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Sample records for asian maritime continent

  1. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the South Asian maritime continent: vertical distributions and topographic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Yang, Z.; Hyer, E. J.; Reid, J. S.; Chew, B.; Mahamod, M.

    2011-12-01

    The online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used in conjunction with the FLAMBE MODIS-based biomass burning emissions to simulate the transport of smoke particles over the southeast Asian Maritime Continent (MC, 10°S - 10°N, 90°E-150°E) during September - October 2006 when the moderate El Nino event caused the largest region biomass burning outbreak since 1998. The modeled smoke transport pathway is found to be consistent with the MODIS true color images. Quantitatively, the modeled smoke particle mass can explain ~50% of temporal variability in 24-hour average observed PM10 at most ground stations, with linear correlation coefficients often larger than 0.7. Analysis of CALIOP data shows that smoke aerosols are primarily located within 3.5 km above the surface, and we found that smoke injection height in the model should be at ~800 m above surface to best match CALIOP observations downwind, instead of 2 km as used in the past literature. Comparison of CALIOP data in October 2006 with that in other years (2007-2010) reveals that the peak of aerosol extinction always occurs at ~1 km above surface, but smoke events in 2006 doubled the aerosol extinction from the surface to 3.5 km. Numerical experiments further show that the Tama Abu topography in Malaysia Peninsula has a significant impact on smoke transport and the surface in the vicinity. A conceptual model, based upon our analysis of two-month WRFchem simulation and satellite data, is proposed to explain the meteorological causes for smoke layers above the clouds as seen in the CALIOP data.

  2. Assessing Climatic Impacts due to Land Use Change over Southeast Asian Maritime Continent base on Mesoscale Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, N.; Christopher, S. A.; Nair, U. S.

    2014-12-01

    Due to increasing urbanization, deforestation, and agriculture, land use change over Southeast Asia has dramatically risen during the last decades. Large areas of peat swamp forests over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent region (10°S~20°N and 90°E~135°E) have been cleared for agricultural purposes. The Center for Remote Imaging, Sensing and Processing (CRISP) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived land cover classification data show that changes in land use are dominated by conversion of peat swamp forests to oil palm plantation, open lowland or lowland mosaic categories. Nested grid simulations based on Weather Research Forecasting Version 3.6 modelling system (WRFV3.6) over the central region of the Sarawak coast are used to investigate the climatic impacts of land use change over Maritime Continent. Numerical simulations were conducted for August of 2009 for satellite derived land cover scenarios for years 2000 and 2010. The variations in cloud formation, precipitation, and regional radiative and non-radiative parameters on climate results from land use change have been assessed based on numerical simulation results. Modelling studies demonstrate that land use change such as extensive deforestation processes can produce a negative radiative forcing due to the surface albedo increase and evapotranspiration decrease, while also largely caused reduced rainfall and cloud formation, and enhanced shortwave radiative forcing and temperature over the study area. Land use and land cover changes, similar to the domain in this study, has also occurred over other regions in Southeast Asia including Indonesia and could also impact cloud and precipitation formation in these regions.

  3. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: Interplay of sea breeze, trade wind, typhoon, and topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Ge, Cui; Yang, Zhifeng; Hyer, Edward J.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Chew, Boon-Ning; Mahmud, Mastura; Zhang, Yongxin; Zhang, Meigen

    2013-03-01

    The online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRFchem) is used to simulate the transport of smoke particles over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent during September-October 2006. In this period, dry conditions associated with the moderate El Niño event caused the largest regional biomass burning outbreak since 1997. Smoke emission in WRFchem is specified according to the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) database derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire products. The modeled smoke transport pathway is found to be consistent with the MODIS true color images and measured mass concentration of surface PM10 (particulate matter with diameter less than 10 μm). The interplay of sea/land breezes, typhoons and storms over the subtropical western Pacific Ocean, trade winds, and topographic effects, can be clearly seen in the model simulation. The most severe smoke events in 1-5 October 2006 are found to be associated with the meteorological responses to the typhoon Xangsane (#18) over the western subtropical Pacific Ocean, which moved smoke from Sumatra eastward in the lower troposphere (below 700 hPa), forming smoke layers mixed with and above the boundary layer clouds over Borneo. In contrast, the second largest week-long smoke transport event of 15-18 October 2006 was associated with the seasonal monsoonal transition period, during which smoke plumes were wide spread over the 5°S-5°N zone as a result of (a) the near surface divergence coupled with the 700 hPa bifurcation of wind (flowing both to the west and to the east), and (b) the near-surface southeasterly and easterly winds along the equator transporting smoke from Borneo to Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia. Analysis of data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarisation (CALIOP) shows that smoke particles in October 2006 were primarily located within 3.5 km above the surface. Smoke particles contributed roughly half

  4. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: coupling of smoke direct radiative effect below and above the low-level clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Reid, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to simulate the direct and semi-direct radiative impacts of smoke particles over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent (MC, 10° S-10° N, 90-150° E) during October 2006 when a significant El Niño event caused the highest biomass burning activity since 1997. With the use of an OC (organic carbon) / BC (black carbon) ratio of 10 in the smoke emission inventory, the baseline simulation shows that the clouds can reverse the negative smoke forcing in cloud-free conditions to a positive value. The net absorption of the atmosphere is largely enhanced when smoke resides above a cloud. This led to a warming effect at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) with a domain and monthly average forcing value of ~ 20 W m-2 over the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. Smoke-induced monthly average daytime heating (0.3 K) is largely confined above the low-level clouds, and results in a local convergence over the smoke source region. This heating-induced convergence transports more smoke particles above the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH), hence rendering a positive effect. This positive effect contrasts with a decrease in the cloud fraction resulting from the combined effects of smoke heating within the cloud layer and the more stable boundary layer; the latter can be considered as a negative effect in which a decrease of the cloud fraction weakens the heating by smoke particles above the clouds. During the nighttime, the elevated smoke layer lying above the clouds in the daytime is decoupled from the boundary layer, and the enhanced downdraft and shallower boundary layer lead to the accumulation of smoke particles near the surface. Because of monthly smoke radiative extinction, the amount of solar input at the surface is reduced by as much as 60 W m-2, which leads to a decrease in sensible heat, latent heat, 2 m air temperature, and PBLH by a maximum of 20 W m-2, 20 W m-2, 1 K, and 120 m

  5. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: coupling of smoke direct radiative feedbacks below and above the low-level clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Reid, J. S.

    2013-06-01

    The online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to simulate the direct and semi-direct radiative impacts of smoke particles over the Southeast Asian Marine Continents (MC, 10° S-10° N, 90° E-150° E) during October 2006 when a significant El Nino event caused the highest biomass burning activity since 1997. With the use of OC (Organic Carbon)/BC (Black Carbon) ratio of 10 in the smoke emission inventory, the baseline simulation shows that the low-level clouds amplifying effect on smoke absorption led to a warming effect at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) with a domain/monthly average forcing value of ~20 W m-2 over the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. The smoke-induced monthly average daytime heating (0.3 K) that is largely confined above the low-level clouds results in the local convergence over the smoke source region. This heating-induced convergence coupled with daytime planetary boundary layer turbulent mixing, transports more smoke particles above the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH), hence rendering a positive feedback. This positive feedback contrasts with the decrease of cloud fraction resulted from the combined effects of smoke heating within the cloud layer and the more stability in the boundary layer; the latter can be considered as a negative feedback in which decrease of cloud fraction weakens the heating by smoke particles above the clouds. During nighttime, the elevated smoke layer (above clouds in daytime) is decoupled from boundary layer, and the reduction of PBLH due to the residual surface cooling from the daytime lead to the accumulation of smoke particles near the surface. Because of smoke radiative extinction, on monthly basis, the amount of the solar input at the surface is reduced as large as 60 W m-2, which lead to the decrease of sensible heat, latent heat, 2 m air temperature, and PBLH by a maximum of 20 W m-2, 20 W m-2, 1 K, 120 m, respectively. The decrease of boundary layer mixing and the

  6. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: Coupling of smoke direct radiative feedbacks below and above the low-level clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Reid, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to simulate the direct and semi-direct radiative impacts of smoke particles over the southeast Asian Marine Continents (MC, 10°S - 10°N, 90°E-150°E) during October 2006 when a significant El Nino event caused the highest biomass burning activity since 1997. With the use of OC (Organic Carbon) /BC (Black Carbon) ratio of 10 in the smoke emission inventory, the baseline simulation shows that the low-level clouds amplifying effect on smoke absorption led to a warming effect at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) with a domain/monthly average forcing value of ~20 Wm-2 over the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. The smoke-induced monthly average daytime heating (0.3K) that is largely confined above the low-level clouds results in the local convergence over the smoke source region. This heating-induced convergence coupled with daytime planetary boundary layer turbulent mixing, transports more smoke particles above the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH), hence rendering a positive feedback. This positive feedback contrasts with the decrease of cloud fraction resulted from the combined effects of smoke heating within the cloud layer and the more stability in the boundary layer; the latter can be considered as a negative feedback in which decrease of cloud fraction weakens the heating by smoke particles above the clouds. During nighttime, the elevated smoke layer (above clouds in daytime) is decoupled from boundary layer, and the reduction of PBLH due to the residual surface cooling from the daytime lead to the accumulation of smoke particles near the surface. Because of smoke radiative extinction, on monthly basis, the amount of the solar input at the surface is reduced as large as 60 Wm-2, which lead to the decrease of sensible heat, latent heat, 2-m air temperature, and PBLH by a maximum of 20 Wm-2, 20 Wm-2, 1K, 120 m, respectively. The cloud changes over continents are mostly

  7. A satellite-based perspective of convective systems over the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, A.; Houze, R.; Virts, K.; Zuluaga, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Data from TRMM, the A-Train satellites, and the Worldwide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) have been used to study extreme weather throughout low latitudes, from deep convection over the Himalayas to oceanic mesoscale systems associated with the MJO. This study presents a more in-depth examination of convection over the Maritime Continent (Indonesia and Malaysia). During November to February, this area is the rainiest regional climate on Earth, thus constituting one of the atmosphere's primary heat sources. On multiple temporal and spatial scales, it is a complex region with clouds and precipitation having both oceanic and orographic influence. The November-February season encompasses both the eastward propagation of the MJO through this region and rainfall associated with the Asian-Australian monsoon. More specifically, the precipitation in this region is strongly modulated by MJO phases, pulsations of the monsoon, and the powerful diurnal effects of the islands and ocean. Through a feature-based analysis of convective and stratiform components of storms, the evolution of precipitating clouds in this region will be described using data from the November-February time period over multiple years. This analysis leads to an increased understanding of the characteristics of convection associated with the intraseasonal and diurnal variability during these months over the Maritime Continent. Previous work using A-Train data noted the prevalence of smaller separated MCSs over the region during the locally active phase of the MJO, and WWLLN data have shown a peak in lightning density as convection becomes deeper and more numerous leading up to this active period. By applying the analysis of the TRMM data in addition to the A-Train and WWLLN datasets, the relative roles of convective and stratiform components of MCSs to the behavior of convection can be determined during the MJO and monsoonal maxima of rainfall over the Maritime Continent.

  8. Convective Transport of Trace Gases in the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Neil

    2015-04-01

    Passage of air through the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) is the major route for troposphere to stratosphere transport. The UK CAST (Co-ordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics) campaign took place in the West Pacific in January/February 2014. The field campaign was based mainly in Guam (13.5oN, 144.8oE) and had three components: CAST with the NERC FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft; the NASA ATTREX project based around the Global Hawk; the NCAR-led CONTRAST campaign based around the Gulfstream V (HIAPER) aircraft. Together, these aircraft were able to make detailed measurements of atmospheric structure and composition from the ocean surface to 20 km. The CAST team also made ground-based and ozonesonde measurements at the ARM site on Manus Island in Papua New Guinea during February 2014, and halocarbon measurements were made at several West Pacific sites. I will present an overview of the CAST campaign along with the results of high resolution global Unified Model studies and NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment) trajectory calculations to look at the transport of air into the TTL in convective systems over the Maritime continent and West Pacific. I will focus on the transport of air from in and around the boundary layer and will assess the possible importance of natural and anthropogenic emissions for TTL composition.

  9. Smoke aerosol transport patterns over the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Peng; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Atwood, Samuel A.; Johnson, Randall S.; Hyer, Edward J.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Sessions, Walter

    2013-03-01

    Smoke transport patterns over the Maritime Continent (MC) are studied through a combination of approaches, including a) analyzing AODs obtained from satellite products; b) aerosol transport modeling with AOD assimilation along with the atmospheric flow patterns; c) analyzing smoke wet deposition distributions; and d) examining forward trajectories for smoke events defined in this study. It is shown that smoke transport pathways are closely related to the low-level atmospheric flow, i.e., during June-Sept, smoke originating from the MC islands with a dominant source over central and southern Sumatra, and southern and western Borneo, is generally transported northwestward south of the equator and northeastward north of the equator with the cross-equatorial flow, to the South China Sea (SCS), the Philippines and even further to the western Pacific. During the October-November transitional period, smoke transport paths are more zonally oriented compared to June-September. Smoke originating from Java, Bali, Timor etc, and southern New Guinea, which are in the domain of easterlies and southeasterlies during the boreal summer (June-November), is generally transported westward. It is also found that smoke transport over the MC exhibits multi-scale variability. Smoke typically lives longer and can be transported farther in El Niño years and later MJO phases compared with non El Niño years and earlier MJO phases. During El Niño periods there is much stronger westward transport to the east tropical Indian Ocean. Finally, orographic effect on smoke transport over the MC is also clearly discernable.

  10. Dynamics of Clouds and Mesoscale Circulations over the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y.; Wang, S.; Xian, P.; Reid, J. S.; Nachamkin, J.

    2010-12-01

    In recent decades Southeast Asia (SEA) has seen rapid economic growth as well as increased biomass burning, resulting in high air pollution levels and reduced air qual-ity. At the same time clouds often prevent accurate air-quality monitoring and analysis using satellite observations. The Seven SouthEast Asian Studies (7SEAS) field campaign currently underway over SEA provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the com-plex interplay between aerosol and clouds. 7SEAS is a comprehensive interdisciplinary atmospheric sciences program through international partnership of NASA, NRL, ONR and seven local institutions including those from Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. While the original goal of 7SEAS is to iso-late the impacts of aerosol particles on weather and the environment, it is recognized that better understanding of SEA meteorological conditions, especially those associated with cloud formation and evolution, is critical to the success of the campaign. In this study we attempt to gain more insight into the dynamic and physical processes associated with low level clouds and atmospheric circulation at the regional scale over SEA, using the Navy’s Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS® ), a regional forecast model in operation at FNMOC since 1998. This effort comprises two main components. First, multiple-years of COAMPS operational forecasts over SEA are analyzed for basic climatology of atmospheric fea-tures. Second, mesoscale circulation and cloud properties are simulated at relatively higher resolution (15-km) for selected periods in the Gulf of Tonkin and adjacent coastal areas. Simulation results are compared to MODIS cloud observations and local sound-ings obtained during 7SEAS for model verifications. Atmospheric boundary layer proc-esses are examined in relation to spatial and temporal variations of cloud fields. The cur-rent work serves as an important step toward improving our

  11. The Interaction of Eastward Propagating Equatorial Modes with the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flatau, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    We examine the processes that contribute to blocking of the eastward propagating equatorial modes by the Maritime Continent. The recent study by Baranowski at al (2015) have shown that the propgation of Kelvin waves through the Maritime Continent is strongly influenced by the interaction of the waves with the diurnnal cycle of convection over the land which can either amplify or supress the convective forcing of the wave. This suggests that inorder for the wave to cross the Maritime Continent it has to be in phase with local convection. Another possible mechanism through which the Maritime Continent can influence approaching Kelvin waves and MJO's is their interacton with cyclonic disturbances generated by the lee vortices at the tips of Sumatra. Both of these mechanisms can be misrepresented by dynamic models and contribute to predictability barrier in this region These equatorial modes ate examined in Navy models forecasts of DYNAMO MJOs and n idealized experiments. While the models appear to predict the MJO and Kelvin wave approach to the Maritime continent their propagation is too slowa andn westward propagating disturbance are often too strong. We examine the contribution of lee vortices and local diurnal convection variability to this process

  12. Growth of the Maritime Continent and its possible contribution to recurring Ice Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Peter; Cronin, Timothy W.

    2015-03-01

    The areal extent of the Maritime Continent (the islands of Indonesia and surrounding region) has grown larger by ~60% since 5 Ma. We argue that this growth might have altered global climate in two ways that would have contributed to making recurring Ice Ages possible. First, because rainfall over the islands of the Maritime Continent not only is heavier than that over the adjacent ocean but also correlates with the strength of the Walker Circulation, the growth of the Maritime Continent since 5 Ma may have contributed to the cooling of the eastern tropical Pacific since that time. Scaling relationships between the strength of the Walker Circulation and rainfall over the islands of the Maritime Continent and between sea surface temperature (SST) of the eastern tropical Pacific and the strength of easterly wind stress suggest that the increase in areal extent of islands would lead to a drop in that SST of 0.75°C. Although only a fraction of the 3-4°C decrease in SSTs between the eastern and western tropical Pacific, the growth of the Maritime Continent may have strengthened the Walker Circulation, increased the east-west temperature gradient across the Pacific and thereby enabled ice sheets to wax and wane over Canada since 3 Ma. Second, because the weathering of basaltic rock under warm, moist conditions extracts CO2 from the atmosphere more rapidly than weathering of other rock or of basalt under cooler or drier conditions, the increase in weathering due to increasing area of basalt in the Maritime Continent may have drawn down enough CO2 from the atmosphere to affect global temperatures. Simple calculations suggest that increased weathering of basalt might have lowered global temperatures by 0.25°C, possibly important for the overall cooling.

  13. Multiscale Interactions over the Maritime Continent: Feedbacks between Atmospheric Convectively Coupled Kelvin Waves and Diurnal Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranowski, D.

    2015-12-01

    Interactions between atmospheric convectively coupled Kelvin waves (CCKW), initiated over the Indian Ocean, and the diurnally varying convection over the Maritime Continent are primary interest of this presentation. Mutliscale interactions between local and propagating convection lead to substantial enhancement of the local diurnal cycle over that region. CCKW activity strongly modulates magnitude of the diurnal cycle of precipitation over the Maritime Continent, but not its temporal evolution, which maintains characteristics of a diurnal cycle. The impact is such that precipitation is highly increased during convective part of the CCKW and little suppressed during its non-convective part. Timing of the increase in diurnal cycle magnitude strongly depends on the time of the day of the CCKW approach to the Maritime Continent. It is shown that precipitation anomaly associated with CCKW is phase locked with local diurnal cycle of precipitation over the Maritime Continent and that has implications for CCKW ability to propagate across that region. The composite daily-zonal evolution of the precipitation anomaly associated with CCKW is such that it is "in-phase" with local diurnal cycle over Sumatra, Borneo and surrounding seas. This presentation is based on analysis of TRMM precipitation data and newly developed CCKW trajectories database.

  14. Moving Target: ENSO and Seasonal Forecasting for the Winter Monsoon over the Western Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant mode of interannual variability over most of the tropics, and the performance of seasonal forecast models over such region is often related to how well they capture the regional teleconnection with ENSO. During the boreal winter monsoon, mean precipitation over much of the Maritime Continent is strongly correlated with ENSO phase. Over these regions, the prospect of accurate seasonal precipitation forecast is optimistic. Unfortunately, the ENSO signal in precipitation is known to be much weaker over the western Maritime Continent, which covers the Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and west Java. We investigate the ENSO teleconnection with mean precipitation using simple statistics on merged observation-remote sensing and model hindcast products. These diagnostics suggest an additional reason for why the winter monsoon mean precipitation over the western Maritime Continent is poorly correlated with the ENSO phase, and why some forecast models may not reflect this observed situation. We make recommendations for some process-based forecast products that are desirable for the Western Maritime Continent.

  15. Intraseasonal Variability of δ18O of Precipitation in The Indonesia Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belgaman, H. A.; Ichiyanagi, K.; Tanoue, M.; Suwarman, R.; Yoshimura, K.; Mori, S.; Yamanaka, M. D.; Kurita, N.; Syamsudin, F.

    2014-12-01

    The Indonesian maritime continent (IMC) consists of many islands in a warm pool of sea water and is located between two great oceans—the Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean, and two major continents—the Asian and Australian continents. This tropical region also influenced by many regional and local climate and weather phenomenon which causes high spatial and temporal rainfall variability. These factors may produce unique variability of isotopic precipitation. The isotopic content (d18O and dD) in precipitation have been known to have important role for reconstructing the atmospheric circulation, hydrological cycle, and paleoclimate. Using daily data from six observation station across the IMC (Bukit tinggi, Jambi, Denpasar, Makasar, Manado, and Palau Island), the variability of δ18O was explored. Observation times for each station were different. Bukit Tinggi (GAW) was from Jan. 2001 - Mar. 2010, Jambi (JMB) was from Apr. 2001 - Dec. 2005, Denpasar (DPS), Makassar (MKS), Manado (MND) were from Nov. 2002 - Mar. 2010, and Palau Island (PLL) was from Dec. 2001 - May 2007. Daily average value of δ18O were -7.57‰, -5.41‰, -3.15‰, -6.12‰, -5.49‰ and -4.26‰ for GAW, JMB, DPS, MKS, MND and PLL respectively. Daily value of δ18O in GAW has the lowest value compare with the other station was because the location of GAW station located at high altitude. High correlation of variability of δ18O and Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) was observed at western part of the IMC (GAW and JMB), and northern part of the IMC (MKS, MND, and PLL), meanwhile δ18O variability at DPS was less correlated with MJO compare with other stations. Preliminary result from Color Moisture Analysis (CMA) model revealed that precipitable water at GAW and JMB stations was mostly occupied by water vapor evaporated from the Indian Ocean. However, precipitable water at other stations was mostly composed of water vapor evaporated from the Java Sea and the Pacific Ocean. These findings indicate

  16. The Diurnal Cycle over the Maritime Continent and its Interaction with the MJO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, A. J.; Peatman, S.; Baranowski, D. B.; Stevens, D. P.; Heywood, K. J.; Flatau, P. J.; Schmidtko, S.

    2014-12-01

    The complex land-sea distribution and topography of the maritime continent acts to disrupt or even completely block the eastward propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) from the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific. This leads to changes in tropical latent heat release and subsequent impacts on global circulation. Convection over the maritime continent is dominated by the diurnal cycle. Where the mean diurnal cycle is strong (over the islands and surrounding seas), 80% of the MJO precipitation signal in the maritime continent is accounted for by changes in the amplitude of the diurnal cycle. The canonical view of the MJO as the smooth eastward propagation of a large-scale precipitation envelope also breaks down over the islands of the Maritime Continent. Instead, a vanguard of precipitation jumps ahead of the main body by approximately 6 days or 2000 km. Hence, there can be enhanced precipitation over Sumatra, Borneo or New Guinea when the large-scale MJO envelope over the surrounding ocean is one of suppressed precipitation. This behaviour is discussed in terms of an interaction between the diurnal cycle and the MJO circulation. The diurnal cycle is also strong in the ocean. Seaglider measurements taken during the CINDY/DYNAMO campaign show the existence of a diurnal warm layer in the upper few metres of the ocean. This has a significant effect on the surface fluxes, of an order of Watts per square metre. The diurnal warm layer is favoured during the inactive phase of the MJO and may act to help precondition the atmosphere to convection. The activities of the MJO Task Force and Subseasonal to Seasonal Prediction project will be discussed in this context.

  17. Transport and scavenging of biomass burning aerosols in the maritime continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. H.; Wang, C.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning frequently occurs in summertime over the maritime continent, especially in Malaysia peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. Under certain weather conditions, particulate matters emitted from such fires cause degrade of air quality and thus occurrence of often weekly long haze in downwind locations such as Singapore. It is possible that these biomass burning aerosols may have influenced convective clouds in the maritime continent though such cases have not been well simulated and understood. In order to improve understanding of the spatiotemporal coverage and influence of biomass burning aerosols in the maritime continent, we have used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to study the transport of biomass burning aerosols from Malaysia peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo, using biomass burning emissions from the Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN) version 1.0. We choose to use emissions from the month of August because the annual emissions peak often occurs within this month. Based on a multi-year ensemble simulation, we have examined the influences of various meteorological regimes on the aerosol transport and wet removal.

  18. The progression of the boreal winter monsoon through the western Maritime Continent as differentiated by ENSO phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shao-Yi; McBride, John L.

    2016-08-01

    The impact of global ENSO on the regional monsoon onset over the Maritime Continent is examined, using satellite-derived scatterometer surface winds over the sea channel from the South China Sea, through the Karimata Strait into the Java Sea. An index of monsoon onset, fracsign, is defined based on a positive dot-product between the monthly wind at each gridpoint and the "basis-wind" or climatological wind at the peak of the relevant monsoon season.Rather than being delayed throughout the Maritime Continent during El Niño years, the monsoon is seen to arrive faster at and remain longer over the western Maritime Continent, and therefore delayed for the eastern Maritime Continent. The wind-based diagnostic can be further decomposed into two components that reflect the monsoon wind strength and the location of the wind convergence zone, respectively. During El Niño years, the monsoon strength post-onset is weaker than normal over the eastern maritime continent. However, there is no ENSO-related differentiation in monsoon strength post-onset over the western Maritime Continent.

  19. Regional climate projection of the Maritime Continent using the MIT Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IM, E. S.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Given that warming of the climate system is unequivocal (IPCC AR5), accurate assessment of future climate is essential to understand the impact of climate change due to global warming. Modelling the climate change of the Maritime Continent is particularly challenge, showing a high degree of uncertainty. Compared to other regions, model agreement of future projections in response to anthropogenic emission forcings is much less. Furthermore, the spatial and temporal behaviors of climate projections seem to vary significantly due to a complex geographical condition and a wide range of scale interactions. For the fine-scale climate information (27 km) suitable for representing the complexity of climate change over the Maritime Continent, dynamical downscaling is performed using the MIT regional climate model (MRCM) during two thirty-year period for reference (1970-1999) and future (2070-2099) climate. Initial and boundary conditions are provided by Community Earth System Model (CESM) simulations under the emission scenarios projected by MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM). Changes in mean climate as well as the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events are investigated at various temporal and spatial scales. Our analysis is primarily centered on the different behavior of changes in convective and large-scale precipitation over land vs. ocean during dry vs. wet season. In addition, we attempt to find the added value to downscaled results over the Maritime Continent through the comparison between MRCM and CESM projection. Acknowledgements.This research was supported by the National Research Foundation Singapore through the Singapore MIT Alliance for Research and Technology's Center for Environmental Sensing and Modeling interdisciplinary research program.

  20. Scale interaction between the MJO and the diurnal cycle of precipitation over the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peatman, Simon; Matthews, Adrian; Stevens, David

    2013-04-01

    The Maritime Continent is a highly-populated region of many islands and shallow oceans, located in the oceanic warm pool, between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. A strong diurnal cycle of precipitation exists due to onshore breezes causing strong convergence of moist air - enhanced by topographic effects - over the land during the day time, peaking during afternoon-evening. The respective diurnal cycle over the ocean is far weaker and does not peak until early in the morning. On intra-seasonal time-scales the greatest source of variability in the tropics is the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). The convectively active part of the MJO propagates slowly (~5 ms-1) eastward through the warm pool from the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific, followed by the convectively suppressed part. The complex topography of the Maritime Continent means the exact nature of the propagation through this region is unclear. Model simulations of the MJO are often poor over the region, leading to errors in latent heat release and, subsequently, global errors in medium-range weather prediction and climate simulation. Using 14 northern hemisphere winters of high-resolution satellite data it is shown that, over regions where the diurnal cycle is strong, more than 80% of the variance in precipitation during an MJO cycle is accounted for by changes in the amplitude of the diurnal cycle. A canonical view of the MJO is of smooth eastward progression of a large-scale precipitation envelope over the warm pool. However, by computing "MJO harmonics" it is shown that the leading edge of the precipitation envelope advances over the islands of the Maritime Continent approximately 6 days or 2000 km ahead of the main body. This behaviour can be accommodated within existing theories of MJO propagation. When the active convective MJO envelope is over the eastern Indian Ocean, frictional moisture convergence and topographic blocking in the easterlies of the equatorial Kelvin wave response supply moisture to

  1. Evaluating mid-Holocene precipitation over Australasia and the Maritime Continent in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerley, Duncan; Reeves, Jessica

    2015-04-01

    The Australasian INTIMATE (INTegration of Ice-core, Marine and Terrestrial records) initiative (INQUA project #0809) was undertaken to develop a consistent chronological assessment of the climate of the past 30000 years over Australia, New Zealand and the Maritime Continent. Work has continued as part of SHAPE initiative (INQUA project #1302), but there has currently been little use of this comprehensive resource for evaluating the available climate model data. Therefore, this work presents the initial assessment of model simulations of the mid-Holocene over the Australasian and Maritime Continents (taken from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project, PMIP) in relation to those available data. The mid-Holocene (6 ka) encompasses a period after sea level stabilisation (around 8-7.5 ka) and before the onset of strong ENSO-related variability (post 4 ka). There is some evidence of possibly drier conditions over northern Australia with increased coastal dune activity, along with slightly wetter conditions over Borneo and Papua New Guinea. Weakening of the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude westerlies (relative to the early Holocene) is also likely to have occurred, as evidenced by drier conditions in Western Tasmania and Victoria. The modelled results from the mid-Holocene simulations indicate that conditions were approximately 1-6% drier over much of continental Australia than at present. There is also evidence of slightly wetter conditions (1-3%) over the northern tip of Australia and parts of Papua New Guinea and Borneo. The Southern Hemisphere westerlies in the mid-latitudes (around 50S) are also weaker by 1-2 m s-1 in the model simulations. There are also differences in the seasonal cycle of precipitation and circulation in these models in response to the changes in the orbital parameters in the mid-Holocene relative to present day. The precipitation in the early half of the monsoon season (October, November and December-OND) is typically 10% higher in the

  2. A complex empirical orthogonal function for combining two different variables over Indonesian maritime continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuryanto, Danang Eko

    2016-02-01

    The spatiotemporal patterns of Indonesian Maritime Continent (IMC) convective activity was documented by using two different variables i.e. cloud and wind datasets. In this study, a Complex Empirical Orthogonal Function (CEOF) was used to combining that variables. This method was applied to representing the land-sea-atmosphere interaction of diurnal convective activity in IMC. This study used pseudo-vector to define complex signals from convective index (cloud) as complex part and convergence (wind) as real part. The results showed that the phase patterns of CEOF were more consistent than those of pseudo-vector. Both CEOF1 and CEOF2 have shown semi-annual and annual cycles, respectively. Spatially, CEOF1 represents common patterns, whereas CEOF2 was more toward local patterns and tends to be in random.

  3. Maritime Continent rainfall variability during the TRMM era: The role of monsoon, topography and El Niño Modoki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    As-syakur, Abd. Rahman; Osawa, Takahiro; Miura, Fusanori; Nuarsa, I. Wayan; Ekayanti, Ni Wayan; Dharma, I. Gusti Bagus Sila; Adnyana, I. Wayan Sandi; Arthana, I. Wayan; Tanaka, Tasuku

    2016-09-01

    Rainfall is among the most important climatic elements of the Maritime Continent. The Maritime Continent rainfall climate is uniquely located in the world's most active convective area. Satellite data measured by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B43 based high-resolution rainfall products represent monthly Maritime Continent rainfall characteristics over 16 years. Several statistical scores were employed to analyse annual means, linear trends, seasonal means, and anomalous Maritime Continent rainfall characteristic percentages. The effects of land and topography on rainfall quantities were also studied and compared with the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) gridded precipitation estimates which has low-resolution. Comparison also applied on linear correlation and partial correlation techniques to determine the relationship between rainfall and the El Niño Modoki and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO; hereafter conventional El Niño). The results show that north-south Maritime Continent precipitation is associated with and generated by the northwest and southeast monsoon patterns. In addition, the large-scale circulations are linked with heavy rainfall over this land-ocean region due to large-scale island-topography-induced convective organization. The rainfall responses to El Niño Modoki and conventional El Niño clearly indicated the times at which the conventional El Niño had a higher impact than El Niño Modoki, especially during northern winter and spring, and vice versa during northern fall, and similarly affect during northern summer. Furthermore, the dynamic movements of rainfall anomaly that are caused by El Niño Modoki and the conventional El Niño events spanned from the southwest during June-July-August (JJA) to throughout the northeast ending in March-April-May (MAM).

  4. Convective Cloud and Rainfall Processes Over the Maritime Continent: Simulation and Analysis of the Diurnal Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, Rebecca L.

    The Maritime Continent experiences strong moist convection, which produces significant rainfall and drives large fluxes of heat and moisture to the upper troposphere. Despite the importance of these processes to global circulations, current predictions of climate change over this region are still highly uncertain, largely due to inadequate representation of the diurnally-varying processes related to convection. In this work, a coupled numerical model of the land-atmosphere system (RegCM3-IBIS) is used to investigate how more physically-realistic representations of these processes can be incorporated into large-scale climate models. In particular, this work improves simulations of convective-radiative feedbacks and the role of cumulus clouds in mediating the diurnal cycle of rainfall. Three key contributions are made to the development of RegCM3-IBIS. Two pieces of work relate directly to the formation and dissipation of convective clouds: a new representation of convective cloud cover, and a new parameterization of convective rainfall production. These formulations only contain parameters that can be directly quantified from observational data, are independent of model user choices such as domain size or resolution, and explicitly account for subgrid variability in cloud water content and nonlinearities in rainfall production. The third key piece of work introduces a new method for representation of cloud formation within the boundary layer. A comprehensive evaluation of the improved model was undertaken using a range of satellite-derived and ground-based datasets, including a new dataset from Singapore's Changi airport that documents diurnal variation of the local boundary layer height. The performance of RegCM3-IBIS with the new formulations is greatly improved across all evaluation metrics, including cloud cover, cloud liquid water, radiative fluxes and rainfall, indicating consistent improvement in physical realism throughout the simulation. This work

  5. Sensitivity of the Maritime Continent precipitation to horizontal resolution in a coupled regional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Jourdain, Nicolas; Taschetto, Andréa; Gupta, Alex Sen; Masson, Sébastien; Cai, Wenju

    2015-04-01

    The Maritime Continent (MC) is centred at one of the major monsoon systems in the world. Characterized by massive tropical heating and precipitation, it is strongly influencing both the Hadley and Walker circulations. However, there are significant challenges in correctly represent climate of this region because of the complex topography and the arrangement of lands and seas. It is often argued that improved representation of the diurnal cycle over islands and the complex mesoscale circulation associated with land-sea contrast is important to energy and hydrological cycles of this region. To investigate the sensitivity of precipitation over the MC to model horizontal resolution, we perform three regional numerical experiments using the coupled NEMO-OASIS-WRF model at different horizontal resolutions of 3/4°, 1/4° and 1/12° in both atmosphere and ocean components. The 3/4° and 1/4° experiments are run on a large MC domain for 21 years (1989 to 2009), and the 1/12° experiment is nested within the 1/4° domain using two-way interactive nesting over 5 years. Increasing the resolution reduces biases in mean SST and mean precipitation. The precipitation distribution is also improved at higher resolution, particularly in coastal areas. A part of these improvements are related to different behaviours of the model physical schemes across the three resolutions. Other changes are interpreted in terms of land-sea breeze, that we describe through a new comprehensive method.

  6. A local index of Maritime Continent intraseasonal variability based on rain rates over the land and sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, C. L.; Lane, T. P.; Wheeler, M. C.

    2016-09-01

    A local index for describing intraseasonal variability over the Maritime Continent is developed. The index is based on the ratio of area-averaged rain rate over the land to that over the sea. It takes advantage of the fact that the main convective envelope of intraseasonal variability events tends to modulate the diurnal precipitation cycle over the land over the entire Maritime Continent. Lagged analysis is used to create composite intraseasonal variability events, where "day 0" is chosen according to when the normalized rain rate over the sea becomes greater than that over the land. The index identifies intraseasonal variability events associated with the Madden Julian Oscillation as well as equatorial Kelvin waves and westward propagating equatorial Rossby waves. The results suggest a similar local impact of all such events in suppressing the rain rate over land relative to that over the sea when the main convective envelope approaches.

  7. Precipitation over urban areas in the western Maritime Continent using a convection-permitting model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argüeso, Daniel; Di Luca, Alejandro; Evans, Jason P.

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the effects of urban areas on precipitation in the western Maritime Continent using a convection-permitting regional atmospheric model. The Weather Research and Forecasting model was used to simulate the atmosphere at a range of spatial resolutions using a multiple nesting approach. Two experiments (with and without urban areas) were completed over a 5-year period (2008-2012) each to estimate the contribution of cities to changes in local circulation. At first, the model is evaluated against two satellite-derived precipitation products and the benefit of using a very high-resolution model (2-km grid spacing) over a region where rainfall is dominated by convective processes is demonstrated, particularly in terms of its diurnal cycle phase and amplitude. The influence of cities on precipitation characteristics is quantified for two major urban nuclei in the region (Jakarta and Kuala Lumpur) and results indicate that their presence locally enhances precipitation by over 30 %. This increase is mainly due to an intensification of the diurnal cycle. We analyse the impact on temperature, humidity and wind to put forward physical mechanisms that explain such changes. Cities increase near surface temperature, generating instability. They also make land-sea temperature contrasts stronger, which enhances sea breeze circulations. Together, they increase near-surface moisture flux convergence and favour convective processes leading to an overall increase of precipitation over urban areas. The diurnal cycle of these effects is reflected in the atmospheric footprint of cities on variables such as humidity and cloud mixing ratio and accompanies changes in precipitation.

  8. Relating Precipitation Phenomena with MODIS Detected Hot Spots in the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, E. M.; Reid, J. S.; Xian, P.; Hyer, E.; Turk, J.; Flatau, M.; Zhang, C.

    2009-12-01

    Recent studies of land use practices in SE Asia’s Maritime Continent (MC) have raised questions over potential meteorological implications including smoke-cloud interaction and changes in the regional radiation budget. Land management practices on Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Borneo, and the Malay Peninsula include biomass burning to clear primary forest as well as to maintain oil palm plantations. Burning is also employed for clearing unwanted remains from previous crops, rice stubble for example. However, burning activity is often dictated by weather, in particular precipitation. We studied 5 years of MODIS active fire hot spot and satellite precipitation data to investigate how observed burning activity correlated with precipitation features at four major scales: 1) Intraseasonal El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOP); 2) Seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ); 3) the 30-90 day Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO); and 4) regional convection from localized weather phenomenon (e.g., orographic, isolated thermal convection, sea breeze, etc…). It was found that observed burn patterns from each of the islands of the MC had differing responses to these four forcings. Observed burning activity on the islands of Borneo and Sulawesi correlated strongly with the ENSO and ITCZ indicies, whereas Sumatra was more influenced by the phase and strength of the MJO. Java, showing a mix of influence, exhibited strong fire activity in the morning rather than afternoon which is unusual for most burning regions. We hypothesize that these observed relationships reflect both physical land use differences and contextual bias/observability issues associated with the region’s heavy cloud cover. For further studies on smoke-meteorology interaction, our findings point to the need for a clear understanding of the meteorological context of satellite observations.

  9. Physical climatology of Indonesian maritime continent: An outline to comprehend observational studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Manabu D.

    2016-09-01

    The Indonesian maritime continent (IMC) is a miniature of our land-sea coexisting planet Earth. Firstly, without interior activity, the Earth becomes an even-surfaced "aqua-planet" with both atmosphere and ocean flowing almost zonally, and solar differential heating generates (global thermal tides and) Hadley's meridional circulations with the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) along the equator as observed actually over the open (Indian and Pacific) oceans on the both sides of the IMC. The ITCZ involves intraseasonal variations or super cloud clusters moving eastward with hierarchical substructures moving also westward. Secondly, the lands and seas over the actual Earth have been keeping the area ratio of 3:7 (similar to that of islands and inland/surrounding seas in the IMC), but their displacements have produced the IMC near the equator, which turns equatorial Pacific easterly ocean current northward (Kuroshio) and reflects equatorial oceanic waves that affect coupled ocean-atmosphere interannual variations such as ENSO and IOD, or displacements of Walker's zonal circulations. Thirdly, because the IMC consists of many large/small islands with very long coastlines, many narrow straits control the global (Pacific to Indian) ocean circulation, and the land-sea heat capacity contrasts along the coastlines generate the world's largest rainfall with diurnal cycles (sea-land breeze circulations). The diurnal cycles are dominant even in the rainy season (austral summer in Jawa and Bali), because rainfall-induced sprinkler-like land cooling reverses the trans-coastal temperature gradient before sunrise, and subsequent clear sky on land until around noon provides solar heating dependent on season. These processes lead to rapid land/hydrosphere-atmosphere water exchange, local air pollutant washout, and transequatorial boreal winter monsoon (cold surge). In El Niño years, for example, the cooler sea-surface temperature suppresses the morning coastal-sea rainfall, and

  10. Physical Climatology of Indonesian Maritime Continent: An Overview of Observational Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Indonesian maritime continent (IMC) is a miniature of our land-sea coexisting planet Earth. Firstly, without interior activity, the Earth becomes an even-surfaced "aqua-planet" with both atmosphere and ocean flowing almost zonally, and solar differential heating generates (global thermal tides and) Hadley's meridional circulations with ITCZ along the equator as observed actually over open (Indian and Pacific) oceans in the both sides of IMC. ITCZ involves intraseasonal variations or super cloud clusters moving eastward. Secondly, the lands and seas over the actual Earth have been keeping the area ratio of 3:7 (similar to that of islands and inland/surrounding seas in IMC), but their displacements have produced IMC near the equator, which turns equatorial Pacific easterly current northward (Kuroshio) and reflects equatorial oceanic waves inducing coupled ocean-atmosphere interannual variations such as ENSO and IOD, or displacements of Walker's zonal circulations. Thirdly, because IMC consists of many large/small islands with very long coastlines, many narrow straits become a dam for the global (Pacific to Indian) ocean circulation, and the land-sea heat capacity contrasts along the coastlines generate the world's largest rainfall with diurnal cycles (sea-land breeze circulations). The diurnal cycles are dominant in the rainy season (austral summer in Jawa and Bali), because rainfall-induced sprinkler-like land cooling reverses the trans-coastal temperature gradient before sunrise, and subsequent clear sky on land until around noon provides solar heating dependent on season. These processes lead to rapid land/hydrosphere-atmosphere water exchange, local air pollutant washout, and transequatorial boreal winter monsoon (cold surge). In El Niño years the cooler sea-surface temperature suppresses the morning coastal-sea rainfall, and induces often serious smog over IMC. Lastly, high-resolution observations/models covering both over islands and seas are necessary. A

  11. Aboriginal women and Asian men: a maritime history of color in white Australia.

    PubMed

    Balint, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    In 1901, Broome—a port town on the northwest edge of the Australian continent—was one of the principal and most lucrative industrial pearling centers in the world and entirely dependent on Asian indentured labor. Relations between Asian crews and local Aboriginal people were strong, at a time when the project of White Australia was being pursued with vigorous, often fanatical dedication across the newly federated continent. It was the policing of Aboriginal women, specifically their relations with Asian men, that became the focus of efforts by authorities and missionaries to uphold and defend their commitment to the White Australia policy. This article examines the historical experience of Aboriginal women in the pearling industry of northwest Australia and the story of Asian-Aboriginal cohabitation in the face of oppressive laws and regulations. It then explores the meaning of “color” in contemporary Broome for the descendants of this mixed heritage today.

  12. What is responsible for development of the Asian-Pacific transition zone: The geodynamics of oceanic plates or the Asian continent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utkin, V. P.

    2016-03-01

    The main unusual feature of tectogenesis of the Asian-Pacific transition zone in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic consists in the formation of left-lateral strike-slip faults, which form the East Asian global shear zone with paragenesis of its constituent variously oriented fault systems. Paragenetic analysis has revealed that continental blocks of the Asian-Pacific transition zone were displaced along systems of transit left-lateral strike-slip faults of the East Asian global shear zone by hundreds of kilometers in the southerly to southwesterly direction due to tectonic activity of the Asian continent, which drifted southwestward. This process was accompanied by the formation of compression and extension structures. Otherwise, it is difficult to explain the structuring of the overhanging margin of the continent by subduction of oceanic lithospheric plates in the northerly to northwesterly direction opposite relative to the displacement of the continental crust as is usually thought.

  13. TRMM Based Studies of MJO Convection over the Central Indian Ocean, Maritime Continent, and Western Pacific Warm Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, S. A.; Xu, W.

    2014-12-01

    The structure and organization of precipitating cloud populations related to the initiation and evolution of several MJO events have been fully investigated using data collected from the 2011-2012 DYNAMO field campaign over the Central Indian Ocean (CIO). Since DYNMO monitored the MJO behavior for only a few months, it is important to know how the DYNAMO-recorded characteristics compare to the long-term climatology, such as viewed by TRMM satellite measurements. TRMM observations are also capable of providing the regional variability of the convection as the MJO envelope propagates eastward. The objective of this study is to quantify MJO convective characteristics using 15 years of TRMM satellite measurements over three specific regions affected by the MJO including the CIO, Maritime Continent (MC), and Western Pacific (WP). TRMM data are used to quantify not only the precipitating cloud population categorized by radar echo tops and feature size (as have been previously documented), but also their convective intensity, lightning activity, precipitation structures, bulk microphysical properties, and rainfall contributions. Specifically, the radar, ice scattering (microwave), and lightning observations from TRMM are analyzed for the convective spectrum as a function of MJO stage and geographical location. Furthermore, radar characteristics of MJO events based on TRMM PR are quantitatively compared to that of the shipborne radars deployed during TOGA COARE over the WP and DYNAMO over the CIO.

  14. Sensitivity of the water cycle over the Indian Ocean and Maritime Continent to parameterized physics in a regional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulate, Marcela; Dudhia, Jimy; Zhang, Chidong

    2014-12-01

    A regional model was used to simulate the water cycle over the Indian Ocean (IO) and Maritime Continent (MC). Sixteen 92 day simulations were performed using different combinations of eight cumulus parameterization schemes and three planetary boundary-layer (PBL) parameterization schemes. The strength of the water cycle in the IO and MC, measured by its domain mean precipitation and precipitable water, differs substantially among the simulations. The large spread of water cycle strength is mainly toward dry biases in comparison to global data assimilation products. The simulated water cycle, its spread, and biases differ between the IO and MC. Influences of PBL schemes can penetrate into the upper troposphere and those by cumulus schemes into the boundary layer. Dry biases in the simulations are produced mainly because of feedbacks among erroneously low diabatic heating peaks, shallow moisture convergence layers, dry lower troposphere, and weak surface evaporation. There is no single type of parameterization scheme that can be identified to be the main sources of the dry biases. It is the combination of errors from three types of parameterization schemes, namely, cumulus, PBL, and microphysics, that makes the simulated water cycle unrealistic. The lesson learned is that the tropical water cycle can be better simulated only by improving parameterization schemes of different processes all together as a package.

  15. Large-scale precipitation tracking and the MJO over the Maritime Continent and Indo-Pacific warm pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerns, Brandon W.; Chen, Shuyi S.

