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Sample records for asian maritime continent

  1. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the South Asian maritime continent: vertical distributions and topographic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Yang, Z.; Hyer, E. J.; Reid, J. S.; Chew, B.; Mahamod, M.

    2011-12-01

    The online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used in conjunction with the FLAMBE MODIS-based biomass burning emissions to simulate the transport of smoke particles over the southeast Asian Maritime Continent (MC, 10°S - 10°N, 90°E-150°E) during September - October 2006 when the moderate El Nino event caused the largest region biomass burning outbreak since 1998. The modeled smoke transport pathway is found to be consistent with the MODIS true color images. Quantitatively, the modeled smoke particle mass can explain ~50% of temporal variability in 24-hour average observed PM10 at most ground stations, with linear correlation coefficients often larger than 0.7. Analysis of CALIOP data shows that smoke aerosols are primarily located within 3.5 km above the surface, and we found that smoke injection height in the model should be at ~800 m above surface to best match CALIOP observations downwind, instead of 2 km as used in the past literature. Comparison of CALIOP data in October 2006 with that in other years (2007-2010) reveals that the peak of aerosol extinction always occurs at ~1 km above surface, but smoke events in 2006 doubled the aerosol extinction from the surface to 3.5 km. Numerical experiments further show that the Tama Abu topography in Malaysia Peninsula has a significant impact on smoke transport and the surface in the vicinity. A conceptual model, based upon our analysis of two-month WRFchem simulation and satellite data, is proposed to explain the meteorological causes for smoke layers above the clouds as seen in the CALIOP data.

  2. Assessing Climatic Impacts due to Land Use Change over Southeast Asian Maritime Continent base on Mesoscale Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, N.; Christopher, S. A.; Nair, U. S.

    2014-12-01

    Due to increasing urbanization, deforestation, and agriculture, land use change over Southeast Asia has dramatically risen during the last decades. Large areas of peat swamp forests over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent region (10°S~20°N and 90°E~135°E) have been cleared for agricultural purposes. The Center for Remote Imaging, Sensing and Processing (CRISP) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived land cover classification data show that changes in land use are dominated by conversion of peat swamp forests to oil palm plantation, open lowland or lowland mosaic categories. Nested grid simulations based on Weather Research Forecasting Version 3.6 modelling system (WRFV3.6) over the central region of the Sarawak coast are used to investigate the climatic impacts of land use change over Maritime Continent. Numerical simulations were conducted for August of 2009 for satellite derived land cover scenarios for years 2000 and 2010. The variations in cloud formation, precipitation, and regional radiative and non-radiative parameters on climate results from land use change have been assessed based on numerical simulation results. Modelling studies demonstrate that land use change such as extensive deforestation processes can produce a negative radiative forcing due to the surface albedo increase and evapotranspiration decrease, while also largely caused reduced rainfall and cloud formation, and enhanced shortwave radiative forcing and temperature over the study area. Land use and land cover changes, similar to the domain in this study, has also occurred over other regions in Southeast Asia including Indonesia and could also impact cloud and precipitation formation in these regions.

  3. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: Interplay of sea breeze, trade wind, typhoon, and topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Ge, Cui; Yang, Zhifeng; Hyer, Edward J.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Chew, Boon-Ning; Mahmud, Mastura; Zhang, Yongxin; Zhang, Meigen

    2013-03-01

    The online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRFchem) is used to simulate the transport of smoke particles over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent during September-October 2006. In this period, dry conditions associated with the moderate El Niño event caused the largest regional biomass burning outbreak since 1997. Smoke emission in WRFchem is specified according to the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) database derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire products. The modeled smoke transport pathway is found to be consistent with the MODIS true color images and measured mass concentration of surface PM10 (particulate matter with diameter less than 10 μm). The interplay of sea/land breezes, typhoons and storms over the subtropical western Pacific Ocean, trade winds, and topographic effects, can be clearly seen in the model simulation. The most severe smoke events in 1-5 October 2006 are found to be associated with the meteorological responses to the typhoon Xangsane (#18) over the western subtropical Pacific Ocean, which moved smoke from Sumatra eastward in the lower troposphere (below 700 hPa), forming smoke layers mixed with and above the boundary layer clouds over Borneo. In contrast, the second largest week-long smoke transport event of 15-18 October 2006 was associated with the seasonal monsoonal transition period, during which smoke plumes were wide spread over the 5°S-5°N zone as a result of (a) the near surface divergence coupled with the 700 hPa bifurcation of wind (flowing both to the west and to the east), and (b) the near-surface southeasterly and easterly winds along the equator transporting smoke from Borneo to Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia. Analysis of data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarisation (CALIOP) shows that smoke particles in October 2006 were primarily located within 3.5 km above the surface. Smoke particles contributed roughly half

  4. A "Stratospheric Drain" over the Maritime Continent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Evidence is presented from operational rawinsonde data surrounding the maritime continent that the net mass flux near the tropopause is downward over this region, contrary to the behavior of current numerical models. The air is descending year-round, despite mean upward motion below and above the descending layer. This sinking implies the existence of a significant energy-removing process, which is argued to be the injection of cold air by overshooting convective clouds. The mass, energy, and horizontal momentum budgets are examined in reaching these conclusions. The implied cooling effect of convective overshoots can be simulated with a simple, parcel-sorting convective mixing model. The findings contradict the common view that the mean flow enters the stratosphere in this strongly-convecting region, and have important implications for transport of water vapor and other gases into the stratosphere.

  5. Diurnal Variability and Kelvin Wave Propagation Through Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flatau, M. K.; Baranowski, D. B.; Flatau, P. J.; Matthews, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The 10 year series of the equatorial Kelvin waves obtained from the analysis of TRMM precipitation were examined to evaluate the impact of the diurnal variability of convection on the wave propagation through Maritime Continent. The convection in the Kelvin waves appears to be strongly phase locked in the area of the Maritime continent with the pronounced afternoon maximum. The diurnal phase locking is also evident as Kelvin waves propagate trough the Indian Ocean basin, suggesting that at least some Kelvin waves in this area are forced by the diurnally varying heat source related either to the convection over the land such as Eastern Africa or Madagascar, or over ocean areas with the high SST variability. We examine the hypothesis that the "matching" of the convective phase of the waves with the afternoon maximum of convection over Sumatra influences the wave strength after it crosses the Maritime Continent and can contribute to MJO propagation. The observational results based on observed Kelvin waves are supported by the results of the shallow water model of the interaction of the dry Kelvin wave with the diurnally oscillating heat source.

  6. Diagnosing resolution sensitivity over the Maritime Continent in the MetUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolnough, S. J.; Bush, S. J.; Schiemann, R.; Turner, A. G.; Martin, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Maritime Continent, with over 25,000 islands ranging from hundreds to 780,000 square kilometers, is a key challenge for cumulus-convection and coastal parameterizations in climate resolution GCMs. We studied the resolution sensitivity of precipitation over the Maritime Continent in the MetUM AGCM at horizontal resolutions ranging from approximately 200 to 40 km. We found robust increases in summer precipitation over the Maritime Continent Islands and decreases in summer precipitation over the northern Maritime Continent seas, similar to the resolution sensitivity seen in other studies. These precipitation changes near the Maritime Continent can be large, exceeding 5 mm/day, and are the largest changes in tropical precipitation as resolution is increased. To explore the source of these changes, we present novel experiments to diagnose the role of increased resolution of different components of the AGCM, such as the orography, coastlines and atmospheric dynamics, in the Maritime Continent domain. Our results suggest that total orographic precipitation in the Maritime Continent domain is resolution dependent at these scales. While increased precipitation associated with the higher resolution of the mean orography (see Figure 1) is compensated for by decreasing precipitation associated with changes in the subgrid orography and its effect on parameterized drag, the total orographic precipitation is not equal across resolutions. Changes in moisture convergence, precipitation and circulation due to improved resolution of the orography then affect precipitation in the wider Indo-Pacific region.

  7. Convective Transport of Trace Gases in the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Neil

    2015-04-01

    Passage of air through the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) is the major route for troposphere to stratosphere transport. The UK CAST (Co-ordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics) campaign took place in the West Pacific in January/February 2014. The field campaign was based mainly in Guam (13.5oN, 144.8oE) and had three components: CAST with the NERC FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft; the NASA ATTREX project based around the Global Hawk; the NCAR-led CONTRAST campaign based around the Gulfstream V (HIAPER) aircraft. Together, these aircraft were able to make detailed measurements of atmospheric structure and composition from the ocean surface to 20 km. The CAST team also made ground-based and ozonesonde measurements at the ARM site on Manus Island in Papua New Guinea during February 2014, and halocarbon measurements were made at several West Pacific sites. I will present an overview of the CAST campaign along with the results of high resolution global Unified Model studies and NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment) trajectory calculations to look at the transport of air into the TTL in convective systems over the Maritime continent and West Pacific. I will focus on the transport of air from in and around the boundary layer and will assess the possible importance of natural and anthropogenic emissions for TTL composition.

  8. Smoke aerosol transport patterns over the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Peng; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Atwood, Samuel A.; Johnson, Randall S.; Hyer, Edward J.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Sessions, Walter

    2013-03-01

    Smoke transport patterns over the Maritime Continent (MC) are studied through a combination of approaches, including a) analyzing AODs obtained from satellite products; b) aerosol transport modeling with AOD assimilation along with the atmospheric flow patterns; c) analyzing smoke wet deposition distributions; and d) examining forward trajectories for smoke events defined in this study. It is shown that smoke transport pathways are closely related to the low-level atmospheric flow, i.e., during June-Sept, smoke originating from the MC islands with a dominant source over central and southern Sumatra, and southern and western Borneo, is generally transported northwestward south of the equator and northeastward north of the equator with the cross-equatorial flow, to the South China Sea (SCS), the Philippines and even further to the western Pacific. During the October-November transitional period, smoke transport paths are more zonally oriented compared to June-September. Smoke originating from Java, Bali, Timor etc, and southern New Guinea, which are in the domain of easterlies and southeasterlies during the boreal summer (June-November), is generally transported westward. It is also found that smoke transport over the MC exhibits multi-scale variability. Smoke typically lives longer and can be transported farther in El Niño years and later MJO phases compared with non El Niño years and earlier MJO phases. During El Niño periods there is much stronger westward transport to the east tropical Indian Ocean. Finally, orographic effect on smoke transport over the MC is also clearly discernable.

  9. Dynamics of Clouds and Mesoscale Circulations over the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y.; Wang, S.; Xian, P.; Reid, J. S.; Nachamkin, J.

    2010-12-01

    In recent decades Southeast Asia (SEA) has seen rapid economic growth as well as increased biomass burning, resulting in high air pollution levels and reduced air qual-ity. At the same time clouds often prevent accurate air-quality monitoring and analysis using satellite observations. The Seven SouthEast Asian Studies (7SEAS) field campaign currently underway over SEA provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the com-plex interplay between aerosol and clouds. 7SEAS is a comprehensive interdisciplinary atmospheric sciences program through international partnership of NASA, NRL, ONR and seven local institutions including those from Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. While the original goal of 7SEAS is to iso-late the impacts of aerosol particles on weather and the environment, it is recognized that better understanding of SEA meteorological conditions, especially those associated with cloud formation and evolution, is critical to the success of the campaign. In this study we attempt to gain more insight into the dynamic and physical processes associated with low level clouds and atmospheric circulation at the regional scale over SEA, using the Navy’s Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS® ), a regional forecast model in operation at FNMOC since 1998. This effort comprises two main components. First, multiple-years of COAMPS operational forecasts over SEA are analyzed for basic climatology of atmospheric fea-tures. Second, mesoscale circulation and cloud properties are simulated at relatively higher resolution (15-km) for selected periods in the Gulf of Tonkin and adjacent coastal areas. Simulation results are compared to MODIS cloud observations and local sound-ings obtained during 7SEAS for model verifications. Atmospheric boundary layer proc-esses are examined in relation to spatial and temporal variations of cloud fields. The cur-rent work serves as an important step toward improving our

  10. Does the Maritime Continent region affect sea level change of the eastern Indian Ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovel, W.; Lee, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Maritime Continent region, in particular, the Indonesian Sea, regulates the oceanic communication between the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Previous studies suggest that the freshwater transported from the South China Sea to the Indonesian Sea affects the magnitude and structure of the Indonesian throughflow, and the strong tidal mixing in the Indonesian Sea alters the time mean vertical structure of the water mass carried from the Pacific to the Indian Oceans. Sea level changes in the eastern Indian Ocean is known to be affected by those in the northwestern Pacific via coastal Kelvin wave propagation through the Indonesian Sea. However, whether the Maritime Continent region influences sea level changes in the eastern Indian Ocean has not been investigated. In this study, we used Argo floats and satellite altimeter data to study the near decadal change of sea level during the 2005-2013 period. We found that the steric sea level change in eastern Indian Ocean cannot be fully explained by either local forcing or the transmission of steric signal from the western Pacific. This implicates the potential role of the Maritime Continent region in regulating sea level changes in the eastern Indian Ocean.

  11. Transport and scavenging of biomass burning aerosols in the maritime continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. H.; Wang, C.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning frequently occurs in summertime over the maritime continent, especially in Malaysia peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. Under certain weather conditions, particulate matters emitted from such fires cause degrade of air quality and thus occurrence of often weekly long haze in downwind locations such as Singapore. It is possible that these biomass burning aerosols may have influenced convective clouds in the maritime continent though such cases have not been well simulated and understood. In order to improve understanding of the spatiotemporal coverage and influence of biomass burning aerosols in the maritime continent, we have used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to study the transport of biomass burning aerosols from Malaysia peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo, using biomass burning emissions from the Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN) version 1.0. We choose to use emissions from the month of August because the annual emissions peak often occurs within this month. Based on a multi-year ensemble simulation, we have examined the influences of various meteorological regimes on the aerosol transport and wet removal.

  12. Continent-Ocean Interactions Within East Asian Marginal Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clift, Peter; Kuhnt, Wolfgang; Wang, Pinxian; Hayes, Dennis

    The study of the complex interactions between continents and oceans has become a leading area for 21st century earth cience. In this volume, continent—ocean interactions in tectonics, arc-continent collision, sedimentology, and climatic volution within the East Asian Marginal Seas take precedence. Links between oceanic and continental climate, the sedimentology of coastal and shelf areas, and the links between deformation of continental and oceanic lithosphere are also discussed. As an introduction to the science presented throughout the volume, Wang discusses many of the possible interactions between the tectonic evolution of Asia and both regional and global climate. He speculates that uplift of central Asia in the Pliocene may have triggered the formation of many of the major rivers that drain north through Siberia into the Arctic Ocean. He also argues that it is the delivery of this fresh water that allows the formation of sea ice in that area and triggered the start of Northern Hemispheric glaciation. This may be one of the most dramatic ways in which Asia has shaped the Earth's climate and represents an alternative to the other competing models that have previously emphasized the role of oceanic gateway closure in Central America. Moreover, his proposal for major uplift of at least part of Tibet and Mongolia as late as the Pliocene, based on the history of drainage evolution in Siberia, supports recent data from the southern Tarim Basin and from the Qilian Shan and Qaidam and Jiuxi Basins in northeast Tibet that indicate surface uplift at that time. Constraining the timing and patterns of Tibetan surface uplift is crucial to testing competing models for strain accommodation in Asia following India—Asia collision.

  13. Lifecycles and radiative impacts of anvil cirrus outflow during the maritime continent thunderstorm experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Michael Philip

    2000-10-01

    The Maritime Continent Thunderstorm Experiment took place from 13 November to 10 December 1995 on the Tiwi Islands, which are located approximately 70 km north of Darwin, Australia. As part of this experiment a suite of surface remote sensing instruments including a dual-wavelength millimeter radar, a 10 cm vertically pointing radar and broad-band radiometers were deployed on the northwest comer of Melville Island (11.4S, 130.41E). A 5.2 cm scanning radar was located at Nguiu (10.23A, 130.62E) on the southeast comer of Bathurst Island. The radiative impact of three separate cirrus anvil systems ire investigated. In order to do this, the three- dimensional structure of ice water in the cloud is parameterized from the 5.2 cm radar reflectivity measurements through a Z-IWC relationship. The three- dimensional ice water structure is put into a two-steam radiative transfer model using an independent pixel approximation for several different stages in the lifecycle of the cloud system. Radiative heating/cooling occurs at many different levels through the cloud area. Our analysis shows that the top layer of the cloud is optically thick. Therefore, this variability in the height of radiative heating/cooling is due to variability in cloud top height. There is a distinct difference between the average radiative heating profile in the presence of island-based convection compared to oceanic convection. The island-based convection results in a profile which concentrates cloud- top solar heating and infrared cooling higher in the atmosphere and with a greater magnitude than does oceanic convection. A comparison of the large-scale radiative impact of the island-based thunderstorms upon the net radiative heating in the tropical western Pacific shows that the presence of these thunderstorms greatly changes the deposition of radiational energy in the atmospheric column. Therefore, when considering the energy balance over the tropical western Pacific it is important to treat the

  14. Evaluating mid-Holocene precipitation over Australasia and the Maritime Continent in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerley, Duncan; Reeves, Jessica

    2015-04-01

    The Australasian INTIMATE (INTegration of Ice-core, Marine and Terrestrial records) initiative (INQUA project #0809) was undertaken to develop a consistent chronological assessment of the climate of the past 30000 years over Australia, New Zealand and the Maritime Continent. Work has continued as part of SHAPE initiative (INQUA project #1302), but there has currently been little use of this comprehensive resource for evaluating the available climate model data. Therefore, this work presents the initial assessment of model simulations of the mid-Holocene over the Australasian and Maritime Continents (taken from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project, PMIP) in relation to those available data. The mid-Holocene (6 ka) encompasses a period after sea level stabilisation (around 8-7.5 ka) and before the onset of strong ENSO-related variability (post 4 ka). There is some evidence of possibly drier conditions over northern Australia with increased coastal dune activity, along with slightly wetter conditions over Borneo and Papua New Guinea. Weakening of the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude westerlies (relative to the early Holocene) is also likely to have occurred, as evidenced by drier conditions in Western Tasmania and Victoria. The modelled results from the mid-Holocene simulations indicate that conditions were approximately 1-6% drier over much of continental Australia than at present. There is also evidence of slightly wetter conditions (1-3%) over the northern tip of Australia and parts of Papua New Guinea and Borneo. The Southern Hemisphere westerlies in the mid-latitudes (around 50S) are also weaker by 1-2 m s-1 in the model simulations. There are also differences in the seasonal cycle of precipitation and circulation in these models in response to the changes in the orbital parameters in the mid-Holocene relative to present day. The precipitation in the early half of the monsoon season (October, November and December-OND) is typically 10% higher in the

  15. Study of Atmospheric Processes over the Maritime Continent with Radio Occultation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Y. H.; Schreiner, W. S.; Zeng, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The atmospheric limb sounding technique making use of radio signals transmitted by the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites has emerged as a powerful and relatively inexpensive all weather global observing system. As demonstrated by the proof-of-concept GPS Meteorology (GPS/MET) experiment in 1995 and more recently by the CHAMP and SAC-C missions, the GPS radio occultation (RO) sounding data are shown to be of high accuracy and high vertical resolution. The GPS RO data provided by the joint U.S.-Taiwan COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 mission, a constellation of six microsatellites launched in 2006, have been shown to be extremely valuable for global numerical weather prediction, and the study of weather and climate processes. In particular, the temperature and moisture profiles derived from the GPS RO soundings have been found to be useful in revealing the salient vertical structure of the MJO. Stimulated by the success of the COSMIC mission, U.S. and Taiwan are developing a follow-on mission, known as COSMIC-2, which consists of a constellation of 12 satellites. The first tropical constellation of six satellites will be launched in May 2016 and the second polar constellation of another six satellites will be launched in 2019. COSMIC-2 will make use of an advanced receiver, and will track the Russian GLONASS system in addition to GPS. With the production of ~10,000 high quality radio occultation soundings per day, COSMIC-2 will be extremely valuable for the study of atmospheric processes over the maritime continent. In this presentation, we will discuss the applications of COSMIC-2 RO data to the study of MJO, and the support for the field campaign of the Year of Maritime Continent.

  16. The Contribution of the Mesoscale Convective Complexes (MCCs) to total rainfall over Indonesian Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trismidianto; Yulihastin, E.; Satyawardhana, H.; Nugroho, J. T.; Ishida, S.

    2017-01-01

    The MCCs contribution is expressed as the ratio of MCCs precipitation to the total rainfall at each grid point where MCCs identified by using infrared satellite imagery. The rainfall obtained from the Real-Time Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission’s (TRMM) data. This study found that MCCs contribute to total rainfall during 15-years over Indonesian Maritime Continent up to 20% where the greatest contribution concentrated over Central Kalimantan, South China Sea, Indian Ocean and Papua Island. The contribution of the MCCs is slightly increased in seasonally and monthly up to 24% and 30%, respectively. The greatest contribution is more existence over continent than the ocean in each season and month, except in July. The greatest contribution of the oceanic MCC concentrated in the Indian Ocean almost in each season and month. The contribution of the MCCs over Java Island is almost small in each season and month, but the contribution a slight increase during JJA. The MCC not only contribute to rainfall in the MCC area but the MCC give a contribution to its surrounding area. The frequency distribution of MCCs contribution to the total rainfall is very similar and consistent with the geographic distribution of the MCCs over the IMC during 15-years.

  17. Maritime Continent rainfall variability during the TRMM era: The role of monsoon, topography and El Niño Modoki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    As-syakur, Abd. Rahman; Osawa, Takahiro; Miura, Fusanori; Nuarsa, I. Wayan; Ekayanti, Ni Wayan; Dharma, I. Gusti Bagus Sila; Adnyana, I. Wayan Sandi; Arthana, I. Wayan; Tanaka, Tasuku

    2016-09-01

    Rainfall is among the most important climatic elements of the Maritime Continent. The Maritime Continent rainfall climate is uniquely located in the world's most active convective area. Satellite data measured by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B43 based high-resolution rainfall products represent monthly Maritime Continent rainfall characteristics over 16 years. Several statistical scores were employed to analyse annual means, linear trends, seasonal means, and anomalous Maritime Continent rainfall characteristic percentages. The effects of land and topography on rainfall quantities were also studied and compared with the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) gridded precipitation estimates which has low-resolution. Comparison also applied on linear correlation and partial correlation techniques to determine the relationship between rainfall and the El Niño Modoki and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO; hereafter conventional El Niño). The results show that north-south Maritime Continent precipitation is associated with and generated by the northwest and southeast monsoon patterns. In addition, the large-scale circulations are linked with heavy rainfall over this land-ocean region due to large-scale island-topography-induced convective organization. The rainfall responses to El Niño Modoki and conventional El Niño clearly indicated the times at which the conventional El Niño had a higher impact than El Niño Modoki, especially during northern winter and spring, and vice versa during northern fall, and similarly affect during northern summer. Furthermore, the dynamic movements of rainfall anomaly that are caused by El Niño Modoki and the conventional El Niño events spanned from the southwest during June-July-August (JJA) to throughout the northeast ending in March-April-May (MAM).

  18. Convective Cloud and Rainfall Processes Over the Maritime Continent: Simulation and Analysis of the Diurnal Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, Rebecca L.

    The Maritime Continent experiences strong moist convection, which produces significant rainfall and drives large fluxes of heat and moisture to the upper troposphere. Despite the importance of these processes to global circulations, current predictions of climate change over this region are still highly uncertain, largely due to inadequate representation of the diurnally-varying processes related to convection. In this work, a coupled numerical model of the land-atmosphere system (RegCM3-IBIS) is used to investigate how more physically-realistic representations of these processes can be incorporated into large-scale climate models. In particular, this work improves simulations of convective-radiative feedbacks and the role of cumulus clouds in mediating the diurnal cycle of rainfall. Three key contributions are made to the development of RegCM3-IBIS. Two pieces of work relate directly to the formation and dissipation of convective clouds: a new representation of convective cloud cover, and a new parameterization of convective rainfall production. These formulations only contain parameters that can be directly quantified from observational data, are independent of model user choices such as domain size or resolution, and explicitly account for subgrid variability in cloud water content and nonlinearities in rainfall production. The third key piece of work introduces a new method for representation of cloud formation within the boundary layer. A comprehensive evaluation of the improved model was undertaken using a range of satellite-derived and ground-based datasets, including a new dataset from Singapore's Changi airport that documents diurnal variation of the local boundary layer height. The performance of RegCM3-IBIS with the new formulations is greatly improved across all evaluation metrics, including cloud cover, cloud liquid water, radiative fluxes and rainfall, indicating consistent improvement in physical realism throughout the simulation. This work

  19. A local index of Maritime Continent intraseasonal variability based on rain rates over the land and sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, C. L.; Lane, T. P.; Wheeler, M. C.

    2016-09-01

    A local index for describing intraseasonal variability over the Maritime Continent is developed. The index is based on the ratio of area-averaged rain rate over the land to that over the sea. It takes advantage of the fact that the main convective envelope of intraseasonal variability events tends to modulate the diurnal precipitation cycle over the land over the entire Maritime Continent. Lagged analysis is used to create composite intraseasonal variability events, where "day 0" is chosen according to when the normalized rain rate over the sea becomes greater than that over the land. The index identifies intraseasonal variability events associated with the Madden Julian Oscillation as well as equatorial Kelvin waves and westward propagating equatorial Rossby waves. The results suggest a similar local impact of all such events in suppressing the rain rate over land relative to that over the sea when the main convective envelope approaches.

  20. Diurnal Cycle of Convective Cloud Systems over the Maritime Continent and Its Variability During MJO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    It has been well documented that the diurnal maximum of convection and precipitation is observed during the morning hours (AM) over the ocean, whereas the maximum is during the afternoon hours (PM) over land. However, the difference between AM and PM precipitation in the coastal/adjacent seas over the Maritime Continent (MC) is 2-3 times larger than anywhere else in the tropics. Most large mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) during the local active phases of the MJO are over water of the MC. This makes the convective signals of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) much larger over the water than over the islands when the MJO moves through the MC. In this study, we examine the diurnal cycle of formation, propagation, and dissipation of MCSs by tracking cloud clusters in time and space using hourly satellite IR data and 3-hourly TRMM data. It is found that the large AM precipitation over the adjacent seas is a result of the propagating MCSs from the islands to the sea during the night, which are forced by the enhanced land breeze from the high mountains of the islands in the MC. MCSs can also initiate over the seas during the diurnal maximum of SST in the afternoon and continue to grow into the night and maximize during the early morning. The diurnal cycle of convection is modulated by the MJO. The two factors together may explain the large diurnal amplitude over the adjacent seas of the MC than that of the open ocean. The complex interactions of the convection, local and large-scale circulation, and the unique land-sea geography of the MC are further investigated using a high-resolution, coupled atmosphere-ocean model. The result indicates that the diurnal cycle of SST is affected by the tidal mixing in the ocean, which may be an important factor contributing to the air-sea interaction on the diurnal and MJO time scales.

  1. Precipitation over urban areas in the western Maritime Continent using a convection-permitting model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argüeso, Daniel; Di Luca, Alejandro; Evans, Jason P.

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the effects of urban areas on precipitation in the western Maritime Continent using a convection-permitting regional atmospheric model. The Weather Research and Forecasting model was used to simulate the atmosphere at a range of spatial resolutions using a multiple nesting approach. Two experiments (with and without urban areas) were completed over a 5-year period (2008-2012) each to estimate the contribution of cities to changes in local circulation. At first, the model is evaluated against two satellite-derived precipitation products and the benefit of using a very high-resolution model (2-km grid spacing) over a region where rainfall is dominated by convective processes is demonstrated, particularly in terms of its diurnal cycle phase and amplitude. The influence of cities on precipitation characteristics is quantified for two major urban nuclei in the region (Jakarta and Kuala Lumpur) and results indicate that their presence locally enhances precipitation by over 30 %. This increase is mainly due to an intensification of the diurnal cycle. We analyse the impact on temperature, humidity and wind to put forward physical mechanisms that explain such changes. Cities increase near surface temperature, generating instability. They also make land-sea temperature contrasts stronger, which enhances sea breeze circulations. Together, they increase near-surface moisture flux convergence and favour convective processes leading to an overall increase of precipitation over urban areas. The diurnal cycle of these effects is reflected in the atmospheric footprint of cities on variables such as humidity and cloud mixing ratio and accompanies changes in precipitation.

  2. Relating Precipitation Phenomena with MODIS Detected Hot Spots in the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, E. M.; Reid, J. S.; Xian, P.; Hyer, E.; Turk, J.; Flatau, M.; Zhang, C.

    2009-12-01

    Recent studies of land use practices in SE Asia’s Maritime Continent (MC) have raised questions over potential meteorological implications including smoke-cloud interaction and changes in the regional radiation budget. Land management practices on Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Borneo, and the Malay Peninsula include biomass burning to clear primary forest as well as to maintain oil palm plantations. Burning is also employed for clearing unwanted remains from previous crops, rice stubble for example. However, burning activity is often dictated by weather, in particular precipitation. We studied 5 years of MODIS active fire hot spot and satellite precipitation data to investigate how observed burning activity correlated with precipitation features at four major scales: 1) Intraseasonal El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOP); 2) Seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ); 3) the 30-90 day Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO); and 4) regional convection from localized weather phenomenon (e.g., orographic, isolated thermal convection, sea breeze, etc…). It was found that observed burn patterns from each of the islands of the MC had differing responses to these four forcings. Observed burning activity on the islands of Borneo and Sulawesi correlated strongly with the ENSO and ITCZ indicies, whereas Sumatra was more influenced by the phase and strength of the MJO. Java, showing a mix of influence, exhibited strong fire activity in the morning rather than afternoon which is unusual for most burning regions. We hypothesize that these observed relationships reflect both physical land use differences and contextual bias/observability issues associated with the region’s heavy cloud cover. For further studies on smoke-meteorology interaction, our findings point to the need for a clear understanding of the meteorological context of satellite observations.

  3. Physical Climatology of Indonesian Maritime Continent: An Overview of Observational Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Indonesian maritime continent (IMC) is a miniature of our land-sea coexisting planet Earth. Firstly, without interior activity, the Earth becomes an even-surfaced "aqua-planet" with both atmosphere and ocean flowing almost zonally, and solar differential heating generates (global thermal tides and) Hadley's meridional circulations with ITCZ along the equator as observed actually over open (Indian and Pacific) oceans in the both sides of IMC. ITCZ involves intraseasonal variations or super cloud clusters moving eastward. Secondly, the lands and seas over the actual Earth have been keeping the area ratio of 3:7 (similar to that of islands and inland/surrounding seas in IMC), but their displacements have produced IMC near the equator, which turns equatorial Pacific easterly current northward (Kuroshio) and reflects equatorial oceanic waves inducing coupled ocean-atmosphere interannual variations such as ENSO and IOD, or displacements of Walker's zonal circulations. Thirdly, because IMC consists of many large/small islands with very long coastlines, many narrow straits become a dam for the global (Pacific to Indian) ocean circulation, and the land-sea heat capacity contrasts along the coastlines generate the world's largest rainfall with diurnal cycles (sea-land breeze circulations). The diurnal cycles are dominant in the rainy season (austral summer in Jawa and Bali), because rainfall-induced sprinkler-like land cooling reverses the trans-coastal temperature gradient before sunrise, and subsequent clear sky on land until around noon provides solar heating dependent on season. These processes lead to rapid land/hydrosphere-atmosphere water exchange, local air pollutant washout, and transequatorial boreal winter monsoon (cold surge). In El Niño years the cooler sea-surface temperature suppresses the morning coastal-sea rainfall, and induces often serious smog over IMC. Lastly, high-resolution observations/models covering both over islands and seas are necessary. A

  4. Moistening Processes for Madden-Julian Oscillation over Indian Ocean and Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, C. S.; Sui, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    The moistening processes for MJO over Indian Ocean (IO) and Maritime Continent (MC) are investigated through a diagnosis of ECMWF Re-analysis (ERA-Interim) data in Nov.-April, 1982-2011. During this period, 27 MJO events with strong magnitude and clear propagation are identified and further classified as either primary, or successive, according to the existence of preceding event. While the successive events are analyzed in composite fields, the primary events will be explored individually. A composite of scale-separated lower-tropospheric (1000-700 hPa) moisture (qL) budget is analyzed in four stages: suppressed, cloud developing, convective and decaying, each corresponding to the RMM index phase 567(781), 81(23), 2(4), and 34(56), respectively, for IO (MC). In the suppressed stage, the dominant moisture source over both region is surface evaporation/shallow convection (-Q2). Nonlinear zonal (meridional) advection by synoptic disturbances also has non-negligible contribution over IO (MC). In the cloud developing stage, qLapproaches maximum with moistening tendency to its east. This moistening is contributed by the advection of mean moisture by anomalous easterlies associated with downstream Rossby wave response of the dry anomaly and boundary layer moisture convergence. In the convective stage, while the zonal advection of anomalous westerlies and intense precipitation dries the atmosphere, the moistening of meridional advection by downstream Rossby anti-cyclonic gyres leads to the eastward propagation of deep convection. In the decaying stage, the strong westerlies bring in dry air from the west causing widespread drying. Overall, the moisture evolution of MC is consistent with IO expect meridional component is more essential in suppressed stage. A column-integrated moist static energy (MSE) budget is also analyzed to further identify the role of radiation and surface flux. The result shows that longwave heating is the dominant energy source in convective stage

  5. Physical climatology of Indonesian maritime continent: An outline to comprehend observational studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Manabu D.

    2016-09-01

    The Indonesian maritime continent (IMC) is a miniature of our land-sea coexisting planet Earth. Firstly, without interior activity, the Earth becomes an even-surfaced "aqua-planet" with both atmosphere and ocean flowing almost zonally, and solar differential heating generates (global thermal tides and) Hadley's meridional circulations with the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) along the equator as observed actually over the open (Indian and Pacific) oceans on the both sides of the IMC. The ITCZ involves intraseasonal variations or super cloud clusters moving eastward with hierarchical substructures moving also westward. Secondly, the lands and seas over the actual Earth have been keeping the area ratio of 3:7 (similar to that of islands and inland/surrounding seas in the IMC), but their displacements have produced the IMC near the equator, which turns equatorial Pacific easterly ocean current northward (Kuroshio) and reflects equatorial oceanic waves that affect coupled ocean-atmosphere interannual variations such as ENSO and IOD, or displacements of Walker's zonal circulations. Thirdly, because the IMC consists of many large/small islands with very long coastlines, many narrow straits control the global (Pacific to Indian) ocean circulation, and the land-sea heat capacity contrasts along the coastlines generate the world's largest rainfall with diurnal cycles (sea-land breeze circulations). The diurnal cycles are dominant even in the rainy season (austral summer in Jawa and Bali), because rainfall-induced sprinkler-like land cooling reverses the trans-coastal temperature gradient before sunrise, and subsequent clear sky on land until around noon provides solar heating dependent on season. These processes lead to rapid land/hydrosphere-atmosphere water exchange, local air pollutant washout, and transequatorial boreal winter monsoon (cold surge). In El Niño years, for example, the cooler sea-surface temperature suppresses the morning coastal-sea rainfall, and

  6. Lightning hazard region over the maritime continent observed from satellite and climate change threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilhamsyah, Y.; Koesmaryono, Y.; Hidayat, R.; Murjaya, J.; Nurjaya, I. W.; Rizwan

    2017-02-01

    Climate change would lead to such hydrometeorological disaster as: flash-flood, landslide, hailstone, lightning, and twister become more likely to happen in the future. In terms of lightning event, one research question arise of where lightning would be mostly to strike over the Maritime Continent (MC)?. The objective of the research is to investigate region with high-density of lightning activity over MC by mapping climatological features of lightning flashes derived from onboard NASA-TRMM Satellite, i.e. Optical Transient Detector/Lightning Imaging Sensor (OTD/LIS). Based on data retrieved since 1995-2013, it is seasonally observed that during transition season March to May, region with high vulnerability of lightning flashes cover the entire Sumatra Island, the Malacca Strait, and Peninsular Malaysia as well as Java Island. High-frequent of lightning activity over the Malacca Strait is unique since it is the only sea-region in the world where lightning flashes are denser. As previously mentioned that strong lightning activity over the strait is driven by mesoscale convective system of Sumatra Squalls due to convergences of land breeze between Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia. Lightning activity over the strait is continuously observed throughout season despite the intensity reduced. Java Island, most populated island, receive high-density of lightning flashes during rainy season (December to February) but small part in the northwestern of Java Island, e.g., Bogor and surrounding areas, the density of lightning flashes are high throughout season. Northern and southern parts of Kalimantan and Central part of Sulawesi are also prone to lightning activity particularly during transition season March to May and September to November. In the eastern part of MC, Papua receive denser lightning flashes during September to November. It is found that lightning activity are mostly concentrated over land instead of ocean which is in accordance with diurnal convective

  7. What is responsible for development of the Asian-Pacific transition zone: The geodynamics of oceanic plates or the Asian continent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utkin, V. P.

    2016-03-01

    The main unusual feature of tectogenesis of the Asian-Pacific transition zone in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic consists in the formation of left-lateral strike-slip faults, which form the East Asian global shear zone with paragenesis of its constituent variously oriented fault systems. Paragenetic analysis has revealed that continental blocks of the Asian-Pacific transition zone were displaced along systems of transit left-lateral strike-slip faults of the East Asian global shear zone by hundreds of kilometers in the southerly to southwesterly direction due to tectonic activity of the Asian continent, which drifted southwestward. This process was accompanied by the formation of compression and extension structures. Otherwise, it is difficult to explain the structuring of the overhanging margin of the continent by subduction of oceanic lithospheric plates in the northerly to northwesterly direction opposite relative to the displacement of the continental crust as is usually thought.

  8. Aboriginal women and Asian men: a maritime history of color in white Australia.

    PubMed

    Balint, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    In 1901, Broome—a port town on the northwest edge of the Australian continent—was one of the principal and most lucrative industrial pearling centers in the world and entirely dependent on Asian indentured labor. Relations between Asian crews and local Aboriginal people were strong, at a time when the project of White Australia was being pursued with vigorous, often fanatical dedication across the newly federated continent. It was the policing of Aboriginal women, specifically their relations with Asian men, that became the focus of efforts by authorities and missionaries to uphold and defend their commitment to the White Australia policy. This article examines the historical experience of Aboriginal women in the pearling industry of northwest Australia and the story of Asian-Aboriginal cohabitation in the face of oppressive laws and regulations. It then explores the meaning of “color” in contemporary Broome for the descendants of this mixed heritage today.

  9. An assessment of satellite-based high resolution precipitation datasets for atmospheric composition studies in the maritime continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turk, F. Joseph; Xian, Peng

    2013-03-01

    The Maritime Continent (MC) region of Southeast Asia is known for land use practices that are modulated by precipitation occurrence and fire activity. The polluted environment may modify cloud/precipitation formation mechanisms, but meteorological or weather patterns may disrupt or otherwise influence these same processes. Since the simultaneous retrieval of precipitation and aerosol properties is not possible from current satellite observations, the choice of the precipitation dataset used for applications such as model assimilation and scavenging in aerosol transport models could provide very different results. In this article, a seven-year (2003-2009) time period was analyzed with five satellite-based high-resolution precipitation products (HRPP), the MERRA model reanalysis, and MODIS-derived aerosol observations within nine Southeast Asia domains. Substantially different trends between the aerosol concentration and precipitation time series were noted for different MC island regions, as well as HRPP differences in the precipitation diurnal variability and their capability to track precipitation extremes. For all regions, the most noticeable change to the diurnal cycle was noted during the genesis phase (Phase 1 in the MC) of the intraseasonal Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO). Since these studies do not take any aerosol transport or precipitation dynamics into account, the use of Lagrangian models is proposed to study non-localized aerosol/precipitation interactions and better establish their veracity in current model simulations.

  10. Mechanisms of improved rainfall simulation over the Maritime Continent due to increased horizontal resolution in an AGCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Harun A.; Hirst, Anthony C.

    2016-10-01

    The General Circulation Models experience a significant challenge in realistically simulating rainfall over the tropical Maritime Continent (hereafter, MC). Here, we investigate the mechanisms of an improvement in monthly rainfall simulation over the MC region in the UK Met Office Unified Model (version Global Atmosphere 6.0), which occurs when the horizontal resolution is increased from N96 (grid spacing 135 km) to N216 ( 60 km). The increased resolution enhances the area-averaged rainfall rate over the MC, thereby reducing the dry rainfall bias seen in the model at the N96 resolution. We find that the enhanced area-averaged rainfall is mostly due to an increase in the medium rainfall rates that occurs over the MC islands in the N216 experiment. The rainfall change is predominantly associated with changes in the atmospheric convective circulation and the related horizontal moisture flux convergence. The vertical profiles of convective circulation show a strong sensitivity to the increased horizontal resolution over the MC islands, but not over the surrounding oceans. It is shown that a significant underestimation of the deep convection (as opposed to the shallow convection) in the N96 experiment is primarily responsible for the stronger dry bias in this experiment. We present evidence that the dry bias, and the associated weaker deep convection, are in part caused by the strongly smoothed orography used in the N96 experiment, which provides a weaker orographic lifting of the moist surface air (in a conditionally unstable atmosphere) than that in the N216 experiment.

  11. Aerosol meteorology of the Maritime Continent for the 2012 7SEAS southwest monsoon intensive study - Part 1: regional-scale phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Jeffrey S.; Xian, Peng; Holben, Brent N.; Hyer, Edward J.; Reid, Elizabeth A.; Salinas, Santo V.; Zhang, Jianglong; Campbell, James R.; Chew, Boon Ning; Holz, Robert E.; Kuciauskas, Arunas P.; Lagrosas, Nofel; Posselt, Derek J.; Sampson, Charles R.; Walker, Annette L.; Welton, E. Judd; Zhang, Chidong

    2016-11-01

    The largest 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) operation period within the Maritime Continent (MC) occurred in the August-September 2012 biomass burning season. Included was an enhanced deployment of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometers, multiple lidars, and field measurements to observe transported smoke and pollution as it left the MC and entered the southwest monsoon trough. Here we describe the nature of the overall 2012 southwest monsoon (SWM) and biomass burning season to give context to the 2012 deployment. The MC in 2012 was in a slightly warm El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase and with spatially typical burning activity. However, overall fire counts for 2012 were 10 % lower than the Reid et al. (2012) baseline, with regions of significant departures from this norm, ranging from southern Sumatra (+30 %) to southern Kalimantan (-42 %). Fire activity and monsoonal flows for the dominant burning regions were modulated by a series of intraseasonal oscillation events (e.g., Madden-Julian Oscillation, or MJO, and boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation, or BSISO). As is typical, fire activity systematically progressed eastward over time, starting with central Sumatran fire activity in June related to a moderately strong MJO event which brought drier air from the Indian Ocean aloft and enhanced monsoonal flow. Further burning in Sumatra and Kalimantan Borneo occurred in a series of significant events from early August to a peak in the first week of October, ending when the monsoon started to migrate back to its wintertime northeastern flow conditions in mid-October. Significant monsoonal enhancements and flow reversals collinear with tropical cyclone (TC) activity and easterly waves were also observed. Islands of the eastern MC, including Sulawesi, Java, and Timor, showed less sensitivity to monsoonal variation, with slowly increasing fire activity that also peaked in early October but lingered into November. Interestingly, even though fire

  12. Aerosol meteorology of Maritime Continent for the 2012 7SEAS southwest monsoon intensive study - Part 2: Philippine receptor observations of fine-scale aerosol behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Jeffrey S.; Lagrosas, Nofel D.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Reid, Elizabeth A.; Atwood, Samuel A.; Boyd, Thomas J.; Ghate, Virendra P.; Xian, Peng; Posselt, Derek J.; Simpas, James B.; Uy, Sherdon N.; Zaiger, Kimo; Blake, Donald R.; Bucholtz, Anthony; Campbell, James R.; Chew, Boon Ning; Cliff, Steven S.; Holben, Brent N.; Holz, Robert E.; Hyer, Edward J.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Kuciauskas, Arunas P.; Lolli, Simone; Oo, Min; Perry, Kevin D.; Salinas, Santo V.; Sessions, Walter R.; Smirnov, Alexander; Walker, Annette L.; Wang, Qing; Yu, Liya; Zhang, Jianglong; Zhao, Yongjing

    2016-11-01

    The largest 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) operations period within the Maritime Continent (MC) occurred in the August-September 2012 biomass burning season. Data included were observations aboard the M/Y Vasco, dispatched to the Palawan Archipelago and Sulu Sea of the Philippines for September 2012. At these locations, the Vasco observed MC smoke and pollution entering the southwest monsoon (SWM) monsoonal trough. Here we describe the research cruise findings and the finer-scale aerosol meteorology of this convectively active region. This 2012 cruise complemented a 2-week cruise in 2011 and was generally consistent with previous findings in terms of how smoke emission and transport related to monsoonal flows, tropical cyclones (TC), and the covariance between smoke transport events and the atmosphere's thermodynamic structure. Biomass burning plumes were usually mixed with significant amounts of anthropogenic pollution. Also key to aerosol behavior were squall lines and cold pools propagating across the South China Sea (SCS) and scavenging aerosol particles in their path. However, the 2012 cruise showed much higher modulation in aerosol frequency than its 2011 counterpart. Whereas in 2011 large synoptic-scale aerosol events transported high concentrations of smoke into the Philippines over days, in 2012 measured aerosol events exhibited a much shorter-term variation, sometimes only 3-12 h. Strong monsoonal flow reversals were also experienced in 2012. Nucleation events in cleaner and polluted conditions, as well as in urban plumes, were observed. Perhaps most interestingly, several cases of squall lines preceding major aerosol events were observed, as opposed to 2011 observations where these lines largely scavenged aerosol particles from the marine boundary layer. Combined, these observations indicate pockets of high and low particle counts that are not uncommon in the region. These perturbations are difficult to observe by satellite and very difficult to model

  13. Measurement of electromagnetic waves in ELF and VLF bands to monitor lightning activity in the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Kozo; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Ohya, Hiroyo; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Sato, Mitsuteru; Matsumoto, Jun

    2013-04-01

    Data of lightning discharge has been focused on as an effective way for monitoring and nowcasting of thunderstorm activity which causes extreme weather. Spatial distribution of lightning discharge has been used as a proxy of the presence or absence of deep convection. Latest observation shows that there is extremely huge lightning whose scale is more than hundreds times bigger than that of averaged event. This result indicates that lightning observation should be carried out to estimate not only existence but also scale for quantitative evaluation of atmospheric convection. In this study, lightning observation network in the Maritime Continent is introduced. This network is consisted of the sensors which make possible to measure electromagnetic wave radiated from lightning discharges. Observation frequency is 0.1 - 40 kHz for the measurement of magnetic field and 1 - 40 kHz for that of electric field. Sampling frequency is 100 kHz. Waveform of electromagnetic wave is recorded by personal computer. We have already constructed observation stations at Tainan in Taiwan (23.1N, 121.1E), Saraburi in Thailand (14.5N, 101.0E), and Pontianak in Indonesia (0.0N, 109.4E). Furthermore, we plan to install the monitoring system at Los Banos in Philippines (14.18, 121.25E) and Hanoi in Viet Nam. Data obtained by multipoint observation is synchronized by GPS receiver installed at each station. By using data obtained by this network, location and scale of lightning discharge can be estimated. Location of lightning is determined based on time of arrival method. Accuracy of geolocation could be less than 10km. Furthermore, charge moment is evaluated as a scale of each lightning discharge. It is calculated from electromagnetic waveform in ELF range (3-30 kHz). At the presentation, we will show the initial result about geolocation for source of electromagnetic wave and derivation of charge moment value based on the measurement of ELF and VLF sferics.

