generate PPARα-activating ligands, while others such as ACOX1 (fatty acyl-CoA oxidase1) inactivate these endogenous PPARα activators. In the absence of ACOX1, the unmetabolized ACOX1 substrates cause sustained activation of PPARα, and the resulting increase in energy burning leads to hepatocarcinogenesis. Ligand-activated nuclear receptors recruit the multisubunit Mediator complex for RNA polymerase II-dependent gene transcription. Evidence indicates that the Med1 subunit of the Mediator is essential for PPARα, PPARγ, CAR, and GR signaling in liver. Med1 null hepatocytes fail to respond to PPARα activators in that these cells do not show induction of peroxisome proliferation and increases in fatty acid oxidation enzymes. Med1-deficient hepatocytes show no increase in cell proliferation and do not give rise to liver tumors. Identification of nuclear receptor-specific coactivators and Mediator subunits should further our understanding of the complexities of metabolic

  3. The CB1 receptor as an important mediator of hedonic reward processing.

    PubMed

    Friemel, Chris M; Zimmer, Andreas; Schneider, Miriam

    2014-09-01

    The endocannabinoid (ECB) system has emerged recently as a key mediator for reward processing. It is well known that cannabinoids affect appetitive learning processes and can induce reinforcing and rewarding effects. However, the involvement of the ECB system in hedonic aspects of reward-related behavior is not completely understood. With the present study, we investigated the modulatory role of the ECB system on hedonic perception, measured by the pleasure attenuated startle (PAS) paradigm for a palatable food reward. Here, a conditioned odor is thought to induce a pleasant affective state that attenuates an aversive reflex-the acoustic startle response. Modulatory effects of the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist SR1411716 and the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55 212-2 on PAS were examined in rats. PAS was also measured in CB1 receptor knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Pharmacological inhibition as well as the absence of CB1 receptors was found to reduce PAS, whereas WIN 55 212-2 administration increased PAS. Finally, presentation of a conditioned reward cue was found to induce striatal FosB/ΔFosB expression in WT mice, but not in KO mice, indicating a reduced stimulation of reward-related brain regions in conditioned KO mice by odor presentation. We here show that in addition to our previous studies in rats, PAS may also serve as a valuable and suitable measure to assess hedonic processing in mice. Our data further indicate that the ECB system, and in particular CB1 receptor signaling, appears to be highly important for the mediation of hedonic aspects of reward processing.

  4. Relationship between Ah receptor-mediated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced humoral immunosuppression and thymic atrophy.

    PubMed

    Silkworth, J B; Antrim, L

    1985-12-01

    Thymic atrophy and humoral immunosuppression by certain polychlorinated biphenyls is associated with the aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor in mice. We examined the relationship between these two toxic effects. 3,3',4,4'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB), which causes immunosuppression and thymic atrophy, and 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl, which causes immunosuppression without thymic atrophy, were administered i.p. to C57BL/6 mice at 0, 35 and 350 mumol/kg b.wt. 2 days before i.v. immunization with 10 micrograms of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. Both congeners caused significant suppression of the day 4 anti-lipopolysaccharide plaque-forming cell response/spleen (less than or equal to 46% of control). TCB (350 mumol/kg) was also administered 2 days before either a primary or secondary i.p. immunization with sheep erythrocytes. TCB treatment before primary immunization had no effects on the day 5 secondary response, whereas treatment before the secondary immunization significantly inhibited both day 5 immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G plaque-forming cells (less than 10 and less than 2% of control, respectively) and decreased serum antibody. TCB administered either 8 or 2 days before or 2 or 4 days after immunization with sheep erythrocytes demonstrated that significant suppression of both plaque-forming cells and serum antibody could occur without thymic atrophy. Immunity was most impaired when TCB was given 2 days before immunization. These results demonstrate that thymic atrophy does not always accompany the severe immunosuppression caused by Ah receptor ligands and suggests that it may not be a sensitive measure of Ah receptor-mediated immunosuppression. The data also suggests that differentiation of B lymphocytes into antibody producing cells is impaired during Ah receptor-mediated gene activation.

  5. Greater Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Mediated Vasodilation in Women Using Oral Contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Limberg, Jacqueline K.; Peltonen, Garrett L.; Johansson, Rebecca E.; Harrell, John W.; Kellawan, Jeremy M.; Eldridge, Marlowe W.; Sebranek, Joshua J.; Walker, Benjamin J.; Schrage, William G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: β-adrenergic receptors play an important role in mitigating the pressor effects of sympathetic nervous system activity in young women. Based on recent data showing oral contraceptive use in women abolishes the relationship between muscle sympathetic nervous system activity and blood pressure, we hypothesized forearm blood flow responses to a β-adrenergic receptor agonist would be greater in young women currently using oral contraceptives (OC+, n = 13) when compared to those not using oral contraceptives (OC–, n = 10). Methods: Women (18–35 years) were studied during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (days 1–5) or placebo phase of oral contraceptive use. Forearm blood flow (FBF, Doppler ultrasound) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, brachial arterial catheter) were measured at baseline and during graded brachial artery infusion of the β-adrenergic receptor agonist, Isoproterenol (ISO), as well as Acetylcholine (ACH, endothelium-dependent vasodilation) and Nitroprusside (NTP, endothelium-independent vasodilation). Forearm vascular conductance was calculated (FVC = FBF/MAP, ml/min/100 mmHg) and the rise in FVC from baseline during infusion quantified vasodilation (ΔFVC = FVCinfusion − FVCbaseline). Results: ISO increased FVC in both groups (p < 0.01) and ISO-mediated ΔFVC was greater in OC+ compared to OC– (Main effect of group, p = 0.02). Expressing data as FVC and FBF resulted in similar conclusions. FVC responses to both ACH and NTP were also greater in OC+ compared to OC–. Conclusions: These data are the first to demonstrate greater β-adrenergic receptor-mediated vasodilation in the forearm of women currently using oral contraceptives (placebo phase) when compared to those not using oral contraceptives (early follicular phase), and suggest oral contraceptive use influences neurovascular control. PMID:27375493

  6. Modeling receptor-mediated processes with dioxin: Implications for pharmacokinetics and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.E.; Mills, J.J.; Gargas, M.L. ); Keddersi, L. ); Birnbaum, L.S. ); Neubert, D. ); Greenlee, W.F. )

    1993-02-01

    Dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; TCDD), a widespread aromatic hydrocarbon, caused tumors in the liver and other sites when administered chronically to rats at doses as low as 0.01 [mu]g/kg/day. It functions in combination with a cellular protein, the Ah receptor, to alter gene regulation, and this resulting modulation of gene expression is believed to be obligatory for both dioxin toxicity and carcinogenicity. The U.S. EPA is reevaluating its dioxin risk assessment and, as part of this process, will be developing risk assessment approaches for chemicals, such as dioxin, whose toxicity is receptor-mediated. This paper describes a receptor-mediated physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) model for the tissue distribution and enzyme-inducing properties of dioxin and discusses the potential role of these models in a biologically motivated risk assessment. In this model, ternary interactions among the Ah receptor, dioxin, and DNA binding sites lead to enhance production of specific hepatic proteins. This model was used to examine the tissue disposition of dioxin and the induction of both a dioxin-binding protein (presumably, cytochrome P4501A2), and cytochrome P4501A1. Tumor promotion correlated more closely with predicted induction of P4501A1 than with induction of hepatic binding proteins. Although increased induction of these proteins is not expected to be causally related to tumor formation, these physiological dosimetry and gene-induction response models will be important for biologically motivated dioxin risk assessments in determining both target tissue dose of dioxin and gene products and in examining the relationship between these gene products and the cellular events more directly involved in tumor promotion.

  7. The CB1 receptor as an important mediator of hedonic reward processing.

    PubMed

    Friemel, Chris M; Zimmer, Andreas; Schneider, Miriam

    2014-09-01

    The endocannabinoid (ECB) system has emerged recently as a key mediator for reward processing. It is well known that cannabinoids affect appetitive learning processes and can induce reinforcing and rewarding effects. However, the involvement of the ECB system in hedonic aspects of reward-related behavior is not completely understood. With the present study, we investigated the modulatory role of the ECB system on hedonic perception, measured by the pleasure attenuated startle (PAS) paradigm for a palatable food reward. Here, a conditioned odor is thought to induce a pleasant affective state that attenuates an aversive reflex-the acoustic startle response. Modulatory effects of the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist SR1411716 and the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55 212-2 on PAS were examined in rats. PAS was also measured in CB1 receptor knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Pharmacological inhibition as well as the absence of CB1 receptors was found to reduce PAS, whereas WIN 55 212-2 administration increased PAS. Finally, presentation of a conditioned reward cue was found to induce striatal FosB/ΔFosB expression in WT mice, but not in KO mice, indicating a reduced stimulation of reward-related brain regions in conditioned KO mice by odor presentation. We here show that in addition to our previous studies in rats, PAS may also serve as a valuable and suitable measure to assess hedonic processing in mice. Our data further indicate that the ECB system, and in particular CB1 receptor signaling, appears to be highly important for the mediation of hedonic aspects of reward processing. PMID:24718372

  8. Mononuclear Phagocyte-Mediated Antifungal Immunity: The Role of Chemotactic Receptors and Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Swamydas, Muthulekha; Break, Timothy J.; Lionakis, Michail S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, fungal infections have emerged as significant causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with hematological malignancies, hematopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Besides neutrophils and CD4+ T lymphocytes, which have long been known to play an indispensable role in promoting protective antifungal immunity, mononuclear phagocytes are now being increasingly recognized as critical mediators of host defense against fungi. Thus, a recent surge of research studies has focused on understanding the mechanisms by which resident and recruited monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells accumulate and become activated at the sites of fungal infection. Herein, we critically review how a variety of G-protein coupled chemoattractant receptors and their ligands mediate mononuclear phagocyte recruitment and effector function during infection by the most common human fungal pathogens. PMID:25715741

  9. Mononuclear phagocyte-mediated antifungal immunity: the role of chemotactic receptors and ligands.

    PubMed

    Swamydas, Muthulekha; Break, Timothy J; Lionakis, Michail S

    2015-06-01

    Over the past two decades, fungal infections have emerged as significant causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with hematological malignancies, hematopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Besides neutrophils and CD4(+) T lymphocytes, which have long been known to play an indispensable role in promoting protective antifungal immunity, mononuclear phagocytes are now being increasingly recognized as critical mediators of host defense against fungi. Thus, a recent surge of research studies has focused on understanding the mechanisms by which resident and recruited monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells accumulate and become activated at the sites of fungal infection. Herein, we critically review how a variety of G-protein coupled chemoattractant receptors and their ligands mediate mononuclear phagocyte recruitment and effector function during infection by the most common human fungal pathogens. PMID:25715741

  10. Alpha-adrenergic receptors mediate imipramine/alarm substance-induced reaction in rats.

    PubMed

    Abel, E L

    1994-08-01

    The mechanism of adverse imipramine-induced reactions (jitteriness, convulsions) was investigated by precipitating such reactions in rats with three injections (IP) of imipramine (5-40 mg/kg) at 24, 5, and 1 h before testing, and comparing their occurrence with comparable treatments using specific noradrenergic and serotonergic reuptake inhibitors [nortriptyline (10 or 30 mg/kg, IP), citalopram (0.5-5.0 mg/kg, IP)]. This initial study indicated that these reactions were mediated by imipramine's noradrenergic effects. Subsequent combinations of imipramine and an alpha 2 agonist (clonidine, 5 mg/kg) and antagonist (yohimbine, 2 mg/kg), and a beta-adrenergic antagonist (propranolol, 2 or 5 mg/kg) (all administered IP 0.5 h after the last injection of imipramine) suggested imipramine's adverse effects were mediated by alpha 2 receptors. The possible involvement of the locus ceruleus in these effects was considered.

  11. Targeting Toll-like receptor 4 prevents cobalt-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Helen; Mawdesley, Amy Elizabeth; Holland, James Patrick; Kirby, John Andrew; Deehan, David John; Tyson-Capper, Alison Jane

    2016-02-16

    Cobalt-chrome alloy is a widely used biomaterial in joint replacements, dental implants and spinal rods. Although it is an effective and biocompatible material, adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD) have arisen in a minority of patients, particularly in those with metal-on-metal bearing hip replacements. There is currently no treatment for ARMD and once progressive, early revision surgery of the implant is necessary. Therapeutic agents to prevent, halt or reverse ARMD would therefore be advantageous. Cobalt ions activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an innate immune receptor responsible for inflammatory responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We hypothesised that anti-TLR4 neutralising antibodies, reported to inhibit TLR4-mediated inflammation, could prevent the inflammatory response to cobalt ions in an in vitro macrophage cell culture model. This study shows that a monoclonal anti-TLR4 antibody inhibited cobalt-mediated increases in pro-inflammatory IL8, CCL20 and IL1A expression, as well as IL-8 secretion. In contrast, a polyclonal antibody did not prevent the effect of cobalt ions on either IL-8 or IL1A expression, although it did have a small effect on the CCL20 response. Interestingly, both antibodies inhibited cobalt-mediated neutrophil migration although the greater effect was observed with the monoclonal antibody. In summary our data shows that a monoclonal anti-TLR4 antibody can inhibit cobalt-mediated inflammatory responses while a polyclonal antibody only inhibits the effect of specific cytokines. Anti-TLR4 antibodies have therapeutic potential in ARMD although careful antibody design is required to ensure that the LPS response is preserved. PMID:26840091

  12. Tumor necrosis factor regulates NMDA receptor-mediated airway smooth muscle contractile function and airway responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Anaparti, Vidyanand; Pascoe, Christopher D; Jha, Aruni; Mahood, Thomas H; Ilarraza, Ramses; Unruh, Helmut; Moqbel, Redwan; Halayko, Andrew J

    2016-08-01

    We have shown that N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDA-Rs) are receptor-operated calcium entry channels in human airway smooth muscle (HASM) during contraction. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) augments smooth muscle contractility by influencing pathways that regulate intracellular calcium flux and can alter NMDA-R expression and activity in cortical neurons and glial cells. We hypothesized that NMDA-R-mediated Ca(2+) and contractile responses of ASM can be altered by inflammatory mediators, including TNF. In cultured HASM cells, we assessed TNF (10 ng/ml, 48 h) effect on NMDA-R subunit abundance by quantitative PCR, confocal imaging, and immunoblotting. We observed dose- and time-dependent changes in NMDA-R composition: increased obligatory NR1 subunit expression and altered regulatory NR2 and inhibitory NR3 subunits. Measuring intracellular Ca(2+) flux in Fura-2-loaded HASM cultures, we observed that TNF exposure enhanced cytosolic Ca(2+) mobilization and changed the temporal pattern of Ca(2+) flux in individual myocytes induced by NMDA, an NMDA-R selective analog of glutamate. We measured airway responses to NMDA in murine thin-cut lung slices (TCLS) from allergen-naive animals and observed significant airway contraction. However, NMDA acted as a bronchodilator in TCLS from house dust mice-challenged mice and in allergen-naive TCLS subjected to TNF exposure. All contractile or bronchodilator responses were blocked by a selective NMDA-R antagonist, (2R)-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate, and bronchodilator responses were prevented by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) or indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor). Collectively, we show that TNF augments NMDA-R-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization in HASM cells, whereas in multicellular TCLSs allergic inflammation and TNF exposure leads to NMDA-R-mediated bronchodilation. These findings reveal the unique contribution of ionotrophic NMDA-R to airway hyperreactivity.

  13. Targeting Toll-like receptor 4 prevents cobalt-mediated inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Helen; Mawdesley, Amy Elizabeth; Holland, James Patrick; Kirby, John Andrew; Deehan, David John; Tyson-Capper, Alison Jane

    2016-01-01

    Cobalt-chrome alloy is a widely used biomaterial in joint replacements, dental implants and spinal rods. Although it is an effective and biocompatible material, adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD) have arisen in a minority of patients, particularly in those with metal-on-metal bearing hip replacements. There is currently no treatment for ARMD and once progressive, early revision surgery of the implant is necessary. Therapeutic agents to prevent, halt or reverse ARMD would therefore be advantageous. Cobalt ions activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an innate immune receptor responsible for inflammatory responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We hypothesised that anti-TLR4 neutralising antibodies, reported to inhibit TLR4-mediated inflammation, could prevent the inflammatory response to cobalt ions in an in vitro macrophagecell culture model. This study shows that a monoclonal anti-TLR4 antibody inhibited cobalt-mediated increases in pro-inflammatory IL8, CCL20 and IL1A expression, as well as IL-8 secretion. In contrast, a polyclonal antibody did not prevent the effect of cobalt ions on either IL-8 or IL1A expression, although it did have a small effect on the CCL20 response. Interestingly, both antibodies inhibited cobalt-mediated neutrophil migration although the greater effect was observed with the monoclonal antibody. In summary our data shows that a monoclonal anti-TLR4 antibody can inhibit cobalt-mediated inflammatory responses while a polyclonal antibody only inhibits the effect of specific cytokines. Anti-TLR4 antibodies have therapeutic potential in ARMD although careful antibody design is required to ensure that the LPS response is preserved. PMID:26840091

  14. Targeting Toll-like receptor 4 prevents cobalt-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Helen; Mawdesley, Amy Elizabeth; Holland, James Patrick; Kirby, John Andrew; Deehan, David John; Tyson-Capper, Alison Jane

    2016-02-16

    Cobalt-chrome alloy is a widely used biomaterial in joint replacements, dental implants and spinal rods. Although it is an effective and biocompatible material, adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD) have arisen in a minority of patients, particularly in those with metal-on-metal bearing hip replacements. There is currently no treatment for ARMD and once progressive, early revision surgery of the implant is necessary. Therapeutic agents to prevent, halt or reverse ARMD would therefore be advantageous. Cobalt ions activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an innate immune receptor responsible for inflammatory responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We hypothesised that anti-TLR4 neutralising antibodies, reported to inhibit TLR4-mediated inflammation, could prevent the inflammatory response to cobalt ions in an in vitro macrophage cell culture model. This study shows that a monoclonal anti-TLR4 antibody inhibited cobalt-mediated increases in pro-inflammatory IL8, CCL20 and IL1A expression, as well as IL-8 secretion. In contrast, a polyclonal antibody did not prevent the effect of cobalt ions on either IL-8 or IL1A expression, although it did have a small effect on the CCL20 response. Interestingly, both antibodies inhibited cobalt-mediated neutrophil migration although the greater effect was observed with the monoclonal antibody. In summary our data shows that a monoclonal anti-TLR4 antibody can inhibit cobalt-mediated inflammatory responses while a polyclonal antibody only inhibits the effect of specific cytokines. Anti-TLR4 antibodies have therapeutic potential in ARMD although careful antibody design is required to ensure that the LPS response is preserved.

  15. Kappa opioid receptors on dopaminergic neurons are necessary for kappa-mediated place aversion.

    PubMed

    Chefer, Vladimir I; Bäckman, Cristina M; Gigante, Eduardo D; Shippenberg, Toni S

    2013-12-01

    Kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) agonists have dysphoric properties in humans and are aversive in rodents. This has been attributed to the activation of KORs within the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system. However, the role of DA in KOR-mediated aversion and stress remains divisive as recent studies have suggested that activation of KORs on serotonergic neurons may be sufficient to mediate aversive behaviors. To address this question, we used conditional knock-out (KO) mice with KORs deleted on DA neurons (DAT(Cre/wt)/KOR(loxp/loxp), or DATCre-KOR KO). In agreement with previous findings, control mice (DAT(Cre/wt)/KOR(wt/wt) or WT) showed conditioned place aversion (CPA) to the systemically administered KOR agonist U69,593. In contrast, DATCre-KOR KO mice did not exhibit CPA with this same agonist. In addition, in vivo microdialysis showed that systemic U69,593 decreased overflow of DA in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in WT mice, but had no effect in DATCre-KOR KO mice. Intra- ventral tegmental area (VTA) delivery of KORs using an adeno-associated viral gene construct, resulted in phenotypic rescue of the KOR-mediated NAc DA response and aversive behavior in DATCre-KOR KO animals. These results provide evidence that KORs on VTA DA neurons are necessary to mediate KOR-mediated aversive behavior. Therefore, our data, along with recent findings, suggest that the neuronal mechanisms of KOR-mediated aversive behavior may include both dopaminergic and serotonergic components. PMID:23921954

  16. Estrogen receptor subtypes selectively mediate female mouse reproductive abnormalities induced by neonatal exposure to estrogenic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takeshi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Watanabe, Hajime; Iguchi, Taisen

    2008-11-20

    Perinatal exposure to estrogens such as diethylstilbestrol (DES), and to estrogenic chemicals, induces persistent anovulation caused by alteration of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, polyovular follicles, uterine abnormalities and persistent vaginal changes in mice. Most activities of estrogenic chemicals are mediated through estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and/or ERbeta. However, little was known about the relative contribution of the individual ER subtypes in induction of abnormalities. We tested the effects of neonatal exposure to ER selective ligands and DES on female mice. Transactivation assays using mouse ERalpha and ERbeta showed that 10(-10)M DES activated both ER subtypes and that the ERalpha agonist (propyl pyrazole triol, PPT) and the ERbeta agonist (diarylpropionitrile, DPN) selectively activated their respective ERs at 10(-9)M. Neonatal female mice were injected subcutaneously with DES, PPT or DPN and the animals were examined at 13 and 15 weeks of age, respectively. Persistent estrous smears and anovulation were induced in all mice by 0.025-2.5 microg DES and 2.5-25 microg PPT, but not by DPN, suggesting that the observed anovulation was primarily mediated through ERalpha. Disorganization of uterine musculature and ovary-independent vaginal epithelial cell proliferation accompanied by persistent expression of EGF-related genes and interleukin-1-related genes were also mediated through ERalpha. In contrast, polyovular follicles were induced by neonatal treatment with both ERalpha and ERbeta ligands, suggesting that ovarian abnormalities are mediated through both ER subtypes.

  17. Epithelial estrogen receptor 1 intrinsically mediates squamous differentiation in the mouse vagina

    PubMed Central

    Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen-mediated actions in female reproductive organs are tightly regulated, mainly through estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1). The mouse vaginal epithelium cyclically exhibits cell proliferation and differentiation in response to estrogen and provides a unique model for analyzing the homeostasis of stratified squamous epithelia. To address the role of ESR1-mediated tissue events during homeostasis, we analyzed mice with a vaginal epithelium-specific knockout of Esr1 driven by keratin 5-Cre (K5-Esr1KO). We show here that loss of epithelial ESR1 in the vagina resulted in aberrant epithelial cell proliferation in the suprabasal cell layers and led to failure of keratinized differentiation. Gene expression analysis showed that several known estrogen target genes, including erbB growth factor ligands, were not induced by estrogen in the K5-Esr1KO mouse vagina. Organ culture experiments revealed that the addition of erbB growth factor ligands, such as amphiregulin, could activate keratinized differentiation in the absence of epithelial ESR1. Thus, epithelial ESR1 integrates estrogen and growth factor signaling to mediate regulation of cell proliferation in squamous differentiation, and our results provide new insights into estrogen-mediated homeostasis in female reproductive organs. PMID:26438838

  18. Characterization of the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors mediating contraction in the pig isolated intravesical ureter

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Medardo; Barahona, María Victoria; Simonsen, Ulf; Recio, Paz; Rivera, Luis; Martínez, Ana Cristina; García-Sacristán, Albino; Orensanz, Luis M; Prieto, Dolores

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and to characterize the 5-HT receptors involved in 5-HT responses in the pig intravesical ureter. 5-HT (0.01–10 μM) concentration-dependently increased the tone of intravesical ureteral strips, whereas the increases in phasic contractions were concentration-independent. The 5-HT2 receptor agonist α-methyl 5-HT, mimicked the effect on tone whereas weak or no response was obtained with 5-CT, 8-OH-DPAT, m-chlorophenylbiguanide and RS 67333, 5-HT1, 5-HT1A, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor agonists, respectively. 5-HT did not induce relaxation of U46619-contracted ureteral preparations. Pargyline (100 μM), a monoaminooxidase A/B activity inhibitor, produced leftward displacements of the concentration-response curves for 5-HT. 5-HT-induced tone was reduced by the 5-HT2 and 5-HT2A receptor antagonists ritanserine (0.1 μM) and spiperone (0.2 μM), respectively. However, 5-HT contraction was not antagonized by cyanopindolol (2 μM), SDZ–SER 082 (1 μM), Y-25130 (1 μM) and GR 113808 (0.1 μM), which are respectively, 5-HT1A/1B, 5-HT2B/2C, 5-HT3, and 5-HT4 selective receptor antagonists. Removal of the urothelium did not modify 5-HT-induced contractions. Blockade of neuronal voltage-activated sodium channels, α-adrenergic receptors and adrenergic neurotransmission with tetrodotoxin (1 μM), phentolamine (0.3 μM) and guanethidine (10 μM), respectively, reduced the contractions to 5-HT. However, physostigmine (1 μM), atropine (0.1 μM) and suramin (30 μM), inhibitors of cholinesterase activity, muscarinic- and purinergic P2-receptors, respectively, failed to modify the contractions to 5-HT. These results suggest that 5-HT increases the tone of the pig intravesical ureter through 5-HT2A receptors located at the smooth muscle. Part of the 5-HT contraction is indirectly mediated via noradrenaline release from sympathetic nerves. PMID:12522083

  19. Insulin-like Growth Factor 1-mediated Hyperthermia Involves Anterior Hypothalamic Insulin Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Osborn, Olivia; Tabarean, Iustin V.; Holmberg, Kristina H.; Eberwine, James; Kahn, C. Ronald; Bartfai, Tamas

    2011-01-01

    The objective is to investigate the role of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in the regulation of core body temperature. Sequencing cDNA libraries from individual warm-sensitive neurons from the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus, a region involved in the central control of thermoregulation, identified neurons that express both IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and insulin receptor transcripts. The effects of administration of IGF-1 into the POA was measured by radiotelemetry monitoring of core temperature, brown adipose tissue (BAT) temperature, metabolic assessment, and imaging of BAT by positron emission tomography of 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose uptake combined with computed tomography. IGF-1 injection into the POA caused dose-dependent hyperthermia that could be blocked by pretreatment with the IGF-1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PQ401. The IGF-1-evoked hyperthermia involved activation of brown adipose tissue and was accompanied by a switch from glycolysis to fatty acid oxidation as a source of energy as shown by lowered respiratory exchange ratio. Transgenic mice that lack neuronal insulin receptor expression in the brain (NIRKO mice) were unable to mount the full hyperthermic response to IGF-1, suggesting that the IGF-1 mediated hyperthermia is partly dependent on expression of functional neuronal insulin receptors. These data indicate a novel thermoregulatory role for both IGF-1R and neuronal insulin receptors in IGF-1 activation of BAT and hyperthermia. These central effects of IGF-1 signaling may play a role in regulation of metabolic rate, aging, and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. PMID:21330367

  20. Cardio-respiratory effects of systemic neurotensin injection are mediated through activation of neurotensin NTS₁ receptors.

    PubMed

    Kaczyńska, Katarzyna; Szereda-Przestaszewska, Małgorzata

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of our study was to determine the cardio-respiratory pattern exerted by the systemic injection of neurotensin, contribution of neurotensin NTS(1) receptors and the neural pathways mediating the responses. The effects of an intravenous injection (i.v.) of neurotensin were investigated in anaesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats in following experimental schemes: (i) control animals before and after midcervical vagotomy; (ii) in three separate subgroups of rats: neurally intact, vagotomized at supranodosal level and initially midcervically vagotomized exposed to section of the carotid sinus nerves (CSNs); (iii) in the intact rats 2 minutes after blockade of neurotensin NTS(1) receptors with SR 142948. Intravenous injection of 10 μg/kg of neurotensin in the intact rats evoked prompt increase in the respiratory rate followed by a prolonged slowing down coupled with augmented tidal volume. Midcervical vagotomy precluded the effects of neurotensin on the frequency of breathing, while CSNs section reduced the increase in tidal volume. In all the neural states neurotensin caused significant fall in mean arterial blood pressure preceded by prompt hypertensive response. The cardio-respiratory effects of neurotensin were blocked by pre-treatment with NTS(1) receptor antagonist. The results of this study showed that neurotensin acting through NTS(1) receptors augments the tidal component of the breathing pattern in a large portion via carotid body afferentation whereas the respiratory timing response to neurotensin depends entirely on the intact midcervical vagi. Blood pressure effects evoked by an intravenous neurotensin occur outside vagal and CSNs pathways and might result from activation of the peripheral vascular NTS(1) receptors.

  1. Nitric oxide mediates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-induced activation of p21ras.

    PubMed

    Yun, H Y; Gonzalez-Zulueta, M; Dawson, V L; Dawson, T M

    1998-05-12

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor-mediated increases in intracellular calcium are thought to play a critical role in synaptic plasticity. The mechanisms by which changes in cytoplasmic calcium transmit the glutamate signal to the nucleus, which is ultimately important for long-lasting neuronal responses, are poorly understood. We show that NMDA receptor stimulation leads to activation of p21(ras) (Ras) through generation of nitric oxide (NO) via neuronal NO synthase. The competitive NO synthase inhibitor, L-nitroarginine methyl ester, prevents Ras activation elicited by NMDA and this effect is competitively reversed by the NO synthase substrate, L-arginine. NMDA receptor stimulation fails to activate Ras in neuronal cultures from mice lacking neuronal NO synthase. NMDA-induced Ras activation occurs through a cGMP-independent pathway as 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-alpha]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), a potent and selective inhibitor of guanylyl cyclase, has no effect on NMDA receptor-induced activation of Ras, and the cell-permeable cGMP analog, 8Br-cGMP, does not activate Ras. Furthermore, NO directly activates immunoprecipitated Ras from neurons. NMDA also elicits tyrosine phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases, a downstream effector pathway of Ras, through a NO/non-cGMP dependent mechanism, thus supporting the physiologic relevance of endogenous NO regulation of Ras. These results suggest that Ras is a physiologic target of endogenously produced NO and indicates a signaling pathway for NMDA receptor activation that may be important for long-lasting neuronal responses.

  2. Opsonin-independent ligation of Fc gamma receptors. The 3G8-bearing receptors on neutrophils mediate the phagocytosis of concanavalin A- treated erythrocytes and nonopsonized Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    We report that phagocytosis by human neutrophils of Con A-treated erythrocytes (E-Con A) and nonopsonized Escherichia coli with mannose- binding adhesions is mediated by the Fc gamma receptor bearing the 3G8 epitope. Modulation of Fc receptors by pretreating with aggregated-IgG or with 3G8 anti-Fc gamma receptor mAb markedly inhibited internalization of E-Con A and E. coli without altering their cell surface attachment. Phagocytosis of these probes was specifically blocked by alpha-methylmannoside and D-mannose and not by other monosaccharides. Thus, recognition of E-Con A and E. coli by the Fc receptor is dependent upon the mannose-specific interaction with lectin or lectin-like adhesions. These data demonstrate that ligands other than the classical IgG opsonins can bind to classical immune receptors for IgG through lectin-carbohydrate interactions. PMID:2445895

  3. Activity-dependent bidirectional regulation of GABAA receptor channels by the 5-HT4 receptor-mediated signalling in rat prefrontal cortical pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiang; Flores-Hernandez, Jorge; Feng, Jian; Yan, Zhen

    2002-01-01

    Emerging evidence has implicated a potential role for 5-HT4 receptors in cognition and anxiolysis. One of the main target structures of 5-HT4 receptors on ‘cognitive and emotional’ pathways is the prefrontal cortex (PFC). As GABAergic signalling plays a key role in regulating PFC functions, we examined the effect of 5-HT4 receptors on GABAA receptor channels in PFC pyramidal neurons. Application of 5-HT4 receptor agonists produced either an enhancement or a reduction of GABA-evoked currents in PFC neurons, which are both mediated by anchored protein kinase A (PKA). Although PKA phosphorylation of GABAA receptor β3 or β1 subunits leads to current enhancement or reduction respectively in heterologous expression systems, we found that β3 and β1 subunits are co-expressed in PFC pyramidal neurons. Interestingly, altering PKA activation levels can change the direction of the dual effect, switching enhancement to reduction and vice versa. In addition, increased neuronal activity in PFC slices elevated the PKA activation level, changing the enhancing effect of 5-HT4 receptors on the amplitude of GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) to a reduction. These results suggest that 5-HT4 receptors can modulate GABAergic signalling bidirectionally, depending on the basal PKA activation levels that are determined by neuronal activity. This modulation provides a unique and flexible mechanism for 5-HT4 receptors to dynamically regulate synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability in the PFC network. PMID:11986365

  4. Estrogen receptor-mediated transcription involves the activation of multiple kinase pathways in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Clark, Sara; Rainville, Jennifer; Zhao, Xing; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S; Pfaff, Donald; Vasudevan, Nandini

    2014-01-01

    While many physiological effects of estrogens (E) are due to regulation of gene transcription by liganded estrogen receptors (ERs), several effects are also mediated, at least in part, by rapid non-genomic actions of E. Though the relative importance of rapid versus genomic effects in the central nervous system is controversial, we showed previously that membrane-limited effects of E, initiated by an estradiol bovine serum albumin conjugate (E2-BSA), could potentiate transcriptional effects of 17β-estradiol from an estrogen response element (ERE)-reporter in neuroblastoma cells. Here, using specific inhibitors and activators in a pharmacological approach, we show that activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate kinase (PI3K) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, dependent on a Gαq coupled receptor signaling are important in this transcriptional potentiation. We further demonstrate, using ERα phospho-deficient mutants, that E2-BSA mediated phosphorylation of ERα is one mechanism to potentiate transcription from an ERE reporter construct. This study provides a possible mechanism by which signaling from the membrane is coupled to transcription in the nucleus, providing an integrated view of hormone signaling in the brain.

  5. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis of Lysozyme in Renal Proximal Tubules of the Frog Rana Temporaria

    PubMed Central

    Seliverstova, E.V.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of protein reabsorption in the kidney of lower vertebrates remains insufficiently investigated in spite of raising interest to the amphibian and fish kidneys as a useful model for physiological and pathophysiological examinations. In the present study, we examined the renal tubular uptake and the internalization rote of lysozyme after its intravenous injection in the wintering frog Rana temporaria using immunohisto- and immunocytochemistry and specific markers for some endocytic compartments. The distinct expression of megalin and cubilin in the proximal tubule cells of lysozyme-injected frogs was revealed whereas kidney tissue of control animals showed no positive immunoreactivity. Lysozyme was detected in the apical endocytic compartment of the tubular cells and colocalized with clathrin 10 min after injection. After 20 min, lysozyme was located in the subapical compartment negative to clathrin (endo-somes), and intracellular trafficking of lysozyme was coincided with the distribution of megalin and cubilin. However, internalized protein was retained in the endosomes and did not reach lysosomes within 30 min after treatment that may indicate the inhibition of intra-cellular trafficking in hibernating frogs. For the first time, we provided the evidence that lysozyme is filtered through the glomeruli and absorbed by receptor-mediated clathrin-dependent endocytosis in the frog proximal tubule cells. Thus, the protein uptake in the amphibian mesonephros is mediated by megalin and cubilin that confirms a critical role of endocytic receptors in the renal reabsorption of proteins in amphibians as in mammals. PMID:26150156

  6. Toll-like receptor 4–mediated lymphocyte influx induces neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Charlotte E.; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Good, Misty; Lin, Joyce; Jia, Hongpeng; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Lu, Peng; Ma, Congrong; Branca, Maria F.; Weyandt, Samantha; Fulton, William B.; Niño, Diego F.; Prindle, Thomas; Ozolek, John A.; Hackam, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The nature and role of the intestinal leukocytes in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a severe disease affecting premature infants, remain unknown. We now show that the intestine in mouse and human NEC is rich in lymphocytes that are required for NEC development, as recombination activating gene 1–deficient (Rag1–/–) mice were protected from NEC and transfer of intestinal lymphocytes from NEC mice into naive mice induced intestinal inflammation. The intestinal expression of the lipopolysaccharide receptor TLR4, which is higher in the premature compared with full-term human and mouse intestine, is required for lymphocyte influx through TLR4-mediated upregulation of CCR9/CCL25 signaling. TLR4 also mediates a STAT3-dependent polarization toward increased proinflammatory CD3+CD4+IL-17+ and reduced tolerogenic Foxp3+ Treg lymphocytes (Tregs). Th17 lymphocytes were required for NEC development, as inhibition of STAT3 or IL-17 receptor signaling attenuated NEC in mice, while IL-17 release impaired enterocyte tight junctions, increased enterocyte apoptosis, and reduced enterocyte proliferation, leading to NEC. Importantly, TLR4-dependent Th17 polarization could be reversed by the enteral administration of retinoic acid, which induced Tregs and decreased NEC severity. These findings identify an important role for proinflammatory lymphocytes in NEC development via intestinal epithelial TLR4 that could be reversed through dietary modification. PMID:26690704

  7. Pregnane X Receptor Mediates Dyslipidemia Induced by the HIV Protease Inhibitor Amprenavir in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Helsley, Robert N.; Sui, Yipeng; Ai, Ni; Park, Se-Hyung; Welsh, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors (PIs) have been used successfully in extending the life span of people infected with HIV. The use of PIs has also been associated with dyslipidemia and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Several PIs have been implicated in activating the nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR), which acts as a xenobiotic sensor to regulate xenobiotic metabolism in the liver and intestine. Recent studies indicate that PXR may also play an important role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. In the present study, we identified amprenavir, a widely used HIV PI, as a potent PXR-selective agonist. Computational docking studies combined with site-direct mutagenesis identified several key residues within the ligand-binding pocket of PXR that constitute points of interaction with amprenavir. Amprenavir efficiently activated PXR and induced PXR target gene expression in vitro and in vivo. Short-term exposure to amprenavir significantly increased plasma total cholesterol and atherogenic low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in wild-type mice, but not in PXR-deficient mice. Amprenavir-mediated PXR activation stimulated the expression of several key intestinal genes involved in lipid homeostasis. These findings provide critical mechanistic insight for understanding the impact of PIs on cardiovascular disease and demonstrate a potential role of PXR in mediating the adverse effects of HIV PIs in humans. PMID:23519392

  8. Target shape dependence in a simple model of receptor-mediated endocytosis and phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Richards, David M.; Endres, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Phagocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis are vitally important particle uptake mechanisms in many cell types, ranging from single-cell organisms to immune cells. In both processes, engulfment by the cell depends critically on both particle shape and orientation. However, most previous theoretical work has focused only on spherical particles and hence disregards the wide-ranging particle shapes occurring in nature, such as those of bacteria. Here, by implementing a simple model in one and two dimensions, we compare and contrast receptor-mediated endocytosis and phagocytosis for a range of biologically relevant shapes, including spheres, ellipsoids, capped cylinders, and hourglasses. We find a whole range of different engulfment behaviors with some ellipsoids engulfing faster than spheres, and that phagocytosis is able to engulf a greater range of target shapes than other types of endocytosis. Further, the 2D model can explain why some nonspherical particles engulf fastest (not at all) when presented to the membrane tip-first (lying flat). Our work reveals how some bacteria may avoid being internalized simply because of their shape, and suggests shapes for optimal drug delivery. PMID:27185939

  9. Molecular mediators for raft-dependent endocytosis of syndecan-1, a highly conserved, multifunctional receptor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Keyang; Williams, Kevin Jon

    2013-05-17

    Endocytosis via rafts has attracted considerable recent interest, but the molecular mediators remain incompletely characterized. Here, we focused on the syndecan-1 heparan sulfate proteoglycan, a highly conserved, multifunctional receptor that we previously showed to undergo raft-dependent endocytosis upon clustering. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of three to five consecutive cytoplasmic residues at a time revealed that a conserved juxtamembrane motif, MKKK, was the only region required for efficient endocytosis after clustering. Endocytosis of clustered syndecan-1 occurs in two phases, each requiring a kinase and a corresponding cytoskeletal partner. In the initial phase, ligands trigger rapid MKKK-dependent activation of ERK and the localization of syndecan-1 into rafts. Activation of ERK drives the dissociation of syndecan-1 from α-tubulin, a molecule that may act as an anchor for syndecan-1 at the plasma membrane in the basal state. In the second phase, Src family kinases phosphorylate tyrosyl residues within the transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions of syndecan-1, a process that also requires MKKK. Tyrosine phosphorylation of syndecan-1 triggers the robust recruitment of cortactin, which we found to be an essential mediator of efficient actin-dependent endocytosis. These findings represent the first detailed characterization of the molecular events that drive endocytosis of a raft-dependent receptor and identify a novel endocytic motif, MKKK. Moreover, the results provide new tools to study syndecan function and regulation during uptake of its biologically and medically important ligands, such as HIV-1, atherogenic postprandial remnant lipoproteins, and molecules implicated in Alzheimer disease.

  10. Blockade of cannabinoid 1 receptor improves GLP-1R mediated insulin secretion in mice.

    PubMed

    González-Mariscal, Isabel; Krzysik-Walker, Susan M; Kim, Wook; Rouse, Michael; Egan, Josephine M

    2016-03-01

    The cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1) is an important regulator of energy metabolism. Reports of in vivo and in vitro studies give conflicting results regarding its role in insulin secretion, possibly due to circulatory factors, such as incretins. We hypothesized that this receptor may be a regulator of the entero-insular axis. We found that despite lower food consumption and lower body weight postprandial GLP-1 plasma concentrations were increased in CB1(-/-) mice compared to CB1(+/+) mice administered a standard diet or high fat/sugar diet. Upon exogenous GLP-1 treatment, CB1(-/-) mice had increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In mouse insulinoma cells, cannabinoids reduced GLP-1R-mediated intracellular cAMP accumulation and subsequent insulin secretion. Importantly, such effects were also evident in human islets, and were prevented by pharmacologic blockade of CB1. Collectively, these findings suggest a novel mechanism in which endocannabinoids are negative modulators of incretin-mediated insulin secretion. PMID:26724516

  11. Understanding magnetic nanoparticle osteoblast receptor-mediated endocytosis using experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Nhiem; Webster, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are promising candidates for controlling drug delivery through an external magnetic force to treat a wide range of diseases, including osteoporosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that in the presence of hydroxyapatite coated magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles, osteoblast (or bone forming cell) proliferation and long-term functions (such as calcium deposition) were significantly enhanced. Hydroxyapatite is the major inorganic component of bone. As a further attempt to understand why, in the current study, the uptake of such nanoparticles into osteoblasts was experimentally investigated and mathematically modeled. Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using a co-precipitation method and were coated with hydroxyapatite. A cellular uptake experiment at low temperatures indicated that receptor-mediated endocytosis contributed to the internalization of the magnetic nanoparticles into osteoblasts. A model was further developed to explain the uptake of magnetic nanoparticles into osteoblasts using receptor-mediated endocytosis. This model may explain the internalization of hydroxyapatite into osteoblasts to elevate intracellular calcium levels necessary to promote osteoblast functions to treat a wide range of orthopedic problems, including osteoporosis.

  12. The soluble interleukin-6 receptor is a mediator of hematopoietic and skeletal actions of parathyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sun Wook; Pirih, Flavia Q; Koh, Amy J; Michalski, Megan; Eber, Matthew R; Ritchie, Kathryn; Sinder, Benjamin; Oh, Seojin; Al-Dujaili, Saja A; Lee, JoonHo; Kozloff, Ken; Danciu, Theodora; Wronski, Thomas J; McCauley, Laurie K

    2013-03-01

    Both PTH and IL-6 signaling play pivotal roles in hematopoiesis and skeletal biology, but their interdependence is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) on hematopoietic and skeletal actions of PTH. In the bone microenvironment, PTH stimulated sIL-6R protein levels in primary osteoblast cultures in vitro and bone marrow in vivo in both IL-6(+/+) and IL-6(-/-) mice. PTH-mediated hematopoietic cell expansion was attenuated in IL-6(-/-) compared with IL-6(+/+) bone marrow, whereas sIL-6R treatment amplified PTH actions in IL-6(-/-) earlier than IL-6(+/+) marrow cultures. Blocking sIL-6R signaling with sgp130 (soluble glycoprotein 130 receptor) inhibited PTH-dependent hematopoietic cell expansion in IL-6(-/-) marrow. In the skeletal system, although intermittent PTH administration to IL-6(+/+) and IL-6(-/-) mice resulted in similar anabolic actions, blocking sIL-6R significantly attenuated PTH anabolic actions. sIL-6R showed no direct effects on osteoblast proliferation or differentiation in vitro; however, it up-regulated myeloid cell expansion and production of the mesenchymal stem cell recruiting agent, TGF-β1 in the bone marrow microenvironment. Collectively, sIL-6R demonstrated orphan function and mediated PTH anabolic actions in bone in association with support of myeloid lineage cells in the hematopoietic system.

  13. Mer receptor tyrosine kinase mediates both tethering and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Dransfield, I; Zagórska, A; Lew, E D; Michail, K; Lemke, G

    2015-01-01

    Billions of inflammatory leukocytes die and are phagocytically cleared each day. This regular renewal facilitates the normal termination of inflammatory responses, suppressing pro-inflammatory mediators and inducing their anti-inflammatory counterparts. Here we investigate the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Mer and its ligands Protein S and Gas6 in the initial recognition and capture of apoptotic cells (ACs) by macrophages. We demonstrate extremely rapid binding kinetics of both ligands to phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-displaying ACs, and show that ACs can be co-opsonized with multiple PtdSer opsonins. We further show that macrophage phagocytosis of ACs opsonized with Mer ligands can occur independently of a requirement for αV integrins. Finally, we demonstrate a novel role for Mer in the tethering of ACs to the macrophage surface, and show that Mer-mediated tethering and subsequent AC engulfment can be distinguished by their requirement for Mer kinase activity. Our results identify Mer as a receptor uniquely capable of both tethering ACs to the macrophage surface and driving their subsequent internalization. PMID:25695599

  14. Benzodiazepine receptor-mediated behavioral effects of nitrous oxide in the rat social interaction test.

    PubMed

    Quock, R M; Wetzel, P J; Maillefer, R H; Hodges, B L; Curtis, B A; Czech, D A

    1993-09-01

    The present study was conducted to ascertain whether an anxiolytic effect of nitrous oxide was demonstrable in rats using the social interaction test and whether this drug effect might be mediated by benzodiazepine receptors. Compared to behavior of vehicle-pretreated, room air-exposed rats, rat pairs exposed to nitrous oxide showed a generally inverted U-shaped dose-response curve with the maximum increase in social interaction encounters occurring at 25% and significant increase in time of active social interaction at 15-35%; higher concentrations produced a sedative effect that reduced social interaction. Treatment with 5.0 mg/kg of the anxiolytic benzodiazepine chlordiazepoxide also increased social interaction. Pretreatment with 10 mg/kg of the benzodiazepine receptor blocker flumazenil, which alone had no effect, significantly antagonized the social interaction-increasing effects of both nitrous oxide and chlordiazepoxide. In summary, these findings suggest that nitrous oxide produces a flumazenil-sensitive effect comparable to that of chlordiazepoxide and implicate central benzodiazepine mechanisms in mediation of the anxiolytic effect of nitrous oxide.

  15. A pp32-retinoblastoma protein complex modulates androgen receptor-mediated transcription and associates with components of the splicing machinery

    SciTech Connect

    Adegbola, Onikepe; Pasternack, Gary R. . E-mail: gpastern@jhmi.edu

    2005-08-26

    We have previously shown pp32 and the retinoblastoma protein interact. pp32 and the retinoblastoma protein are nuclear receptor transcriptional coregulators: the retinoblastoma protein is a coactivator for androgen receptor, the major regulator of prostate cancer growth, while pp32, which is highly expressed in prostate cancer, is a corepressor of the estrogen receptor. We now show pp32 increases androgen receptor-mediated transcription and the retinoblastoma protein modulates this activity. Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identify members of the pp32-retinoblastoma protein complex as PSF and nonO/p54nrb, proteins implicated in coordinate regulation of nuclear receptor-mediated transcription and splicing. We show that the pp32-retinoblastoma protein complex is modulated during TPA-induced K562 differentiation. Present evidence suggests that nuclear receptors assemble multiprotein complexes to coordinately regulate transcription and mRNA processing. Our results suggest that pp32 and the retinoblastoma protein may be part of a multiprotein complex that coordinately regulates nuclear receptor-mediated transcription and mRNA processing.

  16. Trans-activation of EphA4 and FGF receptors mediated by direct interactions between their cytoplasmic domains

    PubMed Central

    Yokote, Hideyuki; Fujita, Koji; Jing, Xuefeng; Sawada, Takahiro; Liang, Sitai; Yao, Li; Yan, Xiaomei; Zhang, Yueqiang; Schlessinger, Joseph; Sakaguchi, Kazushige

    2005-01-01

    A yeast two-hybrid analysis has shown that the juxtamembrane region of FGF receptor 3 (FGFR3) interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of EphA4, which is a member of the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Complex formation between the two receptors was shown to be mediated by direct interactions between the juxtamembrane domain of FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, or FGFR4 and the N-terminal portion of the tyrosine kinase domain of EphA4. Activation of FGFR1 in transfected cells resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of a kinase-negative EphA4 mutant and activation of EphA4 led to tyrosine phosphorylation of a kinase-negative FGFR1 mutant. Moreover, both receptors stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation of the docking protein FRS2α and induce mitogen-activated protein kinase stimulation with a time course and intensity that depends on the ligand that is applied. We also demonstrate that FGF-receptor-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase stimulation is potentiated in cells costimulated with ephrin-A1. The direct interaction between EphA4 and FGFRs and the potentiation of FGF response that is induced by ephrin-A1 stimulation may modulate the biological responses that are mediated by these receptor families in cells or tissues in which the two receptors are coexpressed. PMID:16365308

  17. Pharmacologically Distinct Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Drive Efferent-Mediated Excitation in Calyx-Bearing Vestibular Afferents

    PubMed Central

    Kewin, Kevin; Jordan, Paivi M.; Cameron, Peter; Klapczynski, Marcin; McIntosh, J. Michael; Crooks, Peter A.; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Lysakowski, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of vestibular efferent neurons rapidly excites the resting discharge of calyx/dimorphic (CD) afferents. In turtle, this excitation arises when acetylcholine (ACh), released from efferent terminals, directly depolarizes calyceal endings by activating nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs). Although molecular biological data from the peripheral vestibular system implicate most of the known nAChR subunits, specific information about those contributing to efferent-mediated excitation of CD afferents is lacking. We sought to identify the nAChR subunits that underlie the rapid excitation of CD afferents and whether they differ from α9α10 nAChRs on type II hair cells that drive efferent-mediated inhibition in adjacent bouton afferents. We recorded from CD and bouton afferents innervating the turtle posterior crista during electrical stimulation of vestibular efferents while applying several subtype-selective nAChR agonists and antagonists. The α9α10 nAChR antagonists, α-bungarotoxin and α-conotoxin RgIA, blocked efferent-mediated inhibition in bouton afferents while leaving efferent-mediated excitation in CD units largely intact. Conversely, 5-iodo-A-85380, sazetidine-A, varenicline, α-conotoxin MII, and bPiDDB (N,N-dodecane-1,12-diyl-bis-3-picolinium dibromide) blocked efferent-mediated excitation in CD afferents without affecting efferent-mediated inhibition in bouton afferents. This pharmacological profile suggested that calyceal nAChRs contain α6 and β2, but not α9, nAChR subunits. Selective blockade of efferent-mediated excitation in CD afferents distinguished dimorphic from calyx afferents by revealing type II hair cell input. Dimorphic afferents differed in having higher mean discharge rates and a mean efferent-mediated excitation that was smaller in amplitude yet longer in duration. Molecular biological data demonstrated the expression of α9 in turtle hair cells and α4 and β2 in associated vestibular ganglia. PMID:25716861

  18. 3-iodothyronamine differentially modulates α-2A-adrenergic receptor-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Dinter, Juliane; Mühlhaus, Jessica; Jacobi, Simon Friedrich; Wienchol, Carolin Leonie; Cöster, Maxi; Meister, Jaroslawna; Hoefig, Carolin Stephanie; Müller, Anne; Köhrle, Josef; Grüters, Annette; Krude, Heiko; Mittag, Jens; Schöneberg, Torsten; Kleinau, Gunnar; Biebermann, Heike

    2015-06-01

    Most in vivo effects of 3-iodothyronamine (3-T1AM) have been thus far thought to be mediated by binding at the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). Inconsistently, the 3-T1AM-induced hypothermic effect still persists in Taar1 knockout mice, which suggests additional receptor targets. In support of this general assumption, it has previously been reported that 3-T1AM also binds to the α-2A-adrenergic receptor (ADRA2A), which modulates insulin secretion. However, the mechanism of this effect remains unclear. We tested two different scenarios that may explain the effect: the sole action of 3-T1AM at ADRA2A and a combined action of 3-T1AM at ADRA2A and TAAR1, which is also expressed in pancreatic islets. We first investigated a potential general signaling modification using the label-free EPIC technology and then specified changes in signaling by cAMP inhibition and MAPKs (ERK1/2) determination. We found that 3-T1AM induced Gi/o activation at ADRA2A and reduced the norepinephrine (NorEpi)-induced MAPK activation. Interestingly, in ADRA2A/TAAR1 hetero-oligomers, application of NorEpi resulted in uncoupling of the Gi/o signaling pathway, but it did not affect MAPK activation. However, 3-T1AM application in mice over a period of 6 days at a daily dose of 5 mg/kg had no significant effects on glucose homeostasis. In summary, we report an agonistic effect of 3-T1AM on the ADRA2A-mediated Gi/o pathway but an antagonistic effect on MAPK induced by NorEpi. Moreover, in ADRA2A/TAAR1 hetero-oligomers, the capacity of NorEpi to stimulate Gi/o signaling is reduced by co-stimulation with 3-T1AM. The present study therefore points to a complex spectrum of signaling modification mediated by 3-T1AM at different G protein-coupled receptors.

  19. Effects of particle size on toll-like receptor 9-mediated cytokine profiles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Helen C.; Sun, Bingbing; Tran, Kenny K.; Shen, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Biomaterials interface with toll-like receptor (TLR) 9-mediated innate immunity in a wide range of medical applications, such as tissue implants and drug delivery systems. The stimulation of TLR9 can lead to two different signaling pathways, resulting in the generation of proinflammatory cytokines (i.e. IL-6) and/or type I interferons (IFNs, i.e. IFN-α). These two categories of cytokines differentially influence both innate and adaptive immunity. Although particle size is known to be a critical parameter of biomaterials, its role in TLR9-mediated cytokine profiles is not clear. Here, we examined how the size of biomaterials impacted cytokine profiles by using polystyrene particles of defined sizes as model carriers for TLR9 agonists (CpG oligonucleotides (CpG ODNs)). CpG ODNs bound to nano- to submicro- particles stimulated the production of both IL-6 and IFN-α, while those bound to microparticles resulted in IL-6 secretions only. The differential TLR9-mediated cytokine profiles were attributed to the pH of endosomes that particles trafficked to. The magnitude of IFN-α production was highly sensitive to the change in endosomal pH in comparison to that of IL-6. Our results define two critical design variables, size and the ability to modulate endosomal pH, for the engineering of biomaterials that potentially interface with TLR9-mediated innate immunity. The fine control of these two variables will allow us to fully exploit the beneficial facets of TLR9-mediated innate immunity while minimizing undesirable side effects. PMID:21126760

  20. Insulin Receptor Substrate Adaptor Proteins Mediate Prognostic Gene Expression Profiles in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Marc A.; Ibrahim, Yasir H.; Oh, Annabell S.; Fagan, Dedra H.; Byron, Sara A.; Sarver, Aaron L.; Lee, Adrian V.; Shaw, Leslie M.; Fan, Cheng; Perou, Charles M.; Yee, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Therapies targeting the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) have not been developed with predictive biomarkers to identify tumors with receptor activation. We have previously shown that the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) adaptor proteins are necessary for linking IGF1R to downstream signaling pathways and the malignant phenotype in breast cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to identify gene expression profiles downstream of IGF1R and its two adaptor proteins. IRS-null breast cancer cells (T47D-YA) were engineered to express IRS-1 or IRS-2 alone and their ability to mediate IGF ligand-induced proliferation, motility, and gene expression determined. Global gene expression signatures reflecting IRS adaptor specific and primary vs. secondary ligand response were derived (Early IRS-1, Late IRS-1, Early IRS-2 and Late IRS-2) and functional pathway analysis examined. IRS isoforms mediated distinct gene expression profiles, functional pathways, and breast cancer subtype association. For example, IRS-1/2-induced TGFb2 expression and blockade of TGFb2 abrogated IGF-induced cell migration. In addition, the prognostic value of IRS proteins was significant in the luminal B breast tumor subtype. Univariate and multivariate analyses confirmed that IRS adaptor signatures correlated with poor outcome as measured by recurrence-free and overall survival. Thus, IRS adaptor protein expression is required for IGF ligand responses in breast cancer cells. IRS-specific gene signatures represent accurate surrogates of IGF activity and could predict response to anti-IGF therapy in breast cancer. PMID:26991655

  1. Muscarinic receptor subtypes mediating the mucosal response to neural stimulation of guinea pig ileum

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, H.V.; Tien, X.Y.; Wallace, L.J.; Cooke, H.J.

    1987-09-01

    Muscarinic receptors involved in the secretory response evoked by electrical stimulation of submucosal neutrons were investigated in muscle-stripped flat sheets of guinea pig ileum set up in flux chambers. Neural stimulation produced a biphasic increase in short-circuit current due to active chloride secretion. Atropine and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperadine methiodide (4-DAMP) (10/sup -7/ M) were more potent inhibitors of the cholinergic phase of the response than was pirenzepine. Dose-dependent increases in base-line short-circuit current were evoked by carbachol and bethanechol; 4-hydroxy-2-butynyl trimethylammonium chloride (McN A343) produced a much smaller effect. Tetrodotoxin abolished the effects of McN A343 but did not alter the responses of carbachol and bethanechol. McN A343 significantly reduced the cholinergic phase of the neurally evoked response and caused a rightward shift of the carbachol dose-response curve. All muscarinic compounds inhibited (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate binding to membranes from muscosal scrapings, with a rank order of potency of 4-DAMP > pirenzepine > McN A343 > carbachol > bethanechol. These results suggest that acetylcholine released from submucosal neurons mediates chloride secretion by interacting with muscarinic cholinergic receptors that display a high binding affinity for 4-DAMP. Activation of neural muscarinic receptors makes a relatively small contribution to the overall secretory response.

  2. Hormone stimulation of androgen receptor mediates dynamic changes in DNA methylation patterns at regulatory elements

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Vineet K.; Attwood, Kristopher; Campbell, Moray J.; Smiraglia, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that contributes to stable gene silencing by interfering with the ability of transcriptional regulators to bind to DNA. Recent findings have revealed that hormone stimulation of certain nuclear receptors induces rapid, dynamic changes in DNA methylation patterns alongside transcriptional responses at a subset of target loci, over time. However, the ability of androgen receptor (AR) to dynamically regulate gene transcription is relatively under-studied and its role in the regulation of DNA methylation patterns remains to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate in normal prostate cells that hormone stimulated AR activity results in dynamic changes in the transcription rate and DNA methylation patterns at the AR target genes, TIPARP and SGK1. Time-resolved chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments on the SGK1 locus reveals dynamic recruitment of AR and RNA Polymerase II, as well as the recruitment of proteins involved in the DNA demethylation process, TET1 and TDG. Furthermore, the presence of DNA methylation at dynamic regions inhibits protein binding and transcriptional activity of SGK1. These findings establish AR activity as a contributing factor to the dynamic regulation of DNA methylation patterns at target genes in prostate biology and infer further complexity involved in nuclear receptor mediation of transcriptional regulation. PMID:26646795

  3. Ku proteins function as corepressors to regulate farnesoid X receptor-mediated gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Masae; Kunimoto, Masaaki; Nishizuka, Makoto; Osada, Shigehiro; Imagawa, Masayoshi

    2009-12-18

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR; NR1H4) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and regulates the expression of genes involved in enterohepatic circulation and the metabolism of bile acids. Based on functional analyses, nuclear receptors are divided into regions A-F. To explore the cofactors interacting with FXR, we performed a pull-down assay using GST-fused to the N-terminal A/B region and the C region, which are required for the ligand-independent transactivation and DNA-binding, respectively, of FXR, and nuclear extracts from HeLa cells. We identified DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), Ku80, and Ku70 as FXR associated factors. These proteins are known to have an important role in DNA repair, recombination, and transcription. DNA-PKcs mainly interacted with the A/B region of FXR, whereas the Ku proteins interacted with the C region and with the D region (hinge region). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that the Ku proteins associated with FXR on the bile salt export pump (BSEP) promoter. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of the Ku proteins decreased the promoter activity and expression of BSEP gene mediated by FXR. These results suggest that the Ku proteins function as corepressors for FXR.

  4. Retinoic Acid Receptor-Mediated Induction of ABCA1 in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Costet, Philippe; Lalanne, Florent; Gerbod-Giannone, Marie C.; Molina, Jennifer R.; Fu, Xuan; Lund, Erik G.; Gudas, Lorraine J.; Tall, Alan R.

    2003-01-01

    ABCA1, the mutant molecule in Tangier Disease, mediates efflux of cellular cholesterol to apoA-I and is induced by liver X receptor (LXR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) transcription factors. Retinoic acid receptor (RAR) activators (all-trans-retinoic acid [ATRA] and TTNPB) were found to increase ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) mRNA and protein in macrophages. In cellular cotransfection assays, RARγ/RXR activated the human ABCA1 promoter, via the same direct repeat 4 (DR4) promoter element as LXR/RXR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis in macrophages confirmed the binding of RARγ/RXR to the ABCA1 promoter DR4 element in the presence of ATRA, with weaker binding of RARα/RXR, and no binding of RARβ/RXR. However, in macrophages from RARγ−/− mice, TTNPB still induced ABCA1, in association with marked upregulation of RARα, suggesting that high levels of RARα can compensate for the absence of RARγ. Dose-response experiments with ATRA in mouse primary macrophages showed that other LXR target genes were weakly induced (ABCG1 and SREBP-1c) or not induced (apoE and LXRα). The more specific RAR activator TTNPB did not induce SREBP-1c in mouse primary macrophages or liver. These studies indicate a direct role of RARγ/RXR in induction of macrophage ABCA1. PMID:14560020

  5. Coated vesicles participate in the receptor-mediated endocytosis of insulin

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    We have purified coated vesicles from rat liver by differential ultracentrifugation. Electron micrographs of these preparations reveal only the polyhedral structures typical of coated vesicles. SDS PAGE of the coated vesicle preparation followed by Coomassie Blue staining of proteins reveals a protein composition also typical of coated vesicles. We determined that these rat liver coated vesicles possess a latent insulin binding capability. That is, little if any specific binding of 125I-insulin to coated vesicles is observed in the absence of detergent. However, coated vesicles treated with the detergent octyl glucoside exhibit a substantial specific 125I-insulin binding capacity. We visualized the insulin binding structure of coated vesicles by cross- linking 125I-insulin to detergent-solubilized coated vesicles using the bifunctional reagent disuccinimidyl suberate followed by electrophoresis and autoradiography. The receptor structure thus identified is identical to that of the high-affinity insulin receptor present in a variety of tissues. We isolated liver coated vesicles from rats which had received injections of 125I-insulin in the hepatic portal vein. We found that insulin administered in this fashion was rapidly and specifically taken up by liver coated vesicles. Taken together, these data are compatible with a functional role for coated vesicles in the receptor-mediated endocytosis of insulin. PMID:6131074

  6. Peptides in Receptor-Mediated Radiotherapy: From Design to the Clinical Application in Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Lozza, Catherine; Navarro-Teulon, Isabelle; Pèlegrin, André; Pouget, Jean-Pierre; Vivès, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Short peptides can show high affinity for specific receptors overexpressed on tumor cells. Some of these are already used in cancerology as diagnostic tools and others are in clinical trials for therapeutic applications. Therefore, peptides exhibit great potential as a diagnostic tool but also as an alternative or an additional antitumoral approach upon the covalent attachment of a therapeutic moiety such as a radionuclide or a cytotoxic drug. The chemistry offers flexibility to graft onto the targeting-peptide either fluorine or iodine directly, or metallic radionuclides through appropriate chelating agent. Since short peptides are straightforward to synthesize, there is an opportunity to further improve existing peptides or to design new ones for clinical applications. However, several considerations have to be taken into account to optimize the recognition properties of the targeting-peptide to its receptor, to improve its stability in the biological fluids and its residence in the body, or to increase its overall therapeutic effect. In this review, we highlight the different aspects which need to be considered for the development of an efficient peptide receptor-mediated radionuclide therapy in different neoplasms. PMID:24093086

  7. Inhibitory effect of ginsenosides on NMDA receptor-mediated signals in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunoh; Ahn, Kwangseog; Oh, Tae Hwan; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Rhim, Hyewhon

    2002-08-16

    Alternative medicines such as herbal products are increasingly being used for preventive and therapeutic purposes. Ginseng is the best known and most popular herbal medicine used worldwide. In spite of some beneficial effects of ginseng on the CNS, little scientific evidence shows at the cellular level. In the present study, we have examined the direct modulation of ginseng on the activation of glutamate, especially NMDA, receptors in cultured hippocampal neurons. Using fura-2-based digital imaging techniques, we found ginseng total saponins inhibited NMDA-induced but less effectively glutamate-induced increase in [Ca2+]i. Ginseng total saponins also modulated Ca2+ transients evoked by depolarization with 50mM KCl along with its own effects on [Ca2+]i. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg3 is an active component for ginseng actions on NMDA receptors. The data obtained suggest that the inhibition of NMDA receptors by ginseng, in particular by ginsenoside Rg3, could be one of the mechanisms for ginseng-mediated neuroprotective actions.

  8. Receptor activity modifying protein-3 mediates the protumorigenic activity of lysyl oxidase-like protein-2.

    PubMed

    Brekhman, Vera; Lugassie, Jennie; Zaffryar-Eilot, Shelly; Sabo, Edmond; Kessler, Ofra; Smith, Victoria; Golding, Hana; Neufeld, Gera

    2011-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase-like protein-2 (LOXL2) induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition and promotes invasiveness. To understand the mechanisms involved, we examined the effect of LOXL2 overexpression in MCF-7 cells on gene expression. We found that LOXL2 up-regulated the expression of receptor activity modifying protein-3 (RAMP3). Expression of RAMP3 in MDA-MB-231 cells in which LOXL2 expression was inhibited restored vimentin expression, invasiveness, and tumor development. Inhibition of RAMP3 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells mimicked the effects produced by inhibition of LOXL2 expression and was accompanied by inhibition of p38 phosphorylation. LOXL2 overexpression in these cells did not restore invasiveness, suggesting that RAMP3 functions downstream to LOXL2. LOXL2 and RAMP3 are strongly coexpressed in human colon, breast, and gastric carcinomas but not in normal colon or gastric epithelial cells. RAMP3 associates with several G-protein-coupled receptors forming receptors for peptides, such as adrenomedullin and amylin. We hypothesized that RAMP3 could function as a transducer of autocrine signals induced by such peptides. However, the proinvasive effects of RAMP3 could not be abrogated following inhibition of the expression or activity of these peptides. Our experiments suggest that the protumorigenic effects of LOXL2 are partially mediated by RAMP3 and that RAMP3 inhibitors may function as antitumorigenic agents. -

  9. Agonist ligands mediate the transcriptional response of nuclear receptor heterodimers through distinct stoichiometric assemblies with coactivators.

    PubMed

    Pavlin, Mark Remec; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Fernandez, Elias J

    2014-09-01

    The constitutive androstane (CAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR) are ligand-mediated transcription factors of the nuclear receptor protein superfamily. Functional CAR:RXR heterodimers recruit coactivator proteins, such as the steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC1). Here, we show that agonist ligands can potentiate transactivation through both coactivator binding sites on CAR:RXR, which distinctly bind two SRC1 molecules. We also observe that SRC1 transitions from a structurally plastic to a compact form upon binding CAR:RXR. Using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) we show that the CAR(tcp):RXR(9c)·SRC1 complex can encompass two SRC1 molecules compared with the CAR(tcp):RXR·SRC1, which binds only a single SRC1. Moreover, sedimentation coefficients and molecular weights determined by analytical ultracentrifugation confirm the SAXS model. Cell-based transcription assays show that disrupting the SRC1 binding site on RXR alters the transactivation by CAR:RXR. These data suggest a broader role for RXR within heterodimers, whereas offering multiple strategies for the assembly of the transcription complex.

  10. Inhibition of insulin/IGF-1 receptor signaling protects from mitochondria-mediated kidney failure.

    PubMed

    Ising, Christina; Koehler, Sybille; Brähler, Sebastian; Merkwirth, Carsten; Höhne, Martin; Baris, Olivier R; Hagmann, Henning; Kann, Martin; Fabretti, Francesca; Dafinger, Claudia; Bloch, Wilhelm; Schermer, Bernhard; Linkermann, Andreas; Brüning, Jens C; Kurschat, Christine E; Müller, Roman-Ulrich; Wiesner, Rudolf J; Langer, Thomas; Benzing, Thomas; Brinkkoetter, Paul Thomas

    2015-02-02

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and alterations in energy metabolism have been implicated in a variety of human diseases. Mitochondrial fusion is essential for maintenance of mitochondrial function and requires the prohibitin ring complex subunit prohibitin-2 (PHB2) at the mitochondrial inner membrane. Here, we provide a link between PHB2 deficiency and hyperactive insulin/IGF-1 signaling. Deletion of PHB2 in podocytes of mice, terminally differentiated cells at the kidney filtration barrier, caused progressive proteinuria, kidney failure, and death of the animals and resulted in hyperphosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP), a known mediator of the mTOR signaling pathway. Inhibition of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling system through genetic deletion of the insulin receptor alone or in combination with the IGF-1 receptor or treatment with rapamycin prevented hyperphosphorylation of S6RP without affecting the mitochondrial structural defect, alleviated renal disease, and delayed the onset of kidney failure in PHB2-deficient animals. Evidently, perturbation of insulin/IGF-1 receptor signaling contributes to tissue damage in mitochondrial disease, which may allow therapeutic intervention against a wide spectrum of diseases.

  11. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 mediates pain in mice with severe sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Kerstein, Patrick C.; Vilceanu, Daniel; Barabas, Marie E.; Retherford, Dawn; Brandow, Amanda M.; Wandersee, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01

    Pain is the leading cause of emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and daily suffering in individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD). The pathologic mechanisms leading to the perception of pain during acute RBC sickling episodes and development of chronic pain remain poorly understood and ineffectively treated. We provide the first study that explores nociceptor sensitization mechanisms that contribute to pain behavior in mice with severe SCD. Sickle mice exhibit robust behavioral hypersensitivity to mechanical, cold, and heat stimuli. Mechanical hypersensitivity is further exacerbated when hypoxia is used to induce acute sickling. Behavioral mechanical hypersensitivity is mediated in part by enhanced excitability to mechanical stimuli at both primary afferent peripheral terminal and sensory membrane levels. In the present study, inhibition of the capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) with the selective antagonist A-425619 reversed the mechanical sensitization at both primary afferent terminals and isolated somata, and markedly attenuated mechanical behavioral hypersensitivity. In contrast, inhibition of TRPA1 with HC-030031 had no effect on mechanical sensitivity. These results suggest that the TRPV1 receptor contributes to primary afferent mechanical sensitization and a substantial portion of behavioral mechanical hypersensitivity in SCD mice. Therefore, TRPV1-targeted compounds that lack thermoregulatory side effects may provide relief from pain in patients with SCD. PMID:21708890

  12. Concomitant activation of two types of glutamate receptor mediates excitation of salamander retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mittman, S; Taylor, W R; Copenhagen, D R

    1990-01-01

    1. Cells in the ganglion cell layer of salamander retinal slices were voltage clamped using patch pipettes. Light elicited transient excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in on-off ganglion cells and sustained EPSCs in on ganglion cells. Light-evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents in these cells could be blocked by 100 microM-bicuculline methobromide and 500 nM-strychnine. 2. In the presence of external Cd2+, at a concentration that blocked light-evoked synaptic inputs, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and the non-NMDA-receptor agonists, quisqualate and kainate, gated conductances in both on-off and on ganglion cells. The current-voltage (I-V) curve for the conductance elicited by NMDA had a negative slope between -40 and -70 mV and a reversal potential near 0 mV. The I-V curves for the non-NMDA-receptor-mediated conductances were nearly linear and also had reversal potentials near 0 mV. 3. I-V curves were measured at an early time point near the peak of transient EPSCs and at a later time point during the decay phase of the responses. The late I-V curve had a negative slope below -40 mV. The early I-V curve had a positive slope over the entire voltage range but the slope was greater at positive than at negative potentials. The evoked current reversed near 0 mV at both time points. 4. The region of negative slope of the late I-V curve was eliminated when Mg2+ was removed from the external saline. A slowly decaying component of transient EPSCs was eliminated in 20 microM-DL-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoate (AP7), an NMDA-receptor antagonist. 5. Application of 1 microM-6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), a non-NMDA-receptor antagonist at this concentration, blocked a fast component of transient EPSCs. 6. Our results demonstrate that the synaptic inputs to on-off ganglion cells have two components: a slower NMDA-receptor-mediated component having a time-to-peak of 110 +/- 45 ms and an e-fold decay time of 209 +/- 35 ms at -31 mV (mean +/- S.D., n = 5), and a

  13. The prolactin receptor mediates HOXA1-stimulated oncogenicity in mammary carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lin; Xu, Bing; Mohankumar, Kumarasamypet M; Goffin, Vincent; Perry, Jo K; Lobie, Peter E; Liu, Dong-Xu

    2012-12-01

    The HOX genes are a highly conserved subgroup of homeodomain-containing transcription factors that are crucial to normal development. Forced expression of HOXA1 results in oncogenic transformation of immortalized human mammary cells with aggressive tumour formation in vivo. Microarray analysis identified that the prolactin receptor (PRLR) was significantly upregulated by forced expression of HOXA1 in mammary carcinoma cells. To determine prolactin (PRL) involvement in HOXA1‑induced oncogenicity in mammary carcinoma cells (MCF-7), we examined the effect of human prolactin (hPRL)-initiated PRLR signal transduction on changes in cellular behaviour mediated by HOXA1. Forced expression of HOXA1 in MCF-7 cells increased PRLR mRNA and protein expression. Forced expression of HOXA1 also enhanced hPRL-stimulated phosphorylation of both STAT5A/B and p44/42 MAPK, and increased subsequent transcriptional activity of STAT5A and STAT5B, and Elk-1 and Sap1a, respectively. Moreover, forced expression of HOXA1 in MCF-7 cells enhanced the hPRL‑stimulated increase in total cell number as a consequence of enhanced cell proliferation and cell survival, and also enhanced hPRL-stimulated anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Increased anchorage-independent growth was attenuated by the PRLR antagonist ∆1-9-G129R‑hPRL. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that HOXA1 increases expression of the cell surface receptor PRLR and enhances PRLR-mediated signal transduction. Thus, the PRLR is one mediator of HOXA1‑stimulated oncogenicity in mammary carcinoma cells. PMID:23064471

  14. Toll-like receptor-4-dependence of the lipopolysaccharide-mediated inhibition of osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y H; Huang, D; Li, Z J; Li, X H; Wang, X; Yang, H P; Tian, S P; Mao, Y; Liu, M F; Wang, Y F; Wu6, Y; Han7, X F

    2016-01-01

    Bone fractures or bones subjected to open conduction and internal fixation are easily infected by bacteria; bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been recognized as an important pathogenic factor affecting bone fracture healing. Therefore, the effect of LPS on bone metabolism is relevant for bone healing. In this study, we investigated the effect of LPS on the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 (an LPS receptor) by using real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting. We also examined the regulatory role of LPS in osteoblast differentiation by measuring the ALP activity, matrix mineralization, and ALP, OCN, and Runx2 mRNA (essential factors affecting osteoblast differentiation) expression in LPS-treated mouse osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells. We also evaluated the effect of TLR-4 on LPS-mediated inhibition of osteoblast differentiation using RNA interference. LPS promotes TLR-4 mRNA and protein expression in MC3T3-E1 cells (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 or P < 0.001), and inhibits osteoblast differentiation by downregulating matrix mineralization and ALP activity (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 or P < 0.001), and suppressing the expression ALP, OCN, and Runx2 mRNA in MC3T3-E1 cells (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Conversely, RNAi-mediated TLR-4 knockdown abrogates the LPS-mediated inhibition of osteoblast differentiation (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). In summary, LPS was shown to inhibit osteoblast differentiation by suppressing the expression of ALP, OCN, and Runx2 in a TLR-4-dependent manner. The results of this study may provide insights into the signal pathway of LPS-induced bone loss or delayed bone fracture healing. PMID:27173231

  15. Cobaltous chloride and hypoxia inhibit aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated responses in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Shaheen; Liu Shengxi; Stoner, Matthew; Safe, Stephen

    2007-08-15

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is expressed in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive ZR-75 breast cancer cells. Treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces CYP1A1 protein and mRNA levels and also activates inhibitory AhR-ER{alpha} crosstalk associated with hormone-induced reporter gene expression. In ZR-75 cells grown under hypoxia, induction of these AhR-mediated responses by TCDD was significantly inhibited. This was not accompanied by decreased nuclear AhR levels or decreased interaction of the AhR complex with the CYP1A1 gene promoter as determined in a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Hypoxia-induced loss of Ah-responsiveness was not associated with induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} or other factors that sequester the AhR nuclear translocation (Arnt) protein, and overexpression of Arnt under hypoxia did not restore Ah-responsiveness. The p65 subunit of NF{kappa}B which inhibits AhR-mediated transactivation was not induced by hypoxia and was primarily cytosolic in ZR-75 cells grown under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. In ZR-75 cells maintained under hypoxic conditions for 24 h, BRCA1 (an enhancer of AhR-mediated transactivation in breast cancer cells) was significantly decreased and this contributed to loss of Ah-responsiveness. In cells grown under hypoxia for 6 h, BRCA1 was not decreased, but induction of CYP1A1 by TCDD was significantly decreased. Cotreatment of ZR-75 cells with TCDD plus the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide for 6 h enhanced CYP1A1 expression in cells grown under hypoxia and normoxia. These results suggest that hypoxia rapidly induces protein(s) that inhibit Ah-responsiveness and these may be similar to constitutively expressed inhibitors of Ah-responsiveness (under normoxia) that are also inhibited by cycloheximide.

  16. Estrogen receptor mediates simvastatin-stimulated osteogenic effects in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Shu-Chun; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Fu, Yin-Chin; Tai, I-Chun; Li, Ching-Ju; Chang, Li-Fu; Ho, Mei-Ling; Chang, Je-Ken

    2015-12-01

    Simvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, is known to promote osteogenic differentiation. However, the mechanism underlying simvastatin-induced osteogenesis is not well understood. In this study, we hypothesize that the estrogen receptor (ER) mediates simvastatin-induced osteogenic differentiation. ER antagonists and siRNA were used to determine the involvement of the ER in simvastatin-induced osteogenesis in mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (D1 cells). Osteogenesis was evaluated by mRNA expression, protein level/activity of osteogenic markers, and mineralization. The estrogen response element (ERE) promoter activity and the ER-simvastatin binding affinity were examined. Our results showed that the simvastatin-induced osteogenic effects were decreased by treatment with ERα antagonists and ERα siRNA but not by an antagonist specific for the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER-1). The simvastatin-induced osteogenic effects were further increased by E2 treatment and were reversed by ERα antagonists or siRNA treatment. Luciferase reporter gene assays demonstrated that simvastatin increase ERα-dependent transcriptional activity that was suppressed by ERα antagonists. Furthermore, the ERα-simvastatin binding assay showed that IC50 value of simvastatin is 7.85 μM and that of E2 is 32.8 nM, indicating that simvastatin is a weak ligand for ERα. These results suggest that simvastatin-stimulated osteogenesis is mediated by ERα but not GPER-1. Moreover, this is the first report to demonstrate that simvastatin acts as an ERα ligand and a co-activator to enhance ERα-dependent transcriptional activity and thus promotes osteogenesis. These results indicate that simvastatin-induced osteogenesis is mediated via an ERα-dependent pathway.

  17. Nuclear Membranes ETB Receptors Mediate ET-1-induced Increase of Nuclear Calcium in Human Left Ventricular Endocardial Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Jules, Farah; Avedanian, Levon; Al-Khoury, Johny; Keita, Ramatoulaye; Normand, Alexandre; Bkaily, Ghassan; Jacques, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    In fetal human left ventricular endocardial endothelial cells (EECLs), both plasma membrane (PM) ET(A)R and ET(B)R were reported to mediate ET-1-induced increase of intracellular calcium [Ca](i); however, this effect was mediated by ET(A)R in right EECs (EECRs). In this study, we verified whether, as for the PM, nuclear membranes (NMs) ET-1 receptors activation in EECLs and EECRs induce an increase of nuclear calcium ([Ca](n)) and if this effect is mediated through the same receptor type as in PM. Using a plasmalemma-perforated technique and 3D confocal microscopy, our results showed that, as in PM intact cells, superfusion of nuclei of both cell types with cytosolic ET-1 induced a concentration-dependent sustained increase of [Ca](n). In EECRs, the ET(A)R antagonist prevented the effect of ET-1 on [Ca](n) without affecting EECLs. However, in both cell types, the effect of cytosolic ET-1 on [Ca](n) was prevented by the ETBR antagonist. In conclusion, both NMs' ET(A)R and ET(B)R mediated the effect of cytosolic ET-1 on [Ca](n) in EECRs. In contrast, only NMs' ET(B)R activation mediated the effect of cytosolic ET-1 in EECLs. Hence, the type of NMs' receptors mediating the effect of ET-1 on [Ca](n) are different from those of PM mediating the increase in [Ca](i).

  18. Upregulation of retinoic acid receptor-beta by the epidermal growth factor-receptor inhibitor PD153035 is not mediated by blockade of ErbB pathways.

    PubMed

    Grunt, Thomas W; Tomek, Katharina; Wagner, Renate; Puckmair, Klaudia; Kainz, Birgit; Rünzler, Dominik; Gaiger, Alexander; Köhler, Gottfried; Zielinski, Christoph C

    2007-06-01

    Inhibiting epidermal growth factor-receptor (ErbB-1) represents a powerful anticancer strategy. Activation of retinoid pathways is also in development for cancer treatment. Retinoic acid receptor-beta-the tumor suppressor and main retinoid mediator--is silenced in many tumors. The ErbB-1 inhibitor PD153035 cooperates with retinoic acid during growth inhibition and induces retinoic acid receptor-beta suggesting that ErbB-1 controls retinoic acid receptor-beta. However, here we demonstrate that ErbB pathways are not involved in PD153035-mediated retinoic acid receptor-beta-upregulation. PD153035 inhibits ErbB-1-phosphorylation, whereas its derivative EBE-A22 is inactive. Yet both inhibit cell growth and upregulate retinoic acid receptor-beta in ErbB-1-overexpressing (MDA-MB-468), moderately expressing (OVCAR-3), ErbB-1-negative (MDA-MB-453) or ErbB-negative cells (CEM, Jurkat). Both bind DNA, whereas the closely related ErbB-1 inhibitors AG1478 and ZD1839, which are inactive on retinoic acid receptor-beta, do not significantly bind DNA. None of the other ErbB-1/ErbB-2 inhibitors tested (RG-14620, LFM-A12, AG879, AG825) affect retinoic acid receptor-beta. PD153035 decreases methylation of the retinoic acid receptor-beta2 promoter. In OVCAR-3, it stimulates dislodgement of histone deacetylase 1 from the promoter and acetylation of histones H3 and H4. Consequently, PD153035 facilitates recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the promoter and stimulates transcriptional activity. Moreover, PD153035 increases the retinoic acid receptor-beta mRNA half-life. No other retinoid receptor, nor estrogen receptor-alpha, nor RASSF1A is upregulated by PD153035. Thus PD153035 induces retinoic acid receptor-beta by ErbB-independent transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. This report highlights a triple action for an ErbB-1 inhibitor (ErbB-1 inhibition, DNA intercalation, retinoic acid receptor-beta-induction). Such multitargeting drugs bear great potential for cancer

  19. Niacin activates the G protein estrogen receptor (GPER)-mediated signalling.

    PubMed

    Santolla, Maria Francesca; De Francesco, Ernestina Marianna; Lappano, Rosamaria; Rosano, Camillo; Abonante, Sergio; Maggiolini, Marcello

    2014-07-01

    Nicotinic acid, also known as niacin, is the water soluble vitamin B3 used for decades for the treatment of dyslipidemic diseases. Its action is mainly mediated by the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 109A; however, certain regulatory effects on lipid levels occur in a GPR109A-independent manner. The amide form of nicotinic acid, named nicotinamide, acts as a vitamin although neither activates the GPR109A nor exhibits the pharmacological properties of nicotinic acid. In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time that nicotinic acid and nicotinamide bind to and activate the GPER-mediated signalling in breast cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). In particular, we show that both molecules are able to promote the up-regulation of well established GPER target genes through the EGFR/ERK transduction pathway. As a biological counterpart, nicotinic acid and nicotinamide induce proliferative and migratory effects in breast cancer cells and CAFs in a GPER-dependent fashion. Moreover, nicotinic acid prevents the up-regulation of ICAM-1 triggered by the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and stimulates the formation of endothelial tubes through GPER in HUVECs. Together, our findings concerning the agonist activity for GPER displayed by both nicotinic acid and nicotinamide broaden the mechanisms involved in the biological action of these molecules and further support the potential of a ligand to induce different responses mediated in a promiscuous manner by distinct GPCRs.

  20. S-nitrosylated SHP-2 contributes to NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhong-Qing; Sunico, Carmen R.; McKercher, Scott R.; Cui, Jiankun; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Lipton, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    Overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) can cause neuronal damage, contributing to the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases and stroke (i.e., focal cerebral ischemia). NO can mediate neurotoxic effects at least in part via protein S-nitrosylation, a reaction that covalently attaches NO to a cysteine thiol (or thiolate anion) to form an S-nitrosothiol. Recently, the tyrosine phosphatase Src homology region 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2) and its downstream pathways have emerged as important mediators of cell survival. Here we report that in neurons and brain tissue NO can S-nitrosylate SHP-2 at its active site cysteine, forming S-nitrosylated SHP-2 (SNO–SHP-2). We found that NMDA exposure in vitro and transient focal cerebral ischemia in vivo resulted in increased levels of SNO–SHP-2. S-Nitrosylation of SHP-2 inhibited its phosphatase activity, blocking downstream activation of the neuroprotective physiological ERK1/2 pathway, thus increasing susceptibility to NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity. These findings suggest that formation of SNO–SHP-2 represents a key chemical reaction contributing to excitotoxic damage in stroke and potentially other neurological disorders. PMID:23382182

  1. Toll Receptor-Mediated Hippo Signaling Controls Innate Immunity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Zheng, Yonggang; Yin, Feng; Yu, Jianzhong; Silverman, Neal; Pan, Duojia

    2016-01-28

    The Hippo signaling pathway functions through Yorkie to control tissue growth and homeostasis. How this pathway regulates non-developmental processes remains largely unexplored. Here, we report an essential role for Hippo signaling in innate immunity whereby Yorkie directly regulates the transcription of the Drosophila IκB homolog, Cactus, in Toll receptor-mediated antimicrobial response. Loss of Hippo pathway tumor suppressors or activation of Yorkie in fat bodies, the Drosophila immune organ, leads to elevated cactus mRNA levels, decreased expression of antimicrobial peptides, and vulnerability to infection by Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, Gram-positive bacteria acutely activate Hippo-Yorkie signaling in fat bodies via the Toll-Myd88-Pelle cascade through Pelle-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of the Cka subunit of the Hippo-inhibitory STRIPAK PP2A complex. Our studies elucidate a Toll-mediated Hippo signaling pathway in antimicrobial response, highlight the importance of regulating IκB/Cactus transcription in innate immunity, and identify Gram-positive bacteria as extracellular stimuli of Hippo signaling under physiological settings. PMID:26824654

  2. Berberine reduces Toll-like receptor-mediated macrophage migration by suppression of Src enhancement.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei-Erh; Ying Chang, Miao; Wei, Jyun-Yan; Chen, Yen-Jen; Maa, Ming-Chei; Leu, Tzeng-Horng

    2015-06-15

    Berberine is an isoquinoline with anti-inflammatory activity. We previously demonstrated that there was a loop of signal amplification between nuclear factor kappa B and Src for macrophage mobility triggered by the engagement of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The simultaneous suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase 2, and cell mobility in berberine-treated macrophages suggested Src might be a target of berberine. Indeed, th reduced migration, greatly suppressed Src induction in both protein and RNA transcript by berberine were observed in macrophages exposed to LPS, peptidoglycan, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, and CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides. In addition to Src induction, berberine also inhibited LPS-mediated Src activation in Src overexpressing macrophages and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (a nitric oxide donor) could partly restore it. Moreover, berberine suppressed Src activity in fibronectin-stimulated macrophages and in v-Src transformed cells. These results implied that by effectively reducing Src expression and activity, berberine inhibited TLR-mediated cell motility in macrophages.

  3. Oviductal estrogen receptor α signaling prevents protease-mediated embryo death

    PubMed Central

    Winuthayanon, Wipawee; Bernhardt, Miranda L; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth; Myers, Page H; Edin, Matthew L; Lih, Fred B; Hewitt, Sylvia C; Korach, Kenneth S; Williams, Carmen J

    2015-01-01

    Development of uterine endometrial receptivity for implantation is orchestrated by cyclic steroid hormone-mediated signals. It is unknown if these signals are necessary for oviduct function in supporting fertilization and preimplantation development. Here we show that conditional knockout (cKO) mice lacking estrogen receptor α (ERα) in oviduct and uterine epithelial cells have impaired fertilization due to a dramatic reduction in sperm migration. In addition, all successfully fertilized eggs die before the 2-cell stage due to persistence of secreted innate immune mediators including proteases. Elevated protease activity in cKO oviducts causes premature degradation of the zona pellucida and embryo lysis, and wild-type embryos transferred into cKO oviducts fail to develop normally unless rescued by concomitant transfer of protease inhibitors. Thus, suppression of oviductal protease activity mediated by estrogen-epithelial ERα signaling is required for fertilization and preimplantation embryo development. These findings have implications for human infertility and post-coital contraception. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10453.001 PMID:26623518

  4. An in vitro rainbow trout cell bioassay for aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated toxins

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, C.A.; Tieber, V.L.; Giesy, J.P.; Denison, M.S.

    1997-03-01

    Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) and other chemicals that act as aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor (AhR) agonists cause a variety of toxicity effects. In sac fry of many fish species, these effects include blue-sac disease and mortality. Because HAHs occur in complex mixtures, their toxicity in the environment is difficult to predict. A bioassay useful in predicting AhR-mediated toxicity to fish was developed using the RTH-149 rainbow trout hepatoma cell line. Stable transfection of this cell line with the pGudLuc 1.1 plasmid, which contains a firefly luciferase reporter gene under the transcriptional regulation of dioxin responsive enhancers, has produced a recombinant cell line designated Remodulated Lightning Trout (RLT 2.0). The RLT 2.0 bioassay method detection limit for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is 4 pM. The responses of the RLT 2.0 bioassay to TCDD and several HAH congeners closely matched the responses observed in vivo in fish. The RLT 2.0 bioassay can provide an integrative measure of the total AhR-mediated toxic activity of complex mixtures to fish. The assay will be useful in screening environmental extracts, guiding chemical analysis, and interpreting the AhR-mediated mechanism of toxicity.

  5. The arginine vasopressin V1b receptor gene and prosociality: Mediation role of emotional empathy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nan; Shang, Siyuan; Su, Yanjie

    2015-09-01

    The vasopressin V1b receptor (AVPR1B) gene has been shown to be closely associated with bipolar disorder and depression. However, whether it relates to positive social outcomes, such as empathy and prosocial behavior, remains unknown. This study explored the possible role of the AVPR1B gene rs28373064 in empathy and prosociality. A total of 256 men, who were genetically unrelated, non-clinical ethnic Han Chinese college students, participated in the study. Prosociality was tested by measuring the prosocial tendencies of cognitive and emotional empathy using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs28373064, was genotyped using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. The results suggest that the AVPR1B gene rs28373064 is linked to emotional empathy and prosociality. The mediation analysis indicated that the effect of the AVPR1B gene on prosociality might be mediated by emotional empathy. This study demonstrated the link between the AVPR1B gene and prosociality and provided evidence that emotional empathy might mediate the relation between the AVPR1B gene and prosociality.

  6. Activation of Opioid μ-Receptors, but not δ- or κ-Receptors, Switches Pulmonary C-Fiber-Mediated Rapid Shallow Breathing into An Apnea in Anesthetized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenxiong; Zhang, Cancan; Zhou, Moxi; Xu, Fadi

    2012-01-01

    Rapid shallow breathing (RSB) is mainly mediated by bronchopulmonary C-fibers (PCFs). We asked whether this RSB could be modulated by opioid. In anesthetized rats right atrial bolus injection of phenylbiguanide (PBG) to evoke RSB was repeated after: 1) intravenously giving fentanyl (μ-receptor agonist), DPDPE (δ-receptor agonist), or U-50488H (κ-receptor agonist); 2) fentanyl (iv) following naloxone methiodide, a peripheral opioid receptor antagonist; 3) bilateral microinjection of fentanyl into the nodose ganglia; 4) fentanyl (iv) with pre-blocking histamine H1 and H2 receptors by diphenhydramine and ranitidine. Systemic fentanyl challenge, but not DPDPE or U-50488H, switched the PBG-induced RSB to a long lasting apnea. This switch was blocked by naloxone methiodide rather than diphenhydramine and ranitidine. After microinjecting fentanyl into the nodose ganglia, PBG also produced an apnea. Our results suggest that activating μ-receptors is capable of turning the PCF-mediated RSB into an apnea, at least partly, via facilitating PCFs’ activity and this switching effect appears independent of the released histamine. PMID:22796630

  7. Epidermal growth factor receptor distribution in burn wounds. Implications for growth factor-mediated repair.

    PubMed Central

    Wenczak, B A; Lynch, J B; Nanney, L B

    1992-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) along with several related peptide growth factors has been shown both in vivo and in vitro to accelerate events associated with epidermal wound repair. EGF and transforming growth factor alpha act by binding to a common EGF receptor tyrosine kinase thereby initiating a series of events which ultimately regulate cell proliferation. This study examined the immunohistochemical localization of EGF receptor (EGF-R) in burn wound margins, adjacent proliferating epithelium, and closely associated sweat ducts, sebaceous glands, and hair follicles. Tissue specimens removed during surgical debridement were obtained from full and partial thickness burn wounds in 32 patients with total body surface area burns ranging from 2 to 88%. In the early postburn period (days 2-4), prominent staining for EGF-R was found in undifferentiated, marginal keratinocytes, adjacent proliferating, hypertrophic epithelium, and both marginal and nonmarginal hair follicles, sweat ducts, and sebaceous glands. During the late postburn period (days 5-16), EGF-R was depleted along leading epithelial margins; however, immunoreactive EGF-R remained intensely positive in the hypertrophic epithelium and all skin appendages. Increased detection of immunoreactive EGF-R and the presence of [125I]EGF binding in the hypertrophic epithelium correlated positively with proliferating cell nuclear antigen distributions. Thus, the presence of EGF-R in the appropriate keratinocyte populations suggests a functional role for this receptor during wound repair. Dynamic modulation in EGF receptor distribution during the temporal sequence of repair provides further evidence that an EGF/transforming growth factor alpha/EGF-R-mediated pathway is activated during human wound repair. Images PMID:1361495

  8. CB1 receptor mediates the effects of glucocorticoids on AMPK activity in the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Scerif, Miski; Füzesi, Tamás; Thomas, Julia D; Kola, Blerina; Grossman, Ashley B; Fekete, Csaba; Korbonits, Márta

    2013-10-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a regulator of cellular and systemic energy homeostasis, can be influenced by several hormones. Tissue-specific alteration of AMPK activity by glucocorticoids may explain the increase in appetite, the accumulation of lipids in adipose tissues, and the detrimental cardiac effects of Cushing's syndrome. Endocannabinoids are known to mediate the effects of various hormones and to influence AMPK activity. Cannabinoids have central orexigenic and direct peripheral metabolic effects via the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1). In our preliminary experiments, WT mice received implants of a corticosterone-containing pellet to establish a mouse model of Cushing's syndrome. Subsequently, WT and Cb1 (Cnr1)-knockout (CB1-KO) littermates were treated with corticosterone and AMPK activity in the hypothalamus, various adipose tissues, liver and cardiac tissue was measured. Corticosterone-treated CB1-KO mice showed a lack of weight gain and of increase in hypothalamic and hepatic AMPK activity. In adipose tissues, baseline AMPK activity was higher in CB1-KO mice, but a glucocorticoid-induced drop was observed, similar to that observed in WT mice. Cardiac AMPK levels were reduced in CB1-KO mice, but while WT mice showed significantly reduced AMPK activity following glucocorticoid treatment, CB1-KO mice showed a paradoxical increase. Our findings indicate the importance of the CB1 receptor in the central orexigenic effect of glucocorticoid-induced activation of hypothalamic AMPK activity. In the periphery adipose tissues, changes may occur independently of the CB1 receptor, but the receptor appears to alter the responsiveness of the liver and myocardial tissues to glucocorticoids. In conclusion, our data suggest that an intact cannabinoid pathway is required for the full metabolic effects of chronic glucocorticoid excess.

  9. NMDA Receptor-Mediated Activation of NADPH Oxidase and Glomerulosclerosis in Hyperhomocysteinemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chun; Yi, Fan; Xia, Min; Boini, Krishna M.; Zhu, Qing; Laperle, Laura A.; Abais, Justine M.; Brimson, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the role of NMDA receptor in hyperhomocyteinemia (hHcys)-induced NADPH oxidase (Nox) activation and glomerulosclerosis. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a folate-free (FF) diet to produce hHcys, and a NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, was administrated. Rats fed the FF diet exhibited significantly increased plasma homocysteine levels, upregulated NMDA receptor expression, enhanced Nox activity and Nox-dependent O2.− production in the glomeruli, which were accompanied by remarkable glomerulosclerosis. MK-801 treatment significantly inhibited Nox-dependent O2.− production induced by hHcys and reduced glomerular damage index as compared with vehicle-treated hHcys rats. Correspondingly, glomerular deposition of extracellular matrix components in hHcys rats was ameliorated by the administration of MK-801. Additionally, hHcys induced an increase in tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) expression and a decrease in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-9 activities, all of which were abolished by MK-801 treatment. In vitro studies showed that homocysteine increased Nox-dependent O2.− generation in rat mesangial cells, which was blocked by MK-801. Pretreatment with MK-801 also reversed homocysteine-induced decrease in MMP-1 activity and increase in TIMP-1 expression. These results support the view that the NMDA receptor may mediate Nox activation in the kidney during hHcys and thereby play a critical role in the development of hHcys-induced glomerulosclerosis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 975–986. PMID:20406136

  10. CB1 receptor mediates the effects of glucocorticoids on AMPK activity in the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Scerif, Miski; Füzesi, Tamás; Thomas, Julia D; Kola, Blerina; Grossman, Ashley B; Fekete, Csaba; Korbonits, Márta

    2013-10-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a regulator of cellular and systemic energy homeostasis, can be influenced by several hormones. Tissue-specific alteration of AMPK activity by glucocorticoids may explain the increase in appetite, the accumulation of lipids in adipose tissues, and the detrimental cardiac effects of Cushing's syndrome. Endocannabinoids are known to mediate the effects of various hormones and to influence AMPK activity. Cannabinoids have central orexigenic and direct peripheral metabolic effects via the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1). In our preliminary experiments, WT mice received implants of a corticosterone-containing pellet to establish a mouse model of Cushing's syndrome. Subsequently, WT and Cb1 (Cnr1)-knockout (CB1-KO) littermates were treated with corticosterone and AMPK activity in the hypothalamus, various adipose tissues, liver and cardiac tissue was measured. Corticosterone-treated CB1-KO mice showed a lack of weight gain and of increase in hypothalamic and hepatic AMPK activity. In adipose tissues, baseline AMPK activity was higher in CB1-KO mice, but a glucocorticoid-induced drop was observed, similar to that observed in WT mice. Cardiac AMPK levels were reduced in CB1-KO mice, but while WT mice showed significantly reduced AMPK activity following glucocorticoid treatment, CB1-KO mice showed a paradoxical increase. Our findings indicate the importance of the CB1 receptor in the central orexigenic effect of glucocorticoid-induced activation of hypothalamic AMPK activity. In the periphery adipose tissues, changes may occur independently of the CB1 receptor, but the receptor appears to alter the responsiveness of the liver and myocardial tissues to glucocorticoids. In conclusion, our data suggest that an intact cannabinoid pathway is required for the full metabolic effects of chronic glucocorticoid excess. PMID:23884964

  11. Further characterization of the putative 5-HT receptor which mediates blockade of neurogenic plasma extravasation in rat dura mater.

    PubMed

    Buzzi, M G; Moskowitz, M A; Peroutka, S J; Byun, B

    1991-06-01

    1. We describe the effects of pretreatment with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor agonists and antagonists on neurogenically-mediated plasma protein extravasation ([125I]-albumin) in rat dura mater and in extracranial tissues (temporalis muscle fascia, conjunctiva, eyelid and lip) induced by electrical stimulation of the right trigeminal ganglion. 2. Leakage of [125I]-bovine serum albumin from blood vessels in dura mater following high intensity stimulation (1.2 mA, 5 ms, 5 Hz for 5 min) was significantly reduced by the intravenous administration of drugs active at 5-HT receptors with some selectivity for the 5-HT1 receptor subtypes: 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) (threshold dose, 1 ng kg-1); 5-benzyloxytryptamine (5-BT) (10, 30 or 100 micrograms kg-1); 8-hydroxydipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT) (300 micrograms kg-1); and as previously reported, sumatriptan (100 micrograms kg-1), dihydroergotamine (DHE) (50 micrograms kg-1); ergotamine tartrate (100 micrograms kg-1) and chronically administered methysergide (1 mg kg-1). 3. The putative 5-HT receptor antagonist, metergoline 100 micrograms kg-1, inhibited partially the effect of sumatriptan in dura mater providing additional evidence for a 5-HT1 receptor subtype-mediated mechanism, although it was not effective against 5-CT (1 ng kg-1). Methiothepin (300 micrograms kg-1) did not affect the response to sumatriptan. When administered at high concentrations (1 mg kg-1) methiothepin and metergoline decreased plasma protein extravasation in rat dura mater. 4. Pretreatment with the 5-HT2 receptor antagonists pizotifen, 300pugkg 1, or ketanserin, 300,ugkg ', or the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists MDL 72222, 300,ugkg-1, or ICS 205-930, 300pgkg-1, did not affect plasma protein leakage following electrical trigeminal stimulation. Blockade by sumatriptan of plasma protein extravasation was not inhibited by pizotifen (300,ug kg-1) or MDL 72222 (300pg kg- '). 5. The 5-HT receptor(s) mediating this response were present only on

  12. Homocysteine-NMDA receptor mediated activation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase leads to neuronal cell death

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Ranjana; Paul, Surojit

    2009-01-01

    Hyper-homocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for stroke and neurological abnormalities. However the underlying cellular mechanisms by which elevated homocysteine can promote neuronal death is not clear. In the present study we have examined the role of NMDA receptor mediated activation of the extracellular-signal regulated mitogen activated protein (ERK MAP) kinase pathway in homocysteine-dependent neurotoxicity. The study demonstrates that in neurons L-homocysteine-induced cell death is mediated through activation of NMDA receptors. The study also shows that homocysteine-dependent NMDA receptor stimulation and resultant Ca2+ influx leads to rapid and sustained phosphorylation of ERK MAP kinase. Inhibition of ERK phosphorylation attenuates homocysteine mediated neuronal cell death thereby demonstrating that activation of ERK MAP kinase signaling pathway is an intermediate step that couples homocysteine mediated NMDA receptor stimulation to neuronal death. The findings also show that cAMP response-element binding protein (CREB), a pro-survival transcription factor and a downstream target of ERK, is only transiently activated following homocysteine exposure. The sustained activation of ERK but a transient activation of CREB together suggest that exposure to homocysteine initiates a feedback loop that shuts off CREB signaling without affecting ERK phosphorylation and thereby facilitates homocysteine mediated neurotoxicity. PMID:19508427

  13. Angiotensin II attenuates NMDA receptor-mediated neuronal cell death and prevents the associated reduction in Bcl-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Schelman, William R; Andres, Robert; Ferguson, Paul; Orr, Brent; Kang, Evan; Weyhenmeyer, James A

    2004-09-10

    While angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a major role in the regulation of blood pressure, fluid homeostasis and neuroendocrine function, recent studies have also implicated the peptide hormone in cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. In support of this, we have previously demonstrated that Ang II attenuates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor signaling [Molec. Brain Res. 48 (1997) 197]. To further examine the modulatory role of Ang II on NMDA receptor function, we investigated the effect of angiotensin receptor (AT) activation on NMDA-mediated cell death and the accompanying decrease in Bcl-2 expression. The viability of differentiated N1E-115 and NG108-15 neuronal cell lines was reduced following exposure to NMDA in a dose-dependent manner. MTT analysis (mitochondrial integrity) revealed a decrease in cell survival of 49.4+/-12.3% in NG108 cells and 79.9+/-6.8% in N1E cells following treatment with 10 mM NMDA for 20 h. Cytotoxicity in N1E cells was inhibited by the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801. Further, NMDA receptor-mediated cell death in NG108 cells was attenuated by treatment with Ang II. The Ang II effect was inhibited by both AT1 and AT2 receptor antagonists, losartan and PD123319, respectively, suggesting that both receptor subtypes may play a role in the survival effect of Ang II. Since it has been shown that activation of NMDA receptors alters the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, Western blot analysis was performed in N1E cells to determine whether Ang II alters the NMDA-induced changes in Bcl-2 expression. A concentration-dependent decrease of intracellular Bcl-2 protein levels was observed following treatment with NMDA, and this reduction was inhibited by MK801. Addition of Ang II suppressed the NMDA receptor-mediated reduction in Bcl-2. The Ang II effect on NMDA-mediated changes in Bcl-2 levels was blocked by PD123319, but was not significantly changed by losartan, suggesting AT2 receptor specificity. Taken together, these

  14. IL4 receptor α mediates enhanced glucose and glutamine metabolism to support breast cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Venmar, Katherine T; Kimmel, Danielle W; Cliffel, David E; Fingleton, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    The type II interleukin-4 receptor (IL4R) is expressed in human breast cancer, and in murine models thereof. It is activated by interleukin-4 (IL4), a cytokine produced predominantly by immune cells. Previously, we showed that expression of IL4Rα, a signaling component of IL4R, mediates enhanced metastatic growth through promotion of tumor cell survival and proliferation. In lymphocytes, these processes are supported by increased glucose and glutamine metabolism, and B lymphocyte survival is dependent upon IL4/IL4R-induced glucose metabolism. However, it is unknown whether IL4R-mediated metabolic reprogramming could support tumor growth. Here, we show that IL4Rα expression increases proliferation thus enhancing primary mammary tumor growth. In vitro, IL4-enhanced glucose consumption and lactate production in 4T1 cells was mediated by IL4Rα. Expression of the glucose transporter GLUT1 increased in response to IL4 in vitro, and enhanced GLUT1 expression was associated with the presence of IL4Rα in 4T1 mammary tumors in vivo. Although IL4 treatment did not induce changes in glucose metabolism in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, it increased expression of the main glutamine transporter, ASCT2, and enhanced glutamine consumption in both MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 cells. Pharmacologic inhibition of glutamine metabolism with compound 968 blocked IL4/IL4Rα-increased cell number in both cell lines. Our results demonstrate that IL4R mediates enhanced glucose and glutamine metabolism in 4T1 cancer cells, and that IL4-induced growth is supported by IL4/IL4R-enhanced glutamine metabolism in both human and murine mammary cancer cells. This highlights IL4Rα as a possible target for effective breast cancer therapy.

  15. Riluzole mediates anti-tumor properties in breast cancer cells independent of metabotropic glutamate receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Speyer, Cecilia L; Nassar, Mahdy A; Hachem, Ali H; Bukhsh, Miriam A; Jafry, Waris S; Khansa, Rafa M; Gorski, David H

    2016-06-01

    Riluzole, the only drug approved by the FDA for treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, inhibits melanoma proliferation through its inhibitory effect on glutamatergic signaling. We demonstrated that riluzole also inhibits the growth of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and described a role for metabotropic glutamate receptor-1 (GRM1) in regulating TNBC cell growth and progression. However, the role of GRM1 in mediating riluzole's effects in breast cancer has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we seek to determine how much of riluzole's action in breast cancer is mediated through GRM1. We investigated anti-tumor properties of riluzole in TNBC and ER+ cells using cell growth, invasion, and soft-agar assays and compared riluzole activity with GRM1 levels. Using Lentiviral vectors expressing GRM1 or shGRM1, these studies were repeated in cells expressing high or low GRM1 levels where the gene was either silenced or overexpressed. Riluzole inhibited proliferation, invasion, and colony formation in both TNBC and ER+ cells. There was a trend between GRM1 expression in TNBC cells and their response to riluzole in both cell proliferation and invasion assays. However, silencing and overexpression studies had no effect on cell sensitivity to riluzole. Our results clearly suggest a GRM1-independent mechanism through which riluzole mediates its effects on breast cancer cells. Understanding the mechanism by which riluzole mediates breast cancer progression will be useful in identifying new therapeutic targets for treating TNBC and in facilitating stratification of patients in clinical trials using riluzole in conjunction with conventional therapy. PMID:27146584

  16. β-arrestin-1 mediates the TCR-triggered re-routing of distal receptors to the immunological synapse by a PKC-mediated mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Arenas, Elena; Calleja, Enrique; Martínez-Martín, Nadia; Gharbi, Severine I; Navajas, Rosana; García-Medel, Noel; Penela, Petronila; Alcamí, Antonio; Mayor, Federico; Albar, Juan P; Alarcón, Balbino

    2014-01-01

    T-cell receptors (TCR) recognize their antigen ligand at the interface between T cells and antigen-presenting cells, known as the immunological synapse (IS). The IS provides a means of sustaining the TCR signal which requires the continual supply of new TCRs. These are endocytosed and redirected from distal membrane locations to the IS. In our search for novel cytoplasmic effectors, we have identified β-arrestin-1 as a ligand of non-phosphorylated resting TCRs. Using dominant-negative and knockdown approaches we demonstrate that β-arrestin-1 is required for the internalization and downregulation of non-engaged bystander TCRs. Furthermore, TCR triggering provokes the β-arrestin-1-mediated downregulation of the G-protein coupled chemokine receptor CXCR4, but not of other control receptors. We demonstrate that β-arrestin-1 recruitment to the TCR, and bystander TCR and CXCR4 downregulation, are mechanistically mediated by the TCR-triggered PKC-mediated phosphorylation of β-arrestin-1 at Ser163. This mechanism allows the first triggered TCRs to deliver a stop migration signal, and to promote the internalization of distal TCRs and CXCR4 and their translocation to the IS. This receptor crosstalk mechanism is critical to sustain the TCR signal. PMID:24502978

  17. Adenosine A1 receptors mediate inhibition of cAMP formation in vitro in the pontine, REM sleep induction zone.

    PubMed

    Marks, Gerald A; Birabil, Christian G; Speciale, Samuel G

    2005-11-01

    Microinjection of adenosine A1 receptor agonist or an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase into the caudal, oral pontine reticular formation (PnOc) of the rat induces a long-lasting increase in REM sleep. Here, we report significant inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP in dissected pontine tissue slices containing the PnOc incubated with the A1 receptor agonist, cyclohexaladenosine (10(-8) M). These data are consistent with adenosine A1 receptor agonist actions on REM sleep mediated through inhibition of cAMP.

  18. TRIF mediates Toll-like receptor 5-induced signaling in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon Jeong; Im, Eunok; Chung, Hyo Kyun; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Rhee, Sang Hoon

    2010-11-26

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) associate with adaptor molecules (MyD88, Mal/TIRAP, TRAM, and TRIF) to mediate signaling of host-microbial interaction. For instance, TLR4 utilizes the combination of both Mal/TIRAP-MyD88 (MyD88-dependent pathway) and TRAM-TRIF (MyD88-independent pathway). However, TLR5, the specific receptor for flagellin, is known to utilize only MyD88 to elicit inflammatory responses, and an involvement of other adaptor molecules has not been suggested in TLR5-dependent signaling. Here, we found that TRIF is involved in mediating TLR5-induced nuclear factor κB (NFκB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), specifically JNK1/2 and ERK1/2, activation in intestinal epithelial cells. TLR5 activation by flagellin permits the physical interaction between TLR5 and TRIF in human colonic epithelial cells (NCM460), whereas TLR5 does not interact with TRAM upon flagellin stimulation. Both primary intestinal epithelial cells from TRIF-KO mice and TRIF-silenced NCM460 cells significantly reduced flagellin-induced NFκB (p105 and p65), JNK1/2, and ERK1/2 activation compared with control cells. However, p38 activation by flagellin was preserved in these TRIF-deficient cells. TRIF-KO intestinal epithelial cells exhibited substantially reduced inflammatory cytokine (keratinocyte-derived cytokine, macrophage inflammatory protein 3α, and IL-6) expression upon flagellin, whereas control cells from TRIF-WT mice showed robust cytokine expression by flagellin. Compare with TRIF-WT mice, TRIF-KO mice were resistant to in vivo intestinal inflammatory responses: flagellin-mediated exacerbation of colonic inflammation and dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis. We conclude that in addition to MyD88, TRIF mediates TLR5-dependent responses and, thereby regulates inflammatory responses elicited by flagellin/TLR5 engagement. Our findings suggest an important role of TRIF in regulating host-microbial communication via TLR5 in the gut epithelium.

  19. Enzyme induction and histopathology elucidate aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated versus non-aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated effects of Aroclor 1268 in American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Folland, William R; Newsted, John L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Bradley, Patrick W; Kern, John; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations reported in preferred prey and blubber of bottlenose dolphins from the Turtle-Brunswick River estuary (Georgia, USA) suggest the potential for adverse effects. However, PCBs in Turtle-Brunswick River estuary dolphins are primarily derived from Aroclor 1268, and predicting toxic effects of Aroclor 1268 is uncertain because of the mixture's unique composition and associated physiochemical characteristics. These differences suggest that toxicity benchmarks for other PCB mixtures may not be relevant to dolphins exposed to Aroclor 1268. American mink (Neovison vison) were used as a surrogate model for cetaceans to characterize mechanisms of action associated with Aroclor 1268 exposure. Mink share similarities in phylogeny and life history with cetaceans and are characteristically sensitive to PCBs, making them an attractive surrogate species for marine mammals in ecotoxicity studies. Adult female mink and a subsequent F1 generation were exposed to Aroclor 1268 through diet, and effects on enzyme induction, histopathology, thyroid hormone regulation, hematology, organ weights, and body condition index were compared to a negative control and a 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126)-positive control. Aroclor 1268 dietary exposure concentrations ranged from 1.8 µg/g wet weight to 29 µg/g wet weight. Anemia, hypothyroidism, and hepatomegaly were observed in mink exposed to Aroclor 1268 beyond various dietary thresholds. Cytochrome P450 induction and squamous epithelial proliferation jaw lesions were low in Aroclor 1268 treatments relative to the positive control. Differences in enzyme induction and the development of squamous epithelial proliferation jaw lesions between Aroclor 1268 treatments and the positive control, coupled with effects observed in Aroclor 1268 treatments not observed in the positive control, indicate that mechanisms additional to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated pathway are associated with

  20. Src, a Molecular Switch Governing Gain Control of Synaptic Transmission Mediated by N-methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xian-Min; Salter, Michael W.

    1999-07-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a principal subtype of glutamate receptor mediating fast excitatory transmission at synapses in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and other regions of the central nervous system. NMDA receptors are crucial for the lasting enhancement of synaptic transmission that occurs both physiologically and in pathological conditions such as chronic pain. Over the past several years, evidence has accumulated indicating that the activity of NMDA receptors is regulated by the protein tyrosine kinase, Src. Recently it has been discovered that, by means of up-regulating NMDA receptor function, activation of Src mediates the induction of the lasting enhancement of excitatory transmission known as long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Also, Src has been found to amplify the up-regulation of NMDA receptor function that is produced by raising the intracellular concentration of sodium. Sodium concentration increases in neuronal dendrites during high levels of firing activity, which is precisely when Src becomes activated. Therefore, we propose that the boost in NMDA receptor function produced by the coincidence of activating Src and raising intracellular sodium may be important in physiological and pathophysiological enhancement of excitatory transmission in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and elsewhere in the central nervous system.

  1. MT1 melatonin receptors mediate somatic, behavioral, and reproductive neuroendocrine responses to photoperiod and melatonin in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Brian J

    2010-02-01

    Environmental day length drives nocturnal pineal melatonin secretion, which in turn generates or entrains seasonal cycles of physiology, reproduction, and behavior. In mammals, melatonin (MEL) binds to a number of receptor subtypes including high-affinity (MT1 and MT2) and low-affinity (MT3, nuclear orphan receptors) binding sites, which are distributed throughout the central nervous system and periphery. The MEL receptors that mediate photoperiodic reproductive and behavioral responses to MEL have not been identified in a reproductively photoperiodic species. Here I tested the hypothesis that MT1 receptors are necessary and sufficient to engage photoperiodic responses by challenging male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), a species that does not express functional MT2 receptors, with ramelteon (RAM), a specific MT1/MT2 receptor agonist. In hamsters housed in a long-day photoperiod, late-afternoon RAM treatment inhibited gonadotropin secretion, induced gonadal regression, and suppressed food intake and body mass, mimicking effects of MEL. In addition, chronic (24 h/d) RAM infusions were sufficient to obscure endogenous MEL signaling, and these treatments attenuated gonadal regression in short days. Together, the outcomes indicate that signaling at the MT1 receptor is sufficient and necessary to mediate the effects of photoperiod-driven changes in MEL on behavior and reproductive function in a reproductively photoperiodic mammal.

  2. The overexpressed human 46-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor mediates endocytosis and sorting of. beta. -glucuronidase

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, H.; Grubb, J.H.; Sly, W.S. )

    1990-10-01

    The authors studied the function of the human small (46-kDa) mannose 6-phosphate receptor (SMPR) in transfected mouse L cells that do not express the larger insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Cells overexpressing human SMPR were studied for enzyme binding to cell surface receptors, for binding to intracellular receptors in permeabilized cells, and for receptor-mediated endocytosis of recombinant human {beta}-glucuronidase. Specific binding to human SMPR in permeabilized cells showed a pH optimum between pH 6.0 and pH 6.5. Binding was significant in the present of EDTA but was enhanced by added divalent cations. Up to 2.3{percent} of the total functional receptor could be detected on the cell surface by enzyme binding. They present experiments showing that at very high levels of overexpression, and at pH 6.5, human SMPR mediated the endocytosis of {beta}-glucuronidase. At pH 7.5, the rate of endocytosis was only 14{percent} the rate seen at pH 6.5. Cells overexpressing human SMPR also showed reduced secretion of newly synthesized {beta}-glucuronidase when compared to cells transfected with vector only, suggesting that overexpressed human SMPR can participate in sorting of newly synthesized {beta}-glucuronidase and partially correct the sorting defect in mouse L cells that do not express the insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor.

  3. Multi-organ Site Metastatic Reactivation Mediated by Non-canonical Discoidin Domain Receptor 1 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hua; Chakraborty, Goutam; Zhang, Zhanguo; Akalay, Intissar; Gadiya, Mayur; Gao, Yaquan; Sinha, Surajit; Hu, Jian; Jiang, Cizhong; Akram, Muzaffar; Brogi, Edi; Leitinger, Birgit; Giancotti, Filippo G

    2016-06-30

    Genetic screening identifies the atypical tetraspanin TM4SF1 as a strong mediator of metastatic reactivation of breast cancer. Intriguingly, TM4SF1 couples the collagen receptor tyrosine kinase DDR1 to the cortical adaptor syntenin 2 and, hence, to PKCα. The latter kinase phosphorylates and activates JAK2, leading to the activation of STAT3. This non-canonical mechanism of signaling induces the expression of SOX2 and NANOG; sustains the manifestation of cancer stem cell traits; and drives metastatic reactivation in the lung, bone, and brain. Bioinformatic analyses and pathological studies corroborate the clinical relevance of these findings. We conclude that non-canonical DDR1 signaling enables breast cancer cells to exploit the ubiquitous interstitial matrix component collagen I to undergo metastatic reactivation in multiple target organs.

  4. IMPDHII Protein Inhibits Toll-like Receptor 2-mediated Activation of NF-κB*

    PubMed Central

    Toubiana, Julie; Rossi, Anne-Lise; Grimaldi, David; Belaidouni, Nadia; Chafey, Philippe; Clary, Guilhem; Courtine, Emilie; Pene, Frederic; Mira, Jean-Paul; Claessens, Yann-Erick; Chiche, Jean-Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays an essential role in innate immunity by the recognition of a large variety of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. It induces its recruitment to lipid rafts induces the formation of a membranous activation cluster necessary to enhance, amplify, and control downstream signaling. However, the exact composition of the TLR2-mediated molecular complex is unknown. We performed a proteomic analysis in lipopeptide-stimulated THP1 and found IMPDHII protein rapidly recruited to lipid raft. Whereas IMPDHII is essential for lymphocyte proliferation, its biologic function within innate immune signal pathways has not been established yet. We report here that IMPDHII plays an important role in the negative regulation of TLR2 signaling by modulating PI3K activity. Indeed, IMPDHII increases the phosphatase activity of SHP1, which participates to the inactivation of PI3K. PMID:21460227

  5. Kappa opioid receptor activation alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and promotes oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination.

    PubMed

    Du, Changsheng; Duan, Yanhui; Wei, Wei; Cai, Yingying; Chai, Hui; Lv, Jie; Du, Xiling; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by autoimmune damage to the central nervous system. All the current drugs for MS target the immune system. Although effective in reducing new lesions, they have limited effects in preventing the progression of disability. Promoting oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination and recovery of neurons are the new directions of MS therapy. The endogenous opioid system, consisting of MOR, DOR, KOR and their ligands, has been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of MS. However, the exact receptor and mechanism remain elusive. Here we show that genetic deletion of KOR exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas activating KOR with agonists alleviates the symptoms. KOR does not affect immune cell differentiation and function. Instead, it promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that targeting KOR might be an intriguing way to develop new MS therapies that may complement the existing immunosuppressive approaches.

  6. Kappa opioid receptor activation alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and promotes oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination

    PubMed Central

    Du, Changsheng; Duan, Yanhui; Wei, Wei; Cai, Yingying; Chai, Hui; Lv, Jie; Du, Xiling; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by autoimmune damage to the central nervous system. All the current drugs for MS target the immune system. Although effective in reducing new lesions, they have limited effects in preventing the progression of disability. Promoting oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination and recovery of neurons are the new directions of MS therapy. The endogenous opioid system, consisting of MOR, DOR, KOR and their ligands, has been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of MS. However, the exact receptor and mechanism remain elusive. Here we show that genetic deletion of KOR exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas activating KOR with agonists alleviates the symptoms. KOR does not affect immune cell differentiation and function. Instead, it promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that targeting KOR might be an intriguing way to develop new MS therapies that may complement the existing immunosuppressive approaches. PMID:27040771

  7. Kappa opioid receptor activation alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and promotes oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination.

    PubMed

    Du, Changsheng; Duan, Yanhui; Wei, Wei; Cai, Yingying; Chai, Hui; Lv, Jie; Du, Xiling; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by autoimmune damage to the central nervous system. All the current drugs for MS target the immune system. Although effective in reducing new lesions, they have limited effects in preventing the progression of disability. Promoting oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination and recovery of neurons are the new directions of MS therapy. The endogenous opioid system, consisting of MOR, DOR, KOR and their ligands, has been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of MS. However, the exact receptor and mechanism remain elusive. Here we show that genetic deletion of KOR exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas activating KOR with agonists alleviates the symptoms. KOR does not affect immune cell differentiation and function. Instead, it promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that targeting KOR might be an intriguing way to develop new MS therapies that may complement the existing immunosuppressive approaches. PMID:27040771

  8. Targeting receptor-mediated transport for delivery of biologics across the blood-brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Lajoie, Jason M.; Shusta, Eric V.

    2016-01-01

    Biologics are an emerging class of medicines with substantial promise to treat neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, stroke and multiple sclerosis. However, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) presents a formidable obstacle that appreciably limits brain uptake and hence, therapeutic potential, of biologics following intravenous administration. One promising strategy for overcoming the BBB to deliver biologics is the targeting of endogenous receptor-mediated transport (RMT) systems that employ vesicular trafficking to transport ligands across the BBB endothelium. If a biologic is modified with an appropriate targeting ligand, it can gain improved access to the brain via RMT. Various RMT targeting strategies have been developed over the past 20 years, and this review will explore exciting recent advances, with a particular emphasis on those studies showing brain targeting in vivo. PMID:25340933

  9. Stress-induced decrease of uterine blood flow in sheep is mediated by alpha 1-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Dreiling, Michelle; Bischoff, Sabine; Schiffner, Rene; Rupprecht, Sven; Kiehntopf, Michael; Schubert, Harald; Witte, Otto W; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Schwab, Matthias; Rakers, Florian

    2016-09-01

    Prenatal maternal stress can be transferred to the fetus via a catecholamine-dependent decrease of uterine blood flow (UBF). However, it is unclear which group of adrenergic receptors mediates this mechanism of maternal-fetal stress transfer. We hypothesized that in sheep, alpha 1-adrenergic receptors may play a key role in catecholamine mediated UBF decrease, as these receptors are mainly involved in peripheral vasoconstriction and are present in significant number in the uterine vasculature. After chronic instrumentation at 125 ± 1 days of gestation (dGA; term 150 dGA), nine pregnant sheep were exposed at 130 ± 1 dGA to acute isolation stress for one hour without visual, tactile, or auditory contact with their flockmates. UBF, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), stress hormones, and blood gases were determined before and during this isolation challenge. Twenty-four hours later, experiments were repeated during alpha 1-adrenergic receptor blockage induced by a continuous intravenous infusion of urapidil. In both experiments, ewes reacted to isolation with an increase in serum norepinephrine, cortisol, BP, and HR as typical signs of activation of sympatho-adrenal and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Stress-induced UBF decrease was prevented by alpha 1-adrenergic receptor blockage. We conclude that UBF decrease induced by maternal stress in sheep is mediated by alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. Future studies investigating prevention strategies of impact of prenatal maternal stress on fetal health should consider selective blockage of alpha 1-receptors to interrupt maternal-fetal stress transfer mediated by utero-placental malperfusion.

  10. Scavenger receptors of endothelial cells mediate the uptake and cellular pro-atherogenic effects of carbamylated LDL

    PubMed Central

    Apostolov, Eugene O.; Shah, Sudhir V.; Ray, Debarti; Basnakian, Alexei G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Carbamylated LDL (cLDL) has been recently shown to have robust pro-atherogenic effects upon human endothelial cells in vitro; suggesting cLDL may have a significant role in atherosclerosis in uremia. The current study was designed to determine, which receptors are used by cLDL and so may cause the pro-atherogenic effects. Methods and Results In ex vivo or in vitro models as well as in intact animals, administration of cLDL was associated with endothelial internalization of cLDL and subendothelial translocation (transcytosis). In vitro recombinant LOX-1 and SREC-1 receptors showed the greatest cLDL binding. However, pretreatment of the endothelial cells with specific inhibiting antibodies demonstrated that cLDL binds mainly to LOX-1 and CD36 receptors. The transcytosis was dependent on SR-A1, SREC-1 and CD36 receptors while LOX-1 receptor was not involved. The cytotoxicity was mediated by several studied scavenger receptors, but cLDL-induced monocyte adhesion depended only on LOX-1. The cLDL-induced synthesis of LOX-1 protein significantly contributed to both cytotoxicity and accelerated monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Conclusions Our data suggest that cLDL utilizes unique pattern of scavenger receptors. They show that LOX-1 receptor, and partially, CD36, SREC-1 and SR-A1 receptors are essential for the pro-atherogenic effects of cLDL on human endothelial cells. PMID:19696406

  11. Up-regulation of 5-HT2B receptor density and receptor-mediated glycogenolysis in mouse astrocytes by long-term fluoxetine administration.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ebenezer K C; Peng, Liang; Chen, Ye; Yu, Albert C H; Hertz, Leif

    2002-02-01

    The effects were studied of short-term (1 week) versus long-term (2-3 weeks) fluoxetine treatment of primary cultures of mouse astrocytes, differentiated by treatment with dibutyryl cyclic AMP. From previous experiments it is known that acute treatment with fluoxetine stimulates glycogenolysis and increases free cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i]) in these cultures, whereas short-term (one week) treatment with 10 microM down-regulates the effects on glycogen and [Ca2+]i, when fluoxetine administration is renewed (or when serotonin is administered). Moreover, antagonist studies have shown that these responses are evoked by activation of a 5-HT2, receptor that is different from the 5-HT2A receptor and therefore at that time tentatively were interpreted as being exerted on 5-HT2C receptors. In the present study the cultures were found by RT-PCR to express mRNA for 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors, but not for the 5-HT2C receptor, identifying the 5-HT2 receptor activated by fluoxetine as the 5-HT2B receptor, the most recently cloned 5-Ht2 receptor and a 5-HT receptor known to be more abundant in human, than in rodent, brain. Both short-term and long-term treatment with fluoxetine increased the specific binding of [3H]mesulergine, a ligand for alL three 5-HT2 receptors. Long-term treatment with fluoxetine caused an agonist-induced up-regulation of the glycogenolytic response to renewed administration of fluoxetine, whereas short-term treatment abolished the fluoxetine-induced hydrolysis of glycogen. Thus, during a treatment period similar to that required for fluoxetine's clinical response to occur, 5-HT2B-mediated effects are initially down-regulated and subsequently up-regulated. PMID:11930908

  12. Androgen receptor-mediated non-genomic regulation of prostate cancer cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Ross S.; Ma, Shihong; Miao, Lu; Li, Rui; Yin, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR)-mediated signaling is necessary for prostate cancer cell proliferation and an important target for therapeutic drug development. Canonically, AR signals through a genomic or transcriptional pathway, involving the translocation of androgen-bound AR to the nucleus, its binding to cognate androgen response elements on promoter, with ensuing modulation of target gene expression, leading to cell proliferation. However, prostate cancer cells can show dose-dependent proliferation responses to androgen within minutes, without the need for genomic AR signaling. This proliferation response known as the non-genomic AR signaling is mediated by cytoplasmic AR, which facilitates the activation of kinase-signaling cascades, including the Ras-Raf-1, phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and protein kinase C (PKC), which in turn converge on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, leading to cell proliferation. Further, since activated ERK may also phosphorylate AR and its coactivators, the non-genomic AR signaling may enhance AR genomic activity. Non-genomic AR signaling may occur in an ERK-independent manner, via activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, or modulation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration through plasma membrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These data suggest that therapeutic strategies aimed at preventing AR nuclear translocation and genomic AR signaling alone may not completely abrogate AR signaling. Thus, elucidation of mechanisms that underlie non-genomic AR signaling may identify potential mechanisms of resistance to current anti-androgens and help developing novel therapies that abolish all AR signaling in prostate cancer. PMID:26816736

  13. The complement component C5a receptor mediates pain and inflammation in a postsurgical pain model.

    PubMed

    Liang, De-Yong; Li, XiangQi; Shi, Xiaoyu; Sun, Yuan; Sahbaie, Peyman; Li, Wen-Wu; Clark, J David

    2012-02-01

    The complement system is an important part of innate immunity. Complement activation generates a set of effector molecules with diverse biological functions. C5a is a crucial terminal component of the complement cascade. Several reports suggest that C5a can support nociceptive sensitization and inflammation in various models, including models of incisional pain. However, information concerning the differential effects of C5a on specific modalities of nociception, the role of C5a in supporting neutrophil infiltration, secondary nociceptive mediator generation, and the location of the relevant populations of C5a receptors supporting incisional sensitization are needed. In these studies we utilized C5a receptor-null mice (C5aR(-/-)) and matched controls to study nociceptive changes after hind paw incision. Heat hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were measured for 4 days after incision. We also followed hind paw edema, wound area neutrophil infiltration using the myeloperoxidase assay, and interleukin-1β and nerve growth factor levels using both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemical techniques. The main findings were: (1) Heat vs mechanical nociceptive sensitization after incision were differentially reduced in C5aR(-/-) mice, with thermal sensitization affected throughout the postincisional period but mechanical sensitization affected only at later time points; (2) Edema developed after incision in wild-type mice but only slightly and transiently in C5aR(-/-) mice, and (3) Deletion of C5aR blocked interleukin-1β and nerve growth factor production near the wound site. These findings demonstrate that the complement system component C5a is a novel biomarker and mediator associated with postsurgical nociceptive processing. C5aR may provide a novel target for the control of pain and inflammation after surgery.

  14. Orexin/hypocretin receptor 1 signaling mediates Pavlovian cue-food conditioning and extinction.

    PubMed

    Keefer, Sara E; Cole, Sindy; Petrovich, Gorica D

    2016-08-01

    Learned food cues can drive feeding in the absence of hunger, and orexin/hypocretin signaling is necessary for this type of overeating. The current study examined whether orexin also mediates cue-food learning during the acquisition and extinction of these associations. In Experiment 1, rats underwent two sessions of Pavlovian appetitive conditioning, consisting of tone-food presentations. Prior to each session, rats received either the orexin 1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 (SB) or vehicle systemically. SB treatment did not affect conditioned responses during the first conditioning session, measured as food cup behavior during the tone and latency to approach the food cup after the tone onset, compared to the vehicle group. During the second conditioning session, SB treatment attenuated learning. All groups that received SB, prior to either the first or second conditioning session, displayed significantly less food cup behavior and had longer latencies to approach the food cup after tone onset compared to the vehicle group. These findings suggest orexin signaling at the 1 receptor mediates the consolidation and recall of cue-food acquisition. In Experiment 2, another group of rats underwent tone-food conditioning sessions (drug free), followed by two extinction sessions under either SB or vehicle treatment. Similar to Experiment 1, SB did not affect conditioned responses during the first session. During the second extinction session, the group that received SB prior to the first extinction session, but vehicle prior to the second, expressed conditioned food cup responses longer after tone offset, when the pellets were previously delivered during conditioning, and maintained shorter latencies to approach the food cup compared to the other groups. The persistence of these conditioned behaviors indicates impairment in extinction consolidation due to SB treatment during the first extinction session. Together, these results demonstrate an important role for orexin

  15. Current injection and receptor-mediated excitation produce similar maximal firing rates in hypoglossal motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Hilary E; Fregosi, Ralph F; Fuglevand, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    The maximum firing rates of motoneurons (MNs), activated in response to synaptic drive, appear to be much lower than that elicited by current injection. It could be that the decrease in input resistance associated with increased synaptic activity (but not current injection) might blunt overall changes in membrane depolarization and thereby limit spike-frequency output. To test this idea, we recorded, in the same cells, maximal firing responses to current injection and to synaptic activation. We prepared 300 μm medullary slices in neonatal rats that contained hypoglossal MNs and used whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology to record their maximum firing rates in response to triangular-ramp current injections and to glutamate receptor-mediated excitation. Brief pressure pulses of high-concentration glutamate led to significant depolarization, high firing rates, and temporary cessation of spiking due to spike inactivation. In the same cells, we applied current clamp protocols that approximated the time course of membrane potential change associated with glutamate application and with peak current levels large enough to cause spike inactivation. Means (SD) of maximum firing rates obtained in response to glutamate application were nearly identical to those obtained in response to ramp current injection [glutamate 47.1 ± 12.0 impulses (imp)/s, current injection 47.5 ± 11.2 imp/s], even though input resistance was 40% less during glutamate application compared with current injection. Therefore, these data suggest that the reduction in input resistance associated with receptor-mediated excitation does not, by itself, limit the maximal firing rate responses in MNs.

  16. Orexin/hypocretin receptor 1 signaling mediates Pavlovian cue-food conditioning and extinction.

    PubMed

    Keefer, Sara E; Cole, Sindy; Petrovich, Gorica D

    2016-08-01

    Learned food cues can drive feeding in the absence of hunger, and orexin/hypocretin signaling is necessary for this type of overeating. The current study examined whether orexin also mediates cue-food learning during the acquisition and extinction of these associations. In Experiment 1, rats underwent two sessions of Pavlovian appetitive conditioning, consisting of tone-food presentations. Prior to each session, rats received either the orexin 1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 (SB) or vehicle systemically. SB treatment did not affect conditioned responses during the first conditioning session, measured as food cup behavior during the tone and latency to approach the food cup after the tone onset, compared to the vehicle group. During the second conditioning session, SB treatment attenuated learning. All groups that received SB, prior to either the first or second conditioning session, displayed significantly less food cup behavior and had longer latencies to approach the food cup after tone onset compared to the vehicle group. These findings suggest orexin signaling at the 1 receptor mediates the consolidation and recall of cue-food acquisition. In Experiment 2, another group of rats underwent tone-food conditioning sessions (drug free), followed by two extinction sessions under either SB or vehicle treatment. Similar to Experiment 1, SB did not affect conditioned responses during the first session. During the second extinction session, the group that received SB prior to the first extinction session, but vehicle prior to the second, expressed conditioned food cup responses longer after tone offset, when the pellets were previously delivered during conditioning, and maintained shorter latencies to approach the food cup compared to the other groups. The persistence of these conditioned behaviors indicates impairment in extinction consolidation due to SB treatment during the first extinction session. Together, these results demonstrate an important role for orexin

  17. Plasticity of GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-dependent rats

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jing; Lindemeyer, A. Kerstin; Suryanarayanan, Asha; Meyer, Edward M.; Marty, Vincent N.; Ahmad, S. Omar; Shao, Xuesi Max; Olsen, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol exposure-induced changes in reinforcement mechanisms and motivational state are thought to contribute to the development of cravings and relapse during protracted withdrawal. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is a key structure of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system and plays an important role in mediating alcohol-seeking behaviors. Here we describe the long-lasting alterations of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs) of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the NAcc after chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) treatment, a rat model of alcohol dependence. CIE treatment and withdrawal (>40 days) produced decreases in the ethanol and Ro15-4513 potentiation of extrasynaptic GABAARs, which mediate the picrotoxin-sensitive tonic current (Itonic), while potentiation of synaptic receptors, which give rise to miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), was increased. Diazepam sensitivity of both Itonic and mIPSCs was decreased by CIE treatment. The average magnitude of Itonic was unchanged, but mIPSC amplitude and frequency decreased and mIPSC rise time increased after CIE treatment. Rise-time histograms revealed decreased frequency of fast-rising mIPSCs after CIE treatment, consistent with possible decreases in somatic GABAergic synapses in MSNs from CIE rats. However, unbiased stereological analysis of NeuN-stained NAcc neurons did not detect any decreases in NAcc volume, neuronal numbers, or neuronal cell body volume. Western blot analysis of surface subunit levels revealed selective decreases in α1 and δ and increases in α4, α5, and γ2 GABAAR subunits after CIE treatment and withdrawal. Similar, but reversible, alterations occurred after a single ethanol dose (5 g/kg). These data reveal CIE-induced long-lasting neuroadaptations in the NAcc GABAergic neurotransmission. PMID:24694935

  18. Enterococcus faecalis Gelatinase Mediates Intestinal Permeability via Protease-Activated Receptor 2

    PubMed Central

    Maharshak, Nitsan; Huh, Eun Young; Paiboonrungruang, Chorlada; Shanahan, Michael; Thurlow, Lance; Herzog, Jeremy; Djukic, Zorka; Orlando, Roy; Pawlinski, Rafal; Ellermann, Melissa; Borst, Luke; Patel, Siten; Dotan, Iris; Sartor, Ryan B.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial protease-mediated disruption of the intestinal epithelium is a potential mechanism whereby a dysbiotic enteric microbiota can lead to disease. This mechanism was investigated using the colitogenic, protease-secreting enteric microbe Enterococcus faecalis. Caco-2 and T-84 epithelial cell monolayers and the mouse colonic epithelium were exposed to concentrated conditioned media (CCM) from E. faecalis V583 and E. faecalis lacking the gelatinase gene (gelE). The flux of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran across monolayers or the mouse epithelium following exposure to CCM from parental or mutant E. faecalis strains indicated paracellular permeability. A protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) antagonist and PAR2-deficient (PAR2−/−) mice were used to investigate the role of this receptor in E. faecalis-induced permeability. Gelatinase (GelE) purified from E. faecalis V583 was used to confirm the ability of this protease to induce epithelial cell permeability and activate PAR2. The protease-mediated permeability of colonic epithelia from wild-type (WT) and PAR2−/− mice by fecal supernatants from ulcerative colitis patients was assessed. Secreted E. faecalis proteins induced permeability in epithelial cell monolayers, which was reduced in the absence of gelE or by blocking PAR2 activity. Secreted E. faecalis proteins induced permeability in the colonic epithelia of WT mice that was absent in tissues from PAR2−/− mice. Purified GelE confirmed the ability of this protease to induce epithelial cell permeability via PAR2 activation. Fecal supernatants from ulcerative colitis patients induced permeability in the colonic epithelia of WT mice that was reduced in tissues from PAR2−/− mice. Our investigations demonstrate that GelE from E. faecalis can regulate enteric epithelial permeability via PAR2. PMID:25916983

  19. Enterococcus faecalis Gelatinase Mediates Intestinal Permeability via Protease-Activated Receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Maharshak, Nitsan; Huh, Eun Young; Paiboonrungruang, Chorlada; Shanahan, Michael; Thurlow, Lance; Herzog, Jeremy; Djukic, Zorka; Orlando, Roy; Pawlinski, Rafal; Ellermann, Melissa; Borst, Luke; Patel, Siten; Dotan, Iris; Sartor, Ryan B; Carroll, Ian M

    2015-07-01

    Microbial protease-mediated disruption of the intestinal epithelium is a potential mechanism whereby a dysbiotic enteric microbiota can lead to disease. This mechanism was investigated using the colitogenic, protease-secreting enteric microbe Enterococcus faecalis. Caco-2 and T-84 epithelial cell monolayers and the mouse colonic epithelium were exposed to concentrated conditioned media (CCM) from E. faecalis V583 and E. faecalis lacking the gelatinase gene (gelE). The flux of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran across monolayers or the mouse epithelium following exposure to CCM from parental or mutant E. faecalis strains indicated paracellular permeability. A protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) antagonist and PAR2-deficient (PAR2(-/-)) mice were used to investigate the role of this receptor in E. faecalis-induced permeability. Gelatinase (GelE) purified from E. faecalis V583 was used to confirm the ability of this protease to induce epithelial cell permeability and activate PAR2. The protease-mediated permeability of colonic epithelia from wild-type (WT) and PAR2(-/-) mice by fecal supernatants from ulcerative colitis patients was assessed. Secreted E. faecalis proteins induced permeability in epithelial cell monolayers, which was reduced in the absence of gelE or by blocking PAR2 activity. Secreted E. faecalis proteins induced permeability in the colonic epithelia of WT mice that was absent in tissues from PAR2(-/-) mice. Purified GelE confirmed the ability of this protease to induce epithelial cell permeability via PAR2 activation. Fecal supernatants from ulcerative colitis patients induced permeability in the colonic epithelia of WT mice that was reduced in tissues from PAR2(-/-) mice. Our investigations demonstrate that GelE from E. faecalis can regulate enteric epithelial permeability via PAR2. PMID:25916983

  20. Enhancement of potency and efficacy of NADA by PKC-mediated phosphorylation of vanilloid receptor.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Louis S; Qi, Zhan-Heng; Van Buren, Jeremy; Raisinghani, Manish

    2004-03-01

    The search for an endogenous ligand for the vanilloid receptor (VR or TRPV1) has led to the identification of N-arachidonyl dopamine (NADA). This study investigates the role of protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation on NADA-induced membrane currents in Xenopus oocytes heterologously expressing TRPV1 and in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. In basal state, current induced by 10 microM NADA is 5-10% of the current induced by 1 microM capsaicin or protons at pH 5. However, PKC activator, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) strongly potentiated ( approximately 15-fold) the NADA-induced current. Repeated application of NADA at short intervals potentiated its own response approximately fivefold in a PKC-dependent manner. PKC inhibitor, bisindolylmaleimide (BIM, 500 nM), a mutant TRPV1 (S800A/S502A), and maximal activation of PKC abolished the potentiation induced by repeated application of NADA. As a further confirmation that NADA could stimulate PKC, pretreatment with NADA potentiated the response of protons at pH 5 (approximately 20 fold), which was dramatically reduced in the mutant TRPV1. In DRG neurons, capsaicin (100 nM) induced a approximately 15 mV depolarization and initiated a train of action potentials compared with 1 microM NADA that produced a approximately 5 mV response. Pretreatment with PDBu induced significantly larger depolarization and potentiated NADA-induced current. Furthermore, exposure of NADA to the intracellular surface of the membrane-induced larger currents suggesting inaccessibility to the intracellular binding site might contribute to its weaker action. These results indicate that NADA is a potent agonist of VR when the receptor is in the PKC-mediated phosphorylation state.

  1. Autocrine EGF receptor activation mediates endothelial cell migration and vascular morphogenesis induced by VEGF under interstitial flow

    SciTech Connect

    Semino, Carlos E. . E-mail: semino@mit.edu; Kamm, Roger D.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2006-02-01

    We show here that autocrine ligand activation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in combination with interstitial flow is critically involved in the morphogenetic response of endothelial cells to VEGF stimulation. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers cultured on a collagen gel and exposed to low interstitial flow in the absence of EGF and VEGF remained viable and mitotic but exhibited little evidence of vascular morphogenesis. Addition of VEGF produced a flow-dependent morphogenetic response within 48 to 72 h, characterized by branched capillary-like structures. The response was substantially abolished by inhibitors related to the autocrine EGF receptor pathway including Galardin, AG1478, PD98059, and an EGF receptor-blocking antibody, indicating that regulation of the morphogenetic process operates via autocrine EGF receptor activation. Moreover, we observed that in our system the EGF receptor was always activated independently of the interstitial flow, and, in addition, the EGF receptor inhibitors used above reduced the phosphorylation state of the receptor, correlating with inhibition of capillary morphogenesis. Finally, 5'bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling identified dividing cells at the monolayer but not in the extending capillary-like structures. EGF pathway inhibitors Galardin and AG1478 did not reduce BrdU incorporation in the monolayer, indicating that the EGF-receptor-mediated morphogenetic behavior is mainly due to cell migration rather than proliferation. Based on these results, we propose a two-step model for in vitro capillary morphogenesis in response to VEGF stimulation with interstitial fluid flow: monolayer maintenance by mitotic activity independent of EGF receptors and a migratory response mediated by autocrine EGF receptor activation wherein cells establish capillary-like structures.

  2. NMDA receptors in the midbrain periaqueductal gray mediate hypothalamically evoked hissing behavior in the cat.

    PubMed

    Schubert, K; Shaikh, M B; Siegel, A

    1996-07-01

    rage sites in the dorsal PAG and the immunocytochemical labeling of glutamatergic neurons, identified large numbers of neurons in the medial hypothalamus that were labeled positively for both Fluoro-Gold and glutamate. The overall findings of this study support the hypothesis that descending fibers of the medial hypothalamus that supply the dorsal aspect of the PAG mediate defensive rage behavior and utilize excitatory amino acids that act upon NMDA receptors within the dorsal PAG. PMID:8836548

  3. Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase enhances F protein-mediated membrane fusion of reconstituted Sendai virus envelopes with cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bagai, S; Puri, A; Blumenthal, R; Sarkar, D P

    1993-01-01

    Reconstituted Sendai virus envelopes containing both the fusion (F) protein and the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) (F,HN-virosomes) or only the F protein (F-virosomes) were prepared by solubilization of the intact virus with Triton X-100 followed by its removal by using SM2 Bio-Beads. Viral envelopes containing HN whose disulfide bonds were irreversibly reduced (HNred) were also prepared by treating the envelopes with dithiothreitol followed by dialysis (F,HNred-virosomes). Both F-virosomes and F,HNred-virosomes induced hemolysis of erythrocytes in the presence of wheat germ agglutinin, but the rates and extents were markedly lower than those for hemolysis induced by F,HN-virosomes. Using an assay based on the relief of self-quenching of a lipid probe incorporated in the Sendai virus envelopes, we demonstrate the fusion of both F,HN-virosomes and F-virosomes with cultured HepG2 cells containing the asialoglycoprotein receptor, which binds to a terminal galactose moiety of F. By desialylating the HepG2 cells, the entry mediated by HN-terminal sialic acid receptor interactions was bypassed. We show that both F-virosomes and F,HN-virosomes fuse with desialylated HepG2 cells, although the rate was two- to threefold higher if HN was included in the viral envelope. We also observed enhancement of fusion rates when both F and HN envelope proteins were attached to their specific receptors. Images PMID:8388501

  4. Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-3 (TRPM3) Mediates Nociceptive-Like Responses in Hydra vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Malafoglia, Valentina; Traversetti, Lorenzo; Del Grosso, Floriano; Scalici, Massimiliano; Lauro, Filomena; Russo, Valeria; Persichini, Tiziana; Salvemini, Daniela; Mollace, Vincenzo; Fini, Massimo; Raffaeli, William

    2016-01-01

    The ability of mammals to feel noxious stimuli lies in a heterogeneous group of primary somatosensory neurons termed nociceptors, which express specific membrane receptors, such as the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) family. Here, we show that one of the most important nociceptive-like pathways is conserved in the freshwater coelenterate Hydra vulgaris, the most primitive organism possessing a nervous system. In particular, we found that H. vulgaris expresses TRPM3, a nociceptor calcium channel involved in the detection of noxious heat in mammals. Furthermore, we detected that both heat shock and TRPM3 specific agonist (i.e., pregnenolone sulfate) induce the modulation of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS), two genes activated by TRP-mediated heat painful stimuli in mammals. As expected, these effects are inhibited by a TRPM3 antagonist (i.e., mefenamic acid). Interestingly, the TRPM3 agonist and heat shock also induce the expression of nuclear transcription erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), known markers of oxidative stress; noteworthy gene expression was also inhibited by the TRPM3 antagonist. As a whole, our results demonstrate the presence of conserved molecular oxidative/nociceptive-like pathways at the primordial level of the animal kingdom. PMID:26974325

  5. Receptor-Mediated Liposome Fusion Kinetics at Aqueous/Liquid Crystal Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Macri, Katherine M; Noonan, Patrick S; Schwartz, Daniel K

    2015-09-16

    Membrane fusion events are essential to cell biology, and a number of reductionist systems have been developed to mimic the behavior of these biological motifs. One such system monitors the DNA hybridization-mediated fusion of liposomes with the liquid crystal (LC) interface by observing changes in LC orientation using a simple optical detection scheme. We have systematically explored key parameters of this system to determine their effects on individual elementary steps of the complex fusion mechanism. The liposome composition, specifically the degree of lipid unsaturation and PE content, decreased the bilayer rigidity, thereby increasing the rate of vesicle rupture under the stress applied by DNA hybridization. In contrast, the presence of cholesterol had the opposite effect on the mechanical properties of the bilayer, and hence of the membrane fusion rates. The accessibility of receptor moieties (i.e., complementary DNA oligonucleotides) affected the fusion kinetics by modulating the rate of hybridization events. DNA accessibility was controlled by systematic variation of the length of the DNA receptor molecules and the thickness of the steric barrier comprised of adsorbed PEGylated lipids. These results provide design rules for understanding the trade-offs between response kinetics and other important system properties, such as nonspecific adsorption. Moreover, these findings improve our understanding of the biophysical properties of membrane fusion, an important process in both natural and model systems used for bioassay and bioimaging applications. PMID:26317496

  6. Ectopic expression of the serine protease inhibitor PI9 modulates death receptor-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kummer, J A; Micheau, O; Schneider, P; Bovenschen, N; Broekhuizen, R; Quadir, R; Strik, M C M; Hack, C E; Tschopp, J

    2007-08-01

    Apoptosis is a highly controlled process, whose triggering is associated with the activation of caspases. Apoptosis can be induced via a subgroup of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, which recruit and activate pro-caspase-8 and -10. Regulation of apoptosis is achieved by several inhibitors, including c-FLICE-inhibitory protein, which prevents apoptosis by inhibiting the pro-apoptotic activation of upstream caspases. Here we show that the human intracellular serine protease inhibitor (serpin), protease inhibitor 9 (PI9), inhibits TNF-, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand- and Fas ligand-mediated apoptosis in certain TNF-sensitive cell lines. The reactive center P1 residue of PI9 was required for this inhibition since PI9 harboring a Glu --> Ala mutation in its reactive center failed to impair death receptor-induced cell death. This suggests a classical serpin-protease interaction. Indeed, PI9 inhibited apoptotic death by directly interacting with the intermediate active forms of caspase-8 and -10. This indicates that PI9 can regulate pro-apoptotic apical caspases.

  7. 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptors mediating vasoconstriction in pulmonary arteries from control and pulmonary hypertensive rats.

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, M. R.; Sweeney, G.; Baird, M.; McCulloch, K. M.; Houslay, M.; Morecroft, I.

    1996-01-01

    1. We investigated 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-receptor mediated vasoconstriction in the main, first branch and resistance pulmonary arteries removed from control and pulmonary hypertensive rats. Contractile responses to 5-HT, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT, non-selective 5-HT1 agonist), and sumatriptan (5-HT1D-like receptor agonist) were studied. The effects of methiothepin (non-selective 5-HT1 + 2-receptor antagonist) and ketanserin (5-HT2A receptor antagonist) and GR55562 (a novel selective 5-HT1D receptor antagonist) on 5-HT-mediated responses were also studied. Basal levels of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate ([cyclic AMP]i) and guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate ([cyclic GMP]i) were determined and we assessed the degree of inherent tone in the vessels under study. 2. 5-HT was most potent in the resistance arteries. pEC50 values were 5.6 +/- 0.1, 5.3 +/- 0.1, 5.0 +/- 0.2 in the resistance arteries, pulmonary branch and main pulmonary artery, respectively (n = at least 5 from 5 animals). The sensitivity to, and maximum response of, 5-HT was increased in all the arteries removed from the chronic hypoxic (CH) rats. In CH rats the pEC50 values were 5.9 +/- 0.2, 6.3 +/- 0.2, 6.4 +/- 0.2 and the increase in the maximum response was 35%, 51% and 41% in the resistance arteries, pulmonary branch and main pulmonary artery, respectively. Sumatriptan did not contract any vessel from the control rats whilst 5-CT did contract the resistance arteries. In the CH rats, however, they both contracted the resistance arteries (responses to sumatriptan were small) (pEC50: 5-CT; 5.4 +/- 0.2) and the pulmonary artery branches (pEC50: sumatriptan, 5.4 +/- 0.2; 5-CT, 5.4 +/- 0.2). 5-CT also caused a contraction in the main pulmonary artery (pEC50: 6.0 +/- 0.3). 3. Ketanserin (1 nM-1 microM) caused a competitive antagonism of the 5-HT response in all vessels tested. In control rats, the estimated pKb values for ketanserin in resistance arteries, pulmonary branches and main pulmonary

  8. Astrocytes regulate inhibitory synapse formation via Trk-mediated modulation of postsynaptic GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Elmariah, Sarina B; Oh, Eun Joo; Hughes, Ethan G; Balice-Gordon, Rita J

    2005-04-01

    Astrocytes promote the formation and function of excitatory synapses in the CNS. However, whether and how astrocytes modulate inhibitory synaptogenesis are essentially unknown. We asked whether astrocytes regulate the formation of inhibitory synapses between hippocampal neurons during maturation in vitro. Neuronal coculture with astrocytes or treatment with astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM) increased the number of inhibitory presynaptic terminals, the frequency of miniature IPSCs, and the number and synaptic localization of GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R) clusters during the first 10 d in vitro. We asked whether neurotrophins, which are potent modulators of inhibitory synaptic structure and function, mediate the effects of astrocytes on inhibitory synapses. ACM from BDNF- or tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB)-deficient astrocytes increased inhibitory presynaptic terminals and postsynaptic GABA(A)R clusters in wild-type neurons, suggesting that BDNF and TrkB expression in astrocytes is not required for these effects. In contrast, although the increase in the number of inhibitory presynaptic terminals persisted, no increase was observed in postsynaptic GABA(A)R clusters after ACM treatment of hippocampal neurons lacking BDNF or TrkB. These results suggest that neurons, not astrocytes, are the relevant source of BDNF and are the site of TrkB activation required for postsynaptic GABA(A)R modulation. These data also suggest that astrocytes may modulate postsynaptic development indirectly by stimulating Trk signaling between neurons. Together, these data show that astrocytes modulate inhibitory synapse formation via distinct presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms.

  9. Calcium Sensing Receptor as a Novel Mediator of Adipose Tissue Dysfunction: Mechanisms and Potential Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; Mattar, Pamela; Díaz, Ximena; Lavandero, Sergio; Cifuentes, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is currently a serious worldwide public health problem, reaching pandemic levels. For decades, dietary and behavioral approaches have failed to prevent this disease from expanding, and health authorities are challenged by the elevated prevalence of co-morbid conditions. Understanding how obesity-associated diseases develop from a basic science approach is recognized as an urgent task to face this growing problem. White adipose tissue (WAT) is an active endocrine organ, with a crucial influence on whole-body homeostasis. WAT dysfunction plays a key role linking obesity with its associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. Among the regulators of WAT physiology, the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) has arisen as a potential mediator of WAT dysfunction. Expression of the receptor has been described in human preadipocytes, adipocytes, and the human adipose cell lines LS14 and SW872. The evidence suggests that CaSR activation in the visceral (i.e., unhealthy) WAT is associated with an increased proliferation of adipose progenitor cells and elevated adipocyte differentiation. In addition, exposure of adipose cells to CaSR activators in vitro elevates proinflammatory cytokine expression and secretion. An increased proinflammatory environment in WAT plays a key role in the development of WAT dysfunction that leads to peripheral organ fat deposition and insulin resistance, among other consequences. We propose that CaSR may be one relevant therapeutic target in the struggle to confront the health consequences of the current worldwide obesity pandemic.

  10. α1-Adrenergic receptors mediate coordinated Ca2+ signaling of cortical astrocytes in awake, behaving mice.

    PubMed

    Ding, Fengfei; O'Donnell, John; Thrane, Alexander S; Zeppenfeld, Douglas; Kang, Hongyi; Xie, Lulu; Wang, Fushun; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2013-12-01

    Astrocyte Ca2+ signals in awake behaving mice are widespread, coordinated and differ fundamentally from the locally restricted Ca2+ transients observed ex vivo and in anesthetized animals. Here we show that the synchronized release of norepinephrine (NE) from locus coeruleus (LC) projections throughout the cerebral cortex mediate long-ranging Ca2+ signals by activation of astrocytic α1-adrenergic receptors. When LC output was triggered by either physiological sensory (whisker) stimulation or an air-puff startle response, astrocytes responded with fast Ca2+ transients that encompassed the entire imaged field (positioned over either frontal or parietal cortex). The application of adrenergic inhibitors, including α1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin, potently suppressed both evoked, as well as the frequently observed spontaneous astroglial Ca2+ signals. The LC-specific neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4), which reduced cortical NE content by >90%, prevented nearly all astrocytic Ca2+ signals in awake mice. The observations indicate that in adult, unanesthetized mice, astrocytes do not respond directly to glutamatergic signaling evoked by sensory stimulation. Instead astrocytes appear to be the primary target for NE, with astrocytic Ca2+ signaling being triggered by the α1-adrenergic receptor. In turn, astrocytes may coordinate the broad effects of neuromodulators on neuronal activity.

  11. Alpha-latrotoxin modulates the secretory machinery via receptor-mediated activation of protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wan, Qunfang; Lin, Xianguang; Zhu, Hongliang; Volynski, Kirill; Ushkaryov, Yuri; Xu, Tao

    2005-09-01

    The hypothesis whether alpha-latrotoxin (LTX) could directly regulate the secretory machinery was tested in pancreatic beta cells using combined techniques of membrane capacitance (Cm) measurement and Ca2+ uncaging. Employing ramp increase in [Ca2+]i to stimulate exocytosis, we found that LTX lowers the Ca2+ threshold required for exocytosis without affecting the size of the readily releasable pool (RRP). The burst component of exocytosis in response to step-like [Ca2+]i increase generated by flash photolysis of caged Ca2+ was also speeded up by LTX treatment. LTX increased the maximum rate of exocytosis compared with control responses with similar postflash [Ca2+]i and shifted the Ca2+ dependence of the exocytotic machinery toward lower Ca2+ concentrations. LTXN4C, a LTX mutant which cannot form membrane pores or penetrate through the plasma membrane but has similar affinity for the receptors as the wild-type LTX, mimicked the effect of LTX. Moreover, the effects of both LTX and LTXN4C) were independent of intracellular or extracellular Ca2+ but required extracellular Mg2+. Our data propose that LTX, by binding to the membrane receptors, sensitizes the fusion machinery to Ca2+ and, hence, may permit release at low [Ca2+]i level. This sensitization is mediated by activation of protein kinase C. PMID:16101679

  12. Are G-protein-coupled receptors involved in mediating larval settlement and metamorphosis of coral planulae?

    PubMed

    Tran, Cawa; Hadfield, Michael G

    2012-04-01

    Larvae of the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis are induced to settle and metamorphose by the presence of marine bacterial biofilms, and the larvae of Montipora capitata respond to a combination of filamentous and crustose coralline algae. The primary goal of this study was to better understand metamorphosis of cnidarian larvae by determining what types of receptors and signal-transduction pathways are involved during stimulation of metamorphosis of P. damicornis and M. capitata. Evidence from studies on larvae of hydrozoans suggests that G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are good candidates. Settlement experiments were conducted in which competent larvae were exposed to neuropharmacological agents that affect GPCRs and their associated signal-transduction pathways, AC/cAMP and PI/DAG/PKC. On the basis of the results of these experiments, we conclude that GPCRs and these pathways do not mediate settlement and metamorphosis in either coral species. Two compounds that had an effect on both species, forskolin and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (TPA), may be acting on other cellular processes not related to GPCRs. This study strengthens our understanding of the underlying physiological mechanisms that regulate metamorphosis in coral larvae. PMID:22589403

  13. Human Milk Components Modulate Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Inflammation.

    PubMed

    He, YingYing; Lawlor, Nathan T; Newburg, David S

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is central to innate immunity. Aberrant expression of TLRs is found in neonatal inflammatory diseases. Several bioactive components of human milk modulate TLR expression and signaling pathways, including soluble toll-like receptors (sTLRs), soluble cluster of differentiation (sCD) 14, glycoproteins, small peptides, and oligosaccharides. Some milk components, such as sialyl (α2,3) lactose and lacto-N-fucopentaose III, are reported to increase TLR signaling; under some circumstances this might contribute toward immunologic balance. Human milk on the whole is strongly anti-inflammatory, and contains abundant components that depress TLR signaling pathways: sTLR2 and sCD14 inhibit TLR2 signaling; sCD14, lactadherin, lactoferrin, and 2'-fucosyllactose attenuate TLR4 signaling; 3'-galactosyllactose inhibits TLR3 signaling, and β-defensin 2 inhibits TLR7 signaling. Feeding human milk to neonates decreases their risk of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. Thus, the TLR regulatory components found in human milk hold promise as benign oral prophylactic and therapeutic treatments for the many gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders mediated by abnormal TLR signaling.

  14. Calcium Sensing Receptor as a Novel Mediator of Adipose Tissue Dysfunction: Mechanisms and Potential Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; Mattar, Pamela; Díaz, Ximena; Lavandero, Sergio; Cifuentes, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is currently a serious worldwide public health problem, reaching pandemic levels. For decades, dietary and behavioral approaches have failed to prevent this disease from expanding, and health authorities are challenged by the elevated prevalence of co-morbid conditions. Understanding how obesity-associated diseases develop from a basic science approach is recognized as an urgent task to face this growing problem. White adipose tissue (WAT) is an active endocrine organ, with a crucial influence on whole-body homeostasis. WAT dysfunction plays a key role linking obesity with its associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. Among the regulators of WAT physiology, the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) has arisen as a potential mediator of WAT dysfunction. Expression of the receptor has been described in human preadipocytes, adipocytes, and the human adipose cell lines LS14 and SW872. The evidence suggests that CaSR activation in the visceral (i.e., unhealthy) WAT is associated with an increased proliferation of adipose progenitor cells and elevated adipocyte differentiation. In addition, exposure of adipose cells to CaSR activators in vitro elevates proinflammatory cytokine expression and secretion. An increased proinflammatory environment in WAT plays a key role in the development of WAT dysfunction that leads to peripheral organ fat deposition and insulin resistance, among other consequences. We propose that CaSR may be one relevant therapeutic target in the struggle to confront the health consequences of the current worldwide obesity pandemic. PMID:27660614

  15. The Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 as Mediator of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Immunosuppressive Properties

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Francesca; Bernardo, Maria Ester; Bellini, Giulia; Luongo, Livio; Conforti, Antonella; Manzo, Iolanda; Guida, Francesca; Cristino, Luigia; Imperatore, Roberta; Petrosino, Stefania; Nobili, Bruno; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells are non-hematopoietic, multipotent progenitor cells producing cytokines, chemokines, and extracellular matrix proteins that support hematopoietic stem cell survival and engraftment, influence immune effector cell development, maturation, and function, and inhibit alloreactive T-cell responses. The immunosuppressive properties of human mesenchymal stromal cells have attracted much attention from immunologists, stem cell biologists and clinicians. Recently, the presence of the endocannabinoid system in hematopoietic and neural stem cells has been demonstrated. Endocannabinoids, mainly acting through the cannabinoid receptor subtype 2, are able to modulate cytokine release and to act as immunosuppressant when added to activated T lymphocytes. In the present study, we have investigated, through a multidisciplinary approach, the involvement of the endocannabinoids in migration, viability and cytokine release of human mesenchymal stromal cells. We show, for the first time, that cultures of human mesenchymal stromal cells express all of the components of the endocannabinoid system, suggesting a potential role for the cannabinoid CB2 receptor as a mediator of anti-inflammatory properties of human mesenchymal stromal cells, as well as of their survival pathways and their capability to home and migrate towards endocannabinoid sources. PMID:24312195

  16. Calcium Sensing Receptor as a Novel Mediator of Adipose Tissue Dysfunction: Mechanisms and Potential Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; Mattar, Pamela; Díaz, Ximena; Lavandero, Sergio; Cifuentes, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is currently a serious worldwide public health problem, reaching pandemic levels. For decades, dietary and behavioral approaches have failed to prevent this disease from expanding, and health authorities are challenged by the elevated prevalence of co-morbid conditions. Understanding how obesity-associated diseases develop from a basic science approach is recognized as an urgent task to face this growing problem. White adipose tissue (WAT) is an active endocrine organ, with a crucial influence on whole-body homeostasis. WAT dysfunction plays a key role linking obesity with its associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. Among the regulators of WAT physiology, the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) has arisen as a potential mediator of WAT dysfunction. Expression of the receptor has been described in human preadipocytes, adipocytes, and the human adipose cell lines LS14 and SW872. The evidence suggests that CaSR activation in the visceral (i.e., unhealthy) WAT is associated with an increased proliferation of adipose progenitor cells and elevated adipocyte differentiation. In addition, exposure of adipose cells to CaSR activators in vitro elevates proinflammatory cytokine expression and secretion. An increased proinflammatory environment in WAT plays a key role in the development of WAT dysfunction that leads to peripheral organ fat deposition and insulin resistance, among other consequences. We propose that CaSR may be one relevant therapeutic target in the struggle to confront the health consequences of the current worldwide obesity pandemic. PMID:27660614

  17. Calcium Sensing Receptor as a Novel Mediator of Adipose Tissue Dysfunction: Mechanisms and Potential Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; Mattar, Pamela; Díaz, Ximena; Lavandero, Sergio; Cifuentes, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is currently a serious worldwide public health problem, reaching pandemic levels. For decades, dietary and behavioral approaches have failed to prevent this disease from expanding, and health authorities are challenged by the elevated prevalence of co-morbid conditions. Understanding how obesity-associated diseases develop from a basic science approach is recognized as an urgent task to face this growing problem. White adipose tissue (WAT) is an active endocrine organ, with a crucial influence on whole-body homeostasis. WAT dysfunction plays a key role linking obesity with its associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. Among the regulators of WAT physiology, the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) has arisen as a potential mediator of WAT dysfunction. Expression of the receptor has been described in human preadipocytes, adipocytes, and the human adipose cell lines LS14 and SW872. The evidence suggests that CaSR activation in the visceral (i.e., unhealthy) WAT is associated with an increased proliferation of adipose progenitor cells and elevated adipocyte differentiation. In addition, exposure of adipose cells to CaSR activators in vitro elevates proinflammatory cytokine expression and secretion. An increased proinflammatory environment in WAT plays a key role in the development of WAT dysfunction that leads to peripheral organ fat deposition and insulin resistance, among other consequences. We propose that CaSR may be one relevant therapeutic target in the struggle to confront the health consequences of the current worldwide obesity pandemic.

  18. Local heating of human skin causes hyperemia without mediation by muscarinic cholinergic receptors or prostanoids.

    PubMed

    Golay, Sandrine; Haeberli, Christian; Delachaux, Anne; Liaudet, Lucas; Kucera, Paul; Waeber, Bernard; Feihl, François

    2004-11-01

    Local changes in surface temperature have a powerful influence on the perfusion of human skin. Heating increases local skin blood flow, but the mechanisms and mediators of this response (thermal hyperemia response) are incompletely elucidated. In the present study, we examined the possible dependence of the thermal hyperemia response on stimulation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors and on production of vasodilator prostanoids. In 13 male healthy subjects aged 20-30 yr, a temperature-controlled chamber was positioned on the volar face of one forearm and used to raise surface temperature from 34 to 41 degrees C. The time course of the resulting thermal hyperemia response was recorded with a laser-Doppler imager. In one experiment, each of eight subjects received an intravenous bolus of the antimuscarinic agent glycopyrrolate (4 microg/kg) on one visit and saline on the other. The thermal hyperemia response was determined within the hour after the injections. Glycopyrrolate effectively inhibited the skin vasodilation induced by iontophoresis of acetylcholine but did not influence the thermal hyperemia response. In a second experiment, conducted in five other subjects, 1 g of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor aspirin administered orally totally abolished the vasodilation induced in the skin by anodal current but also failed to modify the thermal hyperemia response. The present study excludes the stimulation of muscarinic receptors and the production of vasodilator prostaglandins as essential and nonredundant mechanisms for the vasodilation induced by local heating in human forearm skin. PMID:15247159

  19. Keratinocyte nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation modulates early TLR2-mediated wound healing responses.

    PubMed

    Kishibe, Mari; Griffin, Tina M; Radek, Katherine A

    2015-11-01

    The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway spans several macro- and micro-environments to control inflammation via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Physiologic inflammation is necessary for normal wound repair and is triggered, in part, via Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Here, we demonstrate that keratinocyte nAChR activation dampens TLR2-mediated migration and pro-inflammatory cytokine and antimicrobial peptide (AMP) production, which is restored by a α7-selective nAChR antagonist. The mechanism of this response occurs by blocking the NF-κB and Erk1/2 pathway during early and late wound healing. In a mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus wound infection, topical nAChR activation reduces wound AMP and TLR2 production to augment bacterial survival in wild-type mice. These findings suggest that aberrant α7 nAChR activation may impair normal wound healing responses, and that pharmacologic administration of topical nAChR antagonists may improve wound healing outcomes in wounds necessitating a more robust inflammatory response.

  20. Receptor-Mediated Liposome Fusion Kinetics at Aqueous/Liquid Crystal Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Macri, Katherine M; Noonan, Patrick S; Schwartz, Daniel K

    2015-09-16

    Membrane fusion events are essential to cell biology, and a number of reductionist systems have been developed to mimic the behavior of these biological motifs. One such system monitors the DNA hybridization-mediated fusion of liposomes with the liquid crystal (LC) interface by observing changes in LC orientation using a simple optical detection scheme. We have systematically explored key parameters of this system to determine their effects on individual elementary steps of the complex fusion mechanism. The liposome composition, specifically the degree of lipid unsaturation and PE content, decreased the bilayer rigidity, thereby increasing the rate of vesicle rupture under the stress applied by DNA hybridization. In contrast, the presence of cholesterol had the opposite effect on the mechanical properties of the bilayer, and hence of the membrane fusion rates. The accessibility of receptor moieties (i.e., complementary DNA oligonucleotides) affected the fusion kinetics by modulating the rate of hybridization events. DNA accessibility was controlled by systematic variation of the length of the DNA receptor molecules and the thickness of the steric barrier comprised of adsorbed PEGylated lipids. These results provide design rules for understanding the trade-offs between response kinetics and other important system properties, such as nonspecific adsorption. Moreover, these findings improve our understanding of the biophysical properties of membrane fusion, an important process in both natural and model systems used for bioassay and bioimaging applications.

  1. Coinhibitory receptor PD-1H preferentially suppresses CD4+ T cell–mediated immunity

    PubMed Central

    Flies, Dallas B.; Han, Xue; Higuchi, Tomoe; Zheng, Linghua; Sun, Jingwei; Ye, Jessica Jane; Chen, Lieping

    2014-01-01

    T cell activation is regulated by the interactions of surface receptors with stimulatory and inhibitory ligands. Programmed death-1 homolog (PD-1H, also called VISTA) is a member of the CD28 family of proteins and has been shown to act as a coinhibitory ligand on APCs that suppress T cell responses. Here, we determined that PD-1H functions as a coinhibitory receptor for CD4+ T cells. CD4+ T cells in mice lacking PD-1H exhibited a dramatically increased response to antigen stimulation. Furthermore, delivery of a PD-1H–specific agonist mAb directly inhibited CD4+ T cell activation both in vitro and in vivo, validating a coinhibitory function of PD-1H. In a murine model of acute hepatitis, administration of a PD-1H agonist mAb suppressed CD4+ T cell–mediated acute inflammation. PD-1H–deficient animals were highly resistant to tumor induction in a murine brain glioma model, and depletion of CD4+ T cells, but not CD8+ T cells, promoted tumor formation. Together, our findings suggest that PD-1H has potential as a target of immune modulation in the treatment of human inflammation and malignancies. PMID:24743150

  2. Progesterone stimulates respiration through a central nervous system steroid receptor-mediated mechanism in cat.

    PubMed

    Bayliss, D A; Millhorn, D E; Gallman, E A; Cidlowski, J A

    1987-11-01

    We have examined the effect on respiration of the steroid hormone progesterone, administered either intravenously or directly into the medulla oblongata in anesthetized and paralyzed male and female cats. The carotid sinus and vagus nerves were cut, and end-tidal PCO2 and temperature were kept constant with servo-controllers. Phrenic nerve activity was used to quantitate central respiratory activity. Repeated doses of progesterone (from 0.1 to 2.0 micrograms/kg, cumulative) caused a sustained (greater than 45 min) facilitation of phrenic nerve activity in female and male cats; however, the response was much more variable in females. Progesterone injected into the region of nucleus tractus solitarii, a respiratory-related area in the medulla oblongata, also caused a prolonged stimulation of respiration. Progesterone administration at high concentration by both routes also caused a substantial hypotension. Identical i.v. doses of other classes of steroid hormones (17 beta-estradiol, testosterone, and cortisol) did not elicit the same respiratory effect. Pretreatment with RU 486, a progesterone-receptor antagonist, blocked the facilitatory effect of progesterone. We conclude that progesterone acts centrally through a steroid receptor-mediated mechanism to facilitate respiration. PMID:3478727

  3. Internalisation of the bleomycin molecules responsible for bleomycin toxicity: a receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism.

    PubMed

    Pron, G; Mahrour, N; Orlowski, S; Tounekti, O; Poddevin, B; Belehradek, J; Mir, L M

    1999-01-01

    Bleomycin (BLM) does not diffuse through the plasma membrane but nevertheless displays cytotoxic activity due to DNA break generation. The aim of the study was to describe the mechanism of BLM internalisation. We previously provided evidence for the existence of BLM-binding sites at the surface of DC-3F Chinese hamster fibroblasts, as well as of their involvement in BLM cytotoxicity on DC-3F cells and related BLM-resistant sublines. Here we report that A253 human cells and their BLM-resistant subline C-10E also possessed a membrane protein of ca. 250 kDa specifically binding BLM. Part of this C-10E cell resistance could be explained by a decrease in the number of BLM-binding sites exposed at the cell surface with respect to A253 cells. The comparison between A253 and DC-3F cells exposing a similar number of BLM-binding sites revealed that the faster the fluid phase endocytosis, the greater the cell sensitivity to BLM. Moreover, the experimental modification of endocytotic vesicle size showed that BLM cytotoxicity was directly correlated with the flux of plasma membrane area engulfed during endocytosis rather than with the fluid phase volume incorporated. Thus, BLM would be internalised by a receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism which would first require BLM binding to its membrane receptor and then the transfer of the complex into intracellular endocytotic vesicles, followed by BLM entry into the cytosol, probably from a nonacidic compartment.

  4. Central beta-adrenergic receptors mediate renal nerve activity during stress in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Koepke, J P; DiBona, G F

    1985-01-01

    The effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists (d,l-propranolol or timolol, 30 micrograms in 2 microL of isotonic saline) on the increased renal sympathetic nerve activity and decreased urinary sodium excretion (UNaV) responses to stressful environmental stimulation (air jet to head) in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were examined. Before i.c.v. d,l-propranolol or timolol, air stress increased renal activity (68% from 10.6 +/- 2.1 and 63% from 8.2 +/- 0.9 integrator resets/min respectively). In contrast, after i.c.v. d,l-propranolol or timolol in the same conscious SHR, air stress had no effect on renal sympathetic nerve activity (+7% from 8.1 +/- 1.7 and +7% from 5.5 +/- 1.0 integrator resets/min respectively). Air stress decreased UNaV in conscious SHR given i.c.v. saline vehicle (25% from 2.8 +/- 0.5 microEq/min/100 g body weight), but had no effect on effective renal plasma flow or glomerular filtration rate. In contrast, after i.c.v. d,l-propranolol or timolol, air stress had no effect on UNaV (0% from 2.8 +/- 0.5 and +9% from 3.3 +/- 0.3 microEq/min/100 g body weight respectively). Mean arterial pressure increased similarly during air stress with i.c.v. saline-vehicle or beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists. Intravenous administration of the same doses of d,l-propranolol or timolol did not prevent the increased renal sympathetic nerve activity or decreased UNaV responses resulting from air stress. These results suggest that central nervous system beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the increased renal sympathetic nerve activity and decreased UNaV responses resulting from stressful environmental stimulation in conscious SHR.

  5. Dioxin mediates downregulation of the reduced folate carrier transport activity via the arylhydrocarbon receptor signalling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Halwachs, Sandra; Lakoma, Cathleen; Gebhardt, Rolf; Schaefer, Ingo; Seibel, Peter; Honscha, Walther

    2010-07-15

    Dioxins such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are common environmental contaminants known to regulate several genes via activation of the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) associated with the development of numerous adverse biological effects. However, comparatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which dioxins display their toxic effects in vertebrates. The 5' untranslated region of the hepatocellular Reduced folate carrier (Rfc1; Slc19a1) exhibits AhR binding sites termed dioxin responsive elements (DRE) that have as yet only been found in the promoter region of prototypical TCDD target genes. Rfc1 mediated transport of reduced folates and antifolate drugs such as methotrexate (MTX) plays an essential role in physiological folate homeostasis and MTX cancer chemotherapy. In order to determine whether this carrier represents a target gene of dioxins we have investigated the influence of TCDD on functional Rfc1 activity in rat liver. Pre-treatment of rats with TCDD significantly diminished hepatocellular Rfc1 uptake activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In further mechanistic studies we demonstrated that this reduction was due to TCDD-dependent activation of the AhR signalling pathway. We additionally showed that binding of the activated receptor to DRE motifs in the Rfc1 promoter resulted in downregulation of Rfc1 gene expression and reduced carrier protein levels. As downregulation of pivotal Rfc1 activity results in functional folate deficiency associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular diseases or carcinogenesis, our results indicate that deregulation of this essential transport pathway represents a novel regulatory mechanism how dioxins display their toxic effects through the Ah receptor.

  6. Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate inducible defense in the water flea Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Sato, Masanao; Colbourne, John K; Iguchi, Taisen

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability held in many organisms to produce different phenotypes with a given genome in response to environmental stimuli, such as temperature, nutrition and various biological interactions. It seems likely that environmental signals induce a variety of mechanistic responses that influence ontogenetic processes. Inducible defenses, in which prey animals alter their morphology, behavior and/or other traits to help protect against direct or latent predation threats, are among the most striking examples of phenotypic plasticity. The freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia pulex forms tooth-like defensive structures, "neckteeth," in response to chemical cues or signals, referred to as "kairomones," in this case released from phantom midge larvae, a predator of D. pulex. To identify factors involved in the reception and/or transmission of a kairomone, we used microarray analysis to identify genes up-regulated following a short period of exposure to the midge kairomone. In addition to identifying differentially expressed genes of unknown function, we also found significant up-regulation of genes encoding ionotropic glutamate receptors, which are known to be involved in neurotransmission in many animal species. Specific antagonists of these receptors strongly inhibit the formation of neckteeth in D. pulex, although agonists did not induce neckteeth by themselves, indicating that ionotropic glutamate receptors are necessary but not sufficient for early steps of neckteeth formation in D. pulex. Moreover, using co-exposure of D. pulex to antagonists and juvenile hormone (JH), which physiologically mediates neckteeth formation, we found evidence suggesting that the inhibitory effect of antagonists is not due to direct inhibition of JH synthesis/secretion. Our findings not only provide a candidate molecule required for the inducible defense response in D. pulex, but also will contribute to the understanding of complex mechanisms underlying the recognition

  7. The effect of TAK-778 on gene expression of osteoblastic cells is mediated through estrogen receptor.

    PubMed

    Bellesini, Larissa S; Beloti, Marcio M; Crippa, Grasiele E; Bombonato-Prado, Karina F; Junta, Cristina M; Marques, Marcia M; Passos, Geraldo A; Rosa, Adalberto L

    2009-02-01

    This study evaluated the effect of TAK-778 [(2R, 4S)-(-)-N-(4-diethoxyphosphorylmethylphenyl)-1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-4-methyl-7,8-methylenedioxy-5-oxo-3-benzothiepin-2-carboxamide)] on in vitro osteogenic events and on gene expression of osteoblastic cells derived from human alveolar bone and the participation of estrogen receptors (ERs) on such effect. Osteoblastic cells were subcultured, with or without TAK-778 (10(-5) M), to evaluate cell growth and viability, total protein content, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity at 7, 14, and 21 days; bone-like formation at 21 days; and gene expression, using cDNA microarray, at 7 days. Also, osteoblastic cells were exposed to TAK-778 (10(-5) M) combined to ICI182,780, a nonspecific ER antagonist (10(-6) M), and gene expression was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at 7 days. TAK-778 induced a reduction in culture growth and an increase in cell synthesis, ALP activity, and bone-like formation. The cDNA microarray showed genes associated with cell adhesion and differentiation, skeletal development, ossification, and transforming growth factor-beta receptor signaling pathway, with a tendency to be higher expressed in cells exposed to TAK-778. The gene expression of ALP, osteocalcin, Msh homeobox 2, receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 was increased by TAK-778 as demonstrated by real-time PCR, and this effect was antagonized by ICI182,780. The present results demonstrated that TAK-778 acts at a transcriptional level to enhance the in vitro osteogenic process and that its effect on gene expression of osteoblastic cells is mediated, at least partially, through ERs. Based on these findings, TAK-778 could be considered in the treatment of bone metabolic disorders.

  8. The membrane estrogen receptor GPR30 mediates cadmium-induced proliferation of breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Xinyuan; Filardo, Edward J.; Shaikh, Zahir A.

    2010-05-15

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential metal that is dispersed throughout the environment. It is an endocrine-disrupting element which mimics estrogen, binds to estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), and promotes cell proliferation in breast cancer cells. We have previously published that Cd promotes activation of the extracellular regulated kinases, erk-1 and -2 in both ER-positive and ER-negative human breast cancer cells, suggesting that this estrogen-like effect of Cd is not associated with the ER. Here, we have investigated whether the newly appreciated transmembrane estrogen receptor, G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), may be involved in Cd-induced cell proliferation. Towards this end, we compared the effects of Cd in ER-negative human SKBR3 breast cancer cells in which endogenous GPR30 signaling was selectively inhibited using a GPR30 interfering mutant. We found that Cd concentrations from 50 to 500 nM induced a proliferative response in control vector-transfected SKBR3 cells but not in SKBR3 cells stably expressing interfering mutant. Similarly, intracellular cAMP levels increased about 2.4-fold in the vector transfectants but not in cells in which GPR30 was inactivated within 2.5 min after treatment with 500 nM Cd. Furthermore, Cd treatment rapidly activated (within 2.5 min) raf-1, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, mek-1, extracellular signal regulated kinases, erk-1/2, ribosomal S6 kinase, rsk, and E-26 like protein kinase, elk, about 4-fold in vector transfectants. In contrast, the activation of these signaling molecules in SKBR3 cells expressing the GPR30 mutant was only about 1.4-fold. These results demonstrate that Cd-induced breast cancer cell proliferation occurs through GPR30-mediated activation in a manner that is similar to that achieved by estrogen in these cells.

  9. TNF Receptor 1 Signaling is Critically Involved in Mediating Angiotensin-II-induced Cardiac Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Duerrschmid, Clemens; Crawford, Jeffrey R.; Reineke, Erin; Taffet, George E.; Trial, JoAnn; Entman, Mark L.; Haudek, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin-II (Ang-II) is associated with many conditions involving heart failure and pathologic hypertrophy. Ang-II induces the synthesis of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 that mediates the uptake of CD34+CD45+ monocytic cells into the heart. These precursor cells differentiate into collagen-producing fibroblasts and are responsible for the Ang-II-induced development of non-adaptive cardiac fibrosis. In this study, we demonstrate that in vitro, using a human monocyte-to-fibroblast differentiation model, Ang-II required the presence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) to induce fibroblast maturation from monocytes. In vivo, mice deficient in both TNF receptors did not develop cardiac fibrosis in response to 1 week Ang-II infusion. We then subjected mice deficient in either TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1-KO) or TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2-KO) to continuous Ang-II infusion. Compared to wild-type, in TNFR1-KO, but not in TNFR2-KO hearts, collagen deposition was greatly attenuated, and markedly fewer CD34+CD45+ cells were present. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated a striking reduction of key fibrosis-related, as well as inflammation-related mRNA expression in Ang-II-treated TNFR1-KO hearts. TNFR1-KO animals also developed less cardiac remodeling, cardiac hypertrophy, and hypertension compared to wild-type and TNFR2-KO in response to Ang-II. Our data suggest that TNF induced Ang-II-dependent cardiac fibrosis by signaling through TNFR1, which enhances the generation of monocytic fibroblast precursors in the heart. PMID:23337087

  10. Neuroprotection by glial metabotropic glutamate receptors is mediated by transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed

    Bruno, V; Battaglia, G; Casabona, G; Copani, A; Caciagli, F; Nicoletti, F

    1998-12-01

    The medium collected from cultured astrocytes transiently exposed to the group-II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor agonists (2S,1'R, 2'R,3'R)-2-(2,3-dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV) or (S)-4-carboxy-3-hydroxyphenylglycine (4C3HPG) is neuroprotective when transferred to mixed cortical cultures challenged with NMDA (). The following data indicate that this particular form of neuroprotection is mediated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta). (1) TGFbeta1 and -beta2 were highly neuroprotective against NMDA toxicity, and their action was less than additive with that produced by the medium collected from astrocytes treated with DCG-IV or 4C3HPG (GM/DCG-IV or GM/4C3HPG); (2) antibodies that specifically neutralized the actions of TGFbeta1 or -beta2 prevented the neuroprotective activity of DCG-IV or 4C3HPG, as well as the activity of GM/DCG-IV or GM/4C3HPG; and (3) a transient exposure of cultured astrocytes to either DCG-IV or 4C3HPG led to a delayed increase in both intracellular and extracellular levels of TGFbeta. We therefore conclude that a transient activation of group-II mGlu receptors (presumably mGlu3 receptors) in astrocytes leads to an increased formation and release of TGFbeta, which in turn protects neighbor neurons against excitotoxic death. These results offer a new strategy for increasing the local production of neuroprotective factors in the CNS. PMID:9822720

  11. Amygdala opioid receptors mediate the electroacupuncture-induced deterioration of sleep disruptions in epilepsy rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical and experimental evidence demonstrates that sleep and epilepsy reciprocally affect each other. Previous studies indicated that epilepsy alters sleep homeostasis; in contrast, sleep disturbance deteriorates epilepsy. If a therapy possesses both epilepsy suppression and sleep improvement, it would be the priority choice for seizure control. Effects of acupuncture of Feng-Chi (GB20) acupoints on epilepsy suppression and insomnia treatment have been documented in the ancient Chinese literature, Lingshu Jing (Classic of the Miraculous Pivot). Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi acupoints on sleep disruptions in rats with focal epilepsy. Results Our result indicates that administration of pilocarpine into the left central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) induced focal epilepsy and decreased both rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep. High-frequency (100 Hz) EA stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi acupoints, in which a 30-min EA stimulation was performed before the dark period of the light:dark cycle in three consecutive days, further deteriorated pilocarpine-induced sleep disruptions. The EA-induced exacerbation of sleep disruption was blocked by microinjection of naloxone, μ- (naloxonazine), κ- (nor-binaltorphimine) or δ-receptor antagonists (natrindole) into the CeA, suggesting the involvement of amygdaloid opioid receptors. Conclusion The present study suggests that high-frequency (100 Hz) EA stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi acupoints exhibits no benefit in improving pilocarpine-induced sleep disruptions; in contrast, EA further deteriorated sleep disturbances. Opioid receptors in the CeA mediated EA-induced exacerbation of sleep disruptions in epileptic rats. PMID:24215575

  12. Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors Mediate Inducible Defense in the Water Flea Daphnia pulex

    PubMed Central

    Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Sato, Masanao; Colbourne, John K.; Iguchi, Taisen

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability held in many organisms to produce different phenotypes with a given genome in response to environmental stimuli, such as temperature, nutrition and various biological interactions. It seems likely that environmental signals induce a variety of mechanistic responses that influence ontogenetic processes. Inducible defenses, in which prey animals alter their morphology, behavior and/or other traits to help protect against direct or latent predation threats, are among the most striking examples of phenotypic plasticity. The freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia pulex forms tooth-like defensive structures, “neckteeth,” in response to chemical cues or signals, referred to as “kairomones,” in this case released from phantom midge larvae, a predator of D. pulex. To identify factors involved in the reception and/or transmission of a kairomone, we used microarray analysis to identify genes up-regulated following a short period of exposure to the midge kairomone. In addition to identifying differentially expressed genes of unknown function, we also found significant up-regulation of genes encoding ionotropic glutamate receptors, which are known to be involved in neurotransmission in many animal species. Specific antagonists of these receptors strongly inhibit the formation of neckteeth in D. pulex, although agonists did not induce neckteeth by themselves, indicating that ionotropic glutamate receptors are necessary but not sufficient for early steps of neckteeth formation in D. pulex. Moreover, using co-exposure of D. pulex to antagonists and juvenile hormone (JH), which physiologically mediates neckteeth formation, we found evidence suggesting that the inhibitory effect of antagonists is not due to direct inhibition of JH synthesis/secretion. Our findings not only provide a candidate molecule required for the inducible defense response in D. pulex, but also will contribute to the understanding of complex mechanisms underlying the

  13. Ubiquitin ligase RNF167 regulates AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Lussier, Marc P.; Herring, Bruce E.; Nasu-Nishimura, Yukiko; Neutzner, Albert; Karbowski, Mariusz; Youle, Richard J.; Nicoll, Roger A.; Roche, Katherine W.

    2012-01-01

    AMPA receptors (AMPARs) mediate the majority of fast excitatory neurotransmission, and their density at postsynaptic sites determines synaptic strength. Ubiquitination is a posttranslational modification that dynamically regulates the synaptic expression of many proteins. However, very few of the ubiquitinating enzymes implicated in the process have been identified. In a screen to identify transmembrane RING domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligases that regulate surface expression of AMPARs, we identified RNF167. Predominantly lysosomal, a subpopulation of RNF167 is located on the surface of cultured neurons. Using a RING mutant RNF167 or a specific shRNA to eliminate endogenous RNF167, we demonstrate that AMPAR surface expression increases in hippocampal neurons with disrupted RNF167 activity and that RNF167 is involved in activity-dependent ubiquitination of AMPARs. In addition, RNF167 regulates synaptic AMPAR currents, whereas synaptic NMDAR currents are unaffected. Therefore, our study identifies RNF167 as a selective regulator of AMPAR-mediated neurotransmission and expands our understanding of how ubiquitination dynamically regulates excitatory synapses. PMID:23129617

  14. Genetic variation in the α1A-adrenergic receptor and phenylephrine-mediated venoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Adefurin, A; Ghimire, L V; Kohli, U; Muszkat, M; Sofowora, G G; Li, C; Paranjape, S Y; Stein, C M; Kurnik, D

    2015-08-01

    There is large interindividual variability and ethnic differences in phenylephrine-mediated vasoconstriction. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in ADRA1A, the α1A adrenergic receptor gene, contributes to the variability and ethnic differences. We measured local dorsal hand vein responses to increasing doses of phenylephrine in 64 Caucasians and 42 African-Americans and genotyped for 32 ADRA1A single nucleotide polymorphisms. The ED50 ranged from 11 to 5442 ng min(-1), and the Emax ranged from 13.5-100%. The rs574647 variant was associated with a trend towards lower logED50 in each race and in the combined cohort (P=0.008). In addition, rs1079078 was associated with a trend to higher logED50 in each race and in the combined cohort (P=0.011). Neither variant accounted for the ethnic differences in response. None of the ADRA1A haplotypes was associated with the outcomes. In conclusion, ADRA1A variants do not contribute substantially to the marked interindividual variability or ethnic differences in phenylephrine-mediated venoconstriction.

  15. The Thyroid Hormone Receptor Is a Suppressor of ras-Mediated Transcription, Proliferation, and Transformation

    PubMed Central

    García-Silva, Susana; Aranda, Ana

    2004-01-01

    The thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) has a profound effect on growth, differentiation, and metabolism in higher organisms. Here we demonstrate that T3 inhibits ras-induced proliferation in neuroblastoma cells and blocks induction of cyclin D1 expression by the oncogene. The hormone, at physiological concentrations, strongly antagonizes the transcriptional response mediated by the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase/ribosomal-S6 subunit kinase (Rsk) signaling pathway in cells expressing thyroid hormone receptors (TRs). T3 blocks the response to the oncogenic forms of the three ras isoforms (H-, K-, and N-ras) and both TRα and TRβ can mediate this action. The main target for induction of cyclin D1 transcription by oncogenic ras in neuroblastoma cells is a cyclic AMP response element (CRE) located in proximal promoter sequences, and T3 represses the transcriptional activity of b-Zip transcription factors such as CREB (CRE-binding protein) or ATF-2 (activation transcription factor 2) that are direct targets of Rsk2 and bind to this sequence. The hormone also blocks fibroblast transformation by oncogenic ras when TR is expressed. Furthermore, TRs act as suppressors of tumor formation by the oncogene in vivo in nude mice. The TRβ isoform has stronger antitransforming properties than the α isoform and can inhibit tumorigenesis even in hypothyroid mice. These results show the existence of a previously unrecognized transcriptional cross talk between the TRs and the ras oncogene which influences relevant processes such as cell proliferation, transformation, or tumorigenesis. PMID:15314161

  16. An investigation of scavenger receptor A mediated leukocyte binding to polyanionic and uncharged polymer hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Love, Ryan J; Patenaude, Mathew; Dorrington, Michael; Bowdish, Dawn M E; Hoare, Todd; Jones, Kim S

    2015-05-01

    Cell adhesion to biomaterials can be mediated in part by mechanisms aside from the traditionally recognized opsinization and integrin binding mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the role of scavenger receptor A (SR-A) in leukocyte binding to a series of well-controlled polyanionic and uncharged hydrogels based on a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) backbone. The hydrogels were injected in the peritoneal cavity of SR-A knockout (KO) and wild-type mice using a minimally invasive procedure and allowed to set in situ. After 24 h, the hydrogels were recovered and analyzed, the peritoneal cavity was lavaged, and cytokine concentrations were assessed by ELISA. The polyanionic hydrogels retrieved from the KO animals were found to be completely devoid of adherent leukocytes, which were present in other materials regardless of the mouse strain in which they were injected. Results from a subsequent in vitro cellular adhesion study with a RAW264.7 cell line failed to yield a similarly definitive role for SR-A in the cellular binding of a polyanionic hydrogel. Taken together, the results of this study show that SR-A mediates leukocyte adhesion to a polyanionic hydrogel in the peritoneal cavity, but other adhesion mechanisms contribute to cellular binding in vitro.

  17. Astragaloside IV inhibits microglia activation via glucocorticoid receptor mediated signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Shuai; Shi, Hai-Lian; Huang, Fei; Peterson, Karin E.; Wu, Hui; Lan, Yun-Yi; Zhang, Bei-Bei; He, Yi-Xin; Woods, Tyson; Du, Min; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of microglia activation may provide therapeutic treatment for many neurodegenerative diseases. Astragaloside IV (ASI) with anti-inflammatory properties has been tested as a therapeutic drug in clinical trials of China. However, the mechanism of ASI inhibiting neuroinflammation is unknown. In this study, we showed that ASI inhibited microglia activation both in vivo and in vitro. It could enhance glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-luciferase activity and facilitate GR nuclear translocation in microglial cells. Molecular docking and TR-FRET GR competitive binding experiments demonstrated that ASI could bind to GR in spite of relative low affinity. Meanwhile, ASI modulated GR-mediated signaling pathway, including dephosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, I κB and NF κB, therefore, decreased downstream production of proinflammatory mediators. Suppression of microglial BV-2 activation by ASI was abrogated by GR inhibitor, RU486 or GR siRNA. Similarly, RU486 counteracted the alleviative effect of ASI on microgliosis and neuronal injury in vivo. Our findings demonstrated that ASI inhibited microglia activation at least partially by activating the glucocorticoid pathway, suggesting its possible therapeutic potential for neuroinflammation in neurological diseases. PMID:26750705

  18. Neonatal Fc receptor expression in dendritic cells mediates protective immunity against colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kristi; Rath, Timo; Flak, Magdalena B; Arthur, Janelle C; Chen, Zhangguo; Glickman, Jonathan N; Zlobec, Inti; Karamitopoulou, Eva; Stachler, Matthew D; Odze, Robert D; Lencer, Wayne I; Jobin, Christian; Blumberg, Richard S

    2013-12-12

    Cancers arising in mucosal tissues account for a disproportionately large fraction of malignancies. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and the neonatal Fc receptor for IgG (FcRn) have an important function in the mucosal immune system that we have now shown extends to the induction of CD8(+) T cell-mediated antitumor immunity. We demonstrate that FcRn within dendritic cells (DCs) was critical for homeostatic activation of mucosal CD8(+) T cells that drove protection against the development of colorectal cancers and lung metastases. FcRn-mediated tumor protection was driven by DCs activation of endogenous tumor-reactive CD8(+) T cells via the cross-presentation of IgG complexed antigens (IgG IC), as well as the induction of cytotoxicity-promoting cytokine secretion, particularly interleukin-12, both of which were independently triggered by the FcRn-IgG IC interaction in murine and human DCs. FcRn thus has a primary role within mucosal tissues in activating local immune responses that are critical for priming efficient anti-tumor immunosurveillance.

  19. GABAB receptor-mediated activation of astrocytes by gamma-hydroxybutyric acid

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Timothy; Chen, Lixin; Emri, Zsuzsa; Pirttimaki, Tiina; Errington, Adam C.; Crunelli, Vincenzo; Parri, H. Rheinallt

    2014-01-01

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolite gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) shows a variety of behavioural effects when administered to animals and humans, including reward/addiction properties and absence seizures. At the cellular level, these actions of GHB are mediated by activation of neuronal GABAB receptors (GABABRs) where it acts as a weak agonist. Because astrocytes respond to endogenous and exogenously applied GABA by activation of both GABAA and GABABRs, here we investigated the action of GHB on astrocytes on the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the ventrobasal (VB) thalamic nucleus, two brain areas involved in the reward and proepileptic action of GHB, respectively, and compared it with that of the potent GABABR agonist baclofen. We found that GHB and baclofen elicited dose-dependent (ED50: 1.6 mM and 1.3 µM, respectively) transient increases in intracellular Ca2+ in VTA and VB astrocytes of young mice and rats, which were accounted for by activation of their GABABRs and mediated by Ca2+ release from intracellular store release. In contrast, prolonged GHB and baclofen exposure caused a reduction in spontaneous astrocyte activity and glutamate release from VTA astrocytes. These findings have key (patho)physiological implications for our understanding of the addictive and proepileptic actions of GHB. PMID:25225100

  20. Chemokine receptor Ccr1 drives neutrophil-mediated kidney immunopathology and mortality in invasive candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Lionakis, Michail S; Fischer, Brett G; Lim, Jean K; Swamydas, Muthulekha; Wan, Wuzhou; Richard Lee, Chyi-Chia; Cohen, Jeffrey I; Scheinberg, Phillip; Gao, Ji-Liang; Murphy, Philip M

    2012-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis is the 4(th) leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection in the US with mortality that exceeds 40% despite administration of antifungal therapy; neutropenia is a major risk factor for poor outcome after invasive candidiasis. In a fatal mouse model of invasive candidiasis that mimics human bloodstream-derived invasive candidiasis, the most highly infected organ is the kidney and neutrophils are the major cellular mediators of host defense; however, factors regulating neutrophil recruitment have not been previously defined. Here we show that mice lacking chemokine receptor Ccr1, which is widely expressed on leukocytes, had selectively impaired accumulation of neutrophils in the kidney limited to the late phase of the time course of the model; surprisingly, this was associated with improved renal function and survival without affecting tissue fungal burden. Consistent with this, neutrophils from wild-type mice in blood and kidney switched from Ccr1(lo) to Ccr1(high) at late time-points post-infection, when Ccr1 ligands were produced at high levels in the kidney and were chemotactic for kidney neutrophils ex vivo. Further, when a 1∶1 mixture of Ccr1(+/+) and Ccr1(-/-) donor neutrophils was adoptively transferred intravenously into Candida-infected Ccr1(+/+) recipient mice, neutrophil trafficking into the kidney was significantly skewed toward Ccr1(+/+) cells. Thus, neutrophil Ccr1 amplifies late renal immunopathology and increases mortality in invasive candidiasis by mediating excessive recruitment of neutrophils from the blood to the target organ.

  1. Type Ib BMP receptors mediate the rate of commissural axon extension through inhibition of cofilin activity

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Ken; Varadarajan, Supraja G.; Li, Joseph E.; Butler, Samantha J.

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have unexpectedly diverse activities establishing different aspects of dorsal neural circuitry in the developing spinal cord. Our recent studies have shown that, in addition to spatially orienting dorsal commissural (dI1) axons, BMPs supply ‘temporal’ information to commissural axons to specify their rate of growth. This information ensures that commissural axons reach subsequent signals at particular times during development. However, it remains unresolved how commissural neurons specifically decode this activity of BMPs to result in their extending axons at a specific speed through the dorsal spinal cord. We have addressed this question by examining whether either of the type I BMP receptors (Bmpr), BmprIa and BmprIb, have a role controlling the rate of commissural axon growth. BmprIa and BmprIb exhibit a common function specifying the identity of dorsal cell fate in the spinal cord, whereas BmprIb alone mediates the ability of BMPs to orient axons. Here, we show that BmprIb, and not BmprIa, is additionally required to control the rate of commissural axon extension. We have also determined the intracellular effector by which BmprIb regulates commissural axon growth. We show that BmprIb has a novel role modulating the activity of the actin-severing protein cofilin. These studies reveal the mechanistic differences used by distinct components of the canonical Bmpr complex to mediate the diverse activities of the BMPs. PMID:23250207

  2. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling mediates expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Christoph F A; Goth, Samuel R; Dong, Bin; Pessah, Isaac N; Matsumura, Fumio

    2008-10-24

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) leads to immune suppression associated with the induction of regulatory T cells (T(reg)) expressing the transcription factor Foxp3. The immunological mechanisms of suppression are not well understood however dendritic cells (DC) are considered a key target for AhR-mediated immune suppression. Here we show that activation of AhR by TCDD induces DC indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-like protein (IDO2). Induction of IDO1 and IDO2 was also found in lung and spleen associated with an increase of the T(reg) marker Foxp3 in spleen of TCDD-treated C57BL/6 mice, which is suppressed by inhibition of IDO. These data indicate that AhR-activation is an important signaling pathway for IDO expression and suggest a critical role of IDO in the mechanism leading to the generation of T(reg) that mediates the immune suppression through activation of AhR. PMID:18694728

  3. The neurotrophin receptor p75 mediates gp120-induced loss of synaptic spines in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Bachis, Alessia; Wenzel, Erin; Boelk, Allyssia; Becker, Jodi; Mocchetti, Italo

    2016-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 and its envelope protein gp120 reduce synaptodendritic complexity. However, the mechanisms contributing to this pathological feature are still not understood. The proneurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor promotes synaptic simplification through the activation of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). Here, we have used gp120 transgenic (gp120tg) mice to investigate whether p75NTR has a role in gp120-mediated neurotoxicity. Old (∼10 months) gp120tg mice exhibited an increase in proneurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the hippocampus as well as a decrease in the number of dendritic spines when compared to age-matched wild type. These effects were not observed in 3- or 6-month-old mice. To test if the reduction in spine density and morphology is caused by the activation of p75NTR, we crossed gp120tg mice with p75NTR null mice. We found that deletion of only 1 copy of the p75NTR gene in gp120tg mice is sufficient to normalize the number of hippocampal spines, strongly suggesting that the neurotoxic effect of gp120 is mediated by p75NTR. These data indicate that p75NTR antagonists could provide an adjunct therapy against synaptic simplification caused by human immunodeficiency virus 1. PMID:27498053

  4. Effects of testosterone on synaptic plasticity mediated by androgen receptors in male SAMP8 mice.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jian-Xin; Cui, Cheng-Li; Yan, Xu-Sheng; Zhang, Bai-Feng; Song, Wei; Huo, Dong-Sheng; Wang, He; Yang, Zhan-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic changes are closely associated with cognitive deficits. In addition, testosterone (T) is known to exert regulative effects on synaptic plasticity. T may improve cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, but the underlying mechanisms of androgenic action on cognitive performance remain unclear. The aim of this study was thus to examine the protective mechanism attributed to T on cognitive performance in an AD senescence, accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) animal model. Using Golgi staining to quantify the dendritic spine density in hippocampal CA1 region, molecular biomarkers of synapse function were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and western blot. T significantly increased the dendritic spine density in hippocampal CA1 region, while flutamide (F) inhibited these T-mediated effects. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95), and p-cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB)/CREB levels were significantly elevated in the T group, but F reduced the T-induced effects in these biomarkers to control levels. There were no significant differences in the expression levels of PSD-95, BDNF, and p-CREB/CREB between C and F. These findings indicate that the effects of T on improvement in synaptic plasticity were mediated via androgen receptor (AR). It is conceivable that new treatments targeted toward preventing synaptic pathology in AD may involve the use of androgen-acting drugs. PMID:27599230

  5. Energetics of Src homology domain interactions in receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Ladbury, John E; Arold, Stefan T

    2011-01-01

    Intracellular signaling from receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) on extracellular stimulation is fundamental to all cellular processes. The protein-protein interactions which form the basis of this signaling are mediated through a limited number of polypeptide domains. For signal transduction without corruption, based on a model where signaling pathways are considered as linear bimolecular relays, these interactions have to be highly specific. This is particularly the case when one considers that any cell may have copies of similar binding domains found in numerous proteins. In this work, an overview of the thermodynamics of binding of two of the most common of these domains (SH2 and SH3 domains) is given. This, coupled with insight from high-resolution structural detail, provides a comprehensive survey of how recognition of cognate binding sites for these domains occurs. Based on the data presented, we conclude that specificity offered by these interactions of SH2 and SH3 domains is limited and not sufficient to enforce mutual exclusivity in RTK-mediated signaling. This may explain the current lack of success in pharmaceutical intervention to inhibit the interactions of these domains when they are responsible for aberrant signaling and the resulting disease states such as cancer.

  6. Hindbrain GLP-1 receptor mediation of cisplatin-induced anorexia and nausea.

    PubMed

    De Jonghe, Bart C; Holland, Ruby A; Olivos, Diana R; Rupprecht, Laura E; Kanoski, Scott E; Hayes, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    While chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting are clinically controlled in the acute (<24 h) phase following treatment, the anorexia, nausea, fatigue, and other illness-type behaviors during the delayed phase (>24 h) of chemotherapy are largely uncontrolled. As the hindbrain glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) system contributes to energy balance and mediates aversive and stressful stimuli, here we examine the hypothesis that hindbrain GLP-1 signaling mediates aspects of chemotherapy-induced nausea and reductions in feeding behavior in rats. Specifically, hindbrain GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) blockade, via 4th intracerebroventricular (ICV) exendin-(9-39) injections, attenuates the anorexia, body weight reduction, and pica (nausea-induced ingestion of kaolin clay) elicited by cisplatin chemotherapy during the delayed phase (48 h) of chemotherapy-induced nausea. Additionally, the present data provide evidence that the central GLP-1-producing preproglucagon neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of the caudal brainstem are activated by cisplatin during the delayed phase of chemotherapy-induced nausea, as cisplatin led to a significant increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity in NTS GLP-1-immunoreactive neurons. These data support a growing body of literature suggesting that the central GLP-1 system may be a potential pharmaceutical target for adjunct anti-emetics used to treat the delayed-phase of nausea and emesis, anorexia, and body weight loss that accompany chemotherapy treatments.

  7. Phasic, Nonsynaptic GABA-A Receptor-Mediated Inhibition Entrains Thalamocortical Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Rovó, Zita; Mátyás, Ferenc; Barthó, Péter; Slézia, Andrea; Lecci, Sandro; Pellegrini, Chiara; Astori, Simone; Dávid, Csaba; Hangya, Balázs

    2014-01-01

    GABA-A receptors (GABA-ARs) are typically expressed at synaptic or nonsynaptic sites mediating phasic and tonic inhibition, respectively. These two forms of inhibition conjointly control various network oscillations. To disentangle their roles in thalamocortical rhythms, we focally deleted synaptic, γ2 subunit-containing GABA-ARs in the thalamus using viral intervention in mice. After successful removal of γ2 subunit clusters, spontaneous and evoked GABAergic synaptic currents disappeared in thalamocortical cells when the presynaptic, reticular thalamic (nRT) neurons fired in tonic mode. However, when nRT cells fired in burst mode, slow phasic GABA-AR-mediated events persisted, indicating a dynamic, burst-specific recruitment of nonsynaptic GABA-ARs. In vivo, removal of synaptic GABA-ARs reduced the firing of individual thalamocortical cells but did not abolish slow oscillations or sleep spindles. We conclude that nonsynaptic GABA-ARs are recruited in a phasic manner specifically during burst firing of nRT cells and provide sufficient GABA-AR activation to control major thalamocortical oscillations. PMID:24849349

  8. Activation of innate antiviral immune response via double-stranded RNA-dependent RLR receptor-mediated necroptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Wei-Hua; Azadzoi, Kazem M.; Su, Ning; Dai, Peng; Sun, Jianbin; Wang, Qin; Liang, Ping; Zhang, Wentao; Lei, Xiaoying; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Jing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Viruses induce double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in the host cells. The mammalian system has developed dsRNA-dependent recognition receptors such as RLRs that recognize the long stretches of dsRNA as PAMPs to activate interferon-mediated antiviral pathways and apoptosis in severe infection. Here we report an efficient antiviral immune response through dsRNA-dependent RLR receptor-mediated necroptosis against infections from different classes of viruses. We demonstrated that virus-infected A549 cells were efficiently killed in the presence of a chimeric RLR receptor, dsCARE. It measurably suppressed the interferon antiviral pathway but promoted IL-1β production. Canonical cell death analysis by morphologic assessment, phosphatidylserine exposure, caspase cleavage and chemical inhibition excluded the involvement of apoptosis and consistently suggested RLR receptor-mediated necroptosis as the underlying mechanism of infected cell death. The necroptotic pathway was augmented by the formation of RIP1-RIP3 necrosome, recruitment of MLKL protein and the activation of cathepsin D. Contributing roles of RIP1 and RIP3 were confirmed by gene knockdown. Furthermore, the necroptosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 but not the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD impeded dsCARE-dependent infected cell death. Our data provides compelling evidence that the chimeric RLR receptor shifts the common interferon antiviral responses of infected cells to necroptosis and leads to rapid death of the virus-infected cells. This mechanism could be targeted as an efficient antiviral strategy. PMID:26935990

  9. Histaminergic H1 receptors mediate L-histidine-induced anxiety in elevated plus-maze test in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kuchibhotla Vijaya; Krishna, Devarakonda Rama; Palit, Gautam

    2007-05-01

    The central histaminergic system is reported to mediate behavioural, hormonal and physiological homeostasis of living organisms. Recent reports indicate its prominent role in various neurobehavioural disorders such as depression and psychosis. This study evaluated the effect of activation of the central histaminergic system in anxiety-like conditions, using the elevated plus-maze test in mice, and elucidated the role of different histaminergic receptors mediating such effects. Peripheral administration of L-histidine (L-His), in a dose-dependent manner, significantly decreased the exploration time in open arms and number of entries into open arms without modifying the number of entries into closed arms of the elevated plus-maze, indicating anxiogenesis. Further, such effects of central histamine were significantly attenuated, in a dose-dependent manner, by pretreatment with pyrilamine (H1 receptor antagonist). Pretreatment with either zolantidine (H2 receptor antagonist) or thioperamide (H3 receptor antagonist), however, failed to attenuate the L-His-induced anxiogenesis. Our results indicate that anxiogenic effects of central histaminergic system appear to be mediated prominently by activation of H1 receptors.

  10. Suppression of TLR4-mediated inflammatory response by macrophage class A scavenger receptor (CD204)

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, Koji; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Takemura, Kenichi; Lei, XiaoFeng; Nakagawa, Takenobu; Sakashita, Naomi; Takeya, Motohiro

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} We focused on the interaction between SR-A and TLR4 signaling in this study. {yields} SR-A deletion promoted NF{kappa}B activation in macrophages in septic model mouse. {yields} SR-A suppresses both MyD88-dependent and -independent TLR4 signaling in vitro. {yields} SR-A clears LPS binding to TLR4 which resulting in the suppression of TLR4 signals. -- Abstract: The class A scavenger receptor (SR-A, CD204), one of the principal receptors expressed on macrophages, has been found to regulate inflammatory response and attenuate septic endotoxemia. However, the detailed mechanism of this process has not yet been well characterized. To clarify the regulative mechanisms of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage activation by SR-A, we evaluated the activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated signaling molecules in SR-A-deficient (SR-A{sup -/-}) macrophages. In a septic shock model, the blood levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, interleukin (IL)-6 and interferon (IFN)-{beta} were significantly increased in SR-A{sup -/-} mice compared to wild-type mice, and elevated nuclear factor kappa B (NF{kappa}B) activation was detected in SR-A{sup -/-} macrophages. SR-A deletion increased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF{kappa}B in vitro. SR-A deletion also promoted the nuclear translocation of NF{kappa}B and IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-3. In addition, a competitive binding assay with acetylated low-density lipoprotein, an SR-A-specific ligand, and anti-SR-A antibody induced significant activation of TLR4-mediated signaling molecules in wild-type macrophages but not in SR-A{sup -/-} macrophages. These results suggest that SR-A suppresses the macrophage activation by inhibiting the binding of LPS to TLR4 in a competitive manner and it plays a pivotal role in the regulation of the LPS-induced inflammatory response.

  11. Critical role of interleukin-17/interleukin-17 receptor axis in mediating Con A-induced hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shu; Wang, Luman; Liu, Nan; Wang, Ying; Chu, Yiwei

    2012-04-01

    Concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis is thought to be a T-cell-mediated disease with active destruction of liver cells. Interleukin (IL)-17 is a cytokine produced principally by CD4(+) T cells. However, whether IL-17/IL-17 receptor (IL-17/IL-17R)-mediated responses are involved in T-cell-mediated Con A-induced liver injury remains unclear. In this study, we found that IL-17 expression was highly elevated in liver tissues during Con A-induced hepatitis. The increased levels of IL-17 were paralleled with the severity of liver injury reflected by Alanine aminotransaminase and histological assay as well as the secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-6. Blockage of IL-17 significantly ameliorated Con A-induced hepatitis, while overexpression of IL-17 systemically resulted in massive hepatocyte necrosis in mice. Furthermore, overexpression of an IL-17R immunoglobulin G1 fusion protein significantly attenuated liver inflammation after acute Con A treatment. High expression of IL-17R on Kupffer cells was also observed along with the production of cytokines including TNF-α and IL-6. Inhibition of Kupffer cells by gadolinium chloride completely prevented Con A-induced liver injury and cytokine release. Finally, IL-17-expressing CD4(+) T and natural killer T cells were greatly increased in Con A-injected mice compared with that in controls. Overall, our results indicate that IL-17R signaling is critically involved in the pathogenesis in Con A-induced hepatitis, and blockade of IL-17/IL-17R signaling pathway may represent a novel therapeutic intervention in human autoimmune-related hepatitis.

  12. NMDA Receptors Mediate Stimulus-Timing-Dependent Plasticity and Neural Synchrony in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Stefanescu, Roxana A.; Shore, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory information relayed by auditory nerve fibers and somatosensory information relayed by granule cell parallel fibers converge on the fusiform cells (FCs) of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the first brain station of the auditory pathway. In vitro, parallel fiber synapses on FCs exhibit spike-timing-dependent plasticity with Hebbian learning rules, partially mediated by the NMDA receptor (NMDAr). Well-timed bimodal auditory-somatosensory stimulation, in vivo equivalent of spike-timing-dependent plasticity, can induce stimulus-timing-dependent plasticity (StTDP) of the FCs spontaneous and tone-evoked firing rates. In healthy guinea pigs, the resulting distribution of StTDP learning rules across a FC neural population is dominated by a Hebbian profile while anti-Hebbian, suppressive and enhancing LRs are less frequent. In this study, we investigate in vivo, the NMDAr contribution to FC baseline activity and long term plasticity. We find that blocking the NMDAr decreases the synchronization of FC- spontaneous activity and mediates differential modulation of FC rate-level functions such that low, and high threshold units are more likely to increase, and decrease, respectively, their maximum amplitudes. Three significant alterations in mean learning-rule profiles were identified: transitions from an initial Hebbian profile towards (1) an anti-Hebbian; (2) a suppressive profile; and (3) transitions from an anti-Hebbian to a Hebbian profile. FC units preserving their learning rules showed instead, NMDAr-dependent plasticity to unimodal acoustic stimulation, with persistent depression of tone-evoked responses changing to persistent enhancement following the NMDAr antagonist. These results reveal a crucial role of the NMDAr in mediating FC baseline activity and long-term plasticity which have important implications for signal processing and auditory pathologies related to maladaptive plasticity of dorsal cochlear nucleus circuitry. PMID:26622224

  13. Nicotine receptors mediating sensorimotor gating and its enhancement by systemic nicotine.

    PubMed

    Pinnock, Farena; Bosch, Daniel; Brown, Tyler; Simons, Nadine; Yeomans, John R; DeOliveira, Cleusa; Schmid, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle occurs when intensity stimuli precede stronger startle-inducing stimuli by 10-1000 ms. PPI deficits are found in individuals with schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders, and they correlate with other cognitive impairments. Animal research and clinical studies have demonstrated that both PPI and cognitive function can be enhanced by nicotine. PPI has been shown to be mediated, at least in part, by mesopontine cholinergic neurons that project to pontine startle neurons and activate muscarinic and potentially nicotine receptors (nAChRs). The subtypes and anatomical location of nAChRs involved in mediating and modulating PPI remain unresolved. We tested the hypothesis that nAChRs that are expressed by pontine startle neurons contribute to PPI. We also explored whether or not these pontine receptors are responsible for the nicotine enhancement of PPI. While systemic administration of nAChR antagonists had limited effects on PPI, PnC microinfusions of the non-α7nAChR preferring antagonist TMPH, but not of the α7nAChR antagonist MLA, into the PnC significantly reduced PPI. Electrophysiological recordings from startle-mediating PnC neurons confirmed that nicotine affects excitability of PnC neurons, which could be antagonized by TMPH, but not by MLA, indicating the expression of non-α7nAChR. In contrast, systemic nicotine enhancement of PPI was only reversed by systemic MLA and not by TMPH or local microinfusions of MLA into the PnC. In summary, our data indicate that non-α7nAChRs in the PnC contribute to PPI at stimulus intervals of 100 ms or less, whereas activation of α7nAChRs in other brain areas is responsible for the systemic nicotine enhancement of PPI. This is important knowledge for the correct interpretation of behavioral, preclinical, and clinical data as well as for developing drugs for the amelioration of PPI deficits and the enhancement of cognitive function.

  14. Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis, superoxide production and calcium signaling of beta 2 integrin-deficient bovine neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, H; Sawada, C; Higuchi, H; Teraoka, H; Yamaguchi, M

    1997-01-01

    Fc receptor for immunoglobulin G-mediated phagocytosis, superoxide production and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) signaling of complement receptor type 3 (CR3)-deficient neutrophils from a heifer with leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) were compared to those of control heifers. The mean phagocytic activity of IgG-coated yeasts and aggregated bovine IgG (Agg-IgG)-induced superoxide production of CR3-deficient neutrophils were 10% and 77.9%, respectively, of those of control neutrophils. The [Ca2+]i signals in CR3-deficient neutrophils stimulated with Agg-IgG or concanavalin A were different with mean peak [Ca2+]i concentrations of 78% and 41.9%, respectively, of those of control neutrophils. These findings suggest that Fc receptor-mediated neutrophil functions are closely dependent on the presence of CR3 (CD11b/CD18) on the neutrophil cell surfaces. PMID:9343828

  15. The transcriptional coactivator DRIP/mediator complex is involved in vitamin D receptor function and regulates keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Oda, Yuko; Chalkley, Robert J; Burlingame, Alma L; Bikle, Daniel D

    2010-10-01

    Mediator is a multisubunit coactivator complex that facilitates transcription of nuclear receptors. We investigated the role of the mediator complex as a coactivator for vitamin D receptor (VDR) in keratinocytes. Using VDR affinity beads, the vitamin D receptor interacting protein (DRIP)/mediator complex was purified from primary keratinocytes, and its subunit composition was determined by mass spectrometry. The complex included core subunits, such as DRIP205/MED1 (MED1), that directly binds to VDR. Additional subunits were identified that are components of the RNA polymerase II complex. The functions of different mediator components were investigated by silencing its subunits. The core subunit MED1 facilitates VDR activity and regulating keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. A newly described subunit MED21 also has a role in promoting keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, whereas MED10 has an inhibitory role. Blocking MED1/MED21 expression caused hyperproliferation of keratinocytes, accompanied by increases in mRNA expression of the cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 and/or glioma-associated oncogene homolog. Blocking MED1 or MED21 expression also resulted in defects in calcium-induced keratinocyte differentiation, as indicated by decreased expression of differentiation markers and decreased translocation of E-cadherin to the membrane. These results show that keratinocytes use the transcriptional coactivator mediator to regulate VDR functions and control keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation.

  16. Function of the Drosophila receptor guanylyl cyclase Gyc76C in PlexA-mediated motor axon guidance

    PubMed Central

    Chak, Kayam; Kolodkin, Alex L.

    2014-01-01

    The second messengers cAMP and cGMP modulate attraction and repulsion mediated by neuronal guidance cues. We find that the Drosophila receptor guanylyl cyclase Gyc76C genetically interacts with Semaphorin 1a (Sema-1a) and physically associates with the Sema-1a receptor plexin A (PlexA). PlexA regulates Gyc76C catalytic activity in vitro, and each distinct Gyc76C protein domain is crucial for regulating Gyc76C activity in vitro and motor axon guidance in vivo. The cytosolic protein dGIPC interacts with Gyc76C and facilitates Sema-1a-PlexA/Gyc76C-mediated motor axon guidance. These findings provide an in vivo link between semaphorin-mediated repulsive axon guidance and alteration of intracellular neuronal cGMP levels. PMID:24284209

  17. Transcription coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-binding protein/mediator 1 deficiency abrogates acetaminophen hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yuzhi; Guo, Grace L.; Surapureddi, Sailesh; Sarkar, Joy; Qi, Chao; Guo, Dongsheng; Xia, Jun; Kashireddi, Papreddy; Yu, Songtao; Cho, Young-Wook; Rao, M. Sambasiva; Kemper, Byron; Ge, Kai; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Reddy, Janardan K.

    2005-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-binding protein (PBP), also known as thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein 220/vitamin D receptor-interacting protein 205/mediator 1, an anchor for multisubunit mediator transcription complex, functions as a transcription coactivator for nuclear receptors. Disruption of the PBP gene results in embryonic lethality around embryonic day 11.5 by affecting placental and multiorgan development. Here, we report that targeted deletion of PBP in liver parenchymal cells (PBPLiv-/-) results in the abrogation of hypertrophic and hyperplastic influences in liver mediated by constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) ligands phenobarbital (PB) and 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene, and of acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. CAR interacts with the two nuclear receptor-interacting LXXLL (L, leucine; X, any amino acid) motifs in PBP in a ligand-dependent manner. We also show that PBP interacts with the C-terminal portion of CAR, suggesting that PBP is involved in the regulation of CAR function. Although the full-length PBP only minimally increased CAR transcriptional activity, a truncated form of PBP (amino acids 487-735) functioned as a dominant negative repressor, establishing that PBP functions as a coactivator for CAR. A reduction in CAR mRNA and protein level observed in PBPLiv-/- mouse liver suggests that PBP may regulate hepatic CAR expression. PBP-deficient hepatocytes in liver failed to reveal PB-dependent translocation of CAR to the nucleus. Adenoviral reconstitution of PBP in PBPLiv-/- mouse livers restored PB-mediated nuclear translocation of CAR as well as inducibility of CYP1A2, CYP2B10, CYP3A11, and CYP7A1 expression. We conclude that transcription coactivator PBP/TRAP220/MED1 is involved in the regulation of hepatic CAR function and that PBP deficiency in liver abrogates acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. PMID:16109766

  18. Leukotriene D4 receptor-mediated hydrolysis of phosphoinositide and mobilization of calcium in sheep tracheal smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mong, S.; Miller, J.; Wu, H.L.; Crooke, S.T.

    1988-02-01

    A sheep tracheal smooth muscle primary culture cell system was developed to characterize leukotriene D4 (LTD4) receptor-mediated biochemical and pharmacological effects. (/sup 3/H)LTD4 binding to the enriched plasma membrane receptor was specific, stereoselective and saturable. LTE4 and high affinity receptor antagonists bound to the receptors with a rank-order potency that was expected from previous smooth muscle contraction studies. In the (/sup 3/H)myoinositol labeled cells, LTD4 and LTE4 induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis. The biosynthesis of (/sup 3/H)inositol-trisphosphate was rapid and the induction of biosynthesis of (/sup 3/H)inositol-monophosphate by LTs was stereoselective and specific and was inhibited specifically by a receptor antagonist, SKF 104353. In the fura-2 loaded smooth muscle cells, LTD4 and LTE4 induced transient intracellular Ca++ mobilization. The fura-2/Ca++ transient was stereoselective and specific and was inhibited by receptor antagonist, SKF 104353. These results suggest that the cultured sheep tracheal smooth muscle cells have plasma membrane receptors for LTD4. These receptors were coupled to a phospholipase C that, when activated by agonists, induced hydrolysis of inositol containing phospholipids. The hydrolysis products, e.g. diacylglycerol and inositol-trisphosphate, may serve as intracellular messengers that trigger or contribute to the contractile effect in sheep tracheal smooth muscle.

  19. Receptor-mediated Modulation of Human Monocyte, Neutrophil, Lymphocyte, and Platelet Function by Phorbol Diesters

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Bonnie J.; Weinberg, J. Brice

    1982-01-01

    The tumor promoting phorbol diesters elicit a variety of responses from normal and leukemic blood cells in vitro by apparently interacting with cellular receptors. The biologically active ligand [20-3H] phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate ([3H]PDBu) bound specifically to intact human lymphocytes, monocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), and platelets, but not to erythrocytes. Binding, which was comparable for all four blood cell types, occurred rapidly at 23° and 37°C, reaching a maximum by 20-30 min usually followed by a 30-40% decrease in cell associated radioactivity over the next 30-60 min. The time course for binding was temperature dependent with equilibrium binding occurring after 120-150 min at 4°C, with no subsequent loss of cell-associated radioactivity at this temperature. Bound [3H]PDBu could be eluted by addition of unlabeled PDBu. Scatchard analysis of data from 4°C binding studies revealed linear plots with high affinity receptors in these cell types with dissociation constants and receptors per cell of 60 nM and 7.8 × 105/cell for lymphocytes, 51 nM and 15.5 × 105/cell for monocytes, 38 nM and 4.0 × 105/cell for PMN, and 19 nM and 2.9 × 104/cell for platelets. Structure-activity studies using unlabeled phorbol-related compounds demonstrated a close correlation between their abilities to inhibit binding of [3H]PDBu to cells and their abilities to induce cellular responses (monocyte and PMN H2O2 secretion, lymphocyte 3HTdR incorporation, and platelet tritiated serotonin release); phorbol and 4-alpha phorbol were inactive while phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), PDBu, mezerein, and phorbol 12,13-diacetate (in decreasing order of potency) inhibited [3H]PDBu binding and elicited the various responses. Thus, these high affinity, specific receptors for the phorbol diesters, present on monocytes, lymphocytes, PMN, and platelets, mediate the pleiotypic effects induced by these ligands. PMID:6956584

  20. Regulation of dopamine D2 receptor-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling and spine formation by GABAA receptors in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Dong-Hoon; Yoon, Sehyoun; Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Hyun; Baik, Ja-Hyun

    2015-01-23

    Dopamine (DA) signaling via DA receptors is known to control hippocampal activity that contributes to learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity. In primary hippocampal neuronal culture, we observed that dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) co-localized with certain subtypes of GABAA receptors, namely α1, β3, and γ2 subunits, as revealed by double immunofluorocytochemical analysis. Treatment with the D2R agonist, quinpirole, was shown to elicit an increase in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in hippocampal neurons. This phosphorylation was inhibited by pretreatment with the GABAA receptor agonist, muscimol. Furthermore, treatment of hippocampal neurons with quinpirole increased the dendritic spine density and this regulation was totally blocked by pretreatment with a MAP kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor (PD98059), D2R antagonist (haloperidol), or by the GABAA receptor agonist, muscimol. These results suggest that D2R-mediated ERK phosphorylation can control spine formation and that the GABAA receptor negatively regulates the D2R-induced spine formation through ERK signaling in hippocampal neurons, thus indicating a potential role of D2R in the control of hippocampal neuronal excitability. PMID:25483619

  1. PGE(2) reverses G(s)-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation by interaction with EP3 receptors, but adds to non-G(s)-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation by interaction with EP4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Jacqueline R; White, Ann E; Iyu, David; Heptinstall, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) has intriguing effects on platelet function in the presence of agents that raise cyclic adenosine 3'5'-monophosphate (cAMP). PGE(2) reverses inhibition of platelet aggregation by agents that stimulate cAMP production via a G(s)-linked receptor, but adds to the inhibition of platelet function brought about by agents that raise cAMP through other mechanisms. Here, we used the EP receptor antagonists DG-041 (which acts at the EP3 receptor) and ONO-AE3-208 (which acts at the EP4 receptor) to investigate the role of these receptors in mediating these effects of PGE(2). Platelet aggregation was measured in platelet-rich plasma obtained from healthy volunteers in response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) using single platelet counting. The effects of a range of concentrations of PGE(2) were determined in the presence of (1) the prostacyclin mimetic iloprost, which operates through G(s)-linked IP receptors, (2) the cAMP PDE inhibitor DN9693 and (3) the direct-acting adenylate cyclase stimulator forskolin. Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation was also determined as a measure of cAMP. PGE(2) reversed the inhibition of aggregation brought about by iloprost; this was prevented in the presence of the EP3 antagonist DG-041, indicating that this effect of PGE(2) is mediated via the EP3 receptor. In contrast, PGE(2) added to the inhibition of aggregation brought about by DN9693 or forskolin; this was reversed by the EP4 antagonist ONO-AE3-208, indicating that this effect of PGE(2) is mediated via the EP4 receptor. Effects on aggregation were accompanied by corresponding changes in VASP phosphorylation. The dominant role of EP3 receptors circumstances where cAMP is increased through a Gs-linked mechanism may be relevant to the situation in vivo where platelets are maintained in an inactive state through constant exposure to prostacyclin, and thus the main effect of PGE(2) may be prothrombotic. If so, the results described here

  2. Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 plays an essential role for Toll-like receptor (TLR)7- and TLR9-mediated interferon-α induction

    PubMed Central

    Uematsu, Satoshi; Sato, Shintaro; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Hirotani, Tomonori; Kato, Hiroki; Takeshita, Fumihiko; Matsuda, Michiyuki; Coban, Cevayir; Ishii, Ken J.; Kawai, Taro; Takeuchi, Osamu; Akira, Shizuo

    2005-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize microbial pathogens and trigger innate immune responses. Among TLR family members, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 induce interferon (IFN)-α in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). This induction requires the formation of a complex consisting of the adaptor MyD88, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and IFN regulatory factor (IRF) 7. Here we show an essential role of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-1 in TLR7- and TLR9-mediated IRF7 signaling pathway. IRAK-1 directly bound and phosphorylated IRF7 in vitro. The kinase activity of IRAK-1 was necessary for transcriptional activation of IRF7. TLR7- and TLR9-mediated IFN-α production was abolished in Irak-1–deficient mice, whereas inflammatory cytokine production was not impaired. Despite normal activation of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases, IRF7 was not activated by a TLR9 ligand in Irak-1–deficient pDCs. These results indicated that IRAK-1 is a specific regulator for TLR7- and TLR9-mediated IFN-α induction in pDCs. PMID:15767370

  3. PPARα blocks glucocorticoid receptor α-mediated transactivation but cooperates with the activated glucocorticoid receptor α for transrepression on NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Bougarne, Nadia; Paumelle, Réjane; Caron, Sandrine; Hennuyer, Nathalie; Mansouri, Roxane; Gervois, Philippe; Staels, Bart; Haegeman, Guy; De Bosscher, Karolien

    2009-01-01

    Glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) are transcription factors with clinically important immune-modulating properties. Either receptor can inhibit cytokine gene expression, mainly through interference with nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)-driven gene expression. The present work aimed to investigate a functional cross-talk between PPARα- and GRα-mediated signaling pathways. Simultaneous activation of PPARα and GRα dose-dependently enhances transrepression of NF-κB-driven gene expression and additively represses cytokine production. In sharp contrast and quite unexpectedly, PPARα agonists inhibit the expression of classical glucocorticoid response element (GRE)-driven genes in a PPARα-dependent manner, as demonstrated by experiments using PPARα wild-type and knockout mice. The underlying mechanism for this transcriptional antagonism relies on a PPARα-mediated interference with the recruitment of GRα, and concomitantly of RNA polymerase II, to GRE-driven gene promoters. Finally, the biological relevance of this phenomenon is underscored by the observation that treatment with the PPARα agonist fenofibrate prevents glucocorticoid-induced hyperinsulinemia of mice fed a high-fat diet. Taken together, PPARα negatively interferes with GRE-mediated GRα activity while potentiating its antiinflammatory effects, thus providing a rationale for combination therapy in chronic inflammatory disorders. PMID:19376972

  4. Inhibitory nature of tiagabine-augmented GABAA receptor-mediated depolarizing responses in hippocampal pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Jackson, M F; Esplin, B; Capek, R

    1999-03-01

    . Independently of the stimulus intensity with which they were evoked, the charge transferred to the soma by excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs), elicited in the presence of tiagabine (20 microM) during the large (1,428 +/- 331 pA) inward currents that underlie the DRs, was decreased on the average by 90.8 +/- 1.7%. Such inhibition occurred despite the presence of the GABAB receptor antagonist, CGP 52 432 (10 microM), indicating that GABAB heteroreceptors, located on glutamatergic terminals, do not mediate the observed reduction in the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic responses. The present results suggest that despite facilitating the induction of GABA-mediated depolarizations, tiagabine application may nevertheless increase the effectiveness of synaptic inhibition during the synchronous high-frequency activation of inhibitory interneurons by enhanced shunting.

  5. Beneficial effects of melatonin on in vitro bovine embryonic development are mediated by melatonin receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Tian, XiuZhi; Zhang, Lu; Gao, Chao; He, ChangJiu; Fu, Yao; Ji, PengYun; Li, Yu; Li, Ning; Liu, GuoShi

    2014-04-01

    In the current study, a fundamental question, that is, the mechanisms related to the beneficial effects of melatonin on mammalian embryonic development, was addressed. To examine the potential beneficial effects of melatonin on bovine embryonic development, different concentrations of melatonin (10(-11), 10(-9), 10(-7), 10(-5), 10(-3) M) were incubated with fertilized embryos. Melatonin in the range of 10(-11) to 10(-5) M significantly promoted embryonic development both in early culture medium (CR1aa +3 mg/mL BSA) and in later culture medium (CR1aa + 6%FBS). The most effective concentrations applied in the current studies were 10(-9) and 10(-7) M. Using quantitative real-time PCR with immunofluorescence and Western blot assays, the expression of melatonin receptor MT1 and MT2 genes was identified in bovine embryos. Further studies indicate that the beneficial effects of melatonin on bovine embryo development were mediated by the MT1 receptor. This is based on the facts that luzindole, a nonselective MT1 and MT2 antagonist, blocked the effect on melatonin-induced embryo development, while 4-P-PDOT, a selective MT2 antagonist, had little effect. Mechanistic explorations uncovered that melatonin application during bovine embryonic development significantly up-regulated the expression of antioxidative (Gpx4, SOD1, bcl-2) and developmentally important genes (SLC2A1, DNMT1A, and DSC2) while down-regulating expression of pro-apoptotic genes (P53, BAX, and Caspase-3). The results obtained from the current studies provide new information regarding the mechanisms by which melatonin promotes bovine embryonic development under both in vitro and in vivo conditions.

  6. Epidermal growth factor receptor activation by diesel particles is mediated by tyrosine phosphatase inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Tal, Tamara L.; Bromberg, Philip A.; Kim, Yumee; Samet, James M.

    2008-12-15

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major component of ambient PM and may contribute to PM-induced pulmonary inflammation. Proinflammatory signaling is mediated by phosphorylation-dependent signaling pathways whose activation is opposed by the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) which thereby function to maintain signaling quiescence. PTPases contain an invariant catalytic cysteine that is susceptible to electrophilic attack. DEP contain electrophilic oxy-organic compounds that may contribute to the oxidant effects of PM. Therefore, we hypothesized that exposure to DEP impairs PTPase activity allowing for unopposed basal kinase activity. Here we report that exposure to 30 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} DEP for 4 h induces differential activation of signaling in primary cultures of human airway epithelial cells (HAEC), a primary target cell in PM inhalation. In-gel kinase activity assay of HAEC exposed to DEPs of low (L-DEP), intermediate (I-DEP) or high (H-DEP) organic content showed differential activation of intracellular kinases. Exposure to these DEP also induced varying levels of phosphorylation of the receptor tyrosine kinase EGFR in a manner that requires EGFR kinase activity but does not involve receptor dimerization. We demonstrate that treatment with DEP results in an impairment of total and EGFR-directed PTPase activity in HAEC with a potency that is independent of the organic content of these particles. These data show that DEP-induced EGFR phosphorylation in HAEC is the result of a loss of PTPase activities which normally function to dephosphorylate EGFR in opposition to baseline EGFR kinase activity.

  7. Identification of resolvin D2 receptor mediating resolution of infections and organ protection

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Nan; Dalli, Jesmond; Colas, Romain A.

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous mechanisms that orchestrate resolution of acute inflammation are essential in host defense and the return to homeostasis. Resolvin (Rv)D2 is a potent immunoresolvent biosynthesized during active resolution that stereoselectively stimulates resolution of acute inflammation. Here, using an unbiased G protein–coupled receptor-β-arrestin–based screening and functional sensing systems, we identified a receptor for RvD2, namely GPR18, that is expressed on human leukocytes, including polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), monocytes, and macrophages (MΦ). In human MΦ, RvD2-stimulated intracellular cyclic AMP was dependent on GPR18. RvD2-stimulated phagocytosis of Escherichia coli and apoptotic PMN (efferocytosis) were enhanced with GPR18 overexpression and significantly reduced by shRNA knockdown. Specific binding of RvD2 to recombinant GPR18 was confirmed using a synthetic 3H-labeled-RvD2. Scatchard analysis gave a Kd of ∼10 nM consistent with RvD2 bioactive concentration range. In both E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus infections, RvD2 limited PMN infiltration, enhanced phagocyte clearance of bacteria, and accelerated resolution. These actions were lost in GPR18-deficient mice. During PMN-mediated second organ injury, RvD2’s protective actions were also significantly diminished in GPR18-deficient mice. Together, these results provide evidence for a novel RvD2–GPR18 resolution axis that stimulates human and mouse phagocyte functions to control bacterial infections and promote organ protection. PMID:26195725

  8. Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase mediates a cannabinoid 1-receptor dependent delay of kindling progression in mice.

    PubMed

    von Rüden, E L; Bogdanovic, R M; Wotjak, C T; Potschka, H

    2015-05-01

    Endocannabinoids, including 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), activate presynaptic cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1R) on inhibitory and excitatory neurons, resulting in a decreased release of neurotransmitters. The event-specific activation of the endocannabinoid system by inhibition of the endocannabinoid degrading enzymes may offer a promising strategy to selectively activate CB1Rs at the site of excessive neuronal activation with the overall goal to prevent the development epilepsy. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibition on the development and progression of epileptic seizures in the kindling model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Therefore, we selectively blocked MAGL by JZL184 (8mg/kg, i.p.) in mice to analyze the effects of increased 2-AG levels on kindling acquisition and to exclude an anticonvulsive potential. Our results showed that JZL184 treatment significantly delayed the development of generalized seizures (p=0.0066) and decreased seizure (p<0.0001) and afterdischarge duration (p<0.001) in the kin