    2016-08-01

    A large-scale precipitation tracking (LPT) method is developed to track convection and precipitation associated with the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) using the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission 3B42 rainfall data from October to March 1998-2015. LPT uses spatially smoothed 3 day rainfall accumulation to identify and track precipitation features in time with a minimum size of 300,000 km2 and time continuity at least 10 days. While not all LPT systems (LPTs) are attributable to the MJO, among the 199 LPTs, there were 42 with a mean eastward propagation of at least 2 m s-1, which are considered to be MJO convective initiation events. These LPTs capture the diversity of the MJO convection, which is not well depicted by the Real-time Multivariate MJO (RMM) index or the outgoing longwave radiation MJO index. During the 17 years, there were 17 instances out of 45 with a MJO signature in the RMM without eastward propagating LPTs. Among the 42 eastward propagating LPTs, 24 propagated across the Maritime Continent (MC), which confirms the MC barrier effect. Among the cases that crossed the MC from the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific (MC crossing), 18 (75%) had a significant MJO signature in the RMM index. In contrast, only six (33%) of the non-MC-crossing cases occurred with a RMM MJO signal. There is a significant seasonal and interannual variability with MC-crossing LPTs occurring in December more commonly than other months. More MC-crossing events were observed during La Niña than El Niño, which is consistent with the observations of stronger and more frequent MJO events identified by RMM during La Niña years.

  16. Effects of the Maritime Continent on Large-Scale Convection Associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savarin, A.; Chen, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a dominant mode of intraseasonal variability in the tropics. It has wide-ranging impacts on global patterns of precipitation and surface temperature, and it has been suggested that it has an effect on ENSO. Large-scale convection fueling the MJO is initiated over the tropical Indian Ocean and propagates eastward across the Maritime Continent (MC) and into the western Pacific as a pattern of alternating phases of active and suppressed convection. As an eastward-propagating MJO convective event encounters the MC, its nature is altered due to the complex interactions with the landmass and topography as well as the warm coastal ocean. Previous studies have shown strong diurnal cycles over land and ocean, with distinct diurnal maxima of convection during the day and night, respectively. This complex air-sea-land interaction over the MC region and its impact on the large-scale convection and the MJO are still not well understood. This study aims to improve our understanding of the effects of the MC on the MJO as it propagates eastward from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific. We use the University of Miami Coupled Model (UMCM), a fully coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean model, to investigate the air-sea-land interaction processes and their impact on the large-scale convection associated with MJO. A control simulation of an MJO is carried out first using the DYNAMO observations from 2011 as model verification. To understand the effects of the MC on the MJO convection, coupled model experiments will be conducted by varying the island topography and/or altering the landmass with water surface. Analysis of the coupled model simulations will be compared with satellite observations such as the TRMM precipitation and cloud cluster tracking using hourly IR data. The outcome of this study is expected to provide some insights into important mechanisms that underlie the complex phenomenon.

  17. Coupling of a regional atmospheric model (RegCM3) and a regional oceanic model (FVCOM) over the maritime continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Xue, Pengfei; Xu, Danya

    2014-09-01

    Climatological high resolution coupled climate model simulations for the maritime continent have been carried out using the regional climate model (RegCM) version 3 and the finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) specifically designed to resolve regions characterized by complex geometry and bathymetry. The RegCM3 boundary forcing is provided by the EMCWF-ERA40 re-analysis. FVCOM is embedded in the Global MITgcm which provides boundary forcing. The domain of the coupled regional model covers the entire South China Sea with its through-flow, the entire Indonesian archipelago with the Indonesian through-flow (ITF) and includes a large region in the western Pacific and eastern Indian oceans. The coupled model is able to provide stable and realistic climatological simulations for a specific decade of atmospheric-oceanic variables without flux correction. The major focus of this work is on oceanic properties. First, the coupled simulation is assessed against ocean-only simulations carried out under two different sets of air-sea heat fluxes. The first set, provided by the MITgcm, is proved to be grossly deficient as the heat fluxes are evaluated by a two-dimensional, zonally averaged atmosphere and the simulated SST have anomalous cold biases. Hence the MITgcm fluxes are discarded. The second set, the NCEP re-analysis heat fluxes, produces a climatological evolution of the SST with an average cold bias of ~-0.8 °C. The coupling eliminates the cold bias and the coupled SST evolution is in excellent agreement with the analogous evolution in the SODA re-analysis data. The detailed comparison of oceanic circulation properties with the International Nusantara Stratification and Transport observations shows that the coupled simulation produces the best estimate of the total ITF transport through the Makassar strait while the transports of three ocean-only simulations are all underestimated. The annual cycle of the transport is also very well reproduced. The coupling also

  18. Large-scale Distribution of CH4 in the Western North Pacific: Sources and Transport from the Asian Continent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, Karen B.; Sachse, Glen W.; Slate, Thomas; Harward, Charles; Blake, Donald R.

    2003-01-01

    Methane (CH4) mixing ratios in the northern Pacific Basin were sampled from two aircraft during the TRACE-P mission (Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific) from late February through early April 2001 using a tunable diode laser system. Described in more detail by Jacob et al., the mission was designed to characterize Asian outflow to the Pacific, determine its chemical evolution, and assess changes to the atmosphere resulting from the rapid industrialization and increased energy usage on the Asian continent. The high-resolution, high-precision data set of roughly 13,800 CH4 measurements ranged between 1602 ppbv in stratospherically influenced air and 2149 ppbv in highly polluted air. Overall, CH4 mixing ratios were highly correlated with a variety of other trace gases characteristic of a mix of anthropogenic industrial and combustion sources and were strikingly correlated with ethane (C2H6) in particular. Averages with latitude in the near-surface (0-2 km) show that CH4 was elevated well above background levels north of 15 deg N close to the Asian continent. In the central and eastern Pacific, levels of CH4 were lower as continental inputs were mixed horizontally and vertically during transport. Overall, the correlation between CH4 and other hydrocarbons such as ethane (C2H6), ethyne (C2H2), and propane (C3H8) as well as the urban/industrial tracer perchloroethene (C2Cl4), suggests that for CH4 colocated sources such as landfills, wastewater treatment, and fossil fuel use associated with urban areas dominate regional inputs at this time. Comparisons between measurements made during TRACE-P and those of PEM-West B, flown during roughly the same time of year and under a similar meteorological setting 7 years earlier, suggest that although the TRACE-P CH4 observations are higher, the changes are not significantly greater than the increases seen in background air over this time interval.

  19. Observation of sprites over the Asian continent and over oceans around Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Han-Tzong; Hsu, Rue-Ron; Chen, Alfred Bing-Chih; Lee, Yi-Jen; Lee, Lou-Chuang

    2002-02-01

    Sprites were observed over thunderstorms in the southern China and in oceans around Taiwan. The observation sites were on the Ali Mountain of Taiwan's Central Ridge area with an altitude of 2413 m and in the campus of National Cheng Kung University with an altitude of 50 m. For the observed land sprites, 90% of them were either carrots or columniforms and 64% of the sprites occurred in groups. Among the observed oceanic sprites, 89% of them were carrots but only 22% of the sprites occurred in groups. We define a sprite active system as a thunderstorm that continuously produces at least one sprite in a 10-minute interval. The active sprites generating periods for the observed thunderstorms were typically shorter than 30 minutes. The sprite production rates for these Asian thunderstorms are estimated to be between I ~ 2 × 10-4 events/km2/hr and I ~ 1 × 10-3 events/km2/hr.

  20. Possible Factors affecting the Thermal Contrast between Middle-Latitude Asian Continent and Adjacent Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Huaqiong; Wu, Tongwen; Dong, Wenjie

    2015-04-01

    A middle-latitude Land-Sea thermal contrast Index was used in this study which has close connection to the East Asian summer precipitation. The index has two parts which are land thermal index defined as JJA 500-hPa geopotential height anomalies at a land area (75°-90° E, 40° -55°N ) and ocean thermal index defined as that at an oceanic area (140° -150°E, 35° -42.5°N). The impact of the surface heat flux and atmospheric diabatic heating over the land and the ocean on the index was studied. The results show that the surface heat flux over Eurasian inner land has little influence to the land thermal index, while the variation of the surface latent heat flux and long-wave radiation over the Pacific adjacent to Japan has highly correlation with the ocean thermal index. The changes with height of the atmospheric diabatic heating rates over the Eurasian inner land and the Pacific adjacent to Japan have different features. The variations of the middle troposphere atmospheric long-wave and short-wave radiation heating have significantly influences on land thermal index, and that of the low troposphere atmospheric long-wave radiation, short-wave radiation and deep convective heating also have impact on the yearly variation of the land thermal index. For the ocean thermal index, the variations of the surface layer atmospheric vertical diffuse heating, large-scale latent heating and long-wave radiation heating are more important, low and middle troposphere atmospheric large-scale latent heating and shallow convective heating also have impact on the yearly variation of the ocean thermal index. And then the ocean thermal index has closely connection with the low troposphere atmospheric temperature, while the land thermal index has closely connection with the middle troposphere atmospheric temperature. The Effect of the preceding global SST anomalies on the index also was analyzed. The relations of land thermal index and ocean thermal index and the global SST anomalies

  1. Atmospheric Transport and Deposition of Nitrogen Compounds From the Asian Continent Over the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uematsu, M.; Nakamura, T.; Endo, M.; Narita, Y.

    2004-12-01

    The growth of economy and population is rapid among in the east Asian countries. Within two decades, emission from east Asia could roughly account for half of the nitrogen released to the atmosphere from all anthropogenic sources worldwide. The Asia/western Pacific region has a unique mixture of aerosols and trace gases because of these distinctive patterns of emissions in combination with the local meteorological conditions affecting the region. Continental outflows can alter bilogical and chemical processes along the coastal Asia and, therefore, modify biogeochemical fluxes and feedbacks that may have serious implications to human health and climate implications. We made atmospheric measurements on board R/V Hakuho Maru over the western North Pacific and the East China Sea from 26 September to 9 October 2002 (the KH02-3 Cruise) in the autumn and from 4 to 20 March 2004 (the KH04-1 Cruise) in the spring. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of nitrogen compounds (ammonium, nitrate, and organic N) to the marine environment were investigated as a part of the IGBP/SOLAS project. Size segregated ambient aerosols (d<2.5μ m and d>2.5μ m) were collected at every 4-12 hours intervals on a PTFE fiber filter by using a high-volume dichotomous virtual impactor air sampler. Atmospheric average total ammonium concentration over the East China Sea was 2.3 μ g N m-3, and that of nitrate was 0.48 μ g N m-3. However, >90 percent of paticulate ammonium occurred in the fine fraction whereas >80 percent of particulate nitrate was in the coarse fraction. By using empirical dry deposition velocities for two size categories, we estimated the ammonium and nitrate dry deposition fluxes over the East China Sea to be 160 Gg N yr-1 and 270 Gg N yr-1, respectively. Our results clearly show that particle size is critical for different components and flux estimation. The atmospheric inputs of the nitrogen compounds to the East China Sea are found to be comparable to their fluxes of 190 Gg N yr

  2. Characterizing the vertical profile of aerosol particle extinction and linear depolarization over Southeast Asia and the Maritime Continent: The 2007-2009 view from CALIOP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, James R.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zhang, Jianglong; Tackett, Jason L.; Chew, Boon Ning; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Aoki, Kazuma; Winker, David M.

    2013-03-01

    Vertical profiles of 0.532 μm aerosol particle extinction coefficient and linear volume depolarization ratio are described for Southeast Asia and the Maritime Continent. Quality-screened and cloud-cleared Version 3.01 Level 2 NASA Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) 5-km Aerosol Profile datasets are analyzed from 2007 to 2009. Numerical simulations from the U.S. Naval Aerosol Analysis and Predictive System (NAAPS), featuring two-dimensional variational assimilation of NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer quality-assured datasets, combined with regional ground-based lidar measurements, are considered for assessing CALIOP retrieval performance, identifying bias, and evaluating regional representativeness. CALIOP retrievals of aerosol particle extinction coefficient and aerosol optical depth (AOD) are high over land and low over open waters relative to NAAPS (0.412/0.312 over land for all data points inclusive, 0.310/0.235 when the per bin average is used and each is treated as single data points; 0.102/0.151 and 0.086/0.124, respectively, over ocean). Regional means, however, are very similar (0.180/0.193 for all data points and 0.155/0.159 when averaged per normalized bin), as the two factors offset one another. The land/ocean offset is investigated, and discrepancies attributed to interpretation of particle composition and a-priori assignment of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (“lidar ratio”) necessary for retrieving the extinction coefficient from CALIOP signals. Over land, NAAPS indicates more dust present than CALIOP algorithms are identifying, indicating a likely assignment of a higher lidar ratio representative of more absorptive particles. NAAPS resolves more smoke over water than identified with CALIOP, indicating likely usage of a lidar ratio characteristic of less absorptive particles to be applied that biases low AOD there. Over open waters except within the Bay of

  3. Characterizing the Vertical Profile of Aerosol Particle Extinction and Linear Depolarization over Southeast Asia and the Maritime Continent: The 2007-2009 View from CALIOP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, James R.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zhang, Jianglong; Tackett, Jason L.; Chew, Boon Ning; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Aoki, Kazuma; Winker, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical profiles of 0.532 µm aerosol particle extinction coefficient and linear volume depolarization ratio are described for Southeast Asia and the Maritime Continent. Quality-screened and cloud-cleared Version 3.01 Level 2 NASA Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) 5-km Aerosol Profile datasets are analyzed from 2007 to 2009. Numerical simulations from the U.S. Naval Aerosol Analysis and Predictive System (NAAPS), featuring two-dimensional variational assimilation of NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Multi-angle Imaging Spectro- Radiometer quality-assured datasets, combined with regional ground-based lidar measurements, are considered for assessing CALIOP retrieval performance, identifying bias, and evaluating regional representativeness. CALIOP retrievals of aerosol particle extinction coefficient and aerosol optical depth (AOD) are high over land and low over open waters relative to NAAPS (0.412/0.312 over land for all data points inclusive, 0.310/0.235 when the per bin average is used and each is treated as single data points; 0.102/0.151 and 0.086/0.124, respectively, over ocean). Regional means, however, are very similar (0.180/0.193 for all data points and 0.155/0.159 when averaged per normalized bin), as the two factors offset one another. The land/ocean offset is investigated, and discrepancies attributed to interpretation of particle composition and a-priori assignment of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio ("lidar ratio") necessary for retrieving the extinction coefficient from CALIOP signals. Over land, NAAPS indicates more dust present than CALIOP algorithms are identifying, indicating a likely assignment of a higher lidar ratio representative of more absorptive particles. NAAPS resolvesmore smoke overwater than identified with CALIOP, indicating likely usage of a lidar ratio characteristic of less absorptive particles to be applied that biases low AOD there. Over open waters except within the Bay of Bengal

  4. Cell concentration of bacteria in the Asian continent outflow under different weather conditions observed at southwestern Japan between 2010 and 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D.; Murata, K.

    2013-12-01

    Widespread dispersal of microorganisms in the air is considered to be particularly important for ice cloud formation in elevated levels. However, very few quantitative data on their concentration are available. The purpose of the study is to figure out the manner by which bacteria are transported and gain the bacteria's concentration and viability in the Northern Hemisphere westerly winds at the downstream areas of the Asian continent. Viable and non-viable airborne bacteria were measured with fluorescence microscopy coupled with LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability Kits under various weather conditions at Kumamoto, a coastal city in southwestern Japan. The concentration in thermodynamically different air parcels was in the similar order, hundreds of thousand cells per cubic meter, but different ranges. No correlation was found between the concentration and coarse aerosol particles (diameter>1.0 μm) in prefrontal air and anticyclone air. In contrast, the concentration correlated closely with coarse particles in the postfrontal air and the concentration increased proportionally to coarse particle concentrations by 1 ~ 2 orders in the presence of Asian dust. Bacterial viability was around 70% on average in the different kinds of air parcels. However, the viability in fast-moving postfrontal air was smaller. In summary, air parcels following strong cold fronts in the westerly wind flow constantly and efficiently convey airborne bacteria, characterized by coarse particle-correlated high concentration and low viability, from the Asian continent while the bacteria in slowly-moving anticyclone and prefrontal air, characterized by low concentration and high viability, are more likely a mixture of bacteria from the Asian continent and the local areas.

  5. A Comparison of Food Supply from 1984 to 2009 and Degree of Dietary Westernization in Taiwan with Asian Countries and World Continents

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Cheau-Jane; Lin, Cheng-Yao; Guo, How-Ran

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare quality, quantity, and trends of food supply from 1984 to 2009 and degree of food westernization in Taiwan with Asian countries and world continents by using food balance data. Methods. We compiled data from food balance sheets of Taiwan and Food and Agriculture Organization, including five continents and three most populated countries each in Eastern, Southern, and Southeastern Asia over the period 1984–2009. Quantity of food supply per capita was referenced to Taiwan food guides. The population-weighted means of food supply from Europe, North America, South America, and Australia and New Zealand continents in terms of energy and nutrient distributions, animal/plant sources, and sugar/alcohol contribution were used as indicators of westernization. Trends of food supply per capita of six food groups were plotted, and linear regression was applied to evaluate food changes. Findings. Taiwan's food supply provided sufficient quantity in food energy, with the lowest cereals/roots supply and rice to wheat ratio, but the highest meat and oil supplies per capita among the 10 studied Asian countries. Taiwan food supply showed the most westernization among these countries. Conclusion. Food supply of Taiwan, although currently sufficient, indicated some security problems and high tendency of diet westernization. PMID:26295045

  6. Early Eocene (c. 50 Ma) collision of the Indian and Asian continents: Constraints from the North Himalayan metamorphic rocks, southeastern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Huixia; Zhang, Zeming; Dong, Xin; Tian, Zuolin; Xiang, Hua; Mu, Hongchen; Gou, Zhengbin; Shui, Xinfang; Li, Wangchao; Mao, Lingjuan

    2016-02-01

    Despite several decades of investigations, the nature and timing of the India-Asia collision remain debated. In the western Himalaya, the leading edge of the Indian continent was deeply subducted to mantle depths and experienced ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism in the Eocene at c. 50 Ma. In this paper, however, we demonstrate that the North Himalayan metamorphic rocks in the eastern Himalaya underwent Early Eocene (48-45 Ma) medium-pressure (MP) metamorphism due to shallow subduction of the Indian continent beneath southeastern Tibet. The studied garnet-kyanite-staurolite schists occur in the core of the Yardoi gneiss dome, the easternmost North Himalayan Gneiss Dome, and represent the upper structural level of the Higher Himalayan Crystallines (HHC). Petrology and phase equilibria modeling show that these rocks have mineral assemblages of Grt + Pl + Bt + Qz ± Ky ± St ± Ms that were formed under conditions of 7-8 kbar and 630-660 °C. Zircon U-Pb chronology shows that these rocks have peak-metamorphic ages of 48-45 Ma and protracted zircon growth, indicating that the collision between Indian and Asian continents must have occurred at c. 50 Ma in southeastern Tibet. Combining with available data, we suggest that the HHC represents a crustal section of the subducted and subsequently exhumed Indian continent. Due to shallow subduction of the continent during the Eocene, the middle to lower crust of the continent was subducted into depths of 40-60 km and underwent high-pressure (HP) and high-temperature (HT) granulite-facies metamorphism and intense anatexis, whereas the upper crust was buried to shallower depths of 20-30 km and witnessed MP metamorphism and intrusion of leucogranites derived from the lower structural level of the HHC.

  7. Non-Traditional Security Threats in the Border Areas: Terrorism, Piracy, Environmental Degradation in Southeast Asian Maritime Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabova, E. L.

    2013-11-01

    In addition to facilitating peaceful trade and economic development, sovereign territory, territorial waters and international waters are being used by various criminal groups that pose threats to governments, businesses and civilian population in Southeast Asia. Nonstate criminal maritime activities were not receiving appropriate attention as they were overshadowed by traditional military security challenges. Yet more and more frequently, the non-traditional actors challenge lines of communication, jeopardize access to strategic resources, complicate traditional defence tasks, and harm the environment. Understanding the nature of non-traditional threats, and the ways to combat them, requires international legal, historical and political science analysis within a united problem-oriented approach. A fair critique to pure interest, power and knowledge -based theories of regime formation was developed by E.K. Leonard's1, who explained the evolution of the international system from the global governance perspective. The present study is based on the premise that pure nation-state approaches are incapable of providing a theoretical ground for addressing the growing influence of international criminal networks in South East Asia. From an international relations theory perspective, the author of this study agrees with D.Snidal2 that the hegemonic stability theory has "limits" and is insufficient in describing modern challenges to sustainable international security regime, including non-traditional threats, where collective action is more efficient from an interest and capability standpoint. At the same time the author of this study does not share the viewpoint on "marginalization"3 of international law in current international order due to its fragmentation and regionalization4 and "global power shifts"5 . The United Nations, as a global institution at the top of the vertical hierarchy of international legal order, and the EU as an example of "self-contained" regime along

  8. Long-term variation of the source of sulfate deposition in a leeward area of Asian continent in view of sulfur isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Take, Naoko; Inomata, Yayoi; Yagoh, Hiroaki; Endo, Tomomi; Takahashi, Masaaki; Yanahara, Kazuki; Kusakabe, Minoru

    2016-09-01

    A large emission of air pollutants from the Asian continent has caused transboundary air pollution, especially in northeastern Asia. This paper evaluates sulfate deposition at a leeward area of Asian continent, i.e., the Nagaoka observation station located along the Sea of Japan. We have monitored atmospheric sulfate deposition and its sulfur isotopic ratio for 28 years at the station. The sulfur isotopic ratios of non-sea-salt sulfate (δ34Snss) ranged from 0.0 to +6.2‰. The isotopic ratios of local emission and Chinese coal sulfur showed negative and positive values, respectively. Several statistically significant trends were detected on the deposition of non-sea-salt sulfate (nss-SO42-) during the study period. The decrease of nss-SO42- deposition since the middle of 1980s was considered to have been caused by local anthropogenic SO2 emission that showed relatively low δ34Snss values during the period. The increase of nss-SO42- deposition from the end of 1990s to the second half of 2000s was interpreted to have been caused by the change in SO2 emission in China because the δ34Snss values increased during the period with the winter values getting closer to the averaged value of Chinese coal sulfur. The decreasing trend of nss-SO42- deposition from the middle of 2000s was likely affected by reduction of Chinese SO2 emission judging from the decrease in δ34Snss values in the period. Mass balance calculations suggested that sulfur released by coal combustion in China during 1990s contributed by about 40% of annual total sulfur deposition in Nagaoka, and its contribution increased up to 60% in the middle of 2000s. The contribution turned to decrease after that peak, which was in harmony with the temporal change of emission from China.

  9. Pool of dust particles over the Asian continent: balloon-borne optical particle counter and ground-based lidar measurements at Dunhuang, China.

    PubMed

    Iwasaka, Y; Shi, G Y; Kim, Y S; Matsuki, A; Trochkine, D; Zhang, D; Yamada, M; Nagatani, T; Nagatani, M; Shen, Z; Shibata, T; Nakata, H

    2004-03-01

    Measurements of aerosols were made in 2001 and 2002 at Dunhuang (40 degrees 00'N, 94 degrees 30'E), China to understand the nature of atmospheric particles over the desert areas in the Asian continent. Balloon-borne measurements with an optical particle counter suggested that particle size and concentration had noticeable peaks in super micron size range not only in the boundary mixing layer but also in the free troposphere. Super-micron particle concentration largely decreased in the mid tropopause (from 5 to 10 km; above sea level, a.s.l.). Lidar measurements made during August 2002 at Dunhuang suggested the possibility that mixing of dust particles occurred from near the ground to about 6 km even under calm weather conditions, and a large depolarization ratio of particulate matter was found in the aerosol layer. The top of the aerosol layer was found at heights of nearly 6 km (a.s.l.). It is strongly suggested that nonspherical dust particles (Kosa particles) frequently diffused in the free atmosphere over the Taklamakan desert through small-scale turbulences and are possible sources of dust particles of weak Kosa events that have been identified in the free troposphere not only in spring but also in summer over Japanese archipelago. Electron microscopic experiments of the particles collected in the free troposphere confirmed that coarse and nonspherical particles observed by the mineral particle were major components of coarse mode (diameter larger than 1 microm) below about 5 km over Dunhuang, China.

  10. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of the age-unknown quartzites in southwest Korea: Implications for paleotectonic configuration during the assembling of the East Asian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Taejin; Lee, Yong Il; Orihashi, Yuji

    2015-04-01

    Detrital zircon geochronology is a powerful tool to infer depositional age and provenance of quartzites, because they are barren but generally contain zircons in spite of their mature composition. The Korean Peninsula comprises three major Precambrian massifs. In the southern Korean Peninsula there are twelve quartzite strata with depositional ages traditionally known to be ranging from Precambrian to Mesozoic. However, their stratigraphic significance is yet clear, partly due to lack of depositional age data and vague stratigraphic relationships with other strata. Among them two quartzite strata, the Hongdo and Yongamsan Formations distributed in the Yeongnam massif, were chosen for this study, largely because the depostional ages of these two formations may provide information related to the paleotectonic affinity of the Korean Peninsula during assembling of the East Asian continent. The Hongdo Formation is barren distributed in Hongdo Island, southwest Korea, and mainly comprises of quartzose sandstones. Its depositional environment is interpreted as a braided plain setting in a large alluvial fan system. Depositional age of the Hongdo Formation is still questionable although it is commonly regarded as of Mesozoic in age based on its lithology and depositional environment. The Yongamsan Formation is metaquartzite located in the southwesternmost part of the Korean Peninsula. It overlies Precambrian granite gneiss and is conformably overlain by upper Paleozoic strata. However, the depositional age of the Yongamsan Formation is still unknown. To infer the depositional age and provenance of the Hongdo and Yongamsan Formations, LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of detrital zircon grains were analyzed. Among 300 Hongdo zircons analyzed, 184 grains yielded concordant or slightly discordant (<15%) ages ranging from Archean to Early Neoproterozoic (2752-879 Ma). The Hongdo zircons have major peak ages at ca. 1650, 1850, 2100, 2400, and 2650 Ma. Most zircon grains are older than 1600

  11. Satellite Remote Sensing and Mesoscale Modeling of Biomass Burning Aerosols over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: Climatic Implications of Smokes on Regional Energy Balance, Cloud Formations and Precipitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, N.

    2015-12-01

    The influences of anthropogenic aerosols have been suggested as an important reason for climate changes over Southeast Asia (SE Asia, 10°S~20°N and 90°E~135°E). Accurate observations and modelling of aerosols effects on the weather and climate patterns is crucial for a better understanding and mitigation of anthropogenic climate change. This study uses NASA satellite observations along with online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) to evaluate aerosols impacts on climate over SE Asia. We assess the direct and semi-direct radiative effects of smoke particles over this region during September, 2009 when a significant El Niño event caused the highest biomass burning activity during the last 15 years. Quantification efforts are made to assess how changes of radiative and non radiative parameters (sensible and latent heat) due to smoke aerosols would affect regional climate process such as precipitations, clouds and planetary boundary layer process. Comparison of model simulations for the current land cover conditions against surface meteorological observations and satellite observations of precipitations and cloudiness show satisfactory performance of the model over our study area. In order to quantitatively validate the model results, several experiments will be performed to test the aerosols radiative feedback under different radiation schemes and with/without considering aerosol effects explicitly in the model. Relevant ground-based data (e.g. AERONET), along with aerosol vertical profile data from CALIPSO, will also be applied.

  12. The resolution sensitivity of the South Asian monsoon and Indo-Pacific in a global 0.35° AGCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Stephanie J.; Levine, Richard C.; Turner, Andrew G.; Martin, Gill M.; Woolnough, Steven J.; Schiemann, Reinhard; Mizielinski, Matthew S.; Roberts, Malcolm J.; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Demory, Marie-Estelle; Strachan, Jane

    2016-02-01

    The South Asian monsoon is one of the most significant manifestations of the seasonal cycle. It directly impacts nearly one third of the world's population and also has substantial global influence. Using 27-year integrations of a high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model (Met Office Unified Model), we study changes in South Asian monsoon precipitation and circulation when horizontal resolution is increased from approximately 200-40 km at the equator (N96-N512, 1.9°-0.35°). The high resolution, integration length and ensemble size of the dataset make this the most extensive dataset used to evaluate the resolution sensitivity of the South Asian monsoon to date. We find a consistent pattern of JJAS precipitation and circulation changes as resolution increases, which include a slight increase in precipitation over peninsular India, changes in Indian and Indochinese orographic rain bands, increasing wind speeds in the Somali Jet, increasing precipitation over the Maritime Continent islands and decreasing precipitation over the northern Maritime Continent seas. To diagnose which resolution-related processes cause these changes, we compare them to published sensitivity experiments that change regional orography and coastlines. Our analysis indicates that improved resolution of the East African Highlands results in the improved representation of the Somali Jet and further suggests that improved resolution of orography over Indochina and the Maritime Continent results in more precipitation over the Maritime Continent islands at the expense of reduced precipitation further north. We also evaluate the resolution sensitivity of monsoon depressions and lows, which contribute more precipitation over northeast India at higher resolution. We conclude that while increasing resolution at these scales does not solve the many monsoon biases that exist in GCMs, it has a number of small, beneficial impacts.

  13. Maritime Cultural Landscapes, Maritimity and Quasi Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuddenham, David Berg

    2010-10-01

    Does the concept of maritime cultural landscapes bridge a division between land and sea, or does it maintain a gap that perhaps doesn’t even exist? This paper discusses maritime and maritime cultural landscapes as phenomena in the light of Actor Network Theory, where maritimity is given attention as a derivation of the modern metaphysics as described by Bruno Latour. The paper makes use of a case study from Norwegian Cultural Heritage Management (CHM), where land and sea archaeologists meet each other in a joint venture project at the island of Smøla, Møre & Romsdal County.

  14. Adaptive maritime video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Kalyan Moy; Aha, David W.; Hartley, Ralph; Moore, Philip G.

    2009-05-01

    Maritime assets such as ports, harbors, and vessels are vulnerable to a variety of near-shore threats such as small-boat attacks. Currently, such vulnerabilities are addressed predominantly by watchstanders and manual video surveillance, which is manpower intensive. Automatic maritime video surveillance techniques are being introduced to reduce manpower costs, but they have limited functionality and performance. For example, they only detect simple events such as perimeter breaches and cannot predict emerging threats. They also generate too many false alerts and cannot explain their reasoning. To overcome these limitations, we are developing the Maritime Activity Analysis Workbench (MAAW), which will be a mixed-initiative real-time maritime video surveillance tool that uses an integrated supervised machine learning approach to label independent and coordinated maritime activities. It uses the same information to predict anomalous behavior and explain its reasoning; this is an important capability for watchstander training and for collecting performance feedback. In this paper, we describe MAAW's functional architecture, which includes the following pipeline of components: (1) a video acquisition and preprocessing component that detects and tracks vessels in video images, (2) a vessel categorization and activity labeling component that uses standard and relational supervised machine learning methods to label maritime activities, and (3) an ontology-guided vessel and maritime activity annotator to enable subject matter experts (e.g., watchstanders) to provide feedback and supervision to the system. We report our findings from a preliminary system evaluation on river traffic video.

  15. Interannual Variability, Global Teleconnection, and Potential Predictability Associated with the Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K. M.; Kim, K. M.; Li, J. Y.

    2001-01-01

    In this Chapter, aspects of global teleconnections associated with the interannual variability of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) are discussed. The basic differences in the basic dynamics of the South Asian Monsoon and the East Asian monsoon, and their implications on global linkages are discussed. Two teleconnection modes linking ASM variability to summertime precipitation over the continental North America were identified. These modes link regional circulation and precipitation anomalies over East Asia and continental North America, via coupled atmosphere-ocean variations over the North Pacific. The first mode has a large zonally symmetrical component and appears to be associated with subtropical jetstream variability and the second mode with Rossby wave dispersion. Both modes possess strong sea surface temperature (SST) expressions in the North Pacific. Results show that the two teleconnection modes may have its origin in intrinsic modes of sea surface temperature variability in the extratropical oceans, which are forced in part by atmospheric variability and in part by air-sea interaction. The potential predictability of the ASM associated with SST variability in different ocean basins is explored using a new canonical ensemble correlation prediction scheme. It is found that SST anomalies in tropical Pacific, i.e., El Nino, is the most dominant forcing for the ASM, especially over the maritime continent and eastern Australia. SST anomalies in the India Ocean may trump the influence from El Nino in western Australia and western maritime continent. Both El Nino, and North Pacific SSTs contribute to monsoon precipitation anomalies over Japan, southern Korea, northern and central China. By optimizing SST variability signals from the world ocean basins using CEC, the overall predictability of ASM can be substantially improved.

  16. Impact of sea surface temperature trend on late summer Asian rainfall in the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Qiying; Lu, Riyu

    2013-05-01

    impact of the global sea surface temperature (SST) warming trend, which is the leading mode of SST variability, on late summer Asian rainfall is analyzed based on the simulations of five atmospheric general circulation models, which are performed by the U. S. Climate Variability and Predictability Drought Working Group. Our evaluations of the model outputs indicate that these models roughly capture the main features of climatological rainfall and circulations over Asia and the western North Pacific (WNP), but they simulate a too strong monsoon trough and a too northward shifted in the subtropical anticyclone in the WNP and fail to reproduce the rain belt over East Asia. It is found that all of the models simulate an intensified WNP subtropical high (WNPSH) in late summer, an enhanced precipitation in the tropical Indian Ocean and the maritime continent, and a suppressed precipitation in the South Asian monsoon region, the South China Sea, and the Philippine Sea, when the models are forced with the SST trend, which is characterized by a significant increase in the Indian Ocean and western Pacific. All these changes are suggested to be dynamically coherent. The warmer SST trend in the Indian Ocean and western Pacific may suppress precipitation over the Philippine Sea and thus result in a lower tropospheric anticyclonic circulation over the subtropical WNP. The warmer SSTs in the Indian Ocean may also be responsible for the anomalous easterlies and resultant less rainfall over the South Asian monsoon region. The precipitation changes forced by the SST trend are similar in the maritime continent but show an apparent difference over East Asia, in comparison with the observed rainfall trend over lands. The possible reasons for this difference are discussed.

  17. Maritime security laboratory for maritime security research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunin, Barry J.; Sutin, Alexander; Bruno, Michael S.

    2007-04-01

    Stevens Institute of Technology has established a new Maritime Security Laboratory (MSL) to facilitate advances in methods and technologies relevant to maritime security. MSL is designed to enable system-level experiments and data-driven modeling in the complex environment of an urban tidal estuary. The initial focus of the laboratory is on the threats posed by divers and small craft with hostile intent. The laboratory is, however, evolvable to future threats as yet unidentified. Initially, the laboratory utilizes acoustic, environmental, and video sensors deployed in and around the Hudson River estuary. Experimental data associated with boats and SCUBA divers are collected on a computer deployed on board a boat specifically designed and equipped for these experiments and are remotely transferred to a Visualization Center on campus. Early experiments utilizing this laboratory have gathered data to characterize the relevant parameters of the estuary, acoustic signals produced by divers, and water and air traffic. Hydrophones were deployed to collect data to enable the development of passive acoustic methodologies for maximizing SCUBA diver detection distance. Initial results involving characteristics of the estuary, acoustic signatures of divers, ambient acoustic noise in an urban estuary, and transmission loss of acoustic signals in a wide frequency band are presented. These results can also be used for the characterization of abnormal traffic and improvement of underwater communication in a shallow water estuary.

  18. Achieving urinary continence in children.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsi-Yang

    2010-07-01

    Achievement of urinary continence is an important developmental step that most children attain with the assistance of their parents and caregivers. Debate continues as to the best time to toilet train; in some Asian and African cultures children are trained as infants, while training at age 2-3 years is more typical in Western cultures. Infant voiding is not merely a spinal reflex, as the sensation of bladder filling is relayed to the brain. However, the ability of the brain to inhibit bladder contractions, and to achieve coordinated bladder contraction with sphincter relaxation, matures over time. While there is a concern that later toilet training may be responsible for an increase in urinary incontinence in children, no controlled studies on early versus late toilet training exist to evaluate this hypothesis. A number of medical conditions such as spina bifida, posterior urethral valves, cerebral palsy and autism can cause incontinence and difficulties in toilet training. The decision to start toilet training a child should take into account both the parents' expectation of how independent the child will be in terms of toileting, and the child's developmental readiness, so that a realistic time course for toilet training can be implemented.

  19. Maritime Lien Reform Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Young, Don [R-AK-At Large

    2011-03-17

    03/18/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.2838, which became Public Law 112-213 on 12/20/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Marine and maritime uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Activities related to: (1) understanding, controlling, and using the ocean's biological and physical processes for food and energy production and ship design purposes, and (2) providing navigation, communication, and data transmission technological aids which improve efficiency and enhance safety in maritime operations are disclosed.

  1. Our changing continent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1969-01-01

    Where were the land areas and oceans of the North American Continent one million years ago, compared to our present geography? Was North America always about the same size and shape as it is today? To answer these questions, we must construct maps of the lands and sea that existed during the past ages. This process of reconstructing ancient geography is called paleogeography (from the Greek word "palaios," meaning ancient).

  2. Continent vesicovaginal fistula

    PubMed Central

    de Toledo, Luís Gustavo Morato; Santos, Victor Espinheira; Maron, Paulo Eduardo Gourlat; Vedovato, Bruno César; Fucs, Moacyr; Perez, Marjo Deninson Cardenuto

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vesicovaginal fistula is an abnormal communication between the bladder and vagina and represents the most frequent type of fistula in the urinary tract. The most common cause in Brazil is iatrogenic fistula, secondary to histerectomia. Classically these women present continuous urinary leakage from the vagina and absence of micturition, with strong negative impact on their quality of life. We present a case of totally continent vesicovaginal fistula, with a follow-up of 11 years with no complications. PMID:23579756

  3. Seapower in the nuclear age: NATO as a maritime alliance

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolsky, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    This study examines the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, (NATO), from the perspective of its collective maritime forces; how those forces were organized, what task they were given, and how they related to the broader strategic and political doctrines of the Alliance. Drawing upon much heretofore classified material, the study begins with a history and analysis of the cold water at sea. It then examines the impact of the growth in Soviet maritime capabilities and the adoption by NATO of a strategy of flexible response upon the allied posture at sea. A single chapter is devoted to the reinforcement sealift problem. The concluding chapter discusses NATO and the war at sea in the early 1980s. The study comes to the following basic conclusions: (1) the collective maritime forces of the Alliance, both nuclear and conventional, have had as their tasks the traditional task all maritime forces have had in the past - to exploit the strategic value of the seas for the purposes of conveyance and projection and to deny these usages to the enemy; (2) NATO's maritime posture has been consistent with the overall strategies of the Alliance (3) the strategy of flexible response only increased NATO's need to exploit that strategic value of the seas, but did so at a time when the Soviets were becoming increasingly able to deny NATO effective use of the sea to support its position on the European continent.

  4. Preserving continence during robotic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Ahlering, Thomas E; Gordon, Adam; Morales, Blanca; Skarecky, Douglas W

    2013-02-01

    Preservation of postoperative urinary continence remains the primary concern of all men and their surgeons following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Without doubt, continence is the most important quality of life issue following radical prostatectomy. Identification of difficulties and lessons learned over time has helped focus efforts in order to improve urinary quality of life and continence. This review will examine definitions of continence and urinary quality of life evaluation, technical aspects and the impact of patient-related factors affecting time to and overall continence.

  5. Maritime in transit care.

    PubMed

    Bott, G; Barnard, J; Prior, K

    2015-01-01

    Operation GRITROCK saw the first operational deployment of the Maritime In Transit Care team from the Role 2 (Enhanced) (R2(E)) Medical Treatment Facility, which is able to provide Damage Control Surgery and the limited holding of patients, situated on board RFA ARGUS. Whilst the Medical Emergency Response Team demonstrated the capability of advanced military Pre-Hospital Emergency Care (PHEC) on Op HERRICK, the need to provide a similar high level of care on contingency operations was recognised. Op GRITROCK allowed for the continued exploration of a maritime capability from an established R2(E) platform whilst providing medical evacuation capability for a significant population at risk distributed over a large Joint Operation Area. Although the patient load during the operation was low, key lessons were learnt and opportunities identified to further develop the newly recognised sub-speciality of PHEC, both medically and logistically, and these will be discussed in this article. PMID:26867404

  6. [Continence in low resections].

    PubMed

    Rosa, G; Girardi, S; Lolli, P; Ferrara, R; Fasoli, G L

    1994-01-01

    Anorectal function is an important problem after low anterior resection procedure. This paper reports the results from 14 patients undergoing to low resection at Surgical Pathology Institute of the University of Verona. In 12 cases the restoration of the bowel continuity has been obtained by colon-anal anastomosis (Parks Operation) and in 3 cases by colo-rectal anastomosis at the anorectal ring level. The patients have been examined in the preoperative and in the postoperative period by clinical and manometric study. The results confirm that low resection does not involve faecal continence.

  7. Asians and Asian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

    This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered of particular interest in the study of Asians and Asian-Americans. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically within the following subject…

  8. Recent intensification of the South and East Asian monsoon contrast associated with an increase in the zonal tropical SST gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Kyung-Sook; Lee, June-Yi; Ha, Kyung-Ja

    2014-07-01

    Observed analysis of the 35 years of 1979-2013 reveals considerable interdecadal change and significant recent intensification in the difference of convective precipitation between the South Asian monsoon (SAM) and East Asian monsoon (EAM) systems during the major summer monsoon season (June-July). We propose that the recent strengthening of the zonal gradient of sea surface temperature (SST) between the Indian Ocean, western Pacific, and eastern Pacific is a possible cause for the intensification of the convective precipitation contrast. It is noted that the strengthening of the zonal SST gradient associated with the recent mega-La Niña trend tends to reinforce the negative connection between SAM and EAM systems by inducing enhanced convection over the maritime continent and then facilitating the northwestward emanation of Rossby waves. Consequently, a cyclonic circulation anomaly that effectively changes the local Hadley circulation has been formed over the SAM region, resulting in the noticeable difference between the SAM and EAM. The years 2013 and 1983 are further investigated as the strongest extreme years for positive and negative phases of submonsoon contrast, respectively. The result confirms that the meridional dipole height pattern along the Asian Jet stream, which is caused by the strong zonal gradient of tropical SST, serves as a key trigger in strengthening the submonsoon contrast.

  9. Seasonal prediction of East Asian summer rainfall using a multi-model ensemble system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joong-Bae; Lee, Doo-Young; Yoo, Jin‑Ho

    2015-04-01

    Using the retrospective forecasts of seven state-of-the-art coupled models and their multi-model ensemble (MME) for boreal summers, the prediction skills of climate models in the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and East Asian region are assessed. The prediction of summer rainfall anomalies in East Asia is difficult, while the WTP has a strong correlation between model prediction and observation. We focus on developing a new approach to further enhance the seasonal prediction skill for summer rainfall in East Asia and investigate the influence of convective activity in the WTP on East Asian summer rainfall. By analyzing the characteristics of the WTP convection, two distinct patterns associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation developing and decaying modes are identified. Based on the multiple linear regression method, the East Asia Rainfall Index (EARI) is developed by using the interannual variability of the normalized Maritime continent-WTP Indices (MPIs), as potentially useful predictors for rainfall prediction over East Asia, obtained from the above two main patterns. For East Asian summer rainfall, the EARI has superior performance to the East Asia summer monsoon index or each MPI. Therefore, the regressed rainfall from EARI also shows a strong relationship with the observed East Asian summer rainfall pattern. In addition, we evaluate the prediction skill of the East Asia reconstructed rainfall obtained by hybrid dynamical-statistical approach using the cross-validated EARI from the individual models and their MME. The results show that the rainfalls reconstructed from simulations capture the general features of observed precipitation in East Asia quite well. This study convincingly demonstrates that rainfall prediction skill is considerably improved by using a hybrid dynamical-statistical approach compared to the dynamical forecast alone. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research

  10. Enhancement of seasonal prediction of East Asian summer rainfall related to western tropical Pacific convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Doo Young; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Yoo, Jin-Ho

    2015-08-01

    The prediction skills of climate model simulations in the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and East Asian region are assessed using the retrospective forecasts of seven state-of-the-art coupled models and their multi-model ensemble (MME) for boreal summers (June-August) during the period 1983-2005, along with corresponding observed and reanalyzed data. The prediction of summer rainfall anomalies in East Asia is difficult, while the WTP has a strong correlation between model prediction and observation. We focus on developing a new approach to further enhance the seasonal prediction skill for summer rainfall in East Asia and investigate the influence of convective activity in the WTP on East Asian summer rainfall. By analyzing the characteristics of the WTP convection, two distinct patterns associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation developing and decaying modes are identified. Based on the multiple linear regression method, the East Asia Rainfall Index (EARI) is developed by using the interannual variability of the normalized Maritime continent-WTP Indices (MPIs), as potentially useful predictors for rainfall prediction over East Asia, obtained from the above two main patterns. For East Asian summer rainfall, the EARI has superior performance to the East Asia summer monsoon index or each MPI. Therefore, the regressed rainfall from EARI also shows a strong relationship with the observed East Asian summer rainfall pattern. In addition, we evaluate the prediction skill of the East Asia reconstructed rainfall obtained by hybrid dynamical-statistical approach using the cross-validated EARI from the individual models and their MME. The results show that the rainfalls reconstructed from simulations capture the general features of observed precipitation in East Asia quite well. This study convincingly demonstrates that rainfall prediction skill is considerably improved by using a hybrid dynamical-statistical approach compared to the dynamical forecast alone.

  11. Madagascar: Heads It's a Continent, Tails It's an Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wit, Maarten J.

    Neither geologists nor biologists have a definition that is capable of classifying Madagascar unambiguously as an island or a continent; nor can they incorporate Malagasy natural history into a single model rooted in Africa or Asia. Madagascar is a microcosm of the larger continents, with a rock record that spans more than 3000 million years (Ma), during which it has been united episodically with, and divorced from, Asian and African connections. This is reflected in its Precambrian history of deep crustal tectonics and a Phanerozoic history of biodiversity that fluctuated between cosmopolitanism and parochialism. Both vicariance and dispersal events over the past 90 Ma have blended a unique endemism on Madagascar, now in decline following rapid extinctions that started about 2000 years ago.

  12. 76 FR 33653 - Maritime Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ..., which is used to monitor and track maritime traffic for purposes of both navigational safety and... AIS use in international waters. In the Report and Order, published at 71 FR 60067, October 12, 2006... NPRM), published at 71 FR 60102, October 12, 2006, on whether to extend the AIS designation to...

  13. 75 FR 10692 - Maritime Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... Communications Commission published in the Federal Register of February 2, 2010 (75 FR 5241), a document in the..., 2010 (75 FR 5241) to ensure that its rules governing the Maritime Radio Services continue to promote... (75 FR 5241). In rule FR Doc. 2010-2095 published on February 2, 2010 (75 FR 5241), make the...

  14. Q Fever Update, Maritime Canada

    PubMed Central

    Marrie, Thomas J.; Campbell, Nancy; McNeil, Shelly A.; Webster, Duncan

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1990s, reports of Q fever in Nova Scotia, Canada, have declined. Passive surveillance for Q fever in Nova Scotia and its neighboring provinces in eastern Canada indicates that the clinical manifestation of Q fever in the Maritime provinces is pneumonia and that incidence of the disease may fluctuate. PMID:18258080

  15. Impact of biennial SST oscillation on the Southeast Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Kim, K. Y.

    2014-12-01

    How the biennial oscillation of global SST, one of the main components of ENSO, affects the Southeast Asia summer monsoon is analyzed. The biennial mode is extracted from the 142-year (1871-2012) Extended Reconstruction SST version 3 data using cyclostationary EOF (CSEOF) analysis. Based on regression analysis in CSEOF space, evolutions of key atmospheric variables are obtained to be consistent with the long-term variation of the biennial mode. Atmospheric variables are derived from the twentieth century (20C) reanalysis version 2 data. The biennial oscillation, primarily in the tropical Pacific, influences the monsoons in the Indo-Pacific region. Summer monsoonal change can be explained in terms of the change in monsoon precipitation accompanied with low-level moisture convergence and large-scale atmospheric circulation. In the equatorial region, SST anomaly directly triggers the vertical motion and horizontal wind such that zonal circulation across the Pacific and Indian Oceans is set up. In the subtropical Asian region, both cyclonic or anticyclonic circulation over the northwestern Pacific and the meridional circulation over the Indo-Pacific region induced by the equatorial SST change affects the Southeast Asian monsoon, and henceforth the monsoon precipitation. When positive SST anomaly develops in the eastern tropical Pacific, precipitation decreases over the tropical Indian Ocean and the Maritime Continent (10°S-5°N, 40°-150°E) and increases over Southeast Asia (5°N-20°N, 90°-150°E). With negative SST anomaly in the eastern tropical Pacific, the situation reverses. Based on the spatio-temporal evolution patterns for key physical variables and corresponding long-term variability, physical link through atmosphere-ocean interactions is explored between the biennial mode of SST and the Southeast Asian summer monsoon.

  16. Continence after posterior sagittal anorectoplasty.

    PubMed

    Langemeijer, R A; Molenaar, J C

    1991-05-01

    Posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) was introduced in 1982 by Peña and De Vries as a new operation for patients with a high anorectal malformation. The degree of postoperative continence is reported to be high. During the past decade, too, new insights have been gained into the embryology of anorectal malformations. Evaluation of PSARP in relation to current understanding of the development and anatomy of the anorectum and the pelvic floor has led us to conclude that optimal continence cannot be expected. Fifty patients with a high anorectal malformation underwent PSARP between June 1983 and May 1990. Postoperative follow-up consisted of anamnesis (subjective) and electrostimulation, defecography, and anorectal manometry (objective). All patients are alive, and all but one are being evaluated regularly. Subjectively, the majority of patients were more or less incontinent, with soiling of pants at least once a day. On the basis of objective criteria, virtually all patients appeared to be incontinent, and in only one patient was the mechanism of defecation almost unimpaired after PSARP. From this study, we conclude that although PSARP provides a good aesthetic result, patients will never acquire normal continence.

  17. User satisfaction with maritime telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Dehours, Emilie; Vallé, Baptiste; Bounes, Vincent; Girardi, Claire; Tabarly, Julien; Concina, François; Pujos, Michel; Ducassé, Jean-Louis

    2012-06-01

    We assessed the satisfaction of onboard caregivers with the maritime telehealth service provided by the Centre de Consultations Médicales Maritimes (CCMM). We conducted a survey of captains and caregivers by email. Of the 385 surveys sent out, 165 (43%) were completed. Eighty four percent of responders (n = 110) thought that waiting time was satisfactory or very satisfactory, and 97% (n = 128) were satisfied or very satisfied with their relationship with the remote physician. Thirty eight per cent of participants (n = 50) considered that the physician understood the medical problem very well; understanding was good in 58% of cases (n = 76) and bad in only 4% of cases (n = 5). Sixty two per cent of participants (n = 83) sent pictures before consultation. The respondents were also satisfied with the telephone advice overall, the competence of the physicians providing the advice, the length of time spent waiting, the verbal prescription and the medical advice given. Onboard caregivers were generally well satisfied with the maritime teleconsultations and the advice provided by the CCMM physicians.

  18. Sea Surface Temperature Coupling to Madden-Julian Oscillations over the Indonesian Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napitu, A. M.; Gordon, A. L.; Pujiana, K.

    2014-12-01

    The intraseasonal SST characteristics within the Indonesian Seas and their responses to the Madden-Julian Oscillations [MJO] are examined through analyses of observed and reanalysis datasets. Intraseasonal variation accounts for about 30% of SST variability, with the strongest signature is observed in Banda and Timor seas. The MJO signature in SST is evident in the form of energy peak at 35-45 days, amplification during the Northwest Monsoon (boreal winter), and eastward propagation. SST responds to sea-air heat flux associated with MJO with net heat flux into the ocean (atmosphere) characterizing the suppressed (active) phase of MJO. The influence of MJO on Banda Sea SST is greatest during La Niña periods, which are favorable for deeper thermocline conditions, which diminish the role of ocean processes driving vertical heat transfer between subsurface and surface layers. Diminished influence of ocean processes results in dominance of surface heat fluxes associated with MJO in governing intraseasonal SST variability. During El Niño, the role of ocean processes is favorable to mediate heat transfer between lower and upper layer of the ocean surface as thermocline is shallower. The ocean component heat fluxes then compete with MJO forced heat fluxes in governing SST variability as indicated by less pronounced eastward propagation.

  19. Maritime Archaeology and Climate Change: An Invitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Jeneva

    2016-08-01

    Maritime archaeology has a tremendous capacity to engage with climate change science. The field is uniquely positioned to support climate change research and the understanding of past human adaptations to climate change. Maritime archaeological data can inform on environmental shifts and submerged sites can serve as an important avenue for public outreach by mobilizing public interest and action towards understanding the impacts of climate change. Despite these opportunities, maritime archaeologists have not fully developed a role within climate change science and policy. Moreover, submerged site vulnerabilities stemming from climate change impacts are not yet well understood. This article discusses potential climate change threats to maritime archaeological resources, the challenges confronting cultural resource managers, and the contributions maritime archaeology can offer to climate change science. Maritime archaeology's ability to both support and benefit from climate change science argues its relevant and valuable place in the global climate change dialogue, but also reveals the necessity for our heightened engagement.

  20. 33 CFR 103.300 - Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. 103.300 Section 103.300 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS)...

  1. Operational Merits of Maritime Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, R.; Bosklopper, J. J.; van der Meij, K. H.

    The perspective of superconductivity to transfer currents without loss is very appealing in high power applications. In the maritime sector many machines and systems exist in the roughly 1-100 MW range and the losses are well over 50%, which calls for dramatic efficiency improvements. This paper reports on three studies that aimed at the perspectives of superconductivity in the maritime sector. It is important to realize that the introduction of superconductivity comprises two technology transitions namely firstly electrification i.e. the transition from mechanical drives to electric drives and secondly the transition from normal to superconductive electrical machinery. It is concluded that superconductivity does reduce losses, but its impact on the total energy chain is of little significance compared to the investments and the risk of introducing a very promising but as yet not proven technology in the harsh maritime environment. The main reason of the little impact is that the largest losses are imposed on the system by the fossil fueled generators as prime movers that generate the electricity through mechanical torque. Unless electric power is supplied by an efficient and reliable technology that does not involve mechanical torque with the present losses both normal as well as superconductive electrification of the propulsion will hardly improve energy efficiency or may even reduce it. One exception may be the application of degaussing coils. Still appealing merits of superconductivity do exist, but they are rather related to the behavior of superconductive machines and strong magnetic fields and consequently reduction in volume and mass of machinery or (sometimes radically) better performance. The merits are rather convenience, design flexibility as well as novel applications and capabilities which together yield more adequate systems. These may yield lower operational costs in the long run, but at present the added value of superconductivity rather seems more

  2. The mechanism of continence after posterior urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bagga, Herman S.; Angermeier, Kenneth W.

    2015-01-01

    The standard of care after a pelvic fracture urethral injury is a repair via a one-stage anastomotic posterior urethroplasty using a step-wise perineal approach. The initial injury, immediate postoperative management, and surgical repair can all affect urinary continence in these patients. Proximal continence mechanisms, particularly the bladder neck, are particularly important in maintaining urinary continence in these patients. Patients with bladder neck dysfunction should be counselled about the greater risk of urinary incontinence. PMID:26019981

  3. The National Maritime College of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greville, Eamonn

    2005-01-01

    The new National Maritime College of Ireland is regarded as the country's most exciting and innovative development in maritime training and education and is the first tertiary institution to be built and operated under the government's Public Private Partnership (PPP) model of procurement. The project is the outcome of a partnership between Cork…

  4. 75 FR 29395 - National Maritime Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8526 of May 20, 2010 National Maritime Day, 2010 By the President of the... times of peace and war alike. On National Maritime Day, we recognize the men and women of the...

  5. 76 FR 29989 - National Maritime Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8678 of May 18, 2011 National Maritime Day... Maritime Day, we honor their invaluable contributions to America's economic strength and security. On...

  6. 77 FR 31479 - National Maritime Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-13005 Filed 5-24-12; 11:15 am... May 25, 2012 Part III The President Proclamation 8828--National Maritime Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8828 of May 22, 2012 National Maritime...

  7. On English Teaching in Maritime Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Jiang; Wang, Honggui

    2011-01-01

    According to English level of Chinese ocean sailors at present, we analyze the characteristics and instruction needs of navigation English and point out current English teaching in maritime specialty has many problems. Traditional teaching modes are not suitable for modern maritime needs any longer. So we propose feasible methods and…

  8. Potential Impact of South Asian Anthropogenic Aerosols on Northern Hemisphere Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollasina, M. A.; Ming, Y.; Ramaswamy, V.

    2014-12-01

    South Asia has one of the world's highest aerosol loading due to the dramatic increase of anthropogenic emissions from the 1950s associated with rapid urbanization and population growth. The possible large-scale impact of the late 20th century increase of South Asian aerosol emissions on climate away from the source regions was studied by means of historical ensemble experiments with a state-of-the-art coupled climate model with fully interactive aerosols and a representation of both direct and indirect aerosol effects. The key characteristics of the northern hemisphere responses are examined separately for winter and summer, and show that regional aerosols induce significant planetary-scale teleconnection patterns. In both seasons, the large-scale aerosol imprint originates from substantial changes in the regional precipitation distribution. During the winter, in response to anomalous surface cooling in the northern Indian Ocean, aerosols cause a westward shift of convection over the eastern Indian Ocean and compensating subsidence to the west and over the Maritime continent. During the summer, aerosols are collocated with rainfall, and cause a widespread drying over South Asia mostly by indirect effects. In both cases, the impact of the regional diabatic heating anomaly propagates remotely by exciting a northern hemisphere wave-train which, enhanced by regional feedbacks, leads to remarkable changes in near-surface climate, including circulation and temperature, over Eurasia, the northern Pacific and North America. Depending on the region, the induced anomalies may have opposite signs between the two seasons, and may thus contribute to reinforcing or dampening those due greenhouse gases. These results underscore the potential influence of Asian aerosols on global climate, which is a compelling problem as regional aerosol loading will continue to be large in the coming decades.

  9. System for maritime surveillance aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Yamada, Kimio; Kiriya, Nobuo

    1997-02-01

    A system to aid maritime surveillance is being studied to search for small floating objects like a life raft or to detect oil spill more reliably and efficiently. The system consists of sensors, an image processor and a display so as to reject unnecessary noise in the sea surface images, and then to detect and identify the objects to be searched. This paper describes the optical sensor system with an infrared camera and a TV camera. The infrared camera detects 3-5 micrometers waveband by 512 by 512 solid state sensing elements. The systems was used to gather images on different sea areas in summer and winter by aircraft and on the ground. Typical images are presented to demonstrate the validity of the sensor system to search for small flowing objects. The influences of air and water temperature, weather and observation altitude upon the images are discussed. Image processing techniques like filtering or image superposition are also described to suppress noise.

  10. Enhancement of seasonal prediction of East Asian summer rainfall related to the western tropical Pacific convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. Y.; Ahn, J. B.; Yoo, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The prediction skills of climate model simulations in the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and East Asian region are assessed using the retrospective forecasts of seven state-of-the-art coupled models and their multi-model ensemble (MME) for boreal summers (June-August) during the period 1983-2005, along with corresponding observed and reanalyzed data. The prediction of summer rainfall anomalies in East Asia is difficult, while the WTP has a strong correlation between model prediction and observation. We focus on developing a new approach to further enhance the seasonal prediction skill for summer rainfall in East Asia and investigate the influence of convective activity in the WTP on East Asian summer rainfall. By analyzing the characteristics of the WTP convection, two distinct patterns associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) developing and decaying modes are identified. Based on the multiple linear regression method, the East Asia Rainfall Index (EARI) is developed by using the interannual variability of the normalized Maritime continent-WTP indices (MPIs), as potentially useful predictors for rainfall prediction over East Asia, obtained from the above two main patterns. For East Asian summer rainfall, the EARI has superior performance to the East Asia summer monsoon index (EASMI) or each MP index (MPI). Therefore, the regressed rainfall from EARI also shows a strong relationship with the observed East Asian summer rainfall pattern. In addition, we evaluate the prediction skill of the East Asia reconstructed rainfall obtained by statistical-empirical approach using the cross-validated EARI from the individual models and their MME. The results show that the rainfalls reconstructed from simulations capture the general features of observed precipitation in East Asia quite well. This study convincingly demonstrates that rainfall prediction skill is considerably improved by using the statistical-empirical method compared to the dynamical models

  11. Contribution of Asian dust to atmospheric deposition of radioactive cesium ((137)Cs).

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Taijiro; Fujiwara, Hideshi

    2008-11-01

    Both Asian dust (kosa) transported from the East Asian continent and locally suspended dust near monitoring sites contribute to the observed atmospheric deposition of (137)Cs in Japan. To estimate the relative contribution of these dust phenomena to the total (137)Cs deposition, we monitored weekly deposition of mineral particles and (137)Cs in spring. Deposition of (137)Cs from a single Asian dust event was 62.3 mBq m(-2) and accounted for 67% of the total (137)Cs deposition during the entire monitoring period. Furthermore, we found high (137)Cs specific activity in the Asian dust deposition sample. Although local dust events contributed to (137)Cs deposition, their contribution was considerably smaller than that of Asian dust. We conclude that the primary source of atmospheric (137)Cs in Japan is dust transported from the East Asian continent.

  12. 33 CFR 105.145 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 105.145 Section 105.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES General § 105.145 Maritime Security...

  13. 33 CFR 104.145 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 104.145 Section 104.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS General § 104.145 Maritime Security...

  14. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  15. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  16. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  17. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  18. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  19. Remote Viewer for Maritime Robotics Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Wolf, Michael; Huntsberger, Terrance L.; Howard, Andrew B.

    2013-01-01

    This software is a viewer program for maritime robotics software that provides a 3D visualization of the boat pose, its position history, ENC (Electrical Nautical Chart) information, camera images, map overlay, and detected tracks.

  20. Information Services of Maritime Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stefanov, Asen

    2015-04-01

    The ultimate goal of modern oceanography is an end user oriented product. Beneficiaries are the governmental services, coast-based enterprises and research institutions that make use of the products generated by operational oceanography. Direct potential users and customers are coastal managers, shipping, offshore industry, ports and harbours, fishing, tourism and recreation industry, and scientific community. Indirect beneficiaries, through climate forecasting based on ocean observations, are food, energy, water and medical suppliers. Five general classes of users for data and information are specified: (1) operational users that analyze the collected data and produce different forecasts serving to impose regulation measures; (2) authorities and managers of large-scale projects needing timely oceanographic information, including statistics and climatic trends; (3) industrial enterprises, safety of structures and avoiding of pollution; (4) tourism and recreation related users aiming protection of human health; (5) scientists, engineers, and economists carrying out special researches, strategic design studies, and other investigations to advance the application of marine data. The analysis of information received during the extensive inquiry among all potential end users reveals variety of data and information needs encompassing physical, chemical, biological and hydrometeorological observation. Nevertheless, the common requirement concerns development of observing and forecasting systems providing accurate real-time or near-real time data and information supporting decision making and environmental management. Availability of updated information on the actual state as well as forecast for the future changes of marine environment are essential for the success and safety of maritime operations in the offshore industry. For this purpose different systems have been developed to collect data and to produce forecasts on the state of the marine environment and to provide

  1. Evolution of the Indiana continent urinary reservoir.

    PubMed

    Rowland, R G; Kropp, B P

    1994-12-01

    The Indiana continent urinary diversion evolved from the Gilchrist procedure. Full detubularization of the reservoir segment, tapering of the efferent limb with staples, plication of the ileocecal valve, and tunneled tenial implants have resulted in a reliable and reproducible continent cutaneous urinary reservoir. In this report the first 69 patients treated with these techniques are reviewed after a minimum 2-year followup. Overall day and night continence rates were 97% by 1 year after surgery. More than 80% of all patients are able to sleep a normal nighttime interval without catheterizing or leaking. Early plus late reoperation rates for problems related to the pouch were 17%. This rate compares favorably to other series of continent cutaneous reservoirs and even to series of ileal conduits. PMID:7966719

  2. Alternative fuels for maritime use

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to review the potential fuels which may be available to the marine industry from the present to the year 2000 and to define the economic, technical, and environmental/social impacts of these alternative fuels on marine power plants. Thus, this study is aimed at the fuels/prime mover combination. This study should help to guide the industry in choosing the proper power plant for the future - recognizing that a new power plant installed in 1980 will still be in service in the 21st century. The importance of the marine transportation industry and the need to consider alternate fuels are examined. An overview of potential alternate fuels for marine applications is presented, and power plant/fuel interaction is discussed. An in-depth discussion is presented on the impact of the most likely alternate fuels from the viewpoint of maintenance, retrofit capability, safety, and air-quality impacts. Two nonfossil-fuel alternatives sailing ships and nuclear-powered vessels, are discussed. It is concluded that: there is a high probability of using synfuels from tar sands shale, or coal liquids in both existing and future ships; coal and coal/oil slurries have a high probability of use in future ships and medium probability in existing ships; nuclear and sail-power future ships have a medium probability of commercial development; and is a low probability of commercial maritime use of alcohol fuels, methane, or coal/methanol combinations. (LCL)

  3. Insolation and Abrupt Climate Change Effects on the Western Pacific Maritime Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, J. W.; Quinn, T. M.; Shen, C.; Cardenas, M. B.; Siringan, F. P.; Banner, J. L.; lin, K.; Taylor, F. W.

    2012-12-01

    The response of the Asian-Australian monsoon system to changes in summer insolation over the Holocene is recorded in many monsoon-sensitive paleoclimate reconstructions. The response is commonly direct; more summer insolation leads to increased monsoon rainfall over land as captured in stalagmite δ18O records from Oman and China. We evaluate this direct response using a maritime stalagmite record from the island of Palawan, Philippines (10 N, 119 E). The wet season in Palawan occurs over the same months (June-October) as in Oman, India and China. Therefore, we expected the stalagmite δ18O record from Palawan, a proxy of rainfall, to have a similar trend of decreasing monsoon rainfall over the Holocene. However, the Holocene trend in stalagmite δ18O is opposite to that expected: rainfall increases over the Holocene. Our explanation for the Holocene trend observed at Palawan is that the increase in the maritime monsoon balances the reduction in the land monsoon; an explanation that is consistent with previously published coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model results. Seawater δ18O reconstructions from marine sediment cores in the western tropical Pacific contain a freshening trend over the Holocene, also supporting the hypothesis of increase maritime monsoon rainfall. However, the decrease in maritime monsoon rainfall during the Younger Dryas at Palawan matches that observed in Chinese stalagmite records, meeting our original expectation of a similar wet season response in the various Asian-Australian monsoon records. One explanation for the similar Younger Dryas response in these monsoon records is the influence of seasonal changes in sea ice coverage, as previously suggested. A stalagmite δ18O record from Borneo (~800 km SE of Palawan), which lacks evidence of the Younger Dryas, provides supporting evidence for this explanation.

  4. Profile: Asian Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... the visibility of Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islander health issues. Overview (Demographics): This racial group ... White population. Selected Data by Disease/Condition Asian/Pacific Islanders and Asthma . Asian/Pacific Islanders and Cancer . ...

  5. Obesity and Asian Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... related diseases see: Diabetes – See Diabetes and Asians/Pacific Islanders Heart Disease – See Heart Disease and Asians/Pacific Islanders Stroke – See Stroke and Asians/Pacific Islanders ...

  6. Sensitivity of a GCM climate simulation to differences in continental versus maritime cloud drop size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiehl, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    Extensive observations indicate a distinct difference between maritime and continental effective drop size, r(sub e), for warm clouds. The latest version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate Model (CCM2) is used to explore the sensitivity of differentiating between continental and maritime r(sub e) on the simulated climate. The results of this study indicate that the smaller drop size over continents leads to a reduction of surface-absorbed solar radiation from 20 to 60 W/sq m. This reduction in surface solar flux leads to a cooling of the continents by up to -3.5 K. The reduction in surface solar flux and temperature also leads to a reduction in latent heat flux and precipitation over land. In the January simulation, there is a significant shift in tropical precipitation associated with the Australian monsoon. This shift leads to a response in the extra tropical geopotential height field over the western United States. All of these changes reduce biases in the current version of CCM2.

  7. Sensitivity of a GCM climate simulation to differences in continental versus maritime cloud drop size

    SciTech Connect

    Kiehl, J.T.

    1994-11-20

    Extensive observations indicate a distinct difference between maritime and continental effective drop size, r{sub e}, for warm clouds. The latest version of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM2) is used to explore the sensitivity of differentiating between continental and maritime r{sub e} on the simulated climate. The results of this study indicate that the smaller drop size over continents leads to a reduction of surface-absorbed solar radiation from 20 to 60 W m{sup {minus}2}. This reduction in surface solar flux leads to a cooling of the continents by up to {minus}3.5 K. The reduction in surface solar flux and temperature also leads to a reduction in latent heat flux and precipitation over land. In the January simulation, there is a significant shift in tropical precipitation associated with the Australian monsoon. This shift leads to a response in the extra tropical geopotential height field over the western United States. All of these changes reduce biases in the current version of CCM2. 24 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Data Quality Assessment for Maritime Situation Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iphar, C.; Napoli, A.; Ray, C.

    2015-08-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) initially designed to ensure maritime security through continuous position reports has been progressively used for many extended objectives. In particular it supports a global monitoring of the maritime domain for various purposes like safety and security but also traffic management, logistics or protection of strategic areas, etc. In this monitoring, data errors, misuse, irregular behaviours at sea, malfeasance mechanisms and bad navigation practices have inevitably emerged either by inattentiveness or voluntary actions in order to circumvent, alter or exploit such a system in the interests of offenders. This paper introduces the AIS system and presents vulnerabilities and data quality assessment for decision making in maritime situational awareness cases. The principles of a novel methodological approach for modelling, analysing and detecting these data errors and falsification are introduced.

  9. Plasmodium vivax Diversity and Population Structure across Four Continents

    PubMed Central

    Koepfli, Cristian; Rodrigues, Priscila T.; Antao, Tiago; Orjuela-Sánchez, Pamela; Van den Eede, Peter; Gamboa, Dionicia; van Hong, Nguyen; Bendezu, Jorge; Erhart, Annette; Barnadas, Céline; Ratsimbasoa, Arsène; Menard, Didier; Severini, Carlo; Menegon, Michela; Nour, Bakri Y. M.; Karunaweera, Nadira; Mueller, Ivo; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Felger, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the geographically most widespread human malaria parasite. To analyze patterns of microsatellite diversity and population structure across countries of different transmission intensity, genotyping data from 11 microsatellite markers was either generated or compiled from 841 isolates from four continents collected in 1999–2008. Diversity was highest in South-East Asia (mean allelic richness 10.0–12.8), intermediate in the South Pacific (8.1–9.9) Madagascar and Sudan (7.9–8.4), and lowest in South America and Central Asia (5.5–7.2). A reduced panel of only 3 markers was sufficient to identify approx. 90% of all haplotypes in South Pacific, African and SE-Asian populations, but only 60–80% in Latin American populations, suggesting that typing of 2–6 markers, depending on the level of endemicity, is sufficient for epidemiological studies. Clustering analysis showed distinct clusters in Peru and Brazil, but little sub-structuring was observed within Africa, SE-Asia or the South Pacific. Isolates from Uzbekistan were exceptional, as a near-clonal parasite population was observed that was clearly separated from all other populations (FST>0.2). Outside Central Asia FST values were highest (0.11–0.16) between South American and all other populations, and lowest (0.04–0.07) between populations from South-East Asia and the South Pacific. These comparisons between P. vivax populations from four continents indicated that not only transmission intensity, but also geographical isolation affect diversity and population structure. However, the high effective population size results in slow changes of these parameters. This persistency must be taken into account when assessing the impact of control programs on the genetic structure of parasite populations. PMID:26125189

  10. Plasmodium vivax Diversity and Population Structure across Four Continents.

    PubMed

    Koepfli, Cristian; Rodrigues, Priscila T; Antao, Tiago; Orjuela-Sánchez, Pamela; Van den Eede, Peter; Gamboa, Dionicia; van Hong, Nguyen; Bendezu, Jorge; Erhart, Annette; Barnadas, Céline; Ratsimbasoa, Arsène; Menard, Didier; Severini, Carlo; Menegon, Michela; Nour, Bakri Y M; Karunaweera, Nadira; Mueller, Ivo; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Felger, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the geographically most widespread human malaria parasite. To analyze patterns of microsatellite diversity and population structure across countries of different transmission intensity, genotyping data from 11 microsatellite markers was either generated or compiled from 841 isolates from four continents collected in 1999-2008. Diversity was highest in South-East Asia (mean allelic richness 10.0-12.8), intermediate in the South Pacific (8.1-9.9) Madagascar and Sudan (7.9-8.4), and lowest in South America and Central Asia (5.5-7.2). A reduced panel of only 3 markers was sufficient to identify approx. 90% of all haplotypes in South Pacific, African and SE-Asian populations, but only 60-80% in Latin American populations, suggesting that typing of 2-6 markers, depending on the level of endemicity, is sufficient for epidemiological studies. Clustering analysis showed distinct clusters in Peru and Brazil, but little sub-structuring was observed within Africa, SE-Asia or the South Pacific. Isolates from Uzbekistan were exceptional, as a near-clonal parasite population was observed that was clearly separated from all other populations (FST>0.2). Outside Central Asia FST values were highest (0.11-0.16) between South American and all other populations, and lowest (0.04-0.07) between populations from South-East Asia and the South Pacific. These comparisons between P. vivax populations from four continents indicated that not only transmission intensity, but also geographical isolation affect diversity and population structure. However, the high effective population size results in slow changes of these parameters. This persistency must be taken into account when assessing the impact of control programs on the genetic structure of parasite populations.

  11. Asian Community Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yung, Judy

    1978-01-01

    The first Asian Community Library in the U.S. offers a popular collection of print and audiovisual materials in five Asian languages, as well as a special collection in English on Asian Americans and Asian history and culture. Acquisition, cataloging, and political difficulties are also discussed. (Author/JPF)

  12. The Kock continent ileostomy: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Failes, D

    1976-05-01

    A review is presented of seven patients who have undergone a continent type of ileostomy, as described by Professor Kock. There has been no mortality. Two of the early patients had considerable difficulty with the functioning of the valve and required re-operation. No patient in the series now wears an external appliance. Six of the seven are fully continent; the seventh reports occasional leakage, but is satisfied with the operation. The operation is considered to be still under trial, but is regarded as having great potential and likely to be much more widely practised in the future. PMID:1067068

  13. OCCIMA: Optical Channel Characterization in Maritime Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, Steve; Tsintikidis, Dimitri; deGrassie, John; Reinhardt, Colin; McBryde, Kevin; Hallenborg, Eric; Wayne, David; Gibson, Kristofor; Cauble, Galen; Ascencio, Ana; Rudiger, Joshua

    2015-05-01

    The Navy is actively developing diverse optical application areas, including high-energy laser weapons and free- space optical communications, which depend on an accurate and timely knowledge of the state of the atmospheric channel. The Optical Channel Characterization in Maritime Atmospheres (OCCIMA) project is a comprehensive program to coalesce and extend the current capability to characterize the maritime atmosphere for all optical and infrared wavelengths. The program goal is the development of a unified and validated analysis toolbox. The foundational design for this program coordinates the development of sensors, measurement protocols, analytical models, and basic physics necessary to fulfill this goal.

  14. 47 CFR 80.1069 - Maritime sea areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... continuous DSC alerting is available as defined by the International Maritime Organization. (2) Sea area A2... in which continuous DSC alerting is available as defined by the International Maritime...

  15. 33 CFR 103.410 - Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.410 Section 103.410 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment § 103.410 Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment....

  16. 33 CFR 103.410 - Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.410 Section 103.410 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment § 103.410 Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment....

  17. 33 CFR 103.410 - Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.410 Section 103.410 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment § 103.410 Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment....

  18. 33 CFR 103.410 - Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.410 Section 103.410 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment § 103.410 Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment....

  19. 33 CFR 103.310 - Responsibilities of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. 103.310 Section 103.310 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee § 103.310 Responsibilities of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. (a)...

  20. 75 FR 82039 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...) Port Security Grants. (2) Global Supply Chain Security Policy Efforts. (3) Update to the Maritime... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Maritime Security Advisory Committee (NMSAC) will...

  1. 78 FR 42101 - Boston Area Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Boston Area Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Boston Area Maritime Security Committee to submit their applications for membership, to the... INFORMATION CONTACT: For questions about submitting an application or about the Boston Area Maritime...

  2. 75 FR 71721 - Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee to submit their application for membership, to the... Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating to establish Area Maritime...

  3. 47 CFR 80.1069 - Maritime sea areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maritime sea areas. 80.1069 Section 80.1069 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1069...

  4. 47 CFR 80.1069 - Maritime sea areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maritime sea areas. 80.1069 Section 80.1069 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1069...

  5. 47 CFR 80.1069 - Maritime sea areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maritime sea areas. 80.1069 Section 80.1069 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1069...

  6. 47 CFR 80.1069 - Maritime sea areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maritime sea areas. 80.1069 Section 80.1069 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1069...

  7. 47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information. 80.1135 Section 80.1135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System...

  8. 32 CFR 536.120 - Claims payable as maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims payable as maritime claims. 536.120 Section 536.120 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.120 Claims payable as maritime claims....

  9. 32 CFR 536.120 - Claims payable as maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable as maritime claims. 536.120 Section 536.120 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.120 Claims payable as maritime claims....

  10. 77 FR 39249 - Boston Area Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Boston Area Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Boston Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC) to submit their applications for membership, to the...-223-3008. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Authority Section 102 of the Maritime Transportation Security...

  11. 77 FR 26024 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... published in the Federal Register of May 1, 2012, a notice announcing a National Maritime Security Advisory... progress regarding multiple maritime security initiatives. If you have been adversely affected by the...

  12. 77 FR 1710 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... published in the Federal Register of January 9, 2012, a notice announcing a National Maritime Security... regarding multiple maritime security initiatives. If you have been adversely affected by the delay...

  13. 29 CFR 2530.200b-6 - Maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maritime industry. 2530.200b-6 Section 2530.200b-6 Labor... Provisions § 2530.200b-6 Maritime industry. (a) General. Sections 202(a)(3)(D), 203(b)(2)(D) and 204(b)(3)(E... provisions applicable to the maritime industry. In general, those provisions permit statutory...

  14. 29 CFR 2530.200b-6 - Maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maritime industry. 2530.200b-6 Section 2530.200b-6 Labor... Provisions § 2530.200b-6 Maritime industry. (a) General. Sections 202(a)(3)(D), 203(b)(2)(D) and 204(b)(3)(E... provisions applicable to the maritime industry. In general, those provisions permit statutory...

  15. 29 CFR 2530.200b-6 - Maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maritime industry. 2530.200b-6 Section 2530.200b-6 Labor... Provisions § 2530.200b-6 Maritime industry. (a) General. Sections 202(a)(3)(D), 203(b)(2)(D) and 204(b)(3)(E... provisions applicable to the maritime industry. In general, those provisions permit statutory...

  16. 29 CFR 2530.200b-6 - Maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maritime industry. 2530.200b-6 Section 2530.200b-6 Labor... Provisions § 2530.200b-6 Maritime industry. (a) General. Sections 202(a)(3)(D), 203(b)(2)(D) and 204(b)(3)(E... provisions applicable to the maritime industry. In general, those provisions permit statutory...

  17. 29 CFR 2530.200b-6 - Maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maritime industry. 2530.200b-6 Section 2530.200b-6 Labor... Provisions § 2530.200b-6 Maritime industry. (a) General. Sections 202(a)(3)(D), 203(b)(2)(D) and 204(b)(3)(E... provisions applicable to the maritime industry. In general, those provisions permit statutory...

  18. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  19. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  20. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  1. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  2. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  3. Understanding Barriers to Continence Care in Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Cara; Labrecque, Danielle; Lepage, Christiane

    2005-01-01

    This work seeks to identify factors that facilitate or diminish care-providers' propensity to improve continence care in long-term care (LTC) settings. We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative study using focus group methodology in four long-term care institutions in Montreal, QC. Forty-two nurses, nursing assistants, and orderlies caring for…

  4. African Universities Tackle the Continent's Agricultural Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2009-01-01

    Pests, population growth, and depleted soil have wreaked havoc on agriculture in Africa, so universities across the continent are rethinking how they teach the topic. Some African universities have been building their own networks and pooling their limited resources to train more agricultural scientists and improve their responsiveness to the…

  5. Expanding Informal Education in Maritime Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satchell, Julie

    2008-12-01

    This paper examines the work of the Hampshire and Wight Trust for Maritime Archaeology (HWTMA) in developing informal education approaches and initiatives. It introduces the aims and ethos of the HWTMA which focuses on embedding education and learning into all aspects of its work, before exploring ways in which its fieldwork and research programme are utilised to help deliver a range of educational opportunities to a diverse range of groups and individuals. There is a review of the possibilities for skill development through practical involvement which is illustrated with case study examples, followed by discussion of broader approaches, including publications, talks and exhibits. This review underpins discussion of a recent project ‘Maritime Archaeology Access and Learning Workshops’ which aimed to ‘educate the educators’, and has demonstrated the potential for this approach to make a significant contribution to increasing the profile of maritime archaeology within informal learning frameworks. The paper concludes by reviewing the experience of these regionally-based initiatives in relation to the expansion of maritime archaeology within the UK and suggests ways that lessons learned could be drawn upon in the development of emerging national approaches.

  6. Preventing Maritime Transfer of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Slaten, Douglas D.; Marano, Nina; Tappero, Jordan W.; Wellman, Michael; Albert, Ryan J.; Hill, Vincent R.; Espey, David; Handzel, Thomas; Henry, Ariel; Tauxe, Robert V.

    2012-01-01

    Organisms, including Vibrio cholerae, can be transferred between harbors in the ballast water of ships. Zones in the Caribbean region where distance from shore and water depth meet International Maritime Organization guidelines for ballast water exchange are extremely limited. Use of ballast water treatment systems could mitigate the risk for organism transfer. PMID:23017338

  7. 78 FR 31809 - National Maritime Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... depended on the success of a revolution, mariners took on the world's most powerful navy and helped secure... world. On National Maritime Day, we honor the generations of mariners who have served and sacrificed to make our country what it is today. To keep America moving forward in the 21st century, we need...

  8. Life and Poverty in the Maritimes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepin, Pierre-Yves

    Five areas in the Maritime Provinces of Canada were subjected to intensive geographical, economic, and sociological surveys in an attempt to determine and define poverty illustratively rather than statistically. Information was obtained by in-residence researchers on bio-physical setting, settlement, population, labor and economic activity,…

  9. Opportunities in Marine and Maritime Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, Wm. Ray

    This book describes careers related to the sea. The following chapters are included: (1) "The World of Water"; (2) "Cruise Ship Careers"; (3) "Oceanography and the Marine Sciences"; (4) "Fishing"; (5) "Commerical Diving"; (6) "Maritime Transportation"; (7) "Shipbuilding"; (8) "Military Careers Afloat"; (9) "Miscellaneous Marine and Maritime…

  10. Asian summer monsoon seasonal prediction skill in the Met Office GloSea5 model and its dependence on mean state biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Stephanie; Turner, Andrew; Martin, Gill; Woolnough, Steve

    2015-04-01

    Predicting the circulation and precipitation features of the Asian monsoon on time scales of weeks to the season ahead remains a challenge for prediction centres. Current state-of-the-art models retain large biases, particularly dryness over India, which evolve rapidly from initialization and persist into centennial length climate integrations, illustrating the seamless nature of the monsoon problem. We present initial results from our Ministry of Earth Sciences Indian Monsoon Mission collaboration project to assess and improve weekly-to-seasonal forecasts in the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) coupled initialized Global Seasonal Prediction System (GloSea5). Using a 14-year hindcast ensemble of integrations in which atmosphere, ocean and sea-ice components are initialized from May start dates, we assess the monsoon seasonal prediction skill and global mean state biases of GloSea5. Initial May and June biases include a lack of precipitation over the Indian peninsula, and a weakened monsoon flow, and these give way to a more robust pattern of excess precipitation in the western north Pacific, lack of precipitation over the Maritime Continent, excess westerlies across the Indian peninsula and Indochina, and cool SSTs in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean and western north Pacific in July and August. Despite these mean state biases, the interannual correlation of predicted JJA all India rainfall from 1998 to 2009 with TRMM is fairly high at 0.68. Future work will focus on the prospects for further improving this skill with bias correction techniques.

  11. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining. PMID:25230662

  12. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

  13. Chronic cough: an Asian perspective. Part 1: Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Song, Woo-Jung; Faruqi, Shoaib; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Lee, Seung-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Asia is one of the most diverse and dynamic continents. Due to recent rapid industrialisation and urbanisation, morbidity patterns are likely to be diverse in Asian populations. Chronic cough is a disease condition resulting from host-environmental interactions, and is associated with a high global epidemiological burden. However, the underlying epidemiology remains unclear, particularly in Asia. We performed a literature search to identify peer-reviewed articles on chronic cough in community-based adult Asian populations that have been published between January 2000 and June 2015. In this review, we aim to examine the epidemiological characteristics and determinants of chronic cough in several geographical areas of Asia. PMID:26240790

  14. Scavenging of pollutant acid substances by Asian mineral dust particles - article no. L07816

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, J.; Takahashi, K.; Matsumi, Y.; Yabushita, A.; Shimizu, A.; Matsui, I.; Sugimoto, N.

    2006-04-13

    Uptakes of sulfate and nitrate onto Asian dust particles during transport from the Asian continent to the Pacific Ocean were analyzed by using a single-particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Observation was conducted at Tsukuba in Japan in the springtime of 2004. Sulfate-rich dust particles made their largest contribution during the 'dust event' in the middle of April 2004. As a result of detailed analysis including backward trajectory calculations, it was confirmed that sulfate components originating from coal combustion in the continent were internally mixed with dust particles. Even in the downstream of the outflow far from the continental coastline, significant contribution of Asian dust to sulfate was observed. Asian dust plays critical roles as the carrier of sulfate over the Pacific Ocean.

  15. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary or fecal continence... nonimplanted electrical continence device and the powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use (§...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary or fecal continence... nonimplanted electrical continence device and the powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use (§...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary or fecal continence... nonimplanted electrical continence device and the powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use (§...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary or fecal continence... nonimplanted electrical continence device and the powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use (§...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary or fecal continence... nonimplanted electrical continence device and the powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use (§...

  20. Asian American Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, William T.; Yu, Elena S. H.

    The sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics of all Asian American communities since 1950 have been greatly influenced by federal immigration legislation, and it is not possible to consider the field of Asian American studies without an understanding of the history of immigration legislation. Asian American research may be divided into…

  1. Teaching Asian American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Linda H.

    2000-01-01

    Uses data from interviews with parents of Asian American students, observations, and literature reviews to identify cultural and language issues that must be considered in teaching this population. The paper discusses the history of Asian immigrants, attitudes toward education among Asians, the relationship between teaching styles and Asian…

  2. Maritime drug trafficking: an underrated problem.

    PubMed

    Aune, B R

    1990-01-01

    Seizure data indicate that a substantial proportion of the total quantity of drugs seized is confiscated from maritime modes of conveyance or has been transported by sea. The trafficking of narcotic drugs by sea has virtually become an industry comprised of many individual enterprises of varying size and organization. The maritime medium is one of the main ways by which drugs may enter some countries. In response to the problem, various sophisticated anti-trafficking offensives and strategies have been established or contemplated in certain geographical areas. The shipment of drugs to the primary consuming countries has not been curbed, however, and there is every indication that the overall movement of drugs is still unimpeded.

  3. 21 CFR 876.5310 - Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence....5310 Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device. (a) Identification. A nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device is a device that consists of an electrode that is connected by...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Continent ileostomy catheter. 876.5030 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A continent ileostomy catheter is a flexible tubular device used as a...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Continent ileostomy catheter. 876.5030 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A continent ileostomy catheter is a flexible tubular device used as a...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Continent ileostomy catheter. 876.5030 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A continent ileostomy catheter is a flexible tubular device used as a...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Continent ileostomy catheter. 876.5030 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A continent ileostomy catheter is a flexible tubular device used as a...

  8. Tectonic evolution of Late Cenozoic arc-continent collision in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, L.S. )

    1990-06-01

    The island of Taiwan is an active orogen formed by the collision between the Luzon arc and the Asian continent. The kinematic progression of the arc-continent collision can be reconstructed by superimposing the restored paleopositions of Luzon arc upon the precollisional Asian continental margin. The geological history of the collision can be interpreted from the rock records of the mountain ranges of Taiwan. By incorporating geological information into plate kinematics, the collision can be attributed to the northwesterly impingement of the Luzon arc upon the continental margin in the last 12 million years. During the initial stage of the collision, some of the continental materials might have been metamorphosed in the deep subduction zone, but no distinct effects can be perceived in the sedimentary record. In the Mio-Pliocene time (about 5 Ma), the accretionary wedge grew large enough to become a sediment source for the Luzon forearc basin and to induce foreland subsidence on the continental margin. In the early late Pliocene (about 3 Ma), drastic collision caused rapid uplift of the collision orogen that shed voluminous orogenic sediments into the forearc and foreland basins. Continued collision progressively accreted the forearc and foreland basins to the collision orogen from north to south to the present configuration.

  9. Tropical-Extratropical Interactions Associated with East Asian Cold Air Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdillah, M. R.; Kanno, Y.; Iwasaki, T.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates possible interactions between East Asian cold air outbreak (CAOs) and tropical variability during boreal winter (DJF), particularly in interannual and intraseasonal time scale. The definition of CAOs follows the recent definition that used isentropic coordinate. The CAO definition is based on anomalously large equatorward mass flux below θ=280 K crossing 45°N latitude. This location represents the maxima of extratropical direct (ETD) circulation in the viewpoint of mass-weighted isentropic meridional circulation (MIM; Iwasaki and Mochizuki 2012; Iwasaki et al. 2014; Shoji et al. 2014). Unlike most CAO studies, we utilize quantitative definition of cold air mass (CAM) to estimate the CAO. EOF analysis on the seasonal-mean equatorward CAM flux in East Asia reveals two CAO types that can be easily distinguished as the western type CAO (90°-135°E) and eastern type CAO (135°-180°E). These CAOs are significantly associated with remote forcing in tropics. The western CAO tends to be in phase with La Nina event. Otherwise, eastern CAO is dominant in El Nino event. In sub-seasonal scale, day-lagged analysis of CAO event enables us to identify the impact and precursor during CAO event. The impact of western CAO is robust on the development of precipitation downstream around South China Sea and Philippines. Otherwise, eastern CAO event shows less impact possibly due to rapid disappearance over ocean. Remarkably, the preconditioning time of East Asian CAO is accompanied by large-scale organized convection in tropics. It is revealed that western CAOs favor to occur when the MJO arrives in Maritime Continent (MJO phase 4-5). On the other hand, eastern CAOs tend to occur when the MJO arrives in central Pacific (MJO phase 7-8). We investigated that these remote interactions are possibly driven by upper-tropospheric Rossby wave train forcing and enhanced local Hadley circulation associated with MJO-like tropical precipitation. These indicate potential

  10. Maritime Archaeology and Trans-Oceanic Trade: A Case Study of the Oranjemund Shipwreck Cargo, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirikure, Shadreck; Sinamai, Ashton; Goagoses, Esther; Mubusisi, Marina; Ndoro, W.

    2010-10-01

    Routine sand dredging for alluvial diamonds at Oranjemund on the southern coast of Namibia exposed remnants of a long forgotten Portuguese merchant ship believed to have wrecked in the 1530s. The rescue excavations yielded over 40 tons of cargo consisting of thousands of gold and silver coins, tons of copper and lead ingots, and large quantities of ivory together with food refuse, part of personal possessions and the superstructure of the ship. This paper discusses the cargo from the shipwreck. The varying provenances show that overland inter-and intra-regional networks fed into the maritime trade between Europe and the Indian sub-continent. As such, the wreck is a lens through which we can view what was happening on the seas as well as on land. Finally we consider wider issues raised by this discovery relating to the protection and management of such material wherever it may be found in future.

  11. Present-day regional climate simulation over Malaysia and western Maritime Continent region using PRECIS forced with ERA40 reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Meng Sei; Tangang, Fredolin T.; Juneng, Liew

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the performance of the regional climate model, PRECIS, in reproducing the historical seasonal mean climatology over the Malaysian region. The performance of the model in simulating the seasonal climate pattern of the temperature, precipitation and large-scale circulation was reasonably good. The biases of temperature are less than 2 °C in general, while the seasonal cycles match the observed pattern despite some differences in certain regions. However, the biases for precipitation were greater, particularly over the mountainous areas. These biases could be associated with the deficiencies of the model physics, related to the misrepresentation of the land-surface interaction and convective scheme. Furthermore, the model fails to simulate the mean sea-level pressure over the interior part of Borneo with a significant low-pressure centre. A higher magnitude of the moisture convergence and divergence simulated by the model also contributed to the biases of precipitation over Malaysia.

  12. INMARSAT - The International Maritime Satellite Organization: Origins and structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    The third session of the International Conference on the Establishment of an International Maritime Satellite System established the International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) in 1976. Its main functions are to improve maritime communications via satellite, thereby facilitating more efficient emergency communications, ship management, and maritime public correspondence services. INMARSAT's aims are similar to those of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), the main United Nations organization dealing with maritime affairs. The specific functions of INMARSAT have been established by an Intersessional Working Group (IWG) which met three times between general conference meetings. Initial investment shares for the creation of INMARSAT were shared by the United States (17%), the United Kingdom (12%), the U.S.S.R. (11%), Norway (9.50%), Japan (8.45%), Italy (4.37%), and France (3.50%).

  13. 33 CFR 103.510 - Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan review and approval. 103.510 Section 103.510 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security...

  14. 33 CFR 103.305 - Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Security (AMS) Committee. 103.305 Section 103.305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee § 103.305 Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. (a) An...

  15. Continence pads: have we got it right?

    PubMed

    Uchil, Dhiraj; Thakar, Ranee; Sultan, Abdul H; Seymour, Joy; Addison, Ray

    2006-05-01

    Women listed in the Croydon Community Continence database were contacted with a self-assessment questionnaire regarding continence pad usage and quality of life. Completed questionnaires were received from 763 of 1509 (51%) participants. Pads were used for bladder dysfunction (88.1%) and bowel dysfunction (44%). The majority (82.5%) had concurrent medical disorders and problems with mobility with 77.5% being on one or more types of medication. Nearly 39% of women claimed that they would be happy to continue pad use indefinitely and only 28% expressed interest in seeking further help. Compared to bowel dysfunction, bladder dysfunction appeared to have a greater impact on women's quality of life (P < 0.001). Containment products make a substantial contribution in improving the quality of lives of women with bowel and bladder dysfunction. The financial burden of containment products has a major impact on the health budget and therefore, comprehensive clinical evaluation should be mandatory before relegating women to pads as a final resort. PMID:15999216

  16. When Did the Swahili Become Maritime?

    PubMed Central

    Fleisher, Jeffrey; Lane, Paul; LaViolette, Adria; Horton, Mark; Pollard, Edward; Quintana Morales, Eréndira; Vernet, Thomas; Christie, Annalisa; Wynne-Jones, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine an assumption about the historic Swahili of the eastern African coast: that they were a maritime society from their beginnings in the first millennium C.E. Based on historical and archaeological data, we suggest that, despite their proximity to and use of the sea, the level of maritimity of Swahili society increased greatly over time and was only fully realized in the early second millennium C.E. Drawing on recent theorizing from other areas of the world about maritimity as well as research on the Swahili, we discuss three arenas that distinguish first- and second-millennium coastal society in terms of their maritime orientation. These are variability and discontinuity in settlement location and permanence; evidence of increased engagement with the sea through fishing and sailing technology; and specialized architectural developments involving port facilities, mosques, and houses. The implications of this study are that we must move beyond coastal location in determining maritimity; consider how the sea and its products were part of social life; and assess whether the marine environment actively influences and is influenced by broader patterns of sociocultural organization, practice, and belief within Swahili and other societies. [maritime, fishing and sailing, long-distance trade, Swahili, eastern Africa] RESUMEN En este artículo, evaluamos la hipótesis de que los pueblos Swahili de la costa oriental africana fueron una sociedad marítima a partir del primer milenio E.C. Basados en información histórica y arqueológica, proponemos que la asociación de la sociedad Swahili con el mar incrementó considerablemente con el tiempo y se manifestó de una forma significativa particularmente desde principios del segundo milenio E.C. Utilizando teorías recientes sobre maritimidad en otras áreas del mundo, así como investigaciones sobre los Swahili, discutimos tres temas que marcan las diferencias del nivel de orientación marítima de

  17. Possibilities of Uas for Maritime Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimkowska, A.; Lee, I.; Choi, K.

    2016-06-01

    In the last few years, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have become more important and its use for different application is appreciated. At the beginning UAS were used for military purposes. These successful applications initiated interest among researchers to find uses of UAS for civilian purposes, as they are alternative to both manned and satellite systems in acquiring high-resolution remote sensing data at lower cost while long flight duration. As UAS are built from many components such as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), sensing payloads, communication systems, ground control stations, recovery and launch equipment, and supporting equipment, knowledge about its functionality and characteristics is crucial for missions. Therefore, finding appropriate configuration of all elements to fulfill requirements of the mission is a very difficult, yet important task. UAS may be used in various maritime applications such as ship detection, red tide detection and monitoring, border patrol, tracking of pollution at sea and hurricane monitoring just to mention few. One of the greatest advantages of UAV is their ability to fly over dangerous and hazardous areas, where sending manned aircraft could be risky for a crew. In this article brief description of aerial unmanned system components is introduced. Firstly characteristics of unmanned aerial vehicles are presented, it continues with introducing inertial navigation system, communication systems, sensing payloads, ground control stations, and ground and recovery equipment. Next part introduces some examples of UAS for maritime applications. This is followed by suggestions of key indicators which should be taken into consideration while choosing UAS. Last part talks about configuration schemes of UAVs and sensor payloads suggested for some maritime applications.

  18. Maritime target identification in gated viewing imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Marcus; Hebel, Marcus; Arens, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The growing interest in unmanned surface vehicles, accident avoidance for naval vessels and automated maritime surveillance leads to a growing need for automatic detection, classification and pose estimation of maritime objects in medium and long ranges. Laser radar imagery is a well proven tool for near to medium range, but up to now for higher distances neither the sensor range nor the sensor resolution was satisfying. As a result of the mentioned limitations of laser radar imagery the potential of laser illuminated gated viewing for automated classification and pose estimation was investigated. The paper presents new techniques for segmentation, pose estimation and model-based identification of naval vessels in gated viewing imagery in comparison with the corresponding results of long range data acquired with a focal plane array laser radar system. The pose estimation in the gated viewing data is directly connected with the model-based identification which makes use of the outline of the object. By setting a sufficient narrow gate, the distance gap between the upper part of the ship and the background leads to an automatic segmentation. By setting the gate the distance to the object is roughly known. With this distance and the imaging properties of the camera, the width of the object perpendicular to the line of sight can be calculated. For each ship in the model library a set of possible 2D appearances in the known distance is calculated and the resulting contours are compared with the measured 2D outline. The result is a match error for each reasonable orientation of each model of the library. The result gained from the gated viewing data is compared with the results of target identification by laser radar imagery of the same maritime objects.

  19. Impact of Tropical Pacific Precipitation Anomaly on the East Asian Upper-tropospheric Westerly Jet during the Boreal Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Z.; Guo, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The leading mode of boreal winter precipitation variability over the tropical Pacific for the period 1980-2010 shows a west-east dipole pattern with one center over the western North Pacific (WNP) and Maritime Continent and the other center over the equatorial central Pacific (CP). Observational evidences show that the variability of the East Asian upper-tropospheric subtropical westerly jet (EAJ) has a significant correlation with precipitation anomalies over the WNP and CP and that tropical precipitation anomalies over WNP and CP have distinct influence on the variation of EAJ. A series of numerical experiments based on a linear baroclinic model are performed to confirm the influence of the heating anomalies associated with precipitation perturbations over the WNP and CP on the EAJ. The results of numerical experiments indicate that a heat source over the WNP can excite a northward-propagating Rossby wave train in the upper troposphere over East Asia and facilitate a poleward eddy momentum flux. It results in the acceleration of westerly between 30°N and 45°N, which favors a northward displacement of the EAJ. The response induced by a heat sink over the CP features a zonal easterly band between 25°N and 40°N, suggesting that the response to heat sink associated with negative precipitation anomalies over the CP may weaken the EAJ. A strengthened relationship was found between tropical Pacific precipitation and EAJ since 1979. The modeling results suggest that the shift of mean states might be responsible for the strengthened EAJ-rainfall relationship after 1979.

  20. Quebrada jaguay: early south american maritime adaptations

    PubMed

    Sandweiss; McInnis; Burger; Cano; Ojeda; Paredes; Sandweiss; Glascock

    1998-09-18

    Excavations at Quebrada Jaguay 280 (QJ-280) (16 degrees30'S) in south coastal Peru demonstrated that Paleoindian-age people of the Terminal Pleistocene (about 11,100 to 10,000 carbon-14 years before the present or about 13,000 to 11,000 calibrated years before the present) in South America relied on marine resources while resident on the coast, which extends the South American record of maritime exploitation by a millennium. This site supports recent evidence that Paleoindian-age people had diverse subsistence systems. The presence of obsidian at QJ-280 shows that the inhabitants had contact with the adjacent Andean highlands during the Terminal Pleistocene.

  1. Maritime Tsunami Hazard Assessment in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynett, P. J.; Borrero, J. C.; Wilson, R. I.; Miller, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The California tsunami program in cooperation with NOAA and FEMA has begun implementing a plan to increase awareness of tsunami generated hazards to the maritime community (both ships and harbor infrastructure) through the development of in-harbor hazard maps, offshore safety zones for boater evacuation, and associated guidance for harbors and marinas before, during and following tsunamis. The hope is that the maritime guidance and associated education and outreach program will help save lives and reduce exposure of damage to boats and harbor infrastructure. An important step in this process is to understand the causative mechanism for damage in ports and harbors, and then ensure that the models used to generate hazard maps are able to accurately simulate these processes. Findings will be used to develop maps, guidance documents, and consistent policy recommendations for emergency managers and port authorities and provide information critical to real-time decisions required when responding to tsunami alert notifications. Basin resonance and geometric amplification are two reasonably well understood mechanisms for local magnification of tsunami impact in harbors, and are generally the mechanisms investigated when estimating the tsunami hazard potential in a port or harbor. On the other hand, our understanding of and predictive ability for currents is lacking. When a free surface flow is forced through a geometric constriction, it is readily expected that the enhanced potential gradient will drive strong, possibly unstable currents and the associated turbulent coherent structures such as "jets" and "whirlpools"; a simple example would be tidal flow through an inlet channel. However, these fundamentals have not been quantitatively connected with respect to understanding tsunami hazards in ports and harbors. A plausible explanation for this oversight is the observation that these features are turbulent phenomena with spatial and temporal scales much smaller than that

  2. 33 CFR 103.405 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 1520. ... Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.405 Section 103.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area...

  3. 33 CFR 103.405 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 1520. ... Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.405 Section 103.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area...

  4. 33 CFR 103.405 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 1520. ... Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.405 Section 103.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area...

  5. 3 CFR 8384 - Proclamation 8384 of May 20, 2009. National Maritime Day, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... workers who have supported the maritime industry have made significant contributions to our leadership in... importance of the maritime industry and chronicles our history as a maritime nation. The Congress, by a...

  6. Resiliency and Recovery: Lessons from the Asian Tsunami and Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernando, Delini M.; Hebert, Barbara B.

    2011-01-01

    Separated by continents and cultures, survivors of the Asian tsunami and Hurricane Katrina share a common bond in their extreme trauma and ensuing struggles. The authors discuss and illustrate core ideas based on the commonalities derived from the experiences of women survivors of these two disasters.

  7. SeaWiFS: Asian Dust over the Western United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This SeaWiFS image, captured on April 15, 2001, shows dust from the Asian continent over the United States. Atmospheric aerosoles are much easier to see over water than over land, so you can best see the haze offshore. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  8. Imaging Lithospheric Structure beneath the Indian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, S.; Montagner, J. P.; Mangalampally, R. K.; Stutzmann, E.; Burgos, G.; Kumar, P.; Davuluri, S.

    2015-12-01

    The lithospheric structure and thickness to the LAB are the most debated issues, especially beneath continents. In this context, the structure and thickness of the Indian lithosphere has been controversial. Paleomagnetic data reveals that the Indian continent moved northwards at exceptionally high speeds (18-20 cm/year) and subsequently slowed down to 4-5 cm/year after its collision with Asia ≈40 Myr ago. This super mobility has been explained by an unusually thin Indian lithosphere (≈100 km; Kumar et al., 2007) in contradiction with the thick lithosphere that commonly underlies old cratonic nuclei. It is pertinent to note that the thermobarometric estimates on the ultramafic xenoliths from 65 Myr kimberlites of the Central India (Babu et al. 2009) suggest an approximately 175 km thick lithosphere. Also, recent results of P and S wave travel time tomography of India suggest that the lithospheric roots are not uniformly thick on a regional scale. Although high velocity roots typical of Precambrian shields are preserved beneath a few cratons of the Indian shield, they seem to have suffered attrition, in the plume ravaged regions like the NDVP and the Southern SGT (Singh et al., 2014). We assembled a new massive surface wave database towards obtaining 3D isotropic and anisotropic models for the Indian sub-continent, using surface waves. This necessitated processing of data from more than 500 seismic broadband stations across India and surrounding regions. Surface waves group and phase dispersion measurements are performed in a broad frequency range (16-250s). Our phase velocity anomaly maps recover most of the known geological structures. The cratons are associated with high velocity (4-6%) anomalies till 200 sec, with the WDC being faster than the EDC. Slow velocities in NW India and very high velocity anomalies (6-8%) beneath the central part of the Indo-Gangetic plains are possibly associated with the subducting Indian lithosphere. The LAB depths inferred from

  9. The ribbon continent of northwestern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altamira-Areyan, Armando

    The tectonic structure of the Plate Boundary Zone (PBZ) between the Caribbean Plate (CARIB) and the South American Plate (SOAM) is interpreted using models that require CARIB motion from the Pacific into the Atlantic. Those models can be subdivided into: (1) those in which the island arc rocks that are now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ have collided with the northern South America margin, either obliquely or directly during the Cretaceous or during the Cenozoic, and (2) those in which the island arc rocks now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ collided with the west coast of South America during the Cretaceous and were transferred to the northern margin by transform motion during the Cenozoic. Magnetic anomalies were first rotated in the Central and South Atlantic, holding Africa fixed to establish how much NOAM had converged on SOAM during the Cenozoic. WSW convergence was discovered to have been accommodated in the northern boundary of the CARIB. There is no evidence of convergence in the form of Cenozoic island arc igneous rocks on the north coast of South America. Those results are consistent only with models of Class (2) that call for transform movement of material that had collided with the west coast of South America along the CARIB-SOAM PBZ on the northern margin of South America. 40Ar/39Ar ages of island arc rocks from northern Venezuela were found to be older than ca 70 Ma, which is consistent with a requirement of models of Class (2) that those rocks are from an island arc which collided with the west coast of South America during Cretaceous times. Testing that conclusion using data from Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, the Netherlands Antilles, Trinidad and Tobago has led to the construction of a new ribbon continent model of the northwestern Cordillera of South America. Because the part of the ribbon continent on the north coast of South America has been experiencing substantial deformation in the Maracaibo block during the past 10 m.y., structures in that body have had to be

  10. Young Africans Tackle Their Continent's Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olwoch, Jane Mukarugwiza

    2008-11-01

    Young African Scientists Session at the Fourth International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress; Cape Town, South Africa, 7 May 2008; Africa is often described as a unique and diverse continent. This is reflected in its biodiversity, economic and social circumstances, and diversity in culture and environment. The Young African Scientists (YAS) session at the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress was one of the congress's highlights. Global environmental change research in Africa was presented to an audience that included visiting international and national scientists, policy makers, and a group of schoolchildren. From the uniqueness of Africa's paleoclimate to the diversity and complexity of current and future impacts of environmental change on Africa, the session not only provided an overview of current projects but also highlighted the problems that are intertwined with poverty. This session was sponsored by the Global Change System for Analysis, Research, and Training (START).

  11. Dynamic Topography of Oceans and Continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lithgow-Bertelloni, C.; Conrad, C. P.

    2004-05-01

    The large contrasts in surface topography are one of the most striking features of our planet. Contributions to topography range from short-wavelength uncompensated features due to tectonic activity, to variations in crustal thickness and density structure and long-wavelength deflections of the lithosphere caused by mantle dynamics. Upwelling or downwelling flow in Earth's mantle can elevate or depress the earth's surface even if the sources of buoyancy are deep in the mantle. However, direct observation of this ``dynamic topography'' has been elusive, because it is obscured by the isostatic contribution due to crustal and lithospheric structure. Any potential confirmation of the role of dynamic topography, sheds light not only on the impact of mantle dynamics on surface processes, but also on the nature of mantle dynamics itself. For example, we expect dramatically different topographic signals from layered vs. whole mantle convection. We have learned a great deal about the consequences of dynamic topography for continental flooding and the formation of large sedimentary basins since the pioneering work of Mitrovica et al. [1989] and Gurnis [1990]. Recently, unequivocal signals of dynamically supported topography have been found in both continents (Africa [Lithgow-Bertelloni and Silver, 1998] and Arabia [Daradich et al., 2004]) and oceanic basins (North-Atlantic [Conrad et al., 2004]). In all three cases, the identifiable dynamic topography signal results from upwelling mantle. In regions associated with downwellings considerable controversy remains [e.g. Wheeler and White, 2002]. There is a hint in this result that relates to the ability of slabs to penetrate into the lower mantle and of upwellings to reach the surface from great depth. We review in this talk the evidence for dynamic topography in continents and oceans, and present some speculations related to the nature of layering in mantle convection.

  12. 75 FR 60133 - Detroit Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC); Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Detroit Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC); Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Detroit Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC) to submit their applications for membership to the Captain of the Port Sector Detroit. DATES: Requests for membership should reach the U.S. Coast...

  13. 75 FR 22151 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ....homeport.uscg.mil under Missions>Maritime Security>National Maritime Security Advisory Committee>Member... serve an additional term of office but must re-apply in accordance with this notice. Applicants with... the mission of the Coast Guard. If you are selected as a non-representative member, or as a member...

  14. 33 CFR 106.140 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 106.140 Section 106.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General §...

  15. 47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1135 Transmission of maritime safety... and the IMO Master Plan of Shore-Based Facilities. (b) The mode and format of the...

  16. 47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1135 Transmission of maritime safety... and the IMO Master Plan of Shore-Based Facilities. (b) The mode and format of the...

  17. 47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1135 Transmission of maritime safety... and the IMO Master Plan of Shore-Based Facilities. (b) The mode and format of the...

  18. 47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1135 Transmission of maritime safety... and the IMO Master Plan of Shore-Based Facilities. (b) The mode and format of the...

  19. 78 FR 27032 - National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... regulation can be found in the April 27, 1996, issue of the Federal Register (61 FR 16710). A regulated area... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... Local Regulation for the annual National Maritime Week Tugboat Races in Elliott Bay, WA from 12...

  20. 76 FR 22033 - National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... regulation can be found in the April 27, 1996 issue of the Federal Register (61 FR 16710). A regulated area... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... Local Regulation for the annual National Maritime Week Tugboat Races in Elliott Bay, WA from 12...

  1. 75 FR 24400 - National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... in the April 17, 1996 issue of the Federal Register (70 FR 23938). A regulated area is established on... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... Local Regulation for the annual National Maritime Week Tugboat Races in Elliott Bay, WA on May 8,...

  2. 32 CFR 537.19 - Demands arising from maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Demands arising from maritime claims. 537.19 Section 537.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.19 Demands arising from maritime claims. (a) It is essential that Army claims personnel...

  3. 33 CFR 106.140 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 106.140 Section 106.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General §...

  4. 33 CFR 101.405 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this section shall be marked as sensitive security information (SSI) in accordance with 49 CFR part... of and access to sensitive security information, and that under 49 CFR 1520.5(b), they have a need to... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL Control Measures for Security § 101.405...

  5. 33 CFR 106.140 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 106.140 Section 106.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General §...

  6. 78 FR 16699 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... our public dockets in the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316) Docket: Any... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The National Maritime Security...

  7. 75 FR 24961 - Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC) to submit their application for membership, to... Security Act (MTSA) of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-295) added section 70112 to Title 46 of the U.S. Code,...

  8. 77 FR 51817 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Docket: Any background information or... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The National Maritime Security...

  9. 78 FR 19277 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ..., 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Docket: Any background information or presentations... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: United States Coast... published a notice of meeting for the National Maritime Security Advisory Committee (NMSAC) in the...

  10. 33 CFR 106.235 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.235 Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  11. 33 CFR 106.235 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.235 Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  12. 33 CFR 106.235 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.235 Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  13. 33 CFR 106.235 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.235 Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  14. 33 CFR 106.235 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.235 Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  15. Constraints on total fire carbon emissions over maritime southeast Asia in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huijnen, Vincent; Wooster, Martin; Kaiser, Johannes; Gaveau, David; Flemming, Johannes; Parrington, Mark; Inness, Antje; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Main, Bruce; van Weele, Michiel

    2016-04-01

    In September and October 2015 widespread forest and peatland fires burned over large parts of maritime southeast Asia, releasing large amounts of terrestrially-stored carbon into the atmosphere, primarily in the form of CO2, CO and CH4. Although seasonal fires are a frequent occurrence in the human modified landscapes in the south of Kalimantan, the southeastern provinces of Sumatra, and West Papua, the extent of the fires was greatly inflated by an extended period of drought associated with a particularly strong El Niño. In this contribution we provide an estimate of the total carbon released in these fires, making use of satellite observations of the fire's radiative power output as processed with GFAS, applied in the modelling and assimilation framework of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS: http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu/). The carbon emissions are further constrained with MOPITT atmospheric CO column measurements as well as unique on-site plume measurements on Kalimantan. We estimate the carbon emissions from the 2015 fires to be the largest over the maritime southeast Asian region since those associated with the record breaking El Niño of 1997.

  16. Asian American Cultural Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libretti, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)

  17. Asian Resources for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, C. Bobbie

    1992-01-01

    Cites a number of resources available to teachers to use in teaching about Asian Pacific Rim cultures. Includes addresses, titles, and general information about materials available from the listed sources. Describes some multicultural resources that have been included because of their treatment of Asian Pacific Rim cultures. (DK)

  18. The New Asian Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  19. Asian Open Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, John

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of open universities in Asia is of interest to Australian educators, particularly since the Asian institutions differ in some respects from the British model which combined open entry to all and extensively employed the electronic media. The Asian Open Universities have provided access to higher education for many. (SSH)

  20. Emerging Asian Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trezise, Philip H.

    What we can expect in the future from the miracle economies of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, whether they pose a threat to the older industrial states of Western Europe and North American, and whether China is to be the next emerging Asian economy are discussed. The amazing economic recovery of these East Asian countries…

  1. Optical Properties of Atmospheric Aerosol in Maritime Environments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Alexander; Holben, Brent N.; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Dubovik, Oleg; Eck, Thomas F.; Slutsker, Ilya; Pietras, Christophe; Halthore, Rangasayi N.

    2002-02-01

    Systematic characterization of aerosol over the oceans is needed to understand the aerosol effect on climate and on transport of pollutants between continents. Reported are the results of a comprehensive optical and physical characterization of ambient aerosol in five key island locations of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) of sun and sky radiometers, spanning over 2-5 yr. The results are compared with aerosol optical depths and size distributions reported in the literature over the last 30 yr. Aerosol found over the tropical Pacific Ocean (at three sites between 20°S and 20°N) still resembles mostly clean background conditions dominated by maritime aerosol. The optical thickness is remarkably stable with mean value of a(500 nm) = 0.07, mode value at am = 0.06, and standard deviation of 0.02-0.05. The average Ångström exponent range, from 0.3 to 0.7, characterizes the wavelength dependence of the optical thickness. Over the tropical to subtropical Atlantic (two stations at 7°S and 32°N) the optical thickness is significantly higher: a(500 nm) = 0.14 and am = 0.10 due to the frequent presence of dust, smoke, and urban-industrial aerosol. For both oceans the atmospheric column aerosol is characterized by a bimodal lognormal size distribution with a fine mode at effective radius Reff = 0.11 ± 0.01 m and coarse mode at Reff = 2.1 ± 0.3 m. A review of the published 150 historical ship measurements from the last three decades shows that am was around 0.07 to 0.12 in general agreement with the present finding. The information should be useful as a test bed for aerosol global models and aerosol representation in global climate models. With global human population expansion and industrialization, these measurements can serve in the twenty-first century as a basis to assess decadal changes in the aerosol concentration, properties, and radiative forcing of climate.

  2. Maritime Archaeology in Uruguay: Towards a Manifesto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Jorge Manuel; Buffa, Valerio; Cordero, Alejo; Francia, Gabriel; Adams, Jonathan

    2010-10-01

    We report a collaborative maritime archaeological project in Uruguay, one of several Latin American countries where the subject is undergoing review in terms of the ways it is practised and managed. Uruguay is typical of many states where there has been a tension between a heritage-based approach in which the results of investigations are viewed as publicly owned, as opposed to the profit motive in which commercial and personal gain is the underlying ethic. This project was conceived both as a way of assisting the Uruguayan Heritage Commission in promoting the former approach as well as advancing a programme of research into the age of global exploration. This paper sets out the rationale of the initial field season and reflects on subsequent developments.

  3. Maritime route of colonization of Europe

    PubMed Central

    Paschou, Peristera; Drineas, Petros; Yannaki, Evangelia; Razou, Anna; Kanaki, Katerina; Tsetsos, Fotis; Padmanabhuni, Shanmukha Sampath; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Renda, Maria C.; Pavlovic, Sonja; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Stamatoyannopoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    The Neolithic populations, which colonized Europe approximately 9,000 y ago, presumably migrated from Near East to Anatolia and from there to Central Europe through Thrace and the Balkans. An alternative route would have been island hopping across the Southern European coast. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed genome-wide DNA polymorphisms on populations bordering the Mediterranean coast and from Anatolia and mainland Europe. We observe a striking structure correlating genes with geography around the Mediterranean Sea with characteristic east to west clines of gene flow. Using population network analysis, we also find that the gene flow from Anatolia to Europe was through Dodecanese, Crete, and the Southern European coast, compatible with the hypothesis that a maritime coastal route was mainly used for the migration of Neolithic farmers to Europe. PMID:24927591

  4. Maritime route of colonization of Europe.

    PubMed

    Paschou, Peristera; Drineas, Petros; Yannaki, Evangelia; Razou, Anna; Kanaki, Katerina; Tsetsos, Fotis; Padmanabhuni, Shanmukha Sampath; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Renda, Maria C; Pavlovic, Sonja; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Kidd, Kenneth K; Stamatoyannopoulos, George

    2014-06-24

    The Neolithic populations, which colonized Europe approximately 9,000 y ago, presumably migrated from Near East to Anatolia and from there to Central Europe through Thrace and the Balkans. An alternative route would have been island hopping across the Southern European coast. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed genome-wide DNA polymorphisms on populations bordering the Mediterranean coast and from Anatolia and mainland Europe. We observe a striking structure correlating genes with geography around the Mediterranean Sea with characteristic east to west clines of gene flow. Using population network analysis, we also find that the gene flow from Anatolia to Europe was through Dodecanese, Crete, and the Southern European coast, compatible with the hypothesis that a maritime coastal route was mainly used for the migration of Neolithic farmers to Europe.

  5. Quebrada jaguay: early south american maritime adaptations

    PubMed

    Sandweiss; McInnis; Burger; Cano; Ojeda; Paredes; Sandweiss; Glascock

    1998-09-18

    Excavations at Quebrada Jaguay 280 (QJ-280) (16 degrees30'S) in south coastal Peru demonstrated that Paleoindian-age people of the Terminal Pleistocene (about 11,100 to 10,000 carbon-14 years before the present or about 13,000 to 11,000 calibrated years before the present) in South America relied on marine resources while resident on the coast, which extends the South American record of maritime exploitation by a millennium. This site supports recent evidence that Paleoindian-age people had diverse subsistence systems. The presence of obsidian at QJ-280 shows that the inhabitants had contact with the adjacent Andean highlands during the Terminal Pleistocene. PMID:9743490

  6. Littoral and Coastal Management in Supporting Maritime Security for Realizing Indonesia as World Maritime Axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brotosusilo, Agus; Wayan Agus Apriana, I.; Agung Satria, Afrizal; Jokopitoyo, Trisasono

    2016-02-01

    The Indonesian under President Joko Widodo has new goal to make Indonesia as the world maritime axis. This is supported by the geographic of Indonesia as the largest archipelagic country where the sea is two-thirds wide among the whole spacious. Indonesia is the world largest archipelagic state. More than two-third of its territory consist of seas. The ecosystem of littoral and coastal has correlative relationship with country development. There is no doubt of physically facts that Indonesian littoral and coastal with total wide of 5.8 million km2 is rich with various natural resources. Therefore, the condition of Indonesia with its world second longest coastline has several comparative advantages. Not only the country has an abundant natural resources, but it also blessed by demographic bonus advantage. The population of Indonesian is the fifth largest in the world which approximately 220 million people and approximately 60 percent among them live at coastal areas. The people in coastal area relies their live from its surrounding natural resource. Hence, most of their life and daily activity is related with the presence of natural resources. The dealing of conflict potential and attention to maritime security are important to be studied as a reference in preparing and facing the government policies that will lead to the development of maritime.

  7. Wintertime East Asian Jet Stream and Its Association with the Asian-Pacific Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Song; Lau, K.-M.; Kim, K.-M.

    2000-01-01

    Interannual variability of the wintertime East Asian westerly jet stream and the linkage between this variability and the Asian-Pacific climate are investigated. The study emphasizes on the variability of the jet core and its association with the Asian winter monsoon, tropical convection, upper tropospheric wave patterns, and the teleconnection of the jet with other climate systems. The relationship between the jet and North Pacific sea surface temperature pattern (SST) is also explored. NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, NASA GISS surface temperature, NASA GEOS reanalysis, NOAA reconstructed SST, GPCP precipitation, and NOAA snow cover data sets are analyzed in this study. An index of the East Asian jet has been defined by the December-February means of the 200 mb zonal winds that are averaged within a box enclosing the jet maximum, which shifts only moderately from one year to another especially in the south-north direction. The jet links to a teleconnection pattern whose major climate anomalies appear over the Asian continent and western Pacific (west of the dateline). This pattern differs distinctly from the teleconnection pattern associated with El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which causes the Pacific/North American pattern to the east of the dateline. A strong jet is accompanied clearly by an increase in the intensity of the atmospheric circulation over Asia and the Pacific. In particular, the winter monsoon strengthens over East Asia, leading to cold climate in the region, and convection intensifies over the tropical Asia-Australia sector. Changes in the jet are associated with broad-scale modification in the upper tropospheric wave patterns that leads to downstream climate anomalies over the eastern Pacific. Through this downstream influence, the East Asian jet causes climate signals in North America as well. A strong jet gives rise to warming and less snow cover in the western United States but reverse climate anomalies in the eastern part of the country, although

  8. A maritime roadmap in the cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoelstra, George

    2013-04-01

    Web mapping has morphed from sharing maps and geospatial information to a geospatial content management system that supports collaboration. The new iteration allows for the publication and sharing with others, as well as the access to rich global base data through cloud services. The European EMODnet initiative provides an excellent showcase to the world what can be achieved today. This presentation will highlight the latest developments on portal and geospatial cloud services as the basis for sharing in a Marine SDI, and how the maritime community can benefit from this right away. Various examples of maritime cloud services (Emodnet, Eye on Earth) will be discussed to illustrate the capabilities provided by these developments. New technologies and especially those dealing with the latest web-trends are easily consumed and applied. This introduces a risk of a series of new services and start-ups all competing for our attention causing the reverse effect of what we try achieve: easier access to collaborative information and better tools to analyze and understand it. Instead we end up looking for a road map. Esri long supports data interoperability and sharing, and understands these challenges. In this presentation we will give an insider's view on Esri's vision for a road map that allows data managers and data users to collaborate effectively using a platform approach, optimizing cloud computing and GIS to allow access from many devices and for many applications. The presentation will conclude by highlighting how this platform can be implemented and utilized, supported by the ocean content initiative, to facilitate collaborative knowledge building, decision making and knowledge management in general in oceanography and ocean sciences.

  9. Evaluating Diurnal Variations of Summer Precipitation over the Asian Monsoon Region based on TRMM Satellite Data and Coupled model outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Wu, G.

    2013-12-01

    Climatological characteristics of diurnal variations in summer precipitation over the entire Asian monsoon region are comprehensively investigated based on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite data during 1998-2008. The amplitude and phase of diurnal precipitation show a distinct geographical pattern. Significant diurnal variations occur over most of continental and coastal areas including the Maritime Continent, with the relative amplitude exceeding 40%, indicating that the precipitation peak is 1.4 times the 24-h mean. Although the diurnal variations of summer precipitation over the continental areas are characterized by an afternoon peak (1500-1800 Local Solar Time (LST)), over the central Indochina Peninsula and central and southern Indian Peninsula the diurnal phase is delayed to after 2100 LST, suggesting the diurnal behaviors over these areas different from the general continental areas. The weak diurnal variations with relative amplitudes less than 40% exist mainly over oceanic areas in the western Pacific and most of Indian Ocean, with the rainfall peak mainly occurring from midnight to early morning (0000-0600 LST), indicating a typical oceanic regime characterized by an early morning peak. However, apparent exceptions occur over the South China Sea (SCS), Bay of Bengal (BOB), and eastern Arabian Sea, with the rainfall peak occurring in daytime (0900-1500 LST). Prominent meridional propagations of the diurnal phase exist in South Asia and East Asia. The diurnal precipitation variations are also evaluated using the simulated outputs from several coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) participating in CMIP3 (such as CNRM-CM3 and MRI-GCGM2.3.2) and CMIP5 (FGOALS-g2). As compared with those from TRMM data, current state-of-the-art CGCMs still have significant problems in simulating the diurnal variability of the Asian summer monsoon. Although most models can capture the amplitude and phase of the diurnal rainfall cycle over continental

  10. OxyContin: Prescription Drug Abuse. CSAT Advisory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Recently, the media have issued numerous reports about the apparent increase in OxyContin abuse and addiction. OxyContin has been heralded as a miracle drug that allows patients with chronic pain to resume a normal life. It has also been called pharmaceutical heroin and is thought to have been responsible for a number of deaths and robberies in…

  11. 21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continent ileostomy catheter. 876.5030 Section 876.5030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent...

  12. Developing a tool to assess person-centred continence care.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jayne

    2006-07-01

    This article presents an overview of the first phase of a study to determine the contextual indicators that enable or hinder evidence-based continence care and management. The main focus of the article is to provide an insight into the value of understanding practice 'context' and its impact on the provision of person-centred continence care.

  13. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... by sex, race and Hispanic Origin, 2013 Asian/Pacific Islander Non-Hispanic White Asian/Pacific Islander /Non-Hispanic White Ratio Male 9.1 ... Rates for Suicide: Ages 15 - 19, 2014 Asian/Pacific Islander Non-Hispanic White Asian/Pacific Islander /Non- ...

  14. Asian Bilingual Education Teacher Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, John; Lum, John

    A guide to bilingual education for Asians contains chapters on bilingual and multicultural education characteristics; the learner; Asian and Asian American learners; bilingual program designs, methodology, and classroom activities; instructional materials and resources for Asian bilingual education programs; and teacher competencies, staff…

  15. [South-East Asian arboviruses (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Rodhain, F

    1981-01-01

    The South-East Asian arbovirological pathology is dominated by dengue fever, of which haemorrhagic forms constitute an important public health problem. The incidence of the disease is increasing from year to year, especially in large urban areas of this region and it is expected that the development of a vaccine in the near future will make it possible to improve the actual prevention only based on mosquito control, directed against domestic and peridomestic Aedes. Almost equally worrying is the epidemiological situation of Japanese encephalitis, which recently gave rise to important outbreaks in the Indian sub-continent, the transmission of which is ensured by rural mosquitoes and is very difficult to interrupt. Other arbovirus diseases are of secondary importance; they can involve dengue-like syndromes, meningo-encephalitic syndromes or haemorrhagic syndromes, and constitute public health problems only sporadically.

  16. 33 CFR 105.230 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation. 105.230 Section 105.230 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.230 Maritime Security...

  17. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 501 - Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart A Appendix A to Part 501 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS THE FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION-GENERAL Pt. 501, App. A Appendix A to Part 501—Federal Maritime...

  18. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 501 - Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart A Appendix A to Part 501 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS THE FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION-GENERAL Pt. 501, App. A Appendix A to Part 501—Federal Maritime...

  19. 47 CFR 80.469 - Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska. 80... Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska. (a) Maritime mobile repeater stations are authorized to extend...) On a secondary basis, maritime mobile repeater stations may be authorized to extend the range of...

  20. Doug Nelson's Contributions to our Understanding of Young Continent-Continent Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemperer, S. L.; Brown, L. D.; Jones, A. G.

    2002-12-01

    K. Douglas Nelson, Department Chair and Jessie Page Heroy Professor of Earth Sciences at Syracuse University, died suddenly of heart failure on August 17th, 2002, age 49. At the time of his death he was at the heights of an increasingly distinguished career, and had, just prior to his death, agreed to be an invited speaker in this session of the 2002 Fall AGU meeting. Doug began his professional career as a field structural geologist, writing his PhD on the Newfoundland Appalachians, and as a post-doc in South Island, New Zealand. From there he went to Cornell University to join COCORP; he learned to interpret deep seismic reflection data and became hooked on the value of geophysics to the study of large-scale processes in mountain belts. He became one of the proponents of taking the COCORP methodology overseas, to the world's type example of young, continent-continent collisions, the Himalaya. For 10 years from 1992, by now a faculty member at Syracuse, Doug provided operational and intellectual leadership to the INDEPTH program (International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya). His talk in this session would undoubtedly have focused on our new understanding of Tibet that resulted in large part from the work that he led and supervised. From the initial conception of INDEPTH as a single reflection profile across Earth's highest mountain range and largest plateau, the program grew through three major stages to encompass a full range of geophysical and geological surveys in a transect that now reaches from the High Himalaya across Tibet. Doug more than anyone was the enthusiastic integrator in the large multi-national group of investigators (from the U.S., China, Canada and Germany), not bound by a single technique, and best able to synthesize the seemingly disparate observations from all the techniques. In recent years he was particularly interested in the combination of magneto-telluric with seismic results to better constrain interpretation of deep geology

  1. Methane over the North American Continent - INTEX-NA, Summer 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karen, B.; Blake, D.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, N.; Sachse, G.; Slate, T.

    2005-12-01

    During July and August of 2004, the INTEX-NA mission was flown over the North American continent as a part of the integrated ICARTT campaign. Its primary focus was to examine the intercontinental transport and transformation of chemically and radiatively important trace gases and aerosols across the region. As a part of the mission, methane (CH4) was sampled using both canisters and a fast response tunable diode laser, the DACOM instrument. Agreement between the two techniques was excellent. Sources of methane are both natural (wetlands, wildfires) and anthropogenically controlled (landfills, ruminants, petroleum production and use, coal mining). Although natural biogenic emissions would be expected to be near seasonal maximums, the majority of North American wetlands are located in Canada and Alaska, and were difficult to isolate during the mission. Overall distributions were well correlated with C2Cl4, a tracer of industrial and urban activity, and reflect the widespread impact of anthropogenic emissions. As expected for a gas with surface continental sources, variability was greatest in the near-surface atmosphere and decreased with increasing altitude and distance from the continent. Summer convective activity over the region resulted in elevated concentrations measured at altitudes above 6 km. Enhanced levels with distinctive trace gas signatures were observed for a variety of sources, including petroleum mining and distribution, coal mining, Canadian wildfires, and aged Asian plumes advected across the Pacific. Several flights during the mission were flown along the U.S. east coast to sample air masses transported off the continent to the Atlantic. In the near-surface over the ocean, clean boundary layer air with mixing ratios comparable to background CMDL levels at this time were encountered. At altitudes above about 4 km, CH4 was enhanced by roughly 20-50 ppb.

  2. Asian American Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect Asian Americans.

  3. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to a friend by ... an even more serious problem as the world population and longevity increases. The other major glaucoma type ...

  4. Maritime Interdiction Operations Small Craft Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Dougan, A D; Trombino, D; Dunlop, W; Bordetsky, A

    2010-01-26

    The Naval Postgraduate School has been conducting Tactical Network Topology (TNT) Maritime Interdiction Operations (MIO) experiments with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) since early in 2005. In this work, we are investigating cutting edge technology to evaluate use of networks, advanced sensors and collaborative technology for globally-supported maritime interdiction operations. Some examples of our research include communications in harsh environments, between moving ships at sea; small boat drive-by radiation detection; network-centric collaboration with global partners; situational awareness; prototype sensors & biometric instruments. Since 2006, we have studied the concept of using a small vessel with fixed radiation sensors to do initial searches for illicit radioactive materials. In our work, we continue to evaluate concepts of operation for small boat monitoring. For example, in San Francisco Bay we established a simulated choke point using two RHIBs. Each RHIB had a large sodium iodide radiation sensor on board, mounted on the side nearest to the passing potential target boats. Once detections were made, notification over the network prompted a chase RHIB also equipped with a radiation sensor to further investigate the potential target. We have also used an unmanned surface vessel (USV) carrying a radiation sensor to perform the initial discovery. The USV was controlled remotely and to drive by boats in different configurations. The potential target vessels were arranged in a line, as a choke point and randomly spaced in the water. Search plans were problematic when weather, waves and drift complicated the ability to stay in one place. A further challenge is to both detect and identify the radioactive materials during the drive-by. Our radiation detection system, ARAM, Adaptable Radiation Area Monitor, is able to detect, alarm and quickly identify plausible radionuclides in real time. We have performed a number of experiments to better

  5. East Asian Journal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyung Mok

    2005-06-01

    Astronomical research in Asian Pacific region has been growing rapidly in recent years. However, most important papers have been published in well established existing journals in US and Europe because we do not have high impact international journals in this region. I review the current trends of the local journals of East Asian countries and propose to establish a new regional journal by combining domestic journals.

  6. 17. MARINA WAY, HARBOUR WAY, AND MARITIME CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. MARINA WAY, HARBOUR WAY, AND MARITIME CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTER (SEE ALSO HABS No. CA-2718), WITH RICHMOND SHIPYARD NO. 3. S. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, 1401 Marina Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  7. Maritime transport in the Gulf of Bothnia 2030.

    PubMed

    Pekkarinen, Annukka; Repka, Sari

    2014-10-01

    Scenarios for shipping traffic in the Gulf of Bothnia (GoB) by 2030 are described in order to identify the main factors that should be taken into account when preparing a Maritime Spatial Plan (MSP) for the area. The application of future research methodology to planning of marine areas was also assessed. The methods include applying existing large scale quantitative scenarios for maritime traffic in the GoB and using real-time Delphi in which an expert group discussed different factors contributing to future maritime traffic in the GoB to find out the probability and significance of the factors having an impact on maritime traffic. MSP was tested on transnational scale in the Bothnian sea area as a pilot project.

  8. Maritime transport in the Gulf of Bothnia 2030.

    PubMed

    Pekkarinen, Annukka; Repka, Sari

    2014-10-01

    Scenarios for shipping traffic in the Gulf of Bothnia (GoB) by 2030 are described in order to identify the main factors that should be taken into account when preparing a Maritime Spatial Plan (MSP) for the area. The application of future research methodology to planning of marine areas was also assessed. The methods include applying existing large scale quantitative scenarios for maritime traffic in the GoB and using real-time Delphi in which an expert group discussed different factors contributing to future maritime traffic in the GoB to find out the probability and significance of the factors having an impact on maritime traffic. MSP was tested on transnational scale in the Bothnian sea area as a pilot project. PMID:24477617

  9. The Ocean Construct: A Model for Maritime Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allin, Lawrence C.

    1977-01-01

    Described is an organizational construct to help teachers integrate the oceanographic and maritime disciplines within a comprehensible framework. The construct considers three areas: aquasphere, human adaptation to the ocean, and integrative prospects. (Author/AV)

  10. Tablet-based screening improves continence management in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Beadnall, Heidi N; Kuppanda, Kushi E; O’Connell, Annmaree; Hardy, Todd A; Reddel, Stephen W; Barnett, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether electronic continence questionnaires aid early identification and optimizes management of sphincter dysfunction in a multiple sclerosis clinic. Methods A custom designed, tablet-based cross-platform software tool was designed to capture validated multiple sclerosis (MS) patient-reported outcomes. An unselected cohort of MS patients from a tertiary referral clinic completed electronic tablet-based versions of the Bladder Control Scale (BLCS) and the Bowel Control Scale in the waiting room. Data were captured wirelessly “on-the-fly” and stored in a deidentified, secure database; and individual questionnaire results were immediately available to the treating neurologist in the electronic medical record. Scores of ≥2 on either questionnaire generated an automated electronic referral to the clinic MS continence nurse (MS CN). Results One hundred and fifty-seven MS patients completed a total of 184 electronic continence test sets and on two occasions only the BLCS was completed. An automatic electronic referral for formal continence review was generated 128 times in 108 patients. Fifty-seven formal continence assessments were undertaken by the MS CN following automated referral. All reviews resulted in at least one clinical intervention being made. Interpretation Tablet-based data capture and automated continence referral using this software tool is an efficient, sensitive, and feasible method of screening MS patients for bladder and bowel dysfunction. Concordance with the results of formal continence assessment in this pilot study validates the use of this technology as a screening tool. PMID:26125042

  11. The Advocate's Devil: The Maritime Public Historian as Expert Witness.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jay C

    2015-02-01

    The maritime historian working as litigation support and expert witness faces many challenges, including identifying and analyzing case law associated with admiralty subjects, cultural resource management law, and general historical topics. The importance of the unique knowledge of the historian in the maritime context is demonstrated by a case study of attempts to salvage the shipwreck Atlantic, the remains of a merchant vessel built and enrolled in the United States and lost in the Canadian waters of Lake Erie in 1852. PMID:26281238

  12. Changing our view of older people's continence care.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Jacqueline

    An assumption is often made that incontinence is inevitable in older people, or those with dementia or other long-term conditions. However, research has highlighted strategies that can help them to remain continent. A working group was established to develop a resource to promote continence for people with dementia and long-term conditions. This article explores the resource's key messages, as well as the importance of changing how incontinence is viewed, and what health professionals and the public expect of continence services. PMID:27386706

  13. Equatorial Electrojet Observations in the African Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M. B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Damtie, B.; Pfaff, R.; Zesta, E.

    2008-12-01

    Although Satellite observations in the African sector show unique equatorial ionospheric structures that can severely impact navigation and communication systems, the study of ionospheric disturbances in this region is difficult due to the lack of ground-based instruments. This has created a gap in global understanding of the physics behind the evolution and formation of plasma irregularities in the equatorial region, which imposes limitations on ionospheric density modeling efforts. Therefore, in order to have a more complete global understanding of equatorial ionosphere motion, the international space science community has begun to develop an observational infrastructure in the African sector. This includes the deployment of a number of arrays of small instruments, including the AMBER magnetometer array, through the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) cooperative program with the United Nations Basic Space Science (UNBSS) program. Two AMBER magnetometers have been deployed successfully at Adigrat (~6°N magnetic) in Ethiopia and at Medea in Algeria (28°N magnetic), and became fully operational on 03 August 2008. The remaining two AMBER magnetometers will be deployed soon in Cameroon and Namibia. One of the prime scientific objectives of AMBER is to understand the processes governing electrodynamics of the equatorial ionosphere as a function of latitude, local time, magnetic activity, and season in the African region. The most credible driving mechanism of ionospheric plasma (E × B drift) can be estimated using two magnetometers, one right at the equator and the other about 6 off the equator. Therefore, using the AMBER magnetometer at Adigrat and the INTERMAGNET magnetometer located at Addis Ababa (0.9°N magnetic) in Ethiopia, the equatorial electrojet (E × B drift) activities in that longitudinal sector of the African continent is estimated. The paper also presents the comparison between the estimated vertical drift and the drift values obtained from the

  14. Fatigue Risk Management: A Maritime Framework

    PubMed Central

    Grech, Michelle Rita

    2016-01-01

    It is evident that despite efforts directed at mitigating the risk of fatigue through the adoption of hours of work and rest regulations and development of codes and guidelines, fatigue still remains a concern in shipping. Lack of fatigue management has been identified as a contributory factor in a number of recent accidents. This is further substantiated through research reports with shortfalls highlighted in current fatigue management approaches. These approaches mainly focus on prescriptive hours of work and rest and include an individualistic approach to managing fatigue. The expectation is that seafarers are responsible to manage and tolerate fatigue as part of their working life at sea. This attitude is an accepted part of a seafarer’s role. Poor compliance is one manifest of this problem with shipboard demands making it hard for seafarers to follow hours of work and rest regulations, forcing them into this “poor compliance” trap. This makes current fatigue management approaches ineffective. This paper proposes a risk based approach and way forward for the implementation of a fatigue risk management framework for shipping, aiming to support the hours of work and rest requirements. This forms part of the work currently underway to review and update the International Maritime Organization, Guidelines on Fatigue. PMID:26840326

  15. The GANDER constellation for maritime dissaster mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Curiel, R. A.; Jolly, G.; Zheng, Y.

    1999-09-01

    The development of sea state monitoring from polar-orbiting satellites has recently moved away from the concept of single, multi-sensor platform such as ERS-2, Topex/Poseidon or ENVISAT towards the design of a system that would allow frequent updates from a constellation of small satellites equipped with special-purpose radar altimeters. This new system, called GANDER for Global Altimeter Network Designed to Evaluate Risk, has attracted significant support from a number of important customer segments including the military. This paper details the design of an altimeter for a Surrey small satellite, and illustrates the major system trade-offs that need to be made. Critical to the viability of the mission will be the development of a radar altimeter capable of operating successfully on a small satellite bus, within a limited volume and power budget. The mission design presents a number of key technological challenges, in order to permit a physically small antenna to be employed, and to minimise the pulse power. This can be achieved by advanced techniques, such as the delay Doppler altimeter concept, which emphasises the needs for high-speed on-board signal processing, phase linearity and pulse-to-pulse phase coherency. The system design for the GANDER constellation is also described, illustrating how it not only offers a means for maritime disaster mitigation, but also can reduce shipping cost and time.

  16. Fatigue Risk Management: A Maritime Framework.

    PubMed

    Grech, Michelle Rita

    2016-02-01

    It is evident that despite efforts directed at mitigating the risk of fatigue through the adoption of hours of work and rest regulations and development of codes and guidelines, fatigue still remains a concern in shipping. Lack of fatigue management has been identified as a contributory factor in a number of recent accidents. This is further substantiated through research reports with shortfalls highlighted in current fatigue management approaches. These approaches mainly focus on prescriptive hours of work and rest and include an individualistic approach to managing fatigue. The expectation is that seafarers are responsible to manage and tolerate fatigue as part of their working life at sea. This attitude is an accepted part of a seafarer's role. Poor compliance is one manifest of this problem with shipboard demands making it hard for seafarers to follow hours of work and rest regulations, forcing them into this "poor compliance" trap. This makes current fatigue management approaches ineffective. This paper proposes a risk based approach and way forward for the implementation of a fatigue risk management framework for shipping, aiming to support the hours of work and rest requirements. This forms part of the work currently underway to review and update the International Maritime Organization, Guidelines on Fatigue.

  17. Digital Photogrammetry for Documentation of Maritime Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martorelli, Massimo; Pensa, Claudio; Speranza, Domenico

    2014-06-01

    Documentation of maritime heritage is essential for its protection, and for reference in restoration and renovation processes. These functions become problematic in the case of historical ships and boats that lack lines drawings. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure for creation of lines drawings based on the shape analysis of surviving historical boats or their small-scale models with the help of reverse engineering (RE) techniques. The paper describes how digital photogrammetry and the iterative method were used to analyze the shape of three historical boats: Tomahawk, Refola and Nada. The application of the proposed procedure produced the lines drawings of the boats as its result. The accuracy of the 3D CAD model obtained with the photogrammetric technique was verified by comparing it against a more accurate 3D model produced with the help of a RE laser scanner. The examination of the resulting lines drawings proves that the digital photogrammetry process and the proposed iterative method are adequate tools for developing lines plans of boat models. The research offers the methodological basis for the creation of an archive of lines drawings of historical boats. Such an archive would provide reference for philologically correct restorations, and permit definition and classification of distinctive elements of various types of historical boats, particularly those produced in the Campania Region.

  18. A baseline maritime satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrani, S. H.; Mcgregor, D. N.

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes a baseline system for maritime communications via satellite during the 1980s. The system model employs three geostationary satellites with global coverage antennas. Access to the system is controlled by a master station; user access is based on time-ordered polling or random access. Each Thor-Delta launched satellite has an RF power of 100 W (spinner) or 250 W (three-axis stabilized), and provides 10 equivalent duplex voice channels for up to 1500 ships with average waiting times of approximately 2.5 minutes. The satellite capacity is bounded by the available bandwidth to 50 such channels, which can serve up to 10,000 ships with an average waiting time of 5 minutes. The ships must have peak antenna gains of approximately 15.5 dB or 22.5 dB for the two cases (10 or 50 voice channels) when a spinner satellite is used; the required gains are 4 dB lower if a three-axis stabilized satellite is used. The ship antenna requirements can be reduced by 8 to 10 dB by employing a high-gain multi-beam phased array antenna on the satellite.

  19. Hybrid accretionary/collisional mechanism of Paleozoic Asian continental growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulmann, Karel; Lexa, Ondrej; Janousek, Vojtech; Pavla, Stipska; Yingde, Jiang; Alexandra, Guy; Min, Sun

    2016-04-01

    Continental crust is formed above subduction zones by well-known process of "juvenile crust growth". This new crust is in modern Earth assembled into continents by two ways: (i) short-lived collisions of continental blocks with the Eurasian continent along the "Alpine-Himalayan collisional/interior orogens" in the heart of the Pangean continental plates realm; and (ii) long lived lateral accretion of ocean-floor fragments along "circum-Pacific accretionary/peripheral orogens" at the border of the Pacific oceanic plate. This configuration has existed since the late Proterozoic, when the giant accretionary Terra Australis Orogen developed at periphery of an old Palaeo-Pacific ocean together with collisional Caledonian and Variscan orogens. At the same time, the large (ca. 9 millions km2) Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) developed in the NE part of the Pangea. This orogen reveals features of both peripheral and interior orogens, which implies that the generally accepted "peripheral-accretionary" and "interior- collisional" paradigm is not applicable here. To solve this conundrum a new model of unprecedented Phanerozoic continental growth is proposed. In this model, the CAOB precursor evolved at the interface of old exterior and young interior oceans. Subsequently, the new lithospheric domain was transferred by advancing subduction into the interior of the Pangean mostly continental realm. During this process the oceanic crust was transformed into continental crust and it was only later when this specific lithosphere was incorporated into the Asian continent. If true, this concept represents revolutionary insight into processes of crustal growth explaining the enigma of anchoring hybrid lithosphere inside a continent without its subduction or Tibetan-type thickening.

  20. Oligocene primates from China reveal divergence between African and Asian primate evolution.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xijun; Li, Qiang; Li, Lüzhou; Beard, K Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Profound environmental and faunal changes are associated with climatic deterioration during the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT) roughly 34 million years ago. Reconstructing how Asian primates responded to the EOT has been hindered by a sparse record of Oligocene primates on that continent. Here, we report the discovery of a diverse primate fauna from the early Oligocene of southern China. In marked contrast to Afro-Arabian Oligocene primate faunas, this Asian fauna is dominated by strepsirhines. There appears to be a strong break between Paleogene and Neogene Asian anthropoid assemblages. Asian and Afro-Arabian primate faunas responded differently to EOT climatic deterioration, indicating that the EOT functioned as a critical evolutionary filter constraining the subsequent course of primate evolution across the Old World. PMID:27151861

  1. Little Ice Age wetting of interior Asian deserts and the rise of the Mongol Empire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnam, Aaron E.; Putnam, David E.; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Cook, Edward R.; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Clark, Elizabeth H.; Wang, Chunzeng; Chen, Feng; Denton, George H.; Boyle, Douglas P.; Bassett, Scott D.; Birkel, Sean D.; Martin-Fernandez, Javier; Hajdas, Irka; Southon, John; Garner, Christopher B.; Cheng, Hai; Broecker, Wallace S.

    2016-01-01

    The degree to which warming of the planet will alter Asia's water resources is an important question for food, energy, and economic security. Here we present geological evidence, underpinned by radiometric dating and dendrochronology, and bolstered by hydrological modeling, indicating that wetter-than-present conditions characterized the core of the inner Asian desert belt during the Little Ice Age, the last major Northern Hemispheric cold spell of the Holocene. These wetter conditions accompanied northern mid-latitude cooling, glacier expansion, a strengthened/southward-shifted boreal jet, and weakened south Asian monsoons. We suggest that southward migration of grasslands in response to these wetter conditions aided the spread of Mongol Empire steppe pastoralists across Asian drylands. Conversely, net drying over the 20th century has led to drought that is unprecedented for the past ∼830 years, and that could intensify with further heating of the Asian continent.

  2. Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Indices for Mid-continent US Great Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a set of great river macroinvertebrate indices of condition (GRMICs) for the mid-continent great rivers. We used a multiscale (site, reach, landscape) multimetric abiotic stressor gradient to select macroinvertebrate assemblage metrics sensitive to human disturbance ...

  3. Improving service provision for patients who are prescribed continence products.

    PubMed

    Mangnall, Joanne; Midgley, Kate; Lakin, Stuart; Beckitt, Liz; Shepherd, Laura

    2010-04-01

    It is estimated that 14 million people experience problems with bladder control and 6.5 million people have a bowel control problem (Bladder and Bowel Foundation, 2008). Many will rely on continence products to manage their problem and as such require products which ensure user dignity and discretion is maintained. Locally, an ever-increasing spend on prescribed continence products promoted a review of current service delivery. The combined results of a clinical audit and patient satisfaction survey highlighted areas in which service delivery needed immediate improvement. Significant service re-design has been undertaken with prescribing responsibility for continence-related products being transferred from GP practices to specialist nurses working within the continence service. Improvements in clinical care have been achieved and cost savings have been re-invested in the service. PMID:20559160

  4. Immediate Continence Rates in RALRP: A Comparison of Three Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Tugcu, Volkan; Sahin, Selcuk; Sevinc, Cuneyd; Eksi, Mithat; Yavuzsan, Abdullah Hizir; Tasci, Ali Ihsan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP) is said to provide excellent long-term continence. In this study, we compared the early incontinence outcomes of our patients, who had undergone no reconstruction, posterior reconstruction only, or total anatomic restoration and posterior reconstruction. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the patients who underwent RALRP for localized prostate cancer by a single surgeon in our clinic from January 1, 2009–February 1, 2016. Continence was defined as no leakage or use of a safety pad for minimal leakage. The main outcome measure was continence at postoperative week 1 and months 1, 6, and 12. Results: Between 2009 and 2016, 239 patients underwent RALRP for localized prostate disease. Seventy-four patients underwent a standard approach (group 1), 88 had posterior reconstruction (group 2), and 77 had posterior reconstruction with total anatomic restoration (group 3). After 1 week, 24.3% of the patients in group 1 (18/74), 31.8% in group 2 (28/88), and 45.8% in group 3 (33/72) were continent (P = .02). One month after the surgery, continence rates for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 56.7, 67, and 75%, respectively (0.065). After 6 and 12 months, continence rates for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 72.9 and 87.8%, 81.8 and 89.7%, and 84.7 and 91.6%, respectively (P = .178 and .7484). Conclusion: Anatomic restoration improves continence rates in the early period after RALRP. Even though other parameters were higher in the total restoration group, immediate continence (at 1 week) was significantly better. PMID:27777500

  5. Do continence management strategies reduce falls? a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Frances A; Dow, Briony; Low, May-Ann

    2013-12-01

    Urinary incontinence is associated with increased fall risk, and fall prevention programs include recommendations to manage continence as one component of fall reduction. However, the evidence to support this recommendation is unclear. The aim of this study was to identify continence management interventions that are effective in decreasing falls. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Studies were included if they evaluated the effect of any type of continence management strategy on falls in older adults. The included studies were assessed for quality, and data relating to participants, interventions and outcomes were extracted by two independent reviewers. Four articles met the inclusion criteria. Two studies were randomised controlled trials, one a retrospective cohort study and one an uncontrolled intervention study. Interventions included pharmacological agents, a toileting regime combined with physical activity and an individualised continence program. Only the study evaluating the combination of physical activity and prompted voiding found an effect on falls. It is surprising that there has been so little research into continence management interventions that include fall outcomes. A toileting regime combined with physical activity may reduce falls in residential care. There is a need for further studies investigating the impact of continence management on falls.

  6. The controversy surrounding OxyContin abuse: issues and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Jayawant, Sujata S; Balkrishnan, Rajesh

    2005-01-01

    This paper overviews the controversies surrounding the abuse of prescription analgesic OxyContin® (oxycodone hydrochloride; Purdue Pharma, Stamford, CT, USA). It discusses solutions to this medication-related issue, which has been touted as reaching epidemic proportions. Relevant literature from 1990 to 2004 was identified through a MEDLINE search, and a thorough internet-based search was conducted to obtain the latest updates and government reports. OxyContin became popular as a street drug through its ability to induce a quick heroin-like euphoria. The media hype surrounding OxyContin abuse and the “black box” warning on its label may have added to the abuse and diversion. The US Food and Drug Administration took steps by writing letters to Purdue Pharma, the manufacturers of OxyContin. Purdue Pharma developed a database to identify OxyContin abusers throughout the nation and also launched campaigns to educate patients through the internet. Further suggestions to managing the abuse of OxyContin include: community pharmacists’ assessment of behavioral risk factors that could lead to patient medication abuse; medication abuse risk management courses for physicians; development of a national database linking all pharmacies specifically designed to identify abusers; and tamper-resistant prescription pads for controlled substances, which seems the most plausible and immediate solution to this problem. PMID:18360547

  7. Diabetes and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Profiles > Asian American > Diabetes Diabetes and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian Americans are 20 percent less likely ... Diagnosed with Diabetes Ratio vs. General Population Asians/Pacific Islanders 7.8 1.1 U.S. General Public ...

  8. Cancer and Asians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Population Profiles > Asian American > Cancer Cancer and Asians/Pacific Islanders Asian Americans generally have lower cancer rates ... At a glance - Top Cancer Sites for Asian/Pacific Islander (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  9. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders Overall, Asian American adults are less likely ... Disease Death Rates per 100,000 (2013) Asians/Pacific Islanders Non-Hispanic White Asians/Pacific Islanders /Non- ...

  10. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander adults are 10% less likely to ever ... to non-Hispanic white adults. In 2014, Asian/Pacific Islander adults aged 65 years and older were ...

  11. Abrupt Climate Events Recorded in Chinese and Central Asian Loess Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machalett, B.; Oches, E. A.; Haam, E. K.; Lai, Z.; Endlicher, W.

    2013-12-01

    Past climate dynamics associated with the Eurasian continent have been extensively studied. However, the impact of intra-hemispheric-scale climate variability on the entire Eurasian landmass, as well as the self-generated effects of the continent on the global climate system, is still a matter of investigation . While western Atlantic polar and tropical air masses penetrate into the continent and are transformed as they cross Eurasia, the interior regions of Eurasia strongly influence Earth's climate system. Significant cooling and heating of Central and High Asia drive interactions between atmospheric and oceanic processes and regulate teleconnection patterns across the Northern Hemisphere. This paper utilizes high resolution particle size data from the Central Asian loess sequence at Remisowka, Kazakhstan, and the long studied, monsoon-influenced Chinese loess sequence at Xifeng, to reconstruct past atmospheric circulation and aeolian dust dynamics within interior Eurasia since the last interglacial period. The observed dynamics in aeolian dust transport closely mirror d18O and fine dust variations measured in Greenland ice cores, suggesting a correlation with short-term climate oscillations (DO events) recorded therein. An Asian origin of fine aeolian dust preserved in Greenland ice cores has been discussed previously, and recent papers reveal a close link between Asian aeolian dust dynamics and DO events recorded in Greenland ice cores. In this context, data presented here represent the first Central and East Asian aeolian dust records in which DO events are recorded, providing a means to test hypothesized links between short-term climate variability recorded in Greenland and associated climate dynamics at Asian dust source areas. Ultimately, the data extend existing hypotheses, suggesting that the Central and High Asian mountains are a crucial element within the sensitive glacier-desert-dust response system in interior Eurasia and may be considered a pacemaker

  12. Abrupt Climate Events Recorded in Chinese and Central Asian Loess Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machalett, Bjoern; Oches, Eric A.; Haam, Eddie; Lai, Zhongping; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2013-04-01

    Past climate dynamics associated with the Eurasian continent have been extensively studied. However, the impact of intra-hemispheric-scale climate variability on the entire Eurasian landmass, as well as the self-generated effects of the continent on the global climate system, is still a matter of investigation . While western Atlantic polar and tropical air masses penetrate into the continent and are transformed as they cross Eurasia, the interior regions of Eurasia strongly influence Earth's climate system. Significant cooling and heating of Central and High Asia drive interactions between atmospheric and oceanic processes and regulate teleconnection patterns across the Northern Hemisphere. This paper utilizes high resolution particle size data from the Central Asian loess sequence at Remisowka, Kazakhstan, and the long studied, monsoon-influenced Chinese loess sequence at Xifeng, to reconstruct past atmospheric circulation and aeolian dust dynamics within interior Eurasia since the last interglacial period. The observed dynamics in aeolian dust transport closely mirror d18O and fine dust variations measured in Greenland ice cores, suggesting a correlation with short-term climate oscillations (DO events) recorded therein. An Asian origin of fine aeolian dust preserved in Greenland ice cores has been discussed previously, and recent papers reveal a close link between Asian aeolian dust dynamics and DO events recorded in Greenland ice cores. In this context, data presented here represent the first Central and East Asian aeolian dust records in which DO events are recorded, providing a means to test hypothesized links between short-term climate variability recorded in Greenland and associated climate dynamics at Asian dust source areas. Ultimately, the data extend existing hypotheses, suggesting that the Central and High Asian mountains are a crucial element within the sensitive glacier-desert-dust response system in interior Eurasia and may be considered a pacemaker

  13. Asian American-Pacific American Relations: The Asian American Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Sucheng

    This paper examines the migration and settlement history of Asians into the United States and the interaction of the major Asian immigrants with each other and with American society. An important thesis is that, because the differences between Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are much greater than the similarities between them, they should no…

  14. Cutaneous Melanoma in Asians

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Yub

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a rare disease in Asians but potentially the most aggressive form of skin cancer worldwide. It can occur in any melanocyte-containing anatomic site. Four main cutaneous melanoma subtypes are recognized: lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM), and nodular melanoma. Generally, excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation increases the risk of melanoma. The exception is ALM, which is the most common melanoma subtype in Asians and is not associated with UV radiation. ALM presents as dark brownish to black, irregular maculopatches, nodules, or ulcers on the palms, soles, and nails. The lesions may be misdiagnosed as more benign lesions, such as warts, ulcers, hematomas, foreign bodies, or fungal infections, especially in amelanotic acral melanomas where black pigments are absent. The aim of this brief review is to improve understanding and the rate of early detection thereby reducing mortality, especially regarding cutaneous melanoma in Asians. PMID:27689028

  15. Cutaneous Melanoma in Asians.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Yub; Yun, Sook Jung

    2016-09-01

    Malignant melanoma is a rare disease in Asians but potentially the most aggressive form of skin cancer worldwide. It can occur in any melanocyte-containing anatomic site. Four main cutaneous melanoma subtypes are recognized: lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM), and nodular melanoma. Generally, excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation increases the risk of melanoma. The exception is ALM, which is the most common melanoma subtype in Asians and is not associated with UV radiation. ALM presents as dark brownish to black, irregular maculopatches, nodules, or ulcers on the palms, soles, and nails. The lesions may be misdiagnosed as more benign lesions, such as warts, ulcers, hematomas, foreign bodies, or fungal infections, especially in amelanotic acral melanomas where black pigments are absent. The aim of this brief review is to improve understanding and the rate of early detection thereby reducing mortality, especially regarding cutaneous melanoma in Asians. PMID:27689028

  16. Cutaneous Melanoma in Asians

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Yub

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a rare disease in Asians but potentially the most aggressive form of skin cancer worldwide. It can occur in any melanocyte-containing anatomic site. Four main cutaneous melanoma subtypes are recognized: lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM), and nodular melanoma. Generally, excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation increases the risk of melanoma. The exception is ALM, which is the most common melanoma subtype in Asians and is not associated with UV radiation. ALM presents as dark brownish to black, irregular maculopatches, nodules, or ulcers on the palms, soles, and nails. The lesions may be misdiagnosed as more benign lesions, such as warts, ulcers, hematomas, foreign bodies, or fungal infections, especially in amelanotic acral melanomas where black pigments are absent. The aim of this brief review is to improve understanding and the rate of early detection thereby reducing mortality, especially regarding cutaneous melanoma in Asians.

  17. Insolation and Abrupt Climate Change Effects on the Western Pacific Maritime Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, J. W.; Quinn, T. M.; Shen, C.; Cardenas, M.; Siringan, F. P.; Hori, M.; Okumura, Y.; Banner, J. L.; Lin, K.; Jiang, X.; Taylor, F. W.

    2013-12-01

    Many monsoon-sensitive paleoclimate archives capture the response of the Asian-Australian monsoon system to changes in summer insolation, as well as abrupt climate changes such as the Younger Dryas (YD). The response is commonly a direct one in Holocene and YD archives. In the case of insolation, increased summer insolation leads to increased monsoon rainfall over land, as captured in stalagmite δ18O records from Oman and China. We evaluate this direct response using maritime stalagmite records from the island of Palawan, Philippines (10 N, 119 E). The wet season in Palawan occurs over the same months (June-October) as in Oman, India and China. Therefore, we expected the Palawan stalagmite δ18O record, a proxy of rainfall, to have a similar response to changing insolation and hence, a trend of decreasing monsoon rainfall over the Holocene. However, the Holocene trend in two partially replicated stalagmite δ18O records is opposite to that expected: rainfall increases over the Holocene, despite the decrease of summer insolation over the Holocene. We interpret the Holocene trend observed at Palawan to be the result of an increase in the maritime monsoon that balances the reduction in the land monsoon; an interpretation that is consistent with previously published results from coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model runs. Seawater δ18O reconstructions from marine sediment cores in the western tropical Pacific contain a freshening trend over the Holocene, also supporting the hypothesis of increase maritime monsoon rainfall. The direct relationship between monsoon rainfall over land as recorded in the YD interval in Chinese stalagmite records is also observed in maritime monsoon rainfall during the YD at Palawan: both records get drier during the YD cold interval. This agreement between YD stalagmite records from China and Palawan contrasts sharply with the inverse relationship between these records over the Holocene. We further investigate the nature of

  18. Asian Americans: diverse and growing.

    PubMed

    Lee, S M

    1998-06-01

    This bulletin analyzes the demographic, socioeconomic, and political characteristics of the Asian population in the US. During 1980-90, the Asian population doubled in size to 4% of total population. The Asian population is expected to double again in 20 years. The number and diversity of Asian ethnic groups has increased due to immigration. The proportion of Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino persons declined from 96% of Asians in 1970 to over 50% in 1997. Indians, Vietnamese, and Koreans outnumber Japanese ethnic groups in the US. Intermarriage is higher among US-born Asian Americans than foreign-born Asian Americans. Intermarriage is greater among female US-born Asian Americans than male US-born Asian Americans. The future size of the Asian population will depend upon how the children of these intermarriages identify themselves ethnically. Asians have advanced themselves educationally. In 1997, 42% of Asian Americans aged 25 years and older had a college or professional degree, compared to 26% of non-Hispanic Whites, 13% of Blacks, and 10% of Hispanics aged 25 years and older. Families with income below the poverty level, in 1996, amounted to 12.7% of Asians, compared to 26.4% of Hispanics, 26.1% of Blacks, and 6.5% of Whites. In 1990, over 43% of foreign born Asian Americans aged over 18 years were naturalized citizens, compared to 33% of all foreign-born residents. Asians have low rates of voter participation, but high rates of naturalization suggest greater political participation in the future. In Presidential 1996 elections, Asians tended to register as Republican, but voted Democratic.

  19. Asian Americans and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell

    1980-01-01

    Problems that Asian Americans face in higher education include poor communications skills; stress resulting from family and community pressure to achieve; and universities' reluctance to hire Asian American staff, recruit and provide financial support for Asian American students, and provide relevant curriculum. Various programs have begun to…

  20. Asian Americans and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell

    Unfortunately the story of Asian Americans and higher education is not one of unqualified success. This paper attempts to overview the historical significance and present the problems of Asian Americans in higher education. The first problem is the lack of oral and writing skills among Asian Americans. Part of this problem is cultural, referring…

  1. Scrolling and Strolling, Asian Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Joan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a lesson on Asian cultures. Asian cultures demonstrate respect for nature through their art. Students learned how to use Asian brush techniques and designs to create scrolls. They also learned how to write Haiku, a three-line form of poetry that uses a pattern of syllables.

  2. Methyl iodine over oceans from the Arctic Ocean to the maritime Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qihou; Xie, Zhouqing; Wang, Xinming; Yu, Juan; Zhang, Yanli

    2016-05-01

    Studies about methyl iodide (CH3I), an important atmospheric iodine species over oceans, had been conducted in some maritime regions, but the understanding of the spatial distribution of CH3I on a global scale is still limited. In this study, we reports atmospheric CH3I over oceans during the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Research Expeditions. CH3I varied considerably with the range of 0.17 to 2.9 pptv with absent of ship emission. The concentration of CH3I generally decreased with increasing latitudes, except for higher levels in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere than in the low latitudes. For sea areas, the Norwegian Sea had the highest CH3I concentrations with a median of 0.91 pptv, while the Central Arctic Ocean had the lowest concentrations with all values below 0.5 pptv. CH3I concentration over oceans was affected by many parameters, including sea surface temperature, salinity, dissolved organic carbon, biogenic emissions and input from continents, with distinctive dominant factor in different regions, indicating complex biogeochemical processes of CH3I on a global scale.

  3. Methyl iodine over oceans from the Arctic Ocean to the maritime Antarctic.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qihou; Xie, Zhouqing; Wang, Xinming; Yu, Juan; Zhang, Yanli

    2016-01-01

    Studies about methyl iodide (CH3I), an important atmospheric iodine species over oceans, had been conducted in some maritime regions, but the understanding of the spatial distribution of CH3I on a global scale is still limited. In this study, we reports atmospheric CH3I over oceans during the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Research Expeditions. CH3I varied considerably with the range of 0.17 to 2.9 pptv with absent of ship emission. The concentration of CH3I generally decreased with increasing latitudes, except for higher levels in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere than in the low latitudes. For sea areas, the Norwegian Sea had the highest CH3I concentrations with a median of 0.91 pptv, while the Central Arctic Ocean had the lowest concentrations with all values below 0.5 pptv. CH3I concentration over oceans was affected by many parameters, including sea surface temperature, salinity, dissolved organic carbon, biogenic emissions and input from continents, with distinctive dominant factor in different regions, indicating complex biogeochemical processes of CH3I on a global scale. PMID:27184471

  4. Methyl iodine over oceans from the Arctic Ocean to the maritime Antarctic.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qihou; Xie, Zhouqing; Wang, Xinming; Yu, Juan; Zhang, Yanli

    2016-05-17

    Studies about methyl iodide (CH3I), an important atmospheric iodine species over oceans, had been conducted in some maritime regions, but the understanding of the spatial distribution of CH3I on a global scale is still limited. In this study, we reports atmospheric CH3I over oceans during the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Research Expeditions. CH3I varied considerably with the range of 0.17 to 2.9 pptv with absent of ship emission. The concentration of CH3I generally decreased with increasing latitudes, except for higher levels in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere than in the low latitudes. For sea areas, the Norwegian Sea had the highest CH3I concentrations with a median of 0.91 pptv, while the Central Arctic Ocean had the lowest concentrations with all values below 0.5 pptv. CH3I concentration over oceans was affected by many parameters, including sea surface temperature, salinity, dissolved organic carbon, biogenic emissions and input from continents, with distinctive dominant factor in different regions, indicating complex biogeochemical processes of CH3I on a global scale.

  5. Methyl iodine over oceans from the Arctic Ocean to the maritime Antarctic

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qihou; Xie, Zhouqing; Wang, Xinming; Yu, Juan; Zhang, Yanli

    2016-01-01

    Studies about methyl iodide (CH3I), an important atmospheric iodine species over oceans, had been conducted in some maritime regions, but the understanding of the spatial distribution of CH3I on a global scale is still limited. In this study, we reports atmospheric CH3I over oceans during the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Research Expeditions. CH3I varied considerably with the range of 0.17 to 2.9 pptv with absent of ship emission. The concentration of CH3I generally decreased with increasing latitudes, except for higher levels in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere than in the low latitudes. For sea areas, the Norwegian Sea had the highest CH3I concentrations with a median of 0.91 pptv, while the Central Arctic Ocean had the lowest concentrations with all values below 0.5 pptv. CH3I concentration over oceans was affected by many parameters, including sea surface temperature, salinity, dissolved organic carbon, biogenic emissions and input from continents, with distinctive dominant factor in different regions, indicating complex biogeochemical processes of CH3I on a global scale. PMID:27184471

  6. Wrench faulting initiated by continent-continent collision between the Eratosthenes Seamount and Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.; Huebscher, C. P.

    2010-12-01

    The Eratosthenes Seamount (ESM), located in the Eastern Mediterranean south of Cyprus, is considered to represent a continental fragment originating from the former African-Arabian continental margin. In the late Miocene the subduction of the African-Arabian Plate below the Anatolian Plate turned to continent-continent collision when the ESM collided with the island of Cyprus. This altered the tectonic pattern of the entire Eastern Mediterranean. Since the ESM blocks the northward drift of the African Plate south of Cyprus, the northward motion of the African-Arabian Plate (around 1cm/year) has to be compensated along wrench faults. The Baltim Hecateus Line (BHL) separates the ESM on its eastern side from the deep Levantine Basin. The BHL formed as an extensional fault system during the Triassic formation of the Levatine Basin. During the Upper Cretaceous and Eocene so called Syrian Arc inversion the BHL was reactivated. A set of recent multichannel seismic 2D lines (MCS), acquired with the R/V Maria S. Merian (MSM14-2) in 2010, will be presented here. The NW-SE trending lines show a transformal to transpressional nature of the Baltim Hecateus Line. We propose that the BHL converted to a transform fault during the incipient collision of the ESM with the island of Cyprus in order to compensate the northward motion of the African-Arabian Plate. At the eastern rim of the ESM the BHL continues beneath a prominent bathymetric escarpment. Whereas the escarpment matches the trace of the BHL it is covered below the thick Messinian Evaporites south and north of the ESM. Owing to the ductile properties of salt the Messinian evaporites decouple the sub salt sediments from the supra salt sediments. As a result no direct observations of the BHL are possible. However, seismic imaging reveals thrust folds at the western side of the Levantine Basin pointing to a transpressional nature of the BHL. The overlying sediments are thinned as a reaction to the transform motion. Due to a

  7. Diabetes in Asians

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing globally, particularly in Asia. According to the 2013 Diabetes Atlas, an estimated 366 million people are affected by diabetes worldwide; 36% of those affected live in the Western Pacific region, with a significant proportion in East Asia. The reasons for this marked increase in the prevalence of diabetes can be extrapolated from several distinct features of the Asian region. First, the two most populated countries, China and India, are located in Asia. Second, Asians have experienced extremely rapid economic growth, including rapid changes in dietary patterns, during the past decades. As a result, Asians tend to have more visceral fat within the same body mass index range compared with Westerners. In addition, increased insulin resistance relative to reduced insulin secretory function is another important feature of Asian individuals with diabetes. Young age of disease onset is also a distinctive characteristic of these patients. Moreover, changing dietary patterns, such as increased consumption of white rice and processed red meat, contributes to the deteriorated lifestyle of this region. Recent studies suggest a distinctive responsiveness to novel anti-diabetic agents in Asia; however, further research and efforts to reverse the increasing prevalence of diabetes are needed worldwide. PMID:26435131

  8. Miscellany South Asian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppola, Carlo, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    This volume contains articles about South Asian literature and poetry by G.M. Muktibodh, P. Naik, S. Chattopadhyay, M. Kureishi, and P.S. Rege. The articles and authors are: "The Hindi 'Riti' Tradition and the "Rasakapriya' of Keshavadasa: An Introductory Review" by K.C. Bahl; "Tradition and Modernity in Literature" by M.R. Anand; "The Novelist as…

  9. Asian Americans in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnow, Stanley; Yoshihara, Nancy

    This booklet is a detailed primer on the Asian American experience in the United States covering history, family and acculturation, education, culture and the arts, economics, discrimination and violence, and politics. An introduction reviews some basic demographics and looks at racial issues in light of the riots in Los Angeles (California) in…

  10. Britain's South Asian Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobbs, Michael

    This book focuses on the languages spoken by people of South Asian origin living in Britain and is intended to assist individuals in Britain whose work involves them with speakers of these languages. The approach taken is descriptive and practical, offering linguistic, geographic, and historical background information leading to appreciation of…

  11. Predictors of early continence following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lavigueur-Blouin, Hugo; Noriega, Alina Camacho; Valdivieso, Roger; Hueber, Pierre-Alain; Bienz, Marc; Alhathal, Naif; Latour, Mathieu; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; El-Hakim, Assaad; Zorn, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Functional outcomes after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) greatly influence patient quality of life. Data regarding predictors of early continence, especially 1 month following RARP, are limited. Previous reports mainly address immediate or 3-month postoperative continence rates. We examine preoperative predictors of pad-free continence recovery at the first follow-up visit 1 month after RARP. Methods: Between January 2007 and January 2013, preoperative and follow-up data were prospectively collected for 327 RARP patients operated on by 2 fellowship-trained surgeons (AEH and KCZ). Patient and operative characteristics included age, body mass index (BMI), staging, preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate weight, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) score and type of nerve-sparing performed. Continence was defined by 0-pad usage at 1 month follow-up. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess for predictors of early continence. Results: Overall, 44% of patients were pad-free 1 month post-RARP. In multivariate regression analysis, age (odds ratio [OR] 0.946, confidence interval [CI] 95%: 0.91, 0.98) and IPSS (OR: 0.953, CI 95%: 0.92, 0.99) were independent predictors of urinary continence 1 month following RARP. Other variables (BMI, staging, preoperative PSA, SHIM score, prostate weight and type of nerve-sparing) were not statistically significant predictors of early continence. Limitations of this study include missing data for comorbidities, patient use of pelvic floor exercises and patient maximal activity. Moreover, patient-reported continence using a 0-pad usage definition represents a semiquantitative and subjective measurement. Conclusion: In a broad population of patients who underwent RARP at our institution, 44% of patients were pad-free at 1 month. Age and IPSS were independent predictors of early continence after surgery. Men of advanced

  12. Cooperative measures to mitigate Asia-Pacific maritime conflicts.

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, Wen-Chung

    2003-05-01

    The economies of East Asia are predominantly export based and, therefore, place special emphasis on the security of the sea lines of communication (SLOCs). Due to economic globalization, the United States shares these concerns. Cooperative measures by the concerned parties could reduce the potential for disruption by maritime conflicts. Primary threats against the SLOCs are disputes over the resources under the seas, disputes over some small island groups, disputes between particular parties (China-Taiwan and North-South Korea), or illegal activities like smuggling, piracy, or terrorism. This paper provides an overview on these threats, issue by issue, to identify common elements and needed cooperation. Cooperation on other topics such as search and rescue, fisheries protection, and oil spill response may help support improved relations to prevent maritime conflicts. Many technologies can help support maritime cooperation, including improved communications links, tracking and emergency beacon devices, and satellite imaging. Appropriate technical and political means are suggested for each threat to the SLOCs.

  13. The Mycetophagidae (Coleoptera) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Majka, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Mycetophagidae (hairy fungus beetles) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada are surveyed. Seven species in the genera Mycetophagus, Litargus, and Typhaea are found in the region. Six new provincial records are reported including Mycetophagus punctatus and Mycetophagus flexuosus, whichare newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces. The distribution of all species is mapped, colour habitus photographs of all species are figured, and an identification key to species is provided. The discussion notes that four of the species found in the region are apparently rare, possibly due to the history of forest management practices in the region; a situation similar to that of a significant proportion of other saproxylic beetles found in the Maritime Provinces. PMID:21594022

  14. Monuments in the Desert: A Maritime Landscape in Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Lynn; Jones, Jennifer; Schnitzer, Kate

    2012-10-01

    Eduard Bohlen II, wrecked in 1909 on the coast of Namibia in Africa, has an illustrious history, which is part of a larger maritime cultural landscape linked to the diamond mining industry. The ship, like many artifacts and sites, served many different purposes over time and the historical and archaeological record incorporates different levels of meaning, some of which may be nationally divisive or reconciliatory. The role of historical archaeologists is not only to document, interpret, preserve and manage grandiose elements of heritage that evoke stakeholder nationalism, but also to explore the mundane, unsavory aspects of the historical narrative. In 2010, a team from the Program in Maritime Studies of East Carolina University supported by the Maritime Archaeology Division of the Windhoek Underwater Club investigated a surf boat, diamond mining settlement and some of the remaining structure of Eduard Bohlen II, while posing mitigation and management questions about legacy of historical memory within Skeleton Coast Park.

  15. The mycetophagidae (coleoptera) of the maritime provinces of Canada.

    PubMed

    Majka, Christopher G

    2010-01-01

    The Mycetophagidae (hairy fungus beetles) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada are surveyed. Seven species in the genera Mycetophagus, Litargus, and Typhaea are found in the region. Six new provincial records are reported including Mycetophagus punctatus and Mycetophagus flexuosus, whichare newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces. The distribution of all species is mapped, colour habitus photographs of all species are figured, and an identification key to species is provided. The discussion notes that four of the species found in the region are apparently rare, possibly due to the history of forest management practices in the region; a situation similar to that of a significant proportion of other saproxylic beetles found in the Maritime Provinces.

  16. Depth distribution for boundary of crust-upper mantle and deep dynamical process in eastern Asian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, J.; Yan, Y.; Wang, G.; Zheng, H.; Sun, Y.

    2003-04-01

    The continent of China is located in the eastern Asia. The studied region (5°N-55°N, 60°E-150°E) in this work included most of he eastern Asian continent, continental margin and its southeast ocean, it is a key region for studying the global tectonics and continental dynamics. Since the 1970s of last century, deep seismic sounding profiles with the total length of 50,000 km (including seismic reflection profile over 2,000 km length) have been carried out by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Seismological Bureau and the Ministry of the Land and Resources of China. This data (up to the year of 2001) provide an important base for overall recognition of Moho undulation and new discoveries in this study. With the results of interpretation of deep seismic sounding profiles acquired in the past 30 years in the continent of China and its adjacent countries and ocean regions, such as Russia Kazakhstan, Japan, India, Pakistan, Philippine, Philippine ocean basin, Pacific and Indian Ocean we complied a 2D Moho distribution map for the continent and its adjacent areas of eastern Asia. From the features of depth distribution and undulation of Moho, it is suggested that the eastern Asian region can be divided into 18gradient belts with different sizes and 18 crustal blocks. The depth of Moho varies smoothly in each block, while the boundary (separating different blocks) delineates the abrupt variation of Moho depth. Then, some subjects, such as orogen, fault system and rift, plate boundary, ocean-continent coupling and geodynamical effect, are discussed based on the distribution gradient belts and block partition features of Moho depth in the eastern Asian and its adjacent regions.

  17. Study of ground handling characteristics of a maritime patrol airship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Mooring concepts appropriate for maritime patrol airship (MPA) vehicles are investigated. The evolution of ground handling systems and procedures for all airship types is reviewed to ensure that appropriate consideration is given to past experiences. A tri-rotor maritime patrol airship is identified and described. Wind loads on a moored airship and the effects of these loads on vehicle design are analyzed. Several mooring concepts are assessed with respect to the airship design, wind loads, and mooring site considerations. Basing requirements and applicability of expeditionary mooring also are addressed.

  18. 76 FR 54806 - Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of MACOSH Meeting. SUMMARY: The Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH)...

  19. 77 FR 46126 - Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Request for nomination of members to serve on the Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health.......

  20. 47 CFR 80.333 - Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.333 Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service. The...-satellite service....

  1. 47 CFR 80.333 - Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.333 Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service. The...-satellite service....

  2. 47 CFR 80.333 - Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.333 Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service. The...-satellite service....

  3. 47 CFR 80.333 - Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.333 Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service. The...-satellite service....

  4. 47 CFR 80.333 - Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.333 Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service. The...-satellite service....

  5. Postcollision extension in arc-continent collision zones, eastern Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, T. R.

    1991-01-01

    Postcollisional extension superimposed on arc-continent collision complexes is a common feature in the orogenic belts of eastern Indonesia. In the southern Banda arc, the arc-continent collision event is essentially a Pliocene and younger feature, but already an element of extension is being superimposed on the compressional structures of the collision complex. It is thus likely that the extension commences within a very short period (<5 m.y.) after the initiation of collision-related compressional deformation. A similar history of fold-belt development immediately followed by extension can be inferred for the Lengguru fold belt and the adjacent Wandamen-Wondiwoi terranes of Irian Jaya and for the Gulf of Bone in Sulawesi. It is suggested that the extension results from decoupling of the subducting oceanic lithosphere from the unsubductable continental lithosphere and that the superimposition of extension is a virtually unavoidable consequence of the arc-continent collision.

  6. Endoscopic treatment for pill bezoars after continent ileostomy.

    PubMed

    Lian, L; Fazio, V; Shen, B

    2009-07-01

    Difficulty intubation is the most common long-term complication after continent ileostomy, which can be associated with nipple valve slippage, parastomal hernia, stenosis. Diagnosis and management of a patient with nipple valve stricture and partial bowel obstruction associated with dietary supplement retention in the pouch reservoir is described. A 50-year-old female patient with ulcerative colitis and a 15-year history of continent ileostomy after total proctocolectomy reported 5-week symptoms of abdominal pain and difficulty in intubating the pouch. Pill bezoar composed of dietary supplement was found in diagnostic pouch endoscopy. Therapeutic pouch endoscopy was performed with balloon dilation of a nipple valve stenosis and retrieval of 224 dietary supplement tablets. Pill bezoar in the pouch is rare. However, patients with continent ileostomy should be advised to avoid taking hard-to-dissolve foods and medications. PMID:18619932

  7. A Geological Model for the Evolution of Early Continents (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, P. F.; Coltice, N.; Flament, N. E.; Thébaud, N.

    2013-12-01

    Geochemical probing of ancient sediments (REE in black shales, strontium composition of carbonates, oxygen isotopes in zircons...) suggests that continents were a late Archean addition at Earth's surface. Yet, geochemical probing of ancient basalts reveals that they were extracted from a mantle depleted of its crustal elements early in the Archean. Considerations on surface geology, the early Earth hypsometry and the rheology and density structure of Archean continents can help solve this paradox. Surface geology: The surface geology of Archean cratons is characterized by thick continental flood basalts (CFBs, including greenstones) emplaced on felsic crusts dominated by Trondhjemite-Tonalite-Granodiorite (TTG) granitoids. This simple geology is peculiar because i/ most CFBs were emplaced below sea level, ii/ after their emplacement, CFBs were deformed into relatively narrow, curviplanar belts (greenstone basins) wrapping around migmatitic TTG domes, and iii/ Archean greenstone belts are richly endowed with gold and other metals deposits. Flat Earth hypothesis: From considerations on early Earth continental geotherm and density structure, Rey and Coltice (2008) propose that, because of the increased ability of the lithosphere to flow laterally, orogenic processes in the Archean produced only subdued topography (continents, Flament et al. (2008) proposed a theory for the hypsometry of the early Earth showing that, until the late Archean, most continents were flooded and Earth was largely a water world. From this, a model consistent with many of the peculiar attributes of Archean geology, can be proposed: 1/ Continents appeared at Earth's surface at an early stage during the Hadean/Archean. However, because they were i/ covered by continental flood basalts, ii/ below sea level, and iii/ deprived of modern-style mountain belts and orogenic plateaux, early felsic

  8. Impact of global warming on the Asian winter monsoon in a coupled GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Bengtsson, Lennart; Arpe, Klaus

    2000-02-01

    The Asian winter monsoon (AWM) response to the global warming was investigated through a long-term integration of the transient greenhouse warming with the ECHAM4/OPYC3 CGCM. The physics of the response was studied through analyses of the impact of the global warming on the variations of the ocean and land contrast near the ground in the Asian and western Pacific region and the east Asian trough and jet stream in the middle and upper troposphere. Forcing of transient eddy activity on the zonal circulation over the Asian and western Pacific region was also analyzed. It is found that in the global warming scenario the winter northeasterlies along the Pacific coast of the Eurasian continent weaken systematically and significantly, and intensity of the AWM reduces evidently, but the AWM variances on the interannual and interdecadal scales are not affected much by the global warming. It is suggested that the global warming makes the climate over the most part of Asia to be milder with enhanced moisture in winter. In the global warming scenario the contrasts of the sea level pressure and the near-surface temperature between the Asian continent and the Pacific Ocean become significantly smaller, northward and eastward shifts and weakening of the east Asian trough and jet stream in the middle and upper troposphere are found. As a consequence, the cold air in the AWM originating from the east Asian trough and high latitudes is less powerful. In addition, feedback of the transient activity also makes a considerable contribution to the higher-latitude shift of the jet stream over the North Pacific in the global warming scenario.

  9. [Populational chromosomal polymorphism the Asian forest mouse Apodemus peninsulae].

    PubMed

    Bekasova, T S; Vorontsov, N N

    1975-01-01

    29 individuals of Apodemus peninsulae, an Asian forest mouse from the Suputin State Nature Reserve (Maritime Territory) were studied karyologically. Diploid chromosome sets of the animals studied contained from 48 to 52 chromosomes. The difference in the diploid chromosome numbers is caused by the presence in some individuals of supernumerary metacentric chromosomes (up to 4). The set is always represented by 48 acrocentric chromosomes, gradually decreasing in size. The supernumerary metacentric chromosomes vary in size from medium-sized to the smallest in the set. The character of intrapopulational chromosome polymorphism of continental and island populations of Apodemus peninsulae is discussed. Attempts are made to explain the polymorphism with respect to supernumerary chromosomes as the result of some viral diseases.

  10. A connection between the tropical Pacific Ocean and the winter climate in the Asian-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, XiaoJing; Wang, Su; Lin, Hai; Bao, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly on the winter mean surface air temperature (SAT) in the Asian-Pacific region is investigated during the period from 1948 to 2008 using both observations and a linear baroclinic model (LBM). A singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis is conducted between the 500 hPa geopotential height (Z500) over the Northern Hemisphere and the SST over the tropical Pacific Ocean to obtain the large-scale atmospheric patterns related to tropical Pacific SST. Focus is given to the second pair of SVD mode (SVD2) which bears some similarities in the Z500 field to the Arctic Oscillation over the North Atlantic sector and can impact the SAT over a larger area of Asian-Pacific. In the winter of a positive SVD2 the SAT over the midlatitude to high-latitude Asian continent, the Arctic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the western subtropical Pacific Ocean tends to be warmer than normal, while the North Pacific Ocean around the Bering Strait is abnormally cold, and vice versa. Examination of the associated surface general circulation shows that a positive SVD2 tends to shift the Siberian High southward and the Aleutian Low eastward resulting in anomalous weak pressure gradient between the Asian continent the North Pacific. Anomalous positive sea level pressure anomalies around Japan and southerly wind along the east coast of the Asian continent are observed. At the same time, the East Asian trough at midtroposphere becomes weaker than normal and the East Asian westerly jet stream is increased in magnitudes and shifted northward. The analysis of the wave activity flux and result of idealized numerical experiments show a possible influence of the western tropical Pacific SST forcing on the SVD2.

  11. A connection between the tropical Pacific Ocean and the winter climate in the Asian-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, xiaojing; lin, hai; bao, qing

    2015-04-01

    The impact of the tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly on the winter mean surface air temperature (SAT) in the Asian-Pacific region is investigated during the period from 1948 to 2008 using both observations and a linear baroclinic model (LBM). A singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis is conducted between the 500-hPa geopotential height (Z500) over the Northern Hemisphere and the SST over the tropical Pacific Ocean to obtain the tropical Pacific SST-forced large scale atmospheric patterns. Focus is given to the second pair of SVD mode (SVD2) which bear many similarities in the Z500 field to the Arctic Oscillation (AO) but can impact the SAT over a larger area of Asian-Pacific than the AO. In the winter of a positive SVD2 the SAT over the mid-to high-latitude Asian continent, the Arctic Ocean, the Indian Ocean and the western subtropical Pacific Ocean tend to be warmer-than-normal while the North Pacific Ocean around the Bering Strait is abnormally cold, and vice versa. Examination of the associated surface general circulation shows that corresponding to a positive SVD2 the Siberian High is weaker-than-normal and the Aleutian low shifted eastward resulting in abnormalous weak pressure gradient between the Asian continent the North Pacific and abnormalous southerly wind along the east coast of the Asian continent. At the same time, the East Asian trough at mid-troposphere becomes weaker-than-normal and the East Asian westerly jet stream is shifted northward. The analysis of the wave activity flux and the precipitation associated with the SVD2 show a possible influence of the western tropical Pacific SST forcing on the SVD2.

  12. 46 CFR 501.3 - Organizational components of the Federal Maritime Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Organizational components of the Federal Maritime... THE FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION-GENERAL Organization and Functions § 501.3 Organizational components of the Federal Maritime Commission. The major organizational components of the Commission are...

  13. On the Applications of Modern Educational Technology in Maritime English Teaching from the Perspective of Constructivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Zhongliang

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays maritime transportation has become a major modern logistics because of its large capacity and low cost. English plays a leading role in the industry of maritime transportation. It is the most important medium and an indispensable communication tool in international business and global marine industry. Maritime English teaching has made…

  14. 78 FR 9709 - Draft Guidance Regarding Voluntary Inspection of Vessels for Compliance With the Maritime Labour...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Background and Purpose The 94th (Maritime) session of the International Labour Conference (ILC) (Geneva, February 2006) adopted the Maritime Labour... Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of availability and request...

  15. 33 CFR 162.270 - Restricted areas in vicinity of Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets. 162.270 Section 162.270 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.270 Restricted areas in vicinity of Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets. (a) The... National Defense Reserve Fleets of the Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation: (1)...

  16. 78 FR 13691 - Guidance Regarding Inspection and Certification of Vessels Under the Maritime Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... 01-13 and requesting public comments on the draft (See 77 FR 2741). The Coast Guard recognized the... Vessels Under the Maritime Security Program (MSP).'' The MSP serves as a means for establishing a fleet of... of a Maritime Security Fleet under the Maritime Security Program (MSP). The MSP serves as a means...

  17. 77 FR 35862 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay... Guard will enforce the Fleet Week Maritime Festival's Pier 66 Safety Zone in Elliott Bay, WA from 8 a.m... Guard will enforce the Safety Zone for the Fleet Week Maritime Festival in 33 CFR 165.1330 on August...

  18. Texture orientation-based algorithm for detecting infrared maritime targets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Dong, Lili; Zhao, Ming; Wu, Houde; Xu, Wenhai

    2015-05-20

    Infrared maritime target detection is a key technology for maritime target searching systems. However, in infrared maritime images (IMIs) taken under complicated sea conditions, background clutters, such as ocean waves, clouds or sea fog, usually have high intensity that can easily overwhelm the brightness of real targets, which is difficult for traditional target detection algorithms to deal with. To mitigate this problem, this paper proposes a novel target detection algorithm based on texture orientation. This algorithm first extracts suspected targets by analyzing the intersubband correlation between horizontal and vertical wavelet subbands of the original IMI on the first scale. Then the self-adaptive wavelet threshold denoising and local singularity analysis of the original IMI is combined to remove false alarms further. Experiments show that compared with traditional algorithms, this algorithm can suppress background clutter much better and realize better single-frame detection for infrared maritime targets. Besides, in order to guarantee accurate target extraction further, the pipeline-filtering algorithm is adopted to eliminate residual false alarms. The high practical value and applicability of this proposed strategy is backed strongly by experimental data acquired under different environmental conditions.

  19. 49 CFR 1.66 - Delegations to Maritime Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... feasibility study of an oil pollution prevention program. (See 49 CFR 1.46 and 1.53). (z) Carry out the... Federal Register citations affecting § 1.66, see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the... provisions of sections 10 through 13 of Public Law 103-451, the National Maritime Heritage Act of 1994,...

  20. Indians of Quebec and the Maritime Provinces (An Historical Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Giving the history of the Indians of Quebec and the maritime provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, the Prince Edward Island), this document covers the period from the arrival of European explorers in the New World to 1967. Reviewing the history of these Indians, sections are devoted to (1) colonization of Acadia, (2) colonization of Quebec, (3)…

  1. Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. LoBiondo, Frank A. [R-NJ-2

    2012-06-01

    06/07/2012 Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Discharged. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.2838, which became Public Law 112-213 on 12/20/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniforth, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training. In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs of mature-age and other students who work and live in different places (or countries) and therefore cannot attend lectures on a regular basis (or at all) have largely been ignored. This paper provides a case study in the teaching of maritime archaeology from Australia that, in addition to ‘traditional’ on-campus teaching, includes four main components: (1) learning field methods through field schools; (2) skills training through the AIMA/NAS avocational training program; (3) distance learning topics available through CD-ROM and using the Internet; and (4) practicums, internships and fellowships. The author argues that programs to teach maritime archaeology in the twenty first century need to be flexible and to address the diverse needs of students who do not fit the ‘traditional’ model. This involves collaborative partnerships with other universities as well as government underwater cultural heritage management agencies and museums, primarily through field schools, practicums and internships.

  3. 46 CFR 67.47 - Requirement for Maritime Administration approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... approval of the Maritime Administration in accordance with 46 CFR part 221: (1) Placement of the vessel... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Citizenship Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.47... (a) of this section, even if the owner meets the citizenship requirements of this subpart,...

  4. 46 CFR 67.47 - Requirement for Maritime Administration approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... approval of the Maritime Administration in accordance with 46 CFR part 221: (1) Placement of the vessel... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Citizenship Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.47... (a) of this section, even if the owner meets the citizenship requirements of this subpart,...

  5. The new Euskalmet coastal-maritime warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaztelumendi, Santiago; Egaña, Joseba; Liria, Pedro; Gonzalez, Manuel; Aranda, José Antonio; Anitua, Pedro

    2016-06-01

    This work presents the main characteristics of the Basque Meteorology Agency (Euskalmet) maritime-coastal risk warning system, with special emphasis on the latest updates, including a clear differentiation on specific warning messages addressing sea conditions for navigation purposes in the first 2 nautical miles, and expected coastal impacts. Some details of the warning bulletin for maritime and coastal risk situations are also presented, together with other communication products and strategies used in coastal and maritime severe episodes at the Basque coast. Today, three different aspects are included in the coastal-maritime risk warning system in Basque Country, related to the main potential severe events that affecting coastal activities. - "Galerna" risk relates to a sudden wind reversal that can severely affect coastal navigation and recreational activities. - "Navigation" risk relates to severe sea state conditions for 0-2 miles, affecting different navigation activities. - "Coastal impact" risk relates to adverse wave characteristics and tidal surges that induce flooding events and different impacts in littoral areas.

  6. GeGI (Germanium Gamma Imager) Performance: Maritime Interdiction Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Dreyer, Jonathan G.; Burks, Morgan T.; Trombino, Dave

    2014-09-23

    The Gamma Ray Imager (GeGI) was demonstrated during the Maritime Interdiction Operation at Point Alameda, the site of the former Naval Air Station, in Alameda, CA. During this exercise GeGI was used to localize sources within an abandoned building and a cargo ship, the Admiral Callaghan.

  7. TD-LTE maritime trunking communication system based on TVWS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Chunxiang; Chen, Xing; Li, Wanchao; Chen, Baodan

    2014-10-01

    This paper collects the measurement results of 470 MHZ-960MHZ spectrum in the coastal areas, and analyzes the characteristics of TV broadcast spectrum occupancy in the measurement region. Moreover, this article proposes construct the TD-LTE maritime trunking communication system using geolocation database, television database (TVDB) and cognitive radio (CR) technology.

  8. 32 CFR 537.16 - Scope for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... claims for damage to: (1) DA-accountable properties of a kind that are within the federal maritime jurisdiction. (2) Property under the DA's jurisdiction or DA property damaged by a vessel or floating object... services (including contract salvage and towage) performed by the DA. Claims for salvage services are...

  9. Understanding Attrition in UK Maritime Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gekara, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The shipping industry worldwide is experiencing a shortage of trained and qualified officers to operate a rapidly expanding global merchant fleet. High cadet wastage in Maritime Education and Training (MET) institutions is an obstacle to skills replenishment in the UK. This paper examines the specificity of MET programmes with regard to the…

  10. The Maritime and Border Regions of Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corner, Trevor

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the diversity of languages in Western Europe and the peripheralization of maritime and border languages through isolation, domination by other languages, and fragmentation of the culture. Discusses minority rights issues, suggesting rise in bilingual education implies border-language revival. 5 tables, 27 references. (TES)

  11. 75 FR 38536 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ...) Sub-Committee. (3) DHS Global Supply Chain Security Strategy initiative. (4) Maritime Transportation Security Act update. (5) Update from CDC Strategy Working Group. (6) Update on the Small Vessel Security Strategy. Procedural This meeting is open to the public for the morning session and will also be...

  12. Milestones of Asian Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Fakhro, Abdulla; Wagner, Ryan D; Kim, Yong Kyu; Nguyen, Anh H

    2015-11-01

    The field of plastic surgery originally developed out of the necessity to reconstruct the human body after the destruction of war. However, injured soldiers were not the only people who desired a change in appearance. After World War II, many people in Asian countries sought to attain a more Western look through surgery. Along with eyes, the nose was the main focus for these cosmetic procedures. In this article, the authors examine the evolution of Asian rhinoplasty from its original description in 1964 to the present. The characteristic anatomical differences between the Western and Asian nose are identified in relation to the technical challenges for rhinoplasty surgeons. Then the benefits and risks of the two major surgical approaches, autograft versus alloplast, are detailed. Finally, the coevolution of techniques and implant usage is traced from a dorsum-only implant, to an L-shaped implant, a cartilaginous cap graft with a one-piece rhinoplasty, an I-shaped implant, and a two-piece augmentation rhinoplasty. Outlining these changes demonstrates the advancement of the field of plastic surgery and the growing expectations of the patient. These advancements have provided the tools necessary to better align a patient's aesthetic goals and their unique anatomical presentation with a specific surgical approach. PMID:26648800

  13. Milestones of Asian Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Fakhro, Abdulla; Wagner, Ryan D.; Kim, Yong Kyu; Nguyen, Anh H.

    2015-01-01

    The field of plastic surgery originally developed out of the necessity to reconstruct the human body after the destruction of war. However, injured soldiers were not the only people who desired a change in appearance. After World War II, many people in Asian countries sought to attain a more Western look through surgery. Along with eyes, the nose was the main focus for these cosmetic procedures. In this article, the authors examine the evolution of Asian rhinoplasty from its original description in 1964 to the present. The characteristic anatomical differences between the Western and Asian nose are identified in relation to the technical challenges for rhinoplasty surgeons. Then the benefits and risks of the two major surgical approaches, autograft versus alloplast, are detailed. Finally, the coevolution of techniques and implant usage is traced from a dorsum-only implant, to an L-shaped implant, a cartilaginous cap graft with a one-piece rhinoplasty, an I-shaped implant, and a two-piece augmentation rhinoplasty. Outlining these changes demonstrates the advancement of the field of plastic surgery and the growing expectations of the patient. These advancements have provided the tools necessary to better align a patient's aesthetic goals and their unique anatomical presentation with a specific surgical approach. PMID:26648800

  14. Risk Reduction of an Invasive Insect by Targeting Surveillance Efforts with the Assistance of a Phenology Model and International Maritime Shipping Routes and Schedules.

    PubMed

    Gray, David R

    2016-05-01

    Reducing the risk of introduction to North America of the invasive Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar asiatica Vnukovskij and L. d. japonica [Motschulsky]) on international maritime vessels involves two tactics: (1) vessels that wish to arrive in Canada or the United States and have visited any Asian port that is subject to regulation during designated times must obtain a predeparture inspection certificate from an approved entity; and (2) vessels with a certificate may be subjected to an additional inspection upon arrival. A decision support tool is described here with which the allocation of inspection resources at North American ports can be partitioned among multiple vessels according to estimates of the potential onboard Asian gypsy moth population and estimates of the onboard larval emergence pattern. The decision support tool assumes that port inspection is uniformly imperfect at the Asian ports and that each visit to a regulated port has potential for the vessel to be contaminated with gypsy moth egg masses. The decision support tool uses a multigenerational phenology model to estimate the potential onboard population of egg masses by calculating the temporal intersection between the dates of port visits to regulated ports and the simulated oviposition pattern in each port. The phenological development of the onboard population is simulated each day of the vessel log until the vessel arrives at the port being protected from introduction. Multiple independent simulations are used to create a probability distribution of the size and timing of larval emergence.

  15. Risk Reduction of an Invasive Insect by Targeting Surveillance Efforts with the Assistance of a Phenology Model and International Maritime Shipping Routes and Schedules.

    PubMed

    Gray, David R

    2016-05-01

    Reducing the risk of introduction to North America of the invasive Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar asiatica Vnukovskij and L. d. japonica [Motschulsky]) on international maritime vessels involves two tactics: (1) vessels that wish to arrive in Canada or the United States and have visited any Asian port that is subject to regulation during designated times must obtain a predeparture inspection certificate from an approved entity; and (2) vessels with a certificate may be subjected to an additional inspection upon arrival. A decision support tool is described here with which the allocation of inspection resources at North American ports can be partitioned among multiple vessels according to estimates of the potential onboard Asian gypsy moth population and estimates of the onboard larval emergence pattern. The decision support tool assumes that port inspection is uniformly imperfect at the Asian ports and that each visit to a regulated port has potential for the vessel to be contaminated with gypsy moth egg masses. The decision support tool uses a multigenerational phenology model to estimate the potential onboard population of egg masses by calculating the temporal intersection between the dates of port visits to regulated ports and the simulated oviposition pattern in each port. The phenological development of the onboard population is simulated each day of the vessel log until the vessel arrives at the port being protected from introduction. Multiple independent simulations are used to create a probability distribution of the size and timing of larval emergence. PMID:26299789

  16. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Population growth trends and family planning activities in Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania are summarized in this booklet developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Narrative information for each continent gives a resume of population growth trends, reasons for the trends, population problems, policy formation, family…

  17. Regulating continent growth and composition by chemical weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, C.-T.A.; Morton, D.M.; Little, M.G.; Kistler, R.; Horodyskyj, U.N.; Leeman, W.P.; Agranier, A.

    2008-01-01

    Continents ride high above the ocean floor because they are underlain by thick, low-density, Si-rich, and Mg-poor crust. However, the parental magmas of continents were basaltic, which means they must have lost Mg relative to Si during their maturation into continents. Igneous differentiation followed by lower crustal delamination and chemical weathering followed by subduction recycling are possible solutions, but the relative magnitudes of each process have never been quantitatively constrained because of the lack of appropriate data. Here, we show that the relative contributions of these processes can be obtained by simultaneous examination of Mg and Li (an analog for Mg) on the regional and global scales in arcs, delaminated lower crust, and river waters. At least 20% of Mg is lost from continents by weathering, which translates into >20% of continental mass lost by weathering (40% by delamination). Chemical weathering leaves behind a more Si-rich and Mg-poor crust, which is less dense and hence decreases the probability of crustal recycling by subduction. Net continental growth is thus modulated by chemical weathering and likely influenced by secular changes in weathering mechanisms. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  18. Regulating continent growth and composition by chemical weathering.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus; Morton, Douglas M; Little, Mark G; Kistler, Ronald; Horodyskyj, Ulyana N; Leeman, William P; Agranier, Arnaud

    2008-04-01

    Continents ride high above the ocean floor because they are underlain by thick, low-density, Si-rich, and Mg-poor crust. However, the parental magmas of continents were basaltic, which means they must have lost Mg relative to Si during their maturation into continents. Igneous differentiation followed by lower crustal delamination and chemical weathering followed by subduction recycling are possible solutions, but the relative magnitudes of each process have never been quantitatively constrained because of the lack of appropriate data. Here, we show that the relative contributions of these processes can be obtained by simultaneous examination of Mg and Li (an analog for Mg) on the regional and global scales in arcs, delaminated lower crust, and river waters. At least 20% of Mg is lost from continents by weathering, which translates into >20% of continental mass lost by weathering (40% by delamination). Chemical weathering leaves behind a more Si-rich and Mg-poor crust, which is less dense and hence decreases the probability of crustal recycling by subduction. Net continental growth is thus modulated by chemical weathering and likely influenced by secular changes in weathering mechanisms.

  19. Petroleum Technology Transfer Council boosts North Mid-continent technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, D.

    1995-10-01

    The Kansas Tertiary Oil Recovery Project served as one of the primary models for the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council, so it`s fitting this series on regional applications should start with the North Mid-Continent organization. The technology transfer program is described.

  20. Choosing and using disposable body-worn continence pads.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Rachel

    Disposable, body-worn pads are the product most commonly chosen to contain and absorb urine and faeces (Pomfret, 2000). The cost to the NHS of supplying continence pads has been estimated at 80 million pounds per annum (Euromonitor, 1999) and is a huge financial burden on local services. PMID:16052946

  1. Improving continence services--a case study in policy influence.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sue; Billington, Angela; Getliffe, Kathryn

    2004-07-01

    This article presents a case history of the process followed by a group of nurses who used their power and influence to improve the provision of continence services within the National Health Service in England. The process and outcomes demonstrate how nurses can achieve change using their political influence combined with a planned or evolving strategy. PMID:15209570

  2. 21 CFR 876.5310 - Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device. 876.5310 Section 876.5310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices §...

  3. 21 CFR 876.5310 - Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device. 876.5310 Section 876.5310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices §...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Implanted electrical urinary continence device. 876.5270 Section 876.5270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices §...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5310 - Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device. 876.5310 Section 876.5310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices §...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Implanted electrical urinary continence device. 876.5270 Section 876.5270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices §...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Implanted electrical urinary continence device. 876.5270 Section 876.5270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices §...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5310 - Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device. 876.5310 Section 876.5310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices §...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Implanted electrical urinary continence device. 876.5270 Section 876.5270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices §...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted electrical urinary continence device. 876.5270 Section 876.5270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices §...

  11. Regulating continent growth and composition by chemical weathering

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus; Morton, Douglas M.; Little, Mark G.; Kistler, Ronald; Horodyskyj, Ulyana N.; Leeman, William P.; Agranier, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    Continents ride high above the ocean floor because they are underlain by thick, low-density, Si-rich, and Mg-poor crust. However, the parental magmas of continents were basaltic, which means they must have lost Mg relative to Si during their maturation into continents. Igneous differentiation followed by lower crustal delamination and chemical weathering followed by subduction recycling are possible solutions, but the relative magnitudes of each process have never been quantitatively constrained because of the lack of appropriate data. Here, we show that the relative contributions of these processes can be obtained by simultaneous examination of Mg and Li (an analog for Mg) on the regional and global scales in arcs, delaminated lower crust, and river waters. At least 20% of Mg is lost from continents by weathering, which translates into >20% of continental mass lost by weathering (40% by delamination). Chemical weathering leaves behind a more Si-rich and Mg-poor crust, which is less dense and hence decreases the probability of crustal recycling by subduction. Net continental growth is thus modulated by chemical weathering and likely influenced by secular changes in weathering mechanisms. PMID:18362343

  12. Improving continence services--a case study in policy influence.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sue; Billington, Angela; Getliffe, Kathryn

    2004-07-01

    This article presents a case history of the process followed by a group of nurses who used their power and influence to improve the provision of continence services within the National Health Service in England. The process and outcomes demonstrate how nurses can achieve change using their political influence combined with a planned or evolving strategy.

  13. Estimating maritime snow density from seasonal climate variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, K. J.; Evans, J. P.; Westra, S.; McCabe, M. F.; Painter, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Snow density is a complex parameter that influences thermal, optical and mechanical snow properties and processes. Depth-integrated properties of snowpacks, including snow density, remain very difficult to obtain remotely. Observations of snow density are therefore limited to in-situ point locations. In maritime snowfields such as those in Australia and in parts of the western US, snow densification rates are enhanced and inter-annual variability is high compared to continental snow regions. In-situ snow observation networks in maritime climates often cannot characterise the variability in snowpack properties at spatial and temporal resolutions required for many modelling and observations-based applications. Regionalised density-time curves are commonly used to approximate snow densities over broad areas. However, these relationships have limited spatial applicability and do not allow for interannual variability in densification rates, which are important in maritime environments. Physically-based density models are relatively complex and rely on empirical algorithms derived from limited observations, which may not represent the variability observed in maritime snow. In this study, seasonal climate factors were used to estimate late season snow densities using multiple linear regressions. Daily snow density estimates were then obtained by projecting linearly to fresh snow densities at the start of the season. When applied spatially, the daily snow density fields compare well to in-situ observations across multiple sites in Australia, and provide a new method for extrapolating existing snow density datasets in maritime snow environments. While the relatively simple algorithm for estimating snow densities has been used in this study to constrain snowmelt rates in a temperature-index model, the estimates may also be used to incorporate variability in snow depth to snow water equivalent conversion.

  14. El Niño phases embedded in Asian and North American drought reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinbao; Xie, Shang-Ping; Cook, Edward R.

    2014-02-01

    The amplitude of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) varies substantially at each phase of its evolution, affecting the timing and patterns of atmospheric teleconnections around the globe. Instrumental records are too short to capture the full behavior of ENSO variability. Here we use the well-validated Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA) and North America Drought Atlas (NADA) for the past 700 years, and show that tree-ring records from different regions represent tropical sea surface temperature (SST) conditions at various phases of ENSO. Three modes of tree-ring based summer drought variability are found to be correlated with ENSO: summer droughts over the Maritime Continent and Southwest North America (NA), and a dipole mode between Central and South Asia. A lagged correlation analysis is performed to determine the time when precipitation and temperature anomaly imprints on summer droughts as recorded in tree-rings. Drought anomalies in the Maritime Continent and Southwest NA represent ENSO at the developing and peak phases respectively, while those over Central/South Asia are associated with tropical-wide SST anomalies (including the Indian Ocean) at the decay phase of ENSO. Thus proxy records from different regions can provide valuable information on long-term behavior of ENSO at different phases.

  15. Contacts and Conflicts; The Asian Immigration Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Asian American Studies Center.

    In this curriculum guide to the Asian immigration experience, the topics discussed include: major immigration periods, early contributions of Asian immigrants, Chinese immigration, Japanese immigration, Filipino immigration, Korean immigration, early Asian women in America, Asian immigration to Hawaii, anti-Asian hostility, the exploitation of…

  16. Current Update in Asian Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary: There has been a tremendous growth of cosmetic surgery among Asians worldwide. Rhinoplasty is second only to blepharoplasty in terms of popularity among Asians regarding cosmetic surgical procedures. Most Asians seek to improve their appearance while maintaining the essential features of their ethnicity. There are considerable ethnic nasal and facial variations in this population alone. Successful rhinoplasty in Asians must take into account underlying anatomic differences between Asians and whites. Due to ethnic variations, cultural differences, and occasional language barriers, careful preoperative counseling is necessary to align the patient’s expectations with the limitations of the procedure. This article will review the many facets of Asian rhinoplasty as it is practiced today. PMID:25289326

  17. An Overview of Asian Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; An, Yang; Yang, Xin

    2016-02-01

    East Asian rhinoplasty is an expanding topic in the field of rhinoplasty. Although the main principles of various rhinoplasty techniques apply equally to the East Asian nose, East Asian rhinoplasty is unique owing to its different anatomy and ethnicity. In recent years, there have been some noteworthy developments in East Asian rhinoplasty. Traditional techniques using alloplastic implants with endonasal approach are changing due to the advent of new beauty concept, introduction of new techniques, and development of newly improved materials expended polytetrafluoroethylene as an alloplastic material has gained popularity in Asian augmentation rhinoplasty. Soft expended polytetrafluoroethylene sheets as augmentation material provide promise in the future. In this review, we will highlight some of the recent advances of Asian rhinoplasty with emphasis on dorsal augmentation, advances in implant material, and tip surgery using autologous cartilage. PMID:27404467

  18. Cooperative program for Asian pediatricians.

    PubMed

    Sakakihara, Y; Nakamura, Y

    1993-12-01

    The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians (CPAP) is a non-government organization established in 1989 to promote mutual understanding and friendship among young pediatricians in Asian countries. Unlike other government programs and non-government organizations, CPAP is solely facilitating mutual relationships among young inexperienced pediatricians who would otherwise have no chance to travel overseas. It has been funded by donations from members of the alumni association of the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Tokyo and many private companies and individuals. The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians has so far invited 36 Asian pediatricians from 11 countries. By constructing a human network among Asian pediatricians, it is hoped that CPAP will contribute to making international cooperation in the Asian region easier and smoother.

  19. Oceanic plateaus, the fragmentation of continents, and mountain building

    SciTech Connect

    Nur, A.; Ben-Avraham, Z.

    1982-05-10

    Many anomalous rises in today's oceans may be submerged continental fragments detached from previous continents, ancient island arcs, or basaltic piles formed by hot spots and spreading centers. These rises are embedded in their respective moving oceanic plates and are fated to be consumed at active margins. Where such rises are being consumed at present, e.g., the Nazca Ridge, they cause cessation of volcanism, disruption of the downgoing slab, and possible shifts in plate boundary configuration. Many past rises, including numerous continental fragments have been recognized within mountain belts as allochthonous terranes. They constitute a large portion of the orogenic belts in the North Pacific from Mexico through western North America, Alaska, east Siberia, Japan and in New Zealand. The orogenic deformation in these belts is possibly the result of the accretion of the allochtronous terranes. Many terranes have been accreted with substantial deformation also in the Alpine chain, well before major continent-continent collisions. It is suggested, therefore, that the accretion of fragments may be the common process of the deformation phase of mountain building. Subduction of normal oceanic crust may be insufficient for deformation, whereas full continent-continent collision may be necessary. The general validity of this conclusion depends critically on whether allochthonous terranes caused orogenic deformation in the Andes or not. Most of the accreted fragments with continental affinites in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic orogenic belts of the world can be traced back to the breakup of Gondwana, beginning with a Pacifica domain in the Permian through a larger India domain in the early Mesozoic and continuing through the separation of the Somalia plate in the near future. The reasons for this 250 million year breakup process are not known, but some kind of thermal process, possible of mantle-wide scale, is implied.

  20. Teleconnection Linking Asian/Pacific Monsoon Variability and Summertime Droughts and Floods Over the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K. M.; Weng, Hengyi

    2000-01-01

    Major droughts and floods over the U.S. continent may be related to a far field energy source in the Asian Pacific. This is illustrated by two climate patterns associated with summertime rainfall over the U.S. and large-scale circulation on interannual timescale. The first shows an opposite variation between the drought/flood over the Midwest and that over eastern and southeastern U.S., coupled to a coherent wave pattern spanning the entire East Asia-North Pacific-North America region related to the East Asian jetstream. The second shows a continental-scale drought/flood in the central U.S., coupled to a wavetrain linking Asian/Pacific monsoon region to North America.

  1. To promote peaceful and collaborative resolution of maritime territorial disputes in the South China Sea and its environs and other maritime areas adjacent to the East Asian mainland.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Faleomavaega, Eni F. H. [D-AS-At Large

    2012-08-02

    09/12/2012 Committee Agreed to Seek Consideration Under Suspension of the Rules, (Amended) by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific Islanders, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the fourth leading cause of infant mortality. Asian/Pacific Islanders women generally have lower infant mortality rates ...

  3. Commissioning continence services--turning policy into action.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sue

    2004-05-18

    Incontinence of urine and faeces is a major issue in health care today. The financial cost is enormous with the NHS purchasing an annual 80 m Pounds worth of absorbent products alone (Euromonitor, 1999). But the financial cost is only part of the equation. Incontinence also has a considerable impact on the quality of life of those who experience it. The nature and impact on quality of life varies among individuals. However, where expert services are available cure rates can exceed 50 per cent (Royal College of Physicians, 1995). This suggests that specialist continence services have a vital role to play in helping patients improve their incontinence or manage their continence problems more effectively. PMID:15176280

  4. The Asian in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Stanford M.

    Articles, essays, and book reviews on Asian Americans are included in this anthology. The articles focus on some of the following topics: (1) the Chinese diaspora in America from 1850 to 1943, (2) the significance of Asians in American society, (3) the Chinese on the urban frontier, (4) marriage and the family among Chinese immigrants to America…

  5. The Asian Woman in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumagai, Gloria L.

    Asian women have been in the United States for over one hundred and twenty years. They are, however, still victims of both sexual and racial stereotyping, the "cheap labor" syndrome, and are denied the opportunity to learn about their own history, heritage, and culture. Traditional female roles among Asian immigrants and a legacy of discriminatory…

  6. Multicultural Education and Asian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell

    Areas for reform in teaching Asian culture are discussed, and resources and bibliographies for existing curriculum are presented. The paper emphasizes that materials on Asian Americans need to be incorporated into school curricula to (a) counter existing inaccurate or derogatory prejudices or behaviors; (b) counter the inaccurate, incomplete, and…

  7. Southeast Asian Refugee Parent Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Mary M.

    This paper summarizes the findings of a descriptive research project conducted among Southeast Asian parents in an Oregon school district, and discusses the issue of fieldwork methodology among refugee populations. The district studied had a student population of 18,000 (kindergarten through grade 12), with Southeast Asian refugees accounting for…

  8. Handbook of Asian American Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lee C., Ed.; Zane, Nolan W. S., Ed.

    This handbook integrates descriptions and evaluations of current psychological research on all ethnic subgroups of Asian Americans, providing insights into the diverse and varied nature of Asian American cultures. Following a Foreword by Dick Suinn, the chapters are: (1) "An Overview" (Lee C. Lee); (2) "Research Methods: The Construct Validity of…

  9. The Asian Newspaper's Reluctant Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, John A., Ed.

    This book is composed of 19 articles written by both Asian and American scholars on the history and present conditions of newspapers in 15 Asian nations: China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Australia, Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, the Philippines, Thailand, South Vietnam, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan. Two overviews of the Asian…

  10. Basic Skills in Asian Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    This publication contains field tested learning activities which will help secondary students develop basic skills while learning about Asian history, culture, and geography. The activities can be used or easily adapted by teachers in any Asian studies course. The publication is organized by the skills taught. These are: reading; applying…

  11. Prostate cancer in Asian men.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kazuto

    2014-04-01

    Prostate cancer incidence and mortality in most native Asian populations have gradually increased, but are around one-third lower than in corresponding Asian-American cohorts, which are themselves lower than the rates observed in other American cohorts. Although genetic and environmental factors, particularly a Western diet, could partially explain these differences, lower exposure to PSA screening in Asian individuals might be a major contributing factor. Genetic features and diet are, however, unlikely to differ substantially within the same region of Asia, and age-stratified PSA levels in men from various Asian countries are almost identical; therefore, variation in the epidemiology of prostate cancer among native Asian populations might be attributable to differences in access to PSA testing, urology clinics, and available therapies. Conversely, the proportion of patients with metastatic prostate cancer is substantially higher even in the more developed Asian countries than in migratory Asian populations residing in Western countries and in Westerners. Consequently, the most appropriate approaches to the management of prostate cancer in Asian countries probably also differ, and therefore individualized prostate cancer screening and treatment strategies based on the epidemiological features and socioeconomic status of each country are needed.

  12. Additional Resources on Asian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodama, Corinne Maekawa; Lee, Sunny; Liang, Christopher T. H.; Alvarez, Alvin N.; McEwen, Marylu K.

    2002-01-01

    The authors identify Asian American associations and organizations, academic journals, periodicals, and media resources. Selected annotated resources on Asian American activism and politics, counseling and psychology, educational issues, gender and sexual orientation, history, policy reports, and racial and ethnic identity are also included.…

  13. SECURITY MODELING FOR MARITIME PORT DEFENSE RESOURCE ALLOCATION

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, S.; Dunn, D.

    2010-09-07

    Redeployment of existing law enforcement resources and optimal use of geographic terrain are examined for countering the threat of a maritime based small-vessel radiological or nuclear attack. The evaluation was based on modeling conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory that involved the development of options for defensive resource allocation that can reduce the risk of a maritime based radiological or nuclear threat. A diverse range of potential attack scenarios has been assessed. As a result of identifying vulnerable pathways, effective countermeasures can be deployed using current resources. The modeling involved the use of the Automated Vulnerability Evaluation for Risks of Terrorism (AVERT{reg_sign}) software to conduct computer based simulation modeling. The models provided estimates for the probability of encountering an adversary based on allocated resources including response boats, patrol boats and helicopters over various environmental conditions including day, night, rough seas and various traffic flow rates.

  14. URANIUM DETECTION USING SMALL SCINTILLATORS IN A MARITIME ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K; Donna Beals, D; Ken Odell, K

    2006-05-12

    The performance of several commercially available portable radiation spectrometers containing small NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors has been studied at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These hand-held radioisotope identifiers are used by field personnel to detect and identify the illegal transport of uranium as a deterrent to undeclared nuclear proliferation or nuclear terrorism. The detection of uranium in a variety of chemical forms and isotopic enrichments presents some unique challenges in the maritime environment. This study was conducted using a variety of shielded and unshielded uranium sources in a simulated maritime environment. The results include estimates of the detection sensitivity for various isotopic enrichments and configurations using the manufacturer's spectral analysis firmware. More sophisticated methods for analyzing the spectra off-line are also evaluated to determine the detection limits and enrichment sensitivities from the field measurements.

  15. L-band maritime experiments. [using ATS 6 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandel, D. L.; Kaminsky, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented for the technical experiments conducted by the U.S. Maritime Administration (MARAD) using the ATS-6 satellite operating in the L-band fan beam mode. The MARAD experiments were conducted with satellite terminals placed on two commercial ships for evaluation of the communication service similar to that which will be available with a maritime commercial satellite system. Evaluation of position determination with a satellite was also made. Three modems having voice and digital data and a stabilized shipboard L-band antenna system were assessed. The ship antenna demonstrated successful tracking of the satellites for test period intervals of 4 to 6 hr without the need for operator adjustment. The ship position determination tests showed good measurement repeatability. The data analyzed supported the ability of future commercial satellite systems to achieve a probability of bit error of better than 0.00001.

  16. [Tick-borne encephalitis in the Maritime Territory].

    PubMed

    Leonov, G N; Somov, G P

    1989-07-01

    On the basis of epidemiological analysis carried out at the period of 1940-1987, a decrease in tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) morbidity was registered; at the same time time the disease invariably took, as before, a clinically severe course. The most dangerous foci of TBE were found to be located in the southern Okhotsk region grown with dark coniferous forests. The subsiding and activation of the natural foci of TBE in different regions of the territory were established and some heretofore unknown foci in southern regions of the Maritime Territory were found. Ixodes mites inhabiting the Maritime Territory were shown to have a low level of virus carriership, thus causing the low level of population immunity to TBE virus. Combined foci of TBE and Powassan encephalitis were found.

  17. Mid-continent natural gas reservoirs and plays

    SciTech Connect

    Bebout, D.G. )

    1993-09-01

    Natural gas reservoirs of the mid-continent states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Arkansas (northern part) have produced 103 trillion cubic ft (tcf) of natural gas. Oklahoma has produced the most, having a cumulative production of 71 tcf. The major reservoirs (those that have produced more than 10 billion ft[sup 3]) have been identified and organized into 28 plays based on geologic age, lithology, and depositional environment. The Atlas of Major Midcontinent Gas Reservoirs, published in 1993, provides the documentation for these plays. This atlas was a collaborative effort of the Gas Research Institute; Bureau of Economic Geology. The University of Texas at Austin; Arkansas Geological Commission; Kansas Geological survey; and Oklahoma Geological Survey. Total cumulative production for 530 major reservoirs is 66 tcf associated and nonassociated gas. Oklahoma has the highest production with 39 tcf from 390 major reservoirs, followed by Kansas with 26 tcf from 105 major reservoirs. Most of the mid-continent production is from Pennsylvanian (46%) and Permian (41%) reservoirs; Mississippian reservoirs account for 10% production, and lower Paleozoic reservoirs, 3%. The largest play by far is the Wolfcampian Shallow Shelf Carbonate-Hugoton Embayment play with 25 tcf cumulative production, most of which is from the Hugoton and Panoma fields in Kansas and Guymon-Hugoton gas area in Oklahoma. A total of 53% of the mid-continent gas production is from dolostone and limestone reservoirs; 39% is from sandstone reservoirs. The remaining 8% is from chert conglomerate and granite-wash reservoirs. Geologically based plays established from the distribution of major gas reservoirs provide important support for the extension of productive trends, application of new resource technology to more efficient field development, and further exploration in the mid-continent region.

  18. Durability of the Malone antegrade continence enema in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wren, Francis J; Reese, Carl T; Decter, Ross M

    2003-03-01

    The Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) is a therapeutic option to treat chronic constipation and fecal incontinence in patients with neurogenic bowel. Previous reports have described the short-term success of this procedure, but no report has described the durability of the procedure during pregnancy. We present the case of a spinal cord injury patient who underwent an uncomplicated pregnancy after a MACE procedure with no stomal catheterization difficulties or leakage during or after the pregnancy.

  19. Mid-Continent rift system - a frontier hydrocarbon province

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.K.; Kerr, S.D. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    Geophysical evidence in the Mid-Continent has led to delineation of a rift system active during the Proterozoic Y Era. The Mid-Continent rift system can be traced by the Mid-Continent gravity high and corresponding aeromagnetic anomaly signature from the surface exposure of the Keweenawan Supergroup in the Lake Superior basin southwest in the subsurface through Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. The aeromagnetic anomaly signature of the rift trend discloses where these sediments have been preserved. Thick accumulations of upper Proterozoic sediments are indicated by both upward continuation of the aeromagnetic profiles across the rift trend and gravity models which incorporate: 1) a deep mafic body to create the narrow gravity high, 2) anomalously thick crust to account for the more regional gravity low, and 3) sedimentary accumulations on the Precambrian surface to explain the small-scale notches which occur within the narrow gravity high. Reflection seismic data are virtually unknown in the rift area; however, data recently acquired by COCORP across the southern end of the feature in Kansas provide evidence of thick stratified sequences in the rift valley. Studies of the East African rift have revealed that the tropical rift valley is an exceptionally fertile environment for deposition and preservation of kerogenous material. The Sirte, Suez, Viking, Dnieper-Donetz, and Tsaidam basins are just a few of the rift basins currently classed as giant producers. The existence of a rift basin trend with thick accumulations of preserved sediments, demonstrably organic rich, introduces the northern Mid-Continent US as a new frontier for hydrocarbon exploration.

  20. East Asian observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, F. R.

    East Asian observations are of established importance in Applied Historical Astronomy. The earliest astronomical records from this part of the world (China, Japan and Korea) originate from China. These observations, mainly of lunar eclipses, are recorded on oracle bones from the period ca. 1300 - 1050 BC. Virtually all later Chinese and other East Asian astronomical records now exist only in printed copies. The earliest surviving series of solar eclipse observations from any part of the world is contained in the Chunqiu (722 - 481 BC), a chronicle of the Chinese state of Lu. However, not until after 200 BC, with the establishment of a stable empire in China, do detailed astronomical records survive. These are mainly contained in specially compiled astrological treatises in the official dynastic histories. Such records, following the traditional style, extend down to the start of the present century. All classes of phenomena visible to the unaided eye are represented: solar and lunar eclipses, lunar and planetary movements among the constellations, comets, novae and supernovae, meteors, sunspots and the aurora borealis. Parallel, but independent series of observations are recorded in Japanese and Korean history, especially after about AD 800. Sources of Japanese records tend to be more diverse than their Chinese and Korean counterparts, but fortunately Kanda Shigeru (1935) and Ohsaki Shyoji (1994) have made extensive compilations of Japanese astronomical observations down to the 1860s. Throughout East Asia, dates were expressed in terms of a luni-solar calendar.

  1. Development of an unmanned maritime system reference architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Christiane N.; Cramer, Megan A.; Stack, Jason R.

    2014-06-01

    The concept of operations (CONOPS) for unmanned maritime systems (UMS) continues to envision systems that are multi-mission, re-configurable and capable of acceptable performance over a wide range of environmental and contextual variability. Key enablers for these concepts of operation are an autonomy module which can execute different mission directives and a mission payload consisting of re-configurable sensor or effector suites. This level of modularity in mission payloads enables affordability, flexibility (i.e., more capability with future platforms) and scalability (i.e., force multiplication). The modularity in autonomy facilitates rapid technology integration, prototyping, testing and leveraging of state-of-the-art advances in autonomy research. Capability drivers imply a requirement to maintain an open architecture design for both research and acquisition programs. As the maritime platforms become more stable in their design (e.g. unmanned surface vehicles, unmanned underwater vehicles) future developments are able to focus on more capable sensors and more robust autonomy algorithms. To respond to Fleet needs, given an evolving threat, programs will want to interchange the latest sensor or a new and improved algorithm in a cost effective and efficient manner. In order to make this possible, the programs need a reference architecture that will define for technology providers where their piece fits and how to successfully integrate. With these concerns in mind, the US Navy established the Unmanned Maritime Systems Reference Architecture (UMS-RA) Working Group in August 2011. This group consists of Department of Defense and industry participants working the problem of defining reference architecture for autonomous operations of maritime systems. This paper summarizes its efforts to date.

  2. Unmanned vehicles for maritime spill response case study: Exercise Cathach.

    PubMed

    Dooly, Gerard; Omerdic, Edin; Coleman, Joseph; Miller, Liam; Kaknjo, Admir; Hayes, James; Braga, Jóse; Ferreira, Filipe; Conlon, Hugh; Barry, Hugh; Marcos-Olaya, Jesús; Tuohy, Thomas; Sousa, João; Toal, Dan

    2016-09-15

    This paper deals with two aspects, namely a historical analysis of the use of unmanned vehicles (UAVs ROVs, AUVs) in maritime spill incidents and a detailed description of a multi-agency oil and HNS incident response exercise involving the integration and analysis of unmanned vehicles environmental sensing equipment. The exercise was a first in terms of the level of robotic systems deployed to assist in survey, surveillance and inspection roles for oil spills and harmful and noxious substances.

  3. Performance of infrared systems in swimmer detection for maritime security.

    PubMed

    Krapels, Keith; Driggers, Ronald G; Garcia Iii, Jose F

    2007-09-17

    The detection of swimmer activity in harbor areas around piers and ships is an important aspect of Anti-Terrorism/Force Protection (AT/FP) sensing efforts in the U.S. Navy and Coast Guard. A series of data collections and perception experiments were conducted to validate the use of thermal target acquisition models against swimmer targets. The results were analyzed to derive the discrimination criteria necessary for sensor design for maritime force protection.

  4. Inference of vessel intent and behaviour for maritime security operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Broek, Bert; Smith, Arthur; den Breejen, Eric; van de Voorde, Imelda

    2014-10-01

    Coastguard and Navy assets are increasingly involved in Maritime Security Operations (MSO) for countering piracy, weapons and drugs smuggling, terrorism and illegal trafficking. Persistent tracking of vessels in interrupted time series over long distances and the modelling of intent and behaviour from multiple data sources are key enablers for Situation Assessment in MSO. Results of situation assessment are presented for AIS/VTS observations in the Dutch North Sea and for simulated scenarios in the Gulf of Oman.

  5. Unmanned vehicles for maritime spill response case study: Exercise Cathach.

    PubMed

    Dooly, Gerard; Omerdic, Edin; Coleman, Joseph; Miller, Liam; Kaknjo, Admir; Hayes, James; Braga, Jóse; Ferreira, Filipe; Conlon, Hugh; Barry, Hugh; Marcos-Olaya, Jesús; Tuohy, Thomas; Sousa, João; Toal, Dan

    2016-09-15

    This paper deals with two aspects, namely a historical analysis of the use of unmanned vehicles (UAVs ROVs, AUVs) in maritime spill incidents and a detailed description of a multi-agency oil and HNS incident response exercise involving the integration and analysis of unmanned vehicles environmental sensing equipment. The exercise was a first in terms of the level of robotic systems deployed to assist in survey, surveillance and inspection roles for oil spills and harmful and noxious substances. PMID:27339741

  6. Observational Evidence of Changes in Soil Temperatures across Eurasian Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.

    2015-12-01

    Soil temperature is one of the key climate change indicators and plays an important role in plant growth, agriculture, carbon cycle and ecosystems as a whole. In this study, variability and changes in ground surface and soil temperatures up to 3.20 m were investigated based on data and information obtained from hydrometeorological stations across Eurasian continent since the early 1950s. Ground surface and soil temperatures were measured daily by using the same standard method and by the trained professionals across Eurasian continent, which makes the dataset unique and comparable over a large study region. Using the daily soil temperature profiles, soil seasonal freeze depth was also obtained through linear interpolation. Preliminary results show that soil temperatures at various depths have increased dramatically, almost twice as much as air temperature increase over the same period. Regionally, soil temperature increase was more dramatically in high northern latitudes than mid/lower latitude regions. Air temperature changes alone may not be able to fully explain the magnitude of changes in soil temperatures. Further study indicates that snow cover establishment started later in autumn and snow cover disappearance occurred earlier in spring, while winter snow depth became thicker with a decreasing trend of snow density. Changes in snow cover conditions may play an important role in changes of soil temperatures over the Eurasian continent.

  7. Mid-Continent rift system: a frontier hydrocarbon province

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.K.; Kerr, S.D. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    The Mid-Continent rift system can be traced by the Mid-Continent geophysical anomaly (MGA) from the surface exposure of the Keweenawan Supergroup in the Lake Superior basin southwest in the subsurface through Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. Outcrop and well penetrations of the late rift Keweenawan sedimentary rocks reveal sediments reflecting a characteristic early continental rift clastic sequence, including alluvial fans, deep organic-rich basins, and prograding fluvial plains. Sedimentary basins where these early rift sediments are preserved can be located by upward continuation of the aeromagnetic profiles across the rift trend and by gravity models. Studies of analog continental rifts and aulacogens show that these gravity models should incorporate (1) a deep mafic rift pillow body to create the narrow gravity high of the MGA, and (2) anomalously thick crust to account for the more regional gravity low. Preserved accumulations of rift clastics in central rift positions can then be modeled to explain the small scale notches which are found within the narrow gravity high. Indigenous oil in Keweenawan sediments in the outcrop area and coaly partings in the subsurface penetrations of the Keweenawan clastics support the analogy between these rift sediments and the exceptionally organic-rich sediments of the East African rift. COCORP data across the rift trend in Kansas show layered deep reflectors and large structures. There is demonstrable source, reservoir, and trap potential within the Keweenawan trend, making the Mid-Continent rift system a frontier hydrocarbon province.

  8. Mid-continent rift system: a frontier hydrocarbon province

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.K.; Kerr, S.D. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    The Mid-continent rift system can be traced by the Mid-continent geophysical anomaly (MGA) from the surface exposure of the Keweenawan Supergroup in the Lake Superior basin southwest in the subsurface through Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. Outcrop and well penetrations of the late rift Keweenawan sedimentary rocks reveal sediments reflecting a characteristic early continental rift clastic sequence, including alluvial fans, deep organic-rich basins, and prograding fluvial plains. Sedimentary basins where these early rift sediments are preserved can be located by upward continuation of the aeromagnetic profiles across the rift trend and by gravity models. Studies of analog continental rifts and aulacogens show that these gravity models should incorporate (1) a deep mafic rift pillow body to create the narrow gravity high of the MGA, and (2) anomalously thick crust to account for the more regional gravity low. Preserved accumulations of rift clastics in central rift positions can then be modeled to explain the small scale notches which are found within the narrow gravity high. Indigenous oil in Keweenawan sediments in the outcrop area and coaly partings in the subsurface penetrations of the Keweenawan clastics support the analogy between these rift sediments and the exceptionally organic-rich sediments of the East African rift. COCORP data across the rift trend in Kansas show layered deep reflectors and large structures. There is demonstrable source, reservoir, and trap potential within the Keweenawan trend, making the Mid-Continent rift system a frontier hydrocarbon province.

  9. Comparative estimate of volcanism intensity on continents and in oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Ronov, A.B.; Khain, V.E.; Balukhovskii, A.N.

    1980-12-01

    A quantitative estimate of the volume of volcanogenic rocks and the volcanism intensity during different stages in the Earth's development indicates that the total volume of the tholeiitic basalts of Layer II of the oceans exceeds by 20 times that of the synchronous late Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanics of the continents and is almost 5 times greater than the volume of the volcanogenic rocks of the entire Phanerozoic sequence of the continents. The absolute maxima of volcanism, determined on the basis of the area and volume of the corresponding volcanics, belong to the Late Cretaceous and Miocene intervals. Changes in the volcanic eruption areas took place synchronously in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans. The volcanism intensity, expressed in the volume of its products in km/sup 3/ per m.y., increases in the oceans from Late Jurassic to Pliocene time. During the Riphean and Vendian intervals, the volcanism intensity on the continents remained at an extremely low level, then increased during early Paleozoic time, and underwent a marked jump, beginning in the Devonian Period. Since Late Jurassic time, the intensity of global volcanism increased unusually sharply and reached its culmination during Neogene time.

  10. Spatial, Temporal and Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Maritime Piracy

    PubMed Central

    Marchione, Elio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To examine patterns in the timing and location of incidents of maritime piracy to see whether, like many urban crimes, attacks cluster in space and time. Methods: Data for all incidents of maritime piracy worldwide recorded by the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency are analyzed using time-series models and methods originally developed to detect disease contagion. Results: At the macro level, analyses suggest that incidents of pirate attacks are concentrated in five subregions of the earth’s oceans and that the time series for these different subregions differ. At the micro level, analyses suggest that for the last 16 years (or more), pirate attacks appear to cluster in space and time suggesting that patterns are not static but are also not random. Conclusions: Much like other types of crime, pirate attacks cluster in space, and following an attack at one location the risk of others at the same location or nearby is temporarily elevated. The identification of such regularities has implications for the understanding of maritime piracy and for predicting the future locations of attacks. PMID:25076796

  11. Training and Maritime Archaeology in a University Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parham, David; Palma, Paola

    2008-12-01

    This paper draws on experience gained by Bournemouth University to consider undergraduate education in maritime archaeology. At Bournemouth maritime archaeology is taught firmly in the context of a broader archaeological education. Archaeological programmes vary with the institutions within which they are taught, each programme thus having an individual character that separates it from that of other institutions and further enriches the subject through the breadth of this education. At Bournemouth the value of teaching archaeology with a high component of practical experience has been long understood. This does not mean that archaeology is taught as a purely practical subject but as one within which experience in the field is seen as a worthwhile focus. Bournemouth’s programme therefore recognises the value of field research projects as learning environments for undergraduates studying maritime archaeology. The programme is subject to a number of constraints, notably the size of the archaeological employment market, levels of pay within that market, questions of ongoing professional development after graduation, and the requirements of other employment markets into which archaeological graduates enter. This paper argues that research project-based learning, and in particular, involvement with amateur groups, provides a way to balance these constraints and supports development of both technical and transferable ‘soft’ skills.

  12. Continents on the Move or "Where in the World Did Antarctica Come From?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSTA Journal, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students trace the movement of the continents over the past 600 million years to help them understand how the continents' size and position have changed over time. Includes map puzzle pieces. (MKR)

  13. A Part, Yet Apart: South Asians in Asian America. Asian American History and Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankar, Lavina Dhingra, Ed.; Srikanth, Rajini, Ed.

    The essays in this collection consider the extent to which South Asian Americans are included within "Asian America" as the term is applied to academic programs and admissions policies, grassroots community organizing and politics, and critical analyses of cultural products. The essays are: (1) "Within Kaleidoscope Eyes: The Potential (Dangers) of…

  14. [Surgical therapy of chronic anal fissure--do additional proctologic operations impair continence?].

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, J; Berger, A; Uranüs, S

    1994-07-01

    78 patients with chronic anal fissures have been mainly operated on by lateral internal sphincterotomy (LATS). Continence have been evaluated by questionnaire at least 9 months postoperatively. Patient without any additional proctological operation had minor disturbances of continence in 17%. Patient with additional operations had disturbances of continence in 30%. Especially the subgroup of patients with LATS and haemorrhoidectomy had bad results. In this group only 45% were fully continent.

  15. Application of infrared imaging systems to maritime security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Debing

    Enhancing maritime security through video based systems is a very challenging task, not only due to the different scales of vessels to be monitored, but also due to the constantly changing background and environmental conditions. Yet video systems operating in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum have established themselves as one of the most crucial tools in maritime security. However, certain inherent limitations such as requirements of proper scene illumination and failure under low visibility weather conditions like fog could be overcome utilizing different spectral regions. Thermal imaging systems present themselves as a good alternative in maritime security. They could overcome these problems and allow for additional detection of local variation of water temperature, yet have been rarely used efficiently in maritime environment evaluated. Here we present a first order study of the advantage of using long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging for diver detection. Within these tasks we study the reasons and effects of bubbles on water surface in laboratory IR imaging study and have determined the changes in infrared emissivity and reflectivity due to the corresponding surface manifestation. This was compared and used to analyze experiments in the Hudson Estuary to the real-world applicability of infrared technology in maritime security application. Utilizing a LWIR camera, we limit ourselves on the detection of the scuba diver as well as the determination of its depth---information normally not obtainable in very low visibility water like the Hudson River. For this purpose we observed the thermal surface signature of the diver and obtained and analyzed its temporal behavior with respect to area, perimeter and infrared brightness. Additional qualitative and quantitative analyses of the area and perimeter growth show different behaviors with more or less pronounced correlation to the diver's depth---yet clearly showing a trend allowing for estimation of

  16. Diflucortolone valerate. Asian experience.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, G

    1988-01-01

    More than 10 years ago, diflucortolone valerate (Nerisone, Nerisona) was introduced in Germany and soon after in Asian countries in a concentration of 0.1% in cream, ointment and fatty ointment bases. 897 patients were included in the first Southeast Asian multicentre trial with these 3 formulations, and good efficacy and tolerability combined with a rapid onset of effect were shown. These results were confirmed later in Indonesia in an extended follow-up trial which included 1295 patients. A combination of 0.1% diflucortolone valerate with 1.0% chlorquinaldol was introduced after a multicentre Southeast Asian trial involving 8668 patients with inflammatory or allergic skin conditions for which a supplementary anti-infective treatment, for prophylaxis or therapy, was considered to be indicated. Excellent results were obtained in terms of efficacy, tolerability and cosmetic properties. A randomised double-blind trial comparing this preparation with a so-called 'shotgun' combination containing 0.05% betamethasone 17-valerate, 0.1% gentamicin, 1.0% tolnaftate and 1.0% clioquinol in 288 patients in the Philippines resulted in a better efficacy for the diflucortolone preparation in the 80 patients with bacterially or mycotically infected skin diseases. A 0.3% concentration of diflucortolone valerate was developed and introduced as a high potency topical corticosteroid. A trial in the Philippines which involved 143 patients with mostly severe chronic recurrent and resistant corticosteroid-responsive skin disease confirmed a pronounced clinical efficacy with a low incidence of side effects. For the treatment of inflammatory or eczematised dermatomycosis. 0.1% diflucortolone was combined with 1.0% isoconazole nitrate (Travocort). In a randomised double-blind study of 294 patients in Thailand, this preparation was compared with a plain 1.0% clotrimazole formulation. The results were significantly better for the diflucortolone plus isoconazole nitrate combination in terms of

  17. Break-up of the Greater Indo-Australian Continent and accretion of blocks framing South and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharyya, S. K.

    1998-09-01

    The Tibetan and 'Sibumasu' continental blocks rifted apart from the northern margin of Gondwanan Indo-Australia during the Permo-Carboniferous whereas, the IndoBurma-Andamans (IBA), Sikuleh, Lolotoi micro-continents did so during the Late Jurassic. This continental margin experienced glacial or cool conditions during the Permo-Carboniferous. The Tibetan and Sibumasu blocks drifted northward during mid-late Permian initiating opening of the Neo-Tethys. The arm of the Palaeo-Tethys located to the north of these blocks closed as these blocks were accreted to the South China and Indochina blocks which had separated from the same Gondwanan margin during early Palaeozoic. All these blocks were amalgamated to form the Cathaysialand. The Sibumasu block was accreted to the Indochina block, and the Tibetan Changtang block to Eurasia during the late Permian-mid Triassic. Contemporaneously Mesozoic Neo-Tethys expanded between the Indian, Lhasa and Changtang blocks. The Indian and Australian continents separated during the Cretaceous leading to the opening up of the Indian Ocean and closing of the Tethyan ocean. The Palaeo- and Neo-Tethyan sutures in Tibet, Yunnan, Myanmar, Laos-Thailand and Vietnam reveal the complex opening and closing history of the Tethys. IBA rotated clockwise from its earlier E-W orientation, because of dextral transcurrent fault movements which ensured faster northward movement of the Indian plate relative to Australia during late Cretaceous-early Eocene. Contemporaneous to India-Tibet terminal collision during early-mid Eocene there was thloeiitic-alkalic foreland volcanism (Abor and equivalents) at the leading edge of the Indian continent. Sustained post-collisional movement of the Indian plate, caused southward propagation of the Himalayan crystalline and frontal foreland thrust sheets. It also produced E-W trending folds and thrusts even in distal Central Indian Ocean areas as well as a clockwise rotation of the amalgamated SE Asian Cathaysian

  18. How Do People Make Continence Care Happen? An Analysis of Organizational Culture in Two Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Stacie Salsbury

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Although nursing homes (NHs) are criticized for offering poor quality continence care, little is known about the organizational processes that underlie this care. This study investigated the influence of organizational culture on continence care practices in two NHs. Design and Methods: This ethnographic study explored continence care…

  19. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence....5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence....5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by...

  1. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence....5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by...

  2. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence....5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by...

  3. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence....5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by...

  4. Asian migration to Australia: food and health consequences.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2002-01-01

    Australia's food and health patterns are inextricably and increasingly linked with Asia. Indigenous Australians arrived in the continent via Asia and have linguistic connections with people who settled in south India; there was interaction and food trade between both South-East Asia and China and northern indigenous Australians over thousands of years. After European settlement in 1788, there have been several and increasing (apart from the period of the infamous White Australian Policy following the Colonial period and Independence, with Federation, in 1901) waves of Asian migration, notably during the gold rush (Chinese), the building of the overland Telegraph (Afghans), the Colombo Plan and Asian student education in Australia from the 1950s onwards (South-Eeast Asians), and with refugees (Vietnamese and mainland Chinese), and business (late twentieth century) and progressive family reunion. Each wave has injected additional food cultural elements and caused a measure of health change for migrants and host citizens. Of principal advantage to Australia has been the progressive diversification of the food supply and associated health protection. This has increased food security and sustainability. The process of Australian eating patterns becoming Asianized is evident through market garden development (and the introduction of new foods), fresh food markets and groceries, restaurants and the development of household cooking skills (often taught by student boarders). Most of the diversification has been with grain (rice), legumes (soy), greens, root vegetables, and various 'exotic fruits'. Food acculturation with migration is generally bi-directional. Thus, for Asians in Australia, there has been a decrease in energy expenditure (and a lower plane of energy throughput), an increase in food energy density (through increased fat and sugary drink intakes), and a decrease in certain health protective foods (lentils, soy, greens) and beverages (tea). This sets the stage

  5. Asian migration to Australia: food and health consequences.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2002-01-01

    Australia's food and health patterns are inextricably and increasingly linked with Asia. Indigenous Australians arrived in the continent via Asia and have linguistic connections with people who settled in south India; there was interaction and food trade between both South-East Asia and China and northern indigenous Australians over thousands of years. After European settlement in 1788, there have been several and increasing (apart from the period of the infamous White Australian Policy following the Colonial period and Independence, with Federation, in 1901) waves of Asian migration, notably during the gold rush (Chinese), the building of the overland Telegraph (Afghans), the Colombo Plan and Asian student education in Australia from the 1950s onwards (South-Eeast Asians), and with refugees (Vietnamese and mainland Chinese), and business (late twentieth century) and progressive family reunion. Each wave has injected additional food cultural elements and caused a measure of health change for migrants and host citizens. Of principal advantage to Australia has been the progressive diversification of the food supply and associated health protection. This has increased food security and sustainability. The process of Australian eating patterns becoming Asianized is evident through market garden development (and the introduction of new foods), fresh food markets and groceries, restaurants and the development of household cooking skills (often taught by student boarders). Most of the diversification has been with grain (rice), legumes (soy), greens, root vegetables, and various 'exotic fruits'. Food acculturation with migration is generally bi-directional. Thus, for Asians in Australia, there has been a decrease in energy expenditure (and a lower plane of energy throughput), an increase in food energy density (through increased fat and sugary drink intakes), and a decrease in certain health protective foods (lentils, soy, greens) and beverages (tea). This sets the stage

  6. Working with Asian Parents: Some Communication Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Maryon

    1989-01-01

    Communication guidelines are offered to enhance the effectiveness of conferences between speech-language pathologists and parents of Asian minority children with communication disorders. Identified are relevant aspects of Asian culture, cultural factors which influence Asian parents' reactions to disabilities, and interpersonal styles of Asians.…

  7. Racism and Asian American Student Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Jennifer Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American…

  8. 76 FR 30154 - Maritime Communications/Land Mobile, LLC, Licensee of Various Authorizations in the Wireless...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...This document commences a hearing proceeding to determine ultimately whether Maritime Communications/Land Mobile, LLC (Maritime) is qualified to be and to remain a Commission licensee, and as a consequence whether any or all of its licenses should be revoked, and whether any or all of the applications to which Maritime is a party should be denied. The issues designated for hearing also include......

  9. Historical climates explain contrasting dormancy-breaking requirements in North American, Asian, and European woody species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohner, Constantin M.; Benito, Blas M.; Fridley, Jason D.; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Renner, Susanne S.

    2016-04-01

    Leaf-out times in temperate woody species are determined by winter chilling and spring warming, with day length playing a minor role. The species-specific relative importance of these phenological cues determines the sensitivity of leaf unfolding to climate warming in the globe's temperate forests. Using experimental and monitoring data on leaf-out cues in 495 woody species [about 1/3rd each from Asia, Europe, and North America (NA)], we show that NA species have higher winter chilling and spring warming requirements than do European and Asian species of similar genetic stock. The continent effect remained significant when controlling for the modern climates that species are adapted to, suggesting that contrasting historic climate conditions led to the differentiation of leaf-out strategies among NA, European, and Asian plants. The NA flora experienced more and longer periods of climatic instability and harshness (esp. since the Pliocene) than did southern Europe and East Asia, which may explain why NA species have higher dormancy requirements and leaf-out later than Asian species, which are characterized by a more shallow dormancy. That species from Asia require significantly less chilling than their NA relatives suggests contrasting responses of NA and Asian temperate forests to continued climate warming. Earlier leaf-out in NA trees and shrubs will be constrained by unmet chilling requirements as winters get warmer, whereas Asian woody species generally lack such temperature limitations.

  10. The Asian Dust and Aerosol Lidar Observation Network (AD-NET): Strategy and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Matsui, Ichiro; Shimizu, Atsushi; Higurashi, Akiko; Jin, Yoshitaka

    2016-06-01

    We have operated a ground-based lidar network AD-Net using dual wavelength (532, 1064nm) depolarization Mie lidar continuously and observed movement of Asian dust and air pollution aerosols in East Asia since 2001. This lidar network observation contributed to understanding of the occurrence and transport mechanisms of Asian dust, validation of chemical transport models, data assimilation and epidemiologic studies. To better understand the optical and microphysical properties, externally and internally mixing states, and the movements of Asian dust and airpollution aerosols, we go forward with introducing a multi-wavelength Raman lidar to the AD-Net and developing a multi-wavelength technique of HSRL in order to evaluate optical concentrations of more aerosol components. We will use this evolving AD-Net for validation of Earth-CARE satellite observation and data assimilation to evaluate emissions of air pollution and dust aerosols in East Asia. We go forward with deploying an in-situ instrument polarization optical particle counter (POPC), which can measure size distributions and non-sphericity of aerosols, to several main AD-Net sites and conducting simultaneous observation of POPC and lidar to clarify internally mixed state of Asian dust and air pollution aerosols transported from the Asian continent to Japan.

  11. 76 FR 8765 - Eastern Great Lakes Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Northeast Ohio. Also, an Executive Board member representing the maritime (on-water) law enforcement... subdivisions of the State; local public safety, crisis management, and emergency response agencies;...

  12. Currents in the mantle and the geology of continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. Tuzo

    1991-02-01

    This paper is the first of a series which have considered the possible effects of currents in the mantle upon continents. It mentions effects of aging in oceans upon the direction of slope of coastal peneplains. When oceans are young the coasts are cliffs from which peneplains dip downward on the inland side. As the margins separate from the ridge they cool and the slopes reverse. It suggests how Jeffreys' arguments against convection currents breaking the lithosphere can be avoided and discusses the possibility that upwelling has penetrated beneath the southwestern United States.

  13. International Continence Society guidelines on urodynamic equipment performance.

    PubMed

    Gammie, Andrew; Clarkson, Becky; Constantinou, Chris; Damaser, Margot; Drinnan, Michael; Geleijnse, Geert; Griffiths, Derek; Rosier, Peter; Schäfer, Werner; Van Mastrigt, Ron

    2014-04-01

    These guidelines provide benchmarks for the performance of urodynamic equipment, and have been developed by the International Continence Society to assist purchasing decisions, design requirements, and performance checks. The guidelines suggest ranges of specification for uroflowmetry, volume, pressure, and EMG measurement, along with recommendations for user interfaces and performance tests. Factors affecting measurement relating to the different technologies used are also described. Summary tables of essential and desirable features are included for ease of reference. It is emphasized that these guidelines can only contribute to good urodynamics if equipment is used properly, in accordance with good practice.

  14. MAGSAT and aeromagnetic data in the North American continent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Problems were encountered in deriving a proper reference field to be subtracted from the aeromagnetic data obtained from Project MAGNET. Field models tried thus far do not seem to eliminate properly the main field. The MAGSAT data in the North American continent for the period November 1 to December 22, 1979 are being compiled and compared with MAGNET data. Efforts are being made to eliminate the orbital bias errors. A computer program was developed and successfully tested which computes a topographic profile of the Curie depth isotherm which fits best to the observed vector or scalar field magnetic data.

  15. Savanna vegetation-fire-climate relationships differ among continents.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Caroline E R; Anderson, T Michael; Sankaran, Mahesh; Higgins, Steven I; Archibald, Sally; Hoffmann, William A; Hanan, Niall P; Williams, Richard J; Fensham, Roderick J; Felfili, Jeanine; Hutley, Lindsay B; Ratnam, Jayashree; San Jose, Jose; Montes, Ruben; Franklin, Don; Russell-Smith, Jeremy; Ryan, Casey M; Durigan, Giselda; Hiernaux, Pierre; Haidar, Ricardo; Bowman, David M J S; Bond, William J

    2014-01-31

    Ecologists have long sought to understand the factors controlling the structure of savanna vegetation. Using data from 2154 sites in savannas across Africa, Australia, and South America, we found that increasing moisture availability drives increases in fire and tree basal area, whereas fire reduces tree basal area. However, among continents, the magnitude of these effects varied substantially, so that a single model cannot adequately represent savanna woody biomass across these regions. Historical and environmental differences drive the regional variation in the functional relationships between woody vegetation, fire, and climate. These same differences will determine the regional responses of vegetation to future climates, with implications for global carbon stocks.

  16. Job satisfaction of Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C N; Hinson, S

    2000-04-01

    Since Asian Americans have demographic and labor force characteristics more similar to Euro-Americans than African Americans, one might predict that their job satisfaction would be more like the former than the latter. And, because Asian Americans originating from different countries are heterogeneous in language, culture, and recency of immigration, one might predict that they may report obtaining different amounts of satisfaction from their jobs. However, data from 21 nationally representative opinion surveys from 1972 through 1996 suggest the opposite. Asian Americans (n = 199) reported job satisfaction more like African Americans (n = 1,231) than Euro-Americans (n = 10,709), and Asian Americans from China (n = 53), Japan (n = 44), India (n = 55), and the Philippines (n = 47) reported similar job satisfaction. These differences persisted when age, education, occupation, and personal income were held constant.

  17. Advanced Ship Detection For Spaceborne Based Maritime Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radius, Andrea; Ferreira, Joao; Carmo, Paulo; Marques, Paulo

    2013-12-01

    In the last years the increase in marine traffic generated the necessity of global monitoring for marine environment management in terms of safety, security and fisheries. The increasing number of new satellite-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems, and the intrinsic capability of the transmitted electromagnetic pulses to interact with the ships and to retrieve its cinematic characteristics, made this instrument particularly fit to improve global maritime awareness through the fusion with cooperative data (AIS, VMS, LRIT). The growing need of global maritime awareness gave a push to the realization of different projects in the European context, each one focused on a different particular objective. Particularly useful is the synergy between the operational and research aspects, being the goal of the last to improve the state of the art in the field of ship detection. Two European projects are the key to strive this synergy: the project MARitime Security Service (MARISS), which implements the operational capability, and the R&D Dolphin projects, which is focused on the deep exploitation of remote sensing data and on the technological development of advanced techniques for ship detection and classification purposes, and Seabilla project, which is also dedicated to improve the current ship detection capability and to fuse all the available information from different data sources for border surveillance optimization. This paper introduces the multipurpose Edisoft Vessel Detection software (EdiVDC) implemented by the EDISOFT company, which comes from the necessity to respect increasingly stringent requirements in terms of ship detection. The EdiVDC software is being operationally used in the framework of the MARISS project and it integrates advanced processing algorithms, developed in the scope of the Dolphin project with the cooperation of ISEL-IT (Instituto de Telecomunicações), and data simulators, developed in the context of the Seabilla project, improving

  18. Tunable Vibration Energy Harvester for Condition Monitoring of Maritime Gearboxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, D.; Willmann, A.; Folkmer, B.; Manoli, Y.

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports on a new tuning concept, which enables the operation of a vibration generator for energy autonomous condition monitoring of maritime gearboxes. The tuning concept incorporates a circular tuning magnet, which interacts with a coupling magnet attached to the active transducer element. The tuning range can be tailored to the application by careful design of the gap between tuning magnet and coupling magnet. A total rotation angle of only 180° is required for the tuning magnet in order to obtain the full frequency bandwidth. The tuning concept is successfully demonstrated by charging a 0.6 F capacitor on the basis of physical vibration profiles taken from a gearbox.

  19. Pressure injury prevention: continence, skin hygiene and nutrition management.

    PubMed

    Roosen, Kerri; Fulbrook, Paul; Nowicki, Tracy

    2010-08-10

    To prevent pressure injuries research indicates the importance of focusing on three key areas of practice: continence, skin hygiene and nutrition. These are a synergistic trio and many patients require considered management in all three areas. In addition to targeting specific aspects of nursing care in these areas, it is also crucial that there is organisational buy-in for strategic initiatives. Some of the ways that we achieved this are outlined below: Support from managerial level by presenting evidence and education to senior nurses and directors. Nurse unit managers completed individual ward action plans outlining their individual commitments to reducing pressure injuries. Providing support and education to staff to choose and use continence products effectively. Support from allied health colleagues in prevention of pressure injuries. After implementing the actions described above, pressure injury prevalence at the Prince Charles Hospital in Brisbane decreased from 13.78% in 2008 to 5.15% in 2010, representing a 62% reduction overall. Of these pressure injuries, 53% were stage one.

  20. Archean komatiite volcanism controlled by the evolution of early continents.

    PubMed

    Mole, David R; Fiorentini, Marco L; Thebaud, Nicolas; Cassidy, Kevin F; McCuaig, T Campbell; Kirkland, Christopher L; Romano, Sandra S; Doublier, Michael P; Belousova, Elena A; Barnes, Stephen J; Miller, John

    2014-07-15

    The generation and evolution of Earth's continental crust has played a fundamental role in the development of the planet. Its formation modified the composition of the mantle, contributed to the establishment of the atmosphere, and led to the creation of ecological niches important for early life. Here we show that in the Archean, the formation and stabilization of continents also controlled the location, geochemistry, and volcanology of the hottest preserved lavas on Earth: komatiites. These magmas typically represent 50-30% partial melting of the mantle and subsequently record important information on the thermal and chemical evolution of the Archean-Proterozoic Earth. As a result, it is vital to constrain and understand the processes that govern their localization and emplacement. Here, we combined Lu-Hf isotopes and U-Pb geochronology to map the four-dimensional evolution of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, and reveal the progressive development of an Archean microcontinent. Our results show that in the early Earth, relatively small crustal blocks, analogous to modern microplates, progressively amalgamated to form larger continental masses, and eventually the first cratons. This cratonization process drove the hottest and most voluminous komatiite eruptions to the edge of established continental blocks. The dynamic evolution of the early continents thus directly influenced the addition of deep mantle material to the Archean crust, oceans, and atmosphere, while also providing a fundamental control on the distribution of major magmatic ore deposits. PMID:24958873

  1. Permo-carboniferous hydrocarbon accumulations, Mid-continent, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Rascoe, B.; Adler, F.J.

    1983-06-01

    Approximately 19.4 billion bbl of oil and 119 tcf of nonassociated gas have been discovered in the Mid-Continent as of January 1, 1978. Although these volumes of hydrocarbons were trapped in thousands of fields throughout the Mid-Continent, the bulk of these resources were emplaced in a relatively few fields about 14.2 billion bbl of oil have been found in 111 significant and giant oil fields, and 103 tcf of nonassociated gas have been discovered in 57 significant and giant gas fields. PermoCarboniferous reservoirs are important in 101 of the large oil fields and 55 of the large gas fields; these fields contained 9.5 billion bbl of oil and 99 tcf of gas, respectively. Our calculations of the total oil and gas accumulations in Permo-Carboniferous reservoirs extrapolated from these data. About 2.1 billion bbl of oil and 5.1 tcf of nonassociated gas accumulated in Lower Carboniferous (Mississippian) reservoirs. Most of this oil and gas was stratigraphically trapped in Upper Mississippian sandstones and carbonates which are truncated at the pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity surface.

  2. Pregnancy and delivery in patients with a continent ileostomy.

    PubMed

    Ojerskog, B; Kock, N G; Philipson, B M; Philipson, M

    1988-07-01

    Patients undergoing surgical treatment for inflammatory disease of the intestine are often in their reproductive years. Therefore, it is highly relevant to study the influence of surgical treatment on later pregnancy and delivery. Reported herein are 28 patients with continent ileostomies who have carried 37 pregnancies to term. An increased urge to empty the ileostomy reservoir, especially in the late period of pregnancy, was noted by the majority of patients. About one-third of the patients reported some difficulties with intubation of the reservoir in late pregnancy but in only a few patients did these disturbances result in a revisional operation after delivery. Pregnancy was normal in most instances and only four premature childbirths occurred. All pregnancies resulted in live birth. Vaginal delivery was successful in the majority of the patients, cesarean section being chosen for obstetric reasons in nine instances. From this study, it is concluded that, in patients with a continent ileostomy, normal pregnancy and delivery can be expected. However, in a few instances, the ileostomy function may be disturbed, necessitating later revisional operations.

  3. Archean komatiite volcanism controlled by the evolution of early continents

    PubMed Central

    Mole, David R.; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Thebaud, Nicolas; Cassidy, Kevin F.; McCuaig, T. Campbell; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Romano, Sandra S.; Doublier, Michael P.; Belousova, Elena A.; Barnes, Stephen J.; Miller, John

    2014-01-01

    The generation and evolution of Earth’s continental crust has played a fundamental role in the development of the planet. Its formation modified the composition of the mantle, contributed to the establishment of the atmosphere, and led to the creation of ecological niches important for early life. Here we show that in the Archean, the formation and stabilization of continents also controlled the location, geochemistry, and volcanology of the hottest preserved lavas on Earth: komatiites. These magmas typically represent 50–30% partial melting of the mantle and subsequently record important information on the thermal and chemical evolution of the Archean–Proterozoic Earth. As a result, it is vital to constrain and understand the processes that govern their localization and emplacement. Here, we combined Lu-Hf isotopes and U-Pb geochronology to map the four-dimensional evolution of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, and reveal the progressive development of an Archean microcontinent. Our results show that in the early Earth, relatively small crustal blocks, analogous to modern microplates, progressively amalgamated to form larger continental masses, and eventually the first cratons. This cratonization process drove the hottest and most voluminous komatiite eruptions to the edge of established continental blocks. The dynamic evolution of the early continents thus directly influenced the addition of deep mantle material to the Archean crust, oceans, and atmosphere, while also providing a fundamental control on the distribution of major magmatic ore deposits. PMID:24958873

  4. Continents as lithological icebergs: The importance of buoyant lithospheric roots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, D.H.; Drury, R.; Mooney, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    An understanding of the formation of new continental crust provides an important guide to locating the oldest terrestrial rocks and minerals. We evaluated the crustal thicknesses of the thinnest stable continental crust and of an unsubductable oceanic plateau and used the resulting data to estimate the amount of mantle melting which produces permanent continental crust. The lithospheric mantle is sufficiently depleted to produce permanent buoyancy (i.e., the crust is unsubductable) at crustal thicknesses greater than 25-27 km. These unsubductable oceanic plateaus and hotspot island chains are important sources of new continental crust. The newest continental crust (e.g., the Ontong Java plateau) has a basaltic composition, not a granitic one. The observed structure and geochemistry of continents are the result of convergent margin magmatism and metamorphism which modify the nascent basaltic crust into a lowermost basaltic layer overlain by a more silicic upper crust. The definition of a continent should imply only that the lithosphere is unsubductable over ??? 0.25 Ga time periods. Therefore, the search for the oldest crustal rocks should include rocks from lower to mid-crustal levels.

  5. Archean komatiite volcanism controlled by the evolution of early continents.

    PubMed

    Mole, David R; Fiorentini, Marco L; Thebaud, Nicolas; Cassidy, Kevin F; McCuaig, T Campbell; Kirkland, Christopher L; Romano, Sandra S; Doublier, Michael P; Belousova, Elena A; Barnes, Stephen J; Miller, John

    2014-07-15

    The generation and evolution of Earth's continental crust has played a fundamental role in the development of the planet. Its formation modified the composition of the mantle, contributed to the establishment of the atmosphere, and led to the creation of ecological niches important for early life. Here we show that in the Archean, the formation and stabilization of continents also controlled the location, geochemistry, and volcanology of the hottest preserved lavas on Earth: komatiites. These magmas typically represent 50-30% partial melting of the mantle and subsequently record important information on the thermal and chemical evolution of the Archean-Proterozoic Earth. As a result, it is vital to constrain and understand the processes that govern their localization and emplacement. Here, we combined Lu-Hf isotopes and U-Pb geochronology to map the four-dimensional evolution of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, and reveal the progressive development of an Archean microcontinent. Our results show that in the early Earth, relatively small crustal blocks, analogous to modern microplates, progressively amalgamated to form larger continental masses, and eventually the first cratons. This cratonization process drove the hottest and most voluminous komatiite eruptions to the edge of established continental blocks. The dynamic evolution of the early continents thus directly influenced the addition of deep mantle material to the Archean crust, oceans, and atmosphere, while also providing a fundamental control on the distribution of major magmatic ore deposits.

  6. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    SciTech Connect

    Ricciuto, Daniel M; Gu, Lianhong

    2010-07-01

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems over six continents with a total of 559 site-years. We find that NEE observed at eddy covariance sites is (1) a strong function of mean annual temperature at mid- and high-latitudes, (2) a strong function of dryness at mid- and low-latitudes, and (3) a function of both temperature and dryness around the mid-latitudinal belt (45 N). The sensitivity of NEE to mean annual temperature breaks down at ~ 16 C (a threshold value of mean annual temperature), above which no further increase of CO2 uptake with temperature was observed and dryness influence overrules temperature influence.

  7. Hydration of the lithospheric mantle by the descending plate in a continent-continent collisional setting and its geodynamic consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massonne, Hans-Joachim

    2016-05-01

    At the beginning of continent-continent collision the descending plate dehydrates. The influence of this dehydration on the adjacent lithospheric mantle was studied. For this reason, pressure (P), temperature (T) and T-H2O pseudosections were calculated for an average mantle composition using the computer software PERPLE_X. These pseudosections were contoured by isopleths, for instance, for volumes of amphibole, chlorite, and serpentine. In addition, P-T pseudosections were considered for four psammopelitic rocks, common in the upper portion of the continental crust, in order to quantify the release of H2O in these rocks during prograde metamorphism. At pressures around 1 GPa, a maximum of slightly more than 10 vol.% chlorite, almost 20 vol.% amphibole, and some talc but no serpentine forms when only 1.8 wt.% H2O is added to the dry ultrabasite at temperatures of 600 °C. For example, hydrous phases amount to about 35 vol.% serpentine and 10 vol.% each of chlorite and amphibole at 1 GPa, 550 °C, and 5 wt.% H2O. The modelled psammopelitic rocks can release 0.8-2.5 wt.% H2O between 450 and 650 °C at 0.8-1.4 GPa. On the basis of the above calculations, different collisional scenarios are discussed highlighting the role of hydrated lithospheric mantle. In this context a minimum hydration potential of the front region of the descending continental plate is considered, which amounts to 4.6 × 1016 kg releasable H2O for a 1000 km wide collisional zone, due to a thick sedimentary pile at the continental margin. Further suggestions are that (1) the lower crustal plate in a continent-continent collisional setting penetrates the lithospheric mantle, which is hydrated during the advancement of this plate, (2) the maximum depths of the subduction of upper continental crust is below 70 km and (3) hydrated mantle above the descending crustal plate is thrust onto this continental crust.

  8. The place of science in a continent at the crossroads.

    PubMed

    Koech, D K

    2001-01-01

    I have mentioned it before and I want to repeat it now, that we in Africa share a common history, heritage and basic problems of development. We, therefore, have an inescapable responsibility of pooling our talents and resources in shaping our common destiny. In fulfillment of its mission, AFHES, through its organized con notgresses and this Journal, is an invaluable vessel for enabling us to promote better health for the peoples of this continent. Africa is a continent endowed with great potential that, for one reason or an notother, has been ignored or misused, resulting in the current crisis now enveloping the continent. There is the escalating debt burden, falling agricultural productivity and the ever-increasing population. Efforts to improve the situation are hampered by adverse factors such as malnutrition, HTV/AIDS, malaria and other causes of ill health; wars, poor environmental management and the ever-worrisome problem of refugees. At the sunrise of the 21st Century, we must wake up and reverse the current trend by focusing our resources on priority areas of development. The fight for freedom from the yoke of colonialism and the traumatic experience of apartheid has been won. In some African countries, however, the winning of the fight for freedom has opened up a new fight, a fight that is more fierce and bloody than that which set us free. These include civil strife and internecine wars giving rise to a new black Diaspora, which is far greater than the one experienced during the period of slavery and slave trade. People supposed to build these nations have either been killed or forced into exile. Those intellectually endowed have sought refuge in safer and economically developed countries and, by the same process, also weaken the al notready weak economies of their mother countries. They have, therefore, helped to strengthen the already strong economies of the developed nations. This is indeed, a sad situation that poses a formidable challenge to the

  9. Rape: an Asian perspective.

    PubMed

    Nadesan, K

    2001-06-01

    Rape is one of the fastest growing violent crimes in many parts of the world. Rape laws have been amended in most countries in an attempt to cope with the proliferation of this crime. Even though the legal definition of rape and the procedural laws have been amended, rape remains a serious problem in both the developed and developing nations. In some countries the offence of rape carries severe punishment sometimes even the death sentence. In many jurisdictions the term 'sexual penetration' is being used instead of 'sexual intercourse'. Sexual penetration includes sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio or any other intrusions involving any part of a human body or of any object into the genital or anal opening of a person's body. In many countries rape and other sexual offences have been replaced with a series of gender neutral and graded offences with appropriate punishments. Medical examination can provide independent, scientific, corroborative evidence that may be of value to the court in arriving at a judgement. Doctors should have a clear understanding of different rape laws in order to apprectiate the various issues involved. Special knowledge, skill and experience are essential to conduct a good-quality medical examination. There is a dearth of trained forensic physicians in many Asian countries. However, managing a rape victim (survivor) goes for beyond proving the case in a court of law. There should be an adequate rehabilitation programme available to the victims to help them cope.

  10. Impacts of East Asian aerosols on the Asian monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Rachel; Bollasina, Massimo; Booth, Ben; Dunstone, Nick; Marenco, Franco

    2016-04-01

    Over recent decades, aerosol emissions from Asia have increased rapidly. Aerosols are able to alter radiative forcing and regional hydroclimate through direct and indirect effects. Large emissions within the geographical region of the Asian monsoon have been found to impact upon this vital system and have been linked to observed drying trends. The interconnected nature of smaller regional monsoon components (e.g. the Indian monsoon and East Asian monsoon) presents the possibility that aerosol sources could have far-reaching impacts. Future aerosol emissions are uncertain and may continue to dominate regional impacts on the Asian monsoon. Standard IPCC future emissions scenarios do not take a broad sample of possible aerosol pathways. We investigate the sensitivity of the Asian monsoon to East Asian aerosol emissions. Experiments carried out with HadGEM2-ES use three time-evolving future anthropogenic aerosol emissions scenarios with similar time-evolving greenhouse gases. We find a wetter summer over southern China and the Indochina Peninsula associated with increased sulfate aerosol over China. The southern-flood-northern-drought pattern seen in observations is reflected in these results. India is found to be drier in the summer overall, although wetter in June. These precipitation changes are linked to the increase in sulfate through the alteration of large scale dynamics. Sub-seasonal changes are also seen, with an earlier withdrawal of the monsoon over East Asia.

  11. South Asian high and Asian-Pacific-American climate teleconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peiqun; Song, Yang; Kousky, Vernon E.

    2005-11-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the mid-Pacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion, they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  12. Simulation of active tectonic processes for a convecting mantle with moving continents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trubitsyn, V.; Kaban, M.; Mooney, W.; Reigber, C.; Schwintzer, P.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical models are presented that simulate several active tectonic processes. These models include a continent that is thermally and mechanically coupled with viscous mantle flow. The assumption of rigid continents allows use of solid body equations to describe the continents' motion and to calculate their velocities. The starting point is a quasi-steady state model of mantle convection with temperature/ pressure-dependent viscosity. After placing a continent on top of the mantle, the convection pattern changes. The mantle flow subsequently passes through several stages, eventually resembling the mantle structure under present-day continents: (a) Extension tectonics and marginal basins form on boundary of a continent approaching to subduction zone, roll back of subduction takes place in front of moving continent; (b) The continent reaches the subduction zone, the extension regime at the continental edge is replaced by strong compression. The roll back of the subduction zone still continues after closure of the marginal basin and the continent moves towards the upwelling. As a result the ocean becomes non-symmetric and (c) The continent overrides the upwelling and subduction in its classical form stops. The third stage appears only in the upper mantle model with localized upwellings. ?? 2006 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2006 RAS.

  13. Does menopausal status impact urinary continence outcomes following abdominal sacrocolpopexy without anti-incontinence procedures in continent women?

    PubMed Central

    Inan, Abdurrahman Hamdi; Toz, Emrah; Beyan, Emrah; Gurbuz, Tutku; Ozcan, Aykut; Oner, Oznur

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the impact of menopausal status on urinary continence following abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC) without an anti-incontinence procedure in continent women. Methods: We conducted a clinical follow-up study of 137 patients diagnosed with stage 3 or higher pelvic organ prolapse (POP) without urinary incontinence between January 2012 and December 2014. Patients were provided with detailed a priori information pertaining to the abdominal sacrocolpopexy procedure and were invited to attend follow-up visits at 1, 3, 12, and 24 months. Follow-up visits included a gynecological examination, cough test, and validated Urinary Distress Inventory-6 (UDI-6) and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 (IIQ-7) questionnaires. Results: The mean follow-up time for the cohort was 16.5±3.45 months. The study group was divided according to menopausal status: premenopausal (Group-1) and postmenopausal women (Group-II). Anatomical recurrence was not detected during the follow-up period in either group, but de novo stress urinary incontinence was seen in 15 of 53 (28.3%) Group-I patients and in 6 of 84 (7.1%; p < 0.01) Group-II patients. Conclusions: The risk of de novo stress urinary incontinence in postmenopausal women after ASC is low. However, premenopausal patients have a higher incidence of de novo stress incontinence which affect quality of life. PMID:27648027

  14. OxyContin® as currency: OxyContin® use and increased social capital among rural Appalachian drug users.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Adam B; Young, April M; Oser, Carrie B; Leukefeld, Carl G; Havens, Jennifer R

    2012-05-01

    Studies have shown that position within networks of social relations can have direct implications on the health behaviors of individuals. The present study examines connections between drug use and individual social capital within social networks of drug users (n = 503) from rural Appalachian Kentucky, U.S.A. Respondent driven sampling was used to recruit individuals age 18 and older who had used one of the following drugs to get high: cocaine, crack, heroin, methamphetamine, or prescription opioids. Substance use was measured via self-report and social network analysis of participants' drug use network was used to compute effective size, a measure of social capital. Drug network ties were based on sociometric data on recent (past 6 month) drug co-usage. Multivariate multi-level ordinal regression was used to model the independent effect of socio-demographic and drug use characteristics on social capital. Adjusting for gender, income, and education, daily OxyContin(®) use was found to be significantly associated with greater social capital, and daily marijuana use was associated with less social capital. These results suggest that in regions with marked economic disparities such as rural Appalachia, OxyContin(®) may serve as a form of currency that is associated with increased social capital among drug users. Interventions focusing on increasing alternate pathways to acquiring social capital may be one way in which to alleviate the burden of drug use in this high-risk population.

  15. OxyContin® as Currency: OxyContin® Use and Increased Social Capital among Rural Appalachian Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Adam B.; Young, April M.; Oser, Carrie B.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Havens, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that position within networks of social relations can have direct implications on the health behaviors of individuals. The present study examines connections between drug use and individual social capital within social networks of drug users (n=503) from rural Appalachian Kentucky, U.S.A. Respondent driven sampling was used to recruit individuals age 18 and older who had used one of the following drugs to get high: cocaine, crack, heroin, methamphetamine, or prescription opioids. Substance use was measured via self-report and social network analysis of participants’ drug use network was used to compute effective size, a measure of social capital. Drug network ties were based on sociometric data on recent (past 6 month) drug co-usage. Multivariate multi-level ordinal regression was used to model the independent effect of sociodemographic and drug use characteristics on social capital. Adjusting for gender, income, and education, daily OxyContin® use was found to be significantly associated with greater social capital, and daily marijuana use was associated with less social capital. These results suggest that in regions with marked economic disparities such as rural Appalachia, OxyContin® may serve as a form of currency that is associated with increased social capital among drug users. Interventions focusing on increasing alternate pathways to acquiring social capital may be one way in which to alleviate the burden of drug use in this high-risk population. PMID:22465379

  16. OxyContin® as currency: OxyContin® use and increased social capital among rural Appalachian drug users.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Adam B; Young, April M; Oser, Carrie B; Leukefeld, Carl G; Havens, Jennifer R

    2012-05-01

    Studies have shown that position within networks of social relations can have direct implications on the health behaviors of individuals. The present study examines connections between drug use and individual social capital within social networks of drug users (n = 503) from rural Appalachian Kentucky, U.S.A. Respondent driven sampling was used to recruit individuals age 18 and older who had used one of the following drugs to get high: cocaine, crack, heroin, methamphetamine, or prescription opioids. Substance use was measured via self-report and social network analysis of participants' drug use network was used to compute effective size, a measure of social capital. Drug network ties were based on sociometric data on recent (past 6 month) drug co-usage. Multivariate multi-level ordinal regression was used to model the independent effect of socio-demographic and drug use characteristics on social capital. Adjusting for gender, income, and education, daily OxyContin(®) use was found to be significantly associated with greater social capital, and daily marijuana use was associated with less social capital. These results suggest that in regions with marked economic disparities such as rural Appalachia, OxyContin(®) may serve as a form of currency that is associated with increased social capital among drug users. Interventions focusing on increasing alternate pathways to acquiring social capital may be one way in which to alleviate the burden of drug use in this high-risk population. PMID:22465379

  17. High-fidelity real-time maritime scene rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyu, Hawjye; Taczak, Thomas M.; Cox, Kevin; Gover, Robert; Maraviglia, Carlos; Cahill, Colin

    2011-06-01

    The ability to simulate authentic engagements using real-world hardware is an increasingly important tool. For rendering maritime environments, scene generators must be capable of rendering radiometrically accurate scenes with correct temporal and spatial characteristics. When the simulation is used as input to real-world hardware or human observers, the scene generator must operate in real-time. This paper introduces a novel, real-time scene generation capability for rendering radiometrically accurate scenes of backgrounds and targets in maritime environments. The new model is an optimized and parallelized version of the US Navy CRUISE_Missiles rendering engine. It was designed to accept environmental descriptions and engagement geometry data from external sources, render a scene, transform the radiometric scene using the electro-optical response functions of a sensor under test, and output the resulting signal to real-world hardware. This paper reviews components of the scene rendering algorithm, and details the modifications required to run this code in real-time. A description of the simulation architecture and interfaces to external hardware and models is presented. Performance assessments of the frame rate and radiometric accuracy of the new code are summarized. This work was completed in FY10 under Office of Secretary of Defense (OSD) Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) funding and will undergo a validation process in FY11.

  18. A maritime pine antimicrobial peptide involved in ammonium nutrition.

    PubMed

    Canales, Javier; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2011-09-01

    A large family of small cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is involved in the innate defence of plants against pathogens. Recently, it has been shown that AMPs may also play important roles in plant growth and development. In previous work, we have identified a gene of the AMP β-barrelin family that was differentially regulated in the roots of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in response to changes in ammonium nutrition. Here, we present the molecular characterization of two AMP genes, PpAMP1 and PpAMP2, showing different molecular structure and physicochemical properties. PpAMP1 and PpAMP2 displayed different expression patterns in maritime pine seedlings and adult trees. Furthermore, our expression analyses indicate that PpAMP1 is the major form of AMP in the tree, and its relative abundance is regulated by ammonium availability. In contrast, PpAMP2 is expressed at much lower levels and it is not regulated by ammonium. To gain new insights into the function of PpAMP1, we over-expressed the recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and demonstrated that PpAMP1 strongly inhibited yeast growth, indicating that it exhibits antimicrobial activity. We have also found that PpAMP1 alters ammonium uptake, suggesting that it is involved in the regulation of ammonium ion flux into pine roots.

  19. Speed Profiles for Improvement of Maritime Emission Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Pui Shan; Lee, Shun-Cheng; Ho, Kin Fai

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Maritime emissions play an important role in anthropogenic emissions, particularly for cities with busy ports such as Hong Kong. Ship emissions are strongly dependent on vessel speed, and thus accurate vessel speed is essential for maritime emission studies. In this study, we determined minute-by-minute high-resolution speed profiles of container ships on four major routes in Hong Kong waters using Automatic Identification System (AIS). The activity-based ship emissions of NOx, CO, HC, CO2, SO2, and PM10 were estimated using derived vessel speed profiles, and results were compared with those using the speed limits of control zones. Estimation using speed limits resulted in up to twofold overestimation of ship emissions. Compared with emissions estimated using the speed limits of control zones, emissions estimated using vessel speed profiles could provide results with up to 88% higher accuracy. Uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis of the model demonstrated the significance of improvement of vessel speed resolution. From spatial analysis, it is revealed that SO2 and PM10 emissions during maneuvering within 1 nautical mile from port were the highest. They contributed 7%–22% of SO2 emissions and 8%–17% of PM10 emissions of the entire voyage in Hong Kong. PMID:23236250

  20. The influence of transport network vulnerability for maritime ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruscă, F.; Roşca, E.; Rusca, A.; Roşca, M.; Burciu, S.

    2015-11-01

    The concepts of reliability and vulnerability are quite important in assessing the ability of transport networks from land to provide continuity in operation tacking in consideration the relation with seaports. Transport infrastructure modernizing and extension according to land use and sustainable development requirements still represents a challenging issue among policy makers, regional/local communities and scientists. The interest for the researches reliability and vulnerability for transport networks who connect maritime ports with interior city's is generate by the natural disasters, the terrorist acts, unconventional war, etc.. Transport network modelling enable the development of mathematical models used in evaluating the reliability and vulnerability. Nodes or link disruption could have an important impact over transport network users. In our paper we investigates the Romanian road network vulnerability related to Danube crossing versus maritime ports (Constanta and Mangalia) and its mitigation by improving network topology. We use Visum software to promote a methodology to assess road transport network vulnerability versus Romanian seaports and we propose some solutions to reduce probability of road transport network to fail.

  1. Climate Change, Globalization and Geopolitics in the New Maritime Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigham, L. W.

    2011-12-01

    Early in the 21st century a confluence of climate change, globalization and geopolitics is shaping the future of the maritime Arctic. This nexus is also fostering greater linkage of the Arctic to the rest of the planet. Arctic sea ice is undergoing a historic transformation of thinning, extent reduction in all seasons, and reduction in the area of multiyear ice in the central Arctic Ocean. Global Climate Model simulations of Arctic sea ice indicate multiyear ice could disappear by 2030 for a short period of time each summer. These physical changes invite greater marine access, longer seasons of navigation, and potential, summer trans-Arctic voyages. As a result, enhanced marine safety, environmental protection, and maritime security measures are under development. Coupled with climate change as a key driver of regional change is the current and future integration of the Arctic's natural wealth with global markets (oil, gas and hard minerals). Abundant freshwater in the Arctic could also be a future commodity of value. Recent events such as drilling for hydrocarbons off Greenland's west coast and the summer marine transport of natural resources from the Russian Arctic to China across the top of Eurasia are indicators of greater global economic ties to the Arctic. Plausible Arctic futures indicate continued integration with global issues and increased complexity of a range of regional economic, security and environmental challenges.

  2. A review of fuel cell systems for maritime applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Biert, L.; Godjevac, M.; Visser, K.; Aravind, P. V.

    2016-09-01

    Progressing limits on pollutant emissions oblige ship owners to reduce the environmental impact of their operations. Fuel cells may provide a suitable solution, since they are fuel efficient while they emit few hazardous compounds. Various choices can be made with regard to the type of fuel cell system and logistic fuel, and it is unclear which have the best prospects for maritime application. An overview of fuel cell types and fuel processing equipment is presented, and maritime fuel cell application is reviewed with regard to efficiency, gravimetric and volumetric density, dynamic behaviour, environmental impact, safety and economics. It is shown that low temperature fuel cells using liquefied hydrogen provide a compact solution for ships with a refuelling interval up to a tens of hours, but may result in total system sizes up to five times larger than high temperature fuel cells and more energy dense fuels for vessels with longer mission requirements. The expanding infrastructure of liquefied natural gas and development state of natural gas-fuelled fuel cell systems can facilitate the introduction of gaseous fuels and fuel cells on ships. Fuel cell combined cycles, hybridisation with auxiliary electricity storage systems and redundancy improvements are identified as topics for further study.

  3. The mental health of deployed UK maritime forces

    PubMed Central

    Whybrow, Dean; Jones, Norman; Evans, Charlotte; Minshall, Darren; Smith, Darren; Greenberg, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To establish the level of psychological symptoms and the risk factors for possible decreased mental health among deployed UK maritime forces. Methods A survey was completed by deployed Royal Navy (RN) personnel which measured the prevalence of common mental disorder (CMD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and potential alcohol misuse. Military and operational characteristics were also measured including exposure to potentially traumatic events, problems occurring at home during the deployment, unit cohesion, leadership and morale. Associations between variables of interest were identified using binary logistic regression to generate ORs and 95% CIs adjusted for a range of potential confounding variables. Results In total, 41.2% (n=572/1387) of respondents reported probable CMD, 7.8% (n=109/1389) probable PTSD and 17.4% (n=242/1387) potentially harmful alcohol use. Lower morale, cohesion, leadership and problems at home were associated with CMD; lower morale, leadership, problems at home and exposure to potentially traumatic events were associated with probable PTSD; working in ships with a smaller crew size was associated with potentially harmful alcohol use. Conclusions CMD and PTSD were more frequently reported in the maritime environment than during recent land-based deployments. Rates of potentially harmful alcohol use have reduced but remain higher than the wider military. Experiencing problems at home and exposure to potentially traumatic events were associated with experiencing poorer mental health; higher morale, cohesion and better leadership with fewer psychological symptoms. PMID:26265671

  4. An Analysis of Low-Frequency Maritime Atmospheric Turbulence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjerstad, Johannes; Aasen, Svein Erik; Andersson, Helge I.; Brevik, Iver; Løvseth, Jørgen

    1995-08-01

    New data are presented for the spectrum of turbulent wind energy under maritime conditions in the frequency region 1.0-0.03 mHz. The corresponding measurements were made at five levels on a mast 46 m high on a small islet off the coast of central Norway. Twelve time series of length 10 h 40 min have been analyzed. The mean wind speeds of the series are in the range 11-19 m s1, and the wind directions are westerly, which have maritime conditions upwind.Four of the time series were characterized by unstable atmospheric conditions (mean lapse rate T/z in the range 12-20 K/km) and show little or no indication of a spectral gap for heights above 40 m. Four other lime series with stable to neutral conditions (mean lapse rate 3-7 K/km) do show a gap in the wind speed spectra around 0.5 mHz, in agreement with the Kansas (1972) and Minnesota (1978) experiments. The remaining series, with lapse rates fluctuating around the neutral value of 9.8 K/km, show intermediate behavior.The temperature spectra at 45-m height do not show a gap even for stable to neutral conditions.

  5. Emissions of maritime transport: a European reference system.

    PubMed

    Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlieger, Ina; Panis, Luc Int; Chiffi, Cosimo; Pastori, Enrico

    2009-12-20

    Emissions from ships have recently received more attention since they have become a significant concern for air quality in harbours and port cities. This paper presents the methodology for a comprehensive maritime transport database of activity data, specific energy consumption, emission factors, and total emissions that have been developed within the European EX-TREMIS project. The model is built upon 3 modules: the fleet module, the transport activity module, and the emission module. The fleet module defines the ship categories, the loading capacities, and the engine characteristics of the different vessels by using EUROSTAT data, Sea Web Lloyd's database, and international literature. The transport activity module transforms total cargo handled (mainly based on EUROSTAT data and CEMT statistics) into ship-equivalents. These ship-equivalents are further transformed into ship-hours. The emission module calculates energy uses and CO(2), NO(X), SO(2), CO, HC, CH(4), NMHC, PM emissions from the resulting maritime activities. We have used technology based emission factors to take into account the technological evolution of vessels. To illustrate this new methodology, we present some results (emissions, fuel consumption and emission factors) for different countries. The overall methodology as well as the results and the country specific energy consumption and emission factors per ship type and size class can be extracted from the EX-TREMIS website (www.ex-tremis.eu). Our results contribute to more accurate estimates of emissions and air quality assessments in coastal cities and ports.

  6. Challenges of Forward Naval Surgical Support for Maritime Forces.

    PubMed

    Chong, Si Jack; Jiang, Lei; Chow, Wei-En

    2015-08-01

    The emphasis of naval operations has shifted from conventional naval warfare since World War II to Operations Other than War such as Peace Support Operations and Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief. Maritime forces are increasingly deployed in distant areas of operations such as the Somali Basin and Gulf of Aden for longer durations, in a possibly higher threat environment against nonconventional threats such as in counter piracy operations. There is therefore a need to balance the challenges of providing adequate forward naval surgical support with limitations in medical manpower, logistics as well as the need for a suitable surgical platform for these deployments. This article aims to share the Republic of Singapore Navy's experience in overcoming some of these challenges. This includes the ability to deploy surgical containers onboard the Landing Ship Tank and Civil Resource vessels, and the ability to convert existing spaces onboard the endurance class Landing Ship Tank and other platforms such as the formidable class Frigate into surgical facilities. The key success factors such as the development of deep expertise in naval operational medicine, operationalization of third generation surgical stores, and enhanced interoperability among maritime forces will also be highlighted. PMID:26226532

  7. Challenges of Forward Naval Surgical Support for Maritime Forces.

    PubMed

    Chong, Si Jack; Jiang, Lei; Chow, Wei-En

    2015-08-01

    The emphasis of naval operations has shifted from conventional naval warfare since World War II to Operations Other than War such as Peace Support Operations and Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief. Maritime forces are increasingly deployed in distant areas of operations such as the Somali Basin and Gulf of Aden for longer durations, in a possibly higher threat environment against nonconventional threats such as in counter piracy operations. There is therefore a need to balance the challenges of providing adequate forward naval surgical support with limitations in medical manpower, logistics as well as the need for a suitable surgical platform for these deployments. This article aims to share the Republic of Singapore Navy's experience in overcoming some of these challenges. This includes the ability to deploy surgical containers onboard the Landing Ship Tank and Civil Resource vessels, and the ability to convert existing spaces onboard the endurance class Landing Ship Tank and other platforms such as the formidable class Frigate into surgical facilities. The key success factors such as the development of deep expertise in naval operational medicine, operationalization of third generation surgical stores, and enhanced interoperability among maritime forces will also be highlighted.

  8. 32 CFR 536.123 - Limitation of liability for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limitation of liability for maritime claims. 536.123 Section 536.123 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.123 Limitation of liability...

  9. 32 CFR 536.123 - Limitation of liability for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Limitation of liability for maritime claims. 536.123 Section 536.123 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.123 Limitation of liability...

  10. 33 CFR 100.1306 - National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA. 100.1306 Section 100.1306 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1306 National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA....

  11. 78 FR 43064 - Safety Zone; Maritime Heritage Festival Fireworks, St. Helens, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Maritime Heritage Festival Fireworks, St... maritime public during a planned fireworks display and will do so by prohibiting unauthorized persons...

  12. 75 FR 10300 - South Texas Area Maritime Security (STAMS) Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard South Texas Area Maritime Security (STAMS) Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard... serving on the South Texas Area Maritime Security (STAMS) Committee to submit their application for... Security Act (MTSA) of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-295) added section 70112 to Title 46 of the U.S. Code,...

  13. 76 FR 55732 - Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal Expansion Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Maritime Administration Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal... workshops regarding the expansion of the Panama Canal and the America's Marine Highway Program. The meetings... Administration (MARAD) should consider in the development of its comprehensive study of the 2014 Panama...

  14. Reconfiguring the Shipping News: Maritime's Hidden Histories and the Politics of Gender Display

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meecham, Pam

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the book "Hello Sailor! The Hidden History of Gay Life at Sea" published in 2003 by Paul Baker and Jo Stanley, re-interpreted as a landmark temporary exhibition "Hello Sailor! Gay Life on the Ocean Wave" at the Merseyside Maritime Museum, Liverpool from where it travelled in 2007 to other maritime museums. Based largely on…

  15. 47 CFR 80.54 - Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS)-System Licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS)-System Licensing. 80.54 Section 80.54 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... § 80.54 Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS)—System Licensing. AMTS licensees will...

  16. 2. GENERAL VIEW OF HAWAII MARITIME CENTER WITH PORT 3/4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW OF HAWAII MARITIME CENTER WITH PORT 3/4 STERN VIEW OF OIL TANKER FALLS OF CLYDE REPLICA POLYNESIAN SAILING CRAFT ARE SEEN ALONGSIDE AND BEHIND HER. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  17. 33 CFR 103.405 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 1520. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elements of the Area Maritime... Security (AMS) Assessment § 103.405 Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment. (a) The...

  18. State University of New York Maritime College: Selected Financial Management Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

    This report presents audit findings of the financial management practices at the State University of New York (SUNY) Maritime College, which trains students to become licensed officers in the U.S. Merchant Marines. Specifically, the audit examined whether SUNY Maritime maintains an adequate internal control environment and adequate internal…

  19. 76 FR 37402 - Application of Cargo Preference Requirements To Maritime Loan Guarantee Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... Maritime Administration Application of Cargo Preference Requirements To Maritime Loan Guarantee Program... notice clarifies MARAD's position on the application of cargo preference requirements under 46 U.S.C... application of cargo preference requirements under 46 U.S.C. 55305 to the shipyard and vessel...

  20. State University of New York Maritime College Faculty Student Association--Selected Financial Management Practices. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit and State Financial Services.

    The Maritime College Faculty Student Association (FSA) is a campus-based, not-for-profit corporation that was formed to operate, manage, and promote educationally related services for the benefit of the campus community at the State University of New York Maritime College, which trains students to become licensed officers in the U.S. Merchant…

  1. 46 CFR 15.818 - Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) at-sea maintainer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) at-sea maintainer. 15.818 Section 15.818 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Computations § 15.818 Global Maritime Distress and...

  2. Student Aid for the Eighties: Report of the Study of Financial Aid to Maritime Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maritime Provinces Higher Education Commission, Fredericton (New Brunswick).

    A research report on financial aid to maritime student (those in the Maritime Provinces) enrolled in postsecondary education in Canada is presented in English and French versions. The study was designed to: (1) prepare a historical perspective of and rationale for programs of financial assistance to students; (2) review and compare existing…

  3. 33 CFR 103.305 - Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. 103.305 Section 103.305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Security (AMS) Committee § 103.305 Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. (a) An...

  4. 33 CFR 103.305 - Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. 103.305 Section 103.305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Security (AMS) Committee § 103.305 Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. (a) An...

  5. 33 CFR 103.305 - Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. 103.305 Section 103.305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Security (AMS) Committee § 103.305 Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. (a) An...

  6. 33 CFR 103.305 - Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. 103.305 Section 103.305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Security (AMS) Committee § 103.305 Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. (a) An...

  7. 47 CFR 80.54 - Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS)-System Licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS)-System Licensing. 80.54 Section 80.54 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and...

  8. 47 CFR 80.54 - Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS)-System Licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS)-System Licensing. 80.54 Section 80.54 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and...

  9. 47 CFR 80.54 - Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS)-System Licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS)-System Licensing. 80.54 Section 80.54 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and...

  10. 47 CFR 80.54 - Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS)-System Licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS)-System Licensing. 80.54 Section 80.54 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and...

  11. 75 FR 8563 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66... aerial spectator events associated with the annual Fleet Week Maritime Festival. Entry into,...

  12. Maritime English Vocabulary in Feature Films: "The Perfect Storm" (2000) and "Master and Commander" (2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurkovic, Violeta

    2016-01-01

    The teaching content of Maritime English is dictated by the 1995 International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification, and Watchkeeping, as amended, which sets qualification standards for masters, officers, and officers of the watch on merchant ships, including a high proficiency level in maritime English. Feature films have an…

  13. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530.200b-7 Section 2530.200b-7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY... industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be...

  14. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530.200b-7 Section 2530.200b-7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY... industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be...

  15. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530.200b-7 Section 2530.200b-7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY... industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be...

  16. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530.200b-7 Section 2530.200b-7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY... industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be...

  17. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530.200b-7 Section 2530.200b-7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY... industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be...

  18. A Zn isotope perspective on the rise of continents.

    PubMed

    Pons, M-L; Fujii, T; Rosing, M; Quitté, G; Télouk, P; Albarède, F

    2013-05-01

    Zinc isotope abundances are fairly constant in igneous rocks and shales and are left unfractionated by hydrothermal processes at pH < 5.5. For that reason, Zn isotopes in sediments can be used to trace the changing chemistry of the hydrosphere. Here, we report Zn isotope compositions in Fe oxides from banded iron formations (BIFs) and iron formations of different ages. Zinc from early Archean samples is isotopically indistinguishable from the igneous average (δ(66) Zn ~0.3‰). At 2.9-2.7 Ga, δ(66) Zn becomes isotopically light (δ(66) Zn < 0‰) and then bounces back to values >1‰ during the ~2.35 Ga Great Oxygenation Event. By 1.8 Ga, BIF δ(66) Zn has settled to the modern value of FeMn nodules and encrustations (~0.9‰). The Zn cycle is largely controlled by two different mechanisms: Zn makes strong complexes with phosphates, and phosphates in turn are strongly adsorbed by Fe hydroxides. We therefore review the evidence that the surface geochemical cycles of Zn and P are closely related. The Zn isotope record echoes Sr isotope evidence, suggesting that erosion starts with the very large continental masses appearing at ~2.7 Ga. The lack of Zn fractionation in pre-2.9 Ga BIFs is argued to reflect the paucity of permanent subaerial continental exposure and consequently the insignificant phosphate input to the oceans and the small output of biochemical sediments. We link the early decline of δ(66) Zn between 3.0 and 2.7 Ga with the low solubility of phosphate in alkaline groundwater. The development of photosynthetic activity at the surface of the newly exposed continents increased the oxygen level in the atmosphere, which in turn triggered acid drainage and stepped up P dissolution and liberation of heavy Zn into the runoff. Zinc isotopes provide a new perspective on the rise of continents, the volume of carbonates on continents, changing weathering conditions, and compositions of the ocean through time. PMID:23421593

  19. A Zn isotope perspective on the rise of continents.

    PubMed

    Pons, M-L; Fujii, T; Rosing, M; Quitté, G; Télouk, P; Albarède, F

    2013-05-01

    Zinc isotope abundances are fairly constant in igneous rocks and shales and are left unfractionated by hydrothermal processes at pH < 5.5. For that reason, Zn isotopes in sediments can be used to trace the changing chemistry of the hydrosphere. Here, we report Zn isotope compositions in Fe oxides from banded iron formations (BIFs) and iron formations of different ages. Zinc from early Archean samples is isotopically indistinguishable from the igneous average (δ(66) Zn ~0.3‰). At 2.9-2.7 Ga, δ(66) Zn becomes isotopically light (δ(66) Zn < 0‰) and then bounces back to values >1‰ during the ~2.35 Ga Great Oxygenation Event. By 1.8 Ga, BIF δ(66) Zn has settled to the modern value of FeMn nodules and encrustations (~0.9‰). The Zn cycle is largely controlled by two different mechanisms: Zn makes strong complexes with phosphates, and phosphates in turn are strongly adsorbed by Fe hydroxides. We therefore review the evidence that the surface geochemical cycles of Zn and P are closely related. The Zn isotope record echoes Sr isotope evidence, suggesting that erosion starts with the very large continental masses appearing at ~2.7 Ga. The lack of Zn fractionation in pre-2.9 Ga BIFs is argued to reflect the paucity of permanent subaerial continental exposure and consequently the insignificant phosphate input to the oceans and the small output of biochemical sediments. We link the early decline of δ(66) Zn between 3.0 and 2.7 Ga with the low solubility of phosphate in alkaline groundwater. The development of photosynthetic activity at the surface of the newly exposed continents increased the oxygen level in the atmosphere, which in turn triggered acid drainage and stepped up P dissolution and liberation of heavy Zn into the runoff. Zinc isotopes provide a new perspective on the rise of continents, the volume of carbonates on continents, changing weathering conditions, and compositions of the ocean through time.

  20. Comparison of different evaporation estimates over the African continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trambauer, P.; Dutra, E.; Maskey, S.; Werner, M.; Pappenberger, F.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2014-01-01

    Evaporation is a key process in the water cycle with implications ranging, inter alia, from water management to weather forecast and climate change assessments. The estimation of continental evaporation fluxes is complex and typically relies on continental-scale hydrological models or land-surface models. However, it appears that most global or continental-scale hydrological models underestimate evaporative fluxes in some regions of Africa, and as a result overestimate stream flow. Other studies suggest that land-surface models may overestimate evaporative fluxes. In this study, we computed actual evaporation for the African continent using a continental version of the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB, which is based on a water balance approach. Results are compared with other independently computed evaporation products: the evaporation results from the ECMWF reanalysis ERA-Interim and ERA-Land (both based on the energy balance approach), the MOD16 evaporation product, and the GLEAM product. Three other alternative versions of the PCR-GLOBWB hydrological model were also considered. This resulted in eight products of actual evaporation, which were compared in distinct regions of the African continent spanning different climatic regimes. Annual totals, spatial patterns and seasonality were studied and compared through visual inspection and statistical methods. The comparison shows that the representation of irrigation areas has an insignificant contribution to the actual evaporation at a continental scale with a 0.5° spatial resolution when averaged over the defined regions. The choice of meteorological forcing data has a larger effect on the evaporation results, especially in the case of the precipitation input as different precipitation input resulted in significantly different evaporation in some of the studied regions. ERA-Interim evaporation is generally the highest of the selected products followed by ERA-Land evaporation. In some regions, the satellite

  1. Comparison of different evaporation estimates over the African continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trambauer, P.; Dutra, E.; Maskey, S.; Werner, M.; Pappenberger, F.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2013-07-01

    Evaporation is a key process in the water cycle, with implications ranging from water management, to weather forecast and climate change assessments. The estimation of continental evaporation fluxes is complex and typically relies on continental-scale hydrological or land-surface models. However, it appears that most global or continental-scale hydrological models underestimate evaporative fluxes in some regions of Africa, and as a result overestimate stream flow. Other studies suggest that land-surface models may overestimate evaporative fluxes. In this study, we computed actual evaporation for the African continent using a continental version of the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB, which is based on a water balance approach. Results are compared with other independently computed evaporation products: the evaporation results from the ECMWF reanalysis ERA-Interim and ERA-Land (both based on the energy balance approach), the MOD16 evaporation product, and the GLEAM product. Three other alternative versions of the PCR-GLOBWB hydrological model were also considered. This resulted in eight products of actual evaporation, which were compared in distinct regions of the African continent spanning different climatic regimes. Annual totals, spatial patterns and seasonality were studied and compared through visual inspection and statistical methods. The comparison shows that the representation of irrigation areas has an insignificant contribution to the actual evaporation at a continental scale with a 0.5° spatial resolution. The choice of meteorological forcing data has a larger effect on the evaporation results, especially in the case of the precipitation input as different precipitation input resulted in significantly different evaporation in some of the studied regions. ERA-Interim evaporation is generally the highest of the selected products followed by ERA-Land evaporation. The satellite based products (GLEAM and MOD16) do not show regular behaviour when compared

  2. Subtropical circulation, Tibetan Plateau, and Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, G. X.

    2015-12-01

    The characteristics of the land-air-sea interaction in summer subtropics and their impacts on climate were revealed. It was shown that different kind of diabatic heating plays different roles in the formation of the subtropical circulation where the surface sensible heating associated with the land-sea distribution plays a fundamentally important role, and the three spatial- scales of atmospheric forcing contribute in various ways to the formation of aridity/desert over the western parts of continents and wet/monsoon over the eastern parts. Thus monsoon and desert coexist as twin features. It was identified that the onset of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) consists of three dynamically consequential stages: the onset first occurs over the eastern Bay of Bengal (BOB) in early May, which is followed by the onset over the South China Sea in mid-May, and the Indian Monsoon onset in early June. During such an onset progression, the formation, maintenance and evolution of the South Asian High (SAH) play a significant role in generating the upper tropospheric dumping. In the lower troposphere, the development of the BOB monsoon onset vortex, the ASM onset barrier, the cross equatorial SST gradient and the forced convection over the eastern Arabian Sea also regulate the onset evolution. In winter the Tibetan Plateau (TP) can inspire a stationary dipole-type atmospheric wave, forming a specific climate pattern in Asia. In spring, such a dipole circulation forms the unique persistent rainfall over Southern China. The TP forcing can also anchor the ASM onset over the BOB by generating the unique short- life BOB SST warm pool and modulating the SAH in the upper troposphere. In summer the thermal forcing of the Tibetan-Iranian Plateau plays a significant role in controlling the Asian monsoon by transporting water vapor from the sea to the land for the genesis of continental monsoon. The TP thermal forcing also modulates the regional climate variability in different time scales.

  3. Assessing the causes of late Pleistocene extinctions on the continents.

    PubMed

    Barnosky, Anthony D; Koch, Paul L; Feranec, Robert S; Wing, Scott L; Shabel, Alan B

    2004-10-01

    One of the great debates about extinction is whether humans or climatic change caused the demise of the Pleistocene megafauna. Evidence from paleontology, climatology, archaeology, and ecology now supports the idea that humans contributed to extinction on some continents, but human hunting was not solely responsible for the pattern of extinction everywhere. Instead, evidence suggests that the intersection of human impacts with pronounced climatic change drove the precise timing and geography of extinction in the Northern Hemisphere. The story from the Southern Hemisphere is still unfolding. New evidence from Australia supports the view that humans helped cause extinctions there, but the correlation with climate is weak or contested. Firmer chronologies, more realistic ecological models, and regional paleoecological insights still are needed to understand details of the worldwide extinction pattern and the population dynamics of the species involved.

  4. Asynchronous extinction of late Quaternary sloths on continents and islands

    PubMed Central

    Steadman, David W.; Martin, Paul S.; MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Jull, A. J. T.; McDonald, H. Gregory; Woods, Charles A.; Iturralde-Vinent, Manuel; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.

    2005-01-01

    Whatever the cause, it is extraordinary that dozens of genera of large mammals became extinct during the late Quaternary throughout the Western Hemisphere, including 90% of the genera of the xenarthran suborder Phyllophaga (sloths). Radiocarbon dates directly on dung, bones, or other tissue of extinct sloths place their “last appearance” datum at ≈11,000 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP) or slightly less in North America, ≈10,500 yr BP in South America, and ≈4,400 yr BP on West Indian islands. This asynchronous situation is not compatible with glacial–interglacial climate change forcing these extinctions, especially given the great elevational, latitudinal, and longitudinal variation of the sloth-bearing continental sites. Instead, the chronology of last appearance of extinct sloths, whether on continents or islands, more closely tracks the first arrival of people. PMID:16085711

  5. Asynchronous extinction of late Quaternary sloths on continents and islands.

    PubMed

    Steadman, David W; Martin, Paul S; MacPhee, Ross D E; Jull, A J T; McDonald, H Gregory; Woods, Charles A; Iturralde-Vinent, Manuel; Hodgins, Gregory W L

    2005-08-16

    Whatever the cause, it is extraordinary that dozens of genera of large mammals became extinct during the late Quaternary throughout the Western Hemisphere, including 90% of the genera of the xenarthran suborder Phyllophaga (sloths). Radiocarbon dates directly on dung, bones, or other tissue of extinct sloths place their "last appearance" datum at approximately 11,000 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP) or slightly less in North America, approximately 10,500 yr BP in South America, and approximately 4,400 yr BP on West Indian islands. This asynchronous situation is not compatible with glacial-interglacial climate change forcing these extinctions, especially given the great elevational, latitudinal, and longitudinal variation of the sloth-bearing continental sites. Instead, the chronology of last appearance of extinct sloths, whether on continents or islands, more closely tracks the first arrival of people.

  6. Convergent structure of multitrophic communities over three continents.

    PubMed

    Segar, Simon T; Pereira, Rodrigo A S; Compton, Steve G; Cook, James M

    2013-12-01

    Ecological theory predicts that communities using the same resources should have similar structure, but evolutionary constraints on colonisation and niche shifts may hamper such convergence. Multitrophic communities of wasps exploiting fig fruits, which first evolved about 75MYA, do not show long-term 'inheritance' of taxonomic (lineage) composition or species diversity. However, communities on three continents have converged ecologically in the presence and relative abundance of five insect guilds that we define. Some taxa fill the same niches in each community (phylogenetic niche conservatism). However, we show that overall convergence in ecological community structure depends also on a combination of niche shifts by resident lineages and local colonisations of figs by other insect lineages. Our study explores new ground, and develops new heuristic tools, in combining ecology and phylogeny to address patterns in the complex multitrophic communities of insect on plants, which comprise a large part of terrestrial biodiversity.

  7. An assessment of stressor extent and biological condition in the North American mid-continent great rivers (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angradi, Ted R.; Bolgriend, David W.; Jicha, Terri M.; Pearson, Mark S.; Taylor, Debra L.; Moffett, Mary F.; Blocksom, Karen A.; Walters, David M.; Elonen, Colleen M.; Anderson, Leroy E.; Lazorchak, James M.; Reavie, Euan D.; Kireta, Amy R.; Hill, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the North American mid-continent great rivers (Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio). We estimated the extent of each river in most- (MDC) or least-disturbed condition (LDC) based on multiple biological response indicators: fish and macroinvertebrate, trophic state based on chlorophyll a, macrophyte cover, and exposure of fish-eating wildlife to toxic contaminants in fish tissue (Hg, total chlordane, total DDT, PCBs). We estimated the extent of stressors on each river including nutrients, suspended solids, sediment toxicity, invasive species, and land use (agriculture and impervious surface). All three rivers had a greater percent of their river length in MDC than in LDC based on fish assemblages. The Upper Mississippi River had the greatest percent of river length with eutrophic status. The Ohio River had the greatest percent of river length with fish with tissue contaminant levels toxic to wildlife. Overall, condition indices based on fish assemblages were more sensitive to stress than macroinvertebrate indices. Compared to the streams in its basin, more of the Upper Mississippi and Missouri Rivers were in MDC for nutrients than the Ohio River. Invasive species (Asian carp and Dreissenid mussels) were less widespread and less abundant on the Missouri River than on the other great rivers. The Ohio River had the most urbanized floodplains (greatest percent impervious surface). The Missouri River had the most floodplain agriculture. The effect of large urban areas on river condition was apparent for several indicators. Ecosystem condition based in fish assemblages, trophic state, and fish tissue contamination was related to land use on the floodplain and at the subcatchment scale. This is the first unbiased bioassessment of the mid-continent great rivers in the United States. The indicators, condition thresholds, results, and recommendations from this program are a starting point for improved future great river assessments.

  8. Clustered and transient earthquake sequences in mid-continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Stein, S. A.; Wang, H.; Luo, G.

    2012-12-01

    Earthquakes result from sudden release of strain energy on faults. On plate boundary faults, strain energy is constantly accumulating from steady and relatively rapid relative plate motion, so large earthquakes continue to occur so long as motion continues on the boundary. In contrast, such steady accumulation of stain energy does not occur on faults in mid-continents, because the far-field tectonic loading is not steadily distributed between faults, and because stress perturbations from complex fault interactions and other stress triggers can be significant relative to the slow tectonic stressing. Consequently, mid-continental earthquakes are often temporally clustered and transient, and spatially migrating. This behavior is well illustrated by large earthquakes in North China in the past two millennia, during which no single large earthquakes repeated on the same fault segments, but moment release between large fault systems was complementary. Slow tectonic loading in mid-continents also causes long aftershock sequences. We show that the recent small earthquakes in the Tangshan region of North China are aftershocks of the 1976 Tangshan earthquake (M 7.5), rather than indicators of a new phase of seismic activity in North China, as many fear. Understanding the transient behavior of mid-continental earthquakes has important implications for assessing earthquake hazards. The sequence of large earthquakes in the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) in central US, which includes a cluster of M~7 events in 1811-1812 and perhaps a few similar ones in the past millennium, is likely a transient process, releasing previously accumulated elastic strain on recently activated faults. If so, this earthquake sequence will eventually end. Using simple analysis and numerical modeling, we show that the large NMSZ earthquakes may be ending now or in the near future.

  9. Laparoscopic Mitrofanoff continent catheterisable stoma in children with spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Mallikarjun N.; Nerli, Rajendra B.; Patil, Ranjeet A.; Jali, Sujata M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 1980, Mitrofanoff described the creation of an appendicovesicostomy for continent urinary diversion. This procedure greatly facilitates clean intermittent catheterisation in patients with neurogenic bladder. The purpose of our study was to determine the clinical efficacy of the laparoscopic Mitrofanoff catheterisable stoma for children and adolescents with spina bifida. Materials and Methods: Review of hospital records revealed that 11 children with spina bifida underwent a laparoscopic Mitrofanoff procedure with at least 1-year of follow-up. A four-port transperitoneal laparoscopic approach was used to create a Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy. The child was followed-up in the urology clinic at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 1-year, and then semiannually after that. Questionnaires were administered to determine, from the children's perspective, the level of satisfaction with catheterisation and the psychosocial implications of catheterisation before and after the creation of the Mitrofanoff continent catheterisable stoma. Results: Of the 11 children, six were female, and five were male. The mean age at presentation to Paediatric urological services was 11 ± 3.22 years. Overall the mean operative time was 144.09 ± 17.00 min. Mean estimated blood loss was 37.36 ± 11.44 cc. None of the cases needed conversion to open. Patient satisfaction with their catheterisation was measured at 2.18 ± 0.98 preoperatively, Post-operatively, this improved to 4.27 ± 0.46. Statistical analysis using paired t-test showed significance with P < 001. Conclusions: Laparoscopic Mitrofanoff catheterisable stoma is feasible in children with spina bifida and is associated with reasonable outcome with early recovery, resumption of normal activities and excellent cosmesis. PMID:26168751

  10. Assessment of the extirpated Maritimes walrus using morphological and ancient DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Brenna A; Frasier, Timothy R; Lucas, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    Species biogeography is a result of complex events and factors associated with climate change, ecological interactions, anthropogenic impacts, physical geography, and evolution. To understand the contemporary biogeography of a species, it is necessary to understand its history. Specimens from areas of localized extinction are important, as extirpation of species from these areas may represent the loss of unique adaptations and a distinctive evolutionary trajectory. The walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) has a discontinuous circumpolar distribution in the arctic and subarctic that once included the southeastern Canadian Maritimes region. However, exploitation of the Maritimes population during the 16th-18th centuries led to extirpation, and the species has not inhabited areas south of 55°N for ∼250 years. We examined genetic and morphological characteristics of specimens from the Maritimes, Atlantic (O. r. rosmarus) and Pacific (O. r. divergens) populations to test the hypothesis that the first group was distinctive. Analysis of Atlantic and Maritimes specimens indicated that most skull and mandibular measurements were significantly different between the Maritimes and Atlantic groups and discriminant analysis of principal components confirmed them as distinctive groups, with complete isolation of skull features. The Maritimes walrus appear to have been larger animals, with larger and more robust tusks, skulls and mandibles. The mtDNA control region haplotypes identified in Maritimes specimens were unique to the region and a greater average number of nucleotide differences were found between the regions (Atlantic and Maritimes) than within either group. Levels of diversity (h and π) were lower in the Maritimes, consistent with other studies of species at range margins. Our data suggest that the Maritimes walrus was a morphologically and genetically distinctive group that was on a different evolutionary path from other walrus found in the north Atlantic. PMID:24924490

  11. Assessment of the Extirpated Maritimes Walrus Using Morphological and Ancient DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Brenna A.; Frasier, Timothy R.; Lucas, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    Species biogeography is a result of complex events and factors associated with climate change, ecological interactions, anthropogenic impacts, physical geography, and evolution. To understand the contemporary biogeography of a species, it is necessary to understand its history. Specimens from areas of localized extinction are important, as extirpation of species from these areas may represent the loss of unique adaptations and a distinctive evolutionary trajectory. The walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) has a discontinuous circumpolar distribution in the arctic and subarctic that once included the southeastern Canadian Maritimes region. However, exploitation of the Maritimes population during the 16th-18th centuries led to extirpation, and the species has not inhabited areas south of 55°N for ∼250 years. We examined genetic and morphological characteristics of specimens from the Maritimes, Atlantic (O. r. rosmarus) and Pacific (O. r. divergens) populations to test the hypothesis that the first group was distinctive. Analysis of Atlantic and Maritimes specimens indicated that most skull and mandibular measurements were significantly different between the Maritimes and Atlantic groups and discriminant analysis of principal components confirmed them as distinctive groups, with complete isolation of skull features. The Maritimes walrus appear to have been larger animals, with larger and more robust tusks, skulls and mandibles. The mtDNA control region haplotypes identified in Maritimes specimens were unique to the region and a greater average number of nucleotide differences were found between the regions (Atlantic and Maritimes) than within either group. Levels of diversity (h and π) were lower in the Maritimes, consistent with other studies of species at range margins. Our data suggest that the Maritimes walrus was a morphologically and genetically distinctive group that was on a different evolutionary path from other walrus found in the north Atlantic. PMID:24924490

  12. Assessment of the extirpated Maritimes walrus using morphological and ancient DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Brenna A; Frasier, Timothy R; Lucas, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    Species biogeography is a result of complex events and factors associated with climate change, ecological interactions, anthropogenic impacts, physical geography, and evolution. To understand the contemporary biogeography of a species, it is necessary to understand its history. Specimens from areas of localized extinction are important, as extirpation of species from these areas may represent the loss of unique adaptations and a distinctive evolutionary trajectory. The walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) has a discontinuous circumpolar distribution in the arctic and subarctic that once included the southeastern Canadian Maritimes region. However, exploitation of the Maritimes population during the 16th-18th centuries led to extirpation, and the species has not inhabited areas south of 55°N for ∼250 years. We examined genetic and morphological characteristics of specimens from the Maritimes, Atlantic (O. r. rosmarus) and Pacific (O. r. divergens) populations to test the hypothesis that the first group was distinctive. Analysis of Atlantic and Maritimes specimens indicated that most skull and mandibular measurements were significantly different between the Maritimes and Atlantic groups and discriminant analysis of principal components confirmed them as distinctive groups, with complete isolation of skull features. The Maritimes walrus appear to have been larger animals, with larger and more robust tusks, skulls and mandibles. The mtDNA control region haplotypes identified in Maritimes specimens were unique to the region and a greater average number of nucleotide differences were found between the regions (Atlantic and Maritimes) than within either group. Levels of diversity (h and π) were lower in the Maritimes, consistent with other studies of species at range margins. Our data suggest that the Maritimes walrus was a morphologically and genetically distinctive group that was on a different evolutionary path from other walrus found in the north Atlantic.

  13. Asian Black Carbon Influence on East Asian Summer Monsoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, R.; Li, S.

    2011-12-01

    Since the black carbon (BC) emission in East and South Asia has increased significantly during the last decades of the 20th century, there is an ever growing concern about its impact on Asian monsoon. In this study we provide an in-depth analysis of the influence by performing several ensemble sensitive experiments with or without historical BC concentrations over East Asia, South Asia, and the combined East and South Asia in an atmospheric general circulation model, GFDL AM2.1. The results show that: (a) The East Asian summer climate is sensitive to the East Asian BC (EABC) concentrations in a sense that EABC contributes significantly to the frequently occurring north-drought and south-flood patterns in Eastern China. In detail, the large scale precipitation anomalies induced by EABC characterize more rainfalls over central/south China, East China Sea and southern Japan and less rainfall over northern China and the west Pacific region between 10N to 20N. These anomalous precipitation patterns are mainly attributed to the EABC induced large scale circulation changes including the weakened Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH), anomalous ascent motions over central-southern China (centering over the Yangtze River valley (YRV)) and the subsequent descent motions over northern China and the South China Sea. These modeled results suggest that the EABC experiment reproduces the climate shift event of eastern China during the late 1970s, including intensified rainfall in the YRV and the weakened summer monsoonal circulation. (b) The anomalous results of South Asian BC (SABC) experiment signify a tri-polar precipitation response over East Asia, with a reduction from the YRV to East China Sea and southern Japan sandwiched with increases over a northern domain from northern China/ Korea to northern Japan and over southern China. As for southern China, particularly the YRV, the impact of SABC is to offset a fraction of intensified rainfall induced by local BC of East Asia

  14. Evolution of Asian aerosols during transpacific transport in INTEX-B

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlea, E. J.; DeCarlo, Peter; Aiken, Allison; Kimmel, Joel; Peltier, R. E.; Weber, R. J.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Collins, Donald R.; Shinozuka, Yohei; McNaughton, C. S.; Howell, S. G.; Clarke, A. D.; Emmons, L.; Apel, Eric; Pfister, G. G.; van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R. V.; Millet, D. B.; Heald, C. L.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2009-10-01

    Measurements of aerosol composition were made with an Aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) on board the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft as part of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B 5 (INTEX-B) field campaign over the Eastern Pacific Ocean. The HR-ToF-AMS measurements of non-refractory submicron aerosol mass are shown to compare well with other aerosol instrumentation in the INTEX-B field study. Two case studies are described for pollution layers transported across the Pacific from the Asian continent, intercepted 3–4 days and 7–10 days downwind of Asia, respectively. Aerosol chemistry is shown to 10 be a robust tracer for air masses originating in Asia, specifically the presence of sulfate dominated aerosol is a distinguishing feature of Asian pollution layers that have been transported to the Eastern Pacific. We examine the time scales of processing for sulfate and organic aerosol in the atmosphere and show that our observations confirm a conceptual model for transpacific transport from Asia proposed by Brock et al. (2004). 15 Our observations of both sulfate and organic aerosol in aged Asian pollution layers are consistent with fast formation near the Asian continent, followed by washout during lofting and subsequent transformation during transport across the Pacific. Our observations are the first atmospheric measurements to indicate that although secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from pollution happens on the timescale of one day, 20 the oxidation of organic aerosol continues at longer timescales in the atmosphere. Comparisons with chemical transport models of data from the entire campaign reveal an under-prediction of SOA mass in the MOZART model, but much smaller discrepancies with the GEOS-Chem model than found in previous studies over the Western Pacific. No evidence is found to support a previous hypothesis for significant secondary 25 organic aerosol formation in the free troposphere.

  15. Focus: Asian migration to Canada.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, A

    1988-01-01

    This collection of 5 short essays on Asian migration to Canada focuses on the relationships between individual migrants and their social contexts, both Asian and Canadian. Papers by Anderson and Kobayashi adopt research perspectives of outsider and insider, respectively. Vibert provides a historical overview against which the substantive issues introduced in the other 3 papers can be understood, and he illustrates the links between circumstances of migration and the larger issues by which the course of Canadian social progress has been steered. Mercer provides an introduction to issues that dominate the agenda of contemporary research, to show that Canadian communities of Asian heritage continue to grow in size, diversity, and complexity, as they become more established on the Canadian landscape. This collection is as much about the geography of racism as it is about migration.

  16. Mating system and pollen gene flow in Mediterranean maritime pine.

    PubMed

    de-Lucas, A I; Robledo-Arnuncio, J J; Hidalgo, E; González-Martínez, S C

    2008-04-01

    Mating systems define the mode of gene transmission across generations, helping to determine the amount and distribution of genetic variation within and among populations of plant species. A hierarchical analysis of Mediterranean maritime pine mating system (61 mother trees from 24 plots, clustered in three populations) was used to identify factors affecting mating patterns and to fit pollen dispersal kernels. Levels of ovule and seed abortion, multi- and single-locus outcrossing rates and correlated paternity were estimated from progeny arrays and correlated with ecological stand variables and biometric tree measures. Pollen dispersal kernels were fitted using TwoGener and KinDist indirect methods and simulations were carried out to identify relevant factors affecting correlated paternity. Maritime pine showed high outcrossing rates (t(m) and t(s) approximately 0.96) and relatively low levels of correlated paternity [an r(p) of 0.018 (Ritland's estimate) or 0.048 (Hardy's estimate)], although higher than in other anemophilous tree species. Mating system parameters had high variation at the single-tree level (99-100%) but no stand or population effect was detected. At the single-tree level, outcrossing rates were correlated with tree (diameter and height) and crown size. In addition, correlated paternity showed a significant negative correlation with tree height, height to crown base and height to the largest crown width, probably reflecting the importance of the trees' 'ecological neighborhoods'. Indirectly estimated pollen dispersal kernels were very leptokurtic (exponential-power distributions with beta<0.5), with mean dispersal distances from 78.4 to 174.4 m. Fitted dispersal kernels will be useful in building explicit simulation models that include dispersal functions, and which will contribute to current conservation and management programs for maritime pine. Nevertheless, the numerical simulations showed that restricted dispersal, male fertility and

  17. Asian Energy Security

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Hayes, PhD

    2003-12-01

    OAK-B135 In the Asian Energy Security (AES) Project, Nautilus Institute works together with a network of collaborating groups from the countries of Northeast Asia to evaluate the energy security implications of different national and regional energy ''paths''. The goal of the Asia Energy Security project is to illuminate energy paths--and the energy policy choices that might help to bring them about--that result in a higher degree of energy security for the region and for the world as a whole, that is, to identify energy paths that are ''robust'' in meeting many different energy security and development objectives, while also offering flexibility in the face of uncertainty. In work to date, Nautilus has carefully assembled a network of colleagues from the countries of the region, trained them together as a group in the use of a common, flexible, and transparent energy and environmental analysis planning software tool (LEAP, the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning system), and worked with them to prepare base-year energy sector models for each country. To date, complete data sets and models for ''Business as Usual'' (BAU) energy paths have been compiled for China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea. A partial data set and BAU path has been compiled for the Russian Far East, and a data set is being started in Mongolia, where a team of researchers has just joined the AES project. In several countries, ''Alternative'' energy paths have been developed as well, or partially elaborated. National energy sector developments, progress on national LEAP modeling, additional LEAP training, and planning for the next phase of the AES project were the topics of a recent (early November) workshop held in Vancouver, British Columbia. With funding from the Department of Energy, Nautilus is poised to build upon the successes of the project to date with a coordinated international effort to research the energy security ramifications of

  18. Asians on the Rim: Transnational Capital and Local Community in the Making of Contemporary Asian America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirlik, Arif

    1996-01-01

    Explores suggested contradictions to grasping contemporary Asian America as a socio-ideological formation. It is suggested that the emergence of Pacific Asian economies in the global economy has had a transformative effect on the Asian American self-image, causing Asian Americans to see themselves as either grounded in local communities or as…

  19. Characteristics, processes, and causes of the spatio-temporal variabilities of the East Asian monsoon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ronghui; Chen, Jilong; Wang, Lin; Lin, Zhongda

    2012-09-01

    Recent advances in the study of the characteristics, processes, and causes of spatio-temporal variabilities of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) system are reviewed in this paper. The understanding of the EAM system has improved in many aspects: the basic characteristics of horizontal and vertical structures, the annual cycle of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) system and the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) system, the characteristics of the spatio-temporal variabilities of the EASM system and the EAWM system, and especially the multiple modes of the EAM system and their spatio-temporal variabilities. Some new results have also been achieved in understanding the atmosphere-ocean interaction and atmosphere-land interaction processes that affect the variability of the EAM system. Based on recent studies, the EAM system can be seen as more than a circulation system, it can be viewed as an atmosphere-ocean-land coupled system, namely, the EAM climate system. In addition, further progress has been made in diagnosing the internal physical mechanisms of EAM climate system variability, especially regarding the characteristics and properties of the East Asia-Pacific (EAP) teleconnection over East Asia and the North Pacific, the "Silk Road" teleconnection along the westerly jet stream in the upper troposphere over the Asian continent, and the dynamical effects of quasi-stationary planetary wave activity on EAM system variability. At the end of the paper, some scientific problems regarding understanding the EAM system variability are proposed for further study.

  20. On Asian American Ice Queens and Multigeneration Asian Ethnics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuan, Mia

    1999-01-01

    Reactions to the success of ice-skating stars Kristi Yamaguchi and Michelle Kwan illustrate the ways in which Asian ethnics continue to find themselves excluded from the U.S. racial and cultural center. Although they may be long-time Americans, they are not perceived as such. (SLD)