San Francisco Unified School District, CA.
This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered of particular interest in the study of Asians and Asian-Americans. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically within the following subject…
... and Management System Report to Congress Knowledge Center Capacity Building Information Services Events Calendar Resource Guide Justice ... Workforce Diversity Grants Youth Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Asian American Asthma ...
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
In order that Asian Americans be more adequately provided with mental health services, it will be necessary to: (1) have a thorough educational campaign over a long period of time to help Asians overcome their negative prejudices against mental illness, (2) devise culturally relevant diagnostic techniques, and (3) have treatment consonant with the cultural backgrounds of the patients and befitting the role expectations of the patients. It is likely that even with an excellent educational campaign, appropriate diagnoses, and culturally sensitive treatment methods, the first patients we will see will be those most seriously and chronically disturbed, probably when the family feels no longer able to cope with their psychotic behavior. We hope that subsequently, through the educational campaign and also through the outreach efforts of the Asian Mental Health Clinic, Asian Americans who are not psychotic but who want relief from psychosomatic symptoms, tension, depression, or help with family or marital problems will apply. PMID:702561
Tachiki, Amy, Ed.; And Others
A documentary collection of the experiences of Asian Americans from a multitude of perspectives, including a scholarly focus and also containing contemporary expressions, comprises "Roots: An Asian American Reader." The volume is said to be designed to meet the needs of Asian Americans by providing a compilation of materials in readily…
Saint Paul Public Schools, Minn.
This comprehensive Asian American curriculum and resource guide for elementary school teachers consists of lessons developed as part of an in-service teacher education workshop. The guide is divided into three topic areas: stereotyping; similarities; and differences. The format for lessons in all sections contains a title, key concepts,…
Karnow, Stanley; Yoshihara, Nancy
This booklet is a detailed primer on the Asian American experience in the United States covering history, family and acculturation, education, culture and the arts, economics, discrimination and violence, and politics. An introduction reviews some basic demographics and looks at racial issues in light of the riots in Los Angeles (California) in…
Liu, William T.; Yu, Elena S. H.
Although Asian Americans enjoy the image of a "successful minority," they also have endured hardships and prejudices. This report traces the history of the Japanese and Chinese experience in the United States. Some similarities are discernible in the immigration patterns of the two ethnic populations. The first wave of immigrants…
Leong, Frederick T L; Okazaki, Sumie
An overview of the history of Asian American psychology is provided by reviewing the context for the development of the field as well as the early founding of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). The presidents of AAPA as well as key events and conferences are noted. The involvement of AAPA leaders in national mental health policies and activities are reviewed. The substantive areas of Asian American psychology and the education and training of Asian American psychologists are also discussed. The article ends with some comments about the future of Asian American psychology.
... Submit Home > Minority Women's Health > Asian-Americans Minority Women's Health Asian-Americans Health conditions common in Asian- ... to top Health conditions common in Asian-American women Breast cancer Cancer Cervical cancer Diabetes Heart disease ...
Wong, Felicia K; Pi, Edmond H
Asians comprise more than 60% of the world's population and are the fastest growing minority group in the United States. Today's psychiatrist must learn to recognize and appreciate the unique factors that influence mental health outcomes in this group. Asian Americans are affected by psychiatric disorders at similar rates as non-Asians, but are significantly underrepresented in psychiatric clinics. When Asians and Asian Americans do present for psychiatric treatment, they often do so with higher severity of illness, and variable levels of compliance. Studies over the past three decades have suggested that pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of various psychotropic medications may be different in Asians, leading to differences in dosage requirements and side-effect profiles. These variations appear to be largely determined by genetic predisposition, but are also influenced by other factors such as environment, social support, cultural perceptions, and physicians' prescribing habits. In this paper, we provide an overview of biological and socio-cultural issues as they relate to psychopharmacology in Asians and Asian Americans, with the hope that a better understanding of these issues will lead to improved mental health care delivery to this population both in the United States, as well as in Asian countries.
Saint Paul Public Schools, Minn.
Designed to meet the need for elementary school students to understand the status, needs, and contributions of Asian Americans, this curriculum guide was developed as a result of an in-service teacher education workshop. The basic premise of the guide is the recognition that student awareness and understanding of Asian Americans should be…
Lee, Lee C., Ed.; Zane, Nolan W. S., Ed.
This handbook integrates descriptions and evaluations of current psychological research on all ethnic subgroups of Asian Americans, providing insights into the diverse and varied nature of Asian American cultures. Following a Foreword by Dick Suinn, the chapters are: (1) "An Overview" (Lee C. Lee); (2) "Research Methods: The Construct Validity of…
... not supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Publication available in: PDF ( ... Are Available? Resources For Your Information What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones ...
Rong, Xue Lan, Ed.; Endo, Russell, Ed.
Asian American Education--Asian American Identities, Racial Issues, and Languages presents groundbreaking research that critically challenges the invisibility, stereotyping, and common misunderstandings of Asian Americans by disrupting "customary" discourse and disputing "familiar" knowledge. The chapters in this anthology…
Asian Americans have made many contributions to American life. The 1990 U.S. Census showed that Asian Americans represented about 3% of the total U.S. population. This textbook presents the stories of 16 Asian Americans and their significant accomplishments. Brief biographies are presented of: (1) Daniel K. Inouye, U.S. Senator from Hawaii; (2)…
Chung, Jennifer Y.
This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American…
Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.
On April 1, 1970, we were counted along with the rest of the people in the nation. The Census Bureau found that we constitute about one percent of the population. There are 1,369,412 of us--591,290 Japanese-Americans, 435,062 Chinese-Americans, 343,060 Filipino-Americans, 70,000 Korean-Americans, 100,000 Hawaiians, 107,000 Turkish, 85,000…
Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Leong, Frederick T. L.
This article presents a review of the prevalence and manifestation of depression among Asian Americans and discusses some of the existing issues in the assessment and diagnosis of depression among Asian Americans. The authors point out the diversity and increasing numbers of Asian Americans and the need to provide better mental health services for this population. While the prevalence of depression among Asian Americans is lower than that among other ethnic/racial groups, Asian Americans receive treatment for depression less often and its quality is less adequate. In addition, the previous belief that Asians somatize depression may become obsolete as more evidence appears to support that Westerners may “psychologize” depression. The cultural validity of the current DSM-IV conceptualization of depression is questioned. In the course of the review, the theme of complexity emerges: the heterogeneity of ethnic Asian American groups, the multidimensionality of depression, and the intersectionality of multiple factors among depressed Asian Americans. PMID:21961060
Saint Paul Public Schools, Minn.
Created as part of an in-service teacher education workshop, this guide for a secondary school Asian American curriculum is divided into a section for junior high students and a section for senior high students. In each section, the same pattern is followed. Lesson plans are arranged by subject and grade and are followed by student worksheets when…
Sue, Stanley, Ed.; Wagner, Nathaniel N., Ed.
The contents of this book, the purpose of which is the integration of research findings with impressionistic material to provide a better understanding of Asian-Americans, are organized into five parts. Among the five articles included in Part 1, "Introductory Section," are: "The Jap Image," D. Ogawa; "The Evacuation: Impact on the Family," James…
ethnic groups or from 1 of 25 identified Pacific Island cultures (see table 1.1 and footnotes). In 1980, the Chinese. Filipino, Japanese, Indiar. Korean...Statistics on Asian American 62 Education Appendix VI: Cancer Deaths per 100,000 Population 63 (1978-81) Appendix VII: Cultural and Religious Barriers...themselves as from 1 of 28 Asian countries of origin or ethnic groups or from I of 25 identified Pacific Island cultures (see-map- :)n-ppA-0-and M) The
Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Ortega, Alexander N.
Using two nationally representative data sets, this study examined health care expenditure disparities between Caucasians and different Asian American subgroups. Multivariate analyses demonstrate that Asian Americans, as a group, have significantly lower total expenditures compared with Caucasians. Results also point to considerable heterogeneities in health care spending within Asian American subgroups. Findings suggest that language assistance programs would be effective in reducing disparities among Caucasians and Asian American subgroups with the exception of Indians and Filipinos, who tend to be more proficient in English. Results also indicate that citizenship and nativity were major factors associated with expenditure disparities. Socioeconomic status, however, could not explain expenditure disparities. Results also show that Asian Americans have lower physician and pharmaceutical costs but not emergency department or hospital expenditures. These findings suggest the need for culturally competent policies specific to Asian American subgroups and the necessity to encourage cost-effective treatments among Asian Americans. PMID:23223329
Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Ortega, Alexander N
Using two nationally representative data sets, this study examined health care expenditure disparities between Caucasians and different Asian American subgroups. Multivariate analyses demonstrate that Asian Americans, as a group, have significantly lower total expenditures compared with Caucasians. Results also point to considerable heterogeneities in health care spending within Asian American subgroups. Findings suggest that language assistance programs would be effective in reducing disparities among Caucasians and Asian American subgroups with the exception of Indians and Filipinos, who tend to be more proficient in English. Results also indicate that citizenship and nativity were major factors associated with expenditure disparities. Socioeconomic status, however, could not explain expenditure disparities. Results also show that Asian Americans have lower physician and pharmaceutical costs but not emergency department or hospital expenditures. These findings suggest the need for culturally competent policies specific to Asian American subgroups and the necessity to encourage cost-effective treatments among Asian Americans.
Hundley, Norris, Jr., Ed.
The essays in this volume look at Asian Americans, their ideas and ways of life, on their own terms, relating them to both Asian and United States history. Roger Daniels presents an overview of East Asian immigrants through a review of the literature by American historians. An essay by Stanford M. Lyman, which follows, analyzes San Francisco's…
Duldulao, Aileen Alfonso; Takeuchi, David T; Hong, Seunghye
This study examines the correlates of suicidal ideation, suicide plan and suicide attempt among Asian Americans focusing on nativity and gender. Analyses are performed on data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (N = 2095), the first ever study conducted on the mental health of a national sample of Asian Americans. The sample is comprised of adults with 998 men (47%) and 1,097 (53%) women. Analysis of weighted lifetime prevalence of suicidal behaviors revealed that U.S.-born Asian American women had higher prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide plan than U.S.-born Asian American men and immigrant Asian American men and women. In multivariate analyses controlling for socio-demographic differences such as ethnicity, marital status and income, differences in suicidal behaviors are found only between U.S.-born women and U.S.-born men. The findings demonstrate the need to disaggregate data by immigrant status as well as socio-demographic correlates.
Gardner, R W; Robey, B; Smith, P C
The 1980 US census counted 3.5 million Asian Americans, up from 1.4 million in 1970. Asian Americans made up just 1.5% of the total US population of 226.5 million as of April 1, 1980, but this was the 3rd largest racial or ethnic minority after blacks and Hispanics. Asians increased far more during the 1970s (141%) than blacks (17%) or Hispanics (39%). This Bulletin examines the characteristics of Asian Americans, how their numbers have grown, where they live, how different groups vary in age structure, childbearing, health, and longevity. It reports on the kinds of households Asian Americans form and how they fare with regard to education, occupation, and income. Asian Americans are now often perceived as the model minority. As a whole, they are better educated, occupy higher rungs on the occupational ladder, and earn more than the general US population and even white Americans. This Bulletin presents the 1st comprehensive look at many important facts about Asian Americans and how the groups differ. Special tabulations of data collected in the 1980 census are provided. The 1980 census data are the latest available to give a true picture at the national level of Asian Americans and the various groups among them. The Bulletin examines the current numbers of Asian Americans and how this population is defined. The major Asian American groups are Chinese (21%), Filipinos (20%), Japanese (15%), Vietnamese (21%), Koreans (11%), and Asian Indians (10%). Except for the latest-arrived Vietnamese, the fertility of the 6 groups is lower than the white average. The following areas are also discussed: mortality and health; families and households; education; Asian youth; employment; income and poverty; and future prospects.
... Population Profiles > Asian American > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders Among Asian Americans, chronic liver disease is a leading cause of death. While ...
Chandras, Kananur V.
Asian American students who encounter personal problems may hesitate to utilize counseling and mental health facilities on campuses, being fearful that family, friends and/or relatives may consider them emotionally unstable. Counselors and mental health workers may lack understanding of language and cultural background of Asian-American students,…
In this study I investigate the associations of neighborhood socioeconomic and social environments with the health of Asian Americans living in both Asian ethnic neighborhoods and non-Asian neighborhoods. I use a sample of 1962 Asian Americans from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS, 2003-04). Three key findings emerge. First,…
Burr, Jeffrey A; Mutchler, Jan E
This study described the housing tenure and residential density of elders from the six largest Asian American ethnic groups in the US: Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Asian Indian, and Vietnamese. These groups were compared to non-Hispanic White elders. Based on data from the 2000 US Census of Population, multilevel regression analyses showed that Japanese elders were most like the non-Hispanic White comparison group across the two housing dimensions. Older Vietnamese persons were least likely to own their homes compared to the other Asian American groups, and with the exception of the Japanese elders, all Asian groups were more likely than non-Hispanic Whites to live in crowded residences. In general, considerable heterogeneity in housing characteristics was observed across the six older Asian American ethnic groups, even after controlling for assimilation and housing discrimination indicators.
Hsin, Amy; Xie, Yu
The superior academic achievement of Asian Americans is a well-documented phenomenon that lacks a widely accepted explanation. Asian Americans' advantage in this respect has been attributed to three groups of factors: (i) socio-demographic characteristics, (ii) cognitive ability, and (iii) academic effort as measured by characteristics such as attentiveness and work ethic. We combine data from two nationally representative cohort longitudinal surveys to compare Asian-American and white students in their educational trajectories from kindergarten through high school. We find that the Asian-American educational advantage is attributable mainly to Asian students exerting greater academic effort and not to advantages in tested cognitive abilities or socio-demographics. We test explanations for the Asian-white gap in academic effort and find that the gap can be further attributed to (i) cultural differences in beliefs regarding the connection between effort and achievement and (ii) immigration status. Finally, we highlight the potential psychological and social costs associated with Asian-American achievement success.
Wang-Yeung, Leilani Weichun
This dissertation examines the gap in college enrollment between Asian Americans and Latino Americans regarding the effects of family and school factors, classifying them into the six ethnic/generational status groups (Asian American first generation, Asian American second generation, Asian American third generation and plus, Latino American first…
Reactions to the success of ice-skating stars Kristi Yamaguchi and Michelle Kwan illustrate the ways in which Asian ethnics continue to find themselves excluded from the U.S. racial and cultural center. Although they may be long-time Americans, they are not perceived as such. (SLD)
Hong, Annann; Hong, Luoluo
This paper examines the health status of Asian Americans. In introductory sections, the paper looks at: patterns of Asian immigration, myths surrounding Asian Americans as a "model minority," such as the false notion that Asian Americans as a group are always academic and economic achievers despite their minority status; institutional,…
Vann, Barbara H.; Ryu, Jai P.
Data from the 1990 Census and recent Current Population Survey reports are used to describe population change among Asian-Americans. Comparisons are made between Asian-Americans and the general non-Asian population and among Asian-Americans, focusing on four subgroups: Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, and Koreans. Specific features examined in…
Hidalgo, Danielle Antoinette; Bankston, Carl L.
In this work, the authors use statistics from the U.S. Census to examine trends in intermarriage, racial and ethnic combinations, and categorizations among Asian Americans. Specifically, the authors want to consider the extent to which family patterns may contribute to Asian Americans and their descendants' continuing as distinct, becoming members…
Ocampo, Anthony C.; Soodjinda, Daniel
Most research on Asian American education has centered on addressing and deconstructing the model minority stereotype. While recent studies have highlighted the socioeconomic and cultural heterogeneity among Asian American students, few have examined how sexual identity and masculinity mitigate their academic experiences. In this article, we draw…
National Association for Asian and Pacific American Education, Berkeley, CA.
This is an annotated bibliography of recent articles, books, and scholarly papers on Asian and Pacific American children and families. Works are divided by topical area, with a primary focus on literature related to the education of Asian/Pacific American children. There are four main topical divisions: (1) education; (2) family; (3) mental…
Kalish, Richard A.; Moriwaki, Sharon
Describes the psychosocial aspects of the past and the present living situation for today's elderly Chinese and Japanese Americans; many values to which first-generation Asian Americans were for maintaining adequate life satisfaction during the later years. (Author/JM)
Panter, Keiko; And Others
This staff development module is designed to: (1) introduce significant facts basic to understanding the cultural and historical heritage of three Asian-American cultures; (2) develop an accurate knowledge and awareness of the experiences of Asian-Americans; and (3) relate the geography and past history of China, Korea, and Japan to the United…
Shankar, Lavina Dhingra, Ed.; Srikanth, Rajini, Ed.
The essays in this collection consider the extent to which South Asian Americans are included within "Asian America" as the term is applied to academic programs and admissions policies, grassroots community organizing and politics, and critical analyses of cultural products. The essays are: (1) "Within Kaleidoscope Eyes: The…
Kim, Su Yeong; Shen, Yishan; Hou, Yang; Tilton, Kelsey E.; Juang, Linda; Wang, Yijie
This 2014 review of Asian American psychology is the sixth review in the series. It includes 316 articles that met the inclusion criteria established by the past five annual reviews. Featured articles were derived from three sources: 137 were generated via the search term “Asian American” in PyscINFO, 111 were generated via a search for specific Asian American ethnic groups, and 32 were generated via author searches of articles that met the inclusion criteria. The top primary topic was health and health-related behaviors, the most frequently employed study design was cross-sectional, and the most studied Asian American ethnic group was Chinese. This year’s review includes information on the target population of the primary topic, the age range and developmental period of participants, and whether the study design was cross-sectional or longitudinal. It also identifies top authors and journals contributing to the 2014 annual review. These new features reveal that the most common target population of the primary topic was youths; studies most commonly included emerging adults ages 18–25; cross-sectional study design was employed more often than longitudinal design; the top contributor to the 2014 review was Stephen Chen, who authored the highest number of papers included; and the Asian American Journal of Psychology generated the highest number of publications for this review. PMID:26925199
Zhang, Peiqun; Song, Yang; Kousky, Vernon E.
Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the mid-Pacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion, they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.
Lau, May; Markham, Christine; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn; Chacko, Mariam R.
Dating behaviors and sexual attitudes of Asian-American youth were examined in a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study in the context of adherence to Asian values, measured by the Asian Values Scale (AVS). In all, 31 Asian-American adolescents (age 14-18 years old) from a Houston community center were interviewed regarding dating behaviors and…
Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Bureau for Food and Nutrition Services.
The overall themes of the papers given at the 1979 Conference on Asian and Pacific American Education are summarized here. Topics are equal educational opportunities for Asian and Pacific Americans; the educational needs of Pacific American communities; school district policymaking; the responsiveness of postsecondary education to Asian and…
National Association for Asian and Pacific American Education, Berkeley, CA.
This paper contains nineteen resolutions adopted by the National Association for Asian and Pacific American Education (NAAPAE). The resolutions concern (1) the maintenance of Asian/Pacific American linguistic and cultural traditions by educational institutions, (2) the support of Asian/Pacific American studies programs, (3) NAAPAE support of…
Gee, Christina B.
This article reviews the current state of research on the assessment of anxiety and depression in Asian American children and adolescents. Contrary to lay perceptions of Asian Americans as a "model minority," research indicates that rates of depression and anxiety among Asian American adults are comparable to those found among European American…
The Japanese Americans are numerically the largest of all the Asian American ethnic groups. In contrast to the other Asian American groups in the United States, the Japanese Americans are predominantly native born. Although first and second generation Japanese Americans had been subject to intense employment discrimination before World War II and…
Fouad, Nadya A.; Kantamneni, Neeta; Smothers, Melissa K.; Chen, Yung-Lung; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Terry, Sarah
This study used a modified version of consensual qualitative research design to examine how contextual, cultural, and personal variables influence the career choices of a diverse group of 12 Asian Americans. Seven domains of influences on career choices emerged including family, culture, external factors, career goals, role models, work values,…
This bibliographic listing of sources on Pacific/Asian American groups provides titles of existing bibliographies and literature reviews. Over 100 entries are included in the document. Most of the entries were published during the 1970's, with a few dating from the late 1960's and several from 1980 and 1981. The objective is to offer researchers,…
Johnson, Dwight L.; And Others
This booklet, fifth in a series of six, presents a descriptive statistical profile of the Asian and Pacific Islander Americans based on data from the 1980 U.S. Census. The census identifies more than 20 specific population groups, and growth in terms of numbers and diversity is highlighted. Total population for these groups numbered 3.7 million…
Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.
These instructional materials on Japanese Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included on early immigrants, their historical and cultural background, and current problems of Japanese Americans. Resource guides describe the purpose of the unit, how to…
City Univ. of New York, NY. City Coll. Dept. of Asian Studies.
In this report, the activities of a conference on Asian Americans and Asians in America are summarized and papers presented are reprinted. Topics considered in the papers include education, employment, affirmative action, identity, pluralism, Chinese cultural background, teaching of English, cross-cultural situations, development of comprehensive…
Park, Clara C., Ed.; Endo, Russell, Ed.; Goodwin, A. Lin, Ed.
This research anthology is the third volume in a series sponsored by the Special Interest Group-Research on the Education of Asian and Pacific Americans (SIG-REAPA) of the American Educational Research Association and National Association for Asian and Pacific American Education. This series explores and explains the lived experiences of Asian and…
Park, Clara C., Ed.; Endo, Russell, Ed.; Rong, Xue Lan, Ed.
This research anthology is the fifth volume in a series sponsored by the Special Interest Group-Research on the Education of Asian and Pacific Americans (SIG-REAPA) of the American Educational Research Association and National Association for Asian and Pacific American Education. This series explores and examines the patterns of Asian parents'…
Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.
These instructional materials on Korean Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included about early immigrants, the second generation, student groups, war brides, recent immigrants, and third and fourth generations. A chart of traditional and modified…
Kim, Yeerae; Park, Jinju; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ki, Moran
Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA) and native Asians (from Korea, Japan, China, and the Philippines) were selected for this study. Using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents database, stomach cancer incidence rates were examined. Data from the National Cancer Registry of Korea were used for native Koreans. Between native countries, the incidence rates in Japan, China, the Philippines, and the US declined over time, but the incidence in Korea has remained constant. The incidences among Asian immigrants were lower than those among native Asians. The incidence rates of males were approximately 2 times higher than those among females in Asian countries were. The effect of immigration on stomach cancer incidence suggests that lifestyle factors are a significant determinant of stomach cancer risk. However, the incidence in Korea remains the highest of these countries.
Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Evans, Kristin
This article analyzes the construction of ethnic identity in the narratives of 100 young Asian Americans in a dance club/rave scene. Authors examine how illicit drug use and other consuming practices shape their understanding of Asian American identities, finding three distinct patterns. The first presents a disjuncture between Asian American…
Recent studies of Asian American youth language practices have presented compelling insights about the identities and migration experiences of young people of Asian descent. This article offers a detailed examination of the relationship between language use and select issues concerning Asian American youth, including social life, schooling,…
Okutsu, James K.
The attitudes of American Asian students at San Francisco State University toward their education were studied. Responses were obtained from 585 students who were enrolled in Asian American Studies classes in spring 1986. Sixty percent of the sample were of Chinese ancestry, 20% were Filipino, and 20% were other Asian (including Japanese, Korean,…
Gardner, Robert W.; And Others
With heavy immigration fueled by U.S. immigration law changes in 1965 and the influx of over 700,000 Indochinese refugees since the Vietnam War ended in 1975, the number of Asian Americans grew from 1.4 million in 1970 to 3.5 million, 1.5 percent of the U.S. population, by the April 1980 census and an estimated 5.1 million, 2.1 percent of the U.S.…
Gardner, Robert W.; And Others
With heavy immigration fueled by U.S. immigration law changes in 1965 and the influx of over 700,000 Indochinese refugees since the Vietnam War ended in 1975, Asian Americans grew from 1.4 million in 1970 to 3.5 million, 1.5% of the U.S. population, by the April 1980 census and an estimated 5.1 million, 2.1% of the U.S. total, as of September 30,…
Asian Pacific Americans (APA's) are one of the fastest growing racial/ethnic groups within the United States and among most of the college student vast population (Escueta and O'Brien, 1995). APA's represented 5.8% of all college students in 1996, an 83.8% gain in population since 1986 (Wilds and Wilson, 1998), and the fastest increase amongst all…
Liang, Belle; Tracy, Allison; Kauh, Tina; Taylor, Catherine; Williams, Linda M.
This study examines differences in the mentoring relationships of Asian American and Euro-American college women. Findings showed that the groups view mentoring as equally important but that fewer Asians report having a mentor. However, those who have mentors find them to be just as valuable as do their Euro-American counterparts. (Contains 2…
Depression is one of the most common psychological disorders experienced by adolescents. Research has shown depression rates are higher in Asian-American adolescents when compared to their European-American counterparts. This paper will investigate possible programs for preventing and responding to Asian-American youths' depression through a…
Leung, S. Alvin
This study examined the career aspirations of Asian American college students, using a retrospective method of data collection that asked subjects to report various occupational alternatives that they have considered in their lifetime so far. Male (N=52) and female (N=97) Asian Americans were compared with a Euro-American group of 95 males and 151…
Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Bautista, Roxanna; John, Iyanrick
Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12-17 from the 2007-2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). In addition to Asian ethnicity and socioeconomic status (assessed by family income and parental education level), age, gender, nativity, and two lifestyle variables, fast food consumption and physical activity, were also controlled for in these models. Key predictors of overweight in Asian American adolescents included certain Asian ethnicities (Southeast Asian, Filipino, and mixed ethnicities), low family income (< 300% of the Federal Poverty Level), and being male. Multiplicative interaction terms between low family income and two ethnicities, Southeast Asian and Vietnamese that had the lowest SES among Asian ethnic groups, were significantly associated with greatly elevated odds of being overweight (ORs = 12.90 and 6.67, respectively). These findings suggest that high risk of overweight in Asian American adolescents associated with low family incomes may be further elevated for those in low-income ethnic groups. Future research might investigate ethnic-group SES as a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans.
The lives of 12 Asian Americans prominent in business, politics, or science are profiled for young readers. Included are biographical sketches of: (1) Ellison Onizuka, astronaut; (2) Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Nobel prize-winning astrophysicist; (3) Constance (Connie) Yu-Hwa Chung, television broadcaster; (4) Daniel Inouye, U.S. senator from…
Panter, Keiko; And Others
This report presents information on the experiences of three different Asian-American groups (Chinese, Japanese and Koreans) in the United States. Historical and geographic overviews of each group's country and a brief chronological history of each group's immigration and subsequent role in and influence on U.S. history are provided. Product and…
Kim, Janna L.
This study used qualitative research methods to investigate the sexual socialization experiences of young Asian American women, a group often overlooked in psychological research on sexuality. Focus group interviews were conducted with 30 ethnically diverse young Asian American women to explore their perceptions and interpretations of the direct…
Kwon, Harry T.; Wang, Min Qi; Valmidiano, Lillian L.
Asian Americans are one of the fastest growing minority groups in the United States. This study examined the association between several common youth risk behaviors, including cigarette use among Asian American adolescents, using data (N=408) from the 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). The weighted univariate and multivariate logistic…
The year 1972 can be seen to inaugurate not a tradition of Asian American New York theater, but the rich and multigenre collection of writing that the author has called "the Asian American fakeness canon." The fakeness canon refers to a collection of writings that take as one of their central points of reference the question of cultural…
There has been a limited body of research on Asian American students, specifically regarding community college attendance and the transfer process. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore and understand how Asian American transfer students navigate the community college, their transfer processes, as well as their post-transfer…
The references presented in this bibliography provide an overview of recent scholarship on Asian Americans in community colleges. Included in this bibliography are educational reports, case studies, literature reviews, and analyses that reflect upon the experience of Asian Americans in community colleges. The references also address the barriers…
Park, Clara C., Ed.; Goodwin, A. Lin, Ed.; Lee, Stacey J., Ed.
This collection of papers examines educational issues concerning K-college Asian and Pacific American students. The 10 papers are: (1) "Educational Aspirations of Southeast Asian Students" (Clara C. Park); (2) "The Effectiveness of Reciprocal Teaching with Vietnamese American Students" (Mai Dao); (3) "Exploring Pacific…
Chun, Ki-Taek; Zalokar, Nadja
In 1989, the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights held a series of roundtable conferences to learn about the civil rights concerns of Asian Americans within their communities. Using information gathered at these conferences as a point of departure, the Commission undertook this study of the wide-ranging civil rights issues facing Asian Americans in the…
Hirschman, Charles; Wong, Morrison G.
Asian-Americans are educational overachievers, and have been for many decades. There are various explanations for the high educational achievement of Asian-Americans. The most frequently cited theory is that their native culture places a premium on ambition, persistence, and deferred gratification. Other theories attribute this success to…
Wang, Cixin; Atwal, Kavita
The current study examined a multidimensional, developmental, and transactional model for depressive symptoms among Asian American adolescents using longitudinal data from 1,664 Asian American adolescents in the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Specifically, the relationships among school climate, acculturation, perceived…
Castillo, Linda G.; Phoummarath, Marion J.
Asian American adolescents are frequently overlooked as a population in need of counseling interventions. However, cultural issues such as refugee status or the pressure of high academic achievement can influence an Asian American student's mental health. As there is a dearth of school counseling literature written about what school counselors…
Zhou, Zheng; Siu, Candice R.; Xin, Tao
Asian Americans are commonly perceived as the diligent and high-achieving "model minority." This positive stereotype has negative consequences for this ethnic minority group because it trivializes their social and mental health problems. This image of success has made many overlook the true nature of the struggles many Asian American families have…
Kao, Chen-yao; Hebert, Thomas P.
Many gifted Asian American adolescent males face cultural issues that may impact their success. This article presents important cultural dilemmas faced by 2 gifted Asian American young men. Through a qualitative approach, the acculturation experiences of John and Matt, gifted Taiwanese, second generation immigrants, are described.…
Endo, Russell, Ed.; And Others
A variety of issues in the education of Asian American and Pacific American immigrants and refugees are addressed in the following papers: "The Acquisition of English and Ethnic Language Attrition: Implications for Research" (Michael A. Power); "Language Difference and Language Disorder in Asian Language Populations: Assessment and Intervention"…
Brombach, Catherine; Tice, Natasha Florey
A 10-day curriculum is presented for upper elementary grades to explore who is in power on the local, state, and federal levels; and to investigate why so few Asian Americans are in power; and to confront personal prejudices and break stereotypes about Asian Americans. The 10 days are devoted to the following: (1) distinguishing between prejudice…
Asian Americans are popularly stereotyped as possessing innate characteristics that enable them to achieve excellence in virtually all fields of endeavor. But the reality of contemporary Asian American experiences is more complex, less easily summed up, and not yet thoroughly documented or understood. Current evidence does suggest, however, that…
Le, Trang Ngoc
Within the mental health treatment field there is an underutilization of services by Asian Americans. Researchers have questioned how to lessen the gap between the number of Asian Americans who need mental health services and the significantly lower number who successfully use these services. A review of current research points out that matching…
Compared to other groups of color, Asian Americans and their perspectives have rarely been given attention in curriculum studies. This article seeks to address the gap in the literature. It uses AsianCrit, a branch of critical race theory, as a theoretical lens to analyze and explicate common patterns across various states' scripting of Asian…
Omizo, Michael M.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Abel, Nicholas R.
The authors examined the extent to which Asian American adolescents who were living in Hawaii adhered to Asian and European American cultural values in relation to mental health variables including collective self-esteem (membership, private, public, importance to identity), cognitive flexibility, general self-efficacy, and attitudes toward…
Taira, Deborah A; Safran, Dana Gelb; Seto, Todd B; Rogers, William H; Kosinski, Mark; Ware, John E; Lieberman, Naomi; Tarlov, Alvin R
OBJECTIVE To examine how Asian-American patients’ ratings of primary care performance differ from those of whites, Latinos, and African-Americans. DESIGN Retrospective analyses of data collected in a cross-sectional study using patient questionnaires. SETTING University hospital primary care group practice. PARTICIPANTS In phase 1, successive patients who visited the study site for appointments were asked to complete the survey. In phase 2, successive patients were selected who had most recently visited each physician, going back as far as necessary to obtain 20 patients for each physician. In total, 502 patients were surveyed, 5% of whom were Asian-American. MAIN RESULTS After adjusting for potential confounders, Asian-Americans rated overall satisfaction and 10 of 11 scales assessing primary care significantly lower than whites did. Dimensions of primary care that were assessed include access, comprehensiveness of care, integration, continuity, clinical quality, interpersonal treatment, and trust. There were no differences for the scale of longitudinal continuity. On average, the rating scale scores of Asian-Americans were 12 points lower than those of whites (on 100-point scales). CONCLUSIONS We conclude that Asian-American patients rate physician primary care performance lower than do whites, African-Americans, and Latinos. Future research needs to focus on Asian-Americans to determine the generalizability of these findings and the extent to which they reflect differences in survey response tendencies or actual quality differences. PMID:9127228
Ng, Franklin, Ed.
The articles in this anthology address the complex subject of interethnic relations and Asian American politics, transcending ideas of Asian Americans as the model minority. The articles are: (1) "Opening the American Mind and Body: The Role of Asian American Studies" (Shirley Hume); (2) "Surviving Democracy's 'Mistake":…
Azores, Fortunata M.
The proceedings of a conference on Asian Americans held in New York City in May 1978 are summarized in this report. The conference consisted of workshops on four issues: employment, voter participation, youth, and the elderly. In the workshop on employment, issues discussed included the participation of Asians in the health system and in the…
Zhang, Shengying; Moradi, Bonnie
An overview of the evolution of Asian American acculturation and enculturation theory and measurement is offered, focusing on major theoretical advancements and methodological issues that are salient for measuring these constructs. Informed by these considerations, an empirical approach is taken to clarifying the dimensions of Asian American…
This book uses personal narratives to illustrate the history of Asian Americans from the arrival of the first Chinese laborers in Hawaii in the nineteenth century to the recent arrival of Southeast Asian refugees in the 1960s. The histories and contributions of the following groups are outlined: (1) Japanese; (2) Chinese; (3) Koreans; (4)…
Wong, Vivian Wu
As a history teacher and advocate for Asian and American students, the author is concerned about what appears to be waning interest in the study of multicultural education and racial politics. In particular, as independent schools become more diverse, as international Asian student populations continue to grow, and as people become increasingly…
Sue, Stanley; Yan Cheng, Janice Ka; Saad, Carmel S; Chu, Joyce P
The U.S. Surgeon General's report Mental Health: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity--A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001) was arguably the best single scholarly contribution on the mental health of ethnic minority groups in the United States. Over 10 years have now elapsed since its publication in 2001. This article highlights advances and illuminates gaps in the knowledge gained about the mental health and psychotherapeutic treatment of Asian Americans in the past decade. Though larger epidemiological surveys point to lower prevalence rates of mental illness in Asian Americans, further advances are needed in culturally valid assessment and quantification of cultural biases in symptom reporting in order to draw definitive conclusions about the state of Asian American mental health. A focus on prevalence in Asian Americans as a whole also shrouds important subgroup elevations such as heightened suicide risk in Asian elderly women or greater posttraumatic stress disorder in Southeast Asian refugees. Despite important developments in our knowledge about mental health prevalence, help-seeking behaviors, and culturally competent treatments for Asian Americans, it appears that troublingly low rates of service utilization still remain even when one accounts for the seemingly low prevalence rates among Asian Americans. Some progress has been made in the cultural adaptations of psychotherapy treatments for Asian Americans. In order to reduce mental health care disparities, greater efforts are needed to provide outreach at the community level and to bridge the gap between mental health and other medical or alternative health facilities. We call for innovation and provide recommendations to address these issues in the next decade.
Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liao, Liang; Liu, William Ming
Contrary to the “model minority” myth, growing research indicates that the rates of mental health problems among Asian Americans may be higher than initially assumed. This study seeks to add to the scant knowledge regarding the mental health of Asian American men by examining the role of masculine norms, coping and cultural values in predicting depression among this population (N=149). Results reveal that Asian American men who used avoidant coping strategies and endorsed the masculine norm Dominance reported higher levels of depressive symptoms. In contrast, endorsing Winning masculine norms was associated to lower levels of depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that adherence to masculine norms and avoidant coping strategies play a salient role in the mental health of Asian American men. PMID:20657794
... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Asian American Health URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/asianamericanhealth.html Other topics A-Z A B ...
Miller, Matthew J.; Alvarez, Alvin N.; Li, Robin; Chen, Grace A.; Iwamoto, Derek K.
Racial identity has been linked to a number of important psychological outcomes including perceptions of racism, self-esteem, and psychological well-being in Asian American populations. Although the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale (PRIAS; Helms, 1995) is the most widely used measure in Asian American racial identity research, numerous competing measurement models of the PRIAS have been identified in independent Asian American samples. Therefore, this study tested these competing PRIAS measurement models and also examined PRIAS measurement invariance across generational status, gender, and ethnicity using a combined sample of 1,946 Asian American college students and community adults. Study findings demonstrated the superiority of a 12-item four factor PRIAS measurement model, which was consistent with Helms’ original racial identity theory and suggest that the PRIAS operates in an equivalent manner across generational status, gender, and ethnicity. Study limitations and future directions for research are discussed. PMID:26191607
Kim, Bryan S. K.
Possible relations among enculturation and acculturation to cultural values and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help were examined among 146 Asian American college students. In addition, possible relations between various dimensions of Asian values and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help were examined. As…
Weaver, C N
Many demographic and labor force characteristics, such as family income, educational attainment, and occupation, correlated with job satisfaction. Since Asian Americans are more like Euro-Americans than African Americans in most of these characteristics, it seems reasonable to predict that their job satisfaction would be high as for Euro-Americans rather than low as for African Americans. Yet research of Weaver and Hinson showed that the opposite is true. One explanation for this unexpected result is that Asians do not think of jobs as a source of happiness but simply as a means of earning money to underwrite other aspects of their lives, such as the well-being of their families, which are the main sources of their happiness. The hypothesis was tested that job satisfaction does not contribute to the happiness of Asian Americans in comparison to satisfaction from other domains of their lives. Analysis was conducted of the attitudes of Asian-American (n = 160), African-American (n = 602), and Euro-American (n = 6,477) workers who responded to 22 surveys drawn from 1972 to 1998, each of which was representative of the labor force of the USA. The hypothesis was supported by the finding that the partial correlation of job satisfaction and global happiness with satisfaction in seven other domains of life (marriage, financial condition, community, nonwork activities, family, health and physical condition, and friendships) held constant was significant for Euro-American women and men but not for Asian Americans or African Americans of either sex. And, the same result occurred when global happiness was regressed on job satisfaction net the effects of satisfaction in other seven domains.
The undercount of the Asian American population, the phenomenal rise of Asian immigrants, the projected doubling of the Asian American population by 1980, and the concentration of this population in urban areas are significant reasons for the reordering of program priorities so that Asian Americans are not excluded from Federally funded benefits…
Mok, T A
The majority of research on romantic relationships has tended to focus on marriage, with relatively less attention paid to dating. This study examined the relationship between Asian American dating, both interracial and intraracial, and a variety of factors thought to be associated with dating in this population, including acculturation, ethnic identity, attractiveness, interracial dating experience, ethnicity of friends, parental influence over dating, and density. Participants were administered measures of these variables and were asked questions regarding their likelihood of dating both Asian Americans and White Americans. An interesting pattern of results emerged when the variables were put into regression equations to predict both interracial and intraracial dating. Findings are presented and implications discussed.
Yi, Stella S.; Kwon, Simona C.; Wyatt, Laura; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau
According to national estimates, obesity prevalence is lower in Asian Americans compared to other racial/ethnic groups, but this low prevalence may be misleading for three reasons. First, a lower body mass index (BMI) cutoff as proposed by the World Health Organization may be more appropriate to use in Asian populations. However, evidence is limited to substantiate the potential costs and burden of adopting these cutoffs. Increasing BMI in Asians (as in other racial/ethnic groups) should be considered across the spectrum of BMI, with a minimum awareness of these lower cutoffs among healthcare researchers. Second, the need for disaggregated data across Asian American subgroups is illustrated by the higher obesity (and diabetes) prevalence estimates observed in South Asian Americans. Third, prevalence of obesity should be placed in the larger context of immigration and globalization through cross-national comparisons and examination of acculturation-related factors. However these types of studies and collection of salient variables are not routinely performed. Data from a metropolitan area where many Asian Americans settle is presented as a case study to illustrate these points. Clear evidence that incorporates these three considerations is necessary for program planning and resource allocation for obesity-related disparities in this rapidly growing and diverse population. PMID:25602909
Pandurangi, Anand K
The DSM-5 lists 13 psychotic disorders and introduces modest but significant changes in their diagnosis. Asian Americans bring unique issues to the assessment, diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. They may exhibit greater prevalence of culturally influenced psychosis-like experiences that may or may not constitute a pathological condition such as psychosis risk syndrome or attenuated psychosis. Acute psychotic disorders with good prognosis may be more prevalent in Asians and may sometimes be misdiagnosed as schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Catatonic disorders are also more prevalent in Asians, and are likely to receive more appropriate labeling with DSM-5. The expanded cultural formulation in DSM-5 is a progressive step but its benefits might be limited by lack of culturally trained clinicians and/or limited time for assessment. There is a dearth of systematic data on psychotic disorders in Asian Americans and it is hoped that the DSM-5 will stimulate this much needed research.
Farquhar, Judith; Doi, Mary L.
Discussed in this article are numerous films which feature Asian characters and the influence these films have on stereotyped images of Asians and prevailing racist attitudes toward Asian Americans. (EB)
Miville, Marie L.; Constantine, Madonna G.
The authors explored the extent to which Asian American college women's perceived stigma about counseling mediated the relationship between their adherence to Asian cultural values and intentions to seek counseling, Participants, 201 Asian American college women (age range = 18-24 years), completed measures of Asian cultural values, perceived…
Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.
The authors investigated ethnicity, self-construal, and distress among African American and Asian American college students. African American students expressed more salient independent self-construals, whereas Asian American students expressed more salient interdependent self-construals. As hypothesized, among African American participants,…
Sue, Stanley; Okazaki, Sumie
Investigates factors, including heredity and culture, contributing to exceptional Asian American academic achievement. Proposes the concept of relative functionalism, under which Asian Americans perceive and have experienced restrictions in upward mobility in occupations unrelated to education. Consequently, educational achievement assumes…
Bikmen, Nida; Durkin, Kristine
White Americans' willingness to engage in dialogues about intergroup commonalities and power inequalities with Asian and African Americans were examined in two experiments. Because Whites perceive that African Americans experience greater discrimination than do Asian Americans, we predicted that they would be more willing to engage in dialogues that would interrogate injustice and inequality with them. We also explored the role of common in-group identity (as Americans) on willingness for dialogue about inequality. In both studies, Whites were less interested in engaging in power talk with Asian Americans than with African Americans, but the difference in willingness for commonality talk was smaller. Asian Americans were perceived as experiencing lower levels of discrimination (Studies 1 and 2) and identify less with America (Study 2) both of which predicted lower willingness for power talk with them. Common in-group identity manipulations had marginal effects on willingness for power talk with African Americans and no effect on power talk with Asian Americans. Implications for improving social disparities between various groups were discussed.
Johnson, Dwight L.; And Others
Demographic data are presented about the people who have immigrated to the United States from Asia and the Pacific Islands. Twelve figures (pie charts, bar graphs, and maps), and eight tables provide detailed, statistical information on such things as (1) distribution of Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States, (2) states with the…
Nouri, Mahsa; Hill, Laura G; Orrell-Valente, Joan K
Internalization of the thin ideal mediates the media exposure-body dissatisfaction relation in young adult European American females. There is little related research on Asian Americans. We used structural equations modeling to test: (1) whether media exposure was associated with body dissatisfaction in Asian American young adult females, (2) internalization of the thin ideal mediated any such association, and (3) whether the mediational model provided equivalent fit for European American and Asian American samples. Participants were 287 college females (154 Asian Americans, 133 European Americans). Internalization of the thin ideal explained the media exposure-body dissatisfaction association equally well for both groups. Results suggest that Asian Americans may be employing unhealthy weight control behaviors, and may be prone to developing eating disorders, at rates similar to European American young adult females. Clinicians need to screen carefully for body dissatisfaction, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and eating disorders in Asian American females.
Hong, Sehee; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Wolfe, Maren M.
In this study, the 18-item European American Values Scale for Asian Americans (M. M. Wolfe, P. H. Yang, E. C. Wong, & D. R. Atkinson, 2001) was revised on the basis of results from a psychometric analysis using the Rasch Model (G. Rasch, 1960). The results led to the establishment of the 25-item European American Values Scale for Asian…
Nguyen, Hong V; Kaysen, Debra; Dillworth, Tiara M; Brajcich, Marci; Larimer, Mary E
This study examined the role of Asian ethnicity as a moderator of drinking outcomes associated with alcohol-related sexual assault (incapacitated rape). Participants were 5,467 Asian American and White college women. Results found the overall MANOVA for ethnicity and incapacitated rape (IR) interactions to be significant. Asian American participants with no history of IR had fewer drinking problems than White American participants with no history of IR. Asian American participants with IR histories had more drinking problems than White Americans with IR histories. Findings indicate Asian Americans who experience IR may be at increased risk for negative alcohol outcomes.
Nationally, Asian Americans have the lowest unemployment rate of the major racial groups. But a closer look at unemployment by educational attainment shows a more complicated picture. Asian Americans with bachelor's degrees have a higher unemployment rate than whites with comparable education, but Asian American high school dropouts are more…
Nguyen, Ly; Arganza, Girlyn F.; Huang, Larke N.; Liao, Qinghong; Nguyen, Hoang T.; Santiago, Rolando
This study examined the psychiatric diagnoses and clinical characteristics of the 981 Asian American children enrolled in the first phase of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program. Asian Americans were less likely than non-Asian Americans to receive diagnoses of depression and ADHD and more…
Min, Pyong Gap, Ed.
The dramatic increase in the number and proportions of Asian American students over the last two decades has influenced the curricula and academic programs of many colleges and universities. This book provides background for the study of Asian American issues through data on sociologically important variables and issues for Asian Americans as a…
Pang, Valerie Ooka, Ed.; Cheng, Li-Rong Lilly, Ed.
Essays in this volume address the neglect of Asian Pacific Americans in the United States, of their struggles for liberation, hopes, troubles, and personal identities. This collection reviews Asian Pacific American history and explores attitudes about the welfare of Asian Pacific American families. The first section provides general background…
Pyon, Heekyong Teresa; Cao, Yan; Li, Huey-li
In this article, the authors examine "the complex processes of identity formation among Asians in America" by means of a narrative self-inquiry that explores the formation of their own multilayered identities. They do this by telling a story of becoming Asians and/or Asian Americans. They start with Heekyong Teresa Pyon's narrative of becoming an…
Yick, Alice G.; Oomen-Early, Jody
Until recently, research studies have implied that domestic violence does not affect Asian American and immigrant communities, or even Asians abroad, because ethnicity or culture has not been addressed. In this content analysis, the authors examined trends in publications in leading scholarly journals on violence relating to Asian women and…
Swartz, Leslie, Ed.; Warner, Linda, Ed.; Grossman, David L., Ed.
This publication presents a sampling of the writings of participants in the Intersections Project, a professional development program to bridge gap between multicultural and global education for urban schools that involved four participating entities, each with a local project that focused on Asia and Asian Americans. The project was specifically…
Yoshioka, Robert B.; And Others
The first of the three parts of this article provides a brief outline of the stereotypes applied to Asian American Women and a useful backdrop on the other two parts. The second part on Chinese immigrants focuses on the strong family ties of tgis ethnic group. The third and last part concerns the quietness and modesty of the Issei--equated with…
Yeh, Theresa Ling
This article offers an exploration of the Asian Pacific American (APA) ethnic groups that show high rates of departure, and presents strategies and approaches to improving their persistence and graduation rates. A detailed examination of the APA population is presented to identify the subgroups that are underrepresented in higher education and who…
Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick
The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…
Chen, Yung-Lung; Fouad, Nadya A.
Educational success among Asian American students has often been misunderstood as an occupational development separate from any experience of racism. However, several theorists have suggested that racial barriers in occupational mobility correlate with educational pursuits. Therefore, this research aims to examine the direct effect of perceived…
Alva, Sylvia Alatorre
Using grades and standardized test scores as criteria variables, a survey determined relative effects of sociocultural variables, personality factors, and student perceptions of school and social events in explaining differential patterns of academic achievement for 89 Asian-American tenth graders. Findings are discussed in connection with the…
Okihiro, Gary Y.
Scholars have failed to develop theoretical and methodological tools for understanding Asian Americans. However, the issues are not totally ignored since there is a growing number of writers, historians, and poets who are producing promising works outside of the liberal tradition. Examples of authors and enriching works are presented. (VM)
Southeast Asian adolescents in the United States face the daily challenge of adjusting to the American culture and their culture of origin. However, little is known about how the patterns of their bicultural adjustment influence psychological symptoms, especially when faced with other challenges such as community violence and negative life events.…
Tsai, Grace; Gray, James
Assesses the prevalence rate of bulimic disorders among 257 female Asian Americans from 18 to 30 years old. Finds that only two of the 257 women met the classification for bulimia nervosa. Contends that the findings illustrate the need for future research among culturally different populations. (CMK)
Huang, Shwu-yong L.; Waxman, Hersholt C.
Resilient Asian American students, who have shown outstanding performance and achievement in spite of adverse life conditions in urban schools, were compared with nonresilient, or marginal, students who have not done well academically. The focus was on the students' perceptions of their learning environments in mathematics. Other background…
Lau, Anna S.; Jernewall, Nadine M.; Zane, Nolan; Myers, Hector F.
Medical record abstraction was conducted to identify correlates of suicidal behaviors in a sample of 285 Asian American youths. Acculturation interacted with risk factor of parent-child conflict to predict suicidality. Finding underscores the importance of culture as a context for determining the relevance of stressors for potentiating…
Castillo, Linda G.; Zahn, Marion P.; Cano, Miguel A.
The authors examined the predictors of familial acculturative stress in 85 Asian American college students. Participants were primarily 1st- and 2nd-generation U.S. citizens. Results showed that perceived acculturative family conflict and family intragroup marginalization were related to higher levels of familial acculturative stress for…
Ng, Franklin, Ed.; And Others
This collection of essays from the eighth national conference of the Association for Asian American Studies is organized into four sections: history and women's studies; social science; literature; and Hawaiian studies. The following papers are included: (1) "History and Women Studies" (Yung); (2) "From Old to New Plantations: Labor's Growing…
Ishikawa, Michael; And Others
This report prepared by the California Advisory Committee for the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights is said to constitute an initial attempt to present a demographic sketch of Asian Americans and Pacific Peoples and to describe generally the areas in which they encounter significant problems. In order to destroy existing stereotypes about Asian…
Ma, Grace X.; Tan, Yin; Toubbeh, Jamil I.; Su, Xuefen; Shive, Steven E.; Lan, Yajia
The relationship between acculturation and smoking behavior was examined in four Asian-American groups that included recent immigrants and US-born Koreans, Chinese, Vietnamese and Cambodians residing in the Delaware Valley of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The study was part of a community-based, comprehensive cross-sectional study designed to…
Massachusetts Univ., Boston. Inst. for Asian American Studies.
The Community Profiles Project uses data from the 1990 U.S. Census to describe some of the population characteristics of Asian Pacific Americans in selected Massachusetts cities and towns. The profiles include basic statistics relating to income, employment, education, and housing. This information can assist policy makers and practitioners in…
Washington State Commission on Asian-American Affairs, Olympia.
This resource directory was prepared to assist educators, the media, government officials, students, and the general public in locating accurate and up-to-date information about Asian Pacific Americans (APAs) in Washington State. It was also prepared to help APAs find the services that are available to them throughout the state. This guide lists…
Huang, Shwu-yong L.; Waxman, Hersholt C.
This study examines Asian American middle school students' classroom behaviors in mathematics using systematic classroom observation techniques. The study explores questions related to classroom behaviors in terms of interactions with teachers, classroom settings, activities, and manners; differences in classroom behaviors between boys and girls…
Chen, Yung-Lung; Fouad, Nadya A.
The bicultural work motivations of Asian Americans have not yet been comprehensively captured by contemporary vocational constructs and scales. For this study, we conducted two studies on the initial reliability and validity of the Bicultural Work Motivation Scale (BWMS) by combining qualitative and quantitative methods. First, a pilot study was…
Cambodian, Bangladeshi, Malayan, Hmong, Hawaiian, Samoan, Tongan, Northern Mariana Islander, Guamanian, and Fijian . (20:192-193) - Although the Asian...MATHEMATICS, MEDICINE , and ACADEMIA: Jokichi Takamine (chemist, first to isolate adrenaline); Hideyo Murayama (isolated syphilis germ); Dr. An Wang (computer...Department shuttle mission in January 1985 and later died aboard Challenger in 1986); Har Gobind Khorana (1968 Nobel Prize for medicine ); Im Proum (Cambodian
This paper documents American discrimination against Chinese and Japanese groups from the 1850s through the 1940s. Social prejudice against these groups began in the late 19th century when the demand for Chinese labor in California lessened but the immigrants remained and were seen as a threat to American laborers. Japanese immigrants who were…
Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.
These instructional materials on Filipino Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (knowledge of English Yields Success). The contents include statistics on the Filipino American population, background information about the Philippines becoming a U.S. territory, early immigration and more recent immigration to…
Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liu, William Ming
The present study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian…
Dowd, Frances A.
Presents an annotated bibliography of recent realistic fiction and informational books for young children portraying Asian American and Native American cultures. Lists 23 fiction and 8 informational books on Asian Americans and 19 fiction and 15 informational books on Native Americans. Lists nine books for adults. (SLD)
Holck, Peter; Gee, Gilbert C.
Objectives. We investigated the relative strengths of generational status and family cohesion effects on current use of mental health services (past 12 months) among Asian Americans. Methods. We conducted a secondary data analysis with data from the National Latino and Asian American Study, 2002 to 2003, restricted to Asian American respondents (n = 2087). The study's outcome was current use (past 12 months) of any mental health services. Respondents included Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, and other Asian Americans. Results. Multivariate analyses suggest no significant interaction exists between second- versus first-generation Asian Americans and family cohesion. The impact of generational status on mental health service use was significant for third- or later-generation Asian Americans (versus first-generation Asian Americans) and varied with family cohesion score. Conclusions. Family cohesion and generational status both affect the likelihood of Asian Americans to seek mental health services. Our findings also highlight the need for primary care and other providers to consistently screen for mental health status particularly among first-generation Asian Americans. Mental health service programs should target recent immigrants and individuals lacking a strong family support system. PMID:19910344
Kimmel, Douglas C; Yi, Huso
An exploratory study of self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual Asians and Asian Americans surveyed respondents (60 women and 254 men) using a questionnaire in four languages from nineteen different sources in Korea, Japan, China, and the US. Respondents were compared in terms of country of residence, whether they immigrated to the US, having a same-sex lover, living with the lover, being open about their sexual orientation to the family, and age. Respondents in the US were generally more open about their sexual orientation. Openness to the family was related to other variables suggesting an affirmative lesbian, gay, or bisexual identity.
Ruzicka, Smita Sundaresan
South Asian Americans are one of the fastest growing sub-groups within the Asian American population in the United States today. Between 1960 and 1990, the South Asian American population witnessed an increase of approximately 900% (Leonard, 1997). This increase in population also corresponds with the increase in South Asian American students…
Dunn, Lynn P.
One in a series of four, this volume deals with the themes of identity, conflict, and integration/nationalism with a focus on Chinese and Japanese immigrants and their descendants in mainland America. Hawaiian Americans are treated incidentally. Each volume in the series can serve in itself as a text or guide for the student or teacher of a…
Park, Clara C., Ed.; Chi, Marilyn Mei-Ying, Ed.
This book provides teachers with information about the educational needs of Cambodian, Chinese, Filipino, Hmong, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese-American children in U.S. public schools. For each group, there are two chapters: one sociocultural and one linguistic. Each documents the unique characteristics of each ethnic group and provides…
Asian Pacific Americans are a racial group that is often viewed in stereotypes, most notably, as a "model minority"--a view that this group is naturally hardworking and successful unlike "other" racial and ethnic groups. Quite often, they are also neglected as U.S. citizens, whose presence and influence in American politics are…
Grier-Reed, Tabitha; Ganuza, Zoila M.
Career development that adequately addresses the needs of multicultural students is important. The authors explored whether a constructivist career course might be a viable mechanism for improving career decision self-efficacy for 81 Asian American and African American college students. Results indicated significant increases in all 5 elements of…
Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R.; Champagne, Mariette C.
Identity development is a highly salient task for adolescents, especially those from immigrant backgrounds, yet longitudinal research that tracks simultaneous change in ethnic identity and American identity over time has been limited. With a focus on 177 Asian American adolescents recruited from an emerging immigrant community, in the current…
Gilbert, Jackie; Carr-Ruffino, Norma; Ivancevich, John M.; Lownes-Jackson, Millicent
Undergraduates (n=127) read career histories (including photographs) of fictitious employees in a 2x2x2 design depicting job type (engineer/human resources), ethnicity (Asian or African American), and gender, with the same qualifications and performance information. African-American males were rated most negatively on work characteristics;…
Despite relatively low rates of overweight and obesity among Asian-American children, disparities exist based on acculturation, socioeconomic status, and Asian ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between acculturation and weight change in Asian-American children. Seco...
Teranishi, Robert T.
Highly respected scholar Robert Teranishi draws on his vast research to present this timely and compelling examination of the experience of Asian Americans in higher education. "Asians in the Ivory Tower" explores why and how Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) are important to our nation's higher education priorities and places the…
Lee, S M; Fernandez, M
"In this paper, we use data from the 1990 [U.S.] census to compare patterns of Asian American intermarriage with those reported by Lee and Yamanaka (1990).... Our main findings show that: (i) the overall outmarriage rate has declined; (ii) Asian American inter-ethnic marriages (that is, marriages between two Asian Americans of different Asian ethnicities) have increased; and (iii) social distance, measured by an Index of Intermarriage Distance, between Asian Americans and other racial and ethnic groups has widened. We conclude by discussing some implications of the findings for the role of racial and ethnic intermarriage as an indicator of intergroup relations."
Yick, Alice G; Oomen-Early, Jody
Until recently, research studies have implied that domestic violence does not affect Asian American and immigrant communities, or even Asians abroad, because ethnicity or culture has not been addressed. In this content analysis, the authors examined trends in publications in leading scholarly journals on violence relating to Asian women and domestic violence. A coding schema was developed, with two raters coding the data with high interrater reliability. Sixty articles were published over the 16 years studied, most atheoretical and focusing on individual levels of analysis. The terms used in discussing domestic violence reflected a feminist perspective. Three quarters of the studies were empirical, with most guided by logical positivism using quantitative designs. Most targeted specific Asian subgroups (almost a third focused on Asian Indians) rather than categorizing Asians as a general ethnic category. The concept of "Asian culture" was most often assessed by discussing Asian family structure. Future research is discussed in light of the findings.
Diep, Cassandra S; Foster, Margaret J; McKyer, E Lisako J; Goodson, Patricia; Guidry, Jeffrey J; Liew, Jeffrey
Numerous studies have explored dietary practices among children, but there are limited studies on children of Asian background in the US. This review had three aims: (a) review literature regarding Asian-American youth's dietary behaviors, (b) critically evaluate the methodological quality of such research, and (c) provide recommendations for future nutrition-related research on Asian-American youth. The authors conducted a systematic literature review through MEDLINE (EBSCO), CINAHL Plus with Full Text (EBSCO), and Embase (Ovid); extracted descriptive data; and evaluated methodological quality. Thirteen articles were included. Major findings included: (a) frequent consumption of milk, fruit, meat, unenriched white rice, vegetables, and high-fat and high-sugar items among Asian-American children and (b) acculturation's influences on diet, resulting in Asian-American youth consuming diets characterized by both Asian and American foods. Findings from this review may inform education and promotion programs and services for Asian Americans in the US.
Takeuchi, David T.; Hong, Seunghye; Gile, Krista; Alegría, Margarita
In this article, we use age of immigration as a proxy for the developmental context for understanding the association between immigration experiences and mental health. Generation defines the context under which immigrants arrive in the United States. We drew data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (N = 2,095), the first ever study conducted on the mental health of a national sample of Asian Americans. Our findings reveal that age of immigration is linked to lifetime and 12-month rates of psychiatric disorder: Immigrants who arrive earlier in life are more likely to have both lifetime and 12-month disorders. U.S. born and immigrants who arrive as children are much more likely to have a mental disorder in their lifetimes than other immigrant generations. PMID:20150976
Iwamoto, Derek; Takamatsu, Stephanie; Castellanos, Jeanett
Binge drinking (five drinks or more in a 2-h sitting for men or four or more drinks in a 2-h sitting for women) and alcohol-related problems are a growing problem among Asian American young adults. The current study examines the sociocultural (i.e., generational status and ethnic identity) determinants of binge drinking and alcohol-related problems across U.S.-born, young-adult, Asian American ethnic groups. Data were collected from 1,575 Asian American undergraduates from a public university in Southern California. Chinese Americans consisted of the largest Asian ethnicity in the study, followed by Vietnamese, Filipino, Korean, South Asian, Japanese, Multi-Asian, and "other Asian American." Participants completed a web-based assessment of binge drinking, alcohol-related problems, ethnic identity, descriptive norms (i.e., perceived peer drinking norms), and demographic information. An analysis of variance was used to determine potential gender and ethnic differences in binge drinking and alcohol-related problems. Negative binomial regression was selected to examine the relationship between the predictors and outcomes in our model. There were no gender differences between Asian American men and women in regards to binge drinking; however, men reported more alcohol-related problems. Japanese Americans reported the highest number of binge-drinking episodes and alcohol-related problems, followed by Filipino and Multi-Asian Americans (e.g., Chinese and Korean). Living off-campus; higher scores in descriptive norms; Greek status; and belonging to the ethnic groups Japanese, Filipino, Multi-Asian, Korean, and South Asian increased the risk of engaging in binge drinking. Quantity of alcohol consumed, Greek status, gender, Filipino, South Asian, other Asian, and lower ethnic identity scores were related to alcohol-related problems. Using one of the largest samples collected to date on sociocultural determinants and drinking among U.S.-born Asian American young adults, the
Brice, Chad; Masia Warner, Carrie; Okazaki, Sumie; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Sanchez, Amanda; Esseling, Petra; Lynch, Chelsea
Asian American adults endorse more symptoms of social anxiety (SA) on self-report measures than European Americans, but demonstrate lower prevalence rates of SA disorder in epidemiological studies. These divergent results create ambiguity concerning the mental health needs of Asian Americans. The present study is the first to investigate this issue in adolescents through assessment of self-reported SA in Asian American high school students. Parent and self-ratings of impairment related to SA and self-reported mental health service use for SA were also measured. Asian American students endorsed a greater number of SA symptoms and scored in the clinical range more frequently than other ethnic groups. Also, Asian American and Latino students endorsed more school impairment related to SA than other ethnic groups. No differences in parent-reported impairment or service utilization were identified. Implications for future research and treatment for SA among Asian American adolescents are discussed.
Nguyen, Tung T; Somkin, Carol P; Ma, Yifei; Fung, Lei-Chun; Nguyen, Thoa
Few Asian-American women participate in cancer treatment trials. In a pilot study to assess barriers to participation, we mailed surveys to 132 oncologists and interviewed 19 Asian-American women with cancer from Northern California. Forty-four oncologists responded. They reported as barriers language problems, lack of culturally relevant cancer information, and complex protocols. Most stated that they informed Asian-American women about treatment trials. Only four women interviewed knew about trials. Other patient-identified barriers were fear of side effects, language problems, competing needs, and fear of experimentation. Family decision making was a barrier for both oncologists and patients. Compared to non-Asian oncologists, more Asian oncologists have referred Asian-American women to industry trials and identified barriers similar to patients' reports. Our findings indicate that Asian-American women need to be informed about cancer treatment trials, linguistic barriers should be addressed, and future research should evaluate cultural barriers such as family decision making.
Weaver, C N
Analysis of the responses of Asian American (n = 178), African American (n = 1,026), and European American (n = 8,118) full-time workers to 21 nationwide surveys representative of the U.S. labor force from 1972 through 1996 showed the job satisfaction of Asian Americans compared to that of the other two groups was affected by whether subjects were born in the United States. In addition, there were no gender differences in job satisfaction among African Americans and European Americans who were and were not born in the U.S., but there were such differences among Asian Americans.
Hee Sun Park; Yoon Sook Shin; Yun, Doshik
This study examined factors affecting intention to enroll in an organ donor registry and intention to talk to family about organ donation. Participants indicated their views about maintaining body integrity as an individual right and donating organs as a social responsibility. Results showed that the influence of social responsibility on intention to enroll was stronger for white Americans than for Asian Americans. Individual right was negatively associated with intention to enroll among Asian Americans, but not among white Americans. Social responsibility was significant for intention to talk among both white Americans and Asian Americans, but individual right was not significant.
Becerra, Benjamin J; Scroggins, Christy M; Becerra, Monideepa B
Our objective was to study the comorbidity of asthma and obesity among foreign-born Asian Americans, by subgroups. Public data from the California Health Interview Survey, 2001-2011, were analyzed by using independent logistic regressions, yielding the association between asthma and obesity (Asian and standard cutoffs for body mass index [BMIs]) of 19,841 Asian American immigrant respondents. Chinese, Filipino, South Asian, and Japanese immigrants had a positive association between lifetime asthma and obesity, whereas among Korean immigrants, a positive association was found between lifetime asthma and overweight status (standard BMI cutoffs). Routine screening for this comorbidity is warranted among immigrant Asian Americans.
Covarrubias, Alejandro; Liou, Daniel D.
This policy brief contextualizes the most recent data on mobility of Asian American students within the K to Ph.D. educational system in the new, so-called, colorblind post-racial America. Achievement data on Asian Americans are often presented in the same breath with Whites when compared to the academic achievement of African American, and…
Toji, Dean S.; Johnson, James H.
Assesses the incidence of Asian-American and Pacific Islander-American poverty, and offers a theoretical explanation for its existence. It is argued that poverty of Americans of Asian and Pacific Island descent is best understood in the context of the linkage of labor migration and U.S. labor market segmentation. (SLD)
Huang, Shwu-yong L.; Waxman, Hersholt C.
A study was done to compare Asian American and Anglo American students' attitudes toward motivation, learning environment, academic self-concept, involvement, affiliation, and parent involvement in the learning of mathematics. Survey data of 1,200 Asian- and 1,200 Anglo-American middle school students were collected. A stratified sampling…
Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung; Wong, Sandra L.
The study assessed variation in cultural orientation among Asian American adolescents by age and ethnic density in the community. A total of 128 students at a public high school in Oakland, California, participated in the study. Of these early and middle adolescents, 86 were Chinese American and 42 were Southeast Asian American. They completed the…
Wang, Jong-Yi; Probst, Janice C; Moore, Charity G; Martin, Amy B; Bennett, Kevin J
We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with violent and heated disagreements in the Asian American families, with an emphasis on place of birth differences between parent and child. Data were obtained from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, limited to five states with the highest concentration of Asian-Americans (n = 793). Multivariable analysis used generalized logistic regression models with a three-level outcome, violent and heated disagreement versus calm discussion. Violent disagreements were reported in 13.7% of Asian-American homes and 9.9% of white homes. Differential parent-child place of birth was associated with increased odds for heated disagreement in Asian-American families. Parenting stress increased the likelihood of violent disagreements in both Asian-American and white families. Asian-American families are not immune to potential family violence. Reducing parenting stress and intervening in culturally appropriate ways to reduce generation differences should be violence prevention priorities.
Joel Wong, Y; Uhm, Soo Yun; Li, Peiwei
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between family cohesion and suicide ideation in a national, adult community sample of Asian Americans (N=2072). The data for this study were drawn from the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first national epidemiological study of Asian Americans' mental health. The results indicate that family cohesion was negatively related to suicide ideation. In addition, English language proficiency moderated the relationship between family cohesion and suicide ideation. Family cohesion was related to lower odds of suicide ideation among low English proficiency Asian Americans. In contrast, family cohesion was not significantly related to suicide ideation among high English proficiency Asian Americans. Further, the findings are consistent with a model in which the relationship between family cohesion and suicide ideation was partially mediated by psychological distress. Practical implications for addressing suicide ideation among Asian Americans are discussed.
Yang, Song; Lau, K.-M.; Kim, K.-M.
The upper-tropospheric westerly jet stream over subtropical East Asia and western Pacific, often referred to as East Asian Jet (EAJ), is an important atmospheric circulation system in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) region during winter. It is characterized by variabilities on a wide range of time scales and exerts a strong impact on the weather and climate of the region. On the synoptic scale, the jet stream is closely linked to many phenomena such as cyclogenesis, frontogenesis, blocking, storm track activity, and the development of other atmospheric disturbances. On the seasonal time scale, the variation of the EAJ determines many characteristics of the seasonal transition of the atmospheric circulation especially over East Asia. The variabilities of the EAJ on these time scales have been relatively well documented. It has also been understood since decades ago that the interannual. variability of the EAJ is associated with many climate signals in the APA region. These signals include the persistent anomalies of the East Asian winter monsoon and the changes in diabatic heating and in the Hadley circulation. However, many questions remain for the year-to-year variabilities of the EAJ and their relation to the APA climate. For example, what is the relationship between the EAJ and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO)? Will the EAJ and ENSO play different roles in modulating the APA climate? How is the jet stream linked to the non-ENSO-related sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and to the Pacific/North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern?
Patterson, Freda; Zhang, Guo; Davey, Adam; Tan, Yin; Ma, Grace X
The American Heart Association's ideal cardiovascular health score is based on 7 cardiovascular health metrics to measure progress toward their Impact Goal of reducing cardiovascular disease by 20 % before 2020. This study applied this construct to assess cardiovascular health in a sample of Asian Americans. Convenience sampling methods were used to enroll self-identified Asian American's over the age of 18 years who were attending community health fairs across the greater Philadelphia and urban areas of New Jersey. The heart health metrics of tobacco use, body mass index, physical activity, diet, blood pressure, and glucose were measured. In the greater sample (N = 541), 82 % were female, the mean age was 65.1 (SD = 15.5) years, 45 % were Vietnamese, 38 % were Chinese and 17 % were Korean. Prevalence of ideal heart health for the metrics of tobacco use (95 %) was high. Only 19.4 % achieved ideal levels of physical activity, 35.1 % for BMI, 28.9 % for glucose and 66 % for blood pressure. Dietary intake was ideal for 20.7 % of the sample. More years since migration and Korean race trended toward having a higher prevalence of poor health in some metrics. Most Asian Americans are not achieving ideal cardiovascular health for several of the metrics evaluated, with those residing in the United States for more than 13 years and Korean Americans being higher-risk groups. Targeted community based intervention approaches to improving and monitoring heart health in Asian American, and Asian American subgroups, are needed.
Im, Eun-Ok; Rendell, Marjorie O.; Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Eunice
The purpose of this study is to compare the pathways through which multiple contextual factors influence the quality of life in Asian American and White women living with cancer. This is a secondary analysis of the data from 95 Asian American women and 113 White women. The data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression analyses and structural equation modeling. Multiple factors explained higher percent of total variances of the quality of life scores in Whites compared with that in Asian Americans. PMID:26052175
Hu, Qiang; Yan, Li; Liu, Biao; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Wang, Jianmin; Liu, Song
The incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is higher in populations of Asian ancestry than European ancestry (EA). We sought to investigate HCC mutational differences between the two populations, which may reflect differences in the prevalence of etiological factors. We compared HCC somatic mutations in patients of self-reported Asian American and EA from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and assessed associations of tumor mutations with established HCC risk factors. Although the average mutation burden was similar, TP53 and RB1 were mutated at a much higher frequency in Asian Americans than in EAs (TP53: 43% vs. 21%; RB1: 19% vs. 2%). Three putative oncogenic genes, including TRPM3, SAGE1, and ADAMTS7, were mutated exclusively in Asians. In addition, VEGF binding pathway, a druggable target by tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as sorafenib, was mutated at a higher frequency among Asians (13% vs. 2%); while the negative regulation of IL17 production, involved in inflammation and autoimmunity, was mutated only in EAs (12% vs. 0). Accounting for HCC risk factors had little impact on any of the mutational differences. In conclusion, we demonstrated here mutational differences in important cancer genes and pathways between Asian and European ancestries. These differences may have implications for the prevention and treatment of HCC. PMID:27246981
Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liu, William Ming
The current study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian values and Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Belonging were significant predictors of well-being. Asian values, Dissonance and Conformity were found to moderate the relationship between race-related stress on well-being. Specifically, individuals in low race-related stress conditions who had low Asian values, high Conformity and low Dissonance attitudes started high on well being but decreased as race-related stress increased. These findings underscore the importance of how racial identity statuses, Asian values and ethnic identity jointly and uniquely explain and moderate the effects of race-related stress on positive well-being. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:20396592
Le Meyer, Oanh; Zane, Nolan; Cho, Young Il; Takeuchi, David T
Research suggests that Asian Americans underutilize mental health services but an understanding of the multiple factors involved in utilization has not been examined in a nationally representative sample. The current study analyzed data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and examined 368 individuals with disorders to understand utilization and what factors were related to the utilization of specialty mental health services. Significant underutilization was found for Asian Americans; moreover, underutilization was especially acute among Asian American immigrants. For U.S.-born Asian Americans, use of primary care services was significantly associated with use of mental health services, but for foreign-born Asian Americans, use of primary care services was unrelated to mental health services use. For both U.S.-born and foreign-born Asian Americans, use of alternative services appeared to significantly affect whether Asian Americans with disorders utilize mental health services, but the nature of the influence varied depending on the individual's level of English-language proficiency. These findings revealed that a major mental health disparity, the underutilization of mental health services by Asian Americans, was nuanced by use of other health-related services and immigration-related factors.
Patterson, Freda; Zhang, Guo; Davey, Adam; Tan, Yin; Ma, Grace X.
The American Heart Association’s ideal cardiovascular health score is based on 7 cardiovascular health metrics to measure progress toward their Impact Goal of reducing cardiovascular disease by 20 % before 2020. This study applied this construct to assess cardiovascular health in a sample of Asian Americans. Convenience sampling methods were used to enroll self-identified Asian American’s over the age of 18 years who were attending community health fairs across the greater Philadelphia and urban areas of New Jersey. The heart health metrics of tobacco use, body mass index, physical activity, diet, blood pressure, and glucose were measured. In the greater sample (N = 541), 82 % were female, the mean age was 65.1 (SD = 15.5) years, 45 % were Vietnamese, 38 % were Chinese and 17 % were Korean. Prevalence of ideal heart health for the metrics of tobacco use (95 %) was high. Only 19.4 % achieved ideal levels of physical activity, 35.1 % for BMI, 28.9 % for glucose and 66 % for blood pressure. Dietary intake was ideal for 20.7 % of the sample. More years since migration and Korean race trended toward having a higher prevalence of poor health in some metrics. Most Asian Americans are not achieving ideal cardiovascular health for several of the metrics evaluated, with those residing in the United States for more than 13 years and Korean Americans being higher-risk groups. Targeted community based intervention approaches to improving and monitoring heart health in Asian American, and Asian American subgroups, are needed. PMID:27363824
Krieg, Alexander; Xu, Yiyuan; Cicero, David C
There have been over 30 studies and two meta-analyses comparing social anxiety between Asian Americans and European Americans. However, few have investigated the invariance of social anxiety measures that would make these comparisons appropriate. In the current study, we systematically examined psychometric properties and configural, metric, and scalar invariance of five social anxiety measures and four short forms that have been used more than once to compare Asian Americans (n = 232) and European Americans (n = 193). We found that four (i.e., SPS-6, SIAS-6, SPS, and SPAI-18) of the nine scales were scalar invariant, three scales (i.e., SIAS, SPAI, and B-FNES) only achieved configural invariance, and two scales (i.e., FNES and SADS) failed to achieve configural invariance. Latent mean comparisons based on the scalar invariant measures revealed higher social anxiety scores for Asian Americans than European Americans. The findings are discussed with regard to the issues and challenges when comparing social anxiety among different cultural and ethnic groups.
Rosenbloom, Susan Rakosi; Way, Niobe
Interviews and participant observation are used to describe how ethnic minority students in an urban high school experience discrimination. The findings suggest critical variations among students that contributed to a hostile school environment. Asian American students discussed physical and verbal harassment by peers, while Black and Latino…
Lund, Terese J.; Chan, Pauline; Liang, Belle
Research consistently demonstrates elevated rates of depression among college-aged women, yet evidence of racial differences in depression among this population are poorly understood. Moreover, the correlates of depression among Asian American women are also understudied. In this exploratory analysis, we examined mean differences in depression…
Xu, Yu; Davidhizar, Ruth
Foreign nurses and American nurses who are culturally diverse make up an increasing number of the US nursing workforce. Of foreign nurses, Asians constitute the largest number. Conflict is an inevitable aspect of human relations in health care settings. Nurses and other health team members with diverse cultural background bring to the workplace different conflict behaviors that directly impact the outcomes of conflicts. It is essential for health care team members and managers to be cognizant of different conflict behaviors as well as different conflict management styles so that strategies can be designed to build a culturally diverse health care team that is able to effectively achieve group and organizational objectives.
Nishimura, Stephanie T; Hishinuma, Earl S; Goebert, Deborah
This study assessed the prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence rates among four major ethnic groups of Hawai'i and examined the relationship among risk factors, protective factors, and demographic variables related to underage drinking. A total of 196 students were administered the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, the American Drug and Alcohol Survey, and the Prevention Planning Survey. Drinking rates for Native Hawaiian students were significantly higher than those for Japanese and Caucasian students. Multiple logistic regression models accounted for 49% of the variance for any alcohol use. Ethnic group differences were found when data were disaggregated for Asian and Pacific Islander students.
Her, Chia S.
The educational experiences of Southeast Asian Americans, particularly Cambodian Americans, Hmong Americans, Laotian Americans, and Vietnamese Americans, are characterized by numerous challenges, which can be attributed to their migration history, socioeconomic status, and English proficiency. By the end of 11th grade, a high percentage of…
Jo, Moon H.
While Asians in the United States continue to experience the discriminatory barriers that other minorities face, the myth that Asian Americans are a well-adjusted model minority has resulted in public neglect of the problems of this group. To a significant extent, the myth arises from the fact that Chinese, Japanese, and other Asian groups have…
Wong, Joel; Brownson, Chris; Rutkowski, Leslie; Nguyen, Chi P; Becker, Marty Swanbrow
This study examined professional psychological help seeking among 1,045 white American and Asian American students from 70 U.S. colleges and universities who had seriously considered attempting suicide. The authors found that Asian American college students had lower rates of professional psychological help seeking for their suicide ideation than White American college students. Guided by social network perspectives on professional psychological help seeking, the authors also tested mediators of this racial disparity. Relative to white Americans, Asian Americans were advised by fewer people (especially fewer family members) to seek professional help, which was, in turn, associated with lower rates of professional psychological help seeking for suicide ideation. These findings underscore the importance of gatekeeping as a suicide prevention strategy for Asian American college students.
Choi, Eunsoo; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E
Cultural differences in the emphasis on positive and negative emotions suggest that the impact of these emotions on well-being may differ across cultural contexts. The present study utilised a momentary sampling method to capture average momentary emotional experiences. We found that for participants from cultural contexts that foster positive emotions (European Americans and Hispanic Americans), average momentary positive emotions predicted well-being better than average momentary negative emotions. In contrast, average momentary negative emotions were more strongly associated with well-being measures for Asian Americans, the group from a cultural context that emphasises monitoring of negative emotions. Furthermore, we found that acculturation to American culture moderated the association between average momentary positive emotions and well-being for Asian Americans. These findings suggest the importance of culture in studying the impact of daily emotional experiences on well-being.
Kulkarni, Madhur; Pole, Nnamdi
Relatively few studies focus on the psychological effects of trauma exposure on Asian Americans. This article presents secondary analyses of a random survey of 118 Asian American and 762 European American survivors of the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. Asian American participants reported more psychiatric distress and were more than twice as likely to meet caseness criteria on the Brief Symptom Inventory. Ethnic differences remained after accounting for group differences in age, immigrant status, and exposure to the earthquake. Moreover, moderator analyses showed that Asian Americans were not more sensitive to these risk factors but that ethnic differences were explained by the interaction of ethnicity and having a foreign born parent. Though more work needs to be done to understand the basis of these differences, these findings challenge model minority myths about Asian American people and draw attention to their potential need for greater mental health resources following a natural disaster.
Park, Irene J K; Schwartz, Seth J; Lee, Richard M; Kim, May; Rodriguez, Liliana
The present study tested the moderating roles of ethnic identity and American identity on the association between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and antisocial behaviors among Asian American college students. Using data from the Multi-Site University Study of Identity and Culture (MUSIC) collaborative, the sample included 1,362 East Asian and South Asian American college students. Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with antisocial behaviors for both East Asians and South Asians. Ethnic identity was not a significant moderator of the discrimination-antisocial behavior link, but American identity exacerbated the association between perceived discrimination and antisocial behaviors for both East Asians and South Asians. Interestingly, the explanatory power of the regression model was greater for South Asians than for East Asians in predicting antisocial behaviors. The importance of attending to American identity as a potential source of risk for Asian American college students exposed to racial/ethnic discrimination is discussed.
Stein, Joshua D.; Kim, Denise S.; Niziol, Leslie M.; Talwar, Nidhi; Nan, Bin; Musch, David C.; Richards, Julia E.
Purpose To determine the incidence and prevalence rates of different glaucoma types among Asian Americans, contrast glaucoma incidence and prevalence rates for Asian Americans with other races, and evaluate the hazard of developing glaucoma among different Asian ethnicities and other races. Design Retrospective longitudinal cohort study Participants 2,259,061 beneficiaries aged ≥40 enrolled in a large, national managed-care network in the United States (US) in 2001–2007 Methods Incidence and prevalence rates of open-angle glaucoma (OAG), narrow-angle glaucoma (NAG), and normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) were determined for the beneficiaries and stratified by race and Asian ethnicity. Cox regression analyses determined the hazard of developing OAG, NAG, and NTG for Asian Americans compared with other races and among different Asian ethnicities, with adjustment for confounding factors. Main Outcome Measures Multivariable hazard of OAG, NAG, and NTG among different races and Asian ethnicities. Results The OAG prevalence rate for Asian Americans of 6.52% was similar to that of Latinos (6.40%) and higher than that of non-Hispanic whites (5.59%). The NAG and NTG prevalence rates (3.01% and 0.73%, respectively) were considerably higher among Asian Americans compared with each of the other races. After adjustment for confounding factors, Asian Americans had a 51% increased hazard of OAG (Hazard ratio (HR)=1.51 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42–1.60), a 123% increased hazard of NAG (HR=2.23 (95% CI 2.07–2.41), and a 159% increased hazard of NTG (HR=2.59 (95% CI 2.22–3.02) compared with non-Hispanic whites. Vietnamese Americans (HR=3.78, (95% CI 3.19–4.48), Pakistani Americans (HR=2.45, 95% CI 1.50–4.01) and Chinese Americans (HR=2.31, 95% CI 2.06–2.59) had considerably higher hazards of NAG while Japanese Americans (HR=4.37, 95% CI 3.24–5.89) had a substantially higher hazard of NTG, compared with non–Asian Americans. Conclusions Given the rapid rise in the
Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Park, Irene J. K.
The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation (Yap, Sheeber, & Allen, 2007) in a sample of Asian American and European American college students (N = 365). Specifically, the mediating role of anger suppression in the effect of temperament and family processes on depressive symptoms was tested across race and levels of interdependent self-construal (a culturally based self orientation emphasizing connectedness with others). Next, the moderation of the suppression—depression relation was tested by race and interdependent self-construal. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit well across Asian American and European American students as well as those with high vs. low levels of interdependent self-construal. Anger suppression was a significant mediator of the hypothesized indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Moreover, race and interdependent self-construal moderated the suppression—depression link, such that Asian American status and a stronger interdependent self-construal attenuated the relation between anger suppression and depressive symptoms. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation in the development of depressive symptoms will be essential for sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts across diverse populations. PMID:21058815
Chan, Alan Ka Ki; Zane, Nolan; Wong, Gloria M; Song, Anna V
Many college students are involved in gambling behavior as a recreational activity. Their involvement could potentially develop into problem gambling, an issue of increasing concern to student health. At the same time, evidence suggests that Asian Americans are overrepresented amongst problem gamblers in this age period. Research on factors related to initiation and development of problem gambling in college students is necessary to inform the development of effective and culturally-sensitive prevention efforts against gambling. The relationships between personal gambling expectancies at two levels of specificity (two general and six specific types of expectancies) and college student gambling at two levels of behavior (initiation and problems) were examined in a sample of 813 Asian American and White American college students. The study aimed to address (a) whether expectancies explained ethnic differences in gambling, (b) ethnic similarities and differences in the pattern of relationships between expectancies and gambling, and (c) whether expectancies that emerged in both ethnic groups have a greater risk or protective effect for one group than another. Results showed that Asian American students reported more problem gambling than White American students, but expectancies did not account for this group difference. Risk and protective factors for initiation were relatively similar between groups, but different patterns of risk emerged for each group for problem gambling. Implications for college primary prevention and harm reduction programs are discussed.
Miller, Matthew J; Kim, Jungeun; Benet-Martínez, Verónica
An emerging body of empirical research highlights the impact of acculturative stress in the lives of culturally diverse populations. Therefore, to facilitate future research in this area, we conducted 3 studies to examine the psychometric properties of the Riverside Acculturation Stress Inventory (RASI; Benet-Martínez & Haritatos, 2005) and its 5 subscales in a total sample of 793 self-identified Asian American participants. The reliability and validity of RASI scores and the hypothesized 1-factor higher order model (with 1st-order factors Language Skills, Work Challenges, Intercultural Relations, Discrimination, and Cultural Isolation) of the RASI were examined in Study 1. The RASI higher order structure and score validity and reliability were examined across different generational groups in Study 2. The stability of RASI scores over a 3-week period was examined in Study 3. Overall, findings from these studies support the hypothesized structure of the RASI and indicate that this brief instrument provides reliable and valid acculturative stress scores. In addition, results suggest that RASI items are interpreted in an equivalent manner across different generations of Asian American individuals. Implications for research and assessment are discussed.
Hastings, Katherine G.; Jose, Powell O.; Kapphahn, Kristopher I.; Frank, Ariel T. H.; Goldstein, Benjamin A.; Thompson, Caroline A.; Eggleston, Karen; Cullen, Mark R.; Palaniappan, Latha P.
Background Our current understanding of Asian American mortality patterns has been distorted by the historical aggregation of diverse Asian subgroups on death certificates, masking important differences in the leading causes of death across subgroups. In this analysis, we aim to fill an important knowledge gap in Asian American health by reporting leading causes of mortality by disaggregated Asian American subgroups. Methods and Findings We examined national mortality records for the six largest Asian subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) from 2003-2011, and ranked the leading causes of death. We calculated all-cause and cause-specific age-adjusted rates, temporal trends with annual percent changes, and rate ratios by race/ethnicity and sex. Rankings revealed that as an aggregated group, cancer was the leading cause of death for Asian Americans. When disaggregated, there was notable heterogeneity. Among women, cancer was the leading cause of death for every group except Asian Indians. In men, cancer was the leading cause of death among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese men, while heart disease was the leading cause of death among Asian Indians, Filipino and Japanese men. The proportion of death due to heart disease for Asian Indian males was nearly double that of cancer (31% vs. 18%). Temporal trends showed increased mortality of cancer and diabetes in Asian Indians and Vietnamese; increased stroke mortality in Asian Indians; increased suicide mortality in Koreans; and increased mortality from Alzheimer’s disease for all racial/ethnic groups from 2003-2011. All-cause rate ratios revealed that overall mortality is lower in Asian Americans compared to NHWs. Conclusions Our findings show heterogeneity in the leading causes of death among Asian American subgroups. Additional research should focus on culturally competent and cost-effective approaches to prevent and treat specific diseases among these
Examines the race ambiguity of South Asians and the risk of being socially ignored and marginalized, including that of the pan-Asian movement. It argues that recent participation of second-generation South Asians in protesting anti-Asian hate crimes and discrimination in higher education bespeak the possibilities of a pan-Asian grouping that is…
Liang, Jia; Peters-Hawkins, April L.
Purpose: Little research exists that examines the leadership experiences of Asian American women in public schools. This study sought to understand the meanings Asian American women school administrators have constructed out of their professional lives given the intersection of gender, race-ethnicity, and leadership. Research Method/Approach: Data…
Museus, Samuel D.; Shiroma, Kiana; Dizon, Jude Paul
Low rates of college success continue to be a persisting problem in the United States, particularly among Southeast Asian Americans and other populations of color. The purpose of the current inquiry was to understand how cultural community connections influence the success of Southeast Asian American college students. Qualitative methods were…
Chung, Y. Barry; Katayama, Motoni
Ethnic and sexual identity development and the interaction of the two identities among Asian-American lesbian and gay adolescents are discussed. Counseling implications are addressed. A theory of parallel and interactive processes of ethnic and social development among Asian-American lesbian and gay adolescents is proposed. Research in the area is…
Lew, Gena A., Ed.
This collection of policy papers is intended to educate and inform business and community leaders, policymakers, the Asian Pacific community, and the general public about the complex issues and far-reaching implications of the affirmative action debate on Asian Pacific Americans as well as all Americans. Essays are grouped into sections on…
Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Desai, Uttara; George, Login S.; San Filippo, Alyssa A.; Varon, Samantha
Conflict over career decisions is a main source of intergenerational conflict among Asian American families. This qualitative study explored the topic using consensual qualitative research methodology in a sample of eight Asian Americans. Results indicated that participants experienced feelings of guilt and indebtedness due to conflicting values,…
Yamauchi, Joanne Sanae
The purpose of this study was to examine the communication behavior of Asian American women who held nontraditional, male-dominated jobs. Two hundred and eighty seven Asian American women of Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Philippino descent in both traditional and nontraditional occupations were interviewed in Washington, D.C. and San Francisco.…
Wong, Y. Joel; Maffini, Cara S.
Although suicide-related outcomes among Asian American adolescents are a serious public health problem in the United States, research in this area has been relatively sparse. To address this gap in the empirical literature, this study examined subgroups of Asian American adolescents for whom family, school, and peer relationships exerted…
Despite their educational and economic achievements in the United States, Asian Americans continue to be occupationally segregated in the labor force. Asian Americans are overrepresented in mathematics, engineering and biological sciences while underrepresented in field such as education, humanities, social and behavioral sciences (Bureau of Labor…
Wang, Shihwe; Kim, Bryan S. K.
Asian Americans drop out of mental health treatment at a high rate. This problem could be addressed by enhancing therapists' multicultural competence and by examining clients' cultural attitudes that may affect the counseling process. In the present study, we used a video analogue design with a sample of 113 Asian American college students to…
Museus, Samuel D.; Park, Julie J.
Asian Americans are one of the most misunderstood populations in higher education, and more research on this population is warranted. In this investigation, authors sought to understand the range of ways that Asian American students experience racism on a daily basis in college. They analyzed data from 46 individual, face-to-face qualitative…
The often aggregated reports of academic excellence of Asian American students as a whole, compared to students from other ethnic groups offers compelling evidence that Asian Americans are more academically successful than their ethnic counterparts, particularly in the area of mathematics. These comparative data have generated many topics of…
Miller, Matthew J.; Yang, Minji; Hui, Kayi; Choi, Na-Yeun; Lim, Robert H.
In the present study, we tested a theoretically and empirically derived partially indirect effects acculturation and enculturation model of Asian American college students' mental health and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Latent variable path analysis with 296 self-identified Asian American college students supported the…
Huang, Keng-Yen; Cheng, Sabrina; Calzada, Esther; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Anxiety is one of the most prevalent mental health problems in young children but there has been a dearth of studies focusing on Asian American children. This study examines the patterns and the predictors of childhood anxiety and related symptoms in young children in a diverse Asian American (ASA) sample (n = 101). Findings indicate that ASA…
Lee, Haeok; Kiang, Peter; Watanabe, Paul; Halon, Patricia; Shi, Ling; Church, Daniel R.
Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, exposure, and immunity among Asian American college students as a basis for evaluating HBV screening and vaccination policy. Participants and Methods: Self-identified Asian American college students aged 18 years or older were examined. Serological tests of HBV surface…
Souza, Cheri Y. H.
Within the United States, the model minority myth has contributed to empirically unsubstantiated misconceptions about Asian American college students. Although there is considerable research on college student adjustment and its role in persistence, literature focusing on the Asian American experience is lacking. Furthermore, the experience of…
Cheng, David; And Others
Examined possible cultural differences in psychological distress between 50 Asian-American and 48 Caucasian-American college students using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Found significant differences between the two groups on six of the nine symptom scales. Asians scored significantly higher than Caucasians on obsessive compulsiveness,…
Latino and Asian-Americans represent the fastest growing immigrant populations in the U.S. We aimed to review the current knowledge on the psychosocial factors that influence type 1 diabetes (T1D) care, education, and outcomes in Latino and Asian-American youth immigrants in the U.S., as well as cul...
Examined how Asian American actors coped with the constraints of being minorities in an industry where physical appearance is crucial to success. Respondents' narratives reflected such coping strategies as not confronting issues of race, rationalizing that things are much better now for Asian American actors than in previous years, and believing…
Valliani, Nadia; Byrd, Daniel
Approximately, 6.3 million Asian Americans and 347,501 Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHPIs) live in California. The Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander community is one that is both significant in size and in diversity. It also represents the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the state. Ensuring their access to and…
Johnston-Guerrero, Marc P.; Pizzolato, Jane Elizabeth
In a qualitative study we examined the constructs "race" and "ethnicity" and their relative importance in the multidimensional identities of 52 Asian American undergraduates across 2 universities. Findings suggest these constructs are useful for Asian American students' identity claims and that multiple contextual influences…
Hartlep, Nicholas Daniel; Lowinger, Robert Jay
This exploratory study examined white undergraduate students' (a) racial attitudes towards Asian Americans, (b) principled policy attitudes toward affirmative action, and (c) self-interest in relation to their support for college-based affirmative action policies for Asian Americans at a Midwestern university. A sample (n = 264, 28% male, 72%…
Kim, Chigon; Min, Pyong Gap
This article examines marital patterns and use of mother tongue at home among native-born Asian Americans using the 2005-2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Public Use Microdata Sample. There are variations in mother-tongue use across Asian ethnic groups, but variations among different types of marriage are even greater. Those who marry within…
Focusing on Hawaii, a state with 21.3% of the population being multi-racial according to the 2010 U.S. Census, this study aims to examine the existence and nature of health disparities between mono- and multi-ethnic Asian Americans and the importance of Relational Well-Being in affecting the health of Asian Americans. A series of ordinary least…
Cabrera, Nolan L.
This research is a cross-site analysis of how white, male, college students see their Asian American peers. Semi-structured interviews with 43 white males were conducted at two universities that differed substantially in their representation of Asian American students. The interviews were theoretically framed by Critical Whiteness Studies and Bobo…
Kim, Janna L.; Ward, L. Monique
Although parents greatly influence children's early understandings of sexuality, little is known about how sexual communication transpires in Asian American families. Accordingly, the authors examined the amount and type of parental sexual communication recalled by 165 Asian American college students. Parents were perceived as providing very…
Existing research knowledge concerning the self-concept of Asian American children, particularly in relation to bilingual education, is explored in this paper. The significance of the literature review is considered to rest on the assumption that Asian Americans' physical characteristics, language, and cultural orientation make their self-concept…
Philip, Thomas M.
In this article, I consider the emergence of the term Asian American as a political and racial identifier in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s and survey the meanings that are associated with the term today. Through the analysis of in-depth interviews, I examine how Asian American prospective teachers, who were enrolled in a master's and…
Carreon, Daisy C; Baumeister, Sebastian E
Few studies have examined differences in health care access across Asian American ethnicities and none have considered the effects of residential segregation. The segregation of Asians by neighborhood has been steadily increasing over the past few decades due in part to the settlement patterns of immigrants. Data from the 2009 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 746) were used. We examined differences in yearly medical checkups between Asian subgroups as well as among foreign-born and US-born Asians. Results showed that immigrant Filipinos and Vietnamese were less likely to get a checkup compared with foreign-born Chinese. The effect of Asian subgroup was modified by the percentage of Asians in a census tract (p < 0.01). Koreans and other Asians had a higher probability of getting a checkup when living in a predominately Asian neighborhood. For Chinese and Vietnamese residential concentration of Asians had a stronger inverse association with having a yearly checkup.
Maton, Kenneth I; Wimms, Harriette E; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A; Rogers, Margaret R; Vasquez, Melba J T
A national, Web-based survey of 1,219 African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity within the academic environment, were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color perceived less fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology than European American students, and a greater linkage between aspects of the graduate school experience and their ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed.
Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Ko Chin, Kathy; John, Iyanrick; Chung, Corina
Working in small businesses has been identified as a key factor for low coverage rates in immigrant communities. In this study, we identify specific cultural and socioeconomic predictors of Asian Americans who work in small businesses to identify subgroups at a greater disadvantage than others in obtaining health insurance. Logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 3,819 Asian American small business owners and employers extracted from pooled 2005–2012 California Health Interview Survey data. We found that individuals with low income levels, Korean Americans, U.S.-born South Asian and Southeast Asian (other than Vietnamese) Americans, immigrants without citizenship (particularly those lacking a green card), and individuals with limited English proficiency had higher odds of lacking coverage. The odds of being uninsured did not differ between small business owners and employees. Based upon these key findings, we propose several strategies to expand coverage for Asian Americans working in small businesses and their most vulnerable subgroups.
Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Ro, Marguerite; Tseng, Winston; Islam, Nadia Shilpi; Rey, Mariano J.; Kwon, Simona C.
Problem Considerable progress in Asian American health research has occurred over the last two decades. However, greater and sustained federal support is needed for reducing health disparities in Asian American communities. Purpose of the Article This paper reviews federal policies that support infrastructure to conduct minority health research and highlights one model for strengthening research capacity and infrastructure in Asian American communities. Key Points Research center infrastructures can play a significant role in addressing pipeline/workforce challenges, fostering campus–community research collaborations, engaging communities in health, disseminating evidence-based strategies and health information, and policy development. Conclusion Research centers provide the capacity needed for academic institutions and communities to work together synergistically in achieving the goal to reduce health disparities in the Asian American community. Policies that support the development of concentrated and targeted research for Asian Americans must continue so that these centers will reach their full potential. PMID:22643792
Fang, Lin; Barnes-Ceeney, Kevin; Lee, Rebecca A.; Tao, John
Rarely has substance use prevention programming targeted Asian American adolescents. Using a focus group methodology, we explored perceptions of substance use and preferences for prevention programming among 31 Asian American adolescents in New York City. Participants considered substance use common in the community. Factors contributing to substance use among Asian American adolescents (e.g., peer pressure, pressure to achieve, family factors, and community influence) were identified, and the need for prevention programs tailored for the Asian American community was highlighted. Participants discussed preferred program content, delivery settings, and recruitment and retention strategies. Despite the favorable attitude for family-based prevention programming, participants raised potential issues concerning the feasibility of such a program. Study findings facilitate understanding of Asian American adolescents’ substance use behavior and shed light on prevention program development for this underserved population. PMID:21919640
Masood, Nausheen; Okazaki, Sumie; Takeuchi, David T
Nationally representative data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (Alegría et al., 2004) was used to examine both disorder prevalence rates and correlates of distress for the South Asian American subgroup (n = 164). South Asian Americans generally appeared to have lower or comparable rates of lifetime and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders when compared with the overall Asian American sample. A multiple-regression model fitted to predict recent psychological distress, with 12-month diagnosis as a covariate, found gender differences. For women, lack of extended family support was related to higher levels of distress, whereas for men, greater conflict with family culture, and a lower community social position (but higher U.S. social position) predicted higher distress scores. Findings suggest that mental health services consider a broad framework of psychological functioning for South Asian Americans that reflect their gendered, familial, and sociopolitical realities.
Masood, Nausheen; Okazaki, Sumie; Takeuchi, David T.
Nationally representative data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (Alegría et al., 2004) was used to examine both disorder prevalence rates and correlates of distress for the South Asian American subgroup (n = 164). South Asian Americans generally appeared to have lower or comparable rates of lifetime and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders when compared with the overall Asian American sample. A multiple-regression model fitted to predict recent psychological distress, with 12-month diagnosis as a covariate, found gender differences. For women, lack of extended family support was related to higher levels of distress, whereas for men, greater conflict with family culture, and a lower community social position (but higher U.S. social position) predicted higher distress scores. Findings suggest that mental health services consider a broad framework of psychological functioning for South Asian Americans that reflect their gendered, familial, and sociopolitical realities. PMID:19594255
Coalition for Asian American Children and Families, New York, NY.
This series of four fact sheets addresses the health and human service needs of Asian American children living in New York City. The first fact sheet, "Snapshots of New York City: An Overview of Asian American Families," discusses the diversity of the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) population in New York, examining AAPI…
Mok, T A
Mass media sources such as television and movies arguably offer up little in the way of positive Asian/Asian American images or role models. This article contends that the media do not often portray the diversity that is inherent within the Asian American culture and that such a paucity of Asian images may greatly affect perceptions Asian Americans may hold both of their own racial group and of the larger society. This article examines both media images of Asians and Asian Americans and autobiographical information from Asian American literature to illustrate the potentially detrimental effects of being a person of color in a society that emphasizes a monoracial standard of beauty. Information gleaned from first-hand accounts from Asian Americans often points to the media as a potent source of information as to how attractiveness is defined and measured. This article concludes with a discussion of some brief case examples and ethical imperatives for mental health workers in terms of both self-awareness and education as well as considerations for culturally sensitive therapy.
Yang, Song; Lau, K.-M.; Kim, K.-M.
The wintertime upper-tropospheric westerly jet stream over subtropical East Asia and western Pacific, often referred to as East Asian Jet (EAJ), is an important atmospheric circulation system in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) region. It is characterized by variabilities on a wide range of time scales and exerts a strong impact on the weather and climate of the region. On the synoptic scale, the jet is closely linked to many phenomena such as cyclogenesis, frontogenesis, blocking, storm track activity, and the development of other atmospheric disturbances. On the seasonal time scale, the variation of the EAJ determines many characteristics of the seasonal transition of the atmospheric circulation over Asia. The variabilities of the jet on these time scales have been relatively well documented (e.g., Yeh et al. 1959, Palmen and Newton 1969; Zeng 1979). It has also been understood that the inter-annual variability of the EAJ is associated with many climate signals in the APA region. These signals include the persistent anomalies of the East Asian winter monsoon and the changes in diabatic heating and in the Hadley circulation (Bjerknes 1966; Chang and Lau 1980; Huang and Gambo 1982; Kang and Held 1986; Tao and Chen 1987; Lau et al. 1988; Yang and Webster 1990; Ding 1992; Webster and Yang 1992; Dong et al. 1999). However, many questions remain for the year-to-year variabilities of the jet and their relation to the APA climate. For example, what is the relationship between the EAJ and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO)? Will the jet and ENSO play different roles in modulating the APA climate? How is the jet linked to North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and the Pacific/North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern? In this study, we address several issues related to the wintertime EAJ with a focus on interannual time scales. We will examine the association between the jet core and ENSO, which has always been overshadowed by the relationship between ENSO and the
Park, Julie J.; Liu, Amy
We use the Critical Race Theory frameworks of interest convergence and divergence to critique the anti-affirmative action movement's co-option of Asian Americans. Past discussions of affirmative action and Asian Americans mainly concentrate on how Asian Americans are affected by affirmative action, whether positively or negatively. We demonstrate…
This research draws on a broader study that situates Asian American college students within larger sociohistorical and political contexts. I examined Asian American college students' experiences and what it means to be "Asian American" in and through these experiences. Two types of expectations emerged from the data: students' internal…
Kwon, Harry T; Ma, Grace X; Gold, Robert S; Atkinson, Nancy L; Wang, Min Qi
Asian Americans experience disproportionate incidence and mortality rates of certain cancers, compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Primary care physicians are a critical source for cancer screening recommendations and play a significant role in increasing cancer screening of their patients. This study assessed primary care physicians' perceptions of cancer risk in Asians and screening recommendation practices. Primary care physicians practicing in New Jersey and New York City (n=100) completed a 30-question survey on medical practice characteristics, Asian patient communication, cancer screening guidelines, and Asian cancer risk. Liver cancer and stomach cancer were perceived as higher cancer risks among Asian Americans than among the general population, and breast and prostate cancer were perceived as lower risks. Physicians are integral public health liaisons who can be both influential and resourceful toward educating Asian Americans about specific cancer awareness and screening information.
Southeast Asian adolescents in the United States face the daily challenge of adjusting to the American culture and their culture of origin. However, little is known about how the patterns of their bicultural adjustment influence psychological symptoms, especially when faced with other challenges such as community violence and negative life events. Additionally, the overrepresentation of Southeast Asian youth in the mental health and juvenile justice systems also necessitates a deeper understanding of the adjustment of this group of adolescents. Data from a sample of 80 Vietnamese and Cambodian adolescents who were between 13 and 18 years old revealed high rates of community violence witnessing and victimization, and a moderate level of negative life events. All of these stressors were related to higher externalizing and trauma-related symptoms, but only violence victimization and negative life events were related to higher internalizing symptoms. There was an additive effect of higher bicultural orientation related to lower externalizing and traumatic-stress symptoms in the face of stress and violence exposure, but no moderation effects were found.
Fong, Pauline; Cabezas, Amado
Taken from a paper on "The Economic and Employment Status of Asian Women in America" by Pauline Fong and Amado Cabezas of ASIAN, Inc., this brief analysis of statistics on Asian women indicates that highly educated Asian women do not have higher incomes or better jobs than many of those with less education.
No, Sun; Hong, Ying-yi; Liao, Hsin-Ya; Lee, Kyoungmi; Wood, Dustin; Chao, Melody Manchi
People may hold different understandings of race that might affect how they respond to the culture of groups deemed to be racially distinct. The present research tests how this process is moderated by the minority individual's lay theory of race. An essentialist lay theory of race (i.e., that race reflects deep-seated, inalterable essence and is indicative of traits and ability) would orient racial minorities to rigidly adhere to their ethnic culture, whereas a social constructionist lay theory of race (i.e., that race is socially constructed, malleable, and arbitrary) would orient racial minorities to identify and cognitively assimilate toward the majority culture. To test these predictions, the authors conducted 4 studies with Asian American participants. The first 2 studies examine the effect of one's lay theory of race on perceived racial differences and identification with American culture. The last 2 studies tested the moderating effect of lay theory of race on identification and assimilation toward the majority American culture after this culture had been primed. The results generally supported the prediction that the social constructionist theory was associated with more perceived similarity between Asians and Americans and more consistent identification and assimilation toward American culture, compared with the essentialist theory.
Chen, Edith Wen-Chu, Ed.; Omatsu, Glenn, Ed.
The legitimization of Asian American Studies as an academic discipline has led to the publication of new research, policy reports, and creative writing. Despite the plethora of new scholarship, many significant findings and critical ideas have failed to effectively reach college and high school students or the general American public. "Teaching…
Objectives. We examined how different dimensions of social capital (i.e., family and friend connections, neighborhood and family cohesion, family conflict) were associated with smoking behavior among a nationally representative sample of Asian American men and whether the associations varied by ethnic group. Methods. The sample consisted of 998 adult Asian American men who participated in the National Latino and Asian American Survey from 2002 to 2003. We conducted weighted multivariate logistic regressions on data for the sample and for each of 4 ethnic subgroups (Chinese, Vietnamese, Filipino, and Other). Results. Vietnamese American men had the highest prevalence of current smoking; Chinese American men, the lowest. After controlling for sociodemographics, socioeconomic status, acculturation, and perceived discrimination, neighborhood cohesion was inversely associated with smoking among Asian American men, and family and friend connections and family cohesion were not. An exception was family cohesion, which was associated with increased odds of smoking among Filipino American men. Conclusions. The relationship between social capital and smoking among Asian American men varied according to specific dimensions of social capital and was ethnicity specific. These findings highlight the need for smoking prevention and cessation interventions to take into consideration the heterogeneity that exists among Asian Americans. PMID:22401511
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Jang, Jisun; Vu, Cecilia; Alexander, L Melissa; Driscoll, Kelsie E; Lundgren, Lena
This study investigates the association between drug use and lifetime suicidal behaviors among Asian American women (n = 720) residing throughout Massachusetts, using data collected from 2010 to 2011. Logistic regression models identified that a history of hard drug use alone or in combination with soft drug use has a significant association with both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among Asian American women, adjusting for demographic covariates, history of psychiatric diagnosis, and family communication. These findings highlight the importance of addressing hard drug use when designing suicide prevention programs for Asian American women.
Weng, Suzie S; Spaulding-Givens, Jennifer
This qualitative study used snowball sampling of individuals known to provide informal assistance to Asian American community members with their mental health problems in a locality in the South where there has been an exponential increase of the Asian American population. The major themes found include: (1) the existence of cultural, language, knowledge, and transportation barriers and the importance of policy in addressing them; (2) the impact of the model minority myth and the need for inclusive policymaking; and (3) the unique service and policy needs of immigrants. Findings demonstrate the importance and value of including diverse Asian American individuals in mental health policymaking efforts.
Rosas, Lisa G; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Sánchez, Brisa N
Little is known about body mass index (BMI) patterns by nativity and length of US residence among Asian American ethnic groups. We used linear regression to examine the association of BMI with nativity and length of residence across six ethnic groups (Filipinos, Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, South Asians, and Vietnamese) using data from the California Health Interview Study. There was significant heterogeneity in the nativity/length of residence patterns in unadjusted BMI across ethnic groups (p < 0.001). In fully adjusted models, heterogeneity was attenuated (p = 0.05) with BMI among all US-born ethnic groups significantly higher than BMI for immigrants with the exception of South Asians. Longer US residence was positively associated with BMI among all groups, though only significant among Filipinos and Koreans. Programs targeting Asian Americans should take into consideration BMI patterns by nativity and US length of residence among diverse Asian American ethnic groups.
Marvis, Barbara J.
As part of a five-volume series this volume presents biographical sketches of persons of Asian American heritage who have made contributions to American life. Asian Americans have often been subjected to racial and ethnic prejudice as have other easily identifiable groups of Americans. The series, written at a reading level of grades 5 to 6, but…
Marvis, Barbara J.
As part of a five-volume series this volume presents biographical sketches of persons of Asian American heritage who have made contributions to American life. Asian Americans have often been subjected to racial and ethnic prejudice, as have other easily identifiable groups of Americans. The series, written at a reading level of grades 5 to 6, but…
Echeverria, Sandra E; Mustafa, Mehnaz; Pentakota, Sri Ram; Kim, Soyeon; Hastings, Katherine G; Amadi, Chioma; Palaniappan, Latha
Little evidence exists examining cardiovascular risk factors among Asian Americans and how social determinants such as nativity status and education pattern risk in the United States (U.S.) context. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which purposely oversampled Asian Americans from 2011 to 2014, and examined prevalence of Type II diabetes, smoking and obesity for Asian Americans (n=1363) and non-Latino Whites (n=4121). We classified Asian Americans as U.S. or foreign-born and by years in the U.S. Obesity status was based on standard body mass index (BMI) cut points of ≥30kg/m(2) and Asian-specific cut points (BMI≥25kg/m(2)) that may be more clinically relevant for this population. We fit separate logistic regression models for each outcome using complex survey design methods and tested for the joint effect of race, nativity and education on each outcome. Diabetes and obesity prevalence (applying Asian-specific BMI cut points) were higher among Asian Americans when compared to non-Latino Whites but smoking prevalence was lower. These patterns remained in fully adjusted models and showed small increases with longer duration in the U.S. Joint effects models showed higher odds of prevalent Type II diabetes and obesity (Asian-specific) for foreign-born Asians, regardless of years in the U.S. and slightly higher risk for lowe ducation, when compared to non-Latino Whites with high education. Smoking models showed significant interaction effects between race and education for non-Latino Whites only. Our study supports the premise that social as well as clinical factors should be considered when developing health initiatives for Asian Americans.
Cruz, Cristhopher D; Forshey, Brett M; Juarez, Diana S; Guevara, Carolina; Leguia, Mariana; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Halsey, Eric S
During the past decade, countries in South America have reported dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) associated with American/Asian genotype of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2). DENV-2 strains have been associated with large outbreaks of dengue fever and DHF in numerous regions of Peru since the mid-1990s, but studies to address the origins, distribution, and genetic diversity of DENV-2 strains have been limited. To address this knowledge gap, we sequenced the envelope gene region of DENV-2 isolates from Peru, Ecuador, Paraguay, and Bolivia. Sequences were aligned and compared to a global sample of DENV-2 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the circulation of two DENV-2 genotypes in Peru: American (prior to 2001) and American/Asian (2000 to present). American/Asian genotype variants can be classified into two lineages, and these were introduced into Peru from the north (Ecuador, Colombia, and/or Venezuela) and the east (Brazil and Bolivia). American/Asian lineage II replaced lineage I after 2009. We estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor for American/Asian DENV-2 genotype in the Americas was in 1980, and 1984 and 1989 for lineages I and II, respectively. In light of evidence for increased virulence of lineage II of American/Asian DENV-2, our results support the need for continuous monitoring for the emergence of new DENV genotypes that may be associated with severe disease.
Minatoya, Lydia Yuriko; Sedlacek, William E.
Asian-American undergraduates (N=139) responded to a questionnaire covering demographic information and attitudes toward education, family, interracial contact, and racial discrimination. Findings suggested the continuing importance of Asian values even though respondents had little contact with members of their racial groups. (Author/RC)
Harada, Violet H.
This study analyzes the treatment of Asian Americans in a group of selected high school U.S. history textbooks published between 1994 and 1996. Using a content analysis technique, nine of the textbooks most widely used in Hawaii were evaluated in terms of Asian groups represented, events and personalities identified, and multicultural concepts…
Duleep, Harriet Orcutt; And Others
This report addresses the issues of whether discrimination adversely affects the economic status of Asian Americans today, and whether this group's relative economic status has improved over time. The study separately examines the economic status of the following six largest Asian groups in America: (1) Chinese; (2) Filipinos; (3) Japanese; (4)…
Cowart, Melinda F.; Wilhelm, Ron W.; Cowart, Ronald E.
Outlines the response of public agencies to the Asian immigrant community in Dallas, Texas, and problems that exist for these immigrants. Relates the story of the creation of the "Blue Dragons" Explorer Post that provides social support and service opportunities for Asian-American teens. Includes suggestions for educators from "Blue…
Published research suggests that literature should transmit ethnic and societal values as well as reassure one's own confidence and self-respect. This study provides a model for examining Asian-American children's and adolescent literature critically from the perspective of identity issues. It examines fifteen award-winning Asian-American…
Wang, Huaitang; Masuda, Takahiko; Ito, Kenichi; Rashid, Marghalara
Literature in cultural psychology suggests that compared with North Americans, East Asians prefer context-rich cultural products (e.g., paintings and photographs). The present article further examines the preferred amount of information in cultural products produced by East Asians and North Americans (Study 1: Society for Personality and Social Psychology conference posters; Study 2: government and university portal pages). The authors found that East Asians produced more information-rich products than did North Americans. Study 3 further examined people's information search speed when identifying target objects on mock webpages containing large amounts of information. The results indicated that East Asians were faster than North Americans in dealing with information on mock webpages with large amounts of information. Finally, the authors found that there were cultural differences as well as similarities in functional and aesthetic preferences regarding styles of information presentation. The interplay between cultural products and skills for accommodating to the cultural products is discussed.
Mistry, Jayanthi; Li, Jin; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Tseng, Vivian; Tirrell, Jonathan; Kiang, Lisa; Mistry, Rashmita; Wang, Yijie
The diversity of circumstances and developmental outcomes among Asian American children and youth poses a challenge for scholars interested in Asian American child development. This article addresses the challenge by offering an integrated conceptual framework based on three broad questions: (a) What are theory-predicated specifications of contexts that are pertinent for the development of Asian American children? (b) What are the domains of development and socialization that are particularly relevant? (c) How can culture as meaning-making processes be integrated in conceptualizations of development? The heuristic value of the conceptual model is illustrated by research on Asian American children and youth that examines the interconnected nature of specific features of context, pertinent aspects of development, and interpretive processes.
Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R; Champagne, Mariette C
Identity development is a highly salient task for adolescents, especially those from immigrant backgrounds, yet longitudinal research that tracks simultaneous change in ethnic identity and American identity over time has been limited. With a focus on 177 Asian American adolescents recruited from an emerging immigrant community, in the current study, we used hierarchical linear modeling and found that ethnic identity tends to remain fairly stable across the 4 years of high school, whereas American identity increases over time. When ethnic identity and American identity were examined simultaneously, consistent with existing research, ethnic identity was positively associated with positive relationships, high self-esteem, academic motivation, and lower levels of depression over time. Although American identity was not significantly associated with depression, positive links with relationships, self-esteem, and academic motivation were found. Both identities were interactively associated with academic motivation. Acculturative implications and the importance of considering the dual construction of ethnic identity and American identity in light of adolescent adjustment are discussed.
The American Cancer Society (ACS) Nationwide Asian-American/Pacific Islander (AAPI) Initiative is a continuing collaboration between the ACS and other organizations and community groups. With a view to incorporating access to quality treatment as an over-arching principal, the objectives of the AAPI Initiative are to provide strategic oversight to the ACS for outreach to AAPI populations and to develop a nationwide plan for the purpose of making ACS programs and services available to these populations. After a series of meetings in 2002, including a joint meeting between the Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training (AANCART) and the ACS, the first ACS Nationwide AAPI Council meeting was held in early 2003. The goals and objectives of this initiative are 1) to develop a plan for delivery of ACS programs and services to the AAPI population, 2) to develop a program for collaboration with organizations that can help the ACS reach its objectives, 3) to develop an advocacy program that enables the ACS to reach its objectives, and 4) to develop an income-development program to both reach and maintain these objectives. The ACS-AANCART collaboration is a great example of the type of collaboration that will make not only the ACS but also the cancer community as a whole successful in eradicating cancer as a major public health problem.
Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel
The current review paper summarizes the literature on parental emotion socialization in ethnically diverse families in the United States. Models of emotion socialization have been primarily developed using samples of European American parents and children. As such, current categorizations of "adaptive" and "maladaptive" emotion socialization practices may not be applicable to individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The review examines current models of emotion socialization, with particular attention paid to the demographic breakdown of the studies used to develop these models. Additionally, the review highlights studies examining emotion socialization practices in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families. The review is synthesized with summarizing themes of similarities and differences across ethnic groups, and implications for culturally sensitive research and practice are discussed.
Maxwell, Annette E; Crespi, Catherine M; Alano, Ryan E; Sudan, Madhuri; Bastani, Roshan
This analysis assessed the prevalence of excess body weight, physical inactivity and alcohol and tobacco use in Asian American subgroups. Using 2005 California Health Interview Survey data, we estimated the prevalence of body mass index (BMI) categories using both standard and World Health Organization-proposed Asian-specific categories, physical inactivity, and alcohol and tobacco use for Chinese (n = 1,285), Japanese (n = 421), Korean (n = 620), Filipino (n = 659) and Vietnamese (n = 480) Americans in California. About 80% of Japanese and Filipino American men and 70% of Korean American men were "increased/high risk" by Asian-specific BMI categories. Most Asian American subgroups were more likely to walk for transportation than non-Hispanic whites, but less likely to report other physical activities. Highest smoking and binge drinking prevalences were among Korean, Vietnamese and Filipino American men and Japanese and Korean American women. These results suggest risk profiles for each Asian American subgroup to consider when setting priorities for health promotion programs.
Gandhi, Kajal K; Baranowski, Tom; Anderson, Barbara J; Bansal, Nidhi; Redondo, Maria J
Latino and Asian-Americans represent the fastest growing immigrant populations in the United States. We aimed to review the current knowledge on the psychosocial factors that influence type 1 diabetes (T1D) care, education, and outcomes in Latino and Asian-American youth immigrants in the United States, as well as culturally sensitive programs to address health disparities. We conducted a narrative, conceptual review of studies on T1D in Latino and Asian-American youth and relevant studies in type 2 diabetes and adults. Approximately 50% of both Latino and Asian-American youth with T1D are in suboptimal glycemic control. Socioeconomic status, literacy, English proficiency, acculturation, access to health care, family functioning, mental health, and nutrition influence T1D care and outcomes. However, the degree to which these complex, inter-related and dynamic factors affect long-term T1D outcomes is largely unknown. Culturally sensitive programs for Latino or Asian-American youth with T1D are scarce in the United States. Research is needed among Latino and Asian-American youth with T1D so that comprehensive, culturally sensitive diabetes education, and care programs can be developed to decrease disparities in the health burden of these groups.
Koo, Kelly H.; Stephens, Kari A.; Lindgren, Kristen P.; George, William H.
Asian Americans have been understudied with respect to sexuality and rape and its contributory factors. Some attitudinal research has shown that Asian American college males tend to hold more rape-supportive beliefs than their White counterparts. Generally, this research treats ethnicity as a proxy for culture rather than examining specific facets of culture per se. The current study incorporated measures of misogynistic beliefs, acculturation, and ethnic identity to investigate these ethnic differences in rape-supportive attitudes. White (n = 222) and Asian American (n = 155) college men read an acquaintance rape vignette and evaluated it on four judgments: how much they blamed the perpetrator and the victim, how credible they viewed the victim’s refusal, and to what degree they defined the event as rape. Consistent with previous research, Asian American men made more rape-supportive judgments than Whites. This relationship was partially mediated by misogynistic beliefs for all judgments except the extent to which they defined the vignette as rape. Among Asian Americans, acculturation was negatively associated with all four rape vignette judgments above and beyond generational status, and ethnic identity was positively associated with two of the four judgments above and beyond acculturation and generational status. These findings suggest that cultural constructs are relevant to understanding rape-supportive attitudes among Asian American men, and may be useful for promoting culturally enhanced theoretical models of rape and sexual assault prevention efforts, as well as a deeper understanding of cultural influences on sexuality. PMID:21290256
Zhang, Wei; Hong, Seunghye
Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study, this work examines if and how perceived everyday discrimination is associated with psychological distress among Asian Americans and whether this association varies by important structural factors as education and place of education. Findings reveal that perception of discrimination is associated with increased levels of psychological distress. Most importantly, education moderates the discrimination-distress association such that the detrimental effect of discrimination is stronger for Asian Americans with college or more levels of education than for Asian Americans with less than college levels of education. Place of education further conditions the moderating effect of education: The foreign-educated Asian Americans with higher levels of education are affected most negatively by discrimination compared to others. This study highlights (1) the significant joint role of education and place of education in conditioning the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress, and (2) unique features of education in improving our understanding of Asian Americans' mental health.
Koo, Kelly H; Stephens, Kari A; Lindgren, Kristen P; George, William H
Asian Americans have been understudied with respect to sexuality and rape and its contributory factors. Some attitudinal research has shown that Asian American college males tend to hold more rape-supportive beliefs than their White counterparts. Generally, this research treats ethnicity as a proxy for culture rather than examining specific facets of culture per se. The current study incorporated measures of misogynistic beliefs, acculturation, and ethnic identity to investigate these ethnic differences in rape-supportive attitudes. White (n = 222) and Asian American (n = 155) college men read an acquaintance rape vignette and evaluated it on four judgments: how much they blamed the perpetrator and the victim, how credible they viewed the victim's refusal, and to what degree they defined the event as rape. Consistent with previous research, Asian American men made more rape-supportive judgments than Whites. This relationship was partially mediated by misogynistic beliefs for all judgments except the extent to which they defined the vignette as rape. Among Asian Americans, acculturation was negatively associated with all four rape vignette judgments above and beyond generational status, and ethnic identity was positively associated with two of the four judgments above and beyond acculturation and generational status. These findings suggest that cultural constructs are relevant to understanding rape-supportive attitudes among Asian American men, and may be useful for promoting culturally enhanced theoretical models of rape and sexual assault prevention efforts, as well as a deeper understanding of cultural influences on sexuality.
Asian-American Pacific Islanders (AAPI) are one of the fastest growing minority groups in America. Due to model minority stereotypes and a lack of empirical data, AAPI have been thought to have lower than expected rates of substance use disorders and behavioral addictions. Recent data demonstrated that this conception is not true for all AAPI subgroups. As an example, rates of alcohol use disorders remain close to that of non-AAPI populations, even among AAPI that experience the flushing syndrome thought to protect from alcoholism. Another example of emerging data shows that methamphetamine dependence is particularly high (approximately 10%) among the Pacific Islander population, which is a startling figure. One behavioral addiction gaining more attention among AAPI is pathological gambling. Recent community surveys have shown that pathological gambling rates among AAPI vary but can be strikingly high. Despite the growing body of evidence that shows that addictive disorders in AAPI are significant and are not absent, there remain many barriers to treatment. These barriers include cultural values, individual factors, and practical issues. This article will review current epidemiological rates of addictive disorders among AAPI, will describe the current treatment barriers that face this population, and will provide practical solutions to breaking down these barriers. PMID:20428303
... anniversary of the Chinese Exclusion Act's repeal—milestones that helped mend deep wounds of systemic... www.AsianPacificHeritage.gov to learn more about the history of Asian Americans and Pacific...
Sy, Susan R.; Schulenberg, John E.
This study examines the predictive relationships among 309 Asian American and 9471 European American parents' beliefs, expectations, and involvement, and their children's math and reading achievement trajectories during children's transition to school. Data came from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), an ongoing…
Romero, Andrea J.; Carvajal, Scott C.; Valle, Fabian; Orduna, Michele
The perception of bicultural stress, stress due to discrimination/prejudice, immigration, and acculturation, was investigated in relation to mental well-being in a sample of urban Latino (n = 304), European American (n = 215), and Asian American (n = 131) 8th grade students. Bicultural stress was reported by all ethnic groups and was significantly…
Sage, Kara D.; Jegatheesan, Brinda
Background: This study examined typically developing children's perceptions of their siblings with autism and their relationships with them in a European American and an Asian American family. Method: Data were drawn from interviews with the siblings using the "draw-and-tell" technique and participant observation in the homes of the 2 families.…
Kids Count Minnesota, Minneapolis.
This Kids Count data book examines trends in the well-being of Minnesota's African-American, American Indian, Asian, and Latino children. The statistical portrait is based on 22 indicators of child well-being: (1) attitudes about race; (2) housing patterns; (3) future plans; (4) social involvement; (5) park usage; (6) negative treatment; (7) bias…
Tashiro, Cathy J
The United States has experienced rapid growth of the Asian American population in the last decade. People of mixed ancestry are a significant proportion of Asian America. Little is known about the health beliefs and health practices of this extremely diverse population. Thirteen older racially mixed Asian Americans, ranging in age from 48-94, were interviewed in a qualitative study that included questions about identity, health beliefs, and health practices. Narrative analysis revealed a relationship between identity, health practices, and interpretation of experiences with health care providers.
Alvarez, Alvin N; Juang, Linda; Liang, Christopher T H
Due to the limited psychological research on Asian Americans' experiences with racism, in the current study the authors examined the relationships between racial socialization, racial identity, and perceptions of racism, with a college-aged sample (N = 254) consisting primarily of Chinese Americans and Filipino Americans. With the use of multiple regression analyses, the results indicated that racial socialization, particularly discussions about race and racism, was positively related to one's perceptions of racism. Moreover, the study also showed that the relationship between racial socialization and perceptions of racism was partially mediated by racial identity schemas. To understand how Asian Americans regard racism, it is useful to have an understanding of racial identity theory and the manner in which Asian Americans are socialized to perceive racism.
Berenbaum, Howard; Okazaki, Sumie
The current study examined perceptions of living up to parental expectations and personal standards as possible mediators of the relationship between ethnicity and worry in a sample of 836 Asian American and 856 White American college students. Asian Americans reported higher frequency of academic- and family-related worry, but they did not report higher levels of global tendency to worry. Perceptions of living up to parental expectations of current academic performance and personal standards for preparation for a future career partially explained ethnic differences in frequency of academic worry. Personal standards and perceptions of living up to parental expectations for respect for the family partially explained ethnic differences in frequency of family worry. The findings highlight the importance of targeting domain-specific personal standards and perceived parental expectations to reduce worry among Asian Americans. PMID:22416875
Saw, Anne; Berenbaum, Howard; Okazaki, Sumie
The current study examined perceptions of living up to parental expectations (LPE) and personal standards as possible mediators of the relationship between ethnicity and worry in a sample of 836 Asian American and 856 White American college students. Asian Americans reported higher frequency of academic- and family-related worries, but they did not report higher levels of global tendency to worry. Perceptions of LPE of current academic performance and personal standards for preparation for a future career partially explained ethnic differences in frequency of academic worry. Personal standards and perceptions of LPE for respect for the family partially explained ethnic differences in frequency of family worry. The findings highlight the importance of targeting domain-specific personal standards and perceived parental expectations to reduce worry among Asian Americans.
Fu, Alyssa S; Markus, Hazel Rose
"Tiger Mother" Amy Chua provoked a culture clash with her claim that controlling parenting in Asian American (AA) contexts produces more successful children than permissive parenting in European American (EA) contexts. At the heart of this controversy is a difference in the normative models of self that guide behavior. Ideas and practices prevalent in AA contexts emphasize that the person is and should be interdependent with one's close others, especially one's mother. In contrast, EA contexts emphasize the person as independent, even from one's mother. We find that AA compared with EA high school students experience more interdependence with their mothers and pressure from them, but that the pressure does not strain their relationship with their mothers. Furthermore, following failure, AAs compared with EAs are more motivated by their mothers, and AAs are particularly motivated by pressure from their mothers when it conveys interdependence.
Shen, Biing-Jiun; Stroud, Laura R; Niaura, Raymond
Compared to other ethnic groups, Asian Americans show significantly lower rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We tested the hypothesis that Asian Americans would show reduced cardiovascular responses to laboratory stressors than Caucasians. Forty-three Asians (18 men, 25 women) and 77 Caucasians (36 men, 41 women) with a mean age of 24 years (SD = 3.93) participated in a stress reactivity protocol consisting of four tasks (speech, serial subtraction, mirror tracing, handgrip) while heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Asian Americans demonstrated overall lower reactivity across tasks for SBP F(1,117 = 7.48, p < .01) and a trend toward lower HR response F(1,117 = 3.18, p < .10). A significant ethnicity by task interaction was observed for HR reactivity F(3,351 = 2.94, p < .05) such that Caucasians showed greater responses for the subtraction task.
Tran, Alisia G T T; Lee, Richard M
This study examined a specific type of racial microaggression known as an exceptionalizing stereotype, in which an action is framed as interpersonally complimentary but perpetuates negative stereotypical views of a racial/ethnic group. Asian American participants (N = 68) were assigned to 1 of 3 brief semistructured interview conditions that highlight an exceptionalizing stereotype of Asian Americans to varying degrees. In the low racially loaded condition, participants were told, "You speak English well" by a White confederate. In the high racially loaded condition, they were told, "You speak English well for an Asian." In the control condition, the confederate said, "Nice talking to you." Only participants in the high racially loaded condition rated their partner, the interaction, and future interactions less favorably than participants in the control condition. They also evaluated their partner and interaction less positively than participants in the low racial loading condition. The results suggest exceptionalizing stereotypes can be interpersonally damaging for Asian Americans.
Collantes, Lourdes Y., Ed.
Six symposium papers are included in this document. The first paper, by Henry Chang, is a brief profile of Asian/Pacific American (APA) librarians, emphasizing the need for more data on this group and the need for the group to become more assertive of their rights to equal opportunity in the field. The second paper, by Jane Katayama, addresses…
Despite their popular portrayal as high achieving and structurally incorporated, race continues to shape the career choices of Asian American college students. As second-generation Americans, Asian Americans negotiate a constellation of factors when deciding their career choices, most notably, pressures from immigrant parents, awareness of labor…
Foster, Susan; Kinuthia, Waithera
This article explores the ways in which deaf college students who are members of minority racial groups think about and describe their identities. In-depth, semistructured interviews with 33 deaf students of Asian American, Hispanic American, and African American background were analyzed for themes regarding the self-reported identities of respondents. Results suggest that each person is a constellation of many parts, some of which are stronger than others but any of which can be drawn out in response to a particular set of circumstances, resulting in a contextual and interactive model of identity. Four factors are described as central to this "intraindividual" model: individual characteristics, situational conditions, social conditions, and societal conditions. Additionally, the model includes a biographical component reflected in changes in identity that occur over time. Findings are discussed as they relate to identity theory. The article is concluded with recommendations for further research, as well as considerations for educators and counselors of deaf minority students.
Masuda, Akihiko; Boone, Matthew S.
The present study examined whether mental health stigma (i.e., negative attitudes toward people with a psychological disorder) and self-concealment are unique predictors of help-seeking attitudes in Asian American and European American college students with no history of seeking professional psychological services. The Asian American group had…
Mordkowitz, Eliott R.; Ginsburg, Herbert P.
The family backgrounds of successful Asian students were examined to generate testable hypotheses about the socialization of exemplary school achievement of these students. Structured interviews were conducted with 15 Asian students, all of whom would be considered in the top 5% of achievement nationally. These were Harvard University…
Byun, Soo-yong; Park, Hyunjoon
Using data from the Education Longitudinal Study, this study assessed the relevance of shadow education to the high academic performance of East Asian American students by examining how East Asian American students differed from other racial/ethnic students in the prevalence, purpose, and effects of using the two forms – commercial test preparation service and private one-to-one tutoring – of SAT coaching, defined as the American style of shadow education. East Asian American students were most likely to take a commercial SAT test preparation course for the enrichment purpose, and benefited most from taking this particular form of SAT coaching. However, this was not the case for private SAT one-to-one tutoring. While black students were most likely to utilize private tutoring for the remedial purpose, the impact of private tutoring was trivial for all racial/ethnic groups including East Asian American students. The authors discussed broader implications of the findings on racial/ethnic inequalities in educational achievement beyond the relevance of shadow education for the academic success of East Asian American students. PMID:24163483
... American dream for centuries. Generations of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders have helped develop and... women from the Asia-Pacific region have forged enduring links between America and other nations as they... States of our rich shared history and integrated future with the dynamic Asia-Pacific region....
Alamilla, Saul G.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Walker, Tamisha; Sisson, Frederick Riley
This study examined the potential moderating influences of behavioral and values acculturation and enculturation in a sample of 113 Asian Americans. Findings from regression analyses revealed that acculturation to European American cultural values, alone and in interaction with perceived racism, was related to less psychological symptoms, whereas…
Kim, Bryan S. K.; Liang, Christopher T. H.; Li, Lisa C.
Examination of counselor nonverbal behaviors revealed that European American counselors displayed significantly greater frequency of adaptors, postural shifts, and smiles than did Asian American counselors. The frequency of smiles was significantly positively correlated with client-rated session positivity and session arousal, and the frequency of…
Yu, Mei-yu; Seetoo, Amy D; Hong, Oi Saeng; Song, Lixin; Raizade, Rekha; Weller, Adelwisa L Agas
Mammography and Pap smear tests are known to be effective early detection measures for breast and cervical cancers, respectively, but Asian Americans are reluctant to make visits for routine preventive care. Quantitative and qualitative research conducted by the Healthy Asian Americans Project (HAAP) between 1996 and 1999 indicated that Asian residents in southeastern Michigan, like the general Asian population in the US, underutilized early cancer screening programs due to cultural, psychosocial, linguistic, and economic barriers. This article reports how the HAAP's research findings guided the Michigan Breast and Cervical Cancer Control Program (BCCCP) promotion (conducted from 2000 to 2001 among medically underserved Asian women residing in southeastern Michigan), and how evaluation of the HAAP's BCCCP promotion will direct future research and health promotion programs. The article presents strategies used to improve access to cancer screening programs for diverse Asian sub-groups as well as outcomes of the 2-year HAAP's BCCCP promotion among the target population. Discussion regarding lessons and experiences gained from integration of research and practice has implications on design and implementation of the cancer screening promotion for the rapidly increasing Asian American population as well as other medically underserved minority populations in the US.
Chan, Wayne; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo
We examined whether anxious expectations of discrimination among Asian Americans can help explain this group's elevated levels of internalizing symptomatology, such as lower self-esteem (Twenge & Crocker, 2002) and higher depressive symptoms (Okazaki, 1997, 2002) relative to European Americans. Study 1 reports on the development and validation of a scale measuring status-based rejection sensitivity among Asian Americans (RS-A). In Study 2, scores on the RS-A were related to spontaneous discrimination attributions specifically in situations where discrimination is both applicable and possible for Asian Americans. Study 3 revealed that shame mediated the relationship between RS-A and internalizing symptomatology. Implications for well-being and intergroup interactions are discussed.
Lim, Sungwoo; Yi, Stella S.; De La Cruz, Nneka Lundy; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau
Evidence on ethnic enclave-health associations for Asian Americans is limited due to an inconsistent definition of ethnic enclave. The authors aimed to establish a robust criterion for defining Asian enclaves in New York City (NYC) and assessed the association between enclave residence and health outcomes among Asian American adults. Data came from 2009-12 NYC Community Health Surveys and 2008-12 American Community Survey. Asian enclave was defined as an area with high dissimilarity and isolation scores as well as high concentration of Asians. Five of 55 NYC community districts were identified as Asian enclaves. After controlling for confounding, enclave residence was associated with positive perception of general health with borderline significance (prevalence ratio = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.98, 1.15), but not with current smoking, hypertension, and diabetes. Ethnic enclave residence in urban areas may not produce a substantial impact on chronic health outcomes for Asian Americans beyond individual-level factors. PMID:26699378
Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Kaya, Aylin; Grivel, Margaux; Clinton, Lauren
Asian Americans represent the fastest- growing population in the United States (Le 2010). At the same time, there is evidence that problematic drinking rates are increasing among young-adult Asian Americans (Grant et al. 2004). Accordingly, it is essential to understand the etiological determinants and mechanisms of risk that may help explain this growth in problematic alcohol use among this group. The high prevalence of the ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 alleles in a large percentage of Asian subgroups has been studied as a potential protective factors against alcohol abuse, yet some individuals who possess these genes still engage in problematic alcohol use (Wall et al. 2001). Other social and psychological factors may account for this discrepancy. Thus, some factors, such as negative physiological alcohol expectancies, are protective against alcohol abuse in this population (Hendershot et al. 2009). Sociocultural factors such as acculturation and nativity also may help explain drinking patterns among this group. The literature suggests that vast and significant within-group differences exist among Asian Americans, such that individuals who were born in the United States and/or are more acculturated are at elevated risk for alcohol abuse and related problems (Hahm et al. 2003). Differences also have been observed among Asian-American ethnic subgroups, with some groups (e.g., Japanese, Korean, and multi-Asian Americans) reporting higher rates of drinking compared with others (e.g., Chinese and Vietnamese Americans) (Iwamoto et al. 2012). Furthermore, Asian Americans who report higher levels of depressive symptoms, psychological distress, and perceived discrimination seem to be at a heightened risk for abusing alcohol (Iwamoto et al. 2011a; Nishimura et al. 2005; Yoo et al. 2010). Finally, an emerging body of research examining gender-relevant factors, including feminine and masculine norms, may help explain within-group differences among Asian-American women and men. Thus
Kim, Hee Jun; Park, EunMi; Storr, Carla L.; Tran, Katherine; Juon, Hee-Soon
Objectives In this systematic review, we provide an overview of the literature on depression among Asian-Americans and explore the possible variations in depression prevalence estimates by methodological and demographic factors. Methods Six databases were used to identify studies reporting a prevalence estimate for depression in Asian-American adults in non-clinical settings. Meta-analysis was used to calculate pooled estimates of rates of depression by assessment type. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed for subgroup analyses by gender, age, ethnicity, and other participant characteristics. Results A total of 58 studies met the review criteria (n = 21.731 Asian-American adults). Heterogeneity across the studies was considerably high. The prevalence of major depression assessed via standardized clinical interviews ranged between 4.5% and 11.3%. Meta-analyses revealed comparable estimated prevalence rates of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (35.6%, 95% CI 27.6%–43.7%) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (33.1%, 95% CI 14.9%–51.3%). Estimates varied by Asian racial/ethnic group and other participant characteristics. Estimates of depression among special populations, which included maternity, caregivers, and homosexuals, were significantly higher than estimates obtained from other samples (58.8% vs 29.3%, p = .003). Estimates of depression among Korean and Filipino-Americans were similar (33.3%-34.4%); however, the estimates were twice as high as those for Chinese-Americans (15.7%; p = .012 for Korean, p = .049 for Filipino). Conclusion There appears to be wide variability in the prevalence rates of depression among Asian-Americans in the US. Practitioners and researchers who serve Asian-American adults need to be sensitive to the potential diversity of the expression of depression and treatment-seeking across Asian-American subgroups. Public health policies to increase Asian-American access to mental health care
Thapa, Priyata; Sung, Yoonhee; Klingbeil, David A; Lee, Chih-Yuan Steven; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie
Understanding the context of suicidal behaviors is critical for effective suicide prevention strategies. Although suicide is an important topic for Asian Americans, there is limited information about what Asian Americans' attitudes are towards suicide and their perceptions about the effectiveness of prevention efforts. These questions are critical to examine to provide foundational knowledge for determining how best to intervene. In this study, Asian American (n = 87) and White (n = 87) participants completed self-report indexes on their knowledge of depression and suicide (e.g., estimates of suicide rates), coping attitudes (e.g., help-seeking) and suicide prevention attitudes (e.g., usefulness of PSAs). The results indicate that in comparison to Whites, Asian Americans perceived suicidal behavior to be more common, perceived a stronger link between depression and suicide, less frequently endorsed help-seeking strategies, and reported more concern or distress after viewing a suicide prevention PSA. These preliminary results also suggest the possibility of cultural differences in perceptions of suicide prevention messages. The implications of these findings are discussed with a focus on providing recommendations for exploring suicide prevention efforts for Asian Americans.
Asian American youth are less likely to be sexually active than adolescents from other ethnic groups; however, with acculturation, they may adopt the more liberal sexual norms of American society. Moreover, owing to differing parental expectations for sons and daughters about sexuality, gender disparity might exist in the adoption of American sexual norms. This article used the proportional hazards model and the generalized estimating equations Poisson model to examine how acculturation influences the initiation of sexual intercourse and the number of sexual partners. The results show that acculturation leads to more liberal sexual mores among Asian American youth. However, despite what might be expected from the sexual double standard, the models show that more acculturated females, as indicated by their use of English at home, had an earlier onset of sexual intercourse and a higher number of sexual partners. This is the opposite of what would be predicted by the sexual double standard theory. This might be due to the fact that Asian females tend to be more socially accepted by the host society than Asian males. Information on partners shows that Asian American females have more diversified racial backgrounds than their male counterparts. They are also more likely to have older sexual partners.
Bender, Melinda S.; Choi, JiWon; Won, Gloria Y.; Fukuoka, Yoshimi
Objective Asian Americans are the fastest-growing race in the United States. However, they are largely underrepresented in health research, particularly lifestyle interventions. A systematic review was conducted to analyze the characteristics and quality of lifestyle intervention literature promoting changes in physical activity (PA), diet, and/or weight management targeting Asian Americans. Method A systematic electronic database search identified randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT), involving lifestyle interventions for Asian Americans, published from 1995 to 2013 conducted in the U.S. Data extraction was conducted from August through December 2013. Results Seven RCTs met the review criteria. Cross-study comparisons were difficult due to diversity in: RCT intervention designs, cultural appropriateness, outcome measures, sample size, and race/ethnic groups. Overall, risk of bias and cultural appropriateness scores were moderate to low. Five out of seven RCTs showed significant between group differences for PA, diet, and weight. In general, sample sizes were small or lacked sufficient power to fully analyze intervention efficacy. Conclusion Evidence of the efficacy for lifestyle interventions among Asian Americans was mixed. Recommendations include: more rigorous RCT designs, more objective measures, larger Asian American sample sizes, culturally appropriate interventions, individual tailoring, maintenance phase with support, and providing education and modeling of lifestyle behaviors. PMID:25086326
Hong, Seunghye; Walton, Emily; Tamaki, Emi; Sabin, Janice A.
This study examines lifetime prevalence estimates of mental disorders among Asian Americans with a focus on differences by nativity, gender, and other relevant sociodemographic correlates. We analyze cross-sectional data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), the first national epidemiological survey of Asian Americans which used a probability sample of household resident adults in the United States (N=2,095). US-born Asian Americans are more likely to experience lifetime mood disorders, substance use disorders, and any mental disorders compared to immigrants. Lifetime substance use disorders are more likely to occur among men rather than women. Nativity and gender show joint associations with different mental disorders: US-born women are at the greatest risk for any mood disorders; US-born men are at the greatest risk for any substance use disorders; and immigrant women are at the lowest risk for substance use disorders compared to all other groups. Analysis of the sociodemographic correlates reveals that the youngest immigrant women showed significantly higher rates of any mood disorder compared to other immigrant women. Additionally, among immigrant men, those with low household income are at a higher risk for mood disorders, and those who report fair/poor English proficiency have a higher prevalence of anxiety and mood disorders. This study provides documentation of prevalence differences in detailed mental health categories along salient axes of stratification among Asian Americans and provides a foundation for future research aimed at understanding the causes and correlates of mental health disparities. PMID:25621123
Iwamoto, Derek K.; Corbin, William; Fromme, Kim
Aims Heavy episodic drinking (HED) among Asian Americans is a growing concern. However, little is known about the etiology and developmental patterns of HED among Asian Americans, even though this group is one of the fastest-growing populations in the United States. Design Three year longitudinal design. Participants Sample included 404 Asian American college students transitioning from high school, through the college years. Measurement Measures included heavy episodic drinking, parental and peer relationships, alcohol expectancies, drinking values, and alcohol-related problems. Findings Results from growth-mixture models (GMM) identified two discrete latent classes of HED comprising 59% of our sample: these trajectory classes (high increasers and low increasers) corresponded to expected changes and stability in well-established correlates of drinking behaviour, including alcohol-related problems, personal drinking values and alcohol expectancies. Parental awareness and caring and quality of peer relationships during senior year of high school were associated directly and indirectly with HED class membership. Conclusion These findings advance the literature by providing information about the developmental course of HED among Asian American young adults. The significant within-group variability in problematic drinking in this sample highlights the fact that subgroups of high-risk drinkers can be identified even in relatively low-risk groups such as Asian Americans. PMID:21040058
Gee, Gilbert C.; Ro, Annie; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Chae, David
Research shows that racial discrimination is related to illness among diverse racial and ethnic populations. Studies of racial discrimination and health among Asian Americans, however, remain underdeveloped. In this paper, the authors review evidence on racial discrimination and health among Asian Americans, identify gaps in the literature, and provide suggestions for future research. They identified 62 empirical articles assessing the relation between discrimination and health among Asian Americans. The majority of articles focused on mental health problems, followed by physical and behavioral problems. Most studies find that discrimination was associated with poorer health, although the most consistent findings were for mental health problems. This review suggests that future studies should continue to investigate the following: 1) the measurement of discrimination among Asian Americans, whose experiences may be qualitatively different from those of other racial minority groups; 2) the heterogeneity among Asian Americans, including those factors that are particularly salient in this population, such as ethnic ancestry and immigration history; and 3) the health implications of discrimination at multiple ecologic levels, ranging from the individual level to the structural level. PMID:19805401
Carabez, Rebecca M; Swanner, J Anthony; Yoo, Grace J; Ho, Minh
Asian Americans are disproportionately affected by hepatitis B (HBV) infection. In the USA, one in ten Asian Americans is infected with HBV. The purpose of the study was to explore knowledge, fears and follow-up care among Asian Americans chronically infected with hepatitis B. A sample of 154 completed an online survey which included demographic information, follow-up treatment information, and HBV knowledge and fears/concerns. Our findings indicate that there are differences by ethnicity and birthplace among Asian Americans in terms of follow-up care and treatment. In addition, our study indicates that there were substantial knowledge gaps regarding contracting HBV, transmission, and prevention. We found that HBV-infected respondents had many fears about their infection. Three primary concerns were identified: (a) concerns related to liver cancer and overall health, (b) transmission to loved ones, and (c) stigma. Our findings indicate that Asian Americans chronically infected with HBV need more education to manage HBV including information on the importance of follow-up treatment and care and education on preventing transmission, risk for liver cancer, and HBV impact on overall health.
Murray, Stephen O
This article explores conceptions of same-sex sexual behavior and desires by American gay males who grew up in Pacific Island or Asian societies. In the absence of systematic survey data, representations, which are not assumed to be autobiographical, by two South Asian émigrés to Canada (Badruddin Khan and Shyam Selvadurai), two second generation Filipino-Americans (Joël Tan and Ricardo Ramos), a second generation Chinese-Hawaiian (Norman Wong) and three men of Chinese descent born and raised in Southeast Asia (Lawrence Chua, Justin Chin, and T. C. Huo) are examined. The unsatisfying script of sexual submission of Asians to whites is particularly central, except for the South Asians. These books provide recurrent evidence of role distance, of switching roles (often without rewriting a dominance-submission conception of insertion-reception) and of some degree of reconceiving the (sexual) self.
Xu, Yu; Davidhizar, Ruth
In the context of globalization and changing American demographics, it is becoming increasingly important to understand and communicate effectively with people from diverse cultural and racial/ethnic backgrounds. This article applies the framework of cultural variability and intercultural communication research literature to examine and highlight the different communication behaviors of Asians and non-Asians in the United States. The meanings of various verbal and nonverbal behaviors of Asian students are examined to clarify their communication patterns. Culture-based assumptions are identified, and measures to improve intercultural communication in nursing education are provided.
Srinivasan, S; Guillermo, T
The 2000 census, with its option for respondents to mark 1 or more race categories, is the first US census to recognize the multiethnic nature of all US populations but especially Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders. If Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders have for the most part been "invisible" in policy debates regarding such matters as health care and immigration, it has been largely because of a paucity of data stemming from the lack of disaggregated data on this heterogeneous group of peoples. Studies at all levels should adhere to these disaggregated classifications. Also, in addition to oversampling procedures, there should be greater regional/local funding for studies in regions where Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander populations are substantial.
Srinivasan, S; Guillermo, T
The 2000 census, with its option for respondents to mark 1 or more race categories, is the first US census to recognize the multiethnic nature of all US populations but especially Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders. If Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders have for the most part been "invisible" in policy debates regarding such matters as health care and immigration, it has been largely because of a paucity of data stemming from the lack of disaggregated data on this heterogeneous group of peoples. Studies at all levels should adhere to these disaggregated classifications. Also, in addition to oversampling procedures, there should be greater regional/local funding for studies in regions where Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander populations are substantial. PMID:11076241
Walton, Emily; Takeuchi, David T; Herting, Jerald R; Alegría, Margarita
The educational gradient in health is one of the most robust associations in social science research. Results of the current study indicate that, like the pattern observed among other racial and ethnic minority groups, the well-established educational gradient in health is attenuated among Asian Americans. We also show that the gradient association between educational attainment and self-rated health among Asian Americans depends on whether they receive the bulk of their education in the United States or abroad. Compared to the schooling received in the United States, being educated in a foreign country does not result in the same health payoffs for increasing educational attainment. Analysis of an extensive set of mediators indicates that a foreign education restricts economic opportunities, limits positive social interaction, and inhibits English language proficiency. We discuss the implications for Asian Americans, a group composed largely of immigrants who received their education outside the United States.
Ho, Ivy K; Dinh, Khanh T; Smith, Sable A
Although intimate partner violence is prevalent among Southeast Asian American women, little is known about the associations between the experience of intimate partner violence and negative health outcomes in this population. Resnick et al. proposed a model explaining the development of health problems following violent assault. This article assesses the applicability of Resnick et al.'s model to Southeast Asian American women who have experienced intimate partner violence by reviewing cultural, historical, and social factors in this population. Our review indicates that the applicability of Resnick et al.'s model to Southeast Asian American women is mixed, with some components of the model fitting well with this population and others requiring a more nuanced and complex perspective. Future studies should take into consideration cultural, historical, and social factors.
Fuligni, Andrew J; Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R; Baldelomar, Oscar
An important question for the acculturation of adolescents from immigrant families is whether they retain ethnic labels that refer to their national origin (e.g., Mexican, Chinese) or adopt labels that are dominant in American society (e.g., Latino, Asian American, American). Approximately 380 adolescents from Asian and Latin American immigrant families selected ethnic labels during each of the 4 years of high school (age span = 14.87-17.82 years). Results indicated no normative trend either toward or away from identifying most closely with pan-ethnic or American ethnic labels. Significant numbers of adolescents changed their ethnic labels from year to year, however and these changes were associated with fluctuations in adolescents' ethnic affirmation and exploration and proficiency in their heritage languages.
Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, You Seung; Kim, Su Yeong; Park, Irene Kim
Asian American parenting is often portrayed as highly controlling and even harsh. This study empirically tested the associations between a set of recently developed Korean ga-jung-kyo-yuk measures and several commonly used Western parenting measures to accurately describe Asian American family processes, specifically those of Korean Americans. The results show a much nuanced and detailed picture of Korean American parenting as a blend of Western authoritative and authoritarian styles with positive and—although very limited—negative parenting. Certain aspects of ga-jung-kyo-yuk are positively associated with authoritative style or authoritarian style, or even with both of them simultaneously. They were positively associated with positive parenting (warmth, acceptance, and communication) but not with harsh parenting (rejection and negative discipline). Exceptions to this general pattern were Korean traditional disciplinary practices and the later age of separate sleeping of children. The study discusses implications of these findings and provides suggestions for future research. PMID:23977415
Cabezas, Andres F.; Krebes, Kristi; Hussey, Michael M.; Santoni, Brandon G.; Kim, Hyuong Sik
Background The aim of this study was to determine if there were significant differences in glenohumeral joint morphology between North American and East Asian populations that may influence sizing and selection of shoulder arthroplasty systems. Methods Computed tomography reconstructions of 92 North American and 58 East Asian patients were used to perform 3-dimensional measurements. The proximal humeral position was normalized in all patients by aligning it with the scapular plane utilizing anatomic landmarks. Measurements were performed on the humerus and scapula and included coronal and axial humeral head radius, humeral neck shaft and articular arc angles, glenoid height and width, and critical shoulder angle. Glenohumeral relationships were also measured and included lateral distance to the greater tuberosity and acromion, abduction lever arm, and acromial index. Parametric and nonparametric statistical analyses were used to compare population metrics. Results East Asian glenohumeral measurements were significantly smaller for all linear metrics (p < 0.05), with the exception of acromial length, which was greater than in the North American cohort (p < 0.001). The increase in acromial length affected all measurements involving the acromion including abduction lever arms. No difference was found between the neck shaft and articular angular measurements. Conclusions The East Asian population exhibited smaller shoulder morphometrics than their North American cohort, with the exception of an extended acromial overhang. The morphologic data can provide some additional factors to consider when choosing an optimal shoulder implant for the East Asian population, in addition to creating future designs that may better accommodate this population. PMID:27583111
Thapa, Priyata; Sung, Yoonhee; Klingbeil, David A.; Lee, Chih-Yuan Steven; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie
Understanding the context of suicidal behaviors is critical for effective suicide prevention strategies. Although suicide is an important topic for Asian Americans, there is limited information about what Asian Americans’ attitudes are towards suicide and their perceptions about the effectiveness of prevention efforts. These questions are critical to examine to provide foundational knowledge for determining how best to intervene. In this study, Asian American (n = 87) and White (n = 87) participants completed self-report indexes on their knowledge of depression and suicide (e.g., estimates of suicide rates), coping attitudes (e.g., help-seeking) and suicide prevention attitudes (e.g., usefulness of PSAs). The results indicate that in comparison to Whites, Asian Americans perceived suicidal behavior to be more common, perceived a stronger link between depression and suicide, less frequently endorsed help-seeking strategies, and reported more concern or distress after viewing a suicide prevention PSA. These preliminary results also suggest the possibility of cultural differences in perceptions of suicide prevention messages. The implications of these findings are discussed with a focus on providing recommendations for exploring suicide prevention efforts for Asian Americans. PMID:26690227
Choi, Heeseung; Park, Hanjong; Suarez, Marie L; Park, Chang; Zhao, Zhongsheng; Wilkie, Diana J
Objective The Truth about Suicide video has been widely used but has never been empirically tested regarding its cultural appropriateness for Asian Americans. The purpose of the study was to determine the feasibility of using the video in a web-based suicide awareness programme for Asian American and non-Hispanic white college students. Methods A cross-sectional, comparative, web-based study was conducted with 227 Asian Americans and 204 non-Hispanic whites at a university in the Midwest region of the USA. Study participants completed a questionnaire measuring their cultural orientation and attitudes towards suicide, watched the 27 min video, completed a debriefing session and evaluated the video's overall suitability. Results Asian Americans rated the suicide awareness video significantly lower for cultural relevance than did non-Hispanic whites (F=5.479, p=0.02). Collectivist cultural orientation was a significant predictor for cultural relevance, credibility and appeal; however, evaluation of the video's cultural relevance was negatively affected by Asian ethnicity. Conclusions Cultural orientation and race/ethnicity should be strongly considered when web-based suicide awareness programmes are developed for college students. PMID:28003296
Le, Thuy T; Farkas, Leslie G; Ngim, Rexon C K; Levin, L Scott; Forrest, Christopher R
Nine projective linear measurements were taken to determine morphometric differences of the face among healthy young adult Chinese, Vietnamese, and Thais (60 in each group) and to assess the validity of six neoclassical facial canons in these populations. In addition, the findings in the Asian ethnic groups were compared to the data of 60 North American Caucasians. The canons served as criteria for determining the differences between the Asians and Caucasians. In neither Asian nor Caucasian subjects were the three sections of the facial profile equal. The validity of the five other facial canons was more frequent in Caucasians (range: 16.7-36.7%) than in Asians (range: 1.7-26.7%). Horizontal measurement results were significantly greater in the faces of the Asians (en-en, al-al, zy-zy) than in their white counterparts; as a result, the variation between the classical proportions and the actual measurements was significantly higher among Asians (range: 90-100%) than Caucasians (range: 13.3-48%). The dominant characteristics of the Asian face were a wider intercanthal distance in relation to a shorter palpebral fissure, a much wider soft nose within wide facial contours, a smaller mouth width, and a lower face smaller than the forehead height. In the absence of valid anthropometric norms of craniofacial measurements and proportion indices, our results, based on quantitative analysis of the main vertical and horizontal measurements of the face, offers surgeons guidance in judging the faces of Asian patients in preparation for corrective surgery.
Disordered eating and body dissatisfaction are occurring among Asian American women, but the vast majority of treatment literature is based on White Western women. Empirically supported treatments are increasingly encouraged for eating disorders, but therapists find little guidance for implementing them in a culturally sensitive manner. This paper reviews eating problems in Asian American women and explores concepts important to cultural competency in therapy. Examples of how cultural adaptations could be made to an empirically supported treatment are illustrated in a case scenario using aspects of C. G. Fairburn's Enhanced Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Eating Disorders (2008).
Boehm, Julia K; Lyubomirsky, Sonja; Sheldon, Kennon M
Growing evidence suggests that well-being interventions can be effective. However, it is unclear whether happiness-increasing practices are equally effective for individuals from different cultural backgrounds. To investigate this question, Anglo Americans and predominantly foreign-born Asian Americans were randomly assigned to express optimism, convey gratitude, or list their past experiences (control group). Multilevel analyses indicated that participants in the optimism and gratitude conditions reported enhanced life satisfaction relative to those in the control condition. However, Anglo Americans in the treatment conditions demonstrated larger increases in life satisfaction relative to Asian Americans, while both cultural groups in the control condition showed the least improvement. These results are consistent with the idea that the value individualist cultures place on self-improvement and personal agency bolsters the efforts of Anglo Americans to become more satisfied, whereas collectivist cultures' de-emphasis of self-focus and individual goals interferes with the efforts of Asian Americans to pursue enhanced well-being.
Schuyler, Robert L., Ed.
This monograph contains fourteen articles dealing with archaeological studies on Black and Asian ethnic groups in the United States. Papers on Afro-American culture history include: (1) "Race and Class on Antebellum Plantations," by John Solomon Otto; (2) "Looking for the 'Afro' in Colono-Indian Pottery," by Leland Ferguson; (3) a study of "Black…
Uses data from a qualitative study of 64 postcollege, second-generation Chinese and Korean Americans to explore negotiations of race and identity during the college years. Participants were disengaged from pan-Asian student activities. Findings highlight the diversity of social patterns and experiences of this group. (SLD)
Marvis, Barbara J.
As part of a five-volume series, this collection of biographical sketches of Asian Americans who have made contributions to life in the United States profiles individuals who are role models for all children. Written at a reading level for grades five to six, the biographies feature Asian Americans of different ethnic backgrounds, exploring the…
Gonzalez, Anna K.
This dissertation seeks to rearticulate racial formations in the United States and expand the discourse on race in higher education by placing Asian Americans at the center of the discussion. Through the use of genealogy and discourse analysis, this research presents a broader description of the Asian American racial experience in higher education…
Vongthieres, Siri; Egan, Lawrence A.
This report includes (1) a paper that was written by Siri Vongthieres and Lawrence Egan regarding the educational needs of both native born and recently arrived Asian Americans, and (2) a review of that paper by Masako Ledward, LaVerne Moore, and Emiko I. Kudo. Issues discussed concerning American born Asian students include: (1) English language…
Kan, Bettie Sing Luke
This workbook is a special report on Asian Americans, part of a series on ethnic perspectives. In three chapters, it covers Asian American culture, history, and immigration experiences. Study questions for recall and analysis of the text are presented at the end of each chapter. The following topics are covered: (1) the Chinese experience; (2) the…
Kim, Won Yong
Focusing on the general consumption pattern of ethnic newspapers by Asian-Americans and the underlying attributes of that consumption, a study surveyed 406 randomly selected Asian-Americans (Koreans, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipinos) in the Los Angeles area. The data were analyzed in terms of developmental trends of consumption by years of…
Zhao, Jessie; Lau, May; Vermette, David; Liang, David; Flores, Glenn
Asian American adolescents have been reported to have the lowest amount of communication with health care providers regarding sexual health topics (sexual activity, contraception, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy prevention). This study identified Asian American adolescents' attitudes/beliefs regarding how health care providers can…
Subramony, Deepak Prem
In an effort to mitigate our field's historic neglect of issues of cultural diversity, this article seeks to introduce Asian-Americans--a fascinating, important, and under-researched group of learners and technology users--to educational technology scholars and practitioners. It describes Asian-Americans' admirable levels of educational…
Chin, Gabriel; And Others
In this policy analysis of affirmative action, four Asian Pacific American law professors make a case for affirmative action with a special focus on Asian Pacific Americans (APAs). It is asserted that affirmative action produces many benefits, such as reducing the harm of racism, promoting equal opportunity, and advancing racial justice. However,…
Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.
Given that Southeast Asian American (SEAA) students are severely underrepresented in higher education and less likely to persistence to graduation compared to other ethnic groups in the Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) community, this study explored critical factors to their college success. Indeed, several themes emerged from this national…
Han, Meekyung; Pong, Helen
According to the 2008 U.S. Census, there are 15.5 million Asian Americans in the United States, and 17% are students enrolled in a university (Shea & Yeh, 2008). Asian American college students in higher education are oftentimes perceived as the "model minority" with high academic achievements and few mental and/or behavioral…
Marvis, Barbara J.
As part of a five-volume series written at a reading level for grades five to six and as a tribute to the contributions Asian Americans have made to the United States, this volume presents biographical sketches of Asian Americans who can serve as role models for today's youth. The profiles in the series show the triumph of the human spirit. Volume…
Lo, Keng-Hsin; Wang, Kehluh; Hsu, Ming-Feng
We develop a modified Edgeworth binomial model with higher moment consideration for pricing American Asian options. With lognormal underlying distribution for benchmark comparison, our algorithm is as precise as that of Chalasani et al. [P. Chalasani, S. Jha, F. Egriboyun, A. Varikooty, A refined binomial lattice for pricing American Asian options, Rev. Derivatives Res. 3 (1) (1999) 85-105] if the number of the time steps increases. If the underlying distribution displays negative skewness and leptokurtosis as often observed for stock index returns, our estimates can work better than those in Chalasani et al. [P. Chalasani, S. Jha, F. Egriboyun, A. Varikooty, A refined binomial lattice for pricing American Asian options, Rev. Derivatives Res. 3 (1) (1999) 85-105] and are very similar to the benchmarks in Hull and White [J. Hull, A. White, Efficient procedures for valuing European and American path-dependent options, J. Derivatives 1 (Fall) (1993) 21-31]. The numerical analysis shows that our modified Edgeworth binomial model can value American Asian options with greater accuracy and speed given higher moments in their underlying distribution.
Yoo, Grace J; Fang, Ted; Zola, Janet; Dariotis, Wei Ming
Compared to any other racial/ethnic group, Asian Americans represent a population disproportionately affected by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, a leading cause of liver cancer. Since 2007, the San Francisco Hep B Free (SFHBF) Campaign has been actively creating awareness and education on the importance of screening, testing, and vaccination of HBV among Asian Americans. In order to understand what messages resonated with Asian Americans in San Francisco, key informant interviews with 23 (n = 23) individuals involved in community outreach were conducted. A key finding was the ability of the SFHBF campaign to utilize unique health communication strategies to break the silence and normalize discussions of HBV. In addition, the campaign's approach to using public disclosures and motivating action by emphasizing solutions towards ending HBV proved to resonate with Asian Americans. The findings and lessons learned have implications for not only HBV but other stigmatized health issues in the Asian American community.
Im, Eun-Ok; Lee, Bok Im; Chee, Wonshik
Background Despite positive reports about Internet cancer support groups (ICSGs), ethnic minorities, including Asian Americans, have been reported to be less likely to use ICSGs. Unique cultural values, beliefs, and attitudes have been considered reasons for the low usage rate of ICSGs among Asian Americans. However, studies have rarely looked at this issue. Objective The purpose of this study was to explore (a) how Asian Americans living with cancer who participated in ICSGs viewed ICSGs, (b) what facilitated or inhibited their participation in ICSGs, and (c) what cultural values and beliefs influenced their participation in ICSGs. Methods The study was a one-month qualitative online forum among 18 Asian American cancer patients recruited through a convenience sampling method. Nine topics on the use of ICSGs organized the forum discussion, and the data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Four themes emerged from the data analysis process: (a) “more than just my family,” (b) “part of my family,” (c) “anonymous me,” and (d) “shielded from the real world.” Conclusions The overarching theme was Asian Americans’ marginalized experience in the use of Internet cancer support groups. Implications for Practice Offering the most current information on cancer and cancer treatment is essential for nursing practice in developing a culturally competent ICSG for Asian Americans. Also, emotional familiarity should be incorporated into the design of the ICSG, and the ICSG needs to be based on non-judgmental and non-discriminative interactions. PMID:20357657
Okazaki, Sumie; Saw, Anne
In response to a call to better integrate culture in community psychology (O'Donnell in American Journal of Community Psychology 37:1-7 2006), we offer a cultural-community framework to facilitate a collaborative engagement between community psychologists and ethnic minority communities, focusing on Asian American communities as illustrations. Extending Hays' (Addressing cultural complexities in practice: Assessment, diagnosis, and therapy, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 2008) ADDRESSING framework for considering cultural influences on a counseling relationship, the proposed framework provides a broad but systematic guidepost for considering three major cultural-ecological influences on Asian American communities: Race and Ethnicity (R), Culture (C), and Immigration and Transnational Ties (I). We provide a sequence of steps that incorporate the ADDRESSING and the RCI frameworks to facilitate the collaborative community-based research or social action.
Vogelmann, James E.; Gastony, Gerald J.
Genetic relationships among the seven species of Agastache sect. Agastache common in North America and the one found in eastern Asia were assessed using starch-gel electrophoresis of twelve enzymatic proteins. Nei's (1976) genetic distance and identity values, calculated among the 32 populations used in this study, partitioned the Agastache section into four discrete groups: (1) A. nepetoides (eastern North America), (2) A. scrophulariifolia and A. foeniculum (eastern and central North America), (3) the four species of the western U.S. (A. urticifolia, A. occidentalis, A. parvifolia, and A. cusickii), and (4) A. rugosa (eastern Asia). The Asian Agastache, separated from its American congeners for over 12 million years, differed from American populations at only two (the IDH-1 and LAP-1 alleles) of the fifteen loci surveyed; these alleles were not found in any of the North American plants. Nei's genetic distances between the Asian and North American populations ranged from 0.2877 to 0.6734.
Diemer, Matthew A; Wang, Qiu; Moore, Traymanesha; Gregory, Shannon R; Hatcher, Keisha M; Voight, Adam M
Structural barriers constrain marginalized youths' development of work salience and vocational expectations. Sociopolitical development (SPD), the consciousness of, and motivation to reduce, sociopolitical inequality, may facilitate the negotiation of structural constraints. A structural model of SPD's impact on work salience and vocational expectations was proposed and its generalizability tested among samples of low-socioeconomic-status African American, Latin American, and Asian American youth, with Educational Longitudinal Study data. Measurement and temporal invariance of these constructs was first established before testing the proposed model across the samples. Across the three samples, 10th-grade SPD had significant effects on 10th-grade work salience and vocational expectations; 12th-grade SPD had a significant effect on 12th-grade work salience. Tenth-grade SPD had significant indirect effects on 12th-grade work salience and on 12th-grade vocational expectations for all three samples. These results suggest that SPD facilitates the agentic negotiation of constraints on the development of work salience and vocational expectations. Given the impact of adolescent career development on adult occupational attainment, SPD may also foster social mobility among youth constrained by an inequitable opportunity structure.
Gross, Eric R.; Zambelli, Vanessa O.; Small, Bryce A.; Ferreira, Julio C.B.; Chen, Che-Hong; Mochly-Rosen, Daria
Asian Americans are one of the fastest-growing populations in the United States. A relatively large subset of this population carries a unique loss-of-function point mutation in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), ALDH2*2. Found in approximately 560 million people of East Asian descent, ALDH2*2 reduces enzymatic activity by approximately 60% to 80% in heterozygotes. Furthermore, this variant is associated with a higher risk for several diseases affecting many organ systems, including a particularly high incidence relative to the general population of esophageal cancer, myocardial infarction, and osteoporosis. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology associated with the ALDH2*2 variant, describe why this variant needs to be considered when selecting drug treatments, and suggest a personalized medicine approach for Asian American carriers of this variant. We also discuss future clinical and translational perspectives regarding ALDH2*2 research. PMID:25292432
Park, Jerry Z.; Martinez, Brandon C.; Cobb, Ryon; Park, Julie J.; Wong, Erica Ryu
Stereotypes of outgroups help create social identificational boundaries for ingroups. When the ingroup is dominant, members employ individualist sentiments to justify their status. In this study, we build on advances in social psychological research that account for multiple outgroup stereotypes. We argue the Asian American model minority stereotype is analogous to the “cold but competent” position of perceptions toward Asians in Fiske’s stereotype content model. Asian Americans are perceived to be exceptional to other minority groups, and we hypothesize that perceived competence is associated with individualist sentiments directed at Blacks and Latinos. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Freshmen, we find support for our hypotheses but find that perceived coldness has no relationship to individualist sentiments. We discuss the implications and directions for further research. PMID:27478288
Balistreri, Kelly Stamper; Joyner, Kara; Kao, Grace
Asian American men and women have been largely neglected in previous studies of romantic relationship formation and status. Using data from the first and fourth waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), we examine romantic and sexual involvement among young adults, most of who were between the ages of 25 to 32 (N=11,555). Drawing from explanations that focus on structural and cultural elements as well as racial hierarchies, we examine the factors that promote and impede involvement in romantic/sexual relationships. We use logistic regression to model current involvement of men and women separately and find, with the exception of Filipino men, Asian men are significantly less likely than white men to be currently involved with a romantic partner, even after controlling for a wide array of characteristics. Our results suggest that the racial hierarchy framework best explains lower likelihood of involvement among Asian American men. PMID:26549919
Kim, Jessica K.; Gasman, Marybeth
Through in-depth interviews, 14 Asian American college students at an elite, private Northeastern US university were asked to describe their experiences and relationships with family, friends, teachers, and counselors during their college-choice process. The results suggest that students considered their social networks, especially family and…
Jun, Jungmi; Nan, Xiaoli
We conducted a systematic analysis of 24 peer-reviewed literary works that examined Asian Americans' breast, cervical, and colon cancer screening, focusing on empirical findings from large-scale public health surveys (i.e., NHIS, CHIS, HINTS, BRFSS). We provide an overview of relevant research in terms of study characteristics, samples, predictor/covariate of cancer screenings, and key findings. Our analysis indicates that Asian Americans' cancer screening rates are lower than for non-Hispanic Whites for all cancer types in four large-scale public health surveys throughout 17 study years. Acculturation and healthcare access were two significant factors in explaining Asian Americans' cancer screening rates. Cancer fatalism and family cancer history emerged as potential factors that may account for more variances. However, the screening disparities between Asian Americans and whites persist even after adjusting all covariates, including SES, acculturation, healthcare access, health status, and health perception/literacy. More individual and cultural factors should be identified to address these disparities.
Alvarez, Alvin N.; Singh, Anneliese A.; Wu, Jenny
This article provides an overview of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling psychology, and implications for the Society of Counseling Psychology and for the future of the AAPA. AAPA was created in 1972 in response to psychology's neglect…
The purpose of this study was to examine what career development variables, according to the Social Cognitive Career Theory, contribute to career decision-making self-efficacy, one of the key components of career development in a sample of Asian American undergraduate college students. The career literature is historically limited in empirical…
Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Park, Yong Sue; Kim, Daniel
Differences in and relationships of Asian cultural values, cultural congruity, perception of the university environment, and help-seeking attitudes for 1st- and 2nd-generation Korean American undergraduates (N = 228) were examined. Women reported significantly higher cultural congruity and more positive help-seeking attitudes than did men. Asian…
This study examined the change in conditions over time for Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) principals as they pursued a career as principals in the K-12 system in Los Angeles Unified School District. I compared the perceptions, motivations, and aspirations of AAPIs who became principals from 1970-1989 and from 2000-2011 to explore the…
Leong, Frederick T. L.; Hardin, Erin E.; Gupta, Arpana
Using the cultural formulations approach to career assessment and career counseling, the current article applies it specifically to Asian American clients. The approach is illustrated by using the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" fourth edition ("DSM-IV") Outline for Cultural Formulations that consists of the following five…
Hui, Kayi; Lent, Robert W.; Miller, Matthew J.
This study examined the predictive utility of Lent and Brown's social cognitive model of educational and work well-being with a sample of Asian American college students, indexing well-being in terms of academic and social domain satisfaction. In addition, we examined the role of acculturation and enculturation as culture-specific predictors of…
Wang, Hui-Ting; West, Elizabeth A.
Asian American immigrant parents supporting children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been understudied. The purpose of this qualitative study was to probe the perceptions of Mandarin-speaking immigrant mothers and fathers raising children with ASD in the United States. Ten participating parents were first-generation native…
Kiang, Lisa; Supple, Andrew J.; Stein, Gabriela L.; Gonzalez, Laura M.
Research on the academic adjustment of immigrant adolescents has been predominately conducted in large cities among established migration areas. To broaden the field's restricted focus, data from 172 (58% female) Asian American adolescents who reside within a non-traditional or emerging immigrant community in the Southeastern US were used to…
Using a nationally representative longitudinal data set, the current study examines the link between colorism and educational attainment of Asian American young adults. Three levels of educational attainment are used as outcomes: high school diploma, some college and a Bachelor's degree or higher. Independent variables include skin tone, ethnic…
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, from 1976 to 2009, the percentage of Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI) college students rose from 2 percent to 7 percent. According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), although many surveys treat AAPIs as a single ethnic group, this population is in fact…
So, Dominicus W; Wong, Frank Y
Two hundred and forty eight self-identified Asian-American college students participated in this study that examined the prevalence rates and sociodemographic factors of substance use among Asian Americans in college. Using a Basic Demographic Questionnaire, Family of Origin Measure, Acculturation Lifestyle Survey, and Substance Use Checklist (all instruments were in English), prevalence rates were found to be comparable to or higher than a national sample: 94.5% lifetime prevalence and 78.6% current prevalence (past 30 days) of alcohol use; and higher current prevalence (past 30 days) of illicit drug use (9.5%) and of cigarette use (22.8%) than other Asians aged 12 and older (3.5% for illicit drugs and 17.7% for cigarettes) in a national survey. Male students and those who were employed were more likely to be current users (past 30 days) of drugs in general (15%) and marijuana (13.2%), and users of wine coolers (76.0%) and cigarettes (61.1%) in their lifetime. Being born overseas, years in the U.S., and preference for American TV/movies are associated with substance use. Asian Americans are not immune from substance use (or abuse) while in college. Culture-specific prevention is necessary.
Yeh, Christine J.; Borrero, Noah E.
The authors evaluated a health careers program in a U.S. urban public high school. After small subgroups of the original sample were removed, participants included 162 Asian American and Pacific Islander students. Analyses of covariance indicated that, compared with the comparison group, the treatment group reported significantly higher levels of…
This digest draws on a set of linguistic autobiographies written by Asian-American college students in classes at the University of California at Berkeley over the last several years, and examines the pattern of language shift that takes place in the young first- and second-generation student and why this shift takes place. It also looks at the…
This research study examined the general question "What do Asian American parents believe to be important characteristics of an effective elementary teacher?" In order to investigate this question, the researcher used a qualitative research design employing a semi-structured interview which probed into the personal perceptions voiced by…
Phan, Tatum; Tylka, Tracy L.
In the present study, the authors tested the cross-ethnic validity of several variables and paths from a model of disordered eating proposed by T. L. Tylka and L. M. Subich (2004) with 200 Asian American college women. Path analysis indicated that this model provided an excellent fit to the data after a path from internalization of the thin ideal…
Reviews Dinesh D'Souza's "The End of Racism: Principles for a Multiracial Society" (1995), exploring his neoconservative ideology in the context of concepts of the underclass and what it means to be Asian American or an immigrant. D'Souza perpetuates the Model Minority thesis, which is itself a form of inferential racism. (SLD)
Henderson, Sheila J.; Chan, Anne
Career happiness is reexamined for relevance to non-Western cultures. Joseph Campbell's (1968, 1972, 1988) interpretations of myth are reviewed for individualistic vs. interdependent themes and critiqued in light of Asian American vocational concerns, with examples from Chinese culture. Counselors are encouraged to reflect cultural sensitivity and…
Lee, Eddie Kyo
This mixed methods, phenomenological study examined how cultural tension influences career development for Asian American community college students. Students initially completed Phinney's (1992) Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) and an instrument developed for this study called the Cultural Identification Survey. The mean for ethnic…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Education, President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. ACTION: Notice of an... Commission shall provide advice to the President, through the Secretaries of Education and Commerce, as...
Largely because of their high aspirations for their children, many Chinese immigrants are acutely aware of the University of California's new undergraduate-admissions policy. With the new policy, the Board of Regents hopes to widen the applicant pool and give campuses more flexibility in selecting students. Asian-Americans bitterly oppose it,…
Tang, Agnes C.
Children's literature serves as mirrors and windows for the students we teach today. Through literature, children should be able to see their own reflections as well as the world around them. Yet despite their long history in the United States, Asian Americans have not always been represented in children's literature. This study analyzed the…
National Commission on Asian American and Pacific Islander Research in Education, 2008
The National Commission on Asian American and Pacific Islander Research in Education (CARE), consisting of a national commission, an advisory board, and a research team at New York University, aims to engage realistic and actionable discussions about the mobility and educational opportunities for AAPIs and how distinctions of race, ethnicity,…
Chu-Chang, Mae, Ed.; Rodriguez, Victor, Ed.
The articles in this book together provide a state-of-the-art review of bilingual education research specifically dealing with Asian and Pacific Americans. Following an introduction by Mae Chu-Chang, chapters are grouped into 3 sections. In Section I, "Bilingual and Biliteracy Acquisition," works include (1) "The Basic Grammatical Structures of…
Wong, Y. Joel; Brownson, Chris; Schwing, Alison E.
Risk and protective factors associated with suicidal ideation among 1,377 Asian American college students across 66 U.S. campuses were examined. The results indicated a variety of factors were associated with morbid thoughts: medication for mental health concerns, gender, GPA, undergraduate status, religious affiliation, living with a family…
Dr. Moon Chen, Professor of the Department of Internal Medicine and Associate Director of Cancer Control at the University of California-Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, speaks about Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer as a more prevalent problem in the Asian American community.
Johnston, Marc P.; Yeung, Fanny P. F
Racially biased incidents pervade college campuses warranting further attention to their influence on campus climate. This study examines one such incident that targeted Asian American students, who are the largest racial group at the compositionally diverse institution. Using the Diverse Learning Environments survey and the "naturally…
Liang, Christopher T. H.; Nathwani, Anisha; Ahmad, Sarah; Prince, Jessica K.
The relationship between coping strategies used by South Asian American women and subjective well-being (SWB) was studied. Second-generation women were found to use more support compared with 1st-generation women. Problem-solving coping was inversely related to age. Avoidance coping was found to predict SWB when controlling for age and…
Kiang, Lisa; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Thompson, Taylor L.
Growing diversity and evidence that diverse friendships enhance psychosocial success highlight the importance of understanding adolescents' ethnic peer preferences. Using social identity and social contact frameworks, the ethnic preferences of 169 Asian American adolescents (60% female) were examined in relation to ethnic identity, perceived…
Keller, Chad J.; Brown, Chris
Due to prior research suggesting that relational variables are related to the career development process, we sought to understand how maternal conflictual independence, paternal conflictual independence, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance influence the career decision status of Asian American undergraduate students (N = 113). The…
This article, based on two years of ethnographic fieldwork, explores the ways in which eight Asian American immigrant high school girls construct a borderland community, which they call the "Basement Group," after the place where they gather at school. While the girls struggle with displacement in the borderlands, including isolation in…
Paik, Susan J.; Kula, Stacy M.; Saito, L. Erika; Rahman, Zaynah; Witenstein, Matthew A.
Background/Context: Asian Americans have recently been reported as the largest incoming immigrant population and the fastest growing racial group. Diverse in culture, tradition, language, and history, they have unique immigrant stories both before and after the Immigration Act in 1965. Historians, sociologists, educators, and other experts inform…
Walton, Emily; Takeuchi, David T.
This article examines how facets of family structure and processes are linked to self-rated health and psychological distress in a national sample of Asian Americans. The authors find little support for well-established theories predicting the effects of family structure. Marital status does not affect self-rated health and has limited effects on…
Cokley, Kevin; Patel, Nima
The psychometric properties of scores from the Academic Self-Concept Scale are examined in a group of 198 Asian American college students. Using parallel analysis, a four-factor solution accounting for 46% of the variance was found. In a test of construct validity, academic self-concept was found to be negatively related to adherence to Asian…
Conventional wisdom has long held that Asian American students are conscientious, brainy, and successful, and a look at the statistics makes it clear that many are. These students routinely post the highest scores on California's standardized tests, are most likely to graduate from high school, and have the highest rates of eligibility for…
Huynh, Virginia W.
Ethnic microaggressions are a form of everyday, interpersonal discrimination that are ambiguous and difficult to recognize as discrimination. This study examined the frequency and impact of microaggressions among Latino (n = 247) and Asian American (n = 113) adolescents (M[subscript age] = 17.18, SD = 0.75; 57% girls). Latino adolescents reported…
Ratanasiripong, Paul; Burkey, Heidi; Ratanasiripong, Nop
The present study investigated the relationship between stress and substance use among 347 Asian American, 346 Latino, and 776 White college students. Although stress was not found to predict substance use among the ethnic/ethnic group studied, results of the study indicated that Latino students reported a significantly higher stress level than…
This study compares problem behaviors across a range of adolescent Asian Pacific Islander (API) subgroups using the Add Health data, and controlling for parental education or immigrant status. The study finds that Filipino, "other" API, and multiethnic API American youth are at higher risk for poorer outcomes than Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese…
Goodwin, A. Lin
Background/Context: The United States is currently undergoing a period of unprecedented immigration, with the majority of new arrivals coming from Asia and Latin America, not Europe. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (APIs) represent the fastest growing racial group in the United States, and schools are again being asked to socialize newcomer…
Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study tests whether the relationship between academic achievement and problem behaviors is the same across racial and ethnic groups. Some have suggested that academic achievement may be a weaker predictor of problem behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American (API)…
The purpose of this study was to explore the moderating and mediating role of collectivistic/situation-specific coping and individualistic/dispositional coping in the relationship between perceived racism and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 203) of Asian American college students. Data were collected from a large public Southeastern state…
Story, Naomi Okumura
Little is known about the Asian Pacific American (APA) college student, but three problems may have important implications for teaching and learning: communication with and within the population; refugee waves; and generational identity. Educators should consider alternative and more appropriate strategies to avoid neglecting segments of this…
Werner, Emmy E.
A 30-year longitudinal study was undertaken in order to document the course, and determine the outcome, of all pregnancies in a community of Asian Americans on Kauai, the western most of the Hawaiian Islands and equidistant from the continental United States and Japan. The project's goal was to document both the good and poor outcomes of the…
Chung, Ruth H. Gim
This study looked at intergenerational relations according to gender, ethnicity, and acculturation, as aspects of immigrant family life of Asian American college students (N=342). Variations were found in intergenerational tensions over expectations regarding educational and career concerns, and dating and marriage issues. Gender was a factor but…
Chin, Laura, Ed.; And Others
This report contains papers presented and the transcripts of proceedings of a consultation to the United States Commission on Civil Rights on the civil rights of Asian and Pacific Americans. The proceedings are divided into nine sections. Each section contains the transcripts of summarized presentations of papers, discussions on each topic, and…
... dân Á Châu và vùng Thái Bình Dương Hepatitis B: Tips for Asian & Pacific Islander Americans Did ... to liver failure and liver cancer? What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease spread ...
Hong, Seunghye; Zhang, Wei; Walton, Emily
This study examines the associations of neighborhood ethnic density and poverty with social cohesion and self-rated mental health among Asian Americans and Latinos. Path analysis is employed to analyze data from the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and the 2000 U.S. Census (N = 2095 Asian Americans living in N = 259 neighborhoods; N = 2554 Latinos living in N = 317 neighborhoods). Findings reveal that neighborhood ethnic density relates to poor mental health in both groups. Social cohesion partially mediates that structural relationship, but is positively related to ethnic density among Latinos and negatively related to ethnic density among Asian Americans. Although higher neighborhood poverty is negatively associated with mental health for both groups, the relationship does not hold in the path models after accounting for social cohesion and covariates. Furthermore, social cohesion fully mediates the association between neighborhood poverty and mental health among Latinos. This study highlights the necessity of reconceptualizing existing theories of social relationships to reflect complex and nuanced mechanisms linking neighborhood structure and mental health for diverse racial and ethnic groups.
Hom, Alice Y.
Presents narratives from Asian American parents about their lesbian daughters or gay sons. The chapter focuses on four emerging themes: (1) the attitudes of parents before disclosure or discovery; (2) the attitudes and reactions of parents after disclosure or discovery; (3) disclosure to friends and their communities; and (4) advice for other…
Lee, J. P.; Battle, R. S.; Lipton, R.; Soller, B.
Increased use of cigars has been noted among youth, as well as use of blunts (hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana). Three types of relationships have been previously hypothesized between use of tobacco and marijuana in substance use progression. We aimed to assess these relationships for Southeast Asian American youth and adults in an urban…
The understanding of Asian-American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) students, beyond stereotypes, has been limited (Museus, 2009). Although literature on transfer students has grown, the limited research on AAPI transfer students is lacking. A more accurate portrayal of their academic progress needs to be examined. One of the ways to better understand…
Establishing life purpose is a key developmental task; however, how it is linked to adolescents' everyday family, school, extracurricular, and leisure experiences remains unclear. Using daily diary data from 180 Asian American ninth and tenth graders (50% ninth; 58% female; 25% first generation), daily purpose was positively related to daily…
Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther; Cheng, Sabrina; Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Contrary to the "model minority" myth, Asian American children, especially those from low-income immigrant families, are at risk for both behavioral and emotional problems early in life. Little is known, however, about the underlying developmental mechanisms placing Asian American children at risk, including the role of cultural adaptation and parenting. This study examined cultural adaptation, parenting practices and culture related parenting values and child mental health in a sample of 157 English speaking Asian American immigrant families of children enrolled in early childhood education programs in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Overall, cultural adaptation and parenting cultural values and behaviors were related to aspects of child mental health in meaningful ways. Parents' cultural value of independence appears to be especially salient (e.g., negatively related to behavior problems and positively related to adaptive behavior) and significantly mediates the link between cultural adaptation and adaptive behavior. Study findings have implications for supporting Asian American immigrant families to promote their young children's mental health.
Mella, Hazel Roca
The purpose of this study was to determine if and to what extent the model minority myth prevents "Asian Pacific American" ("APA") women from achieving the president or chancellor position in higher education institutions. This study explored the experiences of APA female leaders who are presidents and chancellors to discover…
The purpose of this article was to explore Asian Indian American Hindu (AIAH) cultural views related to death and dying. Three focus group interviews were conducted with AIAH persons living in the southern region of United States. The focus group consisted of senior citizens, middle-aged adults, and young adults. Both open-ended and semistructured…
This dissertation explores language as a resource for the formation and expression of ethnic identity among the members of an Asian American college sorority. As a community of practice organized around ethnicity, the sorority provides an excellent site to examine the mutually constitutive relationship of language and ethnic identity. Two features…
Lew, Jonathan W.; Chang, June C.; Wang, Winnie W.
This review examines the impact of Asian Pacific American (APA) students' characteristics and experiences on their academic achievement. The article begins by describing the demographics and diversity of this group, and it explores the challenges posed by APA community college students' background characteristics and influences, the model minority…
Wang, Winnie W.; Chang, June C.; Lew, Jonathan W.
This study examined how the academic aspirations of Asian Pacific Americans (APAs) attending community colleges are influenced by their demographic and educational background, reasons for attending, and obstacles they expect to encounter. The sample consisted of 846 APAs out of a total student sample of 5,000 in an urban community college…
The antioxidant and quinone reductase (QR) inducing activities of American, Asian, and Siberian ginseng have been reported using various plant materials, solvents, and assays. To directly establish their comparative bioactivity, the effects of extracts obtained from acidified methanol (MeOH), a gas...
Objective: To compare alcohol, tobacco, and illicit or nonmedical drug use behaviors and self-reported consequences of Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) students to cross-ethnic peers. Participants: A sample of 114,816 undergraduates between 18 and 24 completing the National College Health Assessment between 2011 and 2014 were used.…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Education, President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. ACTION: Notice of an... President, through the Secretaries of Education and Commerce, as Co-Chairs of the Initiative, on: (i)...
Chen, Moon S., Jr.; Hawks, Betty Lee
A literature review on the health status of underserved Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders examined stereotypes of good health. Results indicated that the groups were heterogeneous with respect to demographic and health risk factors. Databases on their health status were incomplete. Morbidity and mortality from certain diseases were especially…
Maramba, Dina C.; Palmer, Robert T.
The purpose of this study is to explore the critical role of culture on the success of Southeast Asian American (SEAA) college students. Specifically, we examined the saliency of cultural validation and how it shaped the educational trajectories of SEAAs. A national sample of 34 participants was analyzed across 5 public, 4-year colleges and…
Xu, Jun; Lee, Jennifer C.
In this article, we propose a shift in race research from a one-dimensional hierarchical approach to a multidimensional system of racial stratification. Building upon Claire Kim's (1999) racial triangulation theory, we examine how the American public rates Asians relative to blacks and whites along two dimensions of racial stratification: racial…
Miller, Matthew J.
Several unilinear and bilinear dimensional measurement models of Asian American acculturation and enculturation were tested with confirmatory factor analysis. Bilinear models of acculturation consistently outperformed the unilinear model. In addition, models that articulated multiple dimensions (i.e., values and behavior) exhibited a better fit to…
Otsuki, Teresa A.
The relationship of self-esteem and depression with alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use was tested in a California statewide sample of more than 4,300 Asian American high school students comprising five subgroups: Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, and Vietnamese. Estimated prevalence rates of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use among…
This article explores how the tensions that grow out of being a researcher in my community of queer Asian Americans lead to the formulation of a different kind of ethnographic approach. A hybrid notion of identity can require and inform a hybrid or poststructural ethnographic practice. This hybridized research method draws upon theoretical strands…
Park, Julie J.; Chang, Mitchell J.
This article examines the development of legislation to create a Minority Serving Institution federal designation for Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) serving institutions. Specifically, the article draws from interviews with nineteen policy makers, congressional staffers, and community advocates in order to address their motivations for…
Covarrubias, Alejandro; Liou, Daniel D.
Background: Prevailing perceptions of Asian Americans as model minorities have long situated this population within postracial discourse, an assumption that highlights their educational success as evidence of the declining significance of race and racism, placing them as models of success for other people of color. Despite evidence to repudiate…
Sangalang, Cindy C.; Gee, Gilbert C.
It is almost taken for granted that social relationships benefit mental health, yet these relationships may not always be protective. This study examines how the support and strains individuals derive from family and friends may be related to depression and anxiety among Asian Americans. Data come from the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian…
Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter Allen; Tsai, Jeanne L.; Hung, Yuan; Lin, Melissa; Wan, Ching Tin
Success in the classroom does not necessarily imply effective life functioning. Study suggests nonacademic criteria be considered in assessing the validity of the model minority image. It compares Asian American college students with their racially different peers on degree of cross-racial engagement, and empirically tests its relationship with…
Chutuape, Erica D.
This study provides a deeper understanding of the interracial connections not just between non-whites and whites, but among non-whites. Filipino American youth attending high school in New York City contended with a dominant bipolar racial discourse that marginalizes the racialized experiences of Asians and Pacific Islanders. However, instead of…
Cheng, Yen-hsin Alice; Landale, Nancy S.
Using a framework that emphasizes independent versus interdependent self-construals, this study investigates the relatively low rates of early marriage and cohabitation among Asian Americans compared with Whites. Data from Waves 1 and 3 of Add Health are used to test five hypotheses that focus on family value socialization and other precursors…
Wong, Y. Joel; Koo, Kelly; Tran, Kimberly K.; Chiu, Yu-Chen; Mok, Yvonne
The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore the phenomenon of suicide ideation among 293 Asian American college students. Guided by T. Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior, the authors examined the relationships among perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, self-construals, and suicide…
Pang, Valerie Ooka; Han, Peggy P.; Pang, Jennifer M.
The authors studied more than 1 million Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) and White seventh graders in a statewide California testing program between 2003 and 2008, examining their reading and math achievement. AAPI student performance is often reported as an aggregate in discussions of the success of schoolchildren and issues of racial…
Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.
These instructional materials on Chinese Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). The contents include a "social introduction," which emphasizes the fact that the Chinese American is not a foreigner; information about immigration; Chinatown; jobs and income;…
Tokunaga, K; Ohashi, J; Bannai, M; Juji, T
We have been studying polymorphisms of HLA class I and II genes in East Asians including Buryat in Siberia, Mongolian, Han Chinese, Man Chinese, Korean Chinese, South Korean, and Taiwan indigenous populations in collaboration with many Asian scientists. Regional populations in Japan, Hondo-Japanese, Ryukyuan, and Ainu, were also studied. HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 gene frequencies were subjected to the correspondence analysis and calculation of DA distances. The correspondence analysis demonstrated several major clusters of human populations in the world. "Mongoloid" populations were highly diversified, in which several clusters such as Northeast Asians, Southeast Asians, Oceanians, and Native Americans were observed. Interestingly, an indigenous population in North Japan, Ainu, was placed relatively close to Native Americans in the correspondence analysis. Distribution of particular HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 alleles and haplotypes was also analyzed in relation to migration and dispersal routes of ancestral populations. A number of alleles and haplotypes showed characteristic patterns of regional distribution. For example, B39-HR5-DQ7 (B*3901-DRB1*1406-DQB1*0301) was shared by Ainu and Native Americans. A24-Cw8-B48 was commonly observed in Taiwan indigenous populations, Maori in New Zealand, Orochon in Northeast China, Inuit, and Tlingit. These findings further support the genetic link between East Asians and Native Americans. We have proposed that various ancestral populations in East Asia, marked by different HLA haplotypes, had migrated and dispersed through multiple routes. Moreover, relatively small genetic distances and the sharing of several HLA haplotypes between Ainu and Native Americans suggest that these populations are descendants of some Upper Paleolithic populations of East Asia.
Breen, Nancy; Liu, Benmei; Lee, Richard; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie
Objectives. We examined patterns of cervical and breast cancer screening among Asian American women in California and assessed their screening trends over time. Methods. We pooled weighted data from 5 cycles of the California Health Interview Survey (2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009) to examine breast and cervical cancer screening trends and predictors among 6 Asian nationalities. We calculated descriptive statistics, bivariate associations, multivariate logistic regressions, predictive margins, and 95% confidence intervals. Results. Multivariate analyses indicated that Papanicolaou test rates did not significantly change over time (77.9% in 2001 vs 81.2% in 2007), but mammography receipt increased among Asian American women overall (75.6% in 2001 vs 81.8% in 2009). Length of time in the United States was associated with increased breast and cervical cancer screening among all nationalities. Sociodemographic and health care access factors had varied effects, with education and insurance coverage significantly predicting screening for certain groups. Overall, we observed striking variation by nationality. Conclusions. Our results underscore the need for intervention and policy efforts that are targeted to specific Asian nationalities, recent immigrants, and individuals without health care access to increase screening rates among Asian women in California. PMID:25521898
Huang, Keng-Yen; Cheng, Sabrina; Calzada, Esther; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Anxiety is one of the most prevalent mental health problems in young children but there has been a dearth of studies focusing on Asian American children. This study examines the patterns and the predictors of childhood anxiety and related symptoms in young children in a diverse Asian American (ASA) sample (n = 101). Findings indicate that ASA children are at higher risk for anxiety, somatization, and depressive problems than their peers. Parents' level of acculturation (i.e., American identity, English competence), parental negative emotion socialization, conflicted parent-child relationship, child emotional knowledge and adaptive skills, as well as teachers' ethnic background and school class types were all associated with ASA children's anxiety. A combination of cultural, family, and school factors explained from 17 to 39 % of the variance in anxiety symptoms. Findings inform prevention services for young ASA children.
Lee, Karen Kyeunghae; Yamada, Ann-Marie; Kim, Min Ah; Dinh, Tam Q.
Objective Family involvement is important in the recovery experience of culturally diverse adults with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the influence of family among consumers purported to have close family ties without regular contact. This study explored Asian American consumers ‘views about family relationships and participation in their recovery. Methods Secondary analysis of qualitative data from a larger project was conducted to explore family-related themes of eight Asian Americans receiving services from recovery-focused programs in urban Southern California. Results Most consumers described their family support as adequate while simultaneously reporting limited family involvement. Asia-born and U.S.-born Asian consumers varied in describing family support, suggesting providers consider nativity in culturally responsive service delivery. Conclusions and Practice Implications Families need not be present to affect the perspectives of Asian Americans receiving recovery-oriented services. The extent of family influences on recovery, beyond the initial determination of current family contact, requires further exploration. PMID:25000120
Fang, Lin; Schinke, Steven P.
In this paper, we examined the mediation effects of a family-based substance use prevention program on a sample of Asian American families. These families were randomized into an intervention arm or a non-intervention control arm. Using path models, we assessed the effect of the intervention on adolescent girls’ substance use outcomes at 2-year follow-up through family relationships and adolescent self-efficacy pathways. Bias-corrected bootstrapping strategy was employed to assess the significance of the mediation effect by evaluating the 95% confidence interval of the standardized coefficient. The results show that receiving the intervention exerted a positive effect on girls’ family relationships at 1-year follow-up. Such an improvement was associated with girls’ increased self-efficacy, which in turn led to girls’ decreased alcohol use, marijuana use, and future intention to use substances at 2-year follow-up. Considering the diverse cultural backgrounds, as well as languages, nationalities, and acculturation levels under the umbrella term “Asian Americans”, we demonstrate that a universal web-based intervention that tackles the theoretical- and empirical-based risk and protective factors can be effective for Asian Americans. Despite its generic nature, our program may provide relevant tools for Asian American parents in assisting their adolescent children to navigate through the developmental stage and ultimately, resist substance use. PMID:25505939
Pan, David; Huey, Stanley J; Hernandez, Dominica
This study is a 6-month follow-up of a randomized pilot evaluation of standard one-session treatment (OST-S) versus culturally adapted OST (OST-CA) with phobic Asian Americans. OST-CA included seven cultural adaptations drawn from prior research with East Asians and Asian Americans. Results from 1-week and 6-month follow-up show that both OST-S and OST-CA were effective at reducing phobic symptoms compared with self-help control. Moreover, OST-CA was superior to OST-S for several outcomes. For catastrophic thinking and general fear, moderator analyses indicated that low-acculturation Asian Americans benefitted more from OST-CA than OST-S, whereas both treatments were equally effective for high-acculturation participants. Although cultural process factors (e.g., facilitating emotional control, exploiting the vertical therapist-client relationship) and working alliance were predictive of positive outcomes, they did not mediate treatment effects. This study offers a potential model for evaluating cultural adaptation effects, as well as the mechanisms that account for such effects.
Mateus Pereira, L H; Socorro, A; Fernandez, I; Masleh, M; Vidal, D; Bianchi, N O; Bonatto, S L; Salzano, F M; Herrera, R J
This study attempts to ascertain genetic affinities between Native American and East Asian populations by analyzing four polymorphic Alu insertions (PAIs) and three L1 polymorphic loci. These two genetic systems demonstrated strong congruence when levels of diversity and genetic distances were considered. Overall, genetic relatedness within Native American groups does not correlate with geographical and linguistic structure, although strong grouping for Native Americans with East Asians was demonstrated, with clear discrimination from African and European groups. Most of the variation was assigned to differences occurring within groups, but the interpopulation variation found for South Amerindians was recognizably higher in comparison to the other sampled groups of populations. Our data suggest that bottleneck events followed by strong influence of genetic drift in the process of the peopling of the Americas may have been determinant factors in delineating the genetic background of present-day South Amerindians. Since no clear subgroups were detected within Native Americans and East Asians, there is no indication of multiple waves in the early colonization of the New World.
Lee, Christine; Tran, Denise Yen; Thoi, Deanna; Chang, Melissa; Wu, Lisa; Trieu, Sang Leng
Many parents are reluctant to educate their Asian American adolescents on sexual health topics because sexuality is taboo in most Asian cultures. A survey was conducted with Chinese, Filipina, Korean, and Vietnamese college females ages 18-25 to assess sources of abstinence and birth control education and age of sexual debut. Parents were the least reported source of sex education for all four ethnic groups, with the majority of respondents reporting school as their source of sex education. Respondents who reported family as their source of abstinence education had a sexual debut of 6 months later than those who did not. Females who reported family as their source of birth control education began having sex more than 7 months later than those who reported other sources. Disaggregation of data by Asian ethnic groups and examining differences in delivery of sex education among ethnic groups may improve school curricula and sexual health.
Lee, Stacey J.
In January 2005, the National Education Association (NEA) partnered with the Asian Pacific American Institute for Congressional Studies (APAICS) to host the National Summit on Asian and Pacific Islander Issues in Education. The Summit brought together over 50 researchers, leaders of national organizations, and NEA members to discuss the status of…
Yoon, So Yoon; Gentry, Marcia
The Elementary and Secondary School Survey data and Civil Rights Data Collection of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) were analyzed to describe the issue of overrepresentation of gifted Asian American students in gifted education programs in the United States. Nationally, Asian and Whites have been overrepresented in gifted education since 1978,…
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Chang, Stephanie Tzu-Han; Tong, Hui Qi; Meneses, Michelle Ann; Yuzbasioglu, Rojda Filiz; Hien, Denise
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the current literature uncovering specific factors associated with self-harm and suicidality among young Asian American women, as well as to present the Fractured Identity Model as a framework for understanding these factors. This paper offers concrete suggestions for the development of culturally competent interventions to target suicidality, substance abuse, and mental illness among young Asian American women. Design/methodology/approach Empirical studies and theory-based papers featured in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were identified through scholarly databases, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, JSTOR, and Google Scholar. Findings We identified several factors associated with suicidality among young Asian American women: (1) family dynamics, or having lived in a household where parents practice “disempowering parenting styles,” (2) substance use/abuse, and (3) untreated mental illness(es), which are exacerbated by the stigma and shame attached to seeking out mental health services. The Fractured Identity Model by Hahm et al. (2014) is presented as a possible pathway from disempowering parenting to suicidal and self-harm behaviors among this population, with substance abuse playing a significant mediating role. Research limitations/implications – Our review focused on Asian American women, substance use among Asian Americans, and mental health among Asian Americans. Literature that focused on Asians living in Asia or elsewhere outside of the USA was excluded from this review; the review was limited to research conducted in the USA and written in the English language. Practical implications The complex interplay among Asian American culture, family dynamics, gender roles/expectations, and mental health justifies the development of a suicide and substance abuse intervention that is tailored to the culture- and gender-specific needs of Asian Pacific Islander young women. It is
White, Andrew; Lee, Jessica; Lee, Larry
This report examines the availability of health care, child care, and youth programs for Asian Americans in New York City. The Asian American community currently makes up 10 percent of the city population. Asian New Yorkers represent diverse cultures and languages but share certain underlying values and challenges. One commonality is their…
Chatterji, Pinka; Alegría, Margarita; Lu, Mingshan; Takeuchi, David
This paper investigates to what extent psychiatric disorders and mental distress affect labor market outcomes in two rapidly growing populations that have not been studied to date-ethnic minorities of Latino and Asian descent, most of whom are immigrants. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), we examine the labor market effects of meeting diagnostic criteria for any psychiatric disorder in the past 12 months as well as the effects of psychiatric distress in the past year. The labor market outcomes analyzed are current employment status, the number of weeks worked in the past year among those who are employed, and having at least one work absence in the past month among those who are employed. Among Latinos, psychiatric disorders and mental distress are associated with detrimental effects on employment and absenteeism, similar to effects found in previous analyses of mostly white, American born populations. Among Asians, we find more mixed evidence that psychiatric disorders and mental distress detract from labor market outcomes. Our findings suggest that reducing disparities and expanding access to effective treatment may have significant labor market benefits-not just for majority populations, as has been demonstrated, but also for Asians and Latinos.
Islam, Nadia Shilpi; Khan, Suhaila; Kwon, Simona; Jang, Deeana; Ro, Marguerite; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau
There are close to 15 million Asian Americans living in the United States, and they represent the fastest growing populations in the country. By the year 2050, there will be an estimated 33.4 million Asian Americans living in the country. However, their health needs remain poorly understood and there is a critical lack of data disaggregated by Asian American ethnic subgroups, primary language, and geography. This paper examines methodological issues, challenges, and potential solutions to addressing the collection, analysis, and reporting of disaggregated (or, granular) data on Asian Americans. The article explores emerging efforts to increase granular data through the use of innovative study design and analysis techniques. Concerted efforts to implement these techniques will be critical to the future development of sound research, health programs, and policy efforts targeting this and other minority populations. PMID:21099084
Tran, Alisia G T T; Lee, Richard M
This study extends the research on parental ethnic-racial socialization to Asian American late adolescents (N = 166). The authors specifically examined the factor structure, frequency, and correlates of a perceived ethnic-racial socialization measure. Ethnic identity was also hypothesized to function as a mediator in the relationship between perceived cultural socialization and social competence. The results supported a 3-factor model of perceived ethnic-racial socialization that included cultural socialization-pluralism, promotion of mistrust, and preparation for bias. Exploratory analyses revealed that ethnic-racial socialization messages were reported by large proportions of participants and were related to a number of demographic variables. The authors further found that perceived promotion of mistrust messages were inversely associated with social competence. They also found that perceived cultural socialization-pluralism was significantly related to social competence through ethnic identity. Results support the importance of perceived ethnic-racial socialization for Asian American development.
Wang, Shihwe; Kim, Bryan S K
Asian Americans drop out of mental health treatment at a high rate. This problem could be addressed by enhancing therapists' multicultural competence and by examining clients' cultural attitudes that may affect the counseling process. In the present study, we used a video analogue design with a sample of 113 Asian American college students to examine these possibilities. The result from a t test showed that the session containing therapist multicultural competencies received higher ratings than the session without therapist multicultural competence. In addition, correlational analyses showed that participant values acculturation was positively associated with participant ratings of counseling process, while the value of emotional self-control was negatively correlated. The results of a hierarchical multiple regression analysis did not support any interaction effects among the independent variables on counseling process. All of these findings could contribute to the field of multicultural competence research and have implications for therapist practices and training.
Chen, Xiaochen; Graham, Sandra
This study examined cross-ethnic friendship choices and intergroup attitudes in a sample of 762 sixth-grade Asian American students (Mage = 11.5 years) attending 1 of 19 middle schools that varied in ethnic composition. Multiple measures of friendship (quantity and quality) and intergroup attitudes (affective, cognitive, behavioral) toward White, Latino, and Black grademates were assessed. The results showed that Asian American students overnominated White students and undernominated Latino and Black students as their friends when school availability of each ethnic group was accounted for. Cross-ethnic friendships were related to better intergroup attitudes, especially the behavioral dimension of attitudes. Cross-ethnic friendships were least likely to change attitudes toward Blacks. Implications for future research, educational practice, and attitude intervention programs were discussed.
Miller, Matthew J; Yang, Minji; Hui, Kayi; Choi, Na-Yeun; Lim, Robert H
In the present study, we tested a theoretically and empirically derived partially indirect effects acculturation and enculturation model of Asian American college students' mental health and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Latent variable path analysis with 296 self-identified Asian American college students supported the partially indirect effects model and demonstrated the ways in which behavioral acculturation, behavioral enculturation, values acculturation, values enculturation, and acculturation gap family conflict related to mental health and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help directly and indirectly through acculturative stress. We also tested a generational status moderator hypothesis to determine whether differences in model-implied relationships emerged across U.S.- (n = 185) and foreign-born (n = 107) participants. Consistent with this hypothesis, statistically significant differences in structural coefficients emerged across generational status. Limitations, future directions for research, and counseling implications are discussed.
Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Kwon, Simona C.; Nadkarni, Smiti Kapadia; Islam, Nadia S.
The shift toward a health equity framework for eliminating the health disparities burden of racial/ethnic minority populations has moved away from a disease-focused model to a social determinants framework that aims to achieve the highest attainment of health for all. The New York University Center for the Study of Asian American Health (CSAAH) has identified core themes and strategies for advancing population health equity for Asian American populations in New York City that are rooted in the following: social determinants of health; multisectoral, community-engaged approaches; leveraging community assets; improved disaggregated data collection and access to care; and building sustainability through community leadership and infrastructure-building activities. We describe the strategies CSAAH employed to move the dial on population health equity. PMID:25905858
Burr, J A; Mutchler, J E
Using 1980 Census data, we examined the household and nonhousehold living arrangements for older, unmarried women of Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, and Korean descent, finding substantial variation across ethnic groups. We tested three hypotheses regarding the effects of acculturation, economic status, and nativity/immigration status. The results from our multivariate analyses show that Chinese-origin and Filipino-origin women who are less acculturated are more likely to live with others than those who are more acculturated. Members from each Asian American group who can afford independent living are more likely to purchase their privacy. The most consistent finding shows that older, unmarried Asian American women who have migrated to the United States since 1965 are more likely than similar native-born women to live in a complex household as compared to living alone.
Mok, T A
This article attempts to address standards of physical attractiveness in the United States and the effects these standards have on Asian Americans. In the U.S., attractiveness appears to be defined overwhelmingly by White criteria, and people of color are often neglected or overlooked. There appears to be convergence from a number of fields (i.e., ethnic studies, film studies, and literature, in addition to experts in the field of ethnic minority mental health) that White standards of attractiveness exert a deleterious effect on Asian Americans. This article will discuss the limited mental health research that does exist in this area and make suggestions for further research in this field. Discussion will center around acculturation and ethnic identity as possible mediating factors that may influence reactions to standards of attractiveness.
Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J
Ninth graders (N = 679; 50% male, 50% female) from Latin American (41%), Asian (38%), and European (21%) backgrounds reported on their ethnic identity and family attitudes and relationships. Adolescents also completed daily checklists of family interactions over a two-week period. Results indicated that ethnic identity, measured through exploration and belonging was more strongly associated with family obligation and assistance than with parent-child closeness and family leisure time. Adolescents from Latin American and Asian backgrounds reported significantly higher levels of obligation and assistance as compared to adolescents with European backgrounds, and these ethnic differences were mediated by ethnic identity. Longitudinal analyses indicated ongoing associations, with ethnic identity predicting respect and obligation one year later. The discussion focuses on the role of ethnic identity in children's family connectedness during adolescence.
Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W
This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing participants' racial and ethnic identity development. The emergent Asian Indian American racial and ethnic identity model provides a contextualized overview of key developmental periods and turning points within the process of identity development.
Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W.
This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing participants’ racial and ethnic identity development. The emergent Asian Indian American racial and ethnic identity model provides a contextualized overview of key developmental periods and turning points within the process of identity development. PMID:25298617
This article addresses practice concerns and special issues for professionals doing case management for older Asian Americans using Alzheimer's disease as the case example. Highlighted are cross-cultural issues in assessment for depression in this population, as well as caregiving and community service utilization issues. The research is based on the author's own work and the literature, as well as results from a population-based study of caregivers of the elderly in California.
So, Dominicus W.; Wong, Frank Y.; DeLeon, Jordana M.
In this study of 248 predominantly heterosexual Asian American college students, we found some HIV risks: lifetime prevalence of unprotected sex (37%), alcohol before sex (23.8%), and drug use before sex (6.0%). The prevalence of lifetime anal sex is only 9%, but 90.48% of those who have ever had anal sex did so without a condom. The Sexual Risk…
Is immigrant groups' assimilation to host society at odds with their engagement with the country of ancestral origin? This study divides the concept of assimilation into socioeconomic resources and attachment to host society, and argues that assimilation and transnational perspectives are coexisting paradigms. Analyses using the nationally representative samples of Latino and Asian Americans indicate that 1) higher-order generations reduce the odds of home country engagement, i.e. frequent return visits, 2) attachment to American society does not discourage return visits, 3) socioeconomic resources increase frequent visits, and 4) the country of origin is a significant predictor of home country visits. PMID:21647239
Lee, Jieha; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris
The authors examined the association between lesbian/bisexual identity and three risky health behaviors (HIV risk, substance use, and suicidal behaviors) in a sample of Asian American women. This cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the prevalence of HIV risk behaviors and mental health functioning among unmarried Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women ages 18 to 35 who are children of immigrants (N = 701), using computer-assisted survey interviews (CASI). Approximately one out of five Asian American women in the sample identified themselves as a lesbian and bisexual woman (18%). Overall, Asian American lesbian and bisexual women reported higher proportions of risky health behaviors than did their exclusively heterosexual counterparts. The odds of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, using substances, and experiencing suicidal ideation were two to three times higher for lesbian and bisexual women than for exclusively heterosexual women. These findings suggest that rigorous screening is necessary for identifying women in this lesbian/bisexual subgroup in order to provide them with better assessment and services. PMID:23206203
Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Tran, Alisia G T T; Miyake, Elisa R; Kim, Helen Youngju
Objectification theory has been applied to understand disordered eating among college women. A recent extension of objectification theory (Moradi, 2010) conceptualizes racism as a socialization experience that shapes women of color's objectification experiences, yet limited research has examined this theoretical assertion. The present study proposed and examined a racially expanded model of objectification theory that postulated perceived racial discrimination, perpetual foreigner racism, and racial/ethnic teasing as correlates of Asian American college women's (N = 516) self-objectification processes and eating disorder symptomatology. Perceived racial discrimination, perpetual foreigner racism, and racial/ethnic teasing were indirectly associated with eating disordered symptomatology through self-objectification processes of internalization of media ideals of beauty (media internalization), body surveillance, and body shame. Results support the inclusion of racial stressors as contexts of objectification for Asian American women. The present findings also underscore perceived racial discrimination, racial/ethnic teasing, and perpetual foreigner racism as group-specific risk factors with major theoretical, empirical, and clinical relevance to eating disorder research and treatment with Asian American college women. (PsycINFO Database Record
Choi, Andrew Young; Israel, Tania; Maeda, Hotaka
This article presents the development and psychometric evaluation of the Internalized Racism in Asian Americans Scale (IRAAS), which was designed to measure the degree to which Asian Americans internalized hostile attitudes and negative messages targeted toward their racial identity. Items were developed on basis of prior literature, vetted through expert feedback and cognitive interviews, and administered to 655 Asian American participants through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Exploratory factor analysis with a random subsample (n = 324) yielded a psychometrically robust preliminary measurement model consisting of 3 factors: Self-Negativity, Weakness Stereotypes, and Appearance Bias. Confirmatory factor analysis with a separate subsample (n = 331) indicated that the proposed correlated factors model was strongly consistent with the observed data. Factor determinacies were high and demonstrated that the specified items adequately measured their intended factors. Bifactor modeling further indicated that this multidimensionality could be univocally represented for the purpose of measurement, including the use of a mean total score representing a single continuum of internalized racism on which individuals vary. The IRAAS statistically predicted depressive symptoms, and demonstrated statistically significant correlations in theoretically expected directions with four dimensions of collective self-esteem. These results provide initial validity evidence supporting the use of the IRAAS to measure aspects of internalized racism in this population. Limitations and research implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Gupta, Arpana; Leong, Frederick; Valentine, Jeffrey C; Canada, Dericka D
Acculturation is an important and popular cultural research variable among specific ethnic populations that is used to explain the process of assimilating into the host culture. Acculturation has often been used to account for psychosocial changes and health outcomes and has been used to explain health disparities among ethnic groups. Using Asian Americans as an illustrative ethnic group, the authors see that researchers have highlighted the influence of acculturation on health outcomes. Some researchers suggest that this relationship is positive, whereas others postulate that the opposite is true. Because of the highly complex and divergent findings in the literature, this meta-analysis addresses the question of how acculturation (as measured by acculturation scales) is related to depression (a specific mental health outcome) among the Asian American population living in North America. Analyses were based on 38 studies. The meta-analyses reveal that when acculturation is measured as assimilation to the American culture, there is a small but statistically significant negative relationship between acculturation and depression scores. When acculturation is measured as orientation to the Asian culture, the relationship between acculturation and depression scores is also negative, but not statistically significant.
Kang, Hannah Soo; Chang, Kyle Edward; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen
Past research has shown that locus of control plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors, such as academic achievement and positive social behaviors. However, little is known about whether locus of control plays the same role in minority adolescents' peer relationships. The current study examined ethnic differences in the associations between locus of control and peer relationships in early adolescence using samples from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K: 5,612 Caucasian, 1,562 Hispanic, 507 Asian, and 908 African-American adolescents) and the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS: 8,484 Caucasian, 1,604 Hispanic, and 860 Asian, and 1,228 African American adolescents). Gender was approximately evenly split in both samples. The results from the two datasets were highly consistent. Significant interactions between ethnicity and locus of control indicated that having a more internal locus of control was particularly important for Caucasian students' peer relationships (ECLS-K) and social status (NELS), but less so for Asian, Hispanic, and African American students. Our findings suggest that the role of locus of control in peer relationship is contingent upon culture.
Unger, Jennifer B; Reynolds, Kim; Shakib, Sohaila; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sun, Ping; Johnson, C Anderson
Previous studies have implicated acculturation to the US as a risk factor for unhealthy behaviors among Hispanic and Asian-American adolescents, including substance use, violence, and unsafe sex. This study examined the association between acculturation and obesity-related behaviors-physical activity and fast-food consumption-among 619 Asian-American and 1385 Hispanic adolescents in Southern California. Respondents completed surveys in 6th and 7th grade. The 6th grade survey assessed acculturation with the AHIMSA acculturation scale and a measure of English language usage. The 7th grade survey assessed frequency of moderate-to-intense physical activity and frequency of eating fast-food. Multiple regression analyses included acculturation and demographic covariates as predictors of physical activity and fast-food consumption. Acculturation to the US, assessed in 6th grade, was significantly associated with a lower frequency of physical activity participation and a higher frequency of fast-food consumption in 7th grade. The significant associations persisted after controlling for covariates and were consistent across gender and ethnic groups. Results suggest that acculturation to the US is a risk factor for obesity-related behaviors among Asian-American and Hispanic adolescents. Health promotion programs are needed to encourage physical activity and healthy diets among adolescents in acculturating families.
Zhang, Wei; Ta, Van M
Focusing on Asian Americans, this study examines how self-rated physical and mental health depends on the layered social connections (including 4 types: family cohesion, relative support, friend support, and neighborhood cohesion), socioeconomic status, and immigration-related factors (including nativity, length of residence in the U.S., and proficiency of the English language). It draws on the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study, a nationally representative household survey of Latino and Asian Americans. Findings of this study include: (1) there are significant differences in self-rated physical health among Asian Americans of different national origin, but their self-rated physical health differences diminish after indicators of socioeconomic status and immigration-related factors are considered; (2) four types of social connections are all related to the self-rated physical and mental health of Asian Americans, but the patterns of the associations as well as the mechanisms linking the associations vary; and (3) family cohesion has independent and direct effects on both self-rated physical and mental health over and above controls and mediators, whereas the effects of other social connection measures are partially mediated by socioeconomic status and immigration-related factors. In sum, this study indicates the significant effects of social connections, socioeconomic status, and immigration-related factors on the self-rated physical and mental health of Asian Americans.
Meng, Yu; Hanson, Sandra L.
Both race and sex continue to be factors that stratify entry into science education and occupations in the United States. Asian-Americans (men and women) have experienced considerable success in the sciences and have earned the label of "model minority." The complexities and patterns involved in this success remain elusive. We use several concepts coming out of the status attainment framework and a multicultural gender perspective to explore the way in which race and sex come together to influence choices of science major and degree. Our sample consists of Asian-American and white students in the National Educational Longitudinal Study. Findings suggest that being male and being Asian-American are both associated with higher chances of pursuing majors and degrees in science. The male advantage is greater than the Asian-American advantage. Findings also suggest that race and sex interact in the science decision. For example, race differences (with an Asian-American advantage) in choice of science major are significant for women but not men. Sex differences (with a male advantage) in choice of science major are significant in the white, but not the Asian-American sample. A different set of race and sex patterns is revealed in the science degree models. Processes associated with family socioeconomic status and student characteristics help to explain race and sex patterns. Findings suggest that when Asian-American youths have closer ties to the Asian culture, they are more likely to choose science majors and degrees. Implications for policy, practice, and research in science education are discussed.
Sabato, Todd M
As HIV incidence rises globally, Asian and Pacific Islander communities are increasingly affected. While often overlooked, Asian and Pacific Islander American women have shown the greatest percentage increase in HIV diagnosis rates. The development of a multilevel and multistrategy approach to HIV/AIDS education, prevention, and treatment among Asian and Pacific Islander females requires health care providers to identify personal and cultural barriers to prevention and treatment and implement culturally sensitive and specific measures. The purpose of this article is to illuminate barriers to HIV-related prevention, treatment, and care among Asian and Pacific Islander American females and provide practical application-based suggestions for providers, which may enhance Asian and Pacific Islander female inclusion in comprehensive HIV prevention.
Sarkar, M; Stewart, S; Yu, A; Chen, M S; Nguyen, T T; Khalili, M
Asians Americans have a high burden of hepatitis B virus (HBV) associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC screening practices in this population are unknown. We aimed to investigate predictors and patterns of HCC screening and its impact on survival in HBV-infected Asian Americans. Clinical data were obtained from a retrospective cohort of 1870 HBsAg-positive Asians in San Francisco's safety net clinics. In 824 patients at-risk for HCC, screening (≥1 imaging and/or AFP per year) decreased from 67% to 47% to 24% from the 1st to 2nd to 10th year after HBV diagnosis, respectively. AFP, imaging, and imaging plus AFP were used in 37%, 14%, and 49% during the first year after diagnosis, and imaging plus AFP increased to 64% by the 10th year. Among 1431 patients followed in 2007, age 40-64 years, female gender, cirrhosis, hepatologist evaluation, HBV diagnosis after 2003, and testing for HBeAg were associated with HCC screening. Of the 51 patients with HCC, more cirrhotics received screening and were diagnosed with early stage disease. Median survival following HCC diagnosis was higher in screened patients (1624 days vs. 111 days, P = 0.02). MELD score at HCC diagnosis (HR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3) and receipt of curative therapy (HR 0.3, 95% CI 0.08-0.94) were associated with survival. Screening rates in at-risk Asian Americans, particularly among noncirrhotics, were suboptimal and decreased over time. Among patients with HCC, receipt of prior screening improved survival, and this survival benefit was related to better liver function at HCC diagnosis and receipt of curative therapy.
Wang, Meme; Kviz, Frederick J; Miller, Arlene M
The purpose of this paper is to describe unique culturally-based factors that may increase the vulnerability of Asian American adolescents to engage in alcohol use and abuse and the role of parent-child bonding as a protective factor. In particular, this paper addresses the interactions among acculturation, alcohol use, and parent-child bonding and the challenges Asian American families face in strengthening parent-child bonds. We begin by examining likely causes for alienation that occur as a result of immigration to the United States. We then present the cultural context of Asian American families that can also serve to create distance between parent and child, including the contrasting cultural orientations of individualism and collectivism, Asian traditional values, differences in Eastern and Western parenting styles, and intergenerational cultural dissonance. Next, we present a review of the research that has examined acculturation as a risk factor for alcohol use and abuse among Asian American adolescents, with special attention to the mediating role of parent-child bonding. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research on the risk and protective factors for adolescent substance abuse, as well as other risky health behaviors among the growing population of Asian Americans in the United States.
Koff, E; Benavage, A; Wong, B
Euro-American (n = 94) and Asian-American (n = 72) college women were compared on multiple dimensions of body image, including global body satisfaction, preoccupation with appearance, satisfaction with individual body parts or features, and weight concern, and psychosocial functioning, including self-esteem, public self-consciousness, social anxiety, and public body consciousness. Both groups reported similar scores on these variables and showed similar patterns of correlations between body-image and psychosocial variables. Despite similar global body satisfaction, there were group differences in satisfaction with individual body parts or features, with Asian-American women reporting lower satisfaction with six parts or features and higher satisfaction with one feature. Stepwise multiple regression analyses predicting global body satisfaction from individual body parts or features suggested that both the specific body parts or features most salient to global body satisfaction and the relative influence of these parts or features varied as a function of ethnicity. Implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed.
Yeh, Joanna; Trang, Amy; Henning, Susanne M; Wilhalme, Holly; Carpenter, Catherine; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping
Background/Objectives In an era where obesity remains an important public health concern, food addiction has emerged as a possible contributor to obesity. The DRD2 gene is the most studied polymorphism. The aim of this study was to investigate a relationship between food craving and food addiction questionnaires, body composition measurements, and a dopamine-resistant receptor polymorphism (DRD2 A1) among healthy Asian Americans. Subjects/Methods A total of 84 Asian American college students were recruited. Participants underwent body composition measurement via bioelectrical impedance, answered subjective questionnaires, and had blood drawn for genotyping. Results Among Asian American college students, there was no difference in body composition (BMI, percent body fat) between the A1 (A1A1 or A1A2) and A2 (A2A2) groups. There were statistically significant differences in food cravings of carbohydrates and fast food on the Food Craving Inventory between the A1 and A2 groups (p=0.03), but not for sugar or fat. Among female Asian college students, there was also a difference on the Power of Food questionnaire (p=0.04), which was not seen among males. 13 out of 55 females also had > 30% body fat at a BMI of 21.4 to 28.5 kg/m2. Conclusion Greater carbohydrate and fast food craving was associated with the DRD2 A1 versus A2 allele among Asian Americans. Further studies examining the ability of dopamine agonists to affect food craving and to reduce body fat in Asian American are warranted. More studies in food addiction among obese Asian Americans are needed with careful definition of obesity, specifically for Asian women. PMID:27222427
LI, Shijian; DELVA, Jorge
Growing research finds that social capital is associated with smoking. However, most studies focus on white populations and do not take into account potential differences between genders. The present study examines the associations between social capital and self-report smoking status and assesses the moderating role of gender among a national representative sample of Asian American adults. Social capital consisted of measures of individual social connectedness (i.e. social ties with relatives and friends) and subjective evaluation of family and neighborhood environment (i.e. family and neighborhood cohesion, family conflict). Asian men were almost three times more likely to be current smokers than women (20.1% vs. 7.0%). Results of multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that family conflicts or higher levels of connectedness with family members were associated with increased odds of being a current smoker among Asian Americans as a whole. Further stratified analysis revealed significant gender differences in several aspects of social capital: there were stronger effects of social connectedness with family members on increasing the odds of smoking for women than for men. In addition, women who had closer connections to friends had greater odds of being current smokers, whereas the opposite was true for men. The findings of this study provide new evidence for the differential effects of social capital by gender, suggesting that more studies are needed to understand social capital’s effects in different racial/ethnic populations and the mechanisms by which the effects vary with gender. PMID:22706023
Wong, Eugene Franklin
This paper questions the applicability of middleman minority theory to Chinese and Japanese Americans. The constructional elements of the theory, in its American form, are analyzed in the context of Chinese and Japanese American economic, social, and political conditions. The ethnic group triad (elite-middleman minority-masses) is identified and…
Chang, Edward C; Yu, Elizabeth A; Kahle, Emma R
This study examined for ethnic variations in the predictive utility of body discrepancy and self-construal in eating disturbances between 156 European American and 129 Asian American females. We found important ethnic variations in the prediction model between these two groups, especially in the value of self-construal. Some implications of the present findings are discussed.
... tremendous racial and cultural prejudice. Despite these difficulties, AAPI men and women struggled... are possible for all people. All Americans can visit www.AAPI.gov to learn more about the important....gov to learn more about the history of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and to observe...
Marvis, Barbara J.
This collection of biographical sketches presents role models of Asian American descent for American children. As part of the five-volume series written at a reading level for grades five to six, the success stories of the individuals profiled in this volume, and who have encountered racial prejudice and discrimination, remind all of the unique…
Cheng, Li-Rong Lilly
This digest focuses on meeting the educational needs of recent Asian Pacific American (APA) immigrants. Newcomers usually have various levels of English proficiency, and many find school rules incomprehensible because they differ so widely from their previous experiences. In addition, American teachers expect children to be interactive, creative,…
Masuda, Akihiko; Le, Jane; Cohen, Lindsey L.
The present study investigated whether different forms of disordered-eating-related cognitions and psychological flexibility were associated with psychological distress among female Asian American and European American college students in the United States. Disordered-eating-related cognitions examined in the present study included thoughts (a)…
Kimura-Walsh, Erin Fukiko
This study examines Ethnic Studies' efforts to gain institutional stability at the university. The issue is explored through a qualitative, multi-case study of Ethnic Studies units, specifically American Indian and Asian American Studies at San Francisco State University and University of California, Los Angeles. To gain insight into their…
Although considerable evidence suggests that discrimination negatively affects mental health for Asian American (AA) immigrants, few studies have disaggregated this heterogeneous community and/or differentiated effects of different forms of discrimination. Using the first nationally representative data on AA immigrants in US, this study examines whether perceived racial discrimination, perceived language discrimination, and vicarious racism experiences increase the risk of psychiatric disorder for different Asian immigrant groups in the past 12 months. Results from group specific logistic regressions show that both perceived racial and language discrimination have strong deleterious effects on mental health only for Filipinos, while Vietnamese and Chinese are more likely to be affected by vicarious racism experiences. No significant association was found between racial discrimination and the mental health outcome for Vietnamese and Chinese. Findings were discussed in the light of inter-racial contact pattern and acculturation status for each group.
ChenFeng, Jessica; Kim, Lana; Wu, Yuwei; Knudson-Martin, Carmen
Asian Americans juggle the intersections of multiple social identities and societal discourses as they respond to experiences of immigration, marginalization, and patriarchy, integrate collectivist and individualistic family values, and form families and intimate relationships. In this study we examine what we have learned as we apply Socio-Emotional Relationship Therapy (SERT) with heterosexual couples of Asian heritage. SERT begins with sociocultural attunement and the assumption that relationships should mutually support each partner. Drawing on case examples, we illustrate how we practice sociocultural attunement as couples respond to the relational processes that comprise the Circle of Care (mutual influence, vulnerability, attunement, and shared relational responsibility). We emphasize three key socioemotional themes that intersect with gender: (1) intangible loss; (2) quiet fortitude/not burdening others; and (3) duty to the family.
Lee, Juliet P.; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Saephan, Sang; Kirkpatrick, Sean
Background Southeast Asian Americans are highly at risk for tobacco use. Youth-led, environmentally focused tobacco prevention programs have been identified as highly effective in engaging youth in tobacco research and prevention, but may be challenging for the most at-risk youths. Objectives We report on lessons learned in a pilot tobacco prevention program with Southeast Asian youth in Northern California. Methods We reviewed meeting notes, participatory research products, and a transcribed focus group with tobacco prevention project participants. Lessons Learned Challenges to the youths’ participation related to structural issues (limited time, scheduling conflicts, financial difficulties, aging out of programs) and personal issues (school and work pressure, family stressors). Coordinating with ongoing program activities and the county coalition enabled some supports as well as challenges. Conclusions Key supports for youth were youth leaders, social and financial rewards, and the ability to interpret tobacco prevention information in culturally and age-relevant media. PMID:22820228
Katigbak, Carina; Foley, Meghan; Robert, Lauren; Hutchinson, M. Katherine
Purpose By 2050, the number of international migrants is expected to double from 214 million people. Of these, Asian immigrants are projected to comprise the largest foreign-born population in the United States by the year 2065. Asian American immigrants experience numerous health disparities, but remain under-represented in health research. The purpose of this article is to examine the experiences and lessons learned in applying community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles to access and recruit a sample of Asian American research participants. Approach This article reviews unique barriers to research participation among Asian Americans, describes the principles of CBPR, and provides examples of how these principles were employed to bridge recruitment challenges within a qualitative study. Findings and Conclusions CBPR facilitated greater research participation among a group of immigrant Asian Americans. Researchers must be additionally mindful of the importance of building trusting relationships with their community partners, understanding the significance of shared experiences, considering fears around immigration status, and considering ongoing challenges in identifying and reaching hidden populations. Clinical Relevance Clinicians and researchers can employ CBPR principles to guide their work with Asian immigrant communities and other under-represented groups to facilitate access to the population, improve participant recruitment, and foster engagement and collaboration. PMID:26836035
Ye, Jiali; Mack, Dominic; Fry-Johnson, Yvonne; Parker, Katrina
Despite efforts to eliminate inequality in health and health care, disparities in health care access and utilization persist in the United States. The purpose of this study was to compare the access to care and use of health care services of US-born and foreign-born Asian Americans. We used aggregated data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) from 2003 to 2005, including 2,500 participants who identified themselves as Asian. Associations between country of birth and reported access and utilization of care in the previous 12 months were examined. After controlling for covariates, being foreign-born was negatively related to indicators of access to care, including health insurance (OR = 0.29, 95%CI = 0.18-0.48), routine care access (OR = 0.52, 95%CI = 0.36-0.75), and sick care access [OR = 0.67, 95%CI = 0.47-0.96)]. Being foreign-born was also negatively related to all indicators of health care utilization (office visit: OR = 0.58, 95%CI = 0.41-0.81; seen/talked to a general doctor: OR = 0.69, 95%CI = 0.52-0.90; seen/talked to a specialist: OR = 0.42, 95%CI = 0.28-0.63) but ER visit (OR = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.59-1.20). There are substantial differences by country of birth in health care access and utilization among Asian Americans. Our findings emphasize the need for developing culturally sensitive health services and intervention programs for Asian communities.
Bolcic-Jankovic, Dragana; Lu, Fengxin; Colten, Mary Ellen; McCarthy, Ellen P
We report the results from cognitive interviews with Asian American patients and their caregivers. We interviewed seven caregivers and six patients who were all bilingual Asian Americans. The main goal of the cognitive interviews was to test a survey instrument developed for a study about perspectives of Asian American patients with advanced cancer who are facing decisions around end-of-life care. We were particularly interested to see whether items commonly used in White and Black populations are culturally meaningful and equivalent in Asian populations, primarily those of Chinese and Vietnamese ethnicity. Our exploration shows that understanding respondents' language proficiency, degree of acculturation, and cultural context of receiving, processing, and communicating information about medical care can help design questions that are appropriate for Asian American patients and caregivers, and therefore can help researchers obtain quality data about the care Asian American cancer patients receive.
Singh, Shipra; McBride, Kimberly; Kak, Vivek
This study examined the impact of acculturative stress and social support (family and friend) on psychological distress among Asian American immigrants and three Asian sub-groups (Vietnamese, Filipino and Chinese) immigrants. The National Latino and Asian American Study 2002-2003 dataset was used. The study findings were: (1) among all Asian American immigrants high language barrier and discrimination stress were associated with increased level of psychological distress, but similar association was not present for legal stress; (2) among all Asian American immigrants high family social support decreased the levels of psychological distress, and in addition, friend social support buffered the relationship of discrimination and psychological distress; and (3) among Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese, differential association of social support and acculturative stress to psychological distress were observed. These findings highlight the importance of social support among Asian American immigrants, while also paying attention to the variation that may exist between different sub-groups.
Yang, Liu; Yu, Qing-Tao; Ge, Ya-Zhong; Zhang, Wen-Song; Fan, Yong; Ma, Chung-Wah; Liu, Qun; Qi, Lian-Wen
Ginseng occupies a prominent position in the list of best-selling natural products worldwide. Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) show different properties and medicinal applications in pharmacology, even though the main active constituents of them are both thought to be ginsenosides. Metabolomics is a promising method to profile entire endogenous metabolites and monitor their fluctuations related to exogenous stimulus. Herein, an untargeted metabolomics approach was applied to study the overall urine metabolic differences between Asian ginseng and American ginseng in mice. Metabolomics analyses were performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) together with multivariate statistical data analysis. A total of 21 metabolites related to D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism, glutathione metabolism, TCA cycle and glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, differed significantly under the Asian ginseng treatment; 34 metabolites mainly associated with glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, TCA cycle and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, were significantly altered after American ginseng treatment. Urinary metabolomics reveal that Asian ginseng and American ginseng can benefit organism physiological and biological functions via regulating multiple metabolic pathways. The important pathways identified from Asian ginseng and American ginseng can also help to explore new therapeutic effects or action targets so as to broad application of these two ginsengs. PMID:27991533
McPhee, Stephen J.; Nguyen, Tung T.; Mock, Jeremiah; Nguyen, Thoa; Lam, Hy
The Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training in San Francisco (AANCART-SF) consists of two distinct entities, working in cooperation to advance cancer awareness, research, and training among Asian Americans: a university-based group with expertise in the Vietnamese community and a community-based health plan with expertise in the Chinese community. In addition to the goals shared with other AANCART sites, AANCART-SF is a unique effort in capacity building in that it aims to expand and export community-academic research expertise from one Asian population, the Vietnamese, to other Asian populations. It also aims to build the research capability of those serving the Chinese community through a health plan. PMID:16270324
Park, Eunmi; Lee, Sunmin
Background This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a lay health worker (LHW) telephone intervention on completing a series of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccinations among foreign-born Asian Americans in the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan area. Methods During the period of April 2013 and March 2014, we recruited Asian Americans who were 18 years of age and older in the community-based organizations. Of the 645 eligible participants, 600 (201 Chinese, 198 Korean, 201 Vietnamese) completed a pretest survey and received hepatitis B screening. Based on the screening results, we conducted a randomized controlled trial among those unprotected (HBsAg-/HBsAB-) by assigning them either to an intervention group (n = 124) or control group (n = 108). The intervention group received a list of resources by mails for where to get free vaccinations as well as reminder calls for vaccinations from trained LHWs, while the control group received only list of resources by mail. Seven months after mailing the HBV screening results, trained LHWs followed up with all participants by phone to ask how many of the recommended series of 3 vaccinations they had received: none, 1 or 2, or all 3 (complete). Their self-reported vaccinations were verified with the medical records. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to examine the effect of the LHW intervention. Process evaluation was conducted by asking study participants in the intervention group to evaluate the performance of the LHWs. Results After seven months, those in the intervention group were more likely to have 1 or more vaccines than the control group, compared to the no vaccination group (OR = 3.04, 95% CI, 1.16, 8.00). Also, those in the intervention group were more likely to complete a series of vaccinations than the control group, compared to the no vaccination group (OR = 7.29, 95% CI 3.39, 15.67). The most important barrier preventing them from seeking hepatitis B vaccinations was lack of time to get the vaccination
Bhardwaj, Urvashi; Zhang, Yao-Hua; Lorey, Fred; McCabe, Linda L; McCabe, Edward R B
beta-Thalassemia is a serious health problem in the United States, especially in California, due to increased Asian immigration. Neonatal screening by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or isoelectric focusing (IEF) may lead to confusion due to interactions of various hemoglobinopathies with beta-thalassemia. Our purpose was to develop single-tube multiplexed PCR assays using original neonatal screening specimens to identify the mutations responsible for beta-thalassemia in order to expedite diagnostic confirmation. Primers were designed for two to six common ethnic-specific mutations using the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS). This multiplex ARMS approach was standardized using DNA samples with known mutations for beta-thalassemia in those of Asian (Southeast Asian, Chinese, and Asian Indian) and African-American descent. Specimens from African-American neonates were tested for two mutations (-88 and -29); Asian Indians for five mutations (IVSI-1, IVSI-5, codons (Cd) 41/42, Cd 8/9, and 619-bp deletion); Chinese, Taiwanese, and Southeast Asians for seven mutations (Cd 41/42, Cd 17, -28, IVSII-654, Cd 71/72, IVSI-5, and IVSI-1). We identified each of these beta-thalassemia mutations in multiplexed ARMS from positive control samples. We tested 25 anonymized dried blood specimens from neonates who had been diagnosed with beta-thalassemia and who also belonged to these ethnic groups. We detected a mutation specific to the neonate's ethnic group using the ARMS approach in nearly all specimens, and the results were confirmed by sequencing. Multiplexed ARMS for ethnic-specific beta-thalassemia mutations from the original newborn screening dried blood specimens is a rapid and efficient approach for diagnostic confirmation.
Individuals of Asian descent have been found to be at greater risk of developing conditions associated with obesity at lower BMI levels compared to other ethnic groups. As a result, new criteria have been developed to identify overweight and obesity in Asian populations. The purpose of the current s...
Heller, Craig; Cunningham, Bruce; Lee, Ginny; Heller, Hannah M.
Discusses distinctive children's picture books that depict Asian fathers and other men who play significant roles in the lives of children. Books are grouped by theme, such as fairly tale versus real life, Asian immigration to North America, and discipline. Includes guidelines for selecting and evaluating books and appropriate classroom teaching…
Parhami, Iman; Davtian, Margarit; Hanna, Katherine; Calix, Iberia; Fong, Timothy W.
This report will discuss the implementation and preliminary results of a community-based telephone-delivered gambling treatment program specifically designed for Asian Americans. The intervention was implemented by the NICOS Chinese Health Coalition, a nonprofit community organization based in Northern California, overseen by the UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) Gambling Studies Program and the California Office of Problem Gambling, and launched in December 2010. It consisted of six 1-hr long telephone-delivered sessions conducted by a mental health provider using a translated version of the Freedom from Problem Gambling Self-Help Workbook. In the current study, 6 providers completed a 30-hr training program for gambling related disorders. One-hundred and 40 callers inquired about the intervention within the first 6 months of its launch, 19 clients expressed interest in participating, and 8 enrolled into the program. The results show that the majority of clients who enrolled into the program did not report any gambling behavior after baseline and improved on self-reported measures of overall life satisfaction, gambling urges, and self-control. This study suggests that the implementation of this type of intervention is feasible at a small community-based organization and may be effective in treating gambling-related disorders for Asian American populations. The low rate of clientele enrollment is addressed and potential remedies are discussed. PMID:24349640
Wong, Y. Joel; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Nguyen, Chi P.; Cheng, Janice Ka Yan; Saw, Anne
This article reports the development and psychometric properties of the Interpersonal Shame Inventory (ISI), a culturally salient and clinically relevant measure of interpersonal shame for Asian Americans. Across 4 studies involving Asian American college students, the authors provided evidence for this new measure’s validity and reliability. Exploratory factor analyses and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a model with 2 correlated factors: external shame (arising from concerns about others’ negative evaluations) and family shame (arising from perceptions that one has brought shame to one’s family), corresponding to 2 subscales: ISI-E and ISI-F, respectively. Evidence for criterion-related, concurrent, discriminant, and incremental validity was demonstrated by testing the associations between external shame and family shame and immigration/international status, generic state shame, face concerns, thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and suicide ideation. External shame and family shame also exhibited differential relations with other variables. Mediation findings were consistent with a model in which family shame mediated the effects of thwarted belongingness on suicide ideation. Further, the ISI subscales demonstrated high alpha coefficients and test–retest reliability. These findings are discussed in light of the conceptual, methodological, and clinical contributions of the ISI. PMID:24188650
Moloney, Molly; Hunt, Geoffrey P.
Based on 250 qualitative interviews with Asian American young men and women in the dance/club scenes in the San Francisco area, we examine the interplay between consumption, style and taste cultures with issues of ethnic identity, gender and acculturation. We explore the ways that consumption and taste markers (e.g. fashion, cars, music and drugs) are used to establish or negotiate symbolic boundaries between groups in this youth culture. The picture they paint of the dance scene is one less about cohesiveness and unity and more about divisions and boundaries, not only between but also significantly within ethnic groupings. The choice of drugs and ways of exhibiting intoxication are among the types of consumption that the young people drew upon to mark symbolic boundaries and establish identities. The young men and women in this study discuss a number of key boundaries in the scene, e.g. between FOBs and twinkies, between pretty boys and thugs, as they attempt to establish the cultural legitimacy of their own styles of Asian American identities. PMID:24065869
Trinh, Sarah L; Ward, L Monique; Day, Kyla; Thomas, Khia; Levin, Dana
Receiving more parent sexual communication is generally linked to a later age of first sexual intercourse and less sexual risk taking. However, Asian American youth report minimal parent sexual communication, later sexual initiation, and fewer sexual risks than their counterparts. What contributes to this unexpected pattern of sexual communication and sexual behaviors? To answer this question, we surveyed 312 Asian American college students ages 17 to 22 on their sexual behaviors, parent sexual communication, and peer sexual communication. Assessment of parent and peer sexual communication was completed via a measure in which participants rated the frequency with which they had received each of 22 sexual messages from each source. Young women generally received more messages promoting abstinence, traditional sex roles, and sex within a relational context than their male counterparts. Young men, however, reported greater parent and peer communications that were accepting of casual sex. Exposure to peer messages that were accepting of casual sex was associated with more sexual partners, casual sex encounters, and sexual experience. Being older, being raised outside the United States, being less religious, and being homosexual was each predictive of more sexual experience. Implications regarding the role of culture and gender on sexual socialization are discussed.
Using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of Asian American late adolescents/young adults (ages 18-26), this article investigates the link between peer effects, school climate, on the one hand, and substance use, which includes tobacco, alcohol, and other illicit mood altering substance. The sample (N = 1585) is drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I and III). The study is set to empirically test premises of generational, social capital and stage-environment fit theories. The exploratory variables include individual-level (immigrant generation status, ethnic origin, co-ethnic and co-generational peers - peers from the same immigrant generation) as well as school-level measures (average school socio-economic status and school climate). Multilevel modeling (logistic and negative binomial regression) was used to estimate substance use. Results indicate that preference for co-generational friends is inversely associated with frequency of cannabis and other illicit drug use and preference for co-ethnic peers is inversely associated with other illicit drug use. We also find that school climate is a strong and negative predictor of frequency of cannabis and other illicit drug use as well as of heavy episodic drinking. In terms of policy, these findings suggest that Asian American students should benefit from co-ethnic and co-generational peer networks in schools and, above all, from improving school climate.
Minatoya, Lydia Yuriko; Sedlacek, William E.
Demographic characteristics and attitudes of Asian-American undergraduates at the University of Maryland, College Park, were studied. A random sample of 139 Asian-American students responded to a 51-item questionnaire, with a return rate of 81 percent. Seventy-five percent of the 86 male and 53 female respondents had resided for the longest period…
Peralta, Victorina; Horikawa, Herbert
The study reported on in this document was undertaken to develop a service delivery model that would accurately reflect the Asian-American's specific cultural needs, values, and traditions. The personal characteristics, economic conditions, and interests of 255 Asian-American elderly in the Philadelphia area are described. A needs assessment of…
National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC. Teaching and Learning Program.
Papers presented at a 1976 conference on Asian-Pacific American women are collected in this report. Most are directed towards the purpose of the conference, which was to produce an agenda for research that will shape policy on Asian-Pacific American womens' educational and occupational needs. In addition to 14 papers, the report includes a general…
Huhman, Marian; Berkowitz, Judy M; Wong, Faye L; Prosper, Erika; Gray, Michael; Prince, David; Yuen, Jeannie
The VERB campaign promoted physical activity to U.S. children aged 9-13 years (tweens) by surrounding them with appealing messages that were associated with the VERB brand and tag line It's what you do! To maximize the impact of the campaign, VERB had a two-level strategy for its marketing. One level was designed to reach a general audience of tweens (i.e., most tweens who use mainstream media). The second level was designed specifically to reach four racial or ethnic audiences: African Americans, Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians as an augmentation to the first level. This article focuses on VERB's market segmentation strategy and reports how messages for the general audience were adapted to reach specific racial or ethnic segments of the U.S. population. Findings are reported from qualitative studies conducted with tweens and the parents of tweens from these ethnic groups, and the marketing strategies used to reach each ethnic group and the results of evaluations of those strategies are also described.
Wang, Qi; Koh, Jessie Bee Kim; Song, Qingfang; Hou, Yubo
This study investigated explicit knowledge of autobiographical memory functions using a newly developed questionnaire. European and Asian American adults (N = 57) and school-aged children (N = 68) indicated their agreement with 13 statements about why people think about and share memories pertaining to four broad functions-self, social, directive and emotion regulation. Children were interviewed for personal memories concurrently with the memory function knowledge assessment and again 3 months later. It was found that adults agreed to the self, social and directive purposes of memory to a greater extent than did children, whereas European American children agreed to the emotion regulation purposes of memory to a greater extent than did European American adults. Furthermore, European American children endorsed more self and emotion regulation functions than did Asian American children, whereas Asian American adults endorsed more directive functions than did European American adults. Children's endorsement of memory functions, particularly social functions, was associated with more detailed and personally meaningful memories. These findings are informative for the understanding of developmental and cultural influences on memory function knowledge and of the relation of such knowledge to autobiographical memory development.
Yi, Stella S.; Roberts, Calpurnyia; Lightstone, Amy S.; Shih, Margaret; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau
Purpose Physical activity (PA) levels in Asian American adults may be lower than other racial/ethnic groups. This analysis tested the hypothesis that Asian Americans are less likely to meet PA guidelines than other racial/ethnic groups regardless of location of residence. Methods The New York City (NYC) Community Health Survey (2010, 2012) and Los Angeles County (LAC) Health Survey (2011) are cross-sectional surveys conducted with similar sampling strategies (NYC: n=17,462; LAC: n=8,036). Meeting PA guidelines was calculated using self-reported moderate or vigorous minutes/week; multivariable regression models adjusted for demographics, insurance, nativity and language spoken at home. Data were weighted to be representative of their respective geographies. Results In both areas, Asian Americans had a low prevalence of meeting PA guidelines (NYC: 42.7 [39.2-46.3]; LAC: 55.8 [51.2-60.2]). Other racial/ethnic groups were more likely to meet PA guidelines versus Asian Americans after adjustment for covariates in NYC (white OR: 1.35 [1.09-1.68]; black OR: 1.61 [1.28-2.02]; Hispanic OR: 2.14 [1.74-2.62]) and in LAC (white OR: 1.45 [1.13-1.86]; Hispanic OR: 1.71 [1.32-2.22]). Conclusions Asian Americans were less likely to meet PA guidelines compared to other racial/ethnic groups in NYC and LAC. Description of cultural and neighborhood-level factors and of types of PA in specific Asian subgroups is needed. PMID:26065343
Kong, Grace; Tsai, Jack; Pilver, Corey E; Tan, Hwee Sim; Hoff, Rani A; Cavallo, Dana A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N
Studies of Asian-American adults have found high estimates of problematic gambling. However, little is known about gambling behaviors and associated measures among Asian-American adolescents. This study examined gambling perceptions and behaviors and health/functioning characteristics stratified by problem-gambling severity and Asian-American and Caucasian race using cross-sectional survey data of 121 Asian-American and 1659 Caucasian high-school students. Asian-American and Caucasian adolescents significantly differed on problem-gambling severity, with Asian-American adolescents more often reporting not gambling (24.8% vs. 16.4%), but when they did report gambling, they showed higher levels of at-risk/problem gambling (30.6% vs. 26.4%). Parental approval or disapproval of adolescent gambling also significantly differed between races, with Asian-American adolescents more likely to perceive both parental disapproval (50.0% vs. 38.2%) and approval (19.3% vs. 9.6%) of gambling. Asian-American adolescents were also more likely to express concern about gambling among close family members (25.2% vs. 11.6%). Among Asian-American adolescents, stronger associations were observed between at-risk/problem gambling and smoking cigarettes (interaction odds ratio=12.6). In summary, differences in problem-gambling severity and gambling perceptions indicate possible cultural differences in familial attitudes towards gambling. Stronger links between cigarette smoking and risky/problematic gambling amongst Asian-American adolescents suggest that prevention and treatment efforts targeting youth addictions consider cultural differences.
Soto, José A; Lee, Elizabeth A; Roberts, Nicole A
Much empirical work documents the downsides of suppressing emotions. Emerging research points to the need for a more sophisticated and culturally informed approach to understanding the consequences of emotion regulation. To that end, we employed behavioral, self-report, and psychophysiological measures to examine the consequences of two types of emotion regulation (suppression and amplification) in a sample of 28 Asian Americans and 31 European Americans. Participants were shown a neutral film and then a series of disgust-eliciting films during which they were asked to regulate their response by suppressing or amplifying their emotional behavior (counterbalanced). Despite self-reporting equal levels of disgust, European Americans showed greater skin conductance reactivity than Asian Americans in both regulation conditions, but not in response to a neutral film. These findings extend work on divergence in the consequences of emotion regulation across different cultural groups, which could help identify optimal emotion regulation strategies for health and well-being.
Koo, Kelly H.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Kaysen, Debra L.
The need for trauma research with monoracial groups such as Asian Americans (AA) has recently been emphasized to better understand trauma experiences and inform interventions across populations. Given AA cultural contexts, posttraumatic cognitions and somatization may be key in understanding trauma experiences for this group. AA and White American (WA) trauma-exposed college women completed a survey on sexual trauma history, posttraumatic cognitions, somatic symptoms, and PTSD severity. For the overall sample, higher negative cognitions were associated with higher somatization. Asian race was associated with higher negative cognitions, which then predicted higher PTSD. Unexpectedly, WAs more strongly endorsed somatization than AAs. These findings indicate that posttraumatic cognitions may be helpful in understanding relationships between somatization and PTSD severity among those of Asian backgrounds and that the relationship between somatization and PTSD symptoms is culturally complex. PMID:25419439
Lee, Hee Yun; Kwon, Melissa; Vang, Suzanne; DeWolfe, Jessica; Kim, Nam Keol; Lee, Do Kyung; Yeung, Miriam
Purpose: Low rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among young Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) women need to be addressed, particularly given the high incidence of cervical cancer in this population. The current study aims to investigate predictors of HPV vaccination in young AAPI and non-Latina white (NLW) women. Methods: A…
Wells, Alison V.; Horn, Catherine
Assessing campus climate is an important factor in understanding the persistence and satisfaction of all students. This investigation extends this research stream by examining the relationship between perceptions of campus and overall sense of belonging of Asian American students on a diverse campus. Administrators may use the information gained…
Museus, Samuel D.; Vue, Rican
The purpose of this study is to examine socioeconomic differences in the interpersonal factors that influence college access among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs). Data on 1,460 AAPIs from the Education Longitudinal Study (ELS: 02/06) were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques. Findings suggest that parental…
Kiang, Lisa; Buchanan, Christy M.
Daily-diary data from 180 Asian American 9th-10th graders (58% female, 75% second generation; "M" age = 14.97 years) were used to investigate how family, school, and peer stress are each associated with same-day and next-day (lagged) well-being, and vice versa. Hierarchical linear modeling provided support for reciprocal links when…
Analyzing interviews with 18 Asian American female undergraduates, this study seeks to understand how participants viewed the sorority system at a predominantly White institution in the Southeastern United States. Drawing from critical race theory, I argue that the ways in which women perceived and experienced both acceptance and marginalization…
Museus, Samuel D.
This article reports on a study that examined the ways in which parents influence the educational trajectories of Southeast Asian American (SEAA) undergraduates at four-year institutions. Individual, face-to-face interviews with 34 SEAAs were conducted and analyzed. Findings illustrate the complex and multifaceted ways that parental influences…
Parmar, Parminder; Harkness, Sara; Super, Charles M.
Asian and Euro-American parents of preschool-aged children were interviewed concerning their beliefs about the nature and purpose of play; they also completed two questionnaires and a diary of their children's daily activities. The children's teachers were interviewed and provided information about the behaviour of the children in preschool. The…
Yoo, Hyung Chol; Castro, Kimberly S.
The moderation effect of nativity status on the relationship between perceived racism and academic performance of Asian American college students was investigated. We hypothesized that perceived racism would negatively correlate with academic performance and that this relationship would be stronger for US-born students compared to foreign-born…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...: President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, U.S. Department of Education... Education and a senior official to be designated by the President, as Co-Chairs of the Initiative, on:...
Huang, Shwu-Yong L.; Waxman, Hersholt C.
Reports a study that examined motivation and classroom environment differences between 1,200 Asian American and white middle school students in mathematics education. Student surveys indicated that there were significant differences between the two groups by ethnicity, sex, and grade on their motivation in mathematics and classroom learning…
Huang, Shwu-yong L.
This study attempts to build on research that has already been conducted to explore some of the factors that differentiate learning environments that may influence the academic achievement of Asian-American students. Their learning environments, in terms of parent guidance, teacher support, class order, satisfaction, and teaching quality, were…
Ma, Grace X; Tan, Yin; Feeley, Rosemary M.; Thomas, Priya
Assessed Asian Americans' knowledge levels regarding the health risks of tobacco use. Surveys of Korean, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Cambodian smokers and nonsmokers indicated that most respondents recognized the association between smoking and increased risk for lung, mouth, throat, and esophageal cancer and heart disease. There were significant…
Mintz, Laurie B.; Kashubeck, Susan
Examined gender differences within race and race differences within gender regarding various body image and disordered eating variables among Caucasian and Asian American college students. Regardless of race, women reported more problem attitudes and behaviors than men. Gender differences were common and similar for both ethnic groups. Race made…
Liang, Christopher T. H.; Alvarez, Alvin N.; Juang, Linda P.; Liang, Mandy X.
On the basis of stress and coping theory, the authors examined coping as a mediator of the relationship between perceptions of racism and racism-related stress with a sample of Asian American college students (N = 336). Results indicated that coping mediated the relationship between racism and racism-related stress differentially by gender. The…
Shen, Frances C.
The author explored the relationship between internalized stereotyping, parental pressure, and parental support on major choices among 315 Asian American undergraduate and graduate students. Results indicated that parental support, but not parental pressure, toward certain majors was associated with more stereotypical major choices. In addition,…
Jahng, Kyung Eun
This article brings to light discourses that constituted the education of Asian-American children in California in the second half of the nineteenth century. Guided by Foucaultian ideas and critical race theory, I analyze California public school laws, speeches of a governor-elect and a superintendent, and a report of the board of supervisors,…
Kwon, Simona C; Rideout, Catlin; Patel, Shilpa; Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Edward; Lipman, Jesse; Kunkel, Sarah; Le, Daniel Q; Chin, Kathy Ko; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau
Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs) experience a large burden from certain chronic disease-related risk factors. The STRIVE Program funded four AANHPI community-based organizations (CBOs) to implement culturally adapted community gardens and farmers' markets to increase access to healthy foods. Key CBO informant interviews were conducted to understand processes and lessons learned.
Yoo, Hyung Chol; Lee, Richard M.
A quasi-experimental vignette study was conducted to test whether ethnic identity moderated the effects of frequent racial discrimination on situational positive and negative affect of Asian American college students. Results showed that imagining multiple incidents of racial discrimination was related to higher negative affect than imagining a…