  14. Coupling of a regional atmospheric model (RegCM3) and a regional oceanic model (FVCOM) over the maritime continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Xue, Pengfei; Xu, Danya

    2014-09-01

    Climatological high resolution coupled climate model simulations for the maritime continent have been carried out using the regional climate model (RegCM) version 3 and the finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) specifically designed to resolve regions characterized by complex geometry and bathymetry. The RegCM3 boundary forcing is provided by the EMCWF-ERA40 re-analysis. FVCOM is embedded in the Global MITgcm which provides boundary forcing. The domain of the coupled regional model covers the entire South China Sea with its through-flow, the entire Indonesian archipelago with the Indonesian through-flow (ITF) and includes a large region in the western Pacific and eastern Indian oceans. The coupled model is able to provide stable and realistic climatological simulations for a specific decade of atmospheric-oceanic variables without flux correction. The major focus of this work is on oceanic properties. First, the coupled simulation is assessed against ocean-only simulations carried out under two different sets of air-sea heat fluxes. The first set, provided by the MITgcm, is proved to be grossly deficient as the heat fluxes are evaluated by a two-dimensional, zonally averaged atmosphere and the simulated SST have anomalous cold biases. Hence the MITgcm fluxes are discarded. The second set, the NCEP re-analysis heat fluxes, produces a climatological evolution of the SST with an average cold bias of ~-0.8 °C. The coupling eliminates the cold bias and the coupled SST evolution is in excellent agreement with the analogous evolution in the SODA re-analysis data. The detailed comparison of oceanic circulation properties with the International Nusantara Stratification and Transport observations shows that the coupled simulation produces the best estimate of the total ITF transport through the Makassar strait while the transports of three ocean-only simulations are all underestimated. The annual cycle of the transport is also very well reproduced. The coupling also

  15. Large-scale Distribution of CH4 in the Western North Pacific: Sources and Transport from the Asian Continent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, Karen B.; Sachse, Glen W.; Slate, Thomas; Harward, Charles; Blake, Donald R.

    2003-01-01

    Methane (CH4) mixing ratios in the northern Pacific Basin were sampled from two aircraft during the TRACE-P mission (Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific) from late February through early April 2001 using a tunable diode laser system. Described in more detail by Jacob et al., the mission was designed to characterize Asian outflow to the Pacific, determine its chemical evolution, and assess changes to the atmosphere resulting from the rapid industrialization and increased energy usage on the Asian continent. The high-resolution, high-precision data set of roughly 13,800 CH4 measurements ranged between 1602 ppbv in stratospherically influenced air and 2149 ppbv in highly polluted air. Overall, CH4 mixing ratios were highly correlated with a variety of other trace gases characteristic of a mix of anthropogenic industrial and combustion sources and were strikingly correlated with ethane (C2H6) in particular. Averages with latitude in the near-surface (0-2 km) show that CH4 was elevated well above background levels north of 15 deg N close to the Asian continent. In the central and eastern Pacific, levels of CH4 were lower as continental inputs were mixed horizontally and vertically during transport. Overall, the correlation between CH4 and other hydrocarbons such as ethane (C2H6), ethyne (C2H2), and propane (C3H8) as well as the urban/industrial tracer perchloroethene (C2Cl4), suggests that for CH4 colocated sources such as landfills, wastewater treatment, and fossil fuel use associated with urban areas dominate regional inputs at this time. Comparisons between measurements made during TRACE-P and those of PEM-West B, flown during roughly the same time of year and under a similar meteorological setting 7 years earlier, suggest that although the TRACE-P CH4 observations are higher, the changes are not significantly greater than the increases seen in background air over this time interval.

  16. Significant geographic gradients in particulate sulfate over Japan determined from multiple-site measurements and a chemical transport model: Impacts of transboundary pollution from the Asian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikawa, Masahide; Ohara, Toshimasa; Hiraki, Takatoshi; Oishi, Okihiro; Tsuji, Akihiro; Yamagami, Makiko; Murano, Kentaro; Mukai, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    We found a significant geographic gradient (longitudinal and latitudinal) in the sulfate (SO 42-) concentrations measured at multiple sites over the East Asian Pacific Rim region. Furthermore, the observed gradient was well reproduced by a regional chemical transport model. The observed and modeled SO 42- concentrations were higher at the sites closer to the Asian continent. The concentrations of SO 42- from China as calculated by the model also showed the fundamental features of the longitudinal/latitudinal gradient. The proportional contribution of Chinese SO 42- to the total in Japan throughout the year was above 50-70% in the control case, using data for Chinese sulfur dioxide (SO 2) emission from the Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (40-60% in the low Chinese emissions case, using Chinese SO 2 emissions data from the State Environmental Protection Administration of China), with a winter maximum of approximately 65-80%, although the actual concentrations of SO 42- from China were highest in summer. The multiple-site measurements and the model analysis strongly suggest that the SO 42- concentrations in Japan were influenced by the outflow from the Asian continent, and this influence was greatest in the areas closer to the Asian continent. In contrast, we found no longitudinal/latitudinal gradient in SO 2 concentrations; instead SO 2 concentrations were significantly correlated with local SO 2 emissions. Our results show that large amounts of particulate sulfate are transported over long distances from the East Asian Pacific Rim region, and consequently the SO 42- concentrations in Japan are controlled by the transboundary outflow from the Asian continent.

  17. Observation of sprites over the Asian continent and over oceans around Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Han-Tzong; Hsu, Rue-Ron; Chen, Alfred Bing-Chih; Lee, Yi-Jen; Lee, Lou-Chuang

    2002-02-01

    Sprites were observed over thunderstorms in the southern China and in oceans around Taiwan. The observation sites were on the Ali Mountain of Taiwan's Central Ridge area with an altitude of 2413 m and in the campus of National Cheng Kung University with an altitude of 50 m. For the observed land sprites, 90% of them were either carrots or columniforms and 64% of the sprites occurred in groups. Among the observed oceanic sprites, 89% of them were carrots but only 22% of the sprites occurred in groups. We define a sprite active system as a thunderstorm that continuously produces at least one sprite in a 10-minute interval. The active sprites generating periods for the observed thunderstorms were typically shorter than 30 minutes. The sprite production rates for these Asian thunderstorms are estimated to be between I ~ 2 × 10-4 events/km2/hr and I ~ 1 × 10-3 events/km2/hr.

  18. The impact of the diurnal cycle on the propagation of Madden-Julian Oscillation convection across the Maritime Continent: DIURNAL CYCLE AND MJO

    SciTech Connect

    Hagos, Samson M.; Zhang, Chidong; Feng, Zhe; Burleyson, Casey D.; De Mott, Charlotte; Kerns, Brandon; Benedict, James J.; Martini, Matus N.

    2016-10-08

    Influences of the diurnal cycle of convection on the propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) across the Maritime Continent (MC) are examined using cloud-permitting regional model simulations and observations. A pair of ensembles of control (CONTROL) and no-diurnal cycle (NODC) simulations of the November 2011 MJO episode are performed. In the CONTROL simulations, the MJO signal is weakened as it propagates across the MC, with much of the convection stalling over the large islands of Sumatra and Borneo. In the NODC simulations, where the incoming shortwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere is maintained at its daily mean value, the MJO signal propagating across the MC is enhanced. Examination of the surface energy fluxes in the simulations indicates that in the presence of the diurnal cycle, surface downwelling shortwave radiation in CONTROL simulations is larger because clouds preferentially form in the afternoon. Furthermore, the diurnal co-variability of surface wind speed and skin temperature results in a larger sensible heat flux and a cooler land surface in CONTROL compared to NODC simulations. An analysis of observations indicates that the modulation of the downwelling shortwave radiation at the surface by the diurnal cycle of cloudiness negatively projects on the MJO intraseasonal cycle and therefore disrupts the propagation of the MJO across the MC.

  19. Variability in moist static energy budget associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation over the eastern Maritime Continent during CINDY2011/DYNAMO extended observing period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we examine variability in the moist static energy (MSE) budget over eastern Maritime Continent during the CINDY2011/DYNAMO extended observing period (from October 2011 through March 2012) associated with five convective disturbance events that can be recognized as the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO). It reveals that the surface fluxes and radiative heating contribute to the maintenance of the amplitude of column-integrated MSE anomaly, and thus to the intensity of the MJO. The vertical and horizontal advection terms contribute to the phase progression and possibly eastward propagation of MJO. The contribution of the vertical advection is mainly due to lower-tropospheric decent after the precipitation and MSE maxima, presumably associated with rain re-evaporation, while that of the horizontal advection is due to so-called dry intrusion. We also argue impact of several assumptions used in recent idealized models of the MJO on the MSE budget. The assumptions we examined include (1) the column-integrated radiative heating anomaly is taken proportional to the column water vapor, and (2) the anomaly in vertical advection of MSE is taken proportional to that of dry static energy (in other words, the normalized gross moist stability is taken constant). We demonstrate that the assumption 1 tends to speed up the phase progression, while the assumption 2 tends to slow it down.

  20. Possible Factors affecting the Thermal Contrast between Middle-Latitude Asian Continent and Adjacent Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Huaqiong; Wu, Tongwen; Dong, Wenjie

    2015-04-01

    A middle-latitude Land-Sea thermal contrast Index was used in this study which has close connection to the East Asian summer precipitation. The index has two parts which are land thermal index defined as JJA 500-hPa geopotential height anomalies at a land area (75°-90° E, 40° -55°N ) and ocean thermal index defined as that at an oceanic area (140° -150°E, 35° -42.5°N). The impact of the surface heat flux and atmospheric diabatic heating over the land and the ocean on the index was studied. The results show that the surface heat flux over Eurasian inner land has little influence to the land thermal index, while the variation of the surface latent heat flux and long-wave radiation over the Pacific adjacent to Japan has highly correlation with the ocean thermal index. The changes with height of the atmospheric diabatic heating rates over the Eurasian inner land and the Pacific adjacent to Japan have different features. The variations of the middle troposphere atmospheric long-wave and short-wave radiation heating have significantly influences on land thermal index, and that of the low troposphere atmospheric long-wave radiation, short-wave radiation and deep convective heating also have impact on the yearly variation of the land thermal index. For the ocean thermal index, the variations of the surface layer atmospheric vertical diffuse heating, large-scale latent heating and long-wave radiation heating are more important, low and middle troposphere atmospheric large-scale latent heating and shallow convective heating also have impact on the yearly variation of the ocean thermal index. And then the ocean thermal index has closely connection with the low troposphere atmospheric temperature, while the land thermal index has closely connection with the middle troposphere atmospheric temperature. The Effect of the preceding global SST anomalies on the index also was analyzed. The relations of land thermal index and ocean thermal index and the global SST anomalies

  1. Cell concentration of bacteria in the Asian continent outflow under different weather conditions observed at southwestern Japan between 2010 and 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D.; Murata, K.

    2013-12-01

    Widespread dispersal of microorganisms in the air is considered to be particularly important for ice cloud formation in elevated levels. However, very few quantitative data on their concentration are available. The purpose of the study is to figure out the manner by which bacteria are transported and gain the bacteria's concentration and viability in the Northern Hemisphere westerly winds at the downstream areas of the Asian continent. Viable and non-viable airborne bacteria were measured with fluorescence microscopy coupled with LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability Kits under various weather conditions at Kumamoto, a coastal city in southwestern Japan. The concentration in thermodynamically different air parcels was in the similar order, hundreds of thousand cells per cubic meter, but different ranges. No correlation was found between the concentration and coarse aerosol particles (diameter>1.0 μm) in prefrontal air and anticyclone air. In contrast, the concentration correlated closely with coarse particles in the postfrontal air and the concentration increased proportionally to coarse particle concentrations by 1 ~ 2 orders in the presence of Asian dust. Bacterial viability was around 70% on average in the different kinds of air parcels. However, the viability in fast-moving postfrontal air was smaller. In summary, air parcels following strong cold fronts in the westerly wind flow constantly and efficiently convey airborne bacteria, characterized by coarse particle-correlated high concentration and low viability, from the Asian continent while the bacteria in slowly-moving anticyclone and prefrontal air, characterized by low concentration and high viability, are more likely a mixture of bacteria from the Asian continent and the local areas.

  2. A Comparison of Food Supply from 1984 to 2009 and Degree of Dietary Westernization in Taiwan with Asian Countries and World Continents

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Cheau-Jane; Lin, Cheng-Yao; Guo, How-Ran

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare quality, quantity, and trends of food supply from 1984 to 2009 and degree of food westernization in Taiwan with Asian countries and world continents by using food balance data. Methods. We compiled data from food balance sheets of Taiwan and Food and Agriculture Organization, including five continents and three most populated countries each in Eastern, Southern, and Southeastern Asia over the period 1984–2009. Quantity of food supply per capita was referenced to Taiwan food guides. The population-weighted means of food supply from Europe, North America, South America, and Australia and New Zealand continents in terms of energy and nutrient distributions, animal/plant sources, and sugar/alcohol contribution were used as indicators of westernization. Trends of food supply per capita of six food groups were plotted, and linear regression was applied to evaluate food changes. Findings. Taiwan's food supply provided sufficient quantity in food energy, with the lowest cereals/roots supply and rice to wheat ratio, but the highest meat and oil supplies per capita among the 10 studied Asian countries. Taiwan food supply showed the most westernization among these countries. Conclusion. Food supply of Taiwan, although currently sufficient, indicated some security problems and high tendency of diet westernization. PMID:26295045

  3. Characterizing the Vertical Profile of Aerosol Particle Extinction and Linear Depolarization over Southeast Asia and the Maritime Continent: The 2007-2009 View from CALIOP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, James R.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zhang, Jianglong; Tackett, Jason L.; Chew, Boon Ning; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Aoki, Kazuma; Winker, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical profiles of 0.532 µm aerosol particle extinction coefficient and linear volume depolarization ratio are described for Southeast Asia and the Maritime Continent. Quality-screened and cloud-cleared Version 3.01 Level 2 NASA Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) 5-km Aerosol Profile datasets are analyzed from 2007 to 2009. Numerical simulations from the U.S. Naval Aerosol Analysis and Predictive System (NAAPS), featuring two-dimensional variational assimilation of NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Multi-angle Imaging Spectro- Radiometer quality-assured datasets, combined with regional ground-based lidar measurements, are considered for assessing CALIOP retrieval performance, identifying bias, and evaluating regional representativeness. CALIOP retrievals of aerosol particle extinction coefficient and aerosol optical depth (AOD) are high over land and low over open waters relative to NAAPS (0.412/0.312 over land for all data points inclusive, 0.310/0.235 when the per bin average is used and each is treated as single data points; 0.102/0.151 and 0.086/0.124, respectively, over ocean). Regional means, however, are very similar (0.180/0.193 for all data points and 0.155/0.159 when averaged per normalized bin), as the two factors offset one another. The land/ocean offset is investigated, and discrepancies attributed to interpretation of particle composition and a-priori assignment of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio ("lidar ratio") necessary for retrieving the extinction coefficient from CALIOP signals. Over land, NAAPS indicates more dust present than CALIOP algorithms are identifying, indicating a likely assignment of a higher lidar ratio representative of more absorptive particles. NAAPS resolvesmore smoke overwater than identified with CALIOP, indicating likely usage of a lidar ratio characteristic of less absorptive particles to be applied that biases low AOD there. Over open waters except within the Bay of Bengal

  4. Characterizing the vertical profile of aerosol particle extinction and linear depolarization over Southeast Asia and the Maritime Continent: The 2007-2009 view from CALIOP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, James R.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zhang, Jianglong; Tackett, Jason L.; Chew, Boon Ning; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Aoki, Kazuma; Winker, David M.

    2013-03-01

    Vertical profiles of 0.532 μm aerosol particle extinction coefficient and linear volume depolarization ratio are described for Southeast Asia and the Maritime Continent. Quality-screened and cloud-cleared Version 3.01 Level 2 NASA Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) 5-km Aerosol Profile datasets are analyzed from 2007 to 2009. Numerical simulations from the U.S. Naval Aerosol Analysis and Predictive System (NAAPS), featuring two-dimensional variational assimilation of NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer quality-assured datasets, combined with regional ground-based lidar measurements, are considered for assessing CALIOP retrieval performance, identifying bias, and evaluating regional representativeness. CALIOP retrievals of aerosol particle extinction coefficient and aerosol optical depth (AOD) are high over land and low over open waters relative to NAAPS (0.412/0.312 over land for all data points inclusive, 0.310/0.235 when the per bin average is used and each is treated as single data points; 0.102/0.151 and 0.086/0.124, respectively, over ocean). Regional means, however, are very similar (0.180/0.193 for all data points and 0.155/0.159 when averaged per normalized bin), as the two factors offset one another. The land/ocean offset is investigated, and discrepancies attributed to interpretation of particle composition and a-priori assignment of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (“lidar ratio”) necessary for retrieving the extinction coefficient from CALIOP signals. Over land, NAAPS indicates more dust present than CALIOP algorithms are identifying, indicating a likely assignment of a higher lidar ratio representative of more absorptive particles. NAAPS resolves more smoke over water than identified with CALIOP, indicating likely usage of a lidar ratio characteristic of less absorptive particles to be applied that biases low AOD there. Over open waters except within the Bay of

  5. Analyses of the long-range transport of nitrogeneous species through the atmosphere from the Asian continent using observational data at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, and CMAQ postanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadanaga, Y.; Bandow, H.; Uno, I.; Sera, T.; Yuba, A.; Takenaka, N.; Takami, A.; Kurokawa, J.; Hatakeyama, S.

    2010-12-01

    The long-term monitoring of air quality has been continuing at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) in Okinawa, Japan in terms of assessing the environmental impact and biogeochemical effect to the marine-surface activities by the economic growth of Asian continent. Among the monitoring data, total odd nitrogen oxides (NOy), HNO3, particulate nitrate (NO3-(p)), NH3, NH4+ and SO42- were analyzed for the period from 16 March to 13 April 2008 as well as the postanalyses of those species by the Community Muti-scale Air Quality model (CMAQ) of those species. NOy and total nitrate (TN = HNO3 + NO3-(p)) concentrations from China (CH) air mass origin were high during the observational period in both observed and model-calculated result. The long-range transport of odd nitrogen species from the Asian continent is supported with respect to both the CMAQ postanalyses and the observations. HNO3 and NO3-(p) concentrations from CH air mass origin were also high during the observational period. However, the HNO3 diurnal variation with daytime peak and nighttime lows suggests that HNO3 around the CHAAMS forms photochemically in situ or in areas relatively close to the CHAAMS. The maximum and minimum concentrations of NH3 were observed at Pacific Ocean (PO) and Middle China air mass origins, respectively, and the observed NH3 concentrations from PO air mass origin were highest. NH3 concentration calculated by the CMAQ failed to reproduce observed variation, this is because the horizontal resolution of CMAQ (-20km) is not sufficient to allocate the land surface/vegetation base NH3 emission. NH4+ and SO42- concentrations from CH air mass origin were high during the observational period for both the observation and the CMAQ calculation. As well as the case of NOy and TN, the long-range transport of ammonium and sulfur compounds from the Asian continent is also supported in terms of both the CMAQ postanalyses and the observations.

  6. Non-Traditional Security Threats in the Border Areas: Terrorism, Piracy, Environmental Degradation in Southeast Asian Maritime Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabova, E. L.

    2013-11-01

    In addition to facilitating peaceful trade and economic development, sovereign territory, territorial waters and international waters are being used by various criminal groups that pose threats to governments, businesses and civilian population in Southeast Asia. Nonstate criminal maritime activities were not receiving appropriate attention as they were overshadowed by traditional military security challenges. Yet more and more frequently, the non-traditional actors challenge lines of communication, jeopardize access to strategic resources, complicate traditional defence tasks, and harm the environment. Understanding the nature of non-traditional threats, and the ways to combat them, requires international legal, historical and political science analysis within a united problem-oriented approach. A fair critique to pure interest, power and knowledge -based theories of regime formation was developed by E.K. Leonard's1, who explained the evolution of the international system from the global governance perspective. The present study is based on the premise that pure nation-state approaches are incapable of providing a theoretical ground for addressing the growing influence of international criminal networks in South East Asia. From an international relations theory perspective, the author of this study agrees with D.Snidal2 that the hegemonic stability theory has "limits" and is insufficient in describing modern challenges to sustainable international security regime, including non-traditional threats, where collective action is more efficient from an interest and capability standpoint. At the same time the author of this study does not share the viewpoint on "marginalization"3 of international law in current international order due to its fragmentation and regionalization4 and "global power shifts"5 . The United Nations, as a global institution at the top of the vertical hierarchy of international legal order, and the EU as an example of "self-contained" regime along

  7. Mechanisms that influence the formation of high-ozone regions in the boundary layer downwind of the Asian continent in winter and spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Y.; Hudman, R. C.; Nakamura, K.; Koike, M.; Chen, G.; Miyazaki, Y.; Takegawa, N.; Blake, D. R.; Simpson, I. J.; Ko, M.; Kita, K.; Shirai, T.; Kawakami, S.

    2008-08-01

    The seasonal variation of ozone (O3) in the boundary layer (BL) over the western Pacific is investigated using a chemistry-transport model. The model results for January and April-May 2002 were evaluated by comparison with PEACE aircraft observations. In January, strong northwesterlies efficiently transported NOx from the continent, leading to an O3 increase of approximately 5-10 ppbv over a distance of about 3000 km. In April, southwesterlies dominated due to anticyclone development over the western Pacific. Along this flow, O3 continued to be produced by NOx emitted from East Asia. This resulted in the formation of a high-O3 (> 50 ppbv) region extending along the coastal areas of East Asia. This seasonal change in O3 was driven in part by a change in the net O3 production rate due to increases in solar UV and H2O. Its exact response depended on the NOx values in the BL. The net O3 production rate increased between winter and spring over the Asian continent and decreased over the remote western Pacific. Model simulations show that about 25% of the total O3 (of 10-20 ppbv) increase over the coastal region of Northeast Asia was due to local production from NOx emissions from China, and the rest was due to changes in background levels as well as emissions from Korea, Japan, and east Siberia. Uplift of BL air over Asia, horizontal transport in the free troposphere, and subsidence were the principal mechanisms of transporting Asian O3 to the central and eastern North Pacific.

  8. Long-term variation of the source of sulfate deposition in a leeward area of Asian continent in view of sulfur isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Take, Naoko; Inomata, Yayoi; Yagoh, Hiroaki; Endo, Tomomi; Takahashi, Masaaki; Yanahara, Kazuki; Kusakabe, Minoru

    2016-09-01

    A large emission of air pollutants from the Asian continent has caused transboundary air pollution, especially in northeastern Asia. This paper evaluates sulfate deposition at a leeward area of Asian continent, i.e., the Nagaoka observation station located along the Sea of Japan. We have monitored atmospheric sulfate deposition and its sulfur isotopic ratio for 28 years at the station. The sulfur isotopic ratios of non-sea-salt sulfate (δ34Snss) ranged from 0.0 to +6.2‰. The isotopic ratios of local emission and Chinese coal sulfur showed negative and positive values, respectively. Several statistically significant trends were detected on the deposition of non-sea-salt sulfate (nss-SO42-) during the study period. The decrease of nss-SO42- deposition since the middle of 1980s was considered to have been caused by local anthropogenic SO2 emission that showed relatively low δ34Snss values during the period. The increase of nss-SO42- deposition from the end of 1990s to the second half of 2000s was interpreted to have been caused by the change in SO2 emission in China because the δ34Snss values increased during the period with the winter values getting closer to the averaged value of Chinese coal sulfur. The decreasing trend of nss-SO42- deposition from the middle of 2000s was likely affected by reduction of Chinese SO2 emission judging from the decrease in δ34Snss values in the period. Mass balance calculations suggested that sulfur released by coal combustion in China during 1990s contributed by about 40% of annual total sulfur deposition in Nagaoka, and its contribution increased up to 60% in the middle of 2000s. The contribution turned to decrease after that peak, which was in harmony with the temporal change of emission from China.

  9. Long-term trends of carbonaceous aerosol at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, Japan: based on changes in source emissions in Asian Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, K.; Hatakeyama, S.; Takami, A.; Shuichi, H.; Kajii, Y. J.; Kato, S.; Fushimi, A.

    2011-12-01

    Since 2004, carbonaceous aerosol were measured at Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) in Okinawa, Japan, which was certified a super site by UNEP, focusing on investigating trans-boundary air pollutions or the long-term effects of aerosols on climate impact at CHAAMS using RP5400. Measurements were carried out with a time resolution of 3 hours and the observation as a whole was on a long-term basis. We found a general downward trend in the measured OC concentration at CHAAMS, with a reduction of -0.13±0.04 μgm-3 yr-1. On the other hand, EC concentration showed an increase of 16±8 ngm-3 yr-1 since 2004. The increase of EC concentration at CHAAMS is, however, not statistically significant. Firstly, to elucidate the influence of different emission source origin on downward trend of OC, we tried using OC/EC ratio. The OC/EC ratio showed a downward trend, suggesting that the reduction of biomass burning caused a downward trend in OC/EC ratio. On the other hand, the influence of emission source origin on upward trend of EC was shown to be the increasing tendency of sulphate. (year 2003~). It is suggested that increasing emission of coal combustion in the Asian continent affects upward trend on EC at CHAAMS. But, during winter and spring seasons, EC did not show an upward trend. We hypothesized that a combination of increasing fossil fuel combustion and decreasing biomass burning affects this trend. To further understand the effects of fossil fuel and biomass burning respectively, detailed data analysis will be done. Also, the ratio of EC and/or OC concentrations with CO concentrations which has been showing interesting features, will also be discussed.

  10. Satellite Remote Sensing and Mesoscale Modeling of Biomass Burning Aerosols over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: Climatic Implications of Smokes on Regional Energy Balance, Cloud Formations and Precipitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, N.

    2015-12-01

    The influences of anthropogenic aerosols have been suggested as an important reason for climate changes over Southeast Asia (SE Asia, 10°S~20°N and 90°E~135°E). Accurate observations and modelling of aerosols effects on the weather and climate patterns is crucial for a better understanding and mitigation of anthropogenic climate change. This study uses NASA satellite observations along with online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) to evaluate aerosols impacts on climate over SE Asia. We assess the direct and semi-direct radiative effects of smoke particles over this region during September, 2009 when a significant El Niño event caused the highest biomass burning activity during the last 15 years. Quantification efforts are made to assess how changes of radiative and non radiative parameters (sensible and latent heat) due to smoke aerosols would affect regional climate process such as precipitations, clouds and planetary boundary layer process. Comparison of model simulations for the current land cover conditions against surface meteorological observations and satellite observations of precipitations and cloudiness show satisfactory performance of the model over our study area. In order to quantitatively validate the model results, several experiments will be performed to test the aerosols radiative feedback under different radiation schemes and with/without considering aerosol effects explicitly in the model. Relevant ground-based data (e.g. AERONET), along with aerosol vertical profile data from CALIPSO, will also be applied.

  11. Indonesian Maritime Security Cooperation In the Malacca Straits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Piracy, Maritime Terrorism and Securing the Malacca Straits, ed. Graham Gerard Ong -Webb (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2006), 7. 2...Maritime Terrorism and Securing the Malacca Straits, ed. Graham Gerard Ong -Webb (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2006), 153. 7 John F...Southeast Asia,” in Piracy, Maritime Terrorism and Securing the Malacca Straits, ed. Graham Gerrad Ong -Webb (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies

  12. The resolution sensitivity of the South Asian monsoon and Indo-Pacific in a global 0.35° AGCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Stephanie J.; Levine, Richard C.; Turner, Andrew G.; Martin, Gill M.; Woolnough, Steven J.; Schiemann, Reinhard; Mizielinski, Matthew S.; Roberts, Malcolm J.; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Demory, Marie-Estelle; Strachan, Jane

    2016-02-01

    The South Asian monsoon is one of the most significant manifestations of the seasonal cycle. It directly impacts nearly one third of the world's population and also has substantial global influence. Using 27-year integrations of a high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model (Met Office Unified Model), we study changes in South Asian monsoon precipitation and circulation when horizontal resolution is increased from approximately 200-40 km at the equator (N96-N512, 1.9°-0.35°). The high resolution, integration length and ensemble size of the dataset make this the most extensive dataset used to evaluate the resolution sensitivity of the South Asian monsoon to date. We find a consistent pattern of JJAS precipitation and circulation changes as resolution increases, which include a slight increase in precipitation over peninsular India, changes in Indian and Indochinese orographic rain bands, increasing wind speeds in the Somali Jet, increasing precipitation over the Maritime Continent islands and decreasing precipitation over the northern Maritime Continent seas. To diagnose which resolution-related processes cause these changes, we compare them to published sensitivity experiments that change regional orography and coastlines. Our analysis indicates that improved resolution of the East African Highlands results in the improved representation of the Somali Jet and further suggests that improved resolution of orography over Indochina and the Maritime Continent results in more precipitation over the Maritime Continent islands at the expense of reduced precipitation further north. We also evaluate the resolution sensitivity of monsoon depressions and lows, which contribute more precipitation over northeast India at higher resolution. We conclude that while increasing resolution at these scales does not solve the many monsoon biases that exist in GCMs, it has a number of small, beneficial impacts.

  13. Childhood continence.

    PubMed

    Dean, Erin

    2017-03-15

    Essential facts An estimated one in 12 (900,000) children aged 5-19 in the UK experience bowel and bladder conditions. The impact of continence conditions can be profound on a child's or teenager's life and can continue into adulthood. Those affected can have a lower quality of life than their peers, miss out on education and social activities, and are more likely to be bullied. Most bowel and bladder problems are avoidable and treatable, yet it's estimated that only 11% of those affected ask for help.

  14. Maritime Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravennes, Jean

    1922-01-01

    This report presents some studies of maritime aviation which cover the following principal points: employment of landplanes on maritime aerial warfare; their adaption to peculiar requirements of the Navy; and the establishment of a method of aerial pursuit and bombardment, likewise adapted to military aviation over land.

  15. Maritime Cultural Landscapes, Maritimity and Quasi Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuddenham, David Berg

    2010-10-01

    Does the concept of maritime cultural landscapes bridge a division between land and sea, or does it maintain a gap that perhaps doesn’t even exist? This paper discusses maritime and maritime cultural landscapes as phenomena in the light of Actor Network Theory, where maritimity is given attention as a derivation of the modern metaphysics as described by Bruno Latour. The paper makes use of a case study from Norwegian Cultural Heritage Management (CHM), where land and sea archaeologists meet each other in a joint venture project at the island of Smøla, Møre & Romsdal County.

  16. Anatomy of female continence.

    PubMed

    Sampselle, C M; DeLancey, J O

    1998-03-01

    Various muscle, connective tissue, and neurologic structures within the pelvic floor play critical roles in the maintenance of both urinary and fecal continence. Recent advances in technology, combined with greater precision during anatomic study, have expanded our understanding of the role played by the pelvic floor in maintaining continence. The goal of this article is to summarize recent research on female pelvic anatomy, with a particular emphasis on the evidence base related to urinary incontinence. The content is organized to accomplish three aims: (1) identify, within the context of pelvic floor anatomy, the structures that comprise the urinary continence system, (2) Describe the functional dynamics of urinary continence, including factors in resting urethral pressure and pressure transmission, and (3) Present the rationale, technique, and interpretation of various methods of measuring pelvic floor function.

  17. Interannual Variability, Global Teleconnection, and Potential Predictability Associated with the Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K. M.; Kim, K. M.; Li, J. Y.

    2001-01-01

    In this Chapter, aspects of global teleconnections associated with the interannual variability of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) are discussed. The basic differences in the basic dynamics of the South Asian Monsoon and the East Asian monsoon, and their implications on global linkages are discussed. Two teleconnection modes linking ASM variability to summertime precipitation over the continental North America were identified. These modes link regional circulation and precipitation anomalies over East Asia and continental North America, via coupled atmosphere-ocean variations over the North Pacific. The first mode has a large zonally symmetrical component and appears to be associated with subtropical jetstream variability and the second mode with Rossby wave dispersion. Both modes possess strong sea surface temperature (SST) expressions in the North Pacific. Results show that the two teleconnection modes may have its origin in intrinsic modes of sea surface temperature variability in the extratropical oceans, which are forced in part by atmospheric variability and in part by air-sea interaction. The potential predictability of the ASM associated with SST variability in different ocean basins is explored using a new canonical ensemble correlation prediction scheme. It is found that SST anomalies in tropical Pacific, i.e., El Nino, is the most dominant forcing for the ASM, especially over the maritime continent and eastern Australia. SST anomalies in the India Ocean may trump the influence from El Nino in western Australia and western maritime continent. Both El Nino, and North Pacific SSTs contribute to monsoon precipitation anomalies over Japan, southern Korea, northern and central China. By optimizing SST variability signals from the world ocean basins using CEC, the overall predictability of ASM can be substantially improved.

  18. Simulation of surface temperature in Southeast Asia during the Southeast Asian southwest monsoon using RegCM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jing Xiang; Ngai, Sheau Tieh; Tay, Tze Wei; Liew, Ju Neng; Tangang, Fredolin

    2015-09-01

    The performance of RegCM4 in simulating the surface temperature in Southeast Asia (SEA) during the Southeast Asian southwest monsoon using six different cumulus parameterization schemes (CPSs) was assessed in this study using the model output from the Southeast Asia Regional Climate Downscaling/ Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment Southeast Asia (SEACLID/CORDEX-SEA) project. The simulated surface temperatures were evaluated against the surface temperature from the CRU observation dataset from year 1990 to 2008. The assessment shows that all the simulations produced an overall cold bias in SEA. The cold bias is the strongest in the mountain region of west Papua, followed by that over the north-eastern region of Thailand. Generally, the cold bias over the maritime continent is found to be much weaker compared to that of Indo-China mainland. As the bias is not unique to any simulations, the bias simulated is not very much CPSs dependence. It is also noticed that the model has the tendency to underestimate the maximum surface temperature (Tmax) explaining the systematic cold bias produced by the model. Also, the model tends to overestimate the minimum surface temperature (Tmin). The overestimation of Tmin is slightly higher over the maritime continent, explaining the weaker cold bias in surface temperature observed over that area. Through assessing the simulations bias and the simulated spatial pattern agreement, we noticed that the reasonable choice of CPS to be used has to have Emanuel set on land when the simulation of southwest monsoon surface temperature is concerned. Nevertheless, the ensemble standard deviation calculated across all the simulations reveals that th e surface temperature over SEA is less sensitive to the choice of CPS used, especially at the maritime continent. Comparatively, the surface temperature over Indo-China mainland is more sensitive to the choice of CPS used.

  19. Abbreviations in Maritime English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Zhirong

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the phenomena that more and more abbreviations occur in maritime English correspondences, the composing laws of the abbreviations in maritime English correspondence are analyzed, and the correct methods to answer the abbreviations are pointed out, and the translation method of abbreviations are summarized in this article, and the…

  20. Modern Maritime Trade Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-20

    intergovernmental organizations impose both immediate and long term penalties for an enemy. Finally, tools such as cyber attacks and GPS spoofing ...Exclusion Zones to interfere with shipping networks, and GPS jamming or spoofing of merchant vessels are discussed and analyzed for potential...SUBJECT TERMS Maritime Trade Warfare, Commerce Warfare, China, Cyber, GPS , Jamming, Spoofing , Maritime Interdiction, Exclusion Zone. 16. SECURITY

  1. Teaching America's Maritime Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzman, Ray

    1977-01-01

    The author recommends that social studies curricula include study of American maritime heritage. He describes aspects of the heritage, such as commercial trade and water sports; suggests topics for mini-units, such as marine careers; and presents an annotated bibliography of 56 resources for teaching about maritime activities. (AV)

  2. Where the continent ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Paul J.; Walsh, J. P.; Corbett, D. Reide

    2016-12-01

    The Earth's continents and islands are bordered by shallow ocean plains that are arguably the most environmentally, economically, and politically important parts of the sea. Yet in spite of this, they remain poorly defined and understood. A quantitative approach is employed here to map and analyze these plains, or shelves. The Earth's ocean bathymetry was used to determine the continent-ocean basin transition at 1200 m and then parsed with a novel geospatial terrain classification concept/method borrowed from the field of image analysis: the geomorphic phonotype, or geomorphon. The technique is less subjective than visual interpretation and digitization and here illustrates that the ocean coastal plains are deeper, wider, and more steeply sloped than previously recognized. Their variable form is related to tectonics and latitude and ultimately affects function and habitat.

  3. Our changing continent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1969-01-01

    Where were the land areas and oceans of the North American Continent one million years ago, compared to our present geography? Was North America always about the same size and shape as it is today? To answer these questions, we must construct maps of the lands and sea that existed during the past ages. This process of reconstructing ancient geography is called paleogeography (from the Greek word "palaios," meaning ancient).

  4. Continent vesicovaginal fistula

    PubMed Central

    de Toledo, Luís Gustavo Morato; Santos, Victor Espinheira; Maron, Paulo Eduardo Gourlat; Vedovato, Bruno César; Fucs, Moacyr; Perez, Marjo Deninson Cardenuto

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vesicovaginal fistula is an abnormal communication between the bladder and vagina and represents the most frequent type of fistula in the urinary tract. The most common cause in Brazil is iatrogenic fistula, secondary to histerectomia. Classically these women present continuous urinary leakage from the vagina and absence of micturition, with strong negative impact on their quality of life. We present a case of totally continent vesicovaginal fistula, with a follow-up of 11 years with no complications. PMID:23579756

  5. Asians and Asian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

    This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered of particular interest in the study of Asians and Asian-Americans. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically within the following subject…

  6. Maritime Claims Reference Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    Convention on the Law of the Sea.] MARITIME BOUNDARY: URUGUAY-ARGENTINA Agreement Relating to the Delimitation of the River Plate and the Maritime Boundary...Rock Little Plate Island Dantzic Point N.W side of Green Island S.W. Little Green Island Enfant Perdu Lamaline Shag Rock Shag Rock Offer Island...line of 1907 with the median line, equidistant from Bout du Nordet (France) and Little Plate Island (Canada). Latitude 47°06󈧆"N., Longitude 56

  7. Elsevier's maritime dictionary

    SciTech Connect

    Bakr, M.

    1987-01-01

    This is a dictionary for terms relating to maritime activities, and provides the terminology in three international languages. It also provides maritime terminology in Arabic. The dictionary covers the most recent terms used in satellite navigation and telecommunication. Its other topics include: acoustics, insurance, containers, cargo, bulk chemicals, carriage of dangerous goods, chemistry, radiocommunication, economics, electricity, environment, finance, fire protection, fishing vessels, hydrography, legal matters, meteorology, navigation, optics, pollution, radars, satellites, shipbuilding, stability, mechanics, and life-saving appliances.

  8. Seismic evidence for very deep roots of continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gossler, Jürgen; Kind, Rainer

    1996-02-01

    A major problem in geodynamics with seismic data is discussed: How deeply do the continents penetrate into the mantle? Differential travel times of underside reflections from mantle discontinuities that appear as precursors to SS, in large parts of the globe, show a clear correlation with oceans and continents. They are significantly larger beneath the Asian and North American continents than underneath the neighbouring Pacific. From this observation we conclude that the Asian and North American continents affect the mantle well below 410 km. Changes in the thickness of the transition zone can explain our observations, which are in agreement with the hypothesis of petrological phase changes causing the 410 km and 660 km seismic discontinuities. Average thickness of the transition zone underneath continents is about 14 kim thicker than beneath oceans. Moreover, our findings imply temperature variations about 100-200 K in the mantle transition zone. Weak reflections from 520 km depth corresponding to an impedance contrast of about 2% can be observed only in some areas of the Earth, while observations from other locations definitively show no signal from this depth. Therefore, we propose that the 520 km reflector is only a regional feature.

  9. North Korean Calculus in the Maritime Environment: Covert Versus Overt Provocations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    range of Asian security issues  The full range of Middle East related security issues, especially Iran and the Arabian Gulf  Maritime strategy...maritime resources. The immediate causes of the pre-2009 clashes were largely economic and tied to the concentration of valua- ble blue crab south...of the NLL and the consequent sharp increase in the frequency of both South and North Korean vessels crossing the NLL to catch crabs , the latter ever

  10. Maritime security laboratory for maritime security research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunin, Barry J.; Sutin, Alexander; Bruno, Michael S.

    2007-04-01

    Stevens Institute of Technology has established a new Maritime Security Laboratory (MSL) to facilitate advances in methods and technologies relevant to maritime security. MSL is designed to enable system-level experiments and data-driven modeling in the complex environment of an urban tidal estuary. The initial focus of the laboratory is on the threats posed by divers and small craft with hostile intent. The laboratory is, however, evolvable to future threats as yet unidentified. Initially, the laboratory utilizes acoustic, environmental, and video sensors deployed in and around the Hudson River estuary. Experimental data associated with boats and SCUBA divers are collected on a computer deployed on board a boat specifically designed and equipped for these experiments and are remotely transferred to a Visualization Center on campus. Early experiments utilizing this laboratory have gathered data to characterize the relevant parameters of the estuary, acoustic signals produced by divers, and water and air traffic. Hydrophones were deployed to collect data to enable the development of passive acoustic methodologies for maximizing SCUBA diver detection distance. Initial results involving characteristics of the estuary, acoustic signatures of divers, ambient acoustic noise in an urban estuary, and transmission loss of acoustic signals in a wide frequency band are presented. These results can also be used for the characterization of abnormal traffic and improvement of underwater communication in a shallow water estuary.

  11. Marine and maritime uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Activities related to: (1) understanding, controlling, and using the ocean's biological and physical processes for food and energy production and ship design purposes, and (2) providing navigation, communication, and data transmission technological aids which improve efficiency and enhance safety in maritime operations are disclosed.

  12. Maritime Lien Reform Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Young, Don [R-AK-At Large

    2011-03-17

    03/18/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.2838, which became Public Law 112-213 on 12/20/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. The Growing Prospects for Maritime Security Cooperation in Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    vast revenues in such industries as fishing, hydrocarbon extrac- tion, and tourism . In fact, more than 60 percent of Southeast Asians today live in or...Kuala Lumpur Bangkok Phnom Penh Hanoi Vientiane Rangoon (Yangon) Timor Sipadan, Litagan Is. Penang Celebes Bali Borneo Java Sumatra Spratly Islands...international maritime trade was a target. Finally, the 12 October triple bombing in Bali proved that Southeast Asia was on the front lines of

  14. Recent intensification of the South and East Asian monsoon contrast associated with an increase in the zonal tropical SST gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Kyung-Sook; Lee, June-Yi; Ha, Kyung-Ja

    2014-07-01

    Observed analysis of the 35 years of 1979-2013 reveals considerable interdecadal change and significant recent intensification in the difference of convective precipitation between the South Asian monsoon (SAM) and East Asian monsoon (EAM) systems during the major summer monsoon season (June-July). We propose that the recent strengthening of the zonal gradient of sea surface temperature (SST) between the Indian Ocean, western Pacific, and eastern Pacific is a possible cause for the intensification of the convective precipitation contrast. It is noted that the strengthening of the zonal SST gradient associated with the recent mega-La Niña trend tends to reinforce the negative connection between SAM and EAM systems by inducing enhanced convection over the maritime continent and then facilitating the northwestward emanation of Rossby waves. Consequently, a cyclonic circulation anomaly that effectively changes the local Hadley circulation has been formed over the SAM region, resulting in the noticeable difference between the SAM and EAM. The years 2013 and 1983 are further investigated as the strongest extreme years for positive and negative phases of submonsoon contrast, respectively. The result confirms that the meridional dipole height pattern along the Asian Jet stream, which is caused by the strong zonal gradient of tropical SST, serves as a key trigger in strengthening the submonsoon contrast.

  15. Asian summer monsoon onset in simulations and CMIP5 projections using four Chinese climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Liwei; Zhou, Tianjun

    2015-06-01

    The reproducibility and future changes of the onset of the Asian summer monsoon were analyzed based on the simulations and projections under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenario in which anthropogenic emissions continue to rise throughout the 21st century (i.e. RCP8.5) by all realizations from four Chinese models that participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Delayed onset of the monsoon over the Arabian Sea was evident in all simulations for present-day climate, which was associated with a too weak simulation of the low-level Somali jet in May. A consistent advanced onset of the monsoon was found only over the Arabian Sea in the projections, where the advanced onset of the monsoon was accompanied by an increase of rainfall and an anomalous anticyclone over the northern Indian Ocean. In all the models except FGOALS-g2, the enhanced low-level Somali jet transported more water vapor to the Arabian Sea, whereas in FGOALS-g2 the enhanced rainfall was determined more by the increased wind convergence. Furthermore, and again in all models except FGOALS-g2, the equatorial SST warming, with maximum increase over the eastern Pacific, enhanced convection in the central West Pacific and reduced convection over the eastern Indian Ocean and Maritime Continent region, which drove the anomalous anticyclonic circulation over the western Indian Ocean. In contrast, in FGOALS-g2, there was minimal (near-zero) warming of projected SST in the central equatorial Pacific, with decreased convection in the central West Pacific and enhanced convection over the Maritime Continent. The broader-scale differences among the models across the Pacific were related to both the differences in the projected SST pattern and in the present-day simulations.

  16. Seasonal prediction of East Asian summer rainfall using a multi-model ensemble system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joong-Bae; Lee, Doo-Young; Yoo, Jin‑Ho

    2015-04-01

    Using the retrospective forecasts of seven state-of-the-art coupled models and their multi-model ensemble (MME) for boreal summers, the prediction skills of climate models in the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and East Asian region are assessed. The prediction of summer rainfall anomalies in East Asia is difficult, while the WTP has a strong correlation between model prediction and observation. We focus on developing a new approach to further enhance the seasonal prediction skill for summer rainfall in East Asia and investigate the influence of convective activity in the WTP on East Asian summer rainfall. By analyzing the characteristics of the WTP convection, two distinct patterns associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation developing and decaying modes are identified. Based on the multiple linear regression method, the East Asia Rainfall Index (EARI) is developed by using the interannual variability of the normalized Maritime continent-WTP Indices (MPIs), as potentially useful predictors for rainfall prediction over East Asia, obtained from the above two main patterns. For East Asian summer rainfall, the EARI has superior performance to the East Asia summer monsoon index or each MPI. Therefore, the regressed rainfall from EARI also shows a strong relationship with the observed East Asian summer rainfall pattern. In addition, we evaluate the prediction skill of the East Asia reconstructed rainfall obtained by hybrid dynamical-statistical approach using the cross-validated EARI from the individual models and their MME. The results show that the rainfalls reconstructed from simulations capture the general features of observed precipitation in East Asia quite well. This study convincingly demonstrates that rainfall prediction skill is considerably improved by using a hybrid dynamical-statistical approach compared to the dynamical forecast alone. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research

  17. Adaptive Maritime Video Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Some programs and efforts such as the DARPA PANDA program [3] and those in the private sector [4] address the maritime domain awareness problem at...the referen continuous real value greater than or equal to 0. (We define our distance function below.) c. Related object bearing (rob): This is the...tracking performance, which could have a significant bearing on the Behavior Interpreter. Fourth, we will consider several algorithmic improvements to the

  18. Unlocking Indian Maritime Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    installment of a maritime strategy, Indian strategy has been expanding since India’s partition from the British Empire. India appears poised to assume...After partition it did not represent a totally Indian force, as almost all of its top leadership and most of its strategic planning was conducted by the...arm of the Royal navy and after the partition of the subcontinent and the Royal Indian Naval force, India possessed four sloops, two frigates, one

  19. Networking the Global Maritime Partnership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-13

    NETWORKING THE GLOBAL MARITIME PARTNERSHIP ix years after Admiral Michael Mullen, then Chief of Naval Operations, pro- posed his “thousand-ship navy...concept at the Seventeenth International Seapower Symposium at the U.S. Naval War College in 2005, his notion of a Global Maritime Partnership is... global commons.2 Real-world operations, especially in the Pacific Rim, have demonstrated that networking maritime forces is crucial to the effectiveness

  20. 76 FR 67604 - Maritime Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ...In this document, the Federal Communications Commission (Commission or FCC) addresses a number of issues pertaining to the Maritime Radio Services that were raised in the Third Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (Third FNPRM), and amends its rules accordingly. The decisions adopted by the Commission herein advance the key objectives underlying this proceeding, which are to promote maritime......

  1. Asian blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2014-08-01

    This article discusses in detail the cultural aesthetic issues that confront the surgeon interested in performing Asian blepharoplasty in terms of defining an aesthetic Asian ideal and the subject of natural and ethnic preservation of identity. The surgical methodology of how to perform a full-incision-based Asian blepharoplasty is outlined in a stepwise fashion along with the perioperative concerns (preoperative planning and counseling, nature of recovery, and complications and revision surgery).

  2. Ancient suture zones within continents.

    PubMed

    Moores, E M

    1981-07-03

    Ancient suture belts within continents are deformed regions which contain the remnants of former ocean basins. They form when two continents or island arcs that earlier were separated by an ocean basin converge and collide during plate tectonic activity. These belts provide the only record we have of deep oceanic crust and of ancient sea-floor processes for the first 94 percent of the earth's history, that is, prior to the oldest preserved crust in the oceans. Ten criteria for the recognition and interpretation of these ancient belts are discussed. A comprehensive program for the study of these belts should have great scientific and economic benefit for the United States and would be relatively cheap compared to other large national scientific efforts.

  3. 76 FR 33653 - Maritime Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2, 80 and 90 Maritime Communications AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Federal Communications Commission (Commission or...

  4. Traveling the Continents and Cruising the Oceans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slack, Glenda

    Elementary school students learn about the continents and the oceans by completing a variety of activities, games, and puzzles. Students learn to spell the names of the oceans and continents; recognize the locations, sizes, and shapes of the continents; and use directions on maps by completing a pretest, word searches, mazes, crossword puzzles,…

  5. Impact of East Asian winter monsoon on MJO over the equatorial western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiong; Li, Chongyin; Ling, Jian; Tan, Yanke

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the processes and mechanisms by which the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) affects the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) over the equatorial western Pacific in boreal winter (November-April). The results show that both the EAWM and MJO over the equatorial western Pacific have prominent interannual and interdecadal variabilities, and they are closely related, especially on the interannual timescales. The EAWM influences MJO via the feedback effect of convective heating, because the strong northerlies of EAWM can enhance the ascending motion and lead the convection to be strengthened over the equatorial western Pacific by reinforcing the convergence in the lower troposphere. Daily composite analysis in the phase 4 of MJO (i.e., strong MJO convection over the Maritime Continent and equatorial western Pacific) shows that the kinetic energy, outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), moisture flux, vertical velocity, zonal wind, moist static energy, and atmospheric stability differ greatly between strong and weak EAWM processes over the western Pacific. The strong EAWM causes the intensity of MJO to increase, and the eastward propagation of MJO to become more persistent. MJO activities over the equatorial western Pacific have different modes. Furthermore, these modes have differing relationships with the EAWM, and other factors can also affect the activities of MJO; consequently, the relationship between the MJO and EAWM shows both interannual and interdecadal variabilities.

  6. Developing a Model on Improving Maritime English Training for Maritime Transportation Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yercan, Funda; Fricke, Donna; Stone, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    Maritime services form an integral part of what regulatory agencies requires for the safe navigation and operation of vessels. Therefore, the maritime industry's compliance with governmental regulations and international protocols has been essential for maritime safety management. As a basis to this aspect, the preparation of maritime students as…

  7. Documenting Maritime Folklife: An Introductory Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, David A.

    This booklet has two main purposes: (1) to promote understanding of maritime cultural heritage; and (2) to provide an introduction to the methods for identifying and documenting common maritime traditions. The guide is intended for non-professional researchers and community groups who wish to explore their own maritime cultural heritage. It also…

  8. 77 FR 31479 - National Maritime Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... May 25, 2012 Part III The President Proclamation 8828--National Maritime Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8828 of May 22, 2012 National Maritime Day... supplies they need and transporting our exports into the global marketplace. On National Maritime Day,...

  9. 76 FR 29989 - National Maritime Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8678 of May 18, 2011 National Maritime Day... Maritime Day, we honor their invaluable contributions to America's economic strength and security. On May... day. Today, our maritime industry is a valuable source of skilled employment for American...

  10. 75 FR 29395 - National Maritime Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... 8526 of May 20, 2010 National Maritime Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A... alike. On National Maritime Day, we recognize the men and women of the United States Merchant Marine for... resolution approved May 20, 1933, has designated May 22 of each year as ``National Maritime Day,'' and...

  11. Asian Narrative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minami, Masahiko

    The distinctive features of narratives told by Asians, particularly Japanese, who are non-native speakers of English and residing in the United States are analyzed. Focus is on the narrative structure produced and the communication problems occurring due to cultural traits, particularly as they differ from North American norms. Educational and…

  12. Potential Impact of South Asian Anthropogenic Aerosols on Northern Hemisphere Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollasina, M. A.; Ming, Y.; Ramaswamy, V.

    2014-12-01

    South Asia has one of the world's highest aerosol loading due to the dramatic increase of anthropogenic emissions from the 1950s associated with rapid urbanization and population growth. The possible large-scale impact of the late 20th century increase of South Asian aerosol emissions on climate away from the source regions was studied by means of historical ensemble experiments with a state-of-the-art coupled climate model with fully interactive aerosols and a representation of both direct and indirect aerosol effects. The key characteristics of the northern hemisphere responses are examined separately for winter and summer, and show that regional aerosols induce significant planetary-scale teleconnection patterns. In both seasons, the large-scale aerosol imprint originates from substantial changes in the regional precipitation distribution. During the winter, in response to anomalous surface cooling in the northern Indian Ocean, aerosols cause a westward shift of convection over the eastern Indian Ocean and compensating subsidence to the west and over the Maritime continent. During the summer, aerosols are collocated with rainfall, and cause a widespread drying over South Asia mostly by indirect effects. In both cases, the impact of the regional diabatic heating anomaly propagates remotely by exciting a northern hemisphere wave-train which, enhanced by regional feedbacks, leads to remarkable changes in near-surface climate, including circulation and temperature, over Eurasia, the northern Pacific and North America. Depending on the region, the induced anomalies may have opposite signs between the two seasons, and may thus contribute to reinforcing or dampening those due greenhouse gases. These results underscore the potential influence of Asian aerosols on global climate, which is a compelling problem as regional aerosol loading will continue to be large in the coming decades.

  13. Sea Surface Temperature Coupling to Madden-Julian Oscillations over the Indonesian Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napitu, A. M.; Gordon, A. L.; Pujiana, K.

    2014-12-01

    The intraseasonal SST characteristics within the Indonesian Seas and their responses to the Madden-Julian Oscillations [MJO] are examined through analyses of observed and reanalysis datasets. Intraseasonal variation accounts for about 30% of SST variability, with the strongest signature is observed in Banda and Timor seas. The MJO signature in SST is evident in the form of energy peak at 35-45 days, amplification during the Northwest Monsoon (boreal winter), and eastward propagation. SST responds to sea-air heat flux associated with MJO with net heat flux into the ocean (atmosphere) characterizing the suppressed (active) phase of MJO. The influence of MJO on Banda Sea SST is greatest during La Niña periods, which are favorable for deeper thermocline conditions, which diminish the role of ocean processes driving vertical heat transfer between subsurface and surface layers. Diminished influence of ocean processes results in dominance of surface heat fluxes associated with MJO in governing intraseasonal SST variability. During El Niño, the role of ocean processes is favorable to mediate heat transfer between lower and upper layer of the ocean surface as thermocline is shallower. The ocean component heat fluxes then compete with MJO forced heat fluxes in governing SST variability as indicated by less pronounced eastward propagation.

  14. Work-related maritime fatalities.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Peter J; O'Connor, Nina

    2006-07-01

    All maritime fatalities investigated by Coroners that occurred in Australia from 1992 to 1998 inclusive have been collated, coded and recorded in the Australian Boating Injury Database: Fatal Injury (ABID:FI). This article focuses on the work-related maritime fatalities recorded in the database. Over the period 1992-1998 there were 74 fatalities involving people who were working for income at the time of the incident: 46 commercial fishermen, 12 seamen involved in the transport of cargo and 16 miscellaneous workers. The fatality rate of commercial fishermen has declined substantially in Australia over recent years. The main contributing factors were: hazardous conditions; an error of judgement; unsafe work practices; and failure to wear a personal flotation device (PFD) in circumstances where, in the opinion of the Coroners, it would have saved life. Hazardous conditions were much more of a factor in fishermen deaths than in other maritime deaths. Most vessels involved had an insufficient number of PFDs for the number of crew on board. The Australian fatal injury database should be updated with the details of recent fatalities in order to further monitor safety performance, causal factors and prevention measures in the maritime industry in Australia. Attention should be focused on reducing alcohol use and increasing PFD availability and usage. In order to continue to improve safety, it is essential that a constructive dialogue is maintained with industry sources, informed by independent research and up-to-date information.

  15. 75 FR 10692 - Maritime Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 80 Maritime Communications ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Federal Communications Commission published in the Federal Register of February 2, 2010 (75 FR 5241), a document in...

  16. [Physiology of continence and micturition].

    PubMed

    Buzelin, J M

    1995-02-01

    Continence and micturition result from an inversely related evolution of urethra and bladder pressures. On filling, the bladder pressure remains low and the urethral pressure is high: filling bladder pressure mainly depends on its visco-elastic property while urethral pressure is actively kept high by the tonic activity of smooth and striated urethral sphincters, respectively maintained by sympathetic and somatic spinal reflexes. It is the other way round when the bladder empties: bladder pressure rises and urethral pressure lower, because the parasympathetic impulses brings about a massive contraction of the detrusor musculature, and a reflex relaxation of both sympathetic and somatic systems. In the adult, the reflex loop passes through the pontine center. The volitional control of this micturitional reflex, which is not only the privilege of human beings, implies an ability to recognize a specific feeling: the desire to urinate. It involves brain centers located in the inner aspect of the frontal lobe and in the underlying structures of the archaic cortex (limbic system).

  17. Antipodal location of continents and oceans.

    PubMed

    Harrison, C G

    1966-09-09

    The percentage of continent antipodal to ocean on the earth is compared with a distribution obtained by a Monte Carlo method. It is concluded that the present antipodal arrangement of continents and oceans has less than 1 chance in 14 of being caused by a random process.

  18. Enhancement of seasonal prediction of East Asian summer rainfall related to the western tropical Pacific convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. Y.; Ahn, J. B.; Yoo, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The prediction skills of climate model simulations in the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and East Asian region are assessed using the retrospective forecasts of seven state-of-the-art coupled models and their multi-model ensemble (MME) for boreal summers (June-August) during the period 1983-2005, along with corresponding observed and reanalyzed data. The prediction of summer rainfall anomalies in East Asia is difficult, while the WTP has a strong correlation between model prediction and observation. We focus on developing a new approach to further enhance the seasonal prediction skill for summer rainfall in East Asia and investigate the influence of convective activity in the WTP on East Asian summer rainfall. By analyzing the characteristics of the WTP convection, two distinct patterns associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) developing and decaying modes are identified. Based on the multiple linear regression method, the East Asia Rainfall Index (EARI) is developed by using the interannual variability of the normalized Maritime continent-WTP indices (MPIs), as potentially useful predictors for rainfall prediction over East Asia, obtained from the above two main patterns. For East Asian summer rainfall, the EARI has superior performance to the East Asia summer monsoon index (EASMI) or each MP index (MPI). Therefore, the regressed rainfall from EARI also shows a strong relationship with the observed East Asian summer rainfall pattern. In addition, we evaluate the prediction skill of the East Asia reconstructed rainfall obtained by statistical-empirical approach using the cross-validated EARI from the individual models and their MME. The results show that the rainfalls reconstructed from simulations capture the general features of observed precipitation in East Asia quite well. This study convincingly demonstrates that rainfall prediction skill is considerably improved by using the statistical-empirical method compared to the dynamical models

  19. Terrorism in the Maritime Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    and trucking depots, warehouses , and coastal resorts. The research paper discusses some of these targets in Chapter IV while Chapter VI looks into...purposes of cueing, locating, and capturing those who engage in illegal maritime activities. The CWS will consist of offshore platforms that provide...terrorism to another realm. It calls into being a set of potential new targets for terrorist groups. Oil production from offshore wells is brought

  20. Undermining the integrated maritime policy.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Jill

    2010-03-01

    The European Union's Integrated Maritime Policy is intended in part to co-ordinate sectoral policies, to achieve joined-up thinking and action and overcome the inconsistency between policy approaches that has led to the degradation of European seas. An integrated governance would be relatively straight-forward if the different interests and actors were operating on the basis of shared values, but they are not. While the fisheries sector, whether large or small-scale, is driven by a commercial imperative which tends towards the greatest extraction of the resource possible, environmentalists would champion the removal of all human impacts, other than redress activity, as the optimum state for the ecosystem. However, the greatest impediment to an integrated approach is the failure to subject the EU's Common Fisheries Policy to the objectives of the Integrated Maritime Policy. Instead, all decisions concerning fisheries will continue to be made in accordance with the Fisheries Regulation which demands exploitation of the fragile resource. Attention needs to be given to how EU fisheries policy is to acquire values beyond that of commercial extraction for immediate economic benefit so that it may cohere with objectives of the Integrated Maritime Policy and aid the regeneration of the seas.

  1. Maritime Archaeology and Climate Change: An Invitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Jeneva

    2016-12-01

    Maritime archaeology has a tremendous capacity to engage with climate change science. The field is uniquely positioned to support climate change research and the understanding of past human adaptations to climate change. Maritime archaeological data can inform on environmental shifts and submerged sites can serve as an important avenue for public outreach by mobilizing public interest and action towards understanding the impacts of climate change. Despite these opportunities, maritime archaeologists have not fully developed a role within climate change science and policy. Moreover, submerged site vulnerabilities stemming from climate change impacts are not yet well understood. This article discusses potential climate change threats to maritime archaeological resources, the challenges confronting cultural resource managers, and the contributions maritime archaeology can offer to climate change science. Maritime archaeology's ability to both support and benefit from climate change science argues its relevant and valuable place in the global climate change dialogue, but also reveals the necessity for our heightened engagement.

  2. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeerae; Park, Jinju; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA) and native Asians (from Korea, Japan, China, and the Philippines) were selected for this study. Using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents database, stomach cancer incidence rates were examined. Data from the National Cancer Registry of Korea were used for native Koreans. Between native countries, the incidence rates in Japan, China, the Philippines, and the US declined over time, but the incidence in Korea has remained constant. The incidences among Asian immigrants were lower than those among native Asians. The incidence rates of males were approximately 2 times higher than those among females in Asian countries were. The effect of immigration on stomach cancer incidence suggests that lifestyle factors are a significant determinant of stomach cancer risk. However, the incidence in Korea remains the highest of these countries.

  3. Maritime Commerce Security Plan for The National Strategy for Maritime Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    MARITIME COMMERCE SECURITY PLAN FOR THE NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR MARITIME SECURITY OCTOBER 2005 Report Documentation Page Form...COVERED 00-00-2005 to 00-00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maritime Commerce Security Plan for The National Strategy for Maritime Security 5a... Commerce Security Plan i FOREWORD By signing National Security Presidential Directive 41/Homeland Security Presidential Directive 13 (NSPD-41/HSPD

  4. Maritime Domain Awareness FY08 Assessment Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-30

    signals were not strong enough to transmit data when team members were below decks. The Maritime BGAN EMIO Terminal (MBET) device, in turn, failed to...able to demonstrate the transfer of data via the Maritime BGAN EMIO Terminal (MBET) due to the satellite connectivity. (VBSS School) System...boarding. The radio frequency (RF) signals were not strong enough to transmit data when team members were below decks. The Maritime BGAN EMIO Terminal

  5. Haiyang Qiangguo: China as a Maritime Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-15

    China “should enhance our capacity for exploiting marine resources, develop the marine economy, protect the marine ecological environment...leading maritime power is one with advanced maritime industries; sustainable development of the marine economy and ecology ; and a strong marine defense...Kai, “Building China Into a Maritime Power,” November 14, 2012. 12 social, cultural, and ecological development on the basis of economic growth.42

  6. Maritime Mobile Force Protection (MMFP) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-28

    Maritime Mobile Force Protection (MMFP) Program by Richard Severinghaus, M.S. Kastley Marvin Jerry Lamb, Ph.D...September 2009 Maritime Mobile Force Protection (MMFP) Program 50816 Richard Severinghaus, M.S. Kastley Marvin Jerry Lamb, Ph.D. Richard Moore Naval...Maritime Mobile Force Protection (MMFP) project provided an on-water demonstration of the feasibility of providing US Coast Guard (USCG) escort

  7. Continence care is every nurse's business.

    PubMed

    Booth, Joanne

    Maintaining continence lies at the heart of a sense of adulthood and is essential to preserving dignity, a core and universal nursing value. This article explores the reasons why poor continence care was found at Mid Staffordshire Foundation Trust, the changes to the culture of the health service that led to it, and why it is so important for nurses to maintain patients' dignity. Recommendations for changing this culture in the future are discussed.

  8. 77 FR 26024 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ...: 2012-10668] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [USCG-2011-0975] National Maritime Security... notice announcing a National Maritime Security Advisory Committee (NMSAC) partially closed public meeting... Guard to continue deliberations and make forward progress regarding multiple maritime...

  9. Operational Merits of Maritime Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, R.; Bosklopper, J. J.; van der Meij, K. H.

    The perspective of superconductivity to transfer currents without loss is very appealing in high power applications. In the maritime sector many machines and systems exist in the roughly 1-100 MW range and the losses are well over 50%, which calls for dramatic efficiency improvements. This paper reports on three studies that aimed at the perspectives of superconductivity in the maritime sector. It is important to realize that the introduction of superconductivity comprises two technology transitions namely firstly electrification i.e. the transition from mechanical drives to electric drives and secondly the transition from normal to superconductive electrical machinery. It is concluded that superconductivity does reduce losses, but its impact on the total energy chain is of little significance compared to the investments and the risk of introducing a very promising but as yet not proven technology in the harsh maritime environment. The main reason of the little impact is that the largest losses are imposed on the system by the fossil fueled generators as prime movers that generate the electricity through mechanical torque. Unless electric power is supplied by an efficient and reliable technology that does not involve mechanical torque with the present losses both normal as well as superconductive electrification of the propulsion will hardly improve energy efficiency or may even reduce it. One exception may be the application of degaussing coils. Still appealing merits of superconductivity do exist, but they are rather related to the behavior of superconductive machines and strong magnetic fields and consequently reduction in volume and mass of machinery or (sometimes radically) better performance. The merits are rather convenience, design flexibility as well as novel applications and capabilities which together yield more adequate systems. These may yield lower operational costs in the long run, but at present the added value of superconductivity rather seems more

  10. The National Maritime College of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greville, Eamonn

    2005-01-01

    The new National Maritime College of Ireland is regarded as the country's most exciting and innovative development in maritime training and education and is the first tertiary institution to be built and operated under the government's Public Private Partnership (PPP) model of procurement. The project is the outcome of a partnership between Cork…

  11. Maritime Domain Awareness: Assessment of Current Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    captured. The RF signals were not strong enough to transmit data when team members were below decks. The Maritime BGAN EMIO Terminal (MBET) device...boarding officer was not able to demonstrate the transfer of data via the Maritime Broadband Global Area Network ( BGAN ) EMIO Terminal (MBET) due to the

  12. Future developments in maritime satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steciw, A.

    1981-11-01

    Future developments in maritime satellite communications, which could be provided by a second-generation maritime space segment are discussed. Current weaknesses such as high costs and bulky equipment are given, and basic terminal standards that could be embodied in a second generation system are considered, including three scenarios based on traffic, terminal characteristics, and mission requirements. The aeronautical satellite service is also summarized.

  13. On English Teaching in Maritime Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Jiang; Wang, Honggui

    2011-01-01

    According to English level of Chinese ocean sailors at present, we analyze the characteristics and instruction needs of navigation English and point out current English teaching in maritime specialty has many problems. Traditional teaching modes are not suitable for modern maritime needs any longer. So we propose feasible methods and…

  14. Some Features of Maritime Telex Service Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Barry

    1995-01-01

    This article analyzes four categories of English-language maritime telex service communication: (1) standard, system- generated messages; (2) standard procedures for transmitting messages; (3) nonstandard messages related to maritime mobile radio service (MMRS); and (4) nonstandard messages related to the organization, procedures, or equipment of…

  15. Brain death: the Asian perspective.

    PubMed

    Chua, Hoe Chin; Kwek, Tong Kiat; Morihara, Hirofumi; Gao, Daiquan

    2015-04-01

    Asia is the largest and most populous continent in the world with people from many diverse ethnic groups, religions and government systems. The authors surveyed 14 countries accounting for the majority of Asia's population and found that, although the concept of brain death is widely accepted, there is wide variability in the criteria for certification. Although most Asian countries have adopted the "whole-brain" concept of brain death, most countries with past colonial links to the United Kingdom follow the UK "brainstem" concept of brain death. Despite this difference, most countries require only neurologic testing of irreversible coma and absent brainstem reflexes as criteria for certification of brain death. Variability exists in the number of personnel required, qualifications of certifying doctors, need for repeat examination, minimum time interval between examinations, and requirement for and choice of confirmatory tests.

  16. Maritime Spatial Planning in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Agapiou, Athos; Themistocleous, Kyriakos; Mettas, Christodoulos; Evagorou, Evagoras; Soulis, Giorgos; Xagoraris, Zafeiris; Pilikou, Maria; Aliouris, Kyriakos; Ioannou, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Spatial Planning is a critical tool for land management and is extensively used in all developed nations. The Marine Spatial Planning (MSP), at the European Union (EU) level, is based on Directive 2014/89/EU of the European Parliament and Council of 23rd July 2014 which establishes a common framework for MSP in the EU, which each Member State is called to apply in relation to the maritime space under its jurisdiction (marine waters). In this paper the overall results from the "Cross-Border Cooperation for the development of Marine Spatial Planning" project are presented for the area of Cyprus. A variety of activities fall within the MSP such as maritime transport routes and traffic flows, exploration, exploitation and extraction of energy resources, tourism, underwater cultural heritage etc. In addition, the legal framework, activities maps are also shown. The variety of conflicts maps for the area of Limassol are illustrated both in 2D and 3D. A hypothetical scenario of Limassol town in Cyprus as an energy center is presented based on the overall results. The paper ends with some conclusions regarding the framework of MSP in Cyprus.

  17. Plasmodium vivax Diversity and Population Structure across Four Continents

    PubMed Central

    Koepfli, Cristian; Rodrigues, Priscila T.; Antao, Tiago; Orjuela-Sánchez, Pamela; Van den Eede, Peter; Gamboa, Dionicia; van Hong, Nguyen; Bendezu, Jorge; Erhart, Annette; Barnadas, Céline; Ratsimbasoa, Arsène; Menard, Didier; Severini, Carlo; Menegon, Michela; Nour, Bakri Y. M.; Karunaweera, Nadira; Mueller, Ivo; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Felger, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the geographically most widespread human malaria parasite. To analyze patterns of microsatellite diversity and population structure across countries of different transmission intensity, genotyping data from 11 microsatellite markers was either generated or compiled from 841 isolates from four continents collected in 1999–2008. Diversity was highest in South-East Asia (mean allelic richness 10.0–12.8), intermediate in the South Pacific (8.1–9.9) Madagascar and Sudan (7.9–8.4), and lowest in South America and Central Asia (5.5–7.2). A reduced panel of only 3 markers was sufficient to identify approx. 90% of all haplotypes in South Pacific, African and SE-Asian populations, but only 60–80% in Latin American populations, suggesting that typing of 2–6 markers, depending on the level of endemicity, is sufficient for epidemiological studies. Clustering analysis showed distinct clusters in Peru and Brazil, but little sub-structuring was observed within Africa, SE-Asia or the South Pacific. Isolates from Uzbekistan were exceptional, as a near-clonal parasite population was observed that was clearly separated from all other populations (FST>0.2). Outside Central Asia FST values were highest (0.11–0.16) between South American and all other populations, and lowest (0.04–0.07) between populations from South-East Asia and the South Pacific. These comparisons between P. vivax populations from four continents indicated that not only transmission intensity, but also geographical isolation affect diversity and population structure. However, the high effective population size results in slow changes of these parameters. This persistency must be taken into account when assessing the impact of control programs on the genetic structure of parasite populations. PMID:26125189

  18. Global mantle convection models with mobile continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Benjamin R.

    Continental motions are fundamental in shaping the Earth's surface. Features attributable to continental drift, such as orogenies and rifts, dominate subaerial geography. On an even grander scale, paleomagnetism suggests global continental reorganizations over time scales of hundreds of millions of years (Myr). In fact, supercontinental aggregations such as Pangea, Rodinia, and Columbia appear in the geologic record with a period of a few hundred Myr, suggestive of a cycle. These surface motions are likely coupled to mantle convection. Continents cluster over cold downwellings, as in the closing of the Tethys Ocean. Supercontinents apparently warm the mantle, as suggested by the African superplume, which lingers beneath the former site of Pangea. A number of geodynamic modelers have investigated the nature of this coupling, often generating results reminiscent of observations. Still, many such studies were limited by the use of Cartesian geometries that do not accurately represent the Earth. In this thesis I address the feedback between continents and the mantle using a high resolution, spherical, finite element (FEM) mantle convection code. I integrate a lithospheric model into the code, prescribing rigid, buoyant, mobile continents that serve as boundary conditions for the mantle. In a series of simulations with individual continents, I investigate the system's sensitivity to variations in fundamental mantle parameters and continent size. Continents covering 30%, 10%, and 3% of Earth's surface (representative of Pangea, Asia, and Antarctica, respectively) are introduced into mantle models characterized by pure core or radiogenic heating, and uniform or layered viscosity. Supercontinents are found effective in promoting the development of global thermal heterogeneities in an internally heated, layered viscosity mantle. Smaller continents behave passively and exhibit more time dependent behavior. Next, I introduce models incorporating three to six continents in

  19. Promoting social continence using incontinence management products.

    PubMed

    Dingwall, Lindsay

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common problem which affects men and women for a variety of reasons. For some people with UI cure is not achievable. For others, time is required to accurately diagnose and treat their urinary symptoms. In order to improve quality of life for people with UI, health professionals require awareness of the products available to achieve social continence. Continence products and devices fall into three categories: collective devices, containment products and occlusive devices. This article provides a brief overview of the more common products available and discusses some of the common benefits and drawbacks to their use.

  20. The Influence of the East Asian Winter Monsoon on Indonesian Rainfall During the Past 60,000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konecky, B. L.; Russell, J. M.; Vogel, H.; Bijaksana, S.; Huang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) invigorates the oceanic-atmospheric circulation in the tropics, with far-reaching climate impacts that extend into the high latitudes. A growing number of deglacial proxy reconstructions from the Maritime Continent and its surrounding seas have revealed the importance of both high- and low-latitude climate processes to IPWP rainfall during the deglaciation and the Holocene. However, few records extend beyond the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), making it difficult to assess regional rainfall characteristics and monsoon interactions under the glacial/interglacial boundary conditions of the Pleistocene. Proxy reconstructions of the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition of rainfall (δ18O/δDprecip) have proven useful in understanding millennial to orbital scale changes in the climate of the Maritime Continent, but the tendency for δ18O/δDprecip in this region to reflect regional and/or remote climate processes has highlighted the need to reconstruct δ18O/δDprecip alongside independent proxies for continental rainfall amount. Here we present a reconstruction of δDprecip using leaf wax compounds preserved in the sediments of Lake Towuti, Central Sulawesi, from 60,000 years before present (kyr BP) to today. Our δDprecip reconstruction provides a precipitation isotopic counterpart to multi-proxy geochemical reconstructions of surface hydrology and vegetation characteristics from the same sediment cores, enabling for the first time an independent assessment of both continental rainfall intensity and δDprecip from this region on glacial/interglacial timescales. We find that orbital-scale variations in δDprecip and rainfall intensity are strongly tied to the East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM), which is an important contributor to the band of convection over the Maritime Continent during austral summer. Unlike today, however, severely dry conditions in Central Sulawesi during the Last Glacial Maximum were accompanied by a strengthened

  1. 75 FR 22151 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    .... Maritime Labor. International and Inter-modal Supply Chain. Maritime Hazardous Materials Handling/Shipping... National Maritime Security Advisory Committee (NMSAC). This Committee advises and makes recommendations on... makes recommendations to the Secretary on matters relating to national maritime security. Such...

  2. African Universities Tackle the Continent's Agricultural Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2009-01-01

    Pests, population growth, and depleted soil have wreaked havoc on agriculture in Africa, so universities across the continent are rethinking how they teach the topic. Some African universities have been building their own networks and pooling their limited resources to train more agricultural scientists and improve their responsiveness to the…

  3. Understanding Barriers to Continence Care in Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Cara; Labrecque, Danielle; Lepage, Christiane

    2005-01-01

    This work seeks to identify factors that facilitate or diminish care-providers' propensity to improve continence care in long-term care (LTC) settings. We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative study using focus group methodology in four long-term care institutions in Montreal, QC. Forty-two nurses, nursing assistants, and orderlies caring for…

  4. Ethnopsychopharmacology considerations for Asians and Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Wong, Felicia K; Pi, Edmond H

    2012-03-01

    Asians comprise more than 60% of the world's population and are the fastest growing minority group in the United States. Today's psychiatrist must learn to recognize and appreciate the unique factors that influence mental health outcomes in this group. Asian Americans are affected by psychiatric disorders at similar rates as non-Asians, but are significantly underrepresented in psychiatric clinics. When Asians and Asian Americans do present for psychiatric treatment, they often do so with higher severity of illness, and variable levels of compliance. Studies over the past three decades have suggested that pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of various psychotropic medications may be different in Asians, leading to differences in dosage requirements and side-effect profiles. These variations appear to be largely determined by genetic predisposition, but are also influenced by other factors such as environment, social support, cultural perceptions, and physicians' prescribing habits. In this paper, we provide an overview of biological and socio-cultural issues as they relate to psychopharmacology in Asians and Asian Americans, with the hope that a better understanding of these issues will lead to improved mental health care delivery to this population both in the United States, as well as in Asian countries.

  5. An optimal index for measuring the effect of East Asian winter monsoon on China winter temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chundi; Yang, Song; Wu, Qigang

    2015-11-01

    Extreme cold events occur frequently in China. The authors define a representative yet simple index to reveal the monthly changes in China winter temperature associated with the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), which is represented by both the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode and the country-mean temperature index of Chinese 160 gauge stations. A combined technique of correlation and multivariate EOF (Corr-MVEOF) analyses is applied to capture the dominant coupled patterns of EAWM circulation system. Based on the atmospheric circulation features captured by the leading Corr-MVEOF mode, a new EAWM index referred to as CNWMI is derived by using a stepwise regression analysis. The CNWMI highlights the importance of (1) the Mongolia-Siberian High (MSH) and its southward expansion and (2) the Asia-wide meridional dipole anomaly of 500 hPa geopotential height. Compared with the 27 existing EAWM indices, the CNWMI not only best represents the leading modes of both EAWM circulation system and China winter temperature, but also reasonably tracks the intraseasonal-to-interdecadal variations of EAWM so that the monthly intensity of EAWM can be monitored conveniently. In particular, the Aleutian low (AL) is not strongly related to the MSH and may not be responsible for the variability of EAWM/MSH. Moreover, the indices that are highly correlated with the temperature over southern East Asia do not show significant relationships with the AL, which is different from the conventional concept that a strong EAWM/MSH is linked to a deepened AL. In contrast, the anomalous Australia-Maritime Continent low is in good agreement with the variation of EAWM/MSH.

  6. Insolation and Abrupt Climate Change Effects on the Western Pacific Maritime Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, J. W.; Quinn, T. M.; Shen, C.; Cardenas, M. B.; Siringan, F. P.; Banner, J. L.; lin, K.; Taylor, F. W.

    2012-12-01

    The response of the Asian-Australian monsoon system to changes in summer insolation over the Holocene is recorded in many monsoon-sensitive paleoclimate reconstructions. The response is commonly direct; more summer insolation leads to increased monsoon rainfall over land as captured in stalagmite δ18O records from Oman and China. We evaluate this direct response using a maritime stalagmite record from the island of Palawan, Philippines (10 N, 119 E). The wet season in Palawan occurs over the same months (June-October) as in Oman, India and China. Therefore, we expected the stalagmite δ18O record from Palawan, a proxy of rainfall, to have a similar trend of decreasing monsoon rainfall over the Holocene. However, the Holocene trend in stalagmite δ18O is opposite to that expected: rainfall increases over the Holocene. Our explanation for the Holocene trend observed at Palawan is that the increase in the maritime monsoon balances the reduction in the land monsoon; an explanation that is consistent with previously published coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model results. Seawater δ18O reconstructions from marine sediment cores in the western tropical Pacific contain a freshening trend over the Holocene, also supporting the hypothesis of increase maritime monsoon rainfall. However, the decrease in maritime monsoon rainfall during the Younger Dryas at Palawan matches that observed in Chinese stalagmite records, meeting our original expectation of a similar wet season response in the various Asian-Australian monsoon records. One explanation for the similar Younger Dryas response in these monsoon records is the influence of seasonal changes in sea ice coverage, as previously suggested. A stalagmite δ18O record from Borneo (~800 km SE of Palawan), which lacks evidence of the Younger Dryas, provides supporting evidence for this explanation.

  7. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  8. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  9. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  10. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  11. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  12. Asian summer monsoon seasonal prediction skill in the Met Office GloSea5 model and its dependence on mean state biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Stephanie; Turner, Andrew; Martin, Gill; Woolnough, Steve

    2015-04-01

    Predicting the circulation and precipitation features of the Asian monsoon on time scales of weeks to the season ahead remains a challenge for prediction centres. Current state-of-the-art models retain large biases, particularly dryness over India, which evolve rapidly from initialization and persist into centennial length climate integrations, illustrating the seamless nature of the monsoon problem. We present initial results from our Ministry of Earth Sciences Indian Monsoon Mission collaboration project to assess and improve weekly-to-seasonal forecasts in the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) coupled initialized Global Seasonal Prediction System (GloSea5). Using a 14-year hindcast ensemble of integrations in which atmosphere, ocean and sea-ice components are initialized from May start dates, we assess the monsoon seasonal prediction skill and global mean state biases of GloSea5. Initial May and June biases include a lack of precipitation over the Indian peninsula, and a weakened monsoon flow, and these give way to a more robust pattern of excess precipitation in the western north Pacific, lack of precipitation over the Maritime Continent, excess westerlies across the Indian peninsula and Indochina, and cool SSTs in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean and western north Pacific in July and August. Despite these mean state biases, the interannual correlation of predicted JJA all India rainfall from 1998 to 2009 with TRMM is fairly high at 0.68. Future work will focus on the prospects for further improving this skill with bias correction techniques.

  13. Remote Viewer for Maritime Robotics Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Wolf, Michael; Huntsberger, Terrance L.; Howard, Andrew B.

    2013-01-01

    This software is a viewer program for maritime robotics software that provides a 3D visualization of the boat pose, its position history, ENC (Electrical Nautical Chart) information, camera images, map overlay, and detected tracks.

  14. Chronic cough: an Asian perspective. Part 1: Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Song, Woo-Jung; Faruqi, Shoaib; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Lee, Seung-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Asia is one of the most diverse and dynamic continents. Due to recent rapid industrialisation and urbanisation, morbidity patterns are likely to be diverse in Asian populations. Chronic cough is a disease condition resulting from host-environmental interactions, and is associated with a high global epidemiological burden. However, the underlying epidemiology remains unclear, particularly in Asia. We performed a literature search to identify peer-reviewed articles on chronic cough in community-based adult Asian populations that have been published between January 2000 and June 2015. In this review, we aim to examine the epidemiological characteristics and determinants of chronic cough in several geographical areas of Asia. PMID:26240790

  15. When Did the Swahili Become Maritime?

    PubMed

    Fleisher, Jeffrey; Lane, Paul; LaViolette, Adria; Horton, Mark; Pollard, Edward; Quintana Morales, Eréndira; Vernet, Thomas; Christie, Annalisa; Wynne-Jones, Stephanie

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we examine an assumption about the historic Swahili of the eastern African coast: that they were a maritime society from their beginnings in the first millennium C.E. Based on historical and archaeological data, we suggest that, despite their proximity to and use of the sea, the level of maritimity of Swahili society increased greatly over time and was only fully realized in the early second millennium C.E. Drawing on recent theorizing from other areas of the world about maritimity as well as research on the Swahili, we discuss three arenas that distinguish first- and second-millennium coastal society in terms of their maritime orientation. These are variability and discontinuity in settlement location and permanence; evidence of increased engagement with the sea through fishing and sailing technology; and specialized architectural developments involving port facilities, mosques, and houses. The implications of this study are that we must move beyond coastal location in determining maritimity; consider how the sea and its products were part of social life; and assess whether the marine environment actively influences and is influenced by broader patterns of sociocultural organization, practice, and belief within Swahili and other societies. [maritime, fishing and sailing, long-distance trade, Swahili, eastern Africa].

  16. Sensitivity of a GCM climate simulation to differences in continental versus maritime cloud drop size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiehl, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    Extensive observations indicate a distinct difference between maritime and continental effective drop size, r(sub e), for warm clouds. The latest version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate Model (CCM2) is used to explore the sensitivity of differentiating between continental and maritime r(sub e) on the simulated climate. The results of this study indicate that the smaller drop size over continents leads to a reduction of surface-absorbed solar radiation from 20 to 60 W/sq m. This reduction in surface solar flux leads to a cooling of the continents by up to -3.5 K. The reduction in surface solar flux and temperature also leads to a reduction in latent heat flux and precipitation over land. In the January simulation, there is a significant shift in tropical precipitation associated with the Australian monsoon. This shift leads to a response in the extra tropical geopotential height field over the western United States. All of these changes reduce biases in the current version of CCM2.

  17. Renal transplantation using external continent urinary diversion.

    PubMed

    Lucon, A M; Sabbaga, E; Ianhez, L E; Chocair, P R; Pestana, J O; Arap, S

    1994-02-01

    A 29-year-old man born with bladder exstrophy presented with end stage renal failure many years after ileal conduit diversion. Bilateral nephrectomy and continent external urinary diversion were performed, and 1.5 months later a cadaveric kidney was grafted into the right iliac fossa. The patient was well at 18 months with a serum creatinine level of 1.2 mg./dl. and he was completely dry with 4 or 5 daily catheterizations. Although followup is still short, renal transplantation with drainage into an external continent urinary diversion permits excellent quality of life and good renal function. Therefore, this alternative is worth consideration whenever other reconstructive alternatives are not possible in candidates for renal transplantation.

  18. Information Services of Maritime Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stefanov, Asen

    2015-04-01

    The ultimate goal of modern oceanography is an end user oriented product. Beneficiaries are the governmental services, coast-based enterprises and research institutions that make use of the products generated by operational oceanography. Direct potential users and customers are coastal managers, shipping, offshore industry, ports and harbours, fishing, tourism and recreation industry, and scientific community. Indirect beneficiaries, through climate forecasting based on ocean observations, are food, energy, water and medical suppliers. Five general classes of users for data and information are specified: (1) operational users that analyze the collected data and produce different forecasts serving to impose regulation measures; (2) authorities and managers of large-scale projects needing timely oceanographic information, including statistics and climatic trends; (3) industrial enterprises, safety of structures and avoiding of pollution; (4) tourism and recreation related users aiming protection of human health; (5) scientists, engineers, and economists carrying out special researches, strategic design studies, and other investigations to advance the application of marine data. The analysis of information received during the extensive inquiry among all potential end users reveals variety of data and information needs encompassing physical, chemical, biological and hydrometeorological observation. Nevertheless, the common requirement concerns development of observing and forecasting systems providing accurate real-time or near-real time data and information supporting decision making and environmental management. Availability of updated information on the actual state as well as forecast for the future changes of marine environment are essential for the success and safety of maritime operations in the offshore industry. For this purpose different systems have been developed to collect data and to produce forecasts on the state of the marine environment and to provide

  19. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

  20. Global anisotropy and the thickness of continents.

    PubMed

    Gung, Yuancheng; Panning, Mark; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2003-04-17

    For decades there has been a vigorous debate about the depth extent of continental roots. The analysis of heat-flow, mantle-xenolith and electrical-conductivity data all indicate that the coherent, conductive part of continental roots (the 'tectosphere') is at most 200-250 km thick. Some global seismic tomographic models agree with this estimate, but others suggest that a much thicker zone of high velocities lies beneath continental shields, reaching a depth of at least 400 km. Here we show that this disagreement can be reconciled by taking into account seismic anisotropy. We show that significant radial anisotropy, with horizontally polarized shear waves travelling faster than those that are vertically polarized, is present under most cratons in the depth range 250-400 km--similar to that found under ocean basins at shallower depths of 80-250 km. We propose that, in both cases, the anisotropy is related to shear in a low-viscosity asthenospheric channel, located at different depths under continents and oceans. The seismically defined 'tectosphere' is then at most 200-250 km thick under old continents. The 'Lehmann discontinuity', observed mostly under continents at about 200-250 km, and the 'Gutenberg discontinuity', observed under oceans at depths of about 60-80 km, may both be associated with the bottom of the lithosphere, marking a transition to flow-induced asthenospheric anisotropy.

  1. Rectus sheath tunnels for continent stomas.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Alan P; Khalil, Basem A; Cervellione, Raimondo M

    2008-03-01

    Continent stoma rectus sheath tunnel (CSRST) has been used in antegrade colonic enema (ACE) and urinary continent cutaneous diversion (UCCD) stomas to reduce leakage and to support a straight track for the continent conduit. All patients that underwent CSRST between 1995 and 2005 were identified and their case notes retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups: the ACE group and the UCCD group. Demographic data, age at surgery and complications including stenosis and leakage were recorded. Forty patients underwent CSRST between 1995 and 2005. The mean age and standard deviation (SD) at surgery was 6.8 (2.1) years. Eighteen patients underwent ACE with a mean (SD) follow-up of 7.6 (3.1) years. No patient has faecal leakage. No patient had stomal revision, but one patient (5.5%) required an indwelling gastrostomy button to maintain patency. Twenty-two patients underwent UCCD with a mean (SD) follow-up of 8.1 (2.8) years. No patient developed urinary leakage. Two patients (9%) required revision of the stoma and one (4.5%) required an indwelling catheter because of recurring stomal stenosis. CSRST prevents stoma leakage. Revision surgery rate after CSRST is low, particularly after ACE reconstruction.

  2. Maritime Trade Defense: Establishing the Joint Force Maritime Trade Component Commander

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-04

    maritime trade warfare itself and convoy tactics. British maritime trade defense at the start of WWI centered on Julian Corbett’s theory that...merchant marine. As a part of the increased militarization of China and the traditional aggressiveness of North Korea, military boundary zones in the

  3. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary or fecal continence... nonimplanted electrical continence device and the powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use (§...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary or fecal continence... nonimplanted electrical continence device and the powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use (§...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary or fecal continence... nonimplanted electrical continence device and the powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use (§...

  6. Q fever in maritime Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Marrie, T. J.; Haldane, E. V.; Noble, M. A.; Faulkner, R. S.; Lee, S. H.; Gough, D.; Meyers, S.; Stewart, J.

    1982-01-01

    Only nine cases of Q fever were recorded in Canada in the 20 years prior to 1978. In the 18 months from August 1979 to January 1981 the disease was diagnosed serologically in six patients from the Maritime provinces. All were epidemiologically unrelated and none had been exposed to animals. Five had pneumonia and one had chronic Q fever with probable prosthetic valve endocarditis. Three of the five pneumonia patients presented with signs and symptoms of an acute lower respiratory tract infection and were indistinguishable clinically from other patients with atypical pneumonias. The other two with pneumonia presented with nonresolving pulmonary infiltrates and complained of decreased energy. Four of the five pneumonia patients responded well to treatment with erythromycin; the fifth required two courses of tetracycline. The patient with chronic Q fever had a large amount of cryoglobulins in his serum and evidence of immune complex disease. These cases indicate that Q fever should be considered as a possible cause of atypical pneumonia in Canada. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:7074457

  7. Tropical-Extratropical Interactions Associated with East Asian Cold Air Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdillah, M. R.; Kanno, Y.; Iwasaki, T.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates possible interactions between East Asian cold air outbreak (CAOs) and tropical variability during boreal winter (DJF), particularly in interannual and intraseasonal time scale. The definition of CAOs follows the recent definition that used isentropic coordinate. The CAO definition is based on anomalously large equatorward mass flux below θ=280 K crossing 45°N latitude. This location represents the maxima of extratropical direct (ETD) circulation in the viewpoint of mass-weighted isentropic meridional circulation (MIM; Iwasaki and Mochizuki 2012; Iwasaki et al. 2014; Shoji et al. 2014). Unlike most CAO studies, we utilize quantitative definition of cold air mass (CAM) to estimate the CAO. EOF analysis on the seasonal-mean equatorward CAM flux in East Asia reveals two CAO types that can be easily distinguished as the western type CAO (90°-135°E) and eastern type CAO (135°-180°E). These CAOs are significantly associated with remote forcing in tropics. The western CAO tends to be in phase with La Nina event. Otherwise, eastern CAO is dominant in El Nino event. In sub-seasonal scale, day-lagged analysis of CAO event enables us to identify the impact and precursor during CAO event. The impact of western CAO is robust on the development of precipitation downstream around South China Sea and Philippines. Otherwise, eastern CAO event shows less impact possibly due to rapid disappearance over ocean. Remarkably, the preconditioning time of East Asian CAO is accompanied by large-scale organized convection in tropics. It is revealed that western CAOs favor to occur when the MJO arrives in Maritime Continent (MJO phase 4-5). On the other hand, eastern CAOs tend to occur when the MJO arrives in central Pacific (MJO phase 7-8). We investigated that these remote interactions are possibly driven by upper-tropospheric Rossby wave train forcing and enhanced local Hadley circulation associated with MJO-like tropical precipitation. These indicate potential

  8. Tectonic evolution of Late Cenozoic arc-continent collision in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, L.S. )

    1990-06-01

    The island of Taiwan is an active orogen formed by the collision between the Luzon arc and the Asian continent. The kinematic progression of the arc-continent collision can be reconstructed by superimposing the restored paleopositions of Luzon arc upon the precollisional Asian continental margin. The geological history of the collision can be interpreted from the rock records of the mountain ranges of Taiwan. By incorporating geological information into plate kinematics, the collision can be attributed to the northwesterly impingement of the Luzon arc upon the continental margin in the last 12 million years. During the initial stage of the collision, some of the continental materials might have been metamorphosed in the deep subduction zone, but no distinct effects can be perceived in the sedimentary record. In the Mio-Pliocene time (about 5 Ma), the accretionary wedge grew large enough to become a sediment source for the Luzon forearc basin and to induce foreland subsidence on the continental margin. In the early late Pliocene (about 3 Ma), drastic collision caused rapid uplift of the collision orogen that shed voluminous orogenic sediments into the forearc and foreland basins. Continued collision progressively accreted the forearc and foreland basins to the collision orogen from north to south to the present configuration.

  9. 33 CFR 103.510 - Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan... HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan § 103.510 Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan review and approval. Each AMS Plan will be...

  10. 33 CFR 103.410 - Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.410 Section 103.410 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment § 103.410 Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment....

  11. 47 CFR 80.1069 - Maritime sea areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... continuous DSC alerting is available as defined by the International Maritime Organization. (2) Sea area A2... in which continuous DSC alerting is available as defined by the International Maritime...

  12. 77 FR 1076 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ...The National Maritime Security Advisory Committee (NMSAC) will meet on January 18-19, 2012 in Washington, DC to discuss various issues relating to national maritime security. This meeting will be open to the...

  13. Data Quality Assessment for Maritime Situation Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iphar, C.; Napoli, A.; Ray, C.

    2015-08-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) initially designed to ensure maritime security through continuous position reports has been progressively used for many extended objectives. In particular it supports a global monitoring of the maritime domain for various purposes like safety and security but also traffic management, logistics or protection of strategic areas, etc. In this monitoring, data errors, misuse, irregular behaviours at sea, malfeasance mechanisms and bad navigation practices have inevitably emerged either by inattentiveness or voluntary actions in order to circumvent, alter or exploit such a system in the interests of offenders. This paper introduces the AIS system and presents vulnerabilities and data quality assessment for decision making in maritime situational awareness cases. The principles of a novel methodological approach for modelling, analysing and detecting these data errors and falsification are introduced.

  14. Language Characteristics and Written Requirements of the Maritime English Correspondence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Jiang; Zhao, Zhenhua

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the requirements of the maritime English correspondence, the language characteristics of the maritime English correspondence are analyzed in this article, and the factors influencing the written skills of the maritime English correspondence are discussed, and the principles of "7C" including the courtesy, the consideration, the…

  15. 76 FR 22033 - National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... Local Regulation for the annual National Maritime Week Tugboat Races in Elliott Bay, WA from 12 p.m... INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce the Special Local Regulation for the annual National Maritime...

  16. 78 FR 27032 - National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... Local Regulation for the annual National Maritime Week Tugboat Races in Elliott Bay, WA from 12 p.m... Coast Guard will enforce the Special Local Regulation for the annual National Maritime Week...

  17. 77 FR 1710 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... published in the Federal Register of January 9, 2012, a notice announcing a National Maritime Security... regarding multiple maritime security initiatives. If you have been adversely affected by the delay...

  18. 78 FR 16699 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The National Maritime Security Advisory... national maritime security. This meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The Committee will meet...

  19. 77 FR 39249 - Boston Area Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Boston Area Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Boston Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC) to submit their applications for membership, to the...-223-3008. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Authority Section 102 of the Maritime Transportation Security...

  20. 32 CFR 536.117 - Statutory authority for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Statutory authority for maritime claims. 536.117 Section 536.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.117 Statutory authority for maritime...

  1. 32 CFR 536.117 - Statutory authority for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Statutory authority for maritime claims. 536.117 Section 536.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.117 Statutory authority for maritime...

  2. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  3. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  4. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  5. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  6. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  7. Impact of Tropical Pacific Precipitation Anomaly on the East Asian Upper-tropospheric Westerly Jet during the Boreal Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Z.; Guo, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The leading mode of boreal winter precipitation variability over the tropical Pacific for the period 1980-2010 shows a west-east dipole pattern with one center over the western North Pacific (WNP) and Maritime Continent and the other center over the equatorial central Pacific (CP). Observational evidences show that the variability of the East Asian upper-tropospheric subtropical westerly jet (EAJ) has a significant correlation with precipitation anomalies over the WNP and CP and that tropical precipitation anomalies over WNP and CP have distinct influence on the variation of EAJ. A series of numerical experiments based on a linear baroclinic model are performed to confirm the influence of the heating anomalies associated with precipitation perturbations over the WNP and CP on the EAJ. The results of numerical experiments indicate that a heat source over the WNP can excite a northward-propagating Rossby wave train in the upper troposphere over East Asia and facilitate a poleward eddy momentum flux. It results in the acceleration of westerly between 30°N and 45°N, which favors a northward displacement of the EAJ. The response induced by a heat sink over the CP features a zonal easterly band between 25°N and 40°N, suggesting that the response to heat sink associated with negative precipitation anomalies over the CP may weaken the EAJ. A strengthened relationship was found between tropical Pacific precipitation and EAJ since 1979. The modeling results suggest that the shift of mean states might be responsible for the strengthened EAJ-rainfall relationship after 1979.

  8. Resiliency and Recovery: Lessons from the Asian Tsunami and Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernando, Delini M.; Hebert, Barbara B.

    2011-01-01

    Separated by continents and cultures, survivors of the Asian tsunami and Hurricane Katrina share a common bond in their extreme trauma and ensuing struggles. The authors discuss and illustrate core ideas based on the commonalities derived from the experiences of women survivors of these two disasters.

  9. Imaging Lithospheric Structure beneath the Indian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, S.; Montagner, J. P.; Mangalampally, R. K.; Stutzmann, E.; Burgos, G.; Kumar, P.; Davuluri, S.

    2015-12-01

    The lithospheric structure and thickness to the LAB are the most debated issues, especially beneath continents. In this context, the structure and thickness of the Indian lithosphere has been controversial. Paleomagnetic data reveals that the Indian continent moved northwards at exceptionally high speeds (18-20 cm/year) and subsequently slowed down to 4-5 cm/year after its collision with Asia ≈40 Myr ago. This super mobility has been explained by an unusually thin Indian lithosphere (≈100 km; Kumar et al., 2007) in contradiction with the thick lithosphere that commonly underlies old cratonic nuclei. It is pertinent to note that the thermobarometric estimates on the ultramafic xenoliths from 65 Myr kimberlites of the Central India (Babu et al. 2009) suggest an approximately 175 km thick lithosphere. Also, recent results of P and S wave travel time tomography of India suggest that the lithospheric roots are not uniformly thick on a regional scale. Although high velocity roots typical of Precambrian shields are preserved beneath a few cratons of the Indian shield, they seem to have suffered attrition, in the plume ravaged regions like the NDVP and the Southern SGT (Singh et al., 2014). We assembled a new massive surface wave database towards obtaining 3D isotropic and anisotropic models for the Indian sub-continent, using surface waves. This necessitated processing of data from more than 500 seismic broadband stations across India and surrounding regions. Surface waves group and phase dispersion measurements are performed in a broad frequency range (16-250s). Our phase velocity anomaly maps recover most of the known geological structures. The cratons are associated with high velocity (4-6%) anomalies till 200 sec, with the WDC being faster than the EDC. Slow velocities in NW India and very high velocity anomalies (6-8%) beneath the central part of the Indo-Gangetic plains are possibly associated with the subducting Indian lithosphere. The LAB depths inferred from

  10. Toward an African Maritime Economy: Empowering the African Union to Revolutionize the African Maritime Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    ships of even average size;8 add to this shortcoming the fact that the world shipping industry has been quickly modern- izing its fleets, replacing...maritime sector holistically, across its entire spectrum—improving safety and security, gover- nance, and industrial infrastructure and efficiency. There...handled equitably and transparently, with no hidden costs or lengthy delays. Industrial infrastructure serves as the backbone of maritime ventures

  11. Young Africans Tackle Their Continent's Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olwoch, Jane Mukarugwiza

    2008-11-01

    Young African Scientists Session at the Fourth International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress; Cape Town, South Africa, 7 May 2008; Africa is often described as a unique and diverse continent. This is reflected in its biodiversity, economic and social circumstances, and diversity in culture and environment. The Young African Scientists (YAS) session at the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress was one of the congress's highlights. Global environmental change research in Africa was presented to an audience that included visiting international and national scientists, policy makers, and a group of schoolchildren. From the uniqueness of Africa's paleoclimate to the diversity and complexity of current and future impacts of environmental change on Africa, the session not only provided an overview of current projects but also highlighted the problems that are intertwined with poverty. This session was sponsored by the Global Change System for Analysis, Research, and Training (START).

  12. Emerging Asian Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trezise, Philip H.

    What we can expect in the future from the miracle economies of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, whether they pose a threat to the older industrial states of Western Europe and North American, and whether China is to be the next emerging Asian economy are discussed. The amazing economic recovery of these East Asian countries…

  13. The New Asian Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  14. Maritime Cyber Security University Research: Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    Macesker Executive Director United States Coast Guard Research & Development Center 1 Chelsea Street New London, CT 06320 Maritime Cyber Security...Performing Organization Name and Address U.S. Coast Guard Research and Development Center 1 Chelsea Street New London, CT 06320 10. Work Unit No

  15. Maritime Domain Awareness: A Waterfront View

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-27

    Foreign Intelligence Collection • Illegal Fishing • Drug Smuggling • Pollution • Illegal Immigration • Unauthorized Research • Whale , Seabird Protection...Oil Industry Monitoring • Eco- tourism & Arctic Sightings • Maritime Interdiction Operations • Search and Rescue “Sum Up” • The more we try to progress

  16. Opportunities in Marine and Maritime Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, Wm. Ray

    This book describes careers related to the sea. The following chapters are included: (1) "The World of Water"; (2) "Cruise Ship Careers"; (3) "Oceanography and the Marine Sciences"; (4) "Fishing"; (5) "Commerical Diving"; (6) "Maritime Transportation"; (7) "Shipbuilding"; (8) "Military Careers Afloat"; (9) "Miscellaneous Marine and Maritime…

  17. Modern Piracy: The Impact on Maritime Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    consequences. There are accounts of piracy incidents as far back as 2000 B.C. amongst the Phoenicians and Greeks.2 It is rumored, that in 75 B.C. Julius ... Caesar was captured by pirates, only to escape and then return to crucify his captors.3 Piracy has threatened maritime transportation since the

  18. Two separate introductions of Asian citrus psyllid populations found in the American continents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A phylogeographic analysis inferred from the partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (433 bp) was performed with 22 populations (n=132) of Diaphorina citri collected in the Americas and one in the Pacific. Eight populations (n=46) from four countries in South America, 14 (n=76) from...

  19. Continents, Super-Continents, Mantle Thermal Mixing, and Mantle Thermal Isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenardic, A.; Jellinek, M.; O'Neill, C.; Cooper, C. M.; Moresi, L.; Lee, C.

    2010-12-01

    Super-continental insulation refers to an increase in the temperature of the mantle below a super-continent due to the heat transfer inefficiency of thick, stagnant continental lithosphere relative to thinner, subducting oceanic lithosphere. Recent studies have reached different conclusions as to the physical viability of this hypothesized effect with some groups arguing for a large heat up (100 degrees) and others arguing that any local heating is so small as to be insignificant. We start with the position that both groups are correct, in different limits, and use a combination of thermal network theory, numerical simulations, and laboratory experiments to provide tighter physical insight into the thermal link between continents and the mantle. We isolate two end-member dynamic regimes. In the thermally well mixed regime the insulating effect of continental lithosphere can not cause a localized increase in mantle temperature due to the efficiency of lateral mixing in the mantle. In this regime the potential temperature of the entire mantle is higher than it would be without continents (the magnitude depending on the specific properties of continental and oceanic lithosphere). Thermal mixing can be short circuited if, for example, subduction zones surround a super-coninent or if the convective flow pattern of the mantle becomes spatially fixed relative to a stationary super-continent. This causes a transition to the thermal isolation regime: The potential temperature increases below a super-coninent while the potential temperature below oceanic domains drops such that the volume averaged temperature of the whole mantle remains constant. Transition out of this regime would thus involve the unleashing of a potentially large lateral temperature gradient that would enhance global convective motions. The connection to sub-oceanic domains provides a larger set of predictions that can be compared to the post pangea geologic record to help determine if a hypothesized super

  20. Wintertime East Asian Jet Stream and Its Association with the Asian-Pacific Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Song; Lau, K.-M.; Kim, K.-M.

    2000-01-01

    Interannual variability of the wintertime East Asian westerly jet stream and the linkage between this variability and the Asian-Pacific climate are investigated. The study emphasizes on the variability of the jet core and its association with the Asian winter monsoon, tropical convection, upper tropospheric wave patterns, and the teleconnection of the jet with other climate systems. The relationship between the jet and North Pacific sea surface temperature pattern (SST) is also explored. NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, NASA GISS surface temperature, NASA GEOS reanalysis, NOAA reconstructed SST, GPCP precipitation, and NOAA snow cover data sets are analyzed in this study. An index of the East Asian jet has been defined by the December-February means of the 200 mb zonal winds that are averaged within a box enclosing the jet maximum, which shifts only moderately from one year to another especially in the south-north direction. The jet links to a teleconnection pattern whose major climate anomalies appear over the Asian continent and western Pacific (west of the dateline). This pattern differs distinctly from the teleconnection pattern associated with El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which causes the Pacific/North American pattern to the east of the dateline. A strong jet is accompanied clearly by an increase in the intensity of the atmospheric circulation over Asia and the Pacific. In particular, the winter monsoon strengthens over East Asia, leading to cold climate in the region, and convection intensifies over the tropical Asia-Australia sector. Changes in the jet are associated with broad-scale modification in the upper tropospheric wave patterns that leads to downstream climate anomalies over the eastern Pacific. Through this downstream influence, the East Asian jet causes climate signals in North America as well. A strong jet gives rise to warming and less snow cover in the western United States but reverse climate anomalies in the eastern part of the country, although

  1. Greenhouse gas scenario in Indian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, T. N.

    1999-12-01

    Global climate change depicts energy exchange balance between the earth and atmosphere and the space. The balance is affected by human activities -- burning of fuel -- fossil or biological generating carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide or trace gases. Accumulation of these gases in the atmosphere may follow intensification of green house effect and cause global sea warming. Warming may affect agriculture, forestry, water resources and rising or falling of levels. The burning of fuel is for the generation of commercial energy -- electricity, household energy -- cooking, heating or burning of bushes, waste product and biomass. The world population distribution reveals heavy tilt in terms of growth rate and the cumulative figure. Nearly 80% of the world population is in the developing economy with only 20% resource available to them. The energy demand in five major Asian developing economy for the year 1990 is summarized.

  2. Maritime Archaeology and Trans-Oceanic Trade: A Case Study of the Oranjemund Shipwreck Cargo, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirikure, Shadreck; Sinamai, Ashton; Goagoses, Esther; Mubusisi, Marina; Ndoro, W.

    2010-10-01

    Routine sand dredging for alluvial diamonds at Oranjemund on the southern coast of Namibia exposed remnants of a long forgotten Portuguese merchant ship believed to have wrecked in the 1530s. The rescue excavations yielded over 40 tons of cargo consisting of thousands of gold and silver coins, tons of copper and lead ingots, and large quantities of ivory together with food refuse, part of personal possessions and the superstructure of the ship. This paper discusses the cargo from the shipwreck. The varying provenances show that overland inter-and intra-regional networks fed into the maritime trade between Europe and the Indian sub-continent. As such, the wreck is a lens through which we can view what was happening on the seas as well as on land. Finally we consider wider issues raised by this discovery relating to the protection and management of such material wherever it may be found in future.

  3. Asian Bilingual Education Teacher Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, John; Lum, John

    A guide to bilingual education for Asians contains chapters on bilingual and multicultural education characteristics; the learner; Asian and Asian American learners; bilingual program designs, methodology, and classroom activities; instructional materials and resources for Asian bilingual education programs; and teacher competencies, staff…

  4. Evaluating Diurnal Variations of Summer Precipitation over the Asian Monsoon Region based on TRMM Satellite Data and Coupled model outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Wu, G.

    2013-12-01

    Climatological characteristics of diurnal variations in summer precipitation over the entire Asian monsoon region are comprehensively investigated based on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite data during 1998-2008. The amplitude and phase of diurnal precipitation show a distinct geographical pattern. Significant diurnal variations occur over most of continental and coastal areas including the Maritime Continent, with the relative amplitude exceeding 40%, indicating that the precipitation peak is 1.4 times the 24-h mean. Although the diurnal variations of summer precipitation over the continental areas are characterized by an afternoon peak (1500-1800 Local Solar Time (LST)), over the central Indochina Peninsula and central and southern Indian Peninsula the diurnal phase is delayed to after 2100 LST, suggesting the diurnal behaviors over these areas different from the general continental areas. The weak diurnal variations with relative amplitudes less than 40% exist mainly over oceanic areas in the western Pacific and most of Indian Ocean, with the rainfall peak mainly occurring from midnight to early morning (0000-0600 LST), indicating a typical oceanic regime characterized by an early morning peak. However, apparent exceptions occur over the South China Sea (SCS), Bay of Bengal (BOB), and eastern Arabian Sea, with the rainfall peak occurring in daytime (0900-1500 LST). Prominent meridional propagations of the diurnal phase exist in South Asia and East Asia. The diurnal precipitation variations are also evaluated using the simulated outputs from several coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) participating in CMIP3 (such as CNRM-CM3 and MRI-GCGM2.3.2) and CMIP5 (FGOALS-g2). As compared with those from TRMM data, current state-of-the-art CGCMs still have significant problems in simulating the diurnal variability of the Asian summer monsoon. Although most models can capture the amplitude and phase of the diurnal rainfall cycle over continental

  5. Space science education in the african continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aseno, J. O.

    Through measurement and interpretation of the spectral, spatial and temporal variations in electromagnetic emissions and reflections from the Earth's surface, important information related to natural resources can be acquired. Furthermore, satellite technology has greatly improved the communication and positioning techniques world-wide. Consequently, space science now provides valuable and timely information about natural resources, which has become a major factor in sustainable development. The realization of the full potential of space science in the context of development in Africa requires adequate education and training in order to facilitate project formulation, planning, management and implementation. This, in turn, would lead to the formulation and adoption of national space science policies based on user needs and addressing both the short and long-term needs of a particular country. Space science education in Africa needs to address issues like (i) provision of programme, (ii) integration of the proposed techniques within the existing infrastructure, and (iii) training in Remote Sensing, Global Positioning System, Geographic Information System and other space science techniques, in order to ensure the successful implementation of space science projects within the continent. In this context, African universities ought to play a major role in space science training, research, consultancy and publication. Through international co-operation, it is possible to develop and support national, regional and international training programmes and international scientific exchange in Africa.

  6. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted electrical urinary continence device... Implanted electrical urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted electrical urinary device is a device intended for treatment of urinary incontinence that consists of a receiver implanted...

  7. OxyContin: Prescription Drug Abuse. CSAT Advisory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Recently, the media have issued numerous reports about the apparent increase in OxyContin abuse and addiction. OxyContin has been heralded as a miracle drug that allows patients with chronic pain to resume a normal life. It has also been called pharmaceutical heroin and is thought to have been responsible for a number of deaths and robberies in…

  8. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to a friend by ... an even more serious problem as the world population and longevity increases. The other major glaucoma type ...

  9. Therapy for Asian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Joe

    1978-01-01

    In order that Asian Americans be more adequately provided with mental health services, it will be necessary to: (1) have a thorough educational campaign over a long period of time to help Asians overcome their negative prejudices against mental illness, (2) devise culturally relevant diagnostic techniques, and (3) have treatment consonant with the cultural backgrounds of the patients and befitting the role expectations of the patients. It is likely that even with an excellent educational campaign, appropriate diagnoses, and culturally sensitive treatment methods, the first patients we will see will be those most seriously and chronically disturbed, probably when the family feels no longer able to cope with their psychotic behavior. We hope that subsequently, through the educational campaign and also through the outreach efforts of the Asian Mental Health Clinic, Asian Americans who are not psychotic but who want relief from psychosomatic symptoms, tension, depression, or help with family or marital problems will apply. PMID:702561

  10. Obesity and Asian Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Management System Report to Congress Knowledge Center Capacity Building Information Services Events Calendar Resource Guide Justice ... Workforce Diversity Grants Youth Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Asian American Asthma ...

  11. Human Factors Plan for Maritime Safety

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    HUMAN FACTORS ISSUES IN THE MARITIME ENVIRONMENT .............. 13 2. 1 DEFINITION OF HUMAN FACTORS ISSUES ........................ 13 2.2 CONTENT...The dotted line around the human factors technical basis in Figure 1 signifies that it needs to be developed. Safety data Accidents ) Definition of...and activity surveys, but met with some resistance from the ship personnel, and so little quntitative data was available from this study. Subjective

  12. Naval Operations Concept: Implementing the Maritime Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    both conventional and irregular challenges. NOC 10 describes how naval forces will blend “soft” and “hard” power2 in support of the approach...our strong historic interdependencies, we task organize Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard resources to achieve the requisite blend of capability...DOG), comprised mostly of maritime safety and security teams with a special operations focus, brings together various specialized incident response

  13. China’s Maritime Strategy Peaceful Rise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-19

    coastal mountain ranges did contain forests capable of supporting shipbuilding. During the Tang and Song dynasties , a maritime culture developed which...the Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties , only the Zhou offers written records. This civilization arose around the Yellow River, and to a lesser extent...agriculture, not on mobile, waterborne trade with other areas.”11 With the advent of Imperial China in 221 B.C, as the Qin dynasty unified several warring

  14. Keith Muckelroy: Methods, Ideas and Maritime Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harpster, Matthew

    2009-06-01

    Between his graduation from the Department of Archaeology at Cambridge University in 1974 and his death in 1980, Keith Muckelroy’s work and ideology were crucial in promoting an alternative research methodology in maritime archaeology. Instead of a particularist or historiographic approach, methods prominent both then and now, Muckelroy’s methodology was grounded in the foundations of the prehistoric archaeology he learned under Grahame Clark and David Clarke at Cambridge, and the basic tenets of New Archaeology maturing in the United States during the 1970s. This paper, which elucidates Muckelroy’s methods and research, is neither a complete biography nor an exhaustive study of his ideas. Although unpublished letters, papers and notes were studied in archives at Cambridge University and the National Maritime Museum, there is still much more to be learned from many of his former colleagues and their memories—only a handful of those individuals were consulted during the creation of this work. Nevertheless, this paper was written in the hope that by understanding Muckelroy’s ideas, and placing them in the larger framework of the discipline of archaeology, maritime archaeologists who are attempting to pursue a variety of approaches may find inspirations, models and, perhaps, questions that still need to be answered.

  15. The Asian methanol market

    SciTech Connect

    Nagase, Hideki

    1995-12-31

    For the purpose of this presentation, Asia has been broadly defined as a total of 15 countries, namely Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Myanmar, India, Vietnam, Australia and New Zealand. In 1994 and the first half of 1995, the methanol industry and its derivative industries experienced hard time, because of extraordinarily high methanol prices. In spite of this circumstance, methanol demand in Asian countries has been growing steadily and remarkably, following Asian high economic growth. Most of this growth in demand has been and will continue to be met by outside supply. However, even with increased import of methanol from outside of Asia, as a result of this growth, Asian trade volume will be much larger in the coming years. Asian countries must turn their collective attention to making logistics and transportation for methanol and its derivatives more efficient in the Asian region to make better use of existing supply resources. The author reviews current economic growth as his main topic, and explains the forecast of the growth of methanol demand and supply in Asian countries in the near future.

  16. An intelligent maritime search and rescue directing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Anmin; Sui, Haigang

    2006-10-01

    Maritime Search and Rescue (SAR) is the fast, systematical and efficient operations to rescue persons in maritime distress at sea and control the spread of distress incident. This paper introduces an intelligent maritime search and rescue directing system built by Tianjin Maritime Safety Administration. It is an intelligent assistant tool used in the operation of maritime search and rescue. It integrates five subsystems - marine communication system, vessel monitoring system, intelligent decision assistant system, on-scene information collecting system, and remote directing system. It is a representative application system of Locate Based Service. This system is successfully applied in Tianjin Maritime Safety Administration and China 2006's BoHai Sea Search and Rescue.

  17. INMARSAT - The International Maritime Satellite Organization: Origins and structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    The third session of the International Conference on the Establishment of an International Maritime Satellite System established the International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) in 1976. Its main functions are to improve maritime communications via satellite, thereby facilitating more efficient emergency communications, ship management, and maritime public correspondence services. INMARSAT's aims are similar to those of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), the main United Nations organization dealing with maritime affairs. The specific functions of INMARSAT have been established by an Intersessional Working Group (IWG) which met three times between general conference meetings. Initial investment shares for the creation of INMARSAT were shared by the United States (17%), the United Kingdom (12%), the U.S.S.R. (11%), Norway (9.50%), Japan (8.45%), Italy (4.37%), and France (3.50%).

  18. Methane over the North American Continent - INTEX-NA, Summer 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karen, B.; Blake, D.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, N.; Sachse, G.; Slate, T.

    2005-12-01

    During July and August of 2004, the INTEX-NA mission was flown over the North American continent as a part of the integrated ICARTT campaign. Its primary focus was to examine the intercontinental transport and transformation of chemically and radiatively important trace gases and aerosols across the region. As a part of the mission, methane (CH4) was sampled using both canisters and a fast response tunable diode laser, the DACOM instrument. Agreement between the two techniques was excellent. Sources of methane are both natural (wetlands, wildfires) and anthropogenically controlled (landfills, ruminants, petroleum production and use, coal mining). Although natural biogenic emissions would be expected to be near seasonal maximums, the majority of North American wetlands are located in Canada and Alaska, and were difficult to isolate during the mission. Overall distributions were well correlated with C2Cl4, a tracer of industrial and urban activity, and reflect the widespread impact of anthropogenic emissions. As expected for a gas with surface continental sources, variability was greatest in the near-surface atmosphere and decreased with increasing altitude and distance from the continent. Summer convective activity over the region resulted in elevated concentrations measured at altitudes above 6 km. Enhanced levels with distinctive trace gas signatures were observed for a variety of sources, including petroleum mining and distribution, coal mining, Canadian wildfires, and aged Asian plumes advected across the Pacific. Several flights during the mission were flown along the U.S. east coast to sample air masses transported off the continent to the Atlantic. In the near-surface over the ocean, clean boundary layer air with mixing ratios comparable to background CMDL levels at this time were encountered. At altitudes above about 4 km, CH4 was enhanced by roughly 20-50 ppb.

  19. Mountain ranges and the deformation of continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avouac, J.

    2007-12-01

    Mountain ranges are the most spectacular manifestation of continental dynamics and a primary locus of geo- hazards. Their geological imprint is ubiquitous since all continents consist of cratonic cores that grew with time through collisions with accreting terrains. Understanding how mountain range form and evolve as a result of the interaction between deep seated tectonic processes, and climate driven surface processes is thus a major issue in earth science. The Himalaya is probably the best place on earth where orogenic processes can be observed at work today and where the geological history of a mountain belt can be compared with its current tectonic processes. We now have a reasonably solid understanding of the structure of the range, of its petro-metamorphic history, and of the kinematics of its active deformation and seismicity. The long-term geological history of the range - from several millions to a few tens of millions of years - has been documented by structural, thermobarometric and thermochronological studies. Morphotectonic investigations have revealed its evolution over the past several thousands or tens of thousands of years. And, finally, geodetic measurements and seismological monitoring have revealed the pattern of strain and stress build-up over several years, or due to single large earthquakes. The presentation will show how the results of these investigations can be assembled into a simple, coherent picture of the structure and evolution of the range. The Himalayan model will be compared to other case examples of active orogeny and some implications regarding continental deformation and the influence of surface processes will be drawn.

  20. Report on Maritime/Joint Strategic Planning Journals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-29

    One page synopsis on thirty (30) journals which contain articles on maritime and/or joint strategic planning . Each entry was prepared by students...taking NS3252 Joint and Maritime Strategic Planning at the Naval Postgraduate School in the Summer of 1989. Entries include the journal’s name, publisher...features, journal quality and subscription information. Keywords: Maritime strategic planning , Joint strategic planning .

  1. San Francisco Vessel Traffic Service/Maritime Community Interrelationship.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    FRANCISCO VESSEL TRAFFIC SERVICE/MARITIME March 1983 *COMMUNITY INTERRELATIONSHIP 6. Perferming Orgenzaee Cede TSC/DTS-5 3 7...the main only as excellent. Members of the Coalition representing just about all aspects of the maritime community were extremely cooperative in the...be pointed out that much of the success of the SFVTS is due to cooperation of the members of the maritime community who participate voluntarily in

  2. 33 CFR 103.405 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... networks; (6) Relevant transportation infrastructure; (7) Utilities; (8) Security resources and... Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.405 Section 103.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area...

  3. 33 CFR 103.405 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... networks; (6) Relevant transportation infrastructure; (7) Utilities; (8) Security resources and... Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.405 Section 103.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area...

  4. The resolution sensitivity of the Asian summer monsoon and its inter-model comparison between MRI-AGCM and MetUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Tomomichi; Johnson, Stephanie J.; Schiemann, Reinhard; Demory, Marie-Estelle; Mizuta, Ryo; Yoshida, Kohei; Osamu Arakawa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we compare the resolution sensitivity of the Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) in two Atmospheric General Circulation Models (AGCMs): the MRI-AGCM and the MetUM. We analyze the MetUM at three different resolutions, N96 (approximately 200-km mesh on the equator), N216 (90-km mesh) and N512 (40-km mesh), and the MRI-AGCM at TL95 (approximately 180-km mesh on the equator), TL319 (60-km mesh), and TL959 (20-km mesh). The MRI-AGCM and the MetUM both show decreasing precipitation over the western Pacific with increasing resolution, but their precipitation responses differ over the Indian Ocean. In MRI-AGCM, a large precipitation increase appears off the equator (5-20°N). In MetUM, this off-equatorial precipitation increase is less significant and precipitation decreases over the equator. Moisture budget analysis demonstrates that a changing in moisture flux convergence at higher resolution is related to the precipitation response. Orographic effects, intra-seasonal variability and the representation of the meridional thermal gradient are explored as possible causes of the resolution sensitivity. Both high-resolution AGCMs (TL959 and N512) can represent steep topography, which anchors the rainfall pattern over south Asia and the Maritime Continent. In MRI-AGCM, representation of low pressure systems in TL959 also contributes to the rainfall pattern. Furthermore, the seasonal evolution of the meridional thermal gradient appears to be more accurate at higher resolution, particularly in the MRI-AGCM. These findings emphasize that the impact of resolution is only robust across the two AGCMs for some features of the ASM, and highlights the importance of multi-model studies of GCM resolution sensitivity.

  5. Little Ice Age wetting of interior Asian deserts and the rise of the Mongol Empire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnam, Aaron E.; Putnam, David E.; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Cook, Edward R.; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Clark, Elizabeth H.; Wang, Chunzeng; Chen, Feng; Denton, George H.; Boyle, Douglas P.; Bassett, Scott D.; Birkel, Sean D.; Martin-Fernandez, Javier; Hajdas, Irka; Southon, John; Garner, Christopher B.; Cheng, Hai; Broecker, Wallace S.

    2016-01-01

    The degree to which warming of the planet will alter Asia's water resources is an important question for food, energy, and economic security. Here we present geological evidence, underpinned by radiometric dating and dendrochronology, and bolstered by hydrological modeling, indicating that wetter-than-present conditions characterized the core of the inner Asian desert belt during the Little Ice Age, the last major Northern Hemispheric cold spell of the Holocene. These wetter conditions accompanied northern mid-latitude cooling, glacier expansion, a strengthened/southward-shifted boreal jet, and weakened south Asian monsoons. We suggest that southward migration of grasslands in response to these wetter conditions aided the spread of Mongol Empire steppe pastoralists across Asian drylands. Conversely, net drying over the 20th century has led to drought that is unprecedented for the past ∼830 years, and that could intensify with further heating of the Asian continent.

  6. Constraints on total fire carbon emissions over maritime southeast Asia in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huijnen, Vincent; Wooster, Martin; Kaiser, Johannes; Gaveau, David; Flemming, Johannes; Parrington, Mark; Inness, Antje; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Main, Bruce; van Weele, Michiel

    2016-04-01

    In September and October 2015 widespread forest and peatland fires burned over large parts of maritime southeast Asia, releasing large amounts of terrestrially-stored carbon into the atmosphere, primarily in the form of CO2, CO and CH4. Although seasonal fires are a frequent occurrence in the human modified landscapes in the south of Kalimantan, the southeastern provinces of Sumatra, and West Papua, the extent of the fires was greatly inflated by an extended period of drought associated with a particularly strong El Niño. In this contribution we provide an estimate of the total carbon released in these fires, making use of satellite observations of the fire's radiative power output as processed with GFAS, applied in the modelling and assimilation framework of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS: http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu/). The carbon emissions are further constrained with MOPITT atmospheric CO column measurements as well as unique on-site plume measurements on Kalimantan. We estimate the carbon emissions from the 2015 fires to be the largest over the maritime southeast Asian region since those associated with the record breaking El Niño of 1997.

  7. Minority Women's Health: Asian-Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Home > Minority Women's Health > Asian-Americans Minority Women's Health Asian-Americans Health conditions common in Asian- ... to top Health conditions common in Asian-American women Breast cancer Cancer Cervical cancer Diabetes Heart disease ...

  8. 33 CFR 106.235 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.235 Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  9. 33 CFR 106.235 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.235 Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  10. 33 CFR 106.235 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.235 Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  11. 33 CFR 106.235 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.235 Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  12. 33 CFR 106.235 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.235 Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  13. Piracy and Maritime Terrorism; A Seamless Transition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-18

    26 March 2004]. Day, Phillip. “Security in a Straitjacket?---Why It’s So Hard to Make a Key Asian Waterway Safe From Terror.” Wall Street Journal ...afp_asiapacific/view/62963/1/.html> [23 April 2004]. “Piracy remains a threat in Melaka Straits.” Malaysian National News Agency. 28 July 2003. <http...Security in a Straitjacket?---Why It’s So Hard to Make a Key Asian Waterway Safe From Terror,” Wall Street Journal , 13 June 2003, sec. A, p.5; John Owen

  14. When Did the Swahili Become Maritime?

    PubMed Central

    Fleisher, Jeffrey; Lane, Paul; LaViolette, Adria; Horton, Mark; Pollard, Edward; Quintana Morales, Eréndira; Vernet, Thomas; Christie, Annalisa; Wynne-Jones, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine an assumption about the historic Swahili of the eastern African coast: that they were a maritime society from their beginnings in the first millennium C.E. Based on historical and archaeological data, we suggest that, despite their proximity to and use of the sea, the level of maritimity of Swahili society increased greatly over time and was only fully realized in the early second millennium C.E. Drawing on recent theorizing from other areas of the world about maritimity as well as research on the Swahili, we discuss three arenas that distinguish first- and second-millennium coastal society in terms of their maritime orientation. These are variability and discontinuity in settlement location and permanence; evidence of increased engagement with the sea through fishing and sailing technology; and specialized architectural developments involving port facilities, mosques, and houses. The implications of this study are that we must move beyond coastal location in determining maritimity; consider how the sea and its products were part of social life; and assess whether the marine environment actively influences and is influenced by broader patterns of sociocultural organization, practice, and belief within Swahili and other societies. [maritime, fishing and sailing, long-distance trade, Swahili, eastern Africa] RESUMEN En este artículo, evaluamos la hipótesis de que los pueblos Swahili de la costa oriental africana fueron una sociedad marítima a partir del primer milenio E.C. Basados en información histórica y arqueológica, proponemos que la asociación de la sociedad Swahili con el mar incrementó considerablemente con el tiempo y se manifestó de una forma significativa particularmente desde principios del segundo milenio E.C. Utilizando teorías recientes sobre maritimidad en otras áreas del mundo, así como investigaciones sobre los Swahili, discutimos tres temas que marcan las diferencias del nivel de orientación marítima de

  15. Cutaneous Melanoma in Asians

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Yub

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a rare disease in Asians but potentially the most aggressive form of skin cancer worldwide. It can occur in any melanocyte-containing anatomic site. Four main cutaneous melanoma subtypes are recognized: lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM), and nodular melanoma. Generally, excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation increases the risk of melanoma. The exception is ALM, which is the most common melanoma subtype in Asians and is not associated with UV radiation. ALM presents as dark brownish to black, irregular maculopatches, nodules, or ulcers on the palms, soles, and nails. The lesions may be misdiagnosed as more benign lesions, such as warts, ulcers, hematomas, foreign bodies, or fungal infections, especially in amelanotic acral melanomas where black pigments are absent. The aim of this brief review is to improve understanding and the rate of early detection thereby reducing mortality, especially regarding cutaneous melanoma in Asians. PMID:27689028

  16. Possibilities of Uas for Maritime Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimkowska, A.; Lee, I.; Choi, K.

    2016-06-01

    In the last few years, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have become more important and its use for different application is appreciated. At the beginning UAS were used for military purposes. These successful applications initiated interest among researchers to find uses of UAS for civilian purposes, as they are alternative to both manned and satellite systems in acquiring high-resolution remote sensing data at lower cost while long flight duration. As UAS are built from many components such as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), sensing payloads, communication systems, ground control stations, recovery and launch equipment, and supporting equipment, knowledge about its functionality and characteristics is crucial for missions. Therefore, finding appropriate configuration of all elements to fulfill requirements of the mission is a very difficult, yet important task. UAS may be used in various maritime applications such as ship detection, red tide detection and monitoring, border patrol, tracking of pollution at sea and hurricane monitoring just to mention few. One of the greatest advantages of UAV is their ability to fly over dangerous and hazardous areas, where sending manned aircraft could be risky for a crew. In this article brief description of aerial unmanned system components is introduced. Firstly characteristics of unmanned aerial vehicles are presented, it continues with introducing inertial navigation system, communication systems, sensing payloads, ground control stations, and ground and recovery equipment. Next part introduces some examples of UAS for maritime applications. This is followed by suggestions of key indicators which should be taken into consideration while choosing UAS. Last part talks about configuration schemes of UAVs and sensor payloads suggested for some maritime applications.

  17. Maritime target identification in gated viewing imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Marcus; Hebel, Marcus; Arens, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The growing interest in unmanned surface vehicles, accident avoidance for naval vessels and automated maritime surveillance leads to a growing need for automatic detection, classification and pose estimation of maritime objects in medium and long ranges. Laser radar imagery is a well proven tool for near to medium range, but up to now for higher distances neither the sensor range nor the sensor resolution was satisfying. As a result of the mentioned limitations of laser radar imagery the potential of laser illuminated gated viewing for automated classification and pose estimation was investigated. The paper presents new techniques for segmentation, pose estimation and model-based identification of naval vessels in gated viewing imagery in comparison with the corresponding results of long range data acquired with a focal plane array laser radar system. The pose estimation in the gated viewing data is directly connected with the model-based identification which makes use of the outline of the object. By setting a sufficient narrow gate, the distance gap between the upper part of the ship and the background leads to an automatic segmentation. By setting the gate the distance to the object is roughly known. With this distance and the imaging properties of the camera, the width of the object perpendicular to the line of sight can be calculated. For each ship in the model library a set of possible 2D appearances in the known distance is calculated and the resulting contours are compared with the measured 2D outline. The result is a match error for each reasonable orientation of each model of the library. The result gained from the gated viewing data is compared with the results of target identification by laser radar imagery of the same maritime objects.

  18. Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Indices for Mid-continent US Great Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a set of great river macroinvertebrate indices of condition (GRMICs) for the mid-continent great rivers. We used a multiscale (site, reach, landscape) multimetric abiotic stressor gradient to select macroinvertebrate assemblage metrics sensitive to human disturbance ...

  19. Literature review of factors affecting continence after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Pacik, Dalibor; Fedorko, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy (RP) is the most common cause of stress urinary incontinence (UI) in men. Several anatomic structures affect or may affect urinary continence - urethral sphincter, levator ani muscle, puboprostatic ligaments, bladder neck, endopelvic fascia, neurovascular bundle - and understanding of the anatomy of pelvic floor and urethra is crucial for satisfactory functional outcome of the procedure. Surgical techniques implemented to improve continence rates include nerve-sparing procedure, bladder neck preservation/plication, urethral length preservation, musculofascial reconstruction, puboprostatic ligaments preservation or seminal vesicle preservation. Perioperative (preoperative and postoperative) pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) aims to shorten the duration of postoperative UI and thus, improve early continence rates postoperatively. In the review, complex information regarding anatomical, intra- and perioperative factors affecting urinary continence after RP is provided, including description of important anatomical structures, possible implications for surgical technique and evaluation of different PFMT strategies in perioperative period. PMID:28042624

  20. 21 CFR 876.5310 - Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., peripheral electrical continence device is a device that consists of an electrode that is connected by an electrical cable to a battery-powered pulse source. The electrode is placed onto or inserted into the body...

  1. Preferential rifting of continents - A source of displaced terranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vink, G. E.; Morgan, W. J.; Zhao, W.-L.

    1984-01-01

    Lithospheric rifting, while prevalent in the continents, rarely occurs in oceanic regions. To explain this preferential rifting of continents, the total strength of different lithospheres is compared by integrating the limits of lithospheric stress with depth. Comparisons of total strength indicate that continental lithosphere is weaker than oceanic lithosphere by about a factor of three. Also, a thickened crust can halve the total strength of normal continental lithosphere. Because the weakest area acts as a stress guide, any rifting close to an ocean-continent boundary would prefer a continental pathway. This results in the formation of small continental fragments or microplates that, once accreted back to a continent during subduction, are seen as displaced terranes. In addition, the large crustal thicknesses associated with suture zones would make such areas likely locations for future rifting episodes. This results in the tendency of new oceans to open along the suture where a former ocean had closed.

  2. Mantle dynamics of continent-wide tilting of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicaprio, L.; Gurnis, M.; Muller, R. D.

    2009-12-01

    Australia is distinctive in that during the Cenozoic it experienced first order, broad-scale vertical motions unrelated to normal orogenic processes. The progressive continent-wide tilting down to the northeast is attributed to the horizontal motion of the continent over subducted slabs. We use plate tectonic reconstructions and a model of mantle convection to quantitatively link the geological evolution of the continent to mantle convection. The passage of slabs beneath the Southwest Pacific since 50 Ma is modeled numerically, and the results are compared to geologic observations of anomalous topography. Models show that Australia undergoes a 300 m northeast downward tilt as it approaches and overrides subducted slabs between Melanesia and the active margin along the Loyalty and proto-Tonga Kermadec subduction systems. This pattern of dynamic subsidence is consistent with observations of continent wide tilting and may indicate that during the Cenozoic Australia moved northward away from a relatively hot mantle anomaly presently located beneath Antarctica.

  3. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cable to a battery-powered pulse source. The plug or pessary is inserted into the rectum or into the... nonimplanted electrical continence device and the powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use (§...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cable to a battery-powered pulse source. The plug or pessary is inserted into the rectum or into the... nonimplanted electrical continence device and the powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use (§...

  5. Abrupt Climate Events Recorded in Chinese and Central Asian Loess Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machalett, Bjoern; Oches, Eric A.; Haam, Eddie; Lai, Zhongping; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2013-04-01

    Past climate dynamics associated with the Eurasian continent have been extensively studied. However, the impact of intra-hemispheric-scale climate variability on the entire Eurasian landmass, as well as the self-generated effects of the continent on the global climate system, is still a matter of investigation . While western Atlantic polar and tropical air masses penetrate into the continent and are transformed as they cross Eurasia, the interior regions of Eurasia strongly influence Earth's climate system. Significant cooling and heating of Central and High Asia drive interactions between atmospheric and oceanic processes and regulate teleconnection patterns across the Northern Hemisphere. This paper utilizes high resolution particle size data from the Central Asian loess sequence at Remisowka, Kazakhstan, and the long studied, monsoon-influenced Chinese loess sequence at Xifeng, to reconstruct past atmospheric circulation and aeolian dust dynamics within interior Eurasia since the last interglacial period. The observed dynamics in aeolian dust transport closely mirror d18O and fine dust variations measured in Greenland ice cores, suggesting a correlation with short-term climate oscillations (DO events) recorded therein. An Asian origin of fine aeolian dust preserved in Greenland ice cores has been discussed previously, and recent papers reveal a close link between Asian aeolian dust dynamics and DO events recorded in Greenland ice cores. In this context, data presented here represent the first Central and East Asian aeolian dust records in which DO events are recorded, providing a means to test hypothesized links between short-term climate variability recorded in Greenland and associated climate dynamics at Asian dust source areas. Ultimately, the data extend existing hypotheses, suggesting that the Central and High Asian mountains are a crucial element within the sensitive glacier-desert-dust response system in interior Eurasia and may be considered a pacemaker

  6. Abrupt Climate Events Recorded in Chinese and Central Asian Loess Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machalett, B.; Oches, E. A.; Haam, E. K.; Lai, Z.; Endlicher, W.

    2013-12-01

    Past climate dynamics associated with the Eurasian continent have been extensively studied. However, the impact of intra-hemispheric-scale climate variability on the entire Eurasian landmass, as well as the self-generated effects of the continent on the global climate system, is still a matter of investigation . While western Atlantic polar and tropical air masses penetrate into the continent and are transformed as they cross Eurasia, the interior regions of Eurasia strongly influence Earth's climate system. Significant cooling and heating of Central and High Asia drive interactions between atmospheric and oceanic processes and regulate teleconnection patterns across the Northern Hemisphere. This paper utilizes high resolution particle size data from the Central Asian loess sequence at Remisowka, Kazakhstan, and the long studied, monsoon-influenced Chinese loess sequence at Xifeng, to reconstruct past atmospheric circulation and aeolian dust dynamics within interior Eurasia since the last interglacial period. The observed dynamics in aeolian dust transport closely mirror d18O and fine dust variations measured in Greenland ice cores, suggesting a correlation with short-term climate oscillations (DO events) recorded therein. An Asian origin of fine aeolian dust preserved in Greenland ice cores has been discussed previously, and recent papers reveal a close link between Asian aeolian dust dynamics and DO events recorded in Greenland ice cores. In this context, data presented here represent the first Central and East Asian aeolian dust records in which DO events are recorded, providing a means to test hypothesized links between short-term climate variability recorded in Greenland and associated climate dynamics at Asian dust source areas. Ultimately, the data extend existing hypotheses, suggesting that the Central and High Asian mountains are a crucial element within the sensitive glacier-desert-dust response system in interior Eurasia and may be considered a pacemaker

  7. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  8. Quebrada jaguay: early south american maritime adaptations

    PubMed

    Sandweiss; McInnis; Burger; Cano; Ojeda; Paredes; Sandweiss; Glascock

    1998-09-18

    Excavations at Quebrada Jaguay 280 (QJ-280) (16 degrees30'S) in south coastal Peru demonstrated that Paleoindian-age people of the Terminal Pleistocene (about 11,100 to 10,000 carbon-14 years before the present or about 13,000 to 11,000 calibrated years before the present) in South America relied on marine resources while resident on the coast, which extends the South American record of maritime exploitation by a millennium. This site supports recent evidence that Paleoindian-age people had diverse subsistence systems. The presence of obsidian at QJ-280 shows that the inhabitants had contact with the adjacent Andean highlands during the Terminal Pleistocene.

  9. 75 FR 24961 - Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC) to submit their application for membership, to... Security Act (MTSA) of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-295) added section 70112 to Title 46 of the U.S. Code,...

  10. 78 FR 19277 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: United States Coast... published a notice of meeting for the National Maritime Security Advisory Committee (NMSAC) in the Federal... reported. NMSAC will now meet on April 2, 2013 via web and teleconference to discuss various...

  11. 32 CFR 537.16 - Scope for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.16 Scope for maritime claims. The Army Maritime Claims Settlement Act... government's right to assert a claim on a salvage bonus basis in accordance with commercial practice. (c)...

  12. 32 CFR 537.16 - Scope for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.16 Scope for maritime claims. The Army Maritime Claims Settlement Act... government's right to assert a claim on a salvage bonus basis in accordance with commercial practice. (c)...

  13. 32 CFR 537.16 - Scope for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.16 Scope for maritime claims. The Army Maritime Claims Settlement Act... government's right to assert a claim on a salvage bonus basis in accordance with commercial practice. (c)...

  14. 32 CFR 537.16 - Scope for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.16 Scope for maritime claims. The Army Maritime Claims Settlement Act... government's right to assert a claim on a salvage bonus basis in accordance with commercial practice. (c)...

  15. 32 CFR 537.16 - Scope for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.16 Scope for maritime claims. The Army Maritime Claims Settlement Act... government's right to assert a claim on a salvage bonus basis in accordance with commercial practice. (c)...

  16. 32 CFR 537.19 - Demands arising from maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Demands arising from maritime claims. 537.19 Section 537.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.19 Demands arising from maritime claims. (a) It...

  17. 33 CFR 106.140 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 106.140 Section 106.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General §...

  18. 33 CFR 106.140 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 106.140 Section 106.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General §...

  19. 33 CFR 106.140 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 106.140 Section 106.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General §...

  20. 47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1135 Transmission of maritime safety... and the IMO Master Plan of Shore-Based Facilities. (b) The mode and format of the...

  1. 47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1135 Transmission of maritime safety... and the IMO Master Plan of Shore-Based Facilities. (b) The mode and format of the...

  2. 47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1135 Transmission of maritime safety... and the IMO Master Plan of Shore-Based Facilities. (b) The mode and format of the...

  3. 47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1135 Transmission of maritime safety... and the IMO Master Plan of Shore-Based Facilities. (b) The mode and format of the...

  4. 47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1135 Transmission of maritime safety... and the IMO Master Plan of Shore-Based Facilities. (b) The mode and format of the...

  5. The controversy surrounding OxyContin abuse: issues and solutions.

    PubMed

    Jayawant, Sujata S; Balkrishnan, Rajesh

    2005-06-01

    This paper overviews the controversies surrounding the abuse of prescription analgesic OxyContin((R)) (oxycodone hydrochloride; Purdue Pharma, Stamford, CT, USA). It discusses solutions to this medication-related issue, which has been touted as reaching epidemic proportions. Relevant literature from 1990 to 2004 was identified through a MEDLINE search, and a thorough internet-based search was conducted to obtain the latest updates and government reports. OxyContin became popular as a street drug through its ability to induce a quick heroin-like euphoria. The media hype surrounding OxyContin abuse and the "black box" warning on its label may have added to the abuse and diversion. The US Food and Drug Administration took steps by writing letters to Purdue Pharma, the manufacturers of OxyContin. Purdue Pharma developed a database to identify OxyContin abusers throughout the nation and also launched campaigns to educate patients through the internet. Further suggestions to managing the abuse of OxyContin include: community pharmacists' assessment of behavioral risk factors that could lead to patient medication abuse; medication abuse risk management courses for physicians; development of a national database linking all pharmacies specifically designed to identify abusers; and tamper-resistant prescription pads for controlled substances, which seems the most plausible and immediate solution to this problem.

  6. Do continence management strategies reduce falls? a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Frances A; Dow, Briony; Low, May-Ann

    2013-12-01

    Urinary incontinence is associated with increased fall risk, and fall prevention programs include recommendations to manage continence as one component of fall reduction. However, the evidence to support this recommendation is unclear. The aim of this study was to identify continence management interventions that are effective in decreasing falls. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Studies were included if they evaluated the effect of any type of continence management strategy on falls in older adults. The included studies were assessed for quality, and data relating to participants, interventions and outcomes were extracted by two independent reviewers. Four articles met the inclusion criteria. Two studies were randomised controlled trials, one a retrospective cohort study and one an uncontrolled intervention study. Interventions included pharmacological agents, a toileting regime combined with physical activity and an individualised continence program. Only the study evaluating the combination of physical activity and prompted voiding found an effect on falls. It is surprising that there has been so little research into continence management interventions that include fall outcomes. A toileting regime combined with physical activity may reduce falls in residential care. There is a need for further studies investigating the impact of continence management on falls.

  7. The burden of prostate cancer in Asian nations

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Jennifer; Elsamanoudi, Sally; Brassell, Stephen A.; Chen, Yongmei; Colombo, Monica; Srivastava, Amita; McLeod, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In this review, the International Agency for Research on Cancer's cancer epidemiology databases were used to examine prostate cancer (PCa) age-standardized incidence rates (ASIR) in selected Asian nations, including Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) and GLOBOCAN databases, in an effort to determine whether ASIRs are rising in regions of the world with historically low risk of PCa development. Materials and Methods: Asian nations with adequate data quality were considered for this review. PCa ASIR estimates from CI5 and GLOBOCAN 2008 public use databases were examined in the four eligible countries: China, Japan, Korea and Singapore. Time trends in PCa ASIRs were examined using CI5 Volumes I-IX. Results: While PCa ASIRs remain much lower in the Asian nations examined than in North America, there is a clear trend of increasing PCa ASIRs in the four countries examined. Conclusion: Efforts to systematically collect cancer incidence data in Asian nations must be expanded. Current CI5 data indicate a rise in PCa ASIR in several populous Asian countries. If these rates continue to rise, it is uncertain whether there will be sufficient resources in place, in terms of trained personnel and infrastructure for medical treatment and continuum of care, to handle the increase in PCa patient volume. The recommendation by some experts to initiate PSA screening in Asian nations could compound a resource shortfall. Obtaining accurate estimates of PCa incidence in these countries is critically important for preparing for a potential shift in the public health burden posed by this disease. PMID:22529743

  8. Asian Students and Multiethnic Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Gary; Glass, Diane

    Asian students are the most successful racial group in American schools, and this success has led to the model minority stereotype. However, the question of Asian students and school segregation is seldom examined, largely because of the traditional academic success of Asian students. This study compares the level of racial segregation Asian…

  9. Scrolling and Strolling, Asian Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Joan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a lesson on Asian cultures. Asian cultures demonstrate respect for nature through their art. Students learned how to use Asian brush techniques and designs to create scrolls. They also learned how to write Haiku, a three-line form of poetry that uses a pattern of syllables.

  10. Roots: An Asian American Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tachiki, Amy, Ed.; And Others

    A documentary collection of the experiences of Asian Americans from a multitude of perspectives, including a scholarly focus and also containing contemporary expressions, comprises "Roots: An Asian American Reader." The volume is said to be designed to meet the needs of Asian Americans by providing a compilation of materials in readily…

  11. Rehabilitation practice patterns for patients with heart failure: the Asian perspective.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xing-Guo

    2015-01-01

    More countries around world have begun to use cardiac rehabilitation in patients diagnosed with chronic heart failure (HF). Asia is the largest continent in the world and, depending on its economy, culture, and beliefs, a given Asian country differs from Western countries as well as others in Asia. The cardiac rehabilitation practice patterns for patients with HF are somewhat different in Asia. In addition to the formal pattern of Western practice, it also includes special techniques and skills, such as Taiji, Qigong, and Yoga. This article describes cardiac rehabilitation patterns for patients with HF in most Asian countries and areas.

  12. Making and Breaking of a Continent: Following the Scent of Geodynamic Imprints on the African Continent Using Electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weckmann, Ute

    2012-01-01

    The African continent inherits a long history of continental accretion and breakup. The stage of "making" a continent goes back to the Archean, when the first continental masses formed cratons which mostly remained stable ever since. Subsequent collision of weaker continental masses was followed by several extension and compression episodes that resulted in the formation of super-continents. After the assemblage of Gondwana, a period of predominantly "breaking" , i.e., the breakup of super-continents, took over. The modern-day African continent exhibits different types of margins; continental rifting occurs side by side with recent collision. Since the late 1960s, magnetotelluric (MT) experiments have played an important role in studies of the electrical conductivity structure of Africa. The early results significantly shaped the MT community's understanding of continental-scale conductivity belts and basic characteristics of cratons and mobile belts on both crustal and lithospheric mantle scales for some decades. Modern MT studies in Africa have generally supported earlier results with high resistivities observed on cratons and low resistivities observed across mobile belts. Advances in instrumentation, data processing and interpretation resulted in higher-resolution images of the lithosphere, which in consequence induce an improved understanding of tectonic processes and geological prerequisites for the occurrence of natural resources. The high electrical conductivity of mobile belts and their relation to reactivated fault and detachment zones were often interpreted to characterize mobile belts as tectonic weak zones, which can accommodate stress and constitute zones along which continents can break. Recent breaking of the African continent can be studied on land across the East African rift; however, the lack of amphibian MT experiments across today's margins does not allow for good resolution of remnants of continental breakup processes. Naturally, the regions

  13. Under-reporting of maritime accidents.

    PubMed

    Psarros, George; Skjong, Rolf; Eide, Magnus Strandmyr

    2010-03-01

    The majority of current maritime regulations has been developed following a reactive approach, often as ad-hoc response to serious accidents, and are characterised as being prescriptive leaving limited space for adapting equivalent solutions rather those described in the regulations. On the premise of providing a more proactive approach for the proposal or the evaluation of regulations, the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) has been introduced. In the context of FSA, the analysis of accident data is considered to be very important for providing potential input on developing more balanced, proactive and cost-effective regulations. However, it has been argued that the validity of historical data may be undermined by uncertainties. This paper is aimed at showing evidence on serious under-reporting in accident databases, which can be considered as the main contributor to questioning the direct and uncritical use of historical data. By analysing the 10-year tanker accident data from the Lloyd's Register FairPlay (LRFP) and the Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD) for vessels registered in Norway, it is found that the reporting performance has an upper bound of 41% for NMD and 30% for LRFP. Furthermore, based on comparison between LRFP data and self-assessment by Flag States, it is seen that accidents reported by the Flag States are also incomplete.

  14. Asian American Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Paul Public Schools, Minn.

    This comprehensive Asian American curriculum and resource guide for elementary school teachers consists of lessons developed as part of an in-service teacher education workshop. The guide is divided into three topic areas: stereotyping; similarities; and differences. The format for lessons in all sections contains a title, key concepts,…

  15. Asian Americans in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnow, Stanley; Yoshihara, Nancy

    This booklet is a detailed primer on the Asian American experience in the United States covering history, family and acculturation, education, culture and the arts, economics, discrimination and violence, and politics. An introduction reviews some basic demographics and looks at racial issues in light of the riots in Los Angeles (California) in…

  16. Asian-American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, William T.; Yu, Elena S. H.

    Although Asian Americans enjoy the image of a "successful minority," they also have endured hardships and prejudices. This report traces the history of the Japanese and Chinese experience in the United States. Some similarities are discernible in the immigration patterns of the two ethnic populations. The first wave of immigrants…

  17. HIV Among Asians

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Asians Format: Select One File [143K] Recommend ...

  18. Diabetes in Asians

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing globally, particularly in Asia. According to the 2013 Diabetes Atlas, an estimated 366 million people are affected by diabetes worldwide; 36% of those affected live in the Western Pacific region, with a significant proportion in East Asia. The reasons for this marked increase in the prevalence of diabetes can be extrapolated from several distinct features of the Asian region. First, the two most populated countries, China and India, are located in Asia. Second, Asians have experienced extremely rapid economic growth, including rapid changes in dietary patterns, during the past decades. As a result, Asians tend to have more visceral fat within the same body mass index range compared with Westerners. In addition, increased insulin resistance relative to reduced insulin secretory function is another important feature of Asian individuals with diabetes. Young age of disease onset is also a distinctive characteristic of these patients. Moreover, changing dietary patterns, such as increased consumption of white rice and processed red meat, contributes to the deteriorated lifestyle of this region. Recent studies suggest a distinctive responsiveness to novel anti-diabetic agents in Asia; however, further research and efforts to reverse the increasing prevalence of diabetes are needed worldwide. PMID:26435131

  19. History of Asian American psychology.

    PubMed

    Leong, Frederick T L; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-10-01

    An overview of the history of Asian American psychology is provided by reviewing the context for the development of the field as well as the early founding of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). The presidents of AAPA as well as key events and conferences are noted. The involvement of AAPA leaders in national mental health policies and activities are reviewed. The substantive areas of Asian American psychology and the education and training of Asian American psychologists are also discussed. The article ends with some comments about the future of Asian American psychology.

  20. Wrench faulting initiated by continent-continent collision between the Eratosthenes Seamount and Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.; Huebscher, C. P.

    2010-12-01

    The Eratosthenes Seamount (ESM), located in the Eastern Mediterranean south of Cyprus, is considered to represent a continental fragment originating from the former African-Arabian continental margin. In the late Miocene the subduction of the African-Arabian Plate below the Anatolian Plate turned to continent-continent collision when the ESM collided with the island of Cyprus. This altered the tectonic pattern of the entire Eastern Mediterranean. Since the ESM blocks the northward drift of the African Plate south of Cyprus, the northward motion of the African-Arabian Plate (around 1cm/year) has to be compensated along wrench faults. The Baltim Hecateus Line (BHL) separates the ESM on its eastern side from the deep Levantine Basin. The BHL formed as an extensional fault system during the Triassic formation of the Levatine Basin. During the Upper Cretaceous and Eocene so called Syrian Arc inversion the BHL was reactivated. A set of recent multichannel seismic 2D lines (MCS), acquired with the R/V Maria S. Merian (MSM14-2) in 2010, will be presented here. The NW-SE trending lines show a transformal to transpressional nature of the Baltim Hecateus Line. We propose that the BHL converted to a transform fault during the incipient collision of the ESM with the island of Cyprus in order to compensate the northward motion of the African-Arabian Plate. At the eastern rim of the ESM the BHL continues beneath a prominent bathymetric escarpment. Whereas the escarpment matches the trace of the BHL it is covered below the thick Messinian Evaporites south and north of the ESM. Owing to the ductile properties of salt the Messinian evaporites decouple the sub salt sediments from the supra salt sediments. As a result no direct observations of the BHL are possible. However, seismic imaging reveals thrust folds at the western side of the Levantine Basin pointing to a transpressional nature of the BHL. The overlying sediments are thinned as a reaction to the transform motion. Due to a

  1. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 501 - Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart A Appendix A to Part 501 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS THE FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION-GENERAL Pt. 501, App. A Appendix A to Part 501—Federal Maritime...

  2. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 501 - Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart A Appendix A to Part 501 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS THE FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION-GENERAL Pt. 501, App. A Appendix A to Part 501—Federal Maritime...

  3. The Inaugural Report of the Global Maritime and Air Communities of Interest Intelligence Enterprises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    developed with support and input from the Global Maritime and Transporta- tion School ( GMATS ) at the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy. The 3 week course...Global Maritime and Air Intelligence Integration GMATS Global Maritime and Transportation School A-3 GMCOI Global Maritime Community of Interest

  4. 33 CFR 104.240 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.240 Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation. (a) The vessel owner or... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  5. 33 CFR 104.240 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.240 Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation. (a) The vessel owner or... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  6. 33 CFR 104.240 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.240 Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation. (a) The vessel owner or... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  7. 33 CFR 104.240 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.240 Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation. (a) The vessel owner or... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  8. 33 CFR 104.240 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.240 Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation. (a) The vessel owner or... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  9. 78 FR 64285 - National Maritime Strategy Symposium: Cargo Opportunities and Sealift Capacity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Maritime Administration National Maritime Strategy Symposium: Cargo Opportunities and Sealift Capacity... national maritime strategy. The purpose of this public meeting is to gather ideas for improving the Nation... as a maritime Nation relies on its global, coastal and inland commercial fleet, its ports...

  10. Designing for Inter-Organizational Coordination in Indonesia’s Maritime Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    ORGANIZATIONAL COORDINATION IN INDONESIA’S MARITIME DOMAIN by Bagus Jatmiko Frans Joni Tandiarrang December 2014 Thesis Advisor...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DESIGNING FOR INTER- ORGANIZATIONAL COORDINATION IN INDONESIA’S MARITIME DOMAIN 6. AUTHOR(S) Bagus Jatmiko, Frans Joni...TERMS Inter- organizational network, Indonesian maritime sectu’ity, Indonesian maritime domain, social network analysis, infonnation-sharmg

  11. 33 CFR 103.410 - Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to: (a) Knowledge of current security threats and patterns; (b) Recognition and detection of... Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.410 Section 103.410 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area...

  12. U.S.-China Maritime Confidence Building. Paradigms, Precedents, and Prospects (China Maritime Study, Number 6)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    the maritime relationship between China and the United States is not working as effectively as it should—or must. The business of government is to...incorrect assumption can cost the life of an individual. In national and international security, clinging to inap- propriate paradigms can result in conflict...to determine much of the confrontational course of international relations throughout the remainder of the twentieth century and still affects us in

  13. Continent-scale linearity of kimberlite-carbonatite magmatism, mid-continent North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Genet Ide; Carlson, Richard W.; Frost, Carol D.; Hearn, B. C.; Eby, G. Nelson

    2014-10-01

    Cretaceous-Tertiary kimberlite-carbonatite magmatism in mid-continent North America extends along a N40°W linear trend from Louisiana to Alberta, and occurs in at least four different pulses (∼109-85, 67-64, 55-52, and less than 50 Ma). The lack of spatial age progressions of magmatism consistent with motion of North America over a fixed hot spot, the presence of Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic and trace-element compositions that show a temporal evolution from lithospheric to asthenospheric melt-sources, and the orientation of the magmatic belt parallel to the western subduction margin of the North American plate, suggest that this linear zone is the surface expression of mantle melting related to the subduction system. We propose that fragmentation of Farallon and Kula plates opened slab windows perpendicular to their convergence direction. In this model, sheet-like mantle upwellings were induced along slab-window margins, and these upwellings underwent low-degree partial melting to produce highly alkalic magmas along the trend parallel to, but ∼2000 km east of, the convergent margin. The N40°W trend may reflect melting associated with penetration of the mantle transition-zone by the downgoing oceanic plate(s).

  14. Littoral and Coastal Management in Supporting Maritime Security for Realizing Indonesia as World Maritime Axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brotosusilo, Agus; Wayan Agus Apriana, I.; Agung Satria, Afrizal; Jokopitoyo, Trisasono

    2016-02-01

    The Indonesian under President Joko Widodo has new goal to make Indonesia as the world maritime axis. This is supported by the geographic of Indonesia as the largest archipelagic country where the sea is two-thirds wide among the whole spacious. Indonesia is the world largest archipelagic state. More than two-third of its territory consist of seas. The ecosystem of littoral and coastal has correlative relationship with country development. There is no doubt of physically facts that Indonesian littoral and coastal with total wide of 5.8 million km2 is rich with various natural resources. Therefore, the condition of Indonesia with its world second longest coastline has several comparative advantages. Not only the country has an abundant natural resources, but it also blessed by demographic bonus advantage. The population of Indonesian is the fifth largest in the world which approximately 220 million people and approximately 60 percent among them live at coastal areas. The people in coastal area relies their live from its surrounding natural resource. Hence, most of their life and daily activity is related with the presence of natural resources. The dealing of conflict potential and attention to maritime security are important to be studied as a reference in preparing and facing the government policies that will lead to the development of maritime.

  15. Inmarsat for maritime telecommunications to aeronautical service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, O.

    1984-05-01

    Current capabilities of the maritime Inmarsat satellite system are described along with plans for expanding the service. Inmarsat is composed of three segments: coast and shipboard receiving stations and satellites. Transponders are leased from Comsat, ESA, and Intelsat. Circuits on Marecs-A, Marisat, and Intelsat spacecraft are used for navigational coverage of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans with 6/4 GHz uplink and downlink frequencies, respectively. Transmission capabilities include telephony, telex, facsimiles, data, and TV signals. Nine spacecraft are planned for operational status in 1988 to furnish 125 telephone channels per satellite and L-band data transmission. Commercial aircraft equipped with appropriate apparatus will then have access to the services.

  16. Near Real Time Applications for Maritime Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, E.; Krause, D.; Berg, M.; Daedelow, H.; Maass, H.

    2015-04-01

    Applications to derive maritime value added products like oil spill and ship detection based on remote sensing SAR image data are being developed and integrated at the Ground Station Neustrelitz, part of the German Remote Sensing Data Center. Products of meteo-marine parameters like wind and wave will complement the product portfolio. Research and development aim at the implementation of highly automated services for operational use. SAR images are being used because of the possibility to provide maritime products with high spatial resolution over wide swaths and under all weather conditions. In combination with other information like Automatic Identification System (AIS) data fusion products are available to support the Maritime Situational Awareness.

  17. A Geological Model for the Evolution of Early Continents (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, P. F.; Coltice, N.; Flament, N. E.; Thébaud, N.

    2013-12-01

    Geochemical probing of ancient sediments (REE in black shales, strontium composition of carbonates, oxygen isotopes in zircons...) suggests that continents were a late Archean addition at Earth's surface. Yet, geochemical probing of ancient basalts reveals that they were extracted from a mantle depleted of its crustal elements early in the Archean. Considerations on surface geology, the early Earth hypsometry and the rheology and density structure of Archean continents can help solve this paradox. Surface geology: The surface geology of Archean cratons is characterized by thick continental flood basalts (CFBs, including greenstones) emplaced on felsic crusts dominated by Trondhjemite-Tonalite-Granodiorite (TTG) granitoids. This simple geology is peculiar because i/ most CFBs were emplaced below sea level, ii/ after their emplacement, CFBs were deformed into relatively narrow, curviplanar belts (greenstone basins) wrapping around migmatitic TTG domes, and iii/ Archean greenstone belts are richly endowed with gold and other metals deposits. Flat Earth hypothesis: From considerations on early Earth continental geotherm and density structure, Rey and Coltice (2008) propose that, because of the increased ability of the lithosphere to flow laterally, orogenic processes in the Archean produced only subdued topography (continents, Flament et al. (2008) proposed a theory for the hypsometry of the early Earth showing that, until the late Archean, most continents were flooded and Earth was largely a water world. From this, a model consistent with many of the peculiar attributes of Archean geology, can be proposed: 1/ Continents appeared at Earth's surface at an early stage during the Hadean/Archean. However, because they were i/ covered by continental flood basalts, ii/ below sea level, and iii/ deprived of modern-style mountain belts and orogenic plateaux, early felsic

  18. Anatomy of North America: thematic geologic portrayals of the continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Harold; Hoffman, Paul F.; Lewry, John F.; Monger, James W. H.; Rivers, Toby

    1991-02-01

    Six thematic tectonic maps are used to analyse the makeup of the North American continent. Themes are: (1) major tectonic elements of the continent (2) time of last major deformation (3) time of first major deformation (4) miogeoclines and terranes by kindred (5) suture zones and terrane boundaries by age, and (6) time of accretion. Features illustrated include distribution of orogenic belts and their extensions beneath cover sequences to the continental edge, contrast between juvenile and reworked crust in orogenic belts, geometry of ancient continental margins, distribution and classification of accreted terranes, geometry of suture zones and courses of ancient oceans, and how the continent evolved from an assemblage of Archean minicontinents to its present configuration. It is suggested that essentially similar plate tectonic processes controlled continental breakup and assembly from the Archean onwards, albeit with gradual increase in size of continental lithospheric plates and quantitative change in other parameters such as heatflow and character of the mantle.

  19. Mood disorders in Asians.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Albert; Chang, Doris

    2014-02-01

    Mood disorders are disorders that have a disturbance in mood as the predominant feature. They are common psychiatric disorders and are associated with significant distress and functional impairment. As the theory of mood disorders is based on the philosophy of mind/body dichotomy in the West, it contradicts the holistic tradition of medicine in the East. This may partially explain why many Asians with mood disorders emphasize their physical symptoms in discussions with their treatment providers. In the development of the DSM and ICD diagnostic systems, it is presumed that the diagnostic categories are applicable to all races and ethnicities. Similarly, many consider pharmacological and psychological treatment approaches to mood disorders universally applicable. To effectively treat Asians with mood disorders, clinicians need to customize biological and psychosocial interventions in consideration of patients' potential genetic and cultural differences.

  20. A maritime roadmap in the cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoelstra, George

    2013-04-01

    Web mapping has morphed from sharing maps and geospatial information to a geospatial content management system that supports collaboration. The new iteration allows for the publication and sharing with others, as well as the access to rich global base data through cloud services. The European EMODnet initiative provides an excellent showcase to the world what can be achieved today. This presentation will highlight the latest developments on portal and geospatial cloud services as the basis for sharing in a Marine SDI, and how the maritime community can benefit from this right away. Various examples of maritime cloud services (Emodnet, Eye on Earth) will be discussed to illustrate the capabilities provided by these developments. New technologies and especially those dealing with the latest web-trends are easily consumed and applied. This introduces a risk of a series of new services and start-ups all competing for our attention causing the reverse effect of what we try achieve: easier access to collaborative information and better tools to analyze and understand it. Instead we end up looking for a road map. Esri long supports data interoperability and sharing, and understands these challenges. In this presentation we will give an insider's view on Esri's vision for a road map that allows data managers and data users to collaborate effectively using a platform approach, optimizing cloud computing and GIS to allow access from many devices and for many applications. The presentation will conclude by highlighting how this platform can be implemented and utilized, supported by the ocean content initiative, to facilitate collaborative knowledge building, decision making and knowledge management in general in oceanography and ocean sciences.

  1. Mean Elevation of Continents and Survival of Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Continental mean elevation is controlled by tectonic uplift (including all solid earth processes and volcanic activities) and erosion, so is the mean thickness of continents. Assuming that a continent is large enough so that various tectonic processes can be averaged to behave similarly, the balance between uplift and erosion results in a steady state mean elevation that increases with the area of a continent (Zhang, 2005). The model fits the mean elevation of continents well, but many islands depart from the curve of mean elevation versus land area. Here I explore the elevation and survival of the islands. An island is small so that one cannot assume it would display average character in terms of tectonic processes. Oceanic islands are there largely because of recent volcanic activities leading to an uplift rate much higher than the average uplift rate. On the other hand, once such special conditions fade away, islands are eroded rapidly. Based on the modeling of Zhang (2005), the half-erosion time to erode an island is roughly proportional to the square root of the land area of the island. Hence, scaling from the half-erosion time of the largest continent (about 100 Myr, Harrison, 1994), the half-erosion time for islands once tectonic activity stops can be estimated. For example, the half-erosion time for Hawaii Island is estimated to be 1.3 Myr, roughly consistent with the rate of disappearing of older Hawaiian Islands. The half-erosion time is 0.16 Myr for the present-day Easter Island, and 10 Myr for Madagascar once uplift stops. In view of the short erosion time scale, the islands are present and survive because of special tectonics, such as volcanic activities, recent separation from continents, etc. References: C.G.A. Harrison (1994) Geol. Rundsch. 83, 431-447. Y. Zhang (2005) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 237, 524-531.

  2. Milestones of Asian Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Fakhro, Abdulla; Wagner, Ryan D.; Kim, Yong Kyu; Nguyen, Anh H.

    2015-01-01

    The field of plastic surgery originally developed out of the necessity to reconstruct the human body after the destruction of war. However, injured soldiers were not the only people who desired a change in appearance. After World War II, many people in Asian countries sought to attain a more Western look through surgery. Along with eyes, the nose was the main focus for these cosmetic procedures. In this article, the authors examine the evolution of Asian rhinoplasty from its original description in 1964 to the present. The characteristic anatomical differences between the Western and Asian nose are identified in relation to the technical challenges for rhinoplasty surgeons. Then the benefits and risks of the two major surgical approaches, autograft versus alloplast, are detailed. Finally, the coevolution of techniques and implant usage is traced from a dorsum-only implant, to an L-shaped implant, a cartilaginous cap graft with a one-piece rhinoplasty, an I-shaped implant, and a two-piece augmentation rhinoplasty. Outlining these changes demonstrates the advancement of the field of plastic surgery and the growing expectations of the patient. These advancements have provided the tools necessary to better align a patient's aesthetic goals and their unique anatomical presentation with a specific surgical approach. PMID:26648800

  3. Overactive Bladder and Continence Guidelines: implementation, inaction or frustration?

    PubMed

    Wagg, A; Cardozo, L; Chapple, C; Diaz, D C; de Ridder, D; Espuna-Pons, M; Haab, F; Kelleher, C; Kolbl, H; Milsom, I; Van Kerrebroeck, P; Vierhout, M; Kirby, M

    2008-10-01

    Guidelines for the management of continence and overactive bladder are generally available across Europe. For a majority of countries, these have been adopted by professional societies in either urology or gynaecology for local use. There has, however, been little monitoring of formal implementation of these guidelines and seldom any attempt to audit their operation. The state of continence care therefore remains largely unknown. This article reviews current guidelines and their status across Europe and examines what might be relevant from other disease areas to promote successful implementation.

  4. Contacts and Conflicts; The Asian Immigration Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Asian American Studies Center.

    In this curriculum guide to the Asian immigration experience, the topics discussed include: major immigration periods, early contributions of Asian immigrants, Chinese immigration, Japanese immigration, Filipino immigration, Korean immigration, early Asian women in America, Asian immigration to Hawaii, anti-Asian hostility, the exploitation of…

  5. Current Update in Asian Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary: There has been a tremendous growth of cosmetic surgery among Asians worldwide. Rhinoplasty is second only to blepharoplasty in terms of popularity among Asians regarding cosmetic surgical procedures. Most Asians seek to improve their appearance while maintaining the essential features of their ethnicity. There are considerable ethnic nasal and facial variations in this population alone. Successful rhinoplasty in Asians must take into account underlying anatomic differences between Asians and whites. Due to ethnic variations, cultural differences, and occasional language barriers, careful preoperative counseling is necessary to align the patient’s expectations with the limitations of the procedure. This article will review the many facets of Asian rhinoplasty as it is practiced today. PMID:25289326

  6. Recent advances in Asian rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong-Ryul; Won, Tae-Bin

    2011-04-01

    Asian rhinoplasty is an expanding topic in the field of rhinoplasty. Although the main principles of various rhinoplasty techniques apply equally to the Asian nose, Asian rhinoplasty is unique owing to its different anatomy and ethnicity. In recent years there have been some noteworthy developments in Asian rhinoplasty. Traditional techniques using alloplastic implants with endonasal approach are changing due to the advent of new beauty concept, introduction of new techniques, and development of newly improved materials. In this review, we will highlight some of the recent advances of Asian rhinoplasty with emphasis on dorsal augmentation, advances in implant material and tip surgery using autologous cartilage. Finally with increase of revision cases, issues relevant to revision rhinoplasty in Asians will be addressed.

  7. Cooperative program for Asian pediatricians.

    PubMed

    Sakakihara, Y; Nakamura, Y

    1993-12-01

    The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians (CPAP) is a non-government organization established in 1989 to promote mutual understanding and friendship among young pediatricians in Asian countries. Unlike other government programs and non-government organizations, CPAP is solely facilitating mutual relationships among young inexperienced pediatricians who would otherwise have no chance to travel overseas. It has been funded by donations from members of the alumni association of the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Tokyo and many private companies and individuals. The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians has so far invited 36 Asian pediatricians from 11 countries. By constructing a human network among Asian pediatricians, it is hoped that CPAP will contribute to making international cooperation in the Asian region easier and smoother.

  8. The Ocean Construct: A Model for Maritime Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allin, Lawrence C.

    1977-01-01

    Described is an organizational construct to help teachers integrate the oceanographic and maritime disciplines within a comprehensible framework. The construct considers three areas: aquasphere, human adaptation to the ocean, and integrative prospects. (Author/AV)

  9. 17. MARINA WAY, HARBOUR WAY, AND MARITIME CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. MARINA WAY, HARBOUR WAY, AND MARITIME CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTER (SEE ALSO HABS No. CA-2718), WITH RICHMOND SHIPYARD NO. 3. S. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, 1401 Marina Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  10. 77 FR 28894 - Maritime Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... results in a significant loss of life, environmental damage, transportation system disruption, or economic disruption in a particular area.'' Since the TMSARM was made available in 2003, hundreds of maritime...

  11. Maritime transport in the Gulf of Bothnia 2030.

    PubMed

    Pekkarinen, Annukka; Repka, Sari

    2014-10-01

    Scenarios for shipping traffic in the Gulf of Bothnia (GoB) by 2030 are described in order to identify the main factors that should be taken into account when preparing a Maritime Spatial Plan (MSP) for the area. The application of future research methodology to planning of marine areas was also assessed. The methods include applying existing large scale quantitative scenarios for maritime traffic in the GoB and using real-time Delphi in which an expert group discussed different factors contributing to future maritime traffic in the GoB to find out the probability and significance of the factors having an impact on maritime traffic. MSP was tested on transnational scale in the Bothnian sea area as a pilot project.

  12. EPA's Role in the International Maritime Organization (IMO)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    IMO promotes cooperation in regulation of shipping in international trade and encourages the adoption of the highest practicable standards concerning maritime safety, efficiency of navigation, and prevention and control of marine pollution from ships.

  13. Rhinoplasty in the Asian Patient.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong Ryul; Won, Tae-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous goal of rhinoplasty is to make a natural-looking and attractive nose that blends harmoniously with the face. Rhinoplasty among Asians includes characteristics that distinguish the procedure from its white counterpart. Anatomic differences of the Asian nose coupled with differences in aesthetic standards demand they be approached in a unique way. In this article, peculiar aspects of Asian rhinoplasty are addressed with emphasis on surgical techniques used to obtain reliable results.

  14. Research Needs to Reduce Maritime Collisions, Rammings, and Groundings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    S .. -A CHAPTER VI: COLLECTION AND EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION 52 Models of Information-Exchange Systems Needs in the Maritime Industry CHAPTER VII...Relations FIGURE 2 Facets of a systems approach to mritin-e casualties. 31 -, 1> MINT a ~ II -b -* -* I TTTIT V < S .T . IT B . - III - MYTNI I NI ’p I I...PREPARED BY: IMTRB COMMITTEE ON MARITIME COLLISIONS, RAMMINGS, AND GROUNDINGS DETNTO POIIN EVALUTE -]3-3HAZ RD "-- " . .. .. ... S *.....I..... .,,VEi

  15. Equivalent Ground Conductivity Inversion in Maritime ASF Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Yurong; Xi, Xiaoli; Zhu, Hong

    This letter presents an efficient method for the maritime Loran-C additional secondary factor (ASF) correction based on equivalent ground conductivity inversion. Using the proposed method, the accuracy of Loran-C system on maritime positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) can be improved significantly with a limited number of surveys. Comparison with measured ASF results shows a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of less than 100ns in most areas.

  16. The Future of U.S. Maritime Policy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-29

    described as a "booming frontier", and "hive of economic activity." The amount of maritime traffic, oil exploration, fishing activi- ties, and other maritime... oil from the Persian Gulf for the industrialized nations of Western Europe, Japan and the United States. How safe are these vital oil shipments? An...analysis of these oil lines of communication reveals that, to the sur- prise of many, the flow of this vital resource is really most vulnerable at the

  17. Micro and Pico Satellites in Maritime Interdiction Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    solutions for emerging network-controlled MIO scenarios. In the proposed field experiments, globally distributed players will be located by using Cube...sharing solutions for emerging network-controlled MIO scenarios. In the proposed field experiments, globally distributed players will be located by...1. Introduction Maritime security has been a hot subject in the field of maritime arena. People and organizations from all over the world

  18. The Use of Air Power for Maritime Homeland Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    production utilizes many commercially available aviation technologies. As the CRS found: Missile airframes, navigation systems, jet engines , satellite...Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books , 1995), 101-110. 68 Hallion, “Air Warfare and Maritime Defense,” 30-31. 69 Robert J. Cressman, et al, A...Maritime Defense,” 54. 76 Robert W. Love, Jr., History of the US Navy, Volume II (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books , 1992), 458. 18

  19. Evolution of the Asian monsoon from the Cretaceous to the modern - a modelling study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunt, Dan; Farnsworth, Alex; Loptson, Claire; Markwick, Paul

    2014-05-01

    It has long been suggested that palaeogeography could have an important role in the modulation of the Asian monsoon. In particular, orogenesis associated with the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau has been associated with the intensification of the Asian monsoon through the Neogene, a paradigm which has some support from both data and modelling studies. Here we go further by considering the evolution of the Asian monsoon over a much longer time period than ususally considered, namely, the early Cretaceous right through to the modern day. Through a series of more than 30 climate model simulations spanning 150 million years, we investigate how changing palaeogeography (continental distribution, mountain height, and bathymetry) has affected monsoon evolution. The palaeogeographies are provided by Getech Plc, and we use the HadCM3L climate model, developed by the UK Met Office. All simulations are run for more than 500 years from an identical initial state. We show that a monsoon system has existed in the western Pacific and Indian Ocean since the early Cretaceous, but that intense precipitation only began to penetrate onto the east Asian continent in the late Paleogene and early Eocene. As well as focussing on the Asian (or proto-Asian for the earliest Cretaceous) monsoon, we present the results in a global context.

  20. Asian Dust particles impacts on air quality and radiative forcing over Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. J.; Noh, Y. M.; Song, C. H.; Yoon, S. C.; Han, J. S.

    2009-03-01

    Asian Dust particles originated from the deserts and loess areas of the Asian continent are often transported over Korea, Japan, and the North Pacific Ocean during spring season. Major air mass pathway of Asian dust storm to Korea is from either north-western Chinese desert regions or north-eastern Chinese sandy areas. The local atmospheric environment condition in Korea is greatly impacted by Asian dust particles transported by prevailing westerly wind. Since these Asian dust particles pass through heavily populated urban and industrial areas in China before it reach Korean peninsular, their physical, chemical and optical properties vary depending on the atmospheric conditions and air mass pathway characteristics. An integrated system approach has been adopted at the Advanced Environment Monitoring Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute Science and Technology (GIST), Korea for effective monitoring of atmospheric aerosols utilizing various in-situ and optical remote sensing methods, which include a multi-channel Raman LIDAR system, sunphotometer, satellite, and in-situ instruments. Results from recent studies on impacts of Asian dust particles on local air quality and radiative forcing over Korea are summarized here.

  1. Teleconnection Linking Asian/Pacific Monsoon Variability and Summertime Droughts and Floods Over the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K. M.; Weng, Hengyi

    2000-01-01

    Major droughts and floods over the U.S. continent may be related to a far field energy source in the Asian Pacific. This is illustrated by two climate patterns associated with summertime rainfall over the U.S. and large-scale circulation on interannual timescale. The first shows an opposite variation between the drought/flood over the Midwest and that over eastern and southeastern U.S., coupled to a coherent wave pattern spanning the entire East Asia-North Pacific-North America region related to the East Asian jetstream. The second shows a continental-scale drought/flood in the central U.S., coupled to a wavetrain linking Asian/Pacific monsoon region to North America.

  2. Regulating continent growth and composition by chemical weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, C.-T.A.; Morton, D.M.; Little, M.G.; Kistler, R.; Horodyskyj, U.N.; Leeman, W.P.; Agranier, A.

    2008-01-01

    Continents ride high above the ocean floor because they are underlain by thick, low-density, Si-rich, and Mg-poor crust. However, the parental magmas of continents were basaltic, which means they must have lost Mg relative to Si during their maturation into continents. Igneous differentiation followed by lower crustal delamination and chemical weathering followed by subduction recycling are possible solutions, but the relative magnitudes of each process have never been quantitatively constrained because of the lack of appropriate data. Here, we show that the relative contributions of these processes can be obtained by simultaneous examination of Mg and Li (an analog for Mg) on the regional and global scales in arcs, delaminated lower crust, and river waters. At least 20% of Mg is lost from continents by weathering, which translates into >20% of continental mass lost by weathering (40% by delamination). Chemical weathering leaves behind a more Si-rich and Mg-poor crust, which is less dense and hence decreases the probability of crustal recycling by subduction. Net continental growth is thus modulated by chemical weathering and likely influenced by secular changes in weathering mechanisms. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  3. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Implanted electrical urinary continence device. 876.5270 Section 876.5270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the pelvic floor, and a battery-powered transmitter outside the body. (b) Classification. Class...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Implanted electrical urinary continence device. 876.5270 Section 876.5270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the pelvic floor, and a battery-powered transmitter outside the body. (b) Classification. Class...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Implanted electrical urinary continence device. 876.5270 Section 876.5270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the pelvic floor, and a battery-powered transmitter outside the body. (b) Classification. Class...

  6. Regulating continent growth and composition by chemical weathering

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus; Morton, Douglas M.; Little, Mark G.; Kistler, Ronald; Horodyskyj, Ulyana N.; Leeman, William P.; Agranier, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    Continents ride high above the ocean floor because they are underlain by thick, low-density, Si-rich, and Mg-poor crust. However, the parental magmas of continents were basaltic, which means they must have lost Mg relative to Si during their maturation into continents. Igneous differentiation followed by lower crustal delamination and chemical weathering followed by subduction recycling are possible solutions, but the relative magnitudes of each process have never been quantitatively constrained because of the lack of appropriate data. Here, we show that the relative contributions of these processes can be obtained by simultaneous examination of Mg and Li (an analog for Mg) on the regional and global scales in arcs, delaminated lower crust, and river waters. At least 20% of Mg is lost from continents by weathering, which translates into >20% of continental mass lost by weathering (40% by delamination). Chemical weathering leaves behind a more Si-rich and Mg-poor crust, which is less dense and hence decreases the probability of crustal recycling by subduction. Net continental growth is thus modulated by chemical weathering and likely influenced by secular changes in weathering mechanisms. PMID:18362343

  7. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Population growth trends and family planning activities in Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania are summarized in this booklet developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Narrative information for each continent gives a resume of population growth trends, reasons for the trends, population problems, policy formation, family…

  8. Regulating continent growth and composition by chemical weathering.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus; Morton, Douglas M; Little, Mark G; Kistler, Ronald; Horodyskyj, Ulyana N; Leeman, William P; Agranier, Arnaud

    2008-04-01

    Continents ride high above the ocean floor because they are underlain by thick, low-density, Si-rich, and Mg-poor crust. However, the parental magmas of continents were basaltic, which means they must have lost Mg relative to Si during their maturation into continents. Igneous differentiation followed by lower crustal delamination and chemical weathering followed by subduction recycling are possible solutions, but the relative magnitudes of each process have never been quantitatively constrained because of the lack of appropriate data. Here, we show that the relative contributions of these processes can be obtained by simultaneous examination of Mg and Li (an analog for Mg) on the regional and global scales in arcs, delaminated lower crust, and river waters. At least 20% of Mg is lost from continents by weathering, which translates into >20% of continental mass lost by weathering (40% by delamination). Chemical weathering leaves behind a more Si-rich and Mg-poor crust, which is less dense and hence decreases the probability of crustal recycling by subduction. Net continental growth is thus modulated by chemical weathering and likely influenced by secular changes in weathering mechanisms.

  9. Half-century research developments in maritime accidents: Future directions.

    PubMed

    Luo, Meifeng; Shin, Sung-Ho

    2016-04-19

    Over the past 50 years, research in maritime accidents has undergone a series of fundamental changes. Understanding the evolution of these changes can help maritime communities to know what has been done in the past, how maritime safety can be improved in the future, and how to reduce or eliminate the risks to ships, the lives aboard them, the cargo they carry, and the marine environment. This study conducts a comprehensive literature review on research in maritime accidents, comprising 572 papers published in 125 journals over the 50 years from 1965 to 2014. The patterns of evolution of the researchers, the journals, the disciplines involved, the research methods, the major issues and causes, and the data sources are identified, and the changes explained. We find that the main focus of research in maritime accidents has shifted over the past 50 years from naval architecture to human error, and may continue to expand into socio-economic factors. In addition, future research in maritime accidents will be multi-disciplinary, use multiple data sources, and adopt advanced research methods, to account for complex interactions between the natural environment, the development of naval technology, human behavior, and shipping market conditions.

  10. The impact of the direct effects of sulfate and black carbon aerosols on the subseasonal march of the East Asian subtropical summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongdong; Zhu, Bin; Jiang, Zhihong; Yang, Xiu-Qun; Zhu, Tong

    2016-03-01

    Aerosol emissions have rapidly increased in East Asia since the late 1970s. During the same period, the East Asian summer monsoon has shown a weakening trend. In this work, the direct effects (DE) of sulfate and black carbon (BC) aerosols on the subseasonal (pentad mean) march of the East Asian subtropical summer monsoon (EASSM) are investigated using an interactive global climate-chemistry model. The simulation results suggest that the DE of sulfate aerosols have a notable effect on the cooling of the low troposphere across the continent in spring and autumn, hence, changing the time of the seasonal transition of the zonal land-sea thermal contrast (ZTC). The DE of BC result in cooling of the low troposphere and heating of the middle troposphere, leading to a different impact than that caused by sulfates. The cooling of the surface and troposphere by sulfates leads to a delay in the warming of East Asian continent in spring and the EASSM onset time; it also accelerates the process of the continent turning colder and advances the retreat of the EASSM. The deeper heating in the middle-upper troposphere than the cooling in the low troposphere due to the DE of BC or the combination of both lead to an advance in the onset time of the monsoon caused by the continent turning warmer earlier in spring. In autumn, the same cooling effect by sulfates leads to the continent turning colder earlier, resulting in an advance in the retreat time.

  11. Maritime Interdiction Operations Small Craft Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Dougan, A D; Trombino, D; Dunlop, W; Bordetsky, A

    2010-01-26

    The Naval Postgraduate School has been conducting Tactical Network Topology (TNT) Maritime Interdiction Operations (MIO) experiments with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) since early in 2005. In this work, we are investigating cutting edge technology to evaluate use of networks, advanced sensors and collaborative technology for globally-supported maritime interdiction operations. Some examples of our research include communications in harsh environments, between moving ships at sea; small boat drive-by radiation detection; network-centric collaboration with global partners; situational awareness; prototype sensors & biometric instruments. Since 2006, we have studied the concept of using a small vessel with fixed radiation sensors to do initial searches for illicit radioactive materials. In our work, we continue to evaluate concepts of operation for small boat monitoring. For example, in San Francisco Bay we established a simulated choke point using two RHIBs. Each RHIB had a large sodium iodide radiation sensor on board, mounted on the side nearest to the passing potential target boats. Once detections were made, notification over the network prompted a chase RHIB also equipped with a radiation sensor to further investigate the potential target. We have also used an unmanned surface vessel (USV) carrying a radiation sensor to perform the initial discovery. The USV was controlled remotely and to drive by boats in different configurations. The potential target vessels were arranged in a line, as a choke point and randomly spaced in the water. Search plans were problematic when weather, waves and drift complicated the ability to stay in one place. A further challenge is to both detect and identify the radioactive materials during the drive-by. Our radiation detection system, ARAM, Adaptable Radiation Area Monitor, is able to detect, alarm and quickly identify plausible radionuclides in real time. We have performed a number of experiments to better

  12. Agreements with the Asian Development Bank

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the Asian Development Bank cooperate to reinforce Asian countries which are now strengthening their environmental laws, ministries, and compliance mechanisms. Download agreements with the Asian Development Bank on this page.

  13. Oceanic plateaus, the fragmentation of continents, and mountain building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur, Amos; Ben-Avraham, Zvi

    1982-05-01

    Many anomalous rises in today's oceans may be submerged continental fragments detached from previous continents, ancient island arcs, or basaltic piles formed by hot spots and spreading centers. These rises are embedded in their respective moving oceanic plates and are fated to be consumed at active margins. Where such rises are being consumed at present, e.g., the Nazca Ridge, they cause cessation of volcanism, disruption of the downgoing slab, and possible shifts in plate boundary configuration. Many past rises, including numerous continental fragments, have been recognized within mountain belts as allochthonous terranes. They constitute a large portion of the orogenic belts in the North Pacific from Mexico through western North America, Alaska, east Siberia, Japan and in New Zealand. The orogenic deformation in these belts is possibly the result of the accretion of the allochthonous terranes. Many terranes have been accreted with substantial deformation also in the Alpine chain, well before major continent-continent collisions. It is suggested, therefore, that the accretion of fragments may be the common process of the deformation phase of mountain building. Subduction of normal oceanic crust may be insufficient for deformation, whereas full continent-continent collision may not be necessary. The general validity of this conclusion depends critically on whether allochthonous terranes caused orogenic deformation in the Andes or not. Most of the accreted fragments with continental affinities in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic orogenic belts of the world can be traced back to the breakup of Gondwana, beginning with a Pacifica domain in the Permian through a larger India domain in the early Mesozoic and continuing through the separation of the Somalia plate in the near future. The reasons for this 250 million year breakup process are not known, but some kind of thermal process, possible of mantle-wide scale, is implied.

  14. Oceanic plateaus, the fragmentation of continents, and mountain building

    SciTech Connect

    Nur, A.; Ben-Avraham, Z.

    1982-05-10

    Many anomalous rises in today's oceans may be submerged continental fragments detached from previous continents, ancient island arcs, or basaltic piles formed by hot spots and spreading centers. These rises are embedded in their respective moving oceanic plates and are fated to be consumed at active margins. Where such rises are being consumed at present, e.g., the Nazca Ridge, they cause cessation of volcanism, disruption of the downgoing slab, and possible shifts in plate boundary configuration. Many past rises, including numerous continental fragments have been recognized within mountain belts as allochthonous terranes. They constitute a large portion of the orogenic belts in the North Pacific from Mexico through western North America, Alaska, east Siberia, Japan and in New Zealand. The orogenic deformation in these belts is possibly the result of the accretion of the allochtronous terranes. Many terranes have been accreted with substantial deformation also in the Alpine chain, well before major continent-continent collisions. It is suggested, therefore, that the accretion of fragments may be the common process of the deformation phase of mountain building. Subduction of normal oceanic crust may be insufficient for deformation, whereas full continent-continent collision may be necessary. The general validity of this conclusion depends critically on whether allochthonous terranes caused orogenic deformation in the Andes or not. Most of the accreted fragments with continental affinites in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic orogenic belts of the world can be traced back to the breakup of Gondwana, beginning with a Pacifica domain in the Permian through a larger India domain in the early Mesozoic and continuing through the separation of the Somalia plate in the near future. The reasons for this 250 million year breakup process are not known, but some kind of thermal process, possible of mantle-wide scale, is implied.

  15. [WBV risk in maritime and port operators].

    PubMed

    Pinto, Iole; Stacchini, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is the shaking or jolting of the human body through a supporting surface, usually a seat or floor. The risk from vibration is related to the overall time the operator or driver is exposed to the vibration and the number of shocks and jolts they experience each day. In the 27 countries of Europe the EC Physical Agents Directive, effective 6th July 2010, requires all employers to control exposure to a number of hazards including noise and vibration. The EC Vibration Directive sets out regulations for the control of health and safety risks from the exposure of workers to hand arm vibration (HAV) and whole body vibration (WBV) in the workplace. The maritime sector needs to comply: high exposure WBV levels can be found when operating RIBs and High Speed Craft. Marine sectors affected by Whole Body Vibration (WBV) include military, search & rescue, government agencies, local authorities, police, water sports, oil & gas, thrill ride, charter and all organisations operating boats, RIBs (Rigid Inflatable Boat) and High Speed Craft.

  16. An optical tracker for the maritime environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachoo, Asheer K.; le Roux, Francois; Nicolls, Fred

    2011-06-01

    Optical (visual) tracking is an important research area in computer vision with a wide range of useful and critical applications in defence and industry. The tracking of targets that pose a threat or potential threat to a country's assets and resources is a critical component in defence and security. In order to complement radar sensing applications, an optical tracker provides additional functions such as target detection, target identification and intent detection at the visual level. A tracker for the maritime environment is an optical system that performs the automatic tracking of an above water target. Ideally, a track of the target is required for as long as is possible. Some examples of targets include boats, yachts, ships, jet-skis and aircraft. A number of factors mitigate the performance of such a system - change in target appearance, target occlusions, platform vibration and scintillation in the atmosphere are some common examples. We present the implementation of a firstgeneration system that is robust to platform vibration, target appearance changes and short-term occlusions. The optical tracker is developed using a particle filter and an appearance model that is updated online. The system achieves real-time tracking through the use of non-specialized computer hardware. Promising results are presented for a number of real-world videos captured during field trials.

  17. Digital Photogrammetry for Documentation of Maritime Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martorelli, Massimo; Pensa, Claudio; Speranza, Domenico

    2014-06-01

    Documentation of maritime heritage is essential for its protection, and for reference in restoration and renovation processes. These functions become problematic in the case of historical ships and boats that lack lines drawings. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure for creation of lines drawings based on the shape analysis of surviving historical boats or their small-scale models with the help of reverse engineering (RE) techniques. The paper describes how digital photogrammetry and the iterative method were used to analyze the shape of three historical boats: Tomahawk, Refola and Nada. The application of the proposed procedure produced the lines drawings of the boats as its result. The accuracy of the 3D CAD model obtained with the photogrammetric technique was verified by comparing it against a more accurate 3D model produced with the help of a RE laser scanner. The examination of the resulting lines drawings proves that the digital photogrammetry process and the proposed iterative method are adequate tools for developing lines plans of boat models. The research offers the methodological basis for the creation of an archive of lines drawings of historical boats. Such an archive would provide reference for philologically correct restorations, and permit definition and classification of distinctive elements of various types of historical boats, particularly those produced in the Campania Region.

  18. Fatigue Risk Management: A Maritime Framework

    PubMed Central

    Grech, Michelle Rita

    2016-01-01

    It is evident that despite efforts directed at mitigating the risk of fatigue through the adoption of hours of work and rest regulations and development of codes and guidelines, fatigue still remains a concern in shipping. Lack of fatigue management has been identified as a contributory factor in a number of recent accidents. This is further substantiated through research reports with shortfalls highlighted in current fatigue management approaches. These approaches mainly focus on prescriptive hours of work and rest and include an individualistic approach to managing fatigue. The expectation is that seafarers are responsible to manage and tolerate fatigue as part of their working life at sea. This attitude is an accepted part of a seafarer’s role. Poor compliance is one manifest of this problem with shipboard demands making it hard for seafarers to follow hours of work and rest regulations, forcing them into this “poor compliance” trap. This makes current fatigue management approaches ineffective. This paper proposes a risk based approach and way forward for the implementation of a fatigue risk management framework for shipping, aiming to support the hours of work and rest requirements. This forms part of the work currently underway to review and update the International Maritime Organization, Guidelines on Fatigue. PMID:26840326

  19. Wireless sensor networks in a maritime environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavelaars, W.; Maris, M.

    2005-10-01

    In the recent years, there has been a lot of research on sensor networks and their applications. In particular for monitoring large and potentially hostile areas these networks have proven to be very useful. The technique of land-based sensor networks can be extrapolated to sensing buoys at sea or in harbors. This is a novel and intriguing addition to existing maritime monitoring systems. At TNO, much research effort has gone into developing sensor networks. In this paper, the TNOdes sensor network is presented. Its practical employability is demonstrated in a surveillance application deploying 50 nodes. The system is capable of tracking persons in a field, as would be the situation around a military compound. A camera-system is triggered by the sensors and zooms into the detected moving objects. It is described how this system could be modified to create a wireless buoys network. Typical applications of a wireless (and potentially mobile) buoy network are bay-area surveillance, mine detection, identification and ship protection.

  20. Insolation and Abrupt Climate Change Effects on the Western Pacific Maritime Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, J. W.; Quinn, T. M.; Shen, C.; Cardenas, M.; Siringan, F. P.; Hori, M.; Okumura, Y.; Banner, J. L.; Lin, K.; Jiang, X.; Taylor, F. W.

    2013-12-01

    Many monsoon-sensitive paleoclimate archives capture the response of the Asian-Australian monsoon system to changes in summer insolation, as well as abrupt climate changes such as the Younger Dryas (YD). The response is commonly a direct one in Holocene and YD archives. In the case of insolation, increased summer insolation leads to increased monsoon rainfall over land, as captured in stalagmite δ18O records from Oman and China. We evaluate this direct response using maritime stalagmite records from the island of Palawan, Philippines (10 N, 119 E). The wet season in Palawan occurs over the same months (June-October) as in Oman, India and China. Therefore, we expected the Palawan stalagmite δ18O record, a proxy of rainfall, to have a similar response to changing insolation and hence, a trend of decreasing monsoon rainfall over the Holocene. However, the Holocene trend in two partially replicated stalagmite δ18O records is opposite to that expected: rainfall increases over the Holocene, despite the decrease of summer insolation over the Holocene. We interpret the Holocene trend observed at Palawan to be the result of an increase in the maritime monsoon that balances the reduction in the land monsoon; an interpretation that is consistent with previously published results from coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model runs. Seawater δ18O reconstructions from marine sediment cores in the western tropical Pacific contain a freshening trend over the Holocene, also supporting the hypothesis of increase maritime monsoon rainfall. The direct relationship between monsoon rainfall over land as recorded in the YD interval in Chinese stalagmite records is also observed in maritime monsoon rainfall during the YD at Palawan: both records get drier during the YD cold interval. This agreement between YD stalagmite records from China and Palawan contrasts sharply with the inverse relationship between these records over the Holocene. We further investigate the nature of

  1. Asian American Curriculum Guide: Elementary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Paul Public Schools, Minn.

    Designed to meet the need for elementary school students to understand the status, needs, and contributions of Asian Americans, this curriculum guide was developed as a result of an in-service teacher education workshop. The basic premise of the guide is the recognition that student awareness and understanding of Asian Americans should be…

  2. Southeast Asian Refugee Parent Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Mary M.

    This paper summarizes the findings of a descriptive research project conducted among Southeast Asian parents in an Oregon school district, and discusses the issue of fieldwork methodology among refugee populations. The district studied had a student population of 18,000 (kindergarten through grade 12), with Southeast Asian refugees accounting for…

  3. The Asian Newspaper's Reluctant Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, John A., Ed.

    This book is composed of 19 articles written by both Asian and American scholars on the history and present conditions of newspapers in 15 Asian nations: China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Australia, Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, the Philippines, Thailand, South Vietnam, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan. Two overviews of the Asian…

  4. The Asian in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Stanford M.

    Articles, essays, and book reviews on Asian Americans are included in this anthology. The articles focus on some of the following topics: (1) the Chinese diaspora in America from 1850 to 1943, (2) the significance of Asians in American society, (3) the Chinese on the urban frontier, (4) marriage and the family among Chinese immigrants to America…

  5. Handbook of Asian American Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lee C., Ed.; Zane, Nolan W. S., Ed.

    This handbook integrates descriptions and evaluations of current psychological research on all ethnic subgroups of Asian Americans, providing insights into the diverse and varied nature of Asian American cultures. Following a Foreword by Dick Suinn, the chapters are: (1) "An Overview" (Lee C. Lee); (2) "Research Methods: The Construct Validity of…

  6. Basic Skills in Asian Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    This publication contains field tested learning activities which will help secondary students develop basic skills while learning about Asian history, culture, and geography. The activities can be used or easily adapted by teachers in any Asian studies course. The publication is organized by the skills taught. These are: reading; applying…

  7. Methyl iodine over oceans from the Arctic Ocean to the maritime Antarctic

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qihou; Xie, Zhouqing; Wang, Xinming; Yu, Juan; Zhang, Yanli

    2016-01-01

    Studies about methyl iodide (CH3I), an important atmospheric iodine species over oceans, had been conducted in some maritime regions, but the understanding of the spatial distribution of CH3I on a global scale is still limited. In this study, we reports atmospheric CH3I over oceans during the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Research Expeditions. CH3I varied considerably with the range of 0.17 to 2.9 pptv with absent of ship emission. The concentration of CH3I generally decreased with increasing latitudes, except for higher levels in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere than in the low latitudes. For sea areas, the Norwegian Sea had the highest CH3I concentrations with a median of 0.91 pptv, while the Central Arctic Ocean had the lowest concentrations with all values below 0.5 pptv. CH3I concentration over oceans was affected by many parameters, including sea surface temperature, salinity, dissolved organic carbon, biogenic emissions and input from continents, with distinctive dominant factor in different regions, indicating complex biogeochemical processes of CH3I on a global scale. PMID:27184471

  8. Climatically sensitive transfer of iron to maritime Antarctic ecosystems by surface runoff

    PubMed Central

    Hodson, Andy; Nowak, Aga; Sabacka, Marie; Jungblut, Anne; Navarro, Francisco; Pearce, David; Ávila-Jiménez, María Luisa; Convey, Peter; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2017-01-01

    Iron supplied by glacial weathering results in pronounced hotspots of biological production in an otherwise iron-limited Southern Ocean Ecosystem. However, glacial iron inputs are thought to be dominated by icebergs. Here we show that surface runoff from three island groups of the maritime Antarctic exports more filterable (<0.45 μm) iron (6–81 kg km−2 a−1) than icebergs (0.0–1.2 kg km−2 a−1). Glacier-fed streams also export more acid-soluble iron (27.0–18,500 kg km−2 a−1) associated with suspended sediment than icebergs (0–241 kg km−2 a−1). Significant fluxes of filterable and sediment-derived iron (1–10 Gg a−1 and 100–1,000 Gg a−1, respectively) are therefore likely to be delivered by runoff from the Antarctic continent. Although estuarine removal processes will greatly reduce their availability to coastal ecosystems, our results clearly indicate that riverine iron fluxes need to be accounted for as the volume of Antarctic melt increases in response to 21st century climate change. PMID:28198359

  9. Methyl iodine over oceans from the Arctic Ocean to the maritime Antarctic.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qihou; Xie, Zhouqing; Wang, Xinming; Yu, Juan; Zhang, Yanli

    2016-05-17

    Studies about methyl iodide (CH3I), an important atmospheric iodine species over oceans, had been conducted in some maritime regions, but the understanding of the spatial distribution of CH3I on a global scale is still limited. In this study, we reports atmospheric CH3I over oceans during the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Research Expeditions. CH3I varied considerably with the range of 0.17 to 2.9 pptv with absent of ship emission. The concentration of CH3I generally decreased with increasing latitudes, except for higher levels in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere than in the low latitudes. For sea areas, the Norwegian Sea had the highest CH3I concentrations with a median of 0.91 pptv, while the Central Arctic Ocean had the lowest concentrations with all values below 0.5 pptv. CH3I concentration over oceans was affected by many parameters, including sea surface temperature, salinity, dissolved organic carbon, biogenic emissions and input from continents, with distinctive dominant factor in different regions, indicating complex biogeochemical processes of CH3I on a global scale.

  10. Climatically sensitive transfer of iron to maritime Antarctic ecosystems by surface runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodson, Andy; Nowak, Aga; Sabacka, Marie; Jungblut, Anne; Navarro, Francisco; Pearce, David; Ávila-Jiménez, María Luisa; Convey, Peter; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2017-02-01

    Iron supplied by glacial weathering results in pronounced hotspots of biological production in an otherwise iron-limited Southern Ocean Ecosystem. However, glacial iron inputs are thought to be dominated by icebergs. Here we show that surface runoff from three island groups of the maritime Antarctic exports more filterable (<0.45 μm) iron (6-81 kg km-2 a-1) than icebergs (0.0-1.2 kg km-2 a-1). Glacier-fed streams also export more acid-soluble iron (27.0-18,500 kg km-2 a-1) associated with suspended sediment than icebergs (0-241 kg km-2 a-1). Significant fluxes of filterable and sediment-derived iron (1-10 Gg a-1 and 100-1,000 Gg a-1, respectively) are therefore likely to be delivered by runoff from the Antarctic continent. Although estuarine removal processes will greatly reduce their availability to coastal ecosystems, our results clearly indicate that riverine iron fluxes need to be accounted for as the volume of Antarctic melt increases in response to 21st century climate change.

  11. Methyl iodine over oceans from the Arctic Ocean to the maritime Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qihou; Xie, Zhouqing; Wang, Xinming; Yu, Juan; Zhang, Yanli

    2016-05-01

    Studies about methyl iodide (CH3I), an important atmospheric iodine species over oceans, had been conducted in some maritime regions, but the understanding of the spatial distribution of CH3I on a global scale is still limited. In this study, we reports atmospheric CH3I over oceans during the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Research Expeditions. CH3I varied considerably with the range of 0.17 to 2.9 pptv with absent of ship emission. The concentration of CH3I generally decreased with increasing latitudes, except for higher levels in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere than in the low latitudes. For sea areas, the Norwegian Sea had the highest CH3I concentrations with a median of 0.91 pptv, while the Central Arctic Ocean had the lowest concentrations with all values below 0.5 pptv. CH3I concentration over oceans was affected by many parameters, including sea surface temperature, salinity, dissolved organic carbon, biogenic emissions and input from continents, with distinctive dominant factor in different regions, indicating complex biogeochemical processes of CH3I on a global scale.

  12. Intraseasonal oscillations in East Asian and South Asian monsoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, V.

    2016-11-01

    This study has investigated the relation between the East Asian monsoon and the South Asian monsoon at intraseasonal time scale during the boreal summer. Applying a data adaptive method on daily anomalies of precipitation, two leading intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) were extracted separately in the regions of South Asia, tropical East Asia and subtropical East Asia. The first ISO has a period of about 45 days and propagates northward and eastward over the South Asian and tropical East Asian regions. The second ISO, with a period of about 26 days, propagates northeastward over South Asia and northwestward over tropical East Asia. Although both the ISOs are also present over the subtropical East Asia, the variance is low while no propagation is evident. The circulation patterns associated with the ISOs were found to be consistent with the corresponding precipitation patterns of the ISOs. The two ISOs also reveal consistency with the space-time evolution of diabatic heating, convection, vertical motion, upper-level divergence and moisture transport. The zonal and meridional propagation of the ISOs provide a strong link between the South Asian monsoon and East Asian monsoon regions. The subtropical East Asian region seems to have a weaker link with the other monsoon regions.

  13. A Part, Yet Apart: South Asians in Asian America. Asian American History and Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankar, Lavina Dhingra, Ed.; Srikanth, Rajini, Ed.

    The essays in this collection consider the extent to which South Asian Americans are included within "Asian America" as the term is applied to academic programs and admissions policies, grassroots community organizing and politics, and critical analyses of cultural products. The essays are: (1) "Within Kaleidoscope Eyes: The…

  14. Ileocolic neobladder post-cystectomy: continence and potency.

    PubMed

    Marshall, F F; Mostwin, J L; Radebaugh, L C; Walsh, P C; Brendler, C B

    1991-03-01

    Incontinence and impotence are 2 of the primary complications associated with total bladder reconstruction after cystectomy for carcinoma. These and other features are addressed in 25 patients who underwent total neobladder reconstruction following cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma. Of these patients 20 had a urethral anastomosis. No patient had to wear a pad or device. Enuresis was rare. When the radical cystoprostatectomy population was contrasted with a radical prostatectomy patient population, continence was achieved more rapidly in the neobladder group. Potency was maintained in 15 of 21 (71%) evaluable patients. This ileocolic neobladder produces a large volume and low pressure, and provides excellent day and night continence. With preservation of the neurovascular bundle potency can be maintained in the majority of patients.

  15. Tectonically buried continent/ocean boundary, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    A seismic-reflection sequence observed at depth beneath the south flank of the Benton Uplift in Arkansas is interpreted to mark the early Paleozoic continent/ocean boundary. The sequence is similar in both external and internal geometry to wedge-shaped features commonly observed in the narrow zone separating continental from oceanic basement on modern passive margins and interpreted as layered volcanic sequences. It is suggested that slope and rise sediments now exposed in the Benton Uplift were thrust in a “thin-skinned” fashion over the edge of the North American continent during initial stages of the Carboniferous Ouachita orogeny, but that later uplift and slight northward translation of the continental margin basement occurred in a more “thick-skinned” fashion, preserving the boundary wedge intact beneath the earlier thrust sheets. *Present address: Department of Geology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331

  16. Mid-continent natural gas reservoirs and plays

    SciTech Connect

    Bebout, D.G. )

    1993-09-01

    Natural gas reservoirs of the mid-continent states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Arkansas (northern part) have produced 103 trillion cubic ft (tcf) of natural gas. Oklahoma has produced the most, having a cumulative production of 71 tcf. The major reservoirs (those that have produced more than 10 billion ft[sup 3]) have been identified and organized into 28 plays based on geologic age, lithology, and depositional environment. The Atlas of Major Midcontinent Gas Reservoirs, published in 1993, provides the documentation for these plays. This atlas was a collaborative effort of the Gas Research Institute; Bureau of Economic Geology. The University of Texas at Austin; Arkansas Geological Commission; Kansas Geological survey; and Oklahoma Geological Survey. Total cumulative production for 530 major reservoirs is 66 tcf associated and nonassociated gas. Oklahoma has the highest production with 39 tcf from 390 major reservoirs, followed by Kansas with 26 tcf from 105 major reservoirs. Most of the mid-continent production is from Pennsylvanian (46%) and Permian (41%) reservoirs; Mississippian reservoirs account for 10% production, and lower Paleozoic reservoirs, 3%. The largest play by far is the Wolfcampian Shallow Shelf Carbonate-Hugoton Embayment play with 25 tcf cumulative production, most of which is from the Hugoton and Panoma fields in Kansas and Guymon-Hugoton gas area in Oklahoma. A total of 53% of the mid-continent gas production is from dolostone and limestone reservoirs; 39% is from sandstone reservoirs. The remaining 8% is from chert conglomerate and granite-wash reservoirs. Geologically based plays established from the distribution of major gas reservoirs provide important support for the extension of productive trends, application of new resource technology to more efficient field development, and further exploration in the mid-continent region.

  17. Smart wireless continence management system for persons with dementia.

    PubMed

    Wai, Aung Aung Phyo; Fook, Victor Foo Siang; Jayachandran, Maniyeri; Biswas, Jit; Nugent, Chris; Mulvenna, Maurice; Lee, Jer-En; Kiat, Philp Yap Lian

    2008-10-01

    Incontinence is highly prevalent in the elderly population, especially in nursing home residents with dementia. It is a distressing and costly health problem that affects not only the patients but also the caregivers. Effective continence management is required to provide quality care, and to eliminate high labor costs and annoyances to the caregivers resulting from episodes of incontinence. This paper presents the design, development, and preliminary deployment of a smart wireless continence management system for dementia-impaired elderly or patients in institutional care settings such as nursing homes and hospitals. Specifically, the mote wireless platform was used to support the deployment of potentially large quantities of wetness sensors with wider coverage and with dramatically less complexity and cost. It consists of an intelligent signal relay mechanism so that the residents are free to move about in the nursing home or hospital and allows personalized continence management service. Preliminary results from a trial in a local nursing home are promising and can significantly improve the quality of care for patients.

  18. Comparative estimate of volcanism intensity on continents and in oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Ronov, A.B.; Khain, V.E.; Balukhovskii, A.N.

    1980-12-01

    A quantitative estimate of the volume of volcanogenic rocks and the volcanism intensity during different stages in the Earth's development indicates that the total volume of the tholeiitic basalts of Layer II of the oceans exceeds by 20 times that of the synchronous late Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanics of the continents and is almost 5 times greater than the volume of the volcanogenic rocks of the entire Phanerozoic sequence of the continents. The absolute maxima of volcanism, determined on the basis of the area and volume of the corresponding volcanics, belong to the Late Cretaceous and Miocene intervals. Changes in the volcanic eruption areas took place synchronously in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans. The volcanism intensity, expressed in the volume of its products in km/sup 3/ per m.y., increases in the oceans from Late Jurassic to Pliocene time. During the Riphean and Vendian intervals, the volcanism intensity on the continents remained at an extremely low level, then increased during early Paleozoic time, and underwent a marked jump, beginning in the Devonian Period. Since Late Jurassic time, the intensity of global volcanism increased unusually sharply and reached its culmination during Neogene time.

  19. New Caledonia a classic example of an arc continent collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitchison, J.

    2011-12-01

    The SW Pacific island of New Caledonia presents a classic example of an arc-continent collision. This event occurred in the Late Eocene when elements of an intra-oceanic island arc system, the Loyalty-D'Entrecasteaux arc, which stretched SSE from near Papua New Guinea east of New Caledonia to offshore New Zealand, collided with micro-continental fragments that had rifted off eastern Gondwana (Australia) in the late Cretaceous. Intervening Late Cretaceous to Paleogene oceanic crust of the South Loyalty Basin was eliminated through eastward subduction beneath this west-facing intra-oceanic island arc. As with many arc-continent collisions elsewhere collision was accompanied by ophiolite emplacement. The erosional remnants of which are extensive in New Caledonia. Collision led to subduction flip, followed by extensive rollback in front of the newly established east-facing Vitiaz arc. Post-collisional magmatism occurred after slab break-off and is represented by small-scale granitoid intrusions. Additional important features of New Caledonia include the presence of a regionally extensive UHP metamorphic terrain consisting of blueschists and eclogites that formed during the subduction process and were rapidly exhumed as a result of the collision Not only was collision and associated orogeny short-lived this collision system has not been overprinted by any major subsequent collision. New Caledonia thus provides an exceptional location for the study of processes related to arc-continent collision in general.

  20. Use of fuzzy evidential reasoning in maritime security assessment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z L; Wang, J; Bonsall, S; Fang, Q G

    2009-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been a growing international recognition that the security performance of the maritime industry needs to be reviewed on an urgent basis. A large number of optional maritime security control measures have been proposed through various regulations and publications in the post-9/11 era. There is a strong need for a sound and generic methodology, which is capable of taking into account multiple selection criteria such as the cost effectiveness of the measures based on reasonable security assessment. The use of traditional risk assessment and decision-making approaches to deal with potential terrorism threats in a maritime security area reveals two major challenges. They are lack of capability of analyzing security in situations of high-level uncertainty and lack of capability of processing diverse data in a utility form suitable as input to a risk inference mechanism. To deal with such difficulties, this article proposes a subjective security-based assessment and management framework using fuzzy evidential reasoning (ER) approaches. Consequently, the framework can be used to assemble and process subjective risk assessment information on different aspects of a maritime transport system from multiple experts in a systematic way. Outputs of this model can also provide decisionmakers with a transparent tool to evaluate maritime security policy options for a specific scenario in a cost-effective manner.

  1. Continents on the Move or "Where in the World Did Antarctica Come From?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSTA Journal, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students trace the movement of the continents over the past 600 million years to help them understand how the continents' size and position have changed over time. Includes map puzzle pieces. (MKR)

  2. 75 FR 13783 - Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: MACOSH meeting; Notice. SUMMARY: The Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH)...

  3. 76 FR 54806 - Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of MACOSH Meeting. SUMMARY: The Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH)...

  4. 76 FR 55732 - Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal Expansion Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... connectivity, and public/ private partnerships. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information, contact Ms... Maritime Administration Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal...: Notice. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to announce a series of public listening sessions...

  5. 47 CFR 80.333 - Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.333 Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service. The...-satellite service....

  6. 47 CFR 80.333 - Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.333 Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service. The...-satellite service....

  7. 47 CFR 80.333 - Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.333 Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service. The...-satellite service....

  8. 47 CFR 80.333 - Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.333 Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service. The...-satellite service....

  9. 47 CFR 80.333 - Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.333 Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service. The...-satellite service....

  10. A Catholic Response to the Asian Presence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Suzanne E., Ed.; And Others

    This report, the result in part of a series of hearings with Asian parents, educators, ministers, and many non-Asian Church leaders ministering to Asian communities within the United States, treats many aspects of educating and welcoming Asian groups into the Roman Catholic Church in the United States. The text includes a report on those hearings,…

  11. Racism and Asian American Student Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Jennifer Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American…

  12. Asian upper lid blepharoplasty surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Charles K; Ahn, Sang Tae; Kim, Nakyung

    2013-01-01

    Upper lid blepharoplasty is the most common plastic surgery procedure in Asia and has consistently maintained its position as cultural acceptance and techniques have evolved. Asian upper lid blepharoplasty is a complex procedure that requires comprehensive understanding of the anatomy and precise surgical technique. The creation of the supratarsal crease has gone through many evolutions in technique but the principles and goals remain the same: a functional, natural-appearing eyelid crease that brings out the beauty of the Asian eye. Recent advances have improved functional and aesthetic outcomes of Asian upper lid blepharoplasty.

  13. Not Asian, Black or White? Reflections on South Asian American Racial Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibria, Nazli

    1996-01-01

    Examines the race ambiguity of South Asians and the risk of being socially ignored and marginalized, including that of the pan-Asian movement. It argues that recent participation of second-generation South Asians in protesting anti-Asian hate crimes and discrimination in higher education bespeak the possibilities of a pan-Asian grouping that is…

  14. [Surgical therapy of chronic anal fissure--do additional proctologic operations impair continence?].

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, J; Berger, A; Uranüs, S

    1994-07-01

    78 patients with chronic anal fissures have been mainly operated on by lateral internal sphincterotomy (LATS). Continence have been evaluated by questionnaire at least 9 months postoperatively. Patient without any additional proctological operation had minor disturbances of continence in 17%. Patient with additional operations had disturbances of continence in 30%. Especially the subgroup of patients with LATS and haemorrhoidectomy had bad results. In this group only 45% were fully continent.

  15. Asian migration to Australia: food and health consequences.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2002-01-01

    Australia's food and health patterns are inextricably and increasingly linked with Asia. Indigenous Australians arrived in the continent via Asia and have linguistic connections with people who settled in south India; there was interaction and food trade between both South-East Asia and China and northern indigenous Australians over thousands of years. After European settlement in 1788, there have been several and increasing (apart from the period of the infamous White Australian Policy following the Colonial period and Independence, with Federation, in 1901) waves of Asian migration, notably during the gold rush (Chinese), the building of the overland Telegraph (Afghans), the Colombo Plan and Asian student education in Australia from the 1950s onwards (South-Eeast Asians), and with refugees (Vietnamese and mainland Chinese), and business (late twentieth century) and progressive family reunion. Each wave has injected additional food cultural elements and caused a measure of health change for migrants and host citizens. Of principal advantage to Australia has been the progressive diversification of the food supply and associated health protection. This has increased food security and sustainability. The process of Australian eating patterns becoming Asianized is evident through market garden development (and the introduction of new foods), fresh food markets and groceries, restaurants and the development of household cooking skills (often taught by student boarders). Most of the diversification has been with grain (rice), legumes (soy), greens, root vegetables, and various 'exotic fruits'. Food acculturation with migration is generally bi-directional. Thus, for Asians in Australia, there has been a decrease in energy expenditure (and a lower plane of energy throughput), an increase in food energy density (through increased fat and sugary drink intakes), and a decrease in certain health protective foods (lentils, soy, greens) and beverages (tea). This sets the stage

  16. The Mycetophagidae (Coleoptera) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Majka, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Mycetophagidae (hairy fungus beetles) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada are surveyed. Seven species in the genera Mycetophagus, Litargus, and Typhaea are found in the region. Six new provincial records are reported including Mycetophagus punctatus and Mycetophagus flexuosus, whichare newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces. The distribution of all species is mapped, colour habitus photographs of all species are figured, and an identification key to species is provided. The discussion notes that four of the species found in the region are apparently rare, possibly due to the history of forest management practices in the region; a situation similar to that of a significant proportion of other saproxylic beetles found in the Maritime Provinces. PMID:21594022

  17. Monuments in the Desert: A Maritime Landscape in Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Lynn; Jones, Jennifer; Schnitzer, Kate

    2012-10-01

    Eduard Bohlen II, wrecked in 1909 on the coast of Namibia in Africa, has an illustrious history, which is part of a larger maritime cultural landscape linked to the diamond mining industry. The ship, like many artifacts and sites, served many different purposes over time and the historical and archaeological record incorporates different levels of meaning, some of which may be nationally divisive or reconciliatory. The role of historical archaeologists is not only to document, interpret, preserve and manage grandiose elements of heritage that evoke stakeholder nationalism, but also to explore the mundane, unsavory aspects of the historical narrative. In 2010, a team from the Program in Maritime Studies of East Carolina University supported by the Maritime Archaeology Division of the Windhoek Underwater Club investigated a surf boat, diamond mining settlement and some of the remaining structure of Eduard Bohlen II, while posing mitigation and management questions about legacy of historical memory within Skeleton Coast Park.

  18. Cooperative measures to mitigate Asia-Pacific maritime conflicts.

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, Wen-Chung

    2003-05-01

    The economies of East Asia are predominantly export based and, therefore, place special emphasis on the security of the sea lines of communication (SLOCs). Due to economic globalization, the United States shares these concerns. Cooperative measures by the concerned parties could reduce the potential for disruption by maritime conflicts. Primary threats against the SLOCs are disputes over the resources under the seas, disputes over some small island groups, disputes between particular parties (China-Taiwan and North-South Korea), or illegal activities like smuggling, piracy, or terrorism. This paper provides an overview on these threats, issue by issue, to identify common elements and needed cooperation. Cooperation on other topics such as search and rescue, fisheries protection, and oil spill response may help support improved relations to prevent maritime conflicts. Many technologies can help support maritime cooperation, including improved communications links, tracking and emergency beacon devices, and satellite imaging. Appropriate technical and political means are suggested for each threat to the SLOCs.

  19. Surveillance of influenza A virus in wild birds in the Asian portion of Russia in 2008.

    PubMed

    Sivay, Mariya V; Sayfutdinova, Sofya G; Sharshov, Kirill A; Alekseev, Aleksander Y; Yurlov, Aleksander K; Runstadler, Jonathan; Shestopalov, Aleksander M

    2012-09-01

    Wild waterfowl undertake a variety of long-distance flights during their migration. These flights provide birds with the opportunities to both acquire and disseminate avian influenza viruses (AIVs). The Asian portion of Russia is crossed by four major migration routes and represents the major breeding area for many wild bird species in the Palearctic. The Asian territory of Russia plays an important role in distribution, persistence, and evolution of AIVs due to the ecologic relationships of bird populations from Russia and different Asian, European, African, and North American countries. Our study highlights the results of surveillance conducted in 2008 for AIVs in wild birds in the Asian portion of Russia. During this study, our team collected and tested 5678 samples from wild birds. Among them, 41 samples tested positive for AIV with an isolation rate of 0.72%. The highest AIV prevalence, 1.49%, was found in Anseriformes. In Ardeidae and Laridae, the AIV prevalence was 1.23% and 0.64%, respectively. Rallidae showed the lowest AIV prevalence of 0.61%. Phylogenetic analysis of H3 and H4 subtypes represented close relationships of AIVs isolated from the Asian portion of Russia to the AI strains from Asia, Africa, and Europe. These findings were confirmed by the wild bird migration routes that affect bird populations from Eurasian, African, Australian, and North American continents.

  20. The Asian Dust and Aerosol Lidar Observation Network (AD-NET): Strategy and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Matsui, Ichiro; Shimizu, Atsushi; Higurashi, Akiko; Jin, Yoshitaka

    2016-06-01

    We have operated a ground-based lidar network AD-Net using dual wavelength (532, 1064nm) depolarization Mie lidar continuously and observed movement of Asian dust and air pollution aerosols in East Asia since 2001. This lidar network observation contributed to understanding of the occurrence and transport mechanisms of Asian dust, validation of chemical transport models, data assimilation and epidemiologic studies. To better understand the optical and microphysical properties, externally and internally mixing states, and the movements of Asian dust and airpollution aerosols, we go forward with introducing a multi-wavelength Raman lidar to the AD-Net and developing a multi-wavelength technique of HSRL in order to evaluate optical concentrations of more aerosol components. We will use this evolving AD-Net for validation of Earth-CARE satellite observation and data assimilation to evaluate emissions of air pollution and dust aerosols in East Asia. We go forward with deploying an in-situ instrument polarization optical particle counter (POPC), which can measure size distributions and non-sphericity of aerosols, to several main AD-Net sites and conducting simultaneous observation of POPC and lidar to clarify internally mixed state of Asian dust and air pollution aerosols transported from the Asian continent to Japan.

  1. Historical climates explain contrasting dormancy-breaking requirements in North American, Asian, and European woody species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohner, Constantin M.; Benito, Blas M.; Fridley, Jason D.; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Renner, Susanne S.

    2016-04-01

    Leaf-out times in temperate woody species are determined by winter chilling and spring warming, with day length playing a minor role. The species-specific relative importance of these phenological cues determines the sensitivity of leaf unfolding to climate warming in the globe's temperate forests. Using experimental and monitoring data on leaf-out cues in 495 woody species [about 1/3rd each from Asia, Europe, and North America (NA)], we show that NA species have higher winter chilling and spring warming requirements than do European and Asian species of similar genetic stock. The continent effect remained significant when controlling for the modern climates that species are adapted to, suggesting that contrasting historic climate conditions led to the differentiation of leaf-out strategies among NA, European, and Asian plants. The NA flora experienced more and longer periods of climatic instability and harshness (esp. since the Pliocene) than did southern Europe and East Asia, which may explain why NA species have higher dormancy requirements and leaf-out later than Asian species, which are characterized by a more shallow dormancy. That species from Asia require significantly less chilling than their NA relatives suggests contrasting responses of NA and Asian temperate forests to continued climate warming. Earlier leaf-out in NA trees and shrubs will be constrained by unmet chilling requirements as winters get warmer, whereas Asian woody species generally lack such temperature limitations.

  2. Database of Active Structures From the Indo-Asian Collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styron, Richard; Taylor, Michael; Okoronkwo, Kelechi

    2010-05-01

    The ongoing collision of India and Asia has produced a vast system of folds and faults, many of which are active today, as evidenced by such recent deadly earthquakes as the 12 May 2008 Sichuan quake [Parsons et al., 2008]. Understanding these events requires knowledge of the region’s geologic structures. Taylor and Yin [2009] have assembled HimaTibetMap-1.0, a multiformat, comprehensive database of first-order active structures in central Asia that may aid researchers, educators, and students in their studies of Indo-Asian tectonics. For example, this database may be used by seismologists, geodesists, and modelers to identify structures in particular locations that contribute to active deformation, or it may be used by teachers to illustrate concepts such as continental collision or distributed deformation of continents.

  3. How Do People Make Continence Care Happen? An Analysis of Organizational Culture in Two Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Stacie Salsbury

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Although nursing homes (NHs) are criticized for offering poor quality continence care, little is known about the organizational processes that underlie this care. This study investigated the influence of organizational culture on continence care practices in two NHs. Design and Methods: This ethnographic study explored continence care…

  4. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence....5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence....5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence....5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence....5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence....5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by...

  9. Are natural and unnatural appetites equally controllable? A response to Jensen's "Is continence enough?".

    PubMed

    Smith, Janet E

    2004-01-01

    This response challenges Jensen's analysis in no substantial way. Rather, it explains more fully some of the moral character categories that Aristotle provides. It argues that Aristotle understood there to be two forms of continence: the continence that enables us to control natural appetites and"some form"of continence directed towards unnatural appetites, generally engendered by some pathology or abuse.

  10. A study on "mobbing" in maritime field: a case study in the Turkish maritime industry.

    PubMed

    Kum, Serdar; Ertas, Yildiray

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, there are many reasons for people to be stressful and restless in their working environments. One of the reasons leading to this situation is known as "mobbing". The term "mobbing" means "bullying of an individual by a group". It usually happens among employees. The main effects of mobbing are the generation of stress and reduction of employee performance at work. In general, research shows that mobbing is particularly common in the public sector. The aim of this research is to understand the frequency of mobbing on employees in the Turkish maritime industry as a case study. In this study, a questionnaire survey on ship, shipyard, public and private company workers was applied to understand how often employees are exposed to mobbing. After analysing the results, it is also aimed to obtain information about the reasons and causes of mobbing, and then we can get some advice for this issue.

  11. Skills required for maritime pre-hospital emergency care.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Pre-hospital emergency care (PHEC) in the military has undergone major changes during the last 10 years of warfighting in the land environment. Providing this care in the maritime environment presents several unique challenges. This paper examines the clinical capabilities required of a PHEC team in the maritime environment and how this role can be fulfilled as part of Role 2 Afloat. It applies to Pre-hospital emergency care projected from a hospital not to General Duties Medical Officers at Role 1.

  12. What maritime ISAR designers should know about ship dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerry, A. W.

    2012-06-01

    ISAR has enjoyed some success in imaging maritime targets, particularly ships. In fact, a number of maritime ISAR systems have been operational for a number of years. With ISAR, the ship's own motion is critical to forming well-resolved ISAR images. Seemingly important to accounting for ship motion is to first understand the nature of the ship motion that we are likely to encounter. Designing ships for specific motion characteristics is the domain of naval architecture. This paper presents some preliminary analysis of naval architecture principles, and typical ship designs' impact on the ISAR problem.

  13. Study of ground handling characteristics of a maritime patrol airship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Mooring concepts appropriate for maritime patrol airship (MPA) vehicles are investigated. The evolution of ground handling systems and procedures for all airship types is reviewed to ensure that appropriate consideration is given to past experiences. A tri-rotor maritime patrol airship is identified and described. Wind loads on a moored airship and the effects of these loads on vehicle design are analyzed. Several mooring concepts are assessed with respect to the airship design, wind loads, and mooring site considerations. Basing requirements and applicability of expeditionary mooring also are addressed.

  14. On the Applications of Modern Educational Technology in Maritime English Teaching from the Perspective of Constructivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Zhongliang

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays maritime transportation has become a major modern logistics because of its large capacity and low cost. English plays a leading role in the industry of maritime transportation. It is the most important medium and an indispensable communication tool in international business and global marine industry. Maritime English teaching has made…

  15. 78 FR 13691 - Guidance Regarding Inspection and Certification of Vessels Under the Maritime Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... other security requirements. The U.S. Maritime Administration (MARAD) Office of Sealift Support is the... SECURITY Coast Guard Guidance Regarding Inspection and Certification of Vessels Under the Maritime Security... Vessels Under the Maritime Security Program (MSP).'' The MSP serves as a means for establishing a fleet...

  16. 78 FR 9406 - Southwest Louisiana Area Maritime Security Regional Sub-Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Southwest Louisiana Area Maritime Security Regional Sub- Committee; Vacancies AGENCY... interested in serving on the Southwest Louisiana Area Maritime Security Regional Sub-Committee of the Sabine...-436, 86 Stat. 470(5 U.S.C. App.2). Southwest Louisiana Area Maritime Security Regional...

  17. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530... BENEFIT PLANS Scope and General Provisions § 2530.200b-7 Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be...

  18. Osteoporosis and Asian American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... not supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Publication available in: PDF ( ... Are Available? Resources For Your Information What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones ...

  19. Asian American Education: Identities, Racial Issues, and Languages. Research on the Education of Asian Pacific Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rong, Xue Lan, Ed.; Endo, Russell, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Asian American Education--Asian American Identities, Racial Issues, and Languages presents groundbreaking research that critically challenges the invisibility, stereotyping, and common misunderstandings of Asian Americans by disrupting "customary" discourse and disputing "familiar" knowledge. The chapters in this anthology…

  20. Effectiveness of sulfur and boron isotopes in aerosols as tracers of emissions from coal burning in Asian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Tomomi; Mitsunobu, Satoshi

    2013-03-01

    The atmospheric concentrations and isotopic compositions of sulfur and boron were measured for aerosol samples (water soluble fraction) collected from April 2004 to March 2006 at two sites on the Japan Sea coast. SO42- originating from sea salts in the aerosols was negligible (only 1-2% of the total SO42-). The atmospheric concentrations of nonsea-salt SO42- (Snss) and total B (BT) were scattered widely, but the concentration ratio BT/Snss was relatively high during winter and relatively low during summer. Moreover, aerosols during winter were characterized by a high δ34S (δ34Snss) of nonsea-salt SO42- and a low δ11B (δ11BT) of total B, whereas aerosols during summer were characterized by a low δ34Snss and a high δ11BT. A negative correlation (r2 = 0.34, p < 0.001) was observed between δ34Snss and δ11BT in aerosols from the two sites, suggesting that those values are governed primarily by a mixing of two end-members. On the basis of air trajectory analysis, the first end-member is the air mass from "Northern China (>30°N)", whereas the second end-member is the air mass from "Japan and the Pacific Ocean". It is likely that SO42- and B in the air mass from northern China are strongly affected by coal burning, which satisfactorily reflects the characteristics of δ34S and δ11B (i.e., high δ34S and low δ11B) of coals formed in this region. Thus, both sulfur and boron isotopes in aerosols are effective as tracers of emissions from coal burning in northern China mainly during winter when the air mass from this region is dominant. On the other hand, the results of source identification suggested that the major sources of SO42- and B in the air mass from Japan and the Pacific Ocean are oil combustion in Japan and ocean sea salts, respectively.

  1. Bounds for Asian basket options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  2. Fission track thermotectonic imaging of the Australian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleadow, A. J. W.; Kohn, B. P.; Brown, R. W.; O'Sullivan, P. B.; Raza, A.

    2002-05-01

    Fission track analyses of apatites from a very large data set across Australia provide a first look at the patterns of low-temperature thermochronology over an entire continent. The rock samples are mostly of granitic rocks, or their metamorphic equivalents, of Palaeozoic or older age from the exposed basement regions. Sample chemical analyses indicate that the apatite suite is overwhelmingly of fluorapatite composition. Approximately 2750 fission track analyses have been completed, of which >1700 are of sufficient quality to form a coherent data set that can be interpolated to show the variation of central fission track age and mean confined track length on a continental scale. The resulting images exhibit some features which are well known, such as the trend towards young apatite ages along the eastern and southeastern rifted continental margins, but others that are more surprising, such as the lack of clear differentiation, in terms of the range of ages and lengths, between the older Precambrian cratonic areas in the west, and younger Phanerozoic mobile belts to the east. The Precambrian rocks from the western two-thirds of the continent do, however, show distinctly different cooling histories to those in the eastern Phanerozoic mobile belts when the relationships between track lengths and fission track ages are considered. The western craton everywhere shows patterns of prolonged slow cooling, whereas all major regions of the eastern part of the continent show discrete episodes of rapid cooling, mostly from the Jurassic to the Palaeogene. Significant areas of unusually young apatite ages (<50 Ma) are found in Tasmania and in Precambrian rocks from the northern Gawler Block in South Australia. The most obvious regional cause of the overall fission track patterns across Australia is variation in surface denudation over time scales of hundreds of Ma. However, in some areas, such as the northern Gawler Block, other mechanisms such as the movement of hydrothermal

  3. Airborne pollen in European and Asian parts of Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Celenk, Sevcan; Bicakci, Adem; Tamay, Zeynep; Guler, Nermin; Altunoglu, M Kemal; Canitez, Yakup; Malyer, Hulusi; Sapan, Nihat; Ones, Ulker

    2010-05-01

    Pollen concentrations in the atmosphere of Istanbul, a city located between two continents, has been monitored for 1 year as part of a larger research program. The sampling sites were located in two different continents: the Asian part (AS) and the European part (EP). The sampling was performed in AS and EP of the city by using Hirst type volumetric method, and pollen grains of 58 and 62 taxa were identified in the two parts, respectively. The pollen spectrum reflected the floristic diversity of the region. The main pollen producers at the sites were characterized by some allergenic pollen and were identified as Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Urticaceae, Pistacia sp., Quercus sp., Platanus sp., Fraxinus sp., and Xanthium sp. These pollen types contributed to the total pollen sum with a percentage of more than 80% at both monitoring sites. The highest amount of pollen grains was recorded in April. The greatest number of species was recorded in May, when 42 types (AS) and 44 types (EP) were present.

  4. International Continence Society guidelines on urodynamic equipment performance.

    PubMed

    Gammie, Andrew; Clarkson, Becky; Constantinou, Chris; Damaser, Margot; Drinnan, Michael; Geleijnse, Geert; Griffiths, Derek; Rosier, Peter; Schäfer, Werner; Van Mastrigt, Ron

    2014-04-01

    These guidelines provide benchmarks for the performance of urodynamic equipment, and have been developed by the International Continence Society to assist purchasing decisions, design requirements, and performance checks. The guidelines suggest ranges of specification for uroflowmetry, volume, pressure, and EMG measurement, along with recommendations for user interfaces and performance tests. Factors affecting measurement relating to the different technologies used are also described. Summary tables of essential and desirable features are included for ease of reference. It is emphasized that these guidelines can only contribute to good urodynamics if equipment is used properly, in accordance with good practice.

  5. Currents in the mantle and the geology of continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. Tuzo

    1991-02-01

    This paper is the first of a series which have considered the possible effects of currents in the mantle upon continents. It mentions effects of aging in oceans upon the direction of slope of coastal peneplains. When oceans are young the coasts are cliffs from which peneplains dip downward on the inland side. As the margins separate from the ridge they cool and the slopes reverse. It suggests how Jeffreys' arguments against convection currents breaking the lithosphere can be avoided and discusses the possibility that upwelling has penetrated beneath the southwestern United States.

  6. The continent ileal reservoir--an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Meijer, D W

    1992-01-01

    This thesis describes new concepts pertaining to the continent ileostomy. The aim of the study was twofold: to counter valve desinvagination and to simplify pouch construction. In Chapter 1 a survey is given of the history, the present situation of the technique and the complications of the continent ileostomy. It appears that on the one hand the operation improves the quality of the patient's life, but on the other hand the operation gives rise to many complications. The number of complications quoted in the literature varies and has been reported to be as high as 43%. Most of the time this led to repeat surgery, with equally uncertain results. This is the reason why the operation is not very frequently performed. Most of the time the complications concern the valve system and to a lesser degree the reservoir. In order to obtain a better insight into the origin of and possible gain better control over these complications an investigation was carried out on laboratory animals. This investigation involved: the complications of the valve system, the effect of the suturing method on the function of the reservoir and the simplification of the construction of the reservoir. In Chapter 2 the aim of the investigation was formulated in three questions. 1. Is it possible to diminish the chance of complications of the valve system of the continent ileostomy? 2. Does the method of suturing influence the function of the reservoir? 3. Is it possible to simplify the construction of the reservoir, so that the duration of the operation can be shortened? Chapter 3 is the general materials and methods section. Chapter 4 is about the research on the valve system. Up to now, no method of suturing the valve has consistently produced results good enough to make subsequent re-operations unnecessary. In this study two types of valve experiments have been carried out. First the feasibility of circumventing the problems of the nonpermanent form of the valve was investigated combining a

  7. Savanna vegetation-fire-climate relationships differ among continents.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Caroline E R; Anderson, T Michael; Sankaran, Mahesh; Higgins, Steven I; Archibald, Sally; Hoffmann, William A; Hanan, Niall P; Williams, Richard J; Fensham, Roderick J; Felfili, Jeanine; Hutley, Lindsay B; Ratnam, Jayashree; San Jose, Jose; Montes, Ruben; Franklin, Don; Russell-Smith, Jeremy; Ryan, Casey M; Durigan, Giselda; Hiernaux, Pierre; Haidar, Ricardo; Bowman, David M J S; Bond, William J

    2014-01-31

    Ecologists have long sought to understand the factors controlling the structure of savanna vegetation. Using data from 2154 sites in savannas across Africa, Australia, and South America, we found that increasing moisture availability drives increases in fire and tree basal area, whereas fire reduces tree basal area. However, among continents, the magnitude of these effects varied substantially, so that a single model cannot adequately represent savanna woody biomass across these regions. Historical and environmental differences drive the regional variation in the functional relationships between woody vegetation, fire, and climate. These same differences will determine the regional responses of vegetation to future climates, with implications for global carbon stocks.

  8. Rape: an Asian perspective.

    PubMed

    Nadesan, K

    2001-06-01

    Rape is one of the fastest growing violent crimes in many parts of the world. Rape laws have been amended in most countries in an attempt to cope with the proliferation of this crime. Even though the legal definition of rape and the procedural laws have been amended, rape remains a serious problem in both the developed and developing nations. In some countries the offence of rape carries severe punishment sometimes even the death sentence. In many jurisdictions the term 'sexual penetration' is being used instead of 'sexual intercourse'. Sexual penetration includes sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio or any other intrusions involving any part of a human body or of any object into the genital or anal opening of a person's body. In many countries rape and other sexual offences have been replaced with a series of gender neutral and graded offences with appropriate punishments. Medical examination can provide independent, scientific, corroborative evidence that may be of value to the court in arriving at a judgement. Doctors should have a clear understanding of different rape laws in order to apprectiate the various issues involved. Special knowledge, skill and experience are essential to conduct a good-quality medical examination. There is a dearth of trained forensic physicians in many Asian countries. However, managing a rape victim (survivor) goes for beyond proving the case in a court of law. There should be an adequate rehabilitation programme available to the victims to help them cope.

  9. To promote peaceful and collaborative resolution of maritime territorial disputes in the South China Sea and its environs and other maritime areas adjacent to the East Asian mainland.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Faleomavaega, Eni F. H. [D-AS-At Large

    2012-08-02

    09/12/2012 Committee Agreed to Seek Consideration Under Suspension of the Rules, (Amended) by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Maritime Law Enforcement: A Critical Capability for the Navy?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY , CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited MARITIME LAW...Sonnenberg 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey , CA 93943–5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER...in discussion with author, Monterey , CA, August 25, 2011. Lieutenant Junior Grade Chad Hutchins is the USS Nichols Visit, Board, Search, and

  11. 77 FR 23120 - National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Local Regulation for the annual National Maritime Week Tugboat Races in Elliott Bay, WA from 12 p.m... is established on that portion of Elliott Bay along the Seattle waterfront in Puget Sound bounded by... between Pier 57 and Pier 89, and extending approximately 650 yards into Elliott Bay. Temporary...

  12. 75 FR 24400 - National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Local Regulation for the annual National Maritime Week Tugboat Races in Elliott Bay, WA on May 8, 2010... that portion of Elliott Bay along the Seattle waterfront in Puget Sound bounded by a line beginning at..., and extending approximately 650 yards into Elliott Bay. Temporary floating markers will be placed...

  13. Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniforth, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training. In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs of mature-age and other students who work and live in different places (or countries) and therefore cannot attend lectures on a regular basis (or at all) have largely been ignored. This paper provides a case study in the teaching of maritime archaeology from Australia that, in addition to ‘traditional’ on-campus teaching, includes four main components: (1) learning field methods through field schools; (2) skills training through the AIMA/NAS avocational training program; (3) distance learning topics available through CD-ROM and using the Internet; and (4) practicums, internships and fellowships. The author argues that programs to teach maritime archaeology in the twenty first century need to be flexible and to address the diverse needs of students who do not fit the ‘traditional’ model. This involves collaborative partnerships with other universities as well as government underwater cultural heritage management agencies and museums, primarily through field schools, practicums and internships.

  14. GeGI (Germanium Gamma Imager) Performance: Maritime Interdiction Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Dreyer, Jonathan G.; Burks, Morgan T.; Trombino, Dave

    2014-09-23

    The Gamma Ray Imager (GeGI) was demonstrated during the Maritime Interdiction Operation at Point Alameda, the site of the former Naval Air Station, in Alameda, CA. During this exercise GeGI was used to localize sources within an abandoned building and a cargo ship, the Admiral Callaghan.

  15. Maritime Trade Warfare in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-04

    2009, UNCTAD/ RMT /2009, Geneva: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Secretariat, 2009, 53. 24 Michael C. Grubb, "Merchant Shipping...Maritime Transport 2009. UNCTAD/ RMT /2009, Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Secretariat, 2009. U. S

  16. Underreporting of maritime accidents to vessel accident databases.

    PubMed

    Hassel, Martin; Asbjørnslett, Bjørn Egil; Hole, Lars Petter

    2011-11-01

    Underreporting of maritime accidents is a problem not only for authorities trying to improve maritime safety through legislation, but also to risk management companies and other entities using maritime casualty statistics in risk and accident analysis. This study collected and compared casualty data from 01.01.2005 to 31.12.2009, from IHS Fairplay and the maritime authorities from a set of nations. The data was compared to find common records, and estimation of the true number of occurred accidents was performed using conditional probability given positive dependency between data sources, several variations of the capture-recapture method, calculation of best case scenario assuming perfect reporting, and scaling up a subset of casualty information from a marine insurance statistics database. The estimated upper limit reporting performance for the selected flag states ranged from 14% to 74%, while the corresponding estimated coverage of IHS Fairplay ranges from 4% to 62%. On average the study results document that the number of unreported accidents makes up roughly 50% of all occurred accidents. Even in a best case scenario, only a few flag states come close to perfect reporting (94%). The considerable scope of underreporting uncovered in the study, indicates that users of statistical vessel accident data should assume a certain degree of underreporting, and adjust their analyses accordingly. Whether to use correction factors, a safety margin, or rely on expert judgment, should be decided on a case by case basis.

  17. TD-LTE maritime trunking communication system based on TVWS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Chunxiang; Chen, Xing; Li, Wanchao; Chen, Baodan

    2014-10-01

    This paper collects the measurement results of 470 MHZ-960MHZ spectrum in the coastal areas, and analyzes the characteristics of TV broadcast spectrum occupancy in the measurement region. Moreover, this article proposes construct the TD-LTE maritime trunking communication system using geolocation database, television database (TVDB) and cognitive radio (CR) technology.

  18. Understanding Attrition in UK Maritime Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gekara, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The shipping industry worldwide is experiencing a shortage of trained and qualified officers to operate a rapidly expanding global merchant fleet. High cadet wastage in Maritime Education and Training (MET) institutions is an obstacle to skills replenishment in the UK. This paper examines the specificity of MET programmes with regard to the…

  19. Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. LoBiondo, Frank A. [R-NJ-2

    2012-06-01

    06/07/2012 Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Discharged. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.2838, which became Public Law 112-213 on 12/20/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. South Asian high and Asian-Pacific-American climate teleconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peiqun; Song, Yang; Kousky, Vernon E.

    2005-11-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the mid-Pacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion, they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  1. Permo-carboniferous hydrocarbon accumulations, Mid-continent, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Rascoe, B.; Adler, F.J.

    1983-06-01

    Approximately 19.4 billion bbl of oil and 119 tcf of nonassociated gas have been discovered in the Mid-Continent as of January 1, 1978. Although these volumes of hydrocarbons were trapped in thousands of fields throughout the Mid-Continent, the bulk of these resources were emplaced in a relatively few fields about 14.2 billion bbl of oil have been found in 111 significant and giant oil fields, and 103 tcf of nonassociated gas have been discovered in 57 significant and giant gas fields. PermoCarboniferous reservoirs are important in 101 of the large oil fields and 55 of the large gas fields; these fields contained 9.5 billion bbl of oil and 99 tcf of gas, respectively. Our calculations of the total oil and gas accumulations in Permo-Carboniferous reservoirs extrapolated from these data. About 2.1 billion bbl of oil and 5.1 tcf of nonassociated gas accumulated in Lower Carboniferous (Mississippian) reservoirs. Most of this oil and gas was stratigraphically trapped in Upper Mississippian sandstones and carbonates which are truncated at the pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity surface.

  2. Continents as lithological icebergs: The importance of buoyant lithospheric roots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, D.H.; Drury, R.; Mooney, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    An understanding of the formation of new continental crust provides an important guide to locating the oldest terrestrial rocks and minerals. We evaluated the crustal thicknesses of the thinnest stable continental crust and of an unsubductable oceanic plateau and used the resulting data to estimate the amount of mantle melting which produces permanent continental crust. The lithospheric mantle is sufficiently depleted to produce permanent buoyancy (i.e., the crust is unsubductable) at crustal thicknesses greater than 25-27 km. These unsubductable oceanic plateaus and hotspot island chains are important sources of new continental crust. The newest continental crust (e.g., the Ontong Java plateau) has a basaltic composition, not a granitic one. The observed structure and geochemistry of continents are the result of convergent margin magmatism and metamorphism which modify the nascent basaltic crust into a lowermost basaltic layer overlain by a more silicic upper crust. The definition of a continent should imply only that the lithosphere is unsubductable over ??? 0.25 Ga time periods. Therefore, the search for the oldest crustal rocks should include rocks from lower to mid-crustal levels.

  3. Riverine nitrogen export from the continents to the coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Howarth, Robert W.; Galloway, James N.; Dentener, Frank J.; Green, Pamela A.; VöRöSmarty, Charles J.

    2006-03-01

    We present an overview of riverine nitrogen flux calculations that were prepared for the International Nitrogen Initiative's current global assessment of nitrogen cycles: past, present, and future (Galloway et al., 2004). We quantified anthropogenic and natural inputs of reactive nitrogen (N) to terrestrial landscapes and the associated riverine N fluxes. Anthropogenic inputs include fossil-fuel derived atmospheric deposition, fixation in cultivated croplands, fertilizer use, and the net import in human food and animal feedstuffs. Natural inputs include natural biological N fixation in forests and other noncultivated vegetated lands, and fixation by lightning. We use an empirical model relating total N inputs per landscape area to the total flux of N discharged in rivers based on watershed data from contrasting ecosystems spanning multiple spatial scales. With this approach, we simulate riverine N loads to the coastal zone and to inland waters from the continents. Globally, rivers exported about 59 Tg N yr-1, with 11 Tg N yr-1 transported to dry lands and inland receiving waters, and 48 Tg N yr-1 transported to the coastal zone. Rates of riverine N loss vary greatly among the continents, reflecting the regional differences in population and the associated anthropogenic N inputs. We compare our estimates to other approaches that have been reported in the literature. Our work provides an understanding of the sources of N to landscapes and the associated N fluxes in rivers, and highlights how anthropogenic activities impact N cycling around the world.

  4. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    SciTech Connect

    Ricciuto, Daniel M; Gu, Lianhong

    2010-07-01

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems over six continents with a total of 559 site-years. We find that NEE observed at eddy covariance sites is (1) a strong function of mean annual temperature at mid- and high-latitudes, (2) a strong function of dryness at mid- and low-latitudes, and (3) a function of both temperature and dryness around the mid-latitudinal belt (45 N). The sensitivity of NEE to mean annual temperature breaks down at ~ 16 C (a threshold value of mean annual temperature), above which no further increase of CO2 uptake with temperature was observed and dryness influence overrules temperature influence.

  5. Archean komatiite volcanism controlled by the evolution of early continents

    PubMed Central

    Mole, David R.; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Thebaud, Nicolas; Cassidy, Kevin F.; McCuaig, T. Campbell; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Romano, Sandra S.; Doublier, Michael P.; Belousova, Elena A.; Barnes, Stephen J.; Miller, John

    2014-01-01

    The generation and evolution of Earth’s continental crust has played a fundamental role in the development of the planet. Its formation modified the composition of the mantle, contributed to the establishment of the atmosphere, and led to the creation of ecological niches important for early life. Here we show that in the Archean, the formation and stabilization of continents also controlled the location, geochemistry, and volcanology of the hottest preserved lavas on Earth: komatiites. These magmas typically represent 50–30% partial melting of the mantle and subsequently record important information on the thermal and chemical evolution of the Archean–Proterozoic Earth. As a result, it is vital to constrain and understand the processes that govern their localization and emplacement. Here, we combined Lu-Hf isotopes and U-Pb geochronology to map the four-dimensional evolution of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, and reveal the progressive development of an Archean microcontinent. Our results show that in the early Earth, relatively small crustal blocks, analogous to modern microplates, progressively amalgamated to form larger continental masses, and eventually the first cratons. This cratonization process drove the hottest and most voluminous komatiite eruptions to the edge of established continental blocks. The dynamic evolution of the early continents thus directly influenced the addition of deep mantle material to the Archean crust, oceans, and atmosphere, while also providing a fundamental control on the distribution of major magmatic ore deposits. PMID:24958873

  6. Archean komatiite volcanism controlled by the evolution of early continents.

    PubMed

    Mole, David R; Fiorentini, Marco L; Thebaud, Nicolas; Cassidy, Kevin F; McCuaig, T Campbell; Kirkland, Christopher L; Romano, Sandra S; Doublier, Michael P; Belousova, Elena A; Barnes, Stephen J; Miller, John

    2014-07-15

    The generation and evolution of Earth's continental crust has played a fundamental role in the development of the planet. Its formation modified the composition of the mantle, contributed to the establishment of the atmosphere, and led to the creation of ecological niches important for early life. Here we show that in the Archean, the formation and stabilization of continents also controlled the location, geochemistry, and volcanology of the hottest preserved lavas on Earth: komatiites. These magmas typically represent 50-30% partial melting of the mantle and subsequently record important information on the thermal and chemical evolution of the Archean-Proterozoic Earth. As a result, it is vital to constrain and understand the processes that govern their localization and emplacement. Here, we combined Lu-Hf isotopes and U-Pb geochronology to map the four-dimensional evolution of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, and reveal the progressive development of an Archean microcontinent. Our results show that in the early Earth, relatively small crustal blocks, analogous to modern microplates, progressively amalgamated to form larger continental masses, and eventually the first cratons. This cratonization process drove the hottest and most voluminous komatiite eruptions to the edge of established continental blocks. The dynamic evolution of the early continents thus directly influenced the addition of deep mantle material to the Archean crust, oceans, and atmosphere, while also providing a fundamental control on the distribution of major magmatic ore deposits.

  7. Hydration of the lithospheric mantle by the descending plate in a continent-continent collisional setting and its geodynamic consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massonne, Hans-Joachim

    2016-05-01

    At the beginning of continent-continent collision the descending plate dehydrates. The influence of this dehydration on the adjacent lithospheric mantle was studied. For this reason, pressure (P), temperature (T) and T-H2O pseudosections were calculated for an average mantle composition using the computer software PERPLE_X. These pseudosections were contoured by isopleths, for instance, for volumes of amphibole, chlorite, and serpentine. In addition, P-T pseudosections were considered for four psammopelitic rocks, common in the upper portion of the continental crust, in order to quantify the release of H2O in these rocks during prograde metamorphism. At pressures around 1 GPa, a maximum of slightly more than 10 vol.% chlorite, almost 20 vol.% amphibole, and some talc but no serpentine forms when only 1.8 wt.% H2O is added to the dry ultrabasite at temperatures of 600 °C. For example, hydrous phases amount to about 35 vol.% serpentine and 10 vol.% each of chlorite and amphibole at 1 GPa, 550 °C, and 5 wt.% H2O. The modelled psammopelitic rocks can release 0.8-2.5 wt.% H2O between 450 and 650 °C at 0.8-1.4 GPa. On the basis of the above calculations, different collisional scenarios are discussed highlighting the role of hydrated lithospheric mantle. In this context a minimum hydration potential of the front region of the descending continental plate is considered, which amounts to 4.6 × 1016 kg releasable H2O for a 1000 km wide collisional zone, due to a thick sedimentary pile at the continental margin. Further suggestions are that (1) the lower crustal plate in a continent-continent collisional setting penetrates the lithospheric mantle, which is hydrated during the advancement of this plate, (2) the maximum depths of the subduction of upper continental crust is below 70 km and (3) hydrated mantle above the descending crustal plate is thrust onto this continental crust.

  8. Self-consistent formation of continents on early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Lena; Van Hoolst, Tim; Breuer, Doris; Dehant, Véronique

    2013-04-01

    In our study we want to understand how Earth evolved with time and examine the initiation of plate tectonics and the possible formation of continents on Earth. Plate tectonics and continents seem to influence the likelihood of a planet to harbour life [1], and both are strongly influenced by the planetary interior (e.g. mantle temperature and rheology) and surface conditions (e.g. stabilizing effect of continents, atmospheric temperature), and may also depend on the biosphere. Earth is the only terrestrial planet (i.e. with a rocky mantle and iron core) in the solar system where long-term plate tectonics evolved. Knowing the factors that have a strong influence on the occurrence of plate tectonics allows for prognoses about plate tectonics on terrestrial exoplanets that have been detected in the past decade, and about the likelihood of these planets to harbour Earth-like life. For this purpose, planetary interior and surface processes are coupled via 'particles' as computational tracers in the 3D code GAIA [2,3]. These particles are dispersed in the mantle and crust of the modelled planet and can track the relevant rock properties (e.g. density or water content) over time. During the thermal evolution of the planet, the particles are advected due to mantle convection and along melt paths towards the surface and help to gain information about the thermo-chemical system. This way basaltic crust that is subducted into the silicate mantle is traced in our model. It is treated differently than mantle silicates when re-molten, such that granitic (felsic) crust is produced (similar to the evolution of continental crust on early Earth [4]), which is stored in the particle properties. We apply a pseudo-plastic rheology and use small friction coefficients (since an increased reference viscosity is used in our model). We obtain initiation of plate tectonics and self-consistent formation of pre-continents after a few Myr up to several Gyr - depending on the initial conditions

  9. Does menopausal status impact urinary continence outcomes following abdominal sacrocolpopexy without anti-incontinence procedures in continent women?

    PubMed Central

    Inan, Abdurrahman Hamdi; Toz, Emrah; Beyan, Emrah; Gurbuz, Tutku; Ozcan, Aykut; Oner, Oznur

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the impact of menopausal status on urinary continence following abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC) without an anti-incontinence procedure in continent women. Methods: We conducted a clinical follow-up study of 137 patients diagnosed with stage 3 or higher pelvic organ prolapse (POP) without urinary incontinence between January 2012 and December 2014. Patients were provided with detailed a priori information pertaining to the abdominal sacrocolpopexy procedure and were invited to attend follow-up visits at 1, 3, 12, and 24 months. Follow-up visits included a gynecological examination, cough test, and validated Urinary Distress Inventory-6 (UDI-6) and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 (IIQ-7) questionnaires. Results: The mean follow-up time for the cohort was 16.5±3.45 months. The study group was divided according to menopausal status: premenopausal (Group-1) and postmenopausal women (Group-II). Anatomical recurrence was not detected during the follow-up period in either group, but de novo stress urinary incontinence was seen in 15 of 53 (28.3%) Group-I patients and in 6 of 84 (7.1%; p < 0.01) Group-II patients. Conclusions: The risk of de novo stress urinary incontinence in postmenopausal women after ASC is low. However, premenopausal patients have a higher incidence of de novo stress incontinence which affect quality of life. PMID:27648027

  10. OxyContin® as Currency: OxyContin® Use and Increased Social Capital among Rural Appalachian Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Adam B.; Young, April M.; Oser, Carrie B.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Havens, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that position within networks of social relations can have direct implications on the health behaviors of individuals. The present study examines connections between drug use and individual social capital within social networks of drug users (n=503) from rural Appalachian Kentucky, U.S.A. Respondent driven sampling was used to recruit individuals age 18 and older who had used one of the following drugs to get high: cocaine, crack, heroin, methamphetamine, or prescription opioids. Substance use was measured via self-report and social network analysis of participants’ drug use network was used to compute effective size, a measure of social capital. Drug network ties were based on sociometric data on recent (past 6 month) drug co-usage. Multivariate multi-level ordinal regression was used to model the independent effect of sociodemographic and drug use characteristics on social capital. Adjusting for gender, income, and education, daily OxyContin® use was found to be significantly associated with greater social capital, and daily marijuana use was associated with less social capital. These results suggest that in regions with marked economic disparities such as rural Appalachia, OxyContin® may serve as a form of currency that is associated with increased social capital among drug users. Interventions focusing on increasing alternate pathways to acquiring social capital may be one way in which to alleviate the burden of drug use in this high-risk population. PMID:22465379

  11. Simulation of active tectonic processes for a convecting mantle with moving continents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trubitsyn, V.; Kaban, M.; Mooney, W.; Reigber, C.; Schwintzer, P.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical models are presented that simulate several active tectonic processes. These models include a continent that is thermally and mechanically coupled with viscous mantle flow. The assumption of rigid continents allows use of solid body equations to describe the continents' motion and to calculate their velocities. The starting point is a quasi-steady state model of mantle convection with temperature/ pressure-dependent viscosity. After placing a continent on top of the mantle, the convection pattern changes. The mantle flow subsequently passes through several stages, eventually resembling the mantle structure under present-day continents: (a) Extension tectonics and marginal basins form on boundary of a continent approaching to subduction zone, roll back of subduction takes place in front of moving continent; (b) The continent reaches the subduction zone, the extension regime at the continental edge is replaced by strong compression. The roll back of the subduction zone still continues after closure of the marginal basin and the continent moves towards the upwelling. As a result the ocean becomes non-symmetric and (c) The continent overrides the upwelling and subduction in its classical form stops. The third stage appears only in the upper mantle model with localized upwellings. ?? 2006 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2006 RAS.

  12. Highly Structured Asian Drosophila melanogaster Populations: A New Tool for Hitchhiking Mapping?

    PubMed Central

    Schlötterer, Christian; Neumeier, Hannah; Sousa, Carla; Nolte, Viola

    2006-01-01

    Mark-recapture experiments showed that D. melanogaster has high dispersal capabilities. Consistent with a highly migratory species, only very low levels of differentiation were described for D. melanogaster populations from the same continent. We reinvestigated the population structure in D. melanogaster using 49 polymorphic markers in 23 natural populations. While European and American D. melanogaster populations showed very low differentiation, Asian D. melanogaster populations were highly structured. Despite the high differentiation of Asian flies, we confirm that all non-African populations are derived from a single colonization event. We propose that the availability of D. melanogaster populations with high and low population structure provides a novel tool for the identification of ecologically important adaptations by hitchhiking mapping. PMID:16204221

  13. A Zn isotope perspective on the rise of continents.

    PubMed

    Pons, M-L; Fujii, T; Rosing, M; Quitté, G; Télouk, P; Albarède, F

    2013-05-01

    Zinc isotope abundances are fairly constant in igneous rocks and shales and are left unfractionated by hydrothermal processes at pH < 5.5. For that reason, Zn isotopes in sediments can be used to trace the changing chemistry of the hydrosphere. Here, we report Zn isotope compositions in Fe oxides from banded iron formations (BIFs) and iron formations of different ages. Zinc from early Archean samples is isotopically indistinguishable from the igneous average (δ(66) Zn ~0.3‰). At 2.9-2.7 Ga, δ(66) Zn becomes isotopically light (δ(66) Zn < 0‰) and then bounces back to values >1‰ during the ~2.35 Ga Great Oxygenation Event. By 1.8 Ga, BIF δ(66) Zn has settled to the modern value of FeMn nodules and encrustations (~0.9‰). The Zn cycle is largely controlled by two different mechanisms: Zn makes strong complexes with phosphates, and phosphates in turn are strongly adsorbed by Fe hydroxides. We therefore review the evidence that the surface geochemical cycles of Zn and P are closely related. The Zn isotope record echoes Sr isotope evidence, suggesting that erosion starts with the very large continental masses appearing at ~2.7 Ga. The lack of Zn fractionation in pre-2.9 Ga BIFs is argued to reflect the paucity of permanent subaerial continental exposure and consequently the insignificant phosphate input to the oceans and the small output of biochemical sediments. We link the early decline of δ(66) Zn between 3.0 and 2.7 Ga with the low solubility of phosphate in alkaline groundwater. The development of photosynthetic activity at the surface of the newly exposed continents increased the oxygen level in the atmosphere, which in turn triggered acid drainage and stepped up P dissolution and liberation of heavy Zn into the runoff. Zinc isotopes provide a new perspective on the rise of continents, the volume of carbonates on continents, changing weathering conditions, and compositions of the ocean through time.

  14. Asian Energy Security

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Hayes, PhD

    2003-12-01

    OAK-B135 In the Asian Energy Security (AES) Project, Nautilus Institute works together with a network of collaborating groups from the countries of Northeast Asia to evaluate the energy security implications of different national and regional energy ''paths''. The goal of the Asia Energy Security project is to illuminate energy paths--and the energy policy choices that might help to bring them about--that result in a higher degree of energy security for the region and for the world as a whole, that is, to identify energy paths that are ''robust'' in meeting many different energy security and development objectives, while also offering flexibility in the face of uncertainty. In work to date, Nautilus has carefully assembled a network of colleagues from the countries of the region, trained them together as a group in the use of a common, flexible, and transparent energy and environmental analysis planning software tool (LEAP, the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning system), and worked with them to prepare base-year energy sector models for each country. To date, complete data sets and models for ''Business as Usual'' (BAU) energy paths have been compiled for China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea. A partial data set and BAU path has been compiled for the Russian Far East, and a data set is being started in Mongolia, where a team of researchers has just joined the AES project. In several countries, ''Alternative'' energy paths have been developed as well, or partially elaborated. National energy sector developments, progress on national LEAP modeling, additional LEAP training, and planning for the next phase of the AES project were the topics of a recent (early November) workshop held in Vancouver, British Columbia. With funding from the Department of Energy, Nautilus is poised to build upon the successes of the project to date with a coordinated international effort to research the energy security ramifications of

  15. Depression among Asian Americans: Review and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of the prevalence and manifestation of depression among Asian Americans and discusses some of the existing issues in the assessment and diagnosis of depression among Asian Americans. The authors point out the diversity and increasing numbers of Asian Americans and the need to provide better mental health services for this population. While the prevalence of depression among Asian Americans is lower than that among other ethnic/racial groups, Asian Americans receive treatment for depression less often and its quality is less adequate. In addition, the previous belief that Asians somatize depression may become obsolete as more evidence appears to support that Westerners may “psychologize” depression. The cultural validity of the current DSM-IV conceptualization of depression is questioned. In the course of the review, the theme of complexity emerges: the heterogeneity of ethnic Asian American groups, the multidimensionality of depression, and the intersectionality of multiple factors among depressed Asian Americans. PMID:21961060

  16. Asynchronous extinction of late Quaternary sloths on continents and islands.

    PubMed

    Steadman, David W; Martin, Paul S; MacPhee, Ross D E; Jull, A J T; McDonald, H Gregory; Woods, Charles A; Iturralde-Vinent, Manuel; Hodgins, Gregory W L

    2005-08-16

    Whatever the cause, it is extraordinary that dozens of genera of large mammals became extinct during the late Quaternary throughout the Western Hemisphere, including 90% of the genera of the xenarthran suborder Phyllophaga (sloths). Radiocarbon dates directly on dung, bones, or other tissue of extinct sloths place their "last appearance" datum at approximately 11,000 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP) or slightly less in North America, approximately 10,500 yr BP in South America, and approximately 4,400 yr BP on West Indian islands. This asynchronous situation is not compatible with glacial-interglacial climate change forcing these extinctions, especially given the great elevational, latitudinal, and longitudinal variation of the sloth-bearing continental sites. Instead, the chronology of last appearance of extinct sloths, whether on continents or islands, more closely tracks the first arrival of people.

  17. Assessing the causes of late Pleistocene extinctions on the continents.

    PubMed

    Barnosky, Anthony D; Koch, Paul L; Feranec, Robert S; Wing, Scott L; Shabel, Alan B

    2004-10-01

    One of the great debates about extinction is whether humans or climatic change caused the demise of the Pleistocene megafauna. Evidence from paleontology, climatology, archaeology, and ecology now supports the idea that humans contributed to extinction on some continents, but human hunting was not solely responsible for the pattern of extinction everywhere. Instead, evidence suggests that the intersection of human impacts with pronounced climatic change drove the precise timing and geography of extinction in the Northern Hemisphere. The story from the Southern Hemisphere is still unfolding. New evidence from Australia supports the view that humans helped cause extinctions there, but the correlation with climate is weak or contested. Firmer chronologies, more realistic ecological models, and regional paleoecological insights still are needed to understand details of the worldwide extinction pattern and the population dynamics of the species involved.

  18. Asynchronous extinction of late Quaternary sloths on continents and islands

    PubMed Central

    Steadman, David W.; Martin, Paul S.; MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Jull, A. J. T.; McDonald, H. Gregory; Woods, Charles A.; Iturralde-Vinent, Manuel; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.

    2005-01-01

    Whatever the cause, it is extraordinary that dozens of genera of large mammals became extinct during the late Quaternary throughout the Western Hemisphere, including 90% of the genera of the xenarthran suborder Phyllophaga (sloths). Radiocarbon dates directly on dung, bones, or other tissue of extinct sloths place their “last appearance” datum at ≈11,000 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP) or slightly less in North America, ≈10,500 yr BP in South America, and ≈4,400 yr BP on West Indian islands. This asynchronous situation is not compatible with glacial–interglacial climate change forcing these extinctions, especially given the great elevational, latitudinal, and longitudinal variation of the sloth-bearing continental sites. Instead, the chronology of last appearance of extinct sloths, whether on continents or islands, more closely tracks the first arrival of people. PMID:16085711

  19. An assessment of stressor extent and biological condition in the North American mid-continent great rivers (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angradi, Ted R.; Bolgriend, David W.; Jicha, Terri M.; Pearson, Mark S.; Taylor, Debra L.; Moffett, Mary F.; Blocksom, Karen A.; Walters, David M.; Elonen, Colleen M.; Anderson, Leroy E.; Lazorchak, James M.; Reavie, Euan D.; Kireta, Amy R.; Hill, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the North American mid-continent great rivers (Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio). We estimated the extent of each river in most- (MDC) or least-disturbed condition (LDC) based on multiple biological response indicators: fish and macroinvertebrate, trophic state based on chlorophyll a, macrophyte cover, and exposure of fish-eating wildlife to toxic contaminants in fish tissue (Hg, total chlordane, total DDT, PCBs). We estimated the extent of stressors on each river including nutrients, suspended solids, sediment toxicity, invasive species, and land use (agriculture and impervious surface). All three rivers had a greater percent of their river length in MDC than in LDC based on fish assemblages. The Upper Mississippi River had the greatest percent of river length with eutrophic status. The Ohio River had the greatest percent of river length with fish with tissue contaminant levels toxic to wildlife. Overall, condition indices based on fish assemblages were more sensitive to stress than macroinvertebrate indices. Compared to the streams in its basin, more of the Upper Mississippi and Missouri Rivers were in MDC for nutrients than the Ohio River. Invasive species (Asian carp and Dreissenid mussels) were less widespread and less abundant on the Missouri River than on the other great rivers. The Ohio River had the most urbanized floodplains (greatest percent impervious surface). The Missouri River had the most floodplain agriculture. The effect of large urban areas on river condition was apparent for several indicators. Ecosystem condition based in fish assemblages, trophic state, and fish tissue contamination was related to land use on the floodplain and at the subcatchment scale. This is the first unbiased bioassessment of the mid-continent great rivers in the United States. The indicators, condition thresholds, results, and recommendations from this program are a starting point for improved future great river assessments.

  20. Asian and Non-Asian Attitudes toward Rape, Sexual Harassment, and Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, M. Alexis; Gorzalka, Boris B.

    2002-01-01

    Explored potential differences between Asian and non-Asian Canadian university students regarding their attitudes toward coercive and noncoercive sexual behavior. Student surveys indicated that Asian students' attitudes were significantly more conservative. Asian students were more tolerant of rape myths and sexual harassment. They demonstrated…

  1. Evolution of Asian aerosols during transpacific transport in INTEX-B

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlea, E. J.; DeCarlo, Peter; Aiken, Allison; Kimmel, Joel; Peltier, R. E.; Weber, R. J.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Collins, Donald R.; Shinozuka, Yohei; McNaughton, C. S.; Howell, S. G.; Clarke, A. D.; Emmons, L.; Apel, Eric; Pfister, G. G.; van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R. V.; Millet, D. B.; Heald, C. L.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2009-10-01

    Measurements of aerosol composition were made with an Aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) on board the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft as part of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B 5 (INTEX-B) field campaign over the Eastern Pacific Ocean. The HR-ToF-AMS measurements of non-refractory submicron aerosol mass are shown to compare well with other aerosol instrumentation in the INTEX-B field study. Two case studies are described for pollution layers transported across the Pacific from the Asian continent, intercepted 3–4 days and 7–10 days downwind of Asia, respectively. Aerosol chemistry is shown to 10 be a robust tracer for air masses originating in Asia, specifically the presence of sulfate dominated aerosol is a distinguishing feature of Asian pollution layers that have been transported to the Eastern Pacific. We examine the time scales of processing for sulfate and organic aerosol in the atmosphere and show that our observations confirm a conceptual model for transpacific transport from Asia proposed by Brock et al. (2004). 15 Our observations of both sulfate and organic aerosol in aged Asian pollution layers are consistent with fast formation near the Asian continent, followed by washout during lofting and subsequent transformation during transport across the Pacific. Our observations are the first atmospheric measurements to indicate that although secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from pollution happens on the timescale of one day, 20 the oxidation of organic aerosol continues at longer timescales in the atmosphere. Comparisons with chemical transport models of data from the entire campaign reveal an under-prediction of SOA mass in the MOZART model, but much smaller discrepancies with the GEOS-Chem model than found in previous studies over the Western Pacific. No evidence is found to support a previous hypothesis for significant secondary 25 organic aerosol formation in the free troposphere.

  2. Asian Americans. A Status Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    ethnic groups or from 1 of 25 identified Pacific Island cultures (see table 1.1 and footnotes). In 1980, the Chinese. Filipino, Japanese, Indiar. Korean...Statistics on Asian American 62 Education Appendix VI: Cancer Deaths per 100,000 Population 63 (1978-81) Appendix VII: Cultural and Religious Barriers...themselves as from 1 of 28 Asian countries of origin or ethnic groups or from I of 25 identified Pacific Island cultures (see-map- :)n-ppA-0-and M) The

  3. Clustered and transient earthquake sequences in mid-continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Stein, S. A.; Wang, H.; Luo, G.

    2012-12-01

    Earthquakes result from sudden release of strain energy on faults. On plate boundary faults, strain energy is constantly accumulating from steady and relatively rapid relative plate motion, so large earthquakes continue to occur so long as motion continues on the boundary. In contrast, such steady accumulation of stain energy does not occur on faults in mid-continents, because the far-field tectonic loading is not steadily distributed between faults, and because stress perturbations from complex fault interactions and other stress triggers can be significant relative to the slow tectonic stressing. Consequently, mid-continental earthquakes are often temporally clustered and transient, and spatially migrating. This behavior is well illustrated by large earthquakes in North China in the past two millennia, during which no single large earthquakes repeated on the same fault segments, but moment release between large fault systems was complementary. Slow tectonic loading in mid-continents also causes long aftershock sequences. We show that the recent small earthquakes in the Tangshan region of North China are aftershocks of the 1976 Tangshan earthquake (M 7.5), rather than indicators of a new phase of seismic activity in North China, as many fear. Understanding the transient behavior of mid-continental earthquakes has important implications for assessing earthquake hazards. The sequence of large earthquakes in the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) in central US, which includes a cluster of M~7 events in 1811-1812 and perhaps a few similar ones in the past millennium, is likely a transient process, releasing previously accumulated elastic strain on recently activated faults. If so, this earthquake sequence will eventually end. Using simple analysis and numerical modeling, we show that the large NMSZ earthquakes may be ending now or in the near future.

  4. Earth's first stable continents did not form by subduction.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tim E; Brown, Michael; Gardiner, Nicholas J; Kirkland, Christopher L; Smithies, R Hugh

    2017-03-09

    The geodynamic environment in which Earth's first continents formed and were stabilized remains controversial. Most exposed continental crust that can be dated back to the Archaean eon (4 billion to 2.5 billion years ago) comprises tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite rocks (TTGs) that were formed through partial melting of hydrated low-magnesium basaltic rocks; notably, these TTGs have 'arc-like' signatures of trace elements and thus resemble the continental crust produced in modern subduction settings. In the East Pilbara Terrane, Western Australia, low-magnesium basalts of the Coucal Formation at the base of the Pilbara Supergroup have trace-element compositions that are consistent with these being source rocks for TTGs. These basalts may be the remnants of a thick (more than 35 kilometres thick), ancient (more than 3.5 billion years old) basaltic crust that is predicted to have existed if Archaean mantle temperatures were much hotter than today's. Here, using phase equilibria modelling of the Coucal basalts, we confirm their suitability as TTG 'parents', and suggest that TTGs were produced by around 20 per cent to 30 per cent melting of the Coucal basalts along high geothermal gradients (of more than 700 degrees Celsius per gigapascal). We also analyse the trace-element composition of the Coucal basalts, and propose that these rocks were themselves derived from an earlier generation of high-magnesium basaltic rocks, suggesting that the arc-like signature in Archaean TTGs was inherited from an ancestral source lineage. This protracted, multistage process for the production and stabilization of the first continents-coupled with the high geothermal gradients-is incompatible with modern-style plate tectonics, and favours instead the formation of TTGs near the base of thick, plateau-like basaltic crust. Thus subduction was not required to produce TTGs in the early Archaean eon.

  5. Numerical Algorithm for Delta of Asian Option.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Boxiang; Yu, Yang; Wang, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    We study the numerical solution of the Greeks of Asian options. In particular, we derive a close form solution of Δ of Asian geometric option and use this analytical form as a control to numerically calculate Δ of Asian arithmetic option, which is known to have no explicit close form solution. We implement our proposed numerical method and compare the standard error with other classical variance reduction methods. Our method provides an efficient solution to the hedging strategy with Asian options.

  6. On Asian American Ice Queens and Multigeneration Asian Ethnics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuan, Mia

    1999-01-01

    Reactions to the success of ice-skating stars Kristi Yamaguchi and Michelle Kwan illustrate the ways in which Asian ethnics continue to find themselves excluded from the U.S. racial and cultural center. Although they may be long-time Americans, they are not perceived as such. (SLD)

  7. Characteristics, processes, and causes of the spatio-temporal variabilities of the East Asian monsoon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ronghui; Chen, Jilong; Wang, Lin; Lin, Zhongda

    2012-09-01

    Recent advances in the study of the characteristics, processes, and causes of spatio-temporal variabilities of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) system are reviewed in this paper. The understanding of the EAM system has improved in many aspects: the basic characteristics of horizontal and vertical structures, the annual cycle of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) system and the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) system, the characteristics of the spatio-temporal variabilities of the EASM system and the EAWM system, and especially the multiple modes of the EAM system and their spatio-temporal variabilities. Some new results have also been achieved in understanding the atmosphere-ocean interaction and atmosphere-land interaction processes that affect the variability of the EAM system. Based on recent studies, the EAM system can be seen as more than a circulation system, it can be viewed as an atmosphere-ocean-land coupled system, namely, the EAM climate system. In addition, further progress has been made in diagnosing the internal physical mechanisms of EAM climate system variability, especially regarding the characteristics and properties of the East Asia-Pacific (EAP) teleconnection over East Asia and the North Pacific, the "Silk Road" teleconnection along the westerly jet stream in the upper troposphere over the Asian continent, and the dynamical effects of quasi-stationary planetary wave activity on EAM system variability. At the end of the paper, some scientific problems regarding understanding the EAM system variability are proposed for further study.

  8. NW Indian Ocean crustal thickness, micro-continent distribution and ocean-continent transition location from satellite gravity inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusznir, N. J.; Tymms, V.

    2009-04-01

    Satellite gravity anomaly inversion incorporating a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction has been used to determine Moho depth, crustal thickness and lithosphere thinning factor for the NW Indian Ocean and to map ocean-continent transition location (OCT) and micro-continent distribution. Input data is satellite gravity (Sandwell & Smith 1997) and digital bathymetry (Gebco 2003). Crustal thicknesses predicted by gravity inversion under the Seychelles and Mascarenes are in excess of 30 km and form a single micro-continent extending southwards towards Mauritius. Thick crust (> 25 km) offshore SW India is predicted to extend oceanwards under the Lacadive and Maldive Islands and southwards under the Chagos Archipelago. Superposition of illuminated satellite gravity data onto crustal thickness maps from gravity inversion clearly shows pre-separation conjugacy of the thick crust underlying the Chagos and Mascarene Islands. Maps of crustal thickness from gravity inversion show a pronounced discontinuity in crustal thickness between Mauritius-Reunion and the Mascarene Basin which is of Late Cretaceous age and pre-dates recent plume volcanism. Gravity inversion to determine Moho depth and crustal thickness variation is carried out in the 3D spectral domain and incorporates a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction for both oceanic and continental margin lithosphere (Chappell & Kusznir 2008). Failure to incorporate a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction gives a substantial over-estimate of crustal thickness predicted by gravity inversion. The lithosphere thermal model used to predict the lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction may be conditioned using magnetic isochron data to provide the age of oceanic lithosphere (Mueller et al. 1997). The resulting crustal thickness determination and the location of the OCT are sensitive to errors in the magnetic isochron data. An alternative method of inverting satellite gravity to give crustal thickness

  9. The Asian American: The Historical Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hundley, Norris, Jr., Ed.

    The essays in this volume look at Asian Americans, their ideas and ways of life, on their own terms, relating them to both Asian and United States history. Roger Daniels presents an overview of East Asian immigrants through a review of the literature by American historians. An essay by Stanford M. Lyman, which follows, analyzes San Francisco's…

  10. 16 Extraordinary Asian Americans. Student Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    Asian Americans have made many contributions to American life. The 1990 U.S. Census showed that Asian Americans represented about 3% of the total U.S. population. This textbook presents the stories of 16 Asian Americans and their significant accomplishments. Brief biographies are presented of: (1) Daniel K. Inouye, U.S. Senator from Hawaii; (2)…

  11. L-band maritime experiments. [using ATS 6 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandel, D. L.; Kaminsky, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented for the technical experiments conducted by the U.S. Maritime Administration (MARAD) using the ATS-6 satellite operating in the L-band fan beam mode. The MARAD experiments were conducted with satellite terminals placed on two commercial ships for evaluation of the communication service similar to that which will be available with a maritime commercial satellite system. Evaluation of position determination with a satellite was also made. Three modems having voice and digital data and a stabilized shipboard L-band antenna system were assessed. The ship antenna demonstrated successful tracking of the satellites for test period intervals of 4 to 6 hr without the need for operator adjustment. The ship position determination tests showed good measurement repeatability. The data analyzed supported the ability of future commercial satellite systems to achieve a probability of bit error of better than 0.00001.

  12. URANIUM DETECTION USING SMALL SCINTILLATORS IN A MARITIME ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K; Donna Beals, D; Ken Odell, K

    2006-05-12

    The performance of several commercially available portable radiation spectrometers containing small NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors has been studied at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These hand-held radioisotope identifiers are used by field personnel to detect and identify the illegal transport of uranium as a deterrent to undeclared nuclear proliferation or nuclear terrorism. The detection of uranium in a variety of chemical forms and isotopic enrichments presents some unique challenges in the maritime environment. This study was conducted using a variety of shielded and unshielded uranium sources in a simulated maritime environment. The results include estimates of the detection sensitivity for various isotopic enrichments and configurations using the manufacturer's spectral analysis firmware. More sophisticated methods for analyzing the spectra off-line are also evaluated to determine the detection limits and enrichment sensitivities from the field measurements.

  13. Harmonic distortions measured on board of a maritime vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zburlea, Elena; Dordea, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Measurements where performed on four channels by means of an autonomous equipment (galvanic separated and not supplied from the ship's mains) performed on board of some maritime transport vessels, inside the Port of Constanţa aquatorium. Distorted voltages where state in the distribution panels. The sources of those distortions are the switching power supplies of the electric drives. The novelty of our work states in performing those measurements during the inside port maneuvers, when the operating time of each electric equipment is non definable. Harmonic distortions caused by the switching power converters lower the Power Factor. There is no better manner to find out the main distortions sources on board of a maritime transport vessel than to perform the measurements directly, on each location.

  14. Maritime target identification in flash-ladar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armbruster, Walter; Hammer, Marcus

    2012-05-01

    The paper presents new techniques and processing results for automatic segmentation, shape classification, generic pose estimation, and model-based identification of naval vessels in laser radar imagery. The special characteristics of focal plane array laser radar systems such as multiple reflections and intensity-dependent range measurements are incorporated into the algorithms. The proposed 3D model matching technique is probabilistic, based on the range error distribution, correspondence errors, the detection probability of potentially visible model points and false alarm errors. The match algorithm is robust against incomplete and inaccurate models, each model having been generated semi-automatically from a single range image. A classification accuracy of about 96% was attained, using a maritime database with over 8000 flash laser radar images of 146 ships at various ranges and orientations together with a model library of 46 vessels. Applications include military maritime reconnaissance, coastal surveillance, harbor security and anti-piracy operations.

  15. SECURITY MODELING FOR MARITIME PORT DEFENSE RESOURCE ALLOCATION

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, S.; Dunn, D.

    2010-09-07

    Redeployment of existing law enforcement resources and optimal use of geographic terrain are examined for countering the threat of a maritime based small-vessel radiological or nuclear attack. The evaluation was based on modeling conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory that involved the development of options for defensive resource allocation that can reduce the risk of a maritime based radiological or nuclear threat. A diverse range of potential attack scenarios has been assessed. As a result of identifying vulnerable pathways, effective countermeasures can be deployed using current resources. The modeling involved the use of the Automated Vulnerability Evaluation for Risks of Terrorism (AVERT{reg_sign}) software to conduct computer based simulation modeling. The models provided estimates for the probability of encountering an adversary based on allocated resources including response boats, patrol boats and helicopters over various environmental conditions including day, night, rough seas and various traffic flow rates.

  16. Understanding Modern Maritime Piracy: A Complex Adaptive System Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-12

    8. 9 Jonathan Bellish, The Economic Cost of Somali Piracy 2012 (Denver, CO: Oceans Beyond Piracy, One Earth Future Foundation, 2013...Conor Seyle, The Human Cost of Maritime Piracy 2012 (Denver, CO: Oceans Beyond Piracy, One Earth Future Foundation, 2013), www.oceansbeyondpiracy.org...Economic Cost of Somali Piracy 2012. Denver, CO: Oceans Beyond Piracy, One Earth Future Foundation, 2013, www.oceansbeyondpiracy.org (accessed September

  17. Perspectives on Maritime Strategy: Essays from the Americas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    stemming from aspects of the NDP that were previously explained has been brought into the naval scenario by the Chief of Staff of the Navy ( CEMA ), who...discussing the Brazilian Navy’s mission, the CEMA has made a point of clarifying our understanding of such terms as “modern” (consisting of up-to-date...purpose of complying with maritime authority responsibilities. The CEMA has argued that today Brazil is threat free from a military point of view, but

  18. A Maritime Approach to Countering Horn of Africa Piracy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-26

    Scotland UK: Whiterby Publishing Group, 2011), http://www.cusnc.navy.mil/marlo/Guidance/BMP4_web.pdf (accessed 21 Jan 2011). Many maritime vessels...Practices for Protection Against Somali Based Piracy ( Scotland UK: Whiterby Publishing Group, 2011), http://www.cusnc.navy.mil/marlo/Guidance...Kraska, 114. 37 Paulo Prada and Alex Roth , “On the Lawless Seas, It’s Not Easy Putting Somali Pirates in the Dock,” Wall Street Journal, 12 December

  19. Maritime Security Cooperation in the Strait of Malacca

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Banlaoi, “Maritime Security Outlook for Southeast Asia,” The Best of Time, the Worst of Times, ed. Joshua Ho and Catherine Zara Raymond (Singapore...Johor Straits, Singapore’s water supply and the territorial issue of Pedra Branca Islet.51 Singapore had begun to reclaim land through its land...lies first in the fact that Singapore’s primary source of water is Malaysia and in two agreements on the terms and pricing of the supply of untreated

  20. Inference of vessel intent and behaviour for maritime security operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Broek, Bert; Smith, Arthur; den Breejen, Eric; van de Voorde, Imelda

    2014-10-01

    Coastguard and Navy assets are increasingly involved in Maritime Security Operations (MSO) for countering piracy, weapons and drugs smuggling, terrorism and illegal trafficking. Persistent tracking of vessels in interrupted time series over long distances and the modelling of intent and behaviour from multiple data sources are key enablers for Situation Assessment in MSO. Results of situation assessment are presented for AIS/VTS observations in the Dutch North Sea and for simulated scenarios in the Gulf of Oman.

  1. Naval Operations Concept 2010: Implementing the Maritime Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    challenges. NOC 10 describes how naval forces will blend “soft” and “hard” power2 in support of the approach, objectives and enduring national...interdependencies, we task organize Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard resources to achieve the requisite blend of capability, capacity, and legal authorities...maritime safety and security teams with a special operations focus, brings together various specialized incident response, law enforce- ment and security

  2. Unmanned vehicles for maritime spill response case study: Exercise Cathach.

    PubMed

    Dooly, Gerard; Omerdic, Edin; Coleman, Joseph; Miller, Liam; Kaknjo, Admir; Hayes, James; Braga, Jóse; Ferreira, Filipe; Conlon, Hugh; Barry, Hugh; Marcos-Olaya, Jesús; Tuohy, Thomas; Sousa, João; Toal, Dan

    2016-09-15

    This paper deals with two aspects, namely a historical analysis of the use of unmanned vehicles (UAVs ROVs, AUVs) in maritime spill incidents and a detailed description of a multi-agency oil and HNS incident response exercise involving the integration and analysis of unmanned vehicles environmental sensing equipment. The exercise was a first in terms of the level of robotic systems deployed to assist in survey, surveillance and inspection roles for oil spills and harmful and noxious substances.

  3. The Fire Service’s Role in Maritime Homeland Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    attacks.7 Incidents in the marine domain pose significant risk but have a low frequency of occurrence. Marine firefighting requires a separate skills ...The terrorist left Karachi, Pakistan on a cargo vessel, and then hijacked an Indian fishing trawler. The terrorist killed the crew of the fishing...terrorist group that has used maritime attacks over the years includes the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE, commonly known as Tamil Tigers) who

  4. The Aegis BMD Global Enterprise: A High End Maritime Partnership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-13

    THE AEGIS BMD GLOBAL ENTERPRISE Rear Admiral Hicks, USN (Ret.), former command- ing officer of the Aegis cruiser USS Cape St. George (CG 71) and...Corporate Strategy Group at the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific. Dr. Tru- ver is Director, National Security Programs, Gryphon...important element of the nation’s maritime strategy , and it differs from the ballistic-missile submarine in a way that enables Aegis BMD to satisfy

  5. Experimental Sea Slicks in the Marsen (Maritime Remote Sensing) Exercise.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-30

    Experimental slicks with various surface properties were generated in the North Sea as part of the MARSEN (Maritime Remote Sensing ) exercise. The one...with remote sensing instrumentation. Because of the numerous effects of surface films on air-sea interfacial processes, these experiments were designed...information was obtained on the influence of sea surface films on the interpretation of signals received by remote sensing systems. Criteria for the

  6. Wide-Area Persistent Energy-Efficient Maritime Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Arduino-based node that can modulate radar backscatter with data received from a sensor using a low-power Arduino Nano processor . Figure 5 shows a...telemetry of multichannel data from sensors distributed over a wide area. The endurance and coverage area of current maritime sensing methods are...eliminating the need for RF electronics or navigational hardware at the sensors and instead uses a stand-off radar for sensor localization and data

  7. Development of maritime satellite communication aids in the USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniaev, R.; Volodin, V.; Atserov, Iu.; Pcheliakov, L.; D'Iakov, V.

    1987-10-01

    Maritime satellite communications facilities developed in the USSR to meet Inmarsat technical requirements are described. The availability of coast earth station special-purpose software supports such services as teletex reception/transmission, facsimile transmit/receive, store and forward, and relaying of multiple-address messages. The USSR has proposed its Proton rocket as a launch vehicle for a new series of Inmarsat satellites.

  8. Development of an unmanned maritime system reference architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Christiane N.; Cramer, Megan A.; Stack, Jason R.

    2014-06-01

    The concept of operations (CONOPS) for unmanned maritime systems (UMS) continues to envision systems that are multi-mission, re-configurable and capable of acceptable performance over a wide range of environmental and contextual variability. Key enablers for these concepts of operation are an autonomy module which can execute different mission directives and a mission payload consisting of re-configurable sensor or effector suites. This level of modularity in mission payloads enables affordability, flexibility (i.e., more capability with future platforms) and scalability (i.e., force multiplication). The modularity in autonomy facilitates rapid technology integration, prototyping, testing and leveraging of state-of-the-art advances in autonomy research. Capability drivers imply a requirement to maintain an open architecture design for both research and acquisition programs. As the maritime platforms become more stable in their design (e.g. unmanned surface vehicles, unmanned underwater vehicles) future developments are able to focus on more capable sensors and more robust autonomy algorithms. To respond to Fleet needs, given an evolving threat, programs will want to interchange the latest sensor or a new and improved algorithm in a cost effective and efficient manner. In order to make this possible, the programs need a reference architecture that will define for technology providers where their piece fits and how to successfully integrate. With these concerns in mind, the US Navy established the Unmanned Maritime Systems Reference Architecture (UMS-RA) Working Group in August 2011. This group consists of Department of Defense and industry participants working the problem of defining reference architecture for autonomous operations of maritime systems. This paper summarizes its efforts to date.

  9. Increasing Maritime Situational Awareness with Interoperating Distributed Information Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    collision avoidance [1]. It is a self-reporting system and provides time and location information taken automatically from the GPS receiver in near...of AIS to other surveillance systems. Having stated these, , the AIS has its own share of weaknesses. It can be spoofed ; the quality of the...terrorism [1]. Terror attacks by small boats have been identified as one of the most serious threats to the maritime industry [7]. In addition to the

  10. Maritime Mass Rescue Interventions: Availability and Associated Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Australia M/V Motor vessel MES Marine Evacuation System MISLE Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement MMRI Maritime Mass Rescue Intervention...Liferaft Systems Australia Marine Evacuation System Self-righting Liferaft Open Reversible Liferaft (ORL) Lifesaving Systems Corporation ft^tfifl Law...throughout Europe, the Middle East , Asia , and the western Pacific. The conference included an at-sea demonstration of rescue and recovery

  11. Characterizing and Exploring the Implications of Maritime Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    on rivers for mobility. However, we included them in our analysis because they entail the use of maritime capabilities and therefore may inform...forces from flowing by sea between North and South Vietnam. Operation Game Warden was a riverine operation that used river -patrol boats to disrupt VC...supply traffic on the major rivers of the Mekong Delta. Both Market Time and Game Warden were external operations, as defined in Chapter Two. The

  12. Coast Guard Maritime Security in the Underwater Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    MTS maritime transportation security NAVSEA Naval Sea Systems Command NOAS Navigational and Obstacle-Avoidance Sonar NSPD National Security...Avoidance Sonar ( NOAS ) system provides a vessel borne system capable to providing underwater threat detection to vessels in transit. NOAS operates in...Dynamics Canada, 2011) Effectiveness: The NOAS is would be capable of detecting floating objects at or below the surface. In 3-D mode, the NOAS

  13. Coast Guard Maritime Security in the Underwater Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-06

    maritime transportation security NAVSEA Naval Sea Systems Command NOAS Navigational and Obstacle-Avoidance Sonar NSPD National Security Presidential...Avoidance Sonar Sonardyne’s Navigational and Obstacle-Avoidance Sonar ( NOAS ) system provides a vessel borne system capable to providing underwater...threat detection to vessels in transit. NOAS operates in two modes. The 2-dimensional mode provides a 180-degree scan and a range of 1500 meters. The 3

  14. Asian American Curriculum Guide: Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Paul Public Schools, Minn.

    Created as part of an in-service teacher education workshop, this guide for a secondary school Asian American curriculum is divided into a section for junior high students and a section for senior high students. In each section, the same pattern is followed. Lesson plans are arranged by subject and grade and are followed by student worksheets when…

  15. Asian-Americans: Psychological Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sue, Stanley, Ed.; Wagner, Nathaniel N., Ed.

    The contents of this book, the purpose of which is the integration of research findings with impressionistic material to provide a better understanding of Asian-Americans, are organized into five parts. Among the five articles included in Part 1, "Introductory Section," are: "The Jap Image," D. Ogawa; "The Evacuation: Impact on the Family," James…

  16. Entertainment Education in Asian Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett; Singhal, Arvind

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes the main lessons learned from various entertainment-education projects (the process of purposely designing and implementing a media message to both entertain and educate) conducted in Asian nations in recent years. Seeks to draw understandings about the basic process of social change and development that result from the…

  17. South Asians in College Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad-Stout, David J.; Nath, Sanjay R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this article is to provide information on the assessment and treatment of South Asian college students for mental health practitioners. We provide a brief historical review of the cultures from which these students come and the process of migration to the United States and also make recommendations for work with these students in the…

  18. Spatial, Temporal and Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Maritime Piracy

    PubMed Central

    Marchione, Elio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To examine patterns in the timing and location of incidents of maritime piracy to see whether, like many urban crimes, attacks cluster in space and time. Methods: Data for all incidents of maritime piracy worldwide recorded by the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency are analyzed using time-series models and methods originally developed to detect disease contagion. Results: At the macro level, analyses suggest that incidents of pirate attacks are concentrated in five subregions of the earth’s oceans and that the time series for these different subregions differ. At the micro level, analyses suggest that for the last 16 years (or more), pirate attacks appear to cluster in space and time suggesting that patterns are not static but are also not random. Conclusions: Much like other types of crime, pirate attacks cluster in space, and following an attack at one location the risk of others at the same location or nearby is temporarily elevated. The identification of such regularities has implications for the understanding of maritime piracy and for predicting the future locations of attacks. PMID:25076796

  19. Gender, social norms, and survival in maritime disasters.

    PubMed

    Elinder, Mikael; Erixson, Oscar

    2012-08-14

    Since the sinking of the Titanic, there has been a widespread belief that the social norm of "women and children first" (WCF) gives women a survival advantage over men in maritime disasters, and that captains and crew members give priority to passengers. We analyze a database of 18 maritime disasters spanning three centuries, covering the fate of over 15,000 individuals of more than 30 nationalities. Our results provide a unique picture of maritime disasters. Women have a distinct survival disadvantage compared with men. Captains and crew survive at a significantly higher rate than passengers. We also find that: the captain has the power to enforce normative behavior; there seems to be no association between duration of a disaster and the impact of social norms; women fare no better when they constitute a small share of the ship's complement; the length of the voyage before the disaster appears to have no impact on women's relative survival rate; the sex gap in survival rates has declined since World War I; and women have a larger disadvantage in British shipwrecks. Taken together, our findings show that human behavior in life-and-death situations is best captured by the expression "every man for himself."

  20. A century of leishmaniasis in Alpes-Maritimes, France.

    PubMed

    Marty, P; Izri, A; Ozon, C; Haas, P; Rosenthal, E; Del Giudice, P; Godenir, J; Coulibaly, E; Gari-Toussaint, M; Delaunay, P; Ferrua, B; Haas, H; Pratlong, F; Le Fichoux, Y

    2007-10-01

    A century of publications on leishmaniasis in Alpes-Maritimes, in southern France, is here reviewed. Autochtonous human and canine leishmaniasis were first recognised in this département, which lies by the Mediterranean Sea and near the Italian border, in 1918 and 1925, respectively. The parasite responsible for the leishmaniasis, Leishmania infantum, is transmitted by Phlebotomus perniciosus and P. ariasi. The human leishmaniasis is zoonotic, with domestic dogs acting as the main 'reservoir' hosts. In prospective surveys over the last two decades, a mean of 12% of the domestic dogs checked in Alpes-Maritimes have been found seropositive for L. infantum but only about 50% of the seropositive animals showed any clinical signs of infection at the time of the surveys. During the last 30 years, 178 cases of human visceral leishmaniasis have been recorded in the area. Such cases are sporadic and often opportunistic, occurring predominantly in children (29% of the 178 cases) or HIV-positive subjects (31%). Recently, it has been demonstrated that, in Alpes-Maritimes, approximately 20% of those found seropositive in leishmanin skin tests are asymptomatic carriers, with amastigotes in their peripheral blood.

  1. Revision rhinoplasty for the Asian nose.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2008-08-01

    Revision rhinoplasty of the Asian nose requires a combination of cultural sensitivity and unique surgical strategies to achieve a successful outcome. Cultural sensitivity means understanding some of the folkloric motivations to undergo rhinoplasty and divergent ethnic standards of beauty. Basic techniques for Asian rhinoplasty are reviewed as a prerequisite knowledge for revision rhinoplasty of the Asian nose, specifically a combination technique of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene for bridge augmentation and autogenous cartilage tip grafting. Revision Asian nose surgery oftentimes involves removal of a previously placed solid silicone implant, which remains the most popular option for augmentation rhinoplasty in Asia. Strategies for revision rhinoplasty in the Asian nose are then reviewed.

  2. GOCE observations for Mineral exploration in Africa and across continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braitenberg, Carla

    2014-05-01

    The gravity anomaly field over the whole Earth obtained by the GOCE satellite is a revolutionary tool to reveal geologic information on a continental scale for the large areas where conventional gravity measurements have yet to be made (e.g. Alvarez et al., 2012). It is, however, necessary to isolate the near-surface geologic signal from the contributions of thickness variations in the crust and lithosphere and the isostatic compensation of surface relief (e.g. Mariani et al., 2013) . Here Africa is studied with particular emphasis on selected geological features which are expected to appear as density inhomogeneities. These include cratons and fold belts in the Precambrian basement, the overlying sedimentary basins and magmatism, as well as the continental margins. Regression analysis between gravity and topography shows coefficients that are consistently positive for the free air gravity anomaly and negative for the Bouguer gravity anomaly (Braitenberg et al., 2013; 2014). The error and scatter on the regression is smallest in oceanic areas, where it is a possible tool for identifying changes in crustal type. The regression analysis allows the large gradient in the Bouguer anomaly signal across continental margins to be removed. After subtracting the predicted effect of known topography from the original Bouguer anomaly field, the residual field shows a continent-wide pattern of anomalies that can be attributed to regional geological structures. A few of these are highlighted, such as those representing Karoo magmatism, the Kibalian foldbelt, the Zimbabwe Craton, the Cameroon and Tibesti volcanic deposits, the Benue Trough and the Luangwa Rift. A reconstruction of the pre-break up position of Africa, South and North America is made for the residual GOCE gravity field obtaining today's gravity field of the plates forming West Gondwana. The reconstruction allows the positive and negative anomalies to be compared across the continental fragments, and so helps

  3. A model of weathering intensity for the Australian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilford, J.

    2013-12-01

    Regolith encompasses all weathered materials in the zone between the Earth's surface and fresh bedrock at depth. This weathered zone includes the soil, which may constitute the whole of the regolith profile or represent only its upper part. Important hydrological and biogeochemical processes operate within the regolith, including the infiltration and storage of near-surface water and nutrients, which sustain agricultural productivity. The degree to which the regolith is weathered (or its weathering intensity) is intrinsically linked to the factors involved in soil formation including parent material, climate, topography, biota and time. The degree to which the bedrock or sediments are weathered has a significant effect on the nature and distribution of regolith materials. There is commonly a strong correlation between weathering intensity and the degree of soil development as well as the depth of the weathering front. Changes in weathering intensity correspond to changes in the geochemical and physical properties of bedrock, ranging from essentially unweathered parent materials through to intensely weathered and leached regolith where all traits of the original protolith (original unweathered rock) are overprinted or lost altogether. With increasing weathering intensity we see mineral and geochemical convergence to more resistant secondary weathered materials including clay, silica, and various oxides. A weathering intensity index (WII) over the Australian continent has been developed at a 100 m resolution using two regression models based on airborne gamma-ray spectrometry imagery and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry measures the concentration of three radioelements -- potassium (K), thorium (Th) and uranium (U) at the Earth's surface. The total gamma-ray flux (dose) is also calculated based on the weighted additions of the three radioelements. In general K is leached with increasing weathering whereas Th

  4. Health Care Expenditures Among Asian American Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Ortega, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    Using two nationally representative data sets, this study examined health care expenditure disparities between Caucasians and different Asian American subgroups. Multivariate analyses demonstrate that Asian Americans, as a group, have significantly lower total expenditures compared with Caucasians. Results also point to considerable heterogeneities in health care spending within Asian American subgroups. Findings suggest that language assistance programs would be effective in reducing disparities among Caucasians and Asian American subgroups with the exception of Indians and Filipinos, who tend to be more proficient in English. Results also indicate that citizenship and nativity were major factors associated with expenditure disparities. Socioeconomic status, however, could not explain expenditure disparities. Results also show that Asian Americans have lower physician and pharmaceutical costs but not emergency department or hospital expenditures. These findings suggest the need for culturally competent policies specific to Asian American subgroups and the necessity to encourage cost-effective treatments among Asian Americans. PMID:23223329

  5. Health care expenditures among Asian American subgroups.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Ortega, Alexander N

    2013-06-01

    Using two nationally representative data sets, this study examined health care expenditure disparities between Caucasians and different Asian American subgroups. Multivariate analyses demonstrate that Asian Americans, as a group, have significantly lower total expenditures compared with Caucasians. Results also point to considerable heterogeneities in health care spending within Asian American subgroups. Findings suggest that language assistance programs would be effective in reducing disparities among Caucasians and Asian American subgroups with the exception of Indians and Filipinos, who tend to be more proficient in English. Results also indicate that citizenship and nativity were major factors associated with expenditure disparities. Socioeconomic status, however, could not explain expenditure disparities. Results also show that Asian Americans have lower physician and pharmaceutical costs but not emergency department or hospital expenditures. These findings suggest the need for culturally competent policies specific to Asian American subgroups and the necessity to encourage cost-effective treatments among Asian Americans.

  6. Maritime Tactical Unmanned Aerial Systems (TUAS) in Navy Strike Groups Can Improve Maritime Domain Awareness for the Operational Commander

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-31

    failures and the inability to protect the homeland, resulting in sweeping changes to correct both.4 As part of these corrective actions, President...years ( 2017 ). This MDA Concept acknowledges the Navy’s growing operational focus beyond traditional blue water threats and activities to a more non...shortfalls are at the heart of the Navy’s challenges in achieving MDA. NAVY’S MARITIME DOMAIN AWARENESS CHALLENGES MDA requirements have

  7. Determination of High-Speed Multiple Threat Using Kalman Filter Analysis of Maritime Movement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    HIGH-SPEED MULTIPLE THREAT USING KALMAN FILTER ANALYSIS OF MARITIME MOVEMENT by Joseph L. Carnes June 2015 Thesis Advisor: David A. Garren...USING KALMAN FILTER ANALYSIS OF MARITIME MOVEMENT 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Joseph L. Carnes 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...is unlimited DETERMINATION OF HIGH-SPEED MULTIPLE THREAT USING KALMAN FILTER ANALYSIS OF MARITIME MOVEMENT Joseph L. Carnes Submitted in

  8. A Mature Maritime Strategy for Africa to Meet National Security Goals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-17

    ABSTRACT U.S. maritime security and counter-piracy operations in the Somali Basin are informed by an immature strategy that...maritime assets. Vast U.S. resources have been and are still employed at the operational level, chasing a Somali Basin problem (piracy) that affects...interests. West Africa merits significant U.S. prioritization over the ongoing maritime operations in the Somali Basin . This paper will show that the

  9. 76 FR 30154 - Maritime Communications/Land Mobile, LLC, Licensee of Various Authorizations in the Wireless...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...This document commences a hearing proceeding to determine ultimately whether Maritime Communications/Land Mobile, LLC (Maritime) is qualified to be and to remain a Commission licensee, and as a consequence whether any or all of its licenses should be revoked, and whether any or all of the applications to which Maritime is a party should be denied. The issues designated for hearing also include......

  10. Volcanic passive margins: another way to break up continents

    PubMed Central

    Geoffroy, L.; Burov, E. B.; Werner, P.

    2015-01-01

    Two major types of passive margins are recognized, i.e. volcanic and non-volcanic, without proposing distinctive mechanisms for their formation. Volcanic passive margins are associated with the extrusion and intrusion of large volumes of magma, predominantly mafic, and represent distinctive features of Larges Igneous Provinces, in which regional fissural volcanism predates localized syn-magmatic break-up of the lithosphere. In contrast with non-volcanic margins, continentward-dipping detachment faults accommodate crustal necking at both conjugate volcanic margins. These faults root on a two-layer deformed ductile crust that appears to be partly of igneous nature. This lower crust is exhumed up to the bottom of the syn-extension extrusives at the outer parts of the margin. Our numerical modelling suggests that strengthening of deep continental crust during early magmatic stages provokes a divergent flow of the ductile lithosphere away from a central continental block, which becomes thinner with time due to the flow-induced mechanical erosion acting at its base. Crustal-scale faults dipping continentward are rooted over this flowing material, thus isolating micro-continents within the future oceanic domain. Pure-shear type deformation affects the bulk lithosphere at VPMs until continental breakup, and the geometry of the margin is closely related to the dynamics of an active and melting mantle. PMID:26442807

  11. The antegrade continence enema procedure and total anorectal reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zbar, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Patients may present with anal incontinence (AI) following repair of a congenital anorectal anomaly years previously, or require total anorectal reconstruction (TAR) following radical rectal extirpation, most commonly for rectal cancer. Others may require removal of their colostomy following sphincter excision for Fournier's gangrene, or in cases of severe perineal trauma. Most of the data pertaining to antegrade continence enema (the ACE or Malone procedure) comes from the pediatric literature in the management of children with AI, but also with supervening chronic constipation, where the quality of life and compliance with this technique appears superior to retrograde colonic washouts. Total anorectal reconstruction requires an anatomical or physical supplement to the performance of a perineal colostomy, which may include an extrinsic muscle interposition (which may or may not be ‘dynamized'), construction of a neorectal reservoir, implantation of an incremental artificial bowel sphincter or creation of a terminal, smooth-muscle neosphincter. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and their outcome are presented here. PMID:24759342

  12. "Broken heart syndrome" after separation (from OxyContin).

    PubMed

    Rivera, Juanita M; Locketz, Adam J; Fritz, Kevin D; Horlocker, Terese T; Lewallen, David G; Prasad, Abhiram; Bresnahan, John F; Kinney, Michelle O

    2006-06-01

    We describe a 61-year-old woman with "broken heart syndrome" (Takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy) after abrupt postsurgical withdrawal of OxyContin. Her medical history was remarkable for long-term opiold dependence associated with the treatment of multi-Joint degenerative osteoarthritis. The patient presented to the emergency department 1 day after discharge from the hospital following total knee arthroplasty revision with acute-onset dyspnea and mild chest pain. She had precordial ST-segment elevation characteristic of acute myocardial infarction and elevated cardiac biomarkers. Emergency coronary angiography revealed no major coronary atherosclerosis. However, the left ventricular ejection fraction was severely decreased (26%), and new regional wall motion abnormalities typical of broken heart syndrome were noted. In addition to resuming her opioid therapy, she was treated supportively with bilevel positive airway pressure, diuretic therapy, morphine, aspirin, metoprolol, enalaprilat, intravenous heparin, nitroglycerin infusion, and dopamine infusion. Ventricular systolic function recovered completely by the fourth hospital day. To our knowledge, broken heart syndrome after opioid withdrawal has not been reported previously in an adult. Our case illustrates the importance of continuing adequate opiate therapy perioperatively in the increasing number of opioid-dependent patients to prevent potentially life-threatening complications such as broken heart syndrome.

  13. The ocean-continent transition of western Iberia

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmarsh, R.B.; Miles, P.R.; Pinheiro, L.M. ); Boillot, G. ); Recq, M. )

    1991-08-01

    The western continental margin of the Iberian peninsular has the characteristic of a rifted non-volcanic continental margin with half-graben and tilted fault blocks seen in several places on multichannel seismic reflection profiles. The ocean-continent transition (OCT) is therefore expected to be where thinned continental crust and oceanic crust are juxtaposed, as elsewhere. The authors located the OCT off western Iberia in order to constrain the pre-lift fit of Iberia to North America. This fit is only marginally constrained by sea-floor spreading magnetic anomalies because the Cretaceous constant polarity interval is adjacent to the OCT. Thinned continental crust can be distinguished from oceanic crust by the nature of the lower crustal velocity structure. In 1986-1987, a series of seismic refraction profiles was shot across three parts of the Iberian Abyssal Plain, the OCT can be detected not only from seismic velocities but also by modeling magnetic anomalies. The chosen location of the OCT is consistent with the interpretation of subsequently acquired multichannel profiles. Off Galicia Bank, the OCT, recognized from seismic velocities and multichannel profiles, corresponds to a seabed peridotite ridge, which has been extensively sampled. In the Tagus Abyssal Plain, limited seismic data gives a less clear picture of the OCT.

  14. Capillary zone electrophoresis of humic acids from the American continent.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Maria de Lourdes; Havel, Josef

    2002-01-01

    A multicomponent background electrolyte (BGE) was developed and its composition optimized using artificial neural networks (ANN). The optimal BGE composition was found to be 90 mM boric acid, 115 mM Tris, and 0.75 mM EDTA (pH 8.4). A separation voltage of 20 kV, 20 degrees C and detection at 210 nm were used. The method was applied to characterize several humic acids originating from various countries of the American continent: soil (Argentina), peat (Brazil), leonardite (Guatemala and Mexico) and coal (United States). Comparison with humic acids of International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) standard samples was also done. Well reproducible electropherograms showing a relatively high number of peaks were obtained. Characterization of the samples by elemental analysis and UV spectrophotometry was also done. In spite of the very different origins, the similarities between humic acids are high and by matrix assisted desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF)-mass spectrometry it was shown that most of the m/z patterns are the same in all humic acids. This means that humic acids of different origin have the same structural units or that they contain the same components.

  15. Volcanic passive margins: another way to break up continents.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, L; Burov, E B; Werner, P

    2015-10-07

    Two major types of passive margins are recognized, i.e. volcanic and non-volcanic, without proposing distinctive mechanisms for their formation. Volcanic passive margins are associated with the extrusion and intrusion of large volumes of magma, predominantly mafic, and represent distinctive features of Larges Igneous Provinces, in which regional fissural volcanism predates localized syn-magmatic break-up of the lithosphere. In contrast with non-volcanic margins, continentward-dipping detachment faults accommodate crustal necking at both conjugate volcanic margins. These faults root on a two-layer deformed ductile crust that appears to be partly of igneous nature. This lower crust is exhumed up to the bottom of the syn-extension extrusives at the outer parts of the margin. Our numerical modelling suggests that strengthening of deep continental crust during early magmatic stages provokes a divergent flow of the ductile lithosphere away from a central continental block, which becomes thinner with time due to the flow-induced mechanical erosion acting at its base. Crustal-scale faults dipping continentward are rooted over this flowing material, thus isolating micro-continents within the future oceanic domain. Pure-shear type deformation affects the bulk lithosphere at VPMs until continental breakup, and the geometry of the margin is closely related to the dynamics of an active and melting mantle.

  16. Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring of butyltin contamination in coastal waters of Asian developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Takahashi, Shin; Monirith, In; Ismail, Ahmad; Muchtar, Muswerry; Zheng, Jinshu; Richardson, Bruce J; Subramanian, Annamalai; Prudente, Maricar; Hue, Nguyen Duc; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2002-10-01

    Butyltin compounds (BTs) including mono-, di-, and tributyltin and total tin (sigmaSn), were determined in green mussels (Perna viridis) from various Asian developing countries, such as Cambodia, China (Hong Kong and southern China), Malaysia, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam, to elucidate the contamination status, distribution, and possible sources and to assess the risks on aquatic organisms and humans. Butyltin compounds were detected in green mussels collected from all the sampling location investigated, suggesting widespread contamination of BTs along the coastal waters of Asian developing countries. Among butyltin derivatives, tributyltin (TBT) was the predominant compound, indicating its ongoing usage and recent exposures in Asian coastal waters. Higher concentrations of BTs were found in mussels collected at locations with intensive maritime activities, implying that the usage of TBT as a biocide in antifouling paints was a major source of BTs. In addition, relatively high concentrations of BTs were observed in mussels from aquaculture areas in Hong Kong and Malaysia, as it has been reported in Thailand. With the recent improvement in economic status in Asia, it is probable that an increase in TBT usage will occur in aquaculture. Although contamination levels were generally low in mussel samples from most of the Asian developing countries, some of those from polluted areas in Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand revealed levels comparable to those in developed nations. Furthermore, the concentrations of TBT in some mussels from polluted areas exceeded the threshold for toxic effects on organisms and estimated tolerable average residue levels as seafoods for human consumption. A significant correlation was observed between the concentrations of sigmaBTs and sigmaSn in mussels, and sigmaBTs were made up mostly 100% of sigmaSn in mussels taken from locations having intensive maritime/human activities. This suggests that

  17. Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic Geological Evolution of Mongolia: Constraints on Modes of "Crustal Growth" in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, F. A.; Bold, U.; Smith, E.; Olin, P. H.; Crowley, J. L.; Schmitz, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is widely considered the largest area of Phanerozoic juvenile crustal growth on Earth. However, the timing and nature of the orogenic events in the core of the CAOB in Mongolia has remained poorly constrained due to a dearth of detailed geological and geochronological studies. To bridge this gap and test models of crustal growth, here we refine the sequencing of geological events by focusing on the formation and destruction of Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic tectonic basins. Mongolia's basins record a complete Neoproterozoic to Cambrian Wilson cycle with rifting of the Mongolian continent at ca. 700 Ma, the development of a Cryogenian to Ediacaran thermally subsiding passive margin, an arc-continent collision at ca. 520 Ma, and a continent-arc-continent collision at ca. 500 Ma. During this collisional orogeny, that is the Cambrian Altaids, crustal growth occurred largely through the obduction of ophiolites. Rifting of the southern margin occurred during the Ordovician Period, with the development of a Silurian passive margin. Oblique northwest-dipping subduction was initiated during the Devonian and resulted in a transpressional accretionary orogen. The CAOB culminated with a continent-arc-continent collision and the accretion of the North China and Tarim Blocks in the latest Permian. The Devonian to early Permian accretionary orogen is associated not only with voluminous plutonism, but also, major translational structures oblique to the margin resulting in the appearance of many accreted terranes. These data are consistent with existing coarse Hf and Nd isotopic data, but also provide a framework for future detailed studies. Although our geological constraints suggest distinct periods of apparent crustal growth through either collisional or accretionary orogenies, net crustal growth after accounting for recycling is equivocal.

  18. Corridor use by Asian elephants.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wenjing; Lin, Liu; Luo, Aidong; Zhang, Li

    2009-06-01

    There are 18 km of Kunming-Bangkok Highway passing through the Mengyang Nature Reserve of Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province, China. From September 2005 to September 2006 the impact of this highway on movement of wild Asian elephants between the eastern and western part of the nature reserve was studied using track transecting, rural surveys and direct monitoring. Our results showed that the number of crossroad corridors used by Asian elephants diminished from 28 to 23 following the construction of the highway. In some areas, the elephant activity diminished or even disappeared, which indicated a change in their home ranges. The utilization rate of artificial corridors was 44%. We also found that elephants preferred artificial corridors that were placed along their original corridors. During the research, wild elephants revealed their adaptation to the highway. They were found walking across the highway road surface many times and for different reasons. We suggest that the highway management bureau should revise their management strategies to mitigate the potential risks caused by elephants on the road for the safety of the public and to protect this endangered species from harm. It is also very important to protect and maintain current Asian elephants corridors in this region.

  19. Asian Rhinoplasty with Rib Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myung Ju; Song, Hyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    An Asian rhinoplasty is one of the most popular procedures in plastic surgery. The anatomical characteristics of the Asian nose are quite different from those of other races, including low dorsum height, short columella, a thick soft tissue covering on the tip with flaccid lower lateral cartilage, and a sunken midface with relative protrusion of the mouth due to maxilla or premaxillary retrusion. For augmentation and lengthening of the nose, a silicone implant has been commonly used in Asian countries. However, many patients suffer from silicone-related complications, which induce soft tissue contraction and deform the already fragile nasal structure. Additionally, revision surgery is also increasing in frequency due to greater patient sophistication and higher expectation that the end rhinoplasty result to be more harmonious with the patient's overall facial structure. In these circumstances, a rhinoplasty using autologous rib cartilage, giving strong support and enough amount of the cartilage to correct deformed structure and midface skeletal retrusion. If properly performed with enough experience, a rib cartilage rhinoplasty will provide excellent and long-lasting results with low risk. PMID:26648806

  20. The Rise of Continents and the Transition Archean to Proterozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, P. F.; Flament, N.; Coltice, N.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial planets evolve in part via partial melting and gravitational differentiation, and in part via fluid/rock interactions at the surface. Mass and energy transfers across their various envelopes depend on the mode of convective motion, which may involve stagnant or mobile lid systems, for which plate tectonics is a possible mode; one promoting the coupling between exogenic and endogenic envelopes. In the other hand, fluid/rock interaction at the surface depends on the planet hypsometry and availability of weathering agents such as liquid water. It also depends on fluid/rock interaction at mid-oceanic ridge and therefore on the mode of convection. Hence, from 4.54 to 2.5 Ga the interplay between deep and surface processes under the forcing of secular cooling was such that the Earth differentiation was non-linear with sudden crises that punctuated periods of relative quietness. The Earth secular cooling impacted on deep and surface processes through the modulation of the Earth's hypsometry. This modulation occurred via cooling and strengthening of the lithosphere (Rey and Coltice, Geology, 2008), and via the deepening of oceanic basin, which lowered the mean sea level forcing the continents to emerge (Flament et al., EPSL, 2008). Stronger lithospheres are able to sustain higher orogenic belts and orogenic plateaux, the erosion of which lead to stronger fluxes towards the ocean. Secular strengthening and emergence conspired to enhance weathering and erosion of the continents and therefore to enhance the geochemical coupling between the endogenic and exogenic Earth's envelopes (Rey and Coltice, Geology, 2008). The shift to the aerobic world, at the Archean to Proterozic transition, took place at a time when exogenic envelopes recorded major shifts in composition (eg. Taylor and McLennan, Rev. of Geophys., 1995; Veizer and Compston, Geochem. Cosmochem Acta, 1976; Valley et al., Contrib. to Mineral. Petrol., 2005) that are consistent with the progressive exposure

  1. Wetland dynamics influence mid-continent duck recruitment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, Michael J.; Pearse, Aaron T.; Szymankski, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Recruitment is a key factor influencing duck population dynamics. Understanding what regulates recruitment of ducks is a prerequisite to informed habitat and harvest management. Quantity of May ponds (MP) has been linked to recruitment and population size (Kaminski and Gluesing 1987, Raveling and Heitmeyer 1989). However, wetland productivity (quality) is driven by inter-annual hydrological fluctuations. Periodic drying of wetlands due to wet-dry climate cycles releases nutrients and increases invertebrate populations when wet conditions return (Euliss et al. 1999). Wetlands may also become wet or dry within a breeding season. Accordingly, inter-annual and intra-seasonal hydrologic variation potentially influence duck recruitment. Here, we examined influences of wetland quantity, quality, and intra-seasonal dynamics on recruitment of ducks. We indexed duck recruitment by vulnerability-corrected age ratios (juveniles/adult females) for mid-continent Gadwall (Anas strepera). We chose Gadwall because the majority of the continental population breeds in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR), where annual estimates of MP exist since 1974. We indexed wetland quality by calculating change in MP (?MP) over the past two years (?MP = 0.6[MPt – MPt-1] + 0.4[MPt – MPt-2]). We indexed intra-seasonal change in number of ponds by dividing the PPR mean standardized precipitation index for July by MP (hereafter summer index). MP and ?MP were positively correlated (r = 0.65); therefore, we calculated residual ?MP (?MPr) with a simple linear regression using MP, creating orthogonal variables. Finally, we conducted a multiple regression to examine how MP, ?MPr, and summer index explained variation in recruitment of Gadwall from 1976–2010. Our model explained 67% of the variation in mid-continent Gadwall recruitment and all three hydrologic indices were positively correlated with recruitment (Figure 1). Type II semi-partial R2 estimates indicated that MP accounted for 41%, ?MPr

  2. Drifting continents and endemic goitre in northern Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, A G

    1990-01-01

    Although Baltistan, north east Pakistan, is in a region of iodine deficiency disorders, the distribution of goitre within the district, according to age and sex, has not been clearly defined. To establish the prevalence of the condition and to measure the reported difference in prevalence in the north and south of the district thyroid size was assessed in new patients attending the Aman clinic, Khapalu, and outlying areas between April and September from 1981 to 1986. Samples of potable water collected from villages were analysed for iodine (as iodide) concentrations in Britain. Population weighted prevalences were: in the north in males 20.4%, in females 28.1% and in the south in males 13.9%, in females 21.2%. There was an overall deficiency of iodine in the water (mean iodine (as iodide) concentrations (north) 11.0 nmol/l (1.4 micrograms/l), (south) 11.8 nmol/l (1.5 micrograms/l) (95% confidence interval -0.7 to 0.9). The differences followed the Main Karakoram Thrust, suggesting a geological goitrogen in the north, which might be minerals containing ions such as BF4- and SO3F-, and molybdenite and calcium, which are present in rocks in Baltistan. A new hypothesis for the genesis of endemic goitre is proposed--that is, that continents on crustal plates drift across the earth and collide, one plate sliding under the other and melting, giving rise to characteristic mineral assemblages in the overlying rocks. As the minerals weather out they enter the diet of the local population, where in the presence of iodine deficiency they produce or enhance iodine deficiency disorders. Despite the current iodised oil campaign by the Pakistani government with Unicef a long term working iodisation programme is still urgently needed. PMID:2372605

  3. Deep Upwelling Beneath the Northeastern Afro-Arabian Continent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cara, M.; Wittlinger, G.; Debayle, E.; Sieminski, A.; Montagner, J. P.; Lepine, J. C.

    2003-12-01

    A large low shear-wave velocity anomaly is observed at upper-mantle depths beneath the northeastern Afro-Arabian continent, from the Turkana depression, South-West of Ethiopia, to the Red sea and South of Arabia. The question of connection between this anomaly and a source of material rising from the lower mantle is of major concern for understanding how a plume associated with the African superswell could interact with the upper mantle structure in the region. Thanks to the deployment of five broadband stations in Ethiopia and Yemen (INSU-RLBM), complementing several sets of broad-band stations in Arabia, Ethiopia and Djibouti (IRIS, Geoscope, PASSCAL) we address this question by using two broadband seismological tools: 1) higher-mode surface wave tomography and 2) receiver function technique. Higher-mode surface waves tomography shows a clear low shear-wave velocity anomaly down to 400 km depth beneath the Ethiopian plateau and the Afar depression. In a paper by Debayle et al. (2001), no continuity of this anomaly with a deeper low-velocity anomaly is observed beneath Ethiopia. Instead, a deeper low-velocity anomaly (down to ~500-600 km depth) was observed farther north beneath the Red Sea and South of Arabia, suggesting a possible link with lower mantle material rising there. Applying a SVD receiver function technique to a set of broad-band records from Arabia to Ethiopia, including Yemen, we discuss the above suggestion by looking at the seismic discontinuities of the upper-mantle transition zone.

  4. Stratigraphy, structure, and extent of the East Continent Rift Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Wickstrom, L.H. )

    1992-01-01

    The proven existence of pre-Mt. Simon sedimentary rocks named the Middle Run Formation in southwestern Ohio led to the establishment of the Cincinnati Arch Consortium, a joint industry-government partnership to investigate the areal extent, nature, and origin of this new unit. Utilizing available well, seismic, and potential-field data, the consortium has shown that the Middle Run was deposited in a Precambrian rift basin, named the East Continent Rift Basin (ECRB). These data indicate the ECRB assemblage consists of a large folded and faulted wedge of interlayered volcanic and sedimentary rocks, unconformably overlain by Cambrian strata. This wedge is estimated to be thickest (up to about 22,000 feet) on the western edge, where it is in fault contact with Grenville Province rocks. To the west, the ECRB may extend as far as central Illinois and postdates the Precambrian Granite-Rhyolite Province rocks. The contact between the ECRB and this older province appears to be in part an angular unconformity and in part block faulted. The northern limit of this basin was not encountered in the study area; this may indicate a connection with the Midcontinent Rift in Michigan. In central Kentucky, the boundary conditions are more complex. It appears that the ECRB is constricted between a large block of the Granite-Rhyolite Province to the west and the Grenville Front on the east. Large Cambrian extensional structures (Rough Creek Graben and Rome Trough) were overprinted on the Granite-Rhyolite and Grenville Provinces. The ECRB may have acted as a stable block between these Cambrian features. The relationships of the ECRB to overlying Paleozoic features may be profound. Indeed, the ECRB may prove to be the reason for the very existence of the Cincinnati and Kankakee Arches.

  5. Drifting continents and endemic goitre in northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Stewart, A G

    1990-06-09

    Although Baltistan, north east Pakistan, is in a region of iodine deficiency disorders, the distribution of goitre within the district, according to age and sex, has not been clearly defined. To establish the prevalence of the condition and to measure the reported difference in prevalence in the north and south of the district thyroid size was assessed in new patients attending the Aman clinic, Khapalu, and outlying areas between April and September from 1981 to 1986. Samples of potable water collected from villages were analysed for iodine (as iodide) concentrations in Britain. Population weighted prevalences were: in the north in males 20.4%, in females 28.1% and in the south in males 13.9%, in females 21.2%. There was an overall deficiency of iodine in the water (mean iodine (as iodide) concentrations (north) 11.0 nmol/l (1.4 micrograms/l), (south) 11.8 nmol/l (1.5 micrograms/l) (95% confidence interval -0.7 to 0.9). The differences followed the Main Karakoram Thrust, suggesting a geological goitrogen in the north, which might be minerals containing ions such as BF4- and SO3F-, and molybdenite and calcium, which are present in rocks in Baltistan. A new hypothesis for the genesis of endemic goitre is proposed--that is, that continents on crustal plates drift across the earth and collide, one plate sliding under the other and melting, giving rise to characteristic mineral assemblages in the overlying rocks. As the minerals weather out they enter the diet of the local population, where in the presence of iodine deficiency they produce or enhance iodine deficiency disorders. Despite the current iodised oil campaign by the Pakistani government with Unicef a long term working iodisation programme is still urgently needed.

  6. Jurassic paleopole controversy: Contributions from the Atlantic-bordering continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Voo, Rob

    1992-11-01

    The Early-early Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous mean paleopoles for North America, Europe, South America, and Africa are very well grouped in appropriate continental reconstructions, but the intervening late Middle and Late Jurassic segment of the apparent polar wander path (APWP) is poorly defined and controversial. The available paleopoles, reconstructed for the partial opening of the central Atlantic Ocean, form a scattered grouping with no coherent age patterns, illustrating that they do not constitute a robust data set. Uncertainties in the reconstruction parameters between North America and Europe also play a role. However, excellent paleomagnetic results exist for tectonic elements near the margin of west Gondwana that are unlikely to have been significantly displaced with respect to cratonic Africa and South America. These results have not previously been used for APWP reconstructions, because local rotations are thought to have deflected the paleopoles in many cases. The inclinations of such results, however, can be used to determine a locus of paleopole positions. Paleopole loci for about 150 and 170 Ma were determined from results from Spain, Italy, Lebanon, and the Chilean Andes, and these were rotated with appropriate parameters to give locus intersections in North American coordinates. A late Middle Jurassic (early Callovian) best estimate of the paleopole in North American coordinates is located at about lat 70°N, long 135°E, and a Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) best estimate is located at about 70°N, 155°E. The resulting Jurassic-Early Cretaceous APWP follows roughly the 70th parallel, passing through the middle of the scattered individual paleopoles from the cratonic parts of the Atlantic-bordering continents.

  7. Single mode continous wave GaAs quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, Gottfried

    2001-03-01

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are powerful light emitters in the mid infrared. We fabricated GaAs-based first order and second order distributed feedback lasers to achieve single mode emission. The emission wavelength is continuously tunable according to the temperature dependence of the effective refractive index, which shifts the Bragg wavelength. For the continous-wave operation achieved from first order DFB structures the active material consists of 40 periods of an AlAs/GaAs chirped superlattice, grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy. A double plasmon enhanced waveguide is used for vertical optical confinement, lateral electrical and optical confinement is achieved by deep etched ridges. The Bragg grating is defined by contact lithography and etched into the surface of the top cladding layer, thus avoiding the need of regrowth. Single mode emission at 11.8 microns is observed for pulsed mode operation and for continuous-wave operation. The emission wavelength depends on the laser current, because of the electrical heating in the active material. We derive the effective temperature in the laser cavity from the emission wavelength. We use the measured dependence of the emission wavelength from the heat sink temperature in pulsed-mode operation, where the effective temperature change within a pulse can be neglected and the average heat load is low. Additionally, single mode emission from electrically pumped QCL micro-cavities (circular and deformed cross sections) and monolithic GaAs/AlGaAs QCLs with self-aligned Focused Ion Beam cut coupled cavities are demonstrated. Deep FIB etched Bragg reflectors can be used to increase the reflectivity. This work is supported by the European Project SUPERSMILE.

  8. Preparation of northern mid-continent petroleum atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard, L.C.; Carr, T.R.; Watney, W.L.

    1997-02-13

    The prototype Digital Petroleum Atlas (DPA) Project is part of a long-term effort to develop a new methodology to provide efficient and timely access to the latest petroleum data and technology for the domestic oil and gas industry, public sector research organizations and local governmental units. The DPA provides real-time access through the Internet using widely available tools such as World-Wide-Web browsers. The latest technologies and information are published electronically when individual project components are completed removing the lag and expense of transferring technology using traditional paper publication. Active links, graphical user interfaces and database search mechanisms of the DPA provide a product with which the operator can interact in ways that are impossible in the paper publication. Contained in the DPA are forms of publication that can only be displayed in an electronic environment (for example, animated exploration histories through time). Improvement in data and technology access for the domestic petroleum industry represents one of the best and cost-effective options that is available for mitigating the continued decline in domestic production. The prototype DPA concentrated on developing methodologies and computerized procedures to generate and to publish a limited set of field and play studies concentrated in Kansas and to a lesser extent the Northern Mid-continent. Access is provided through the DPA to previously existing and new regional, play, field and individual well information. Methodologies, developed in year one of the prototype DPA Project, provide a published product and ongoing technology transfer activity that is continuously updated with the latest information and technology.

  9. Architecture and Kinematics of the Taiwan Arc-Continent Collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carena, S.; Suppe, J.; Wu, Y. M.; Kanda, R. V. S.

    2014-12-01

    In Taiwan two subduction zones come together in quasi-orthogonal, kinematically stable configuration. Under Taiwan the upper crust of Eurasia is decoupled from the rest of the lithosphere by a detachment that forms the main subduction interface between Eurasia (EU) and Philippine Sea plate (PSP). This interface is visible in both seismicity and crustal tomography at shallow depths and can be followed into the mantle to depths of 450-500 km using global tomography. The plate interface between EU and PSP in the upper 100 km changes from about 60 degrees in the south to vertical (south-central Taiwan) to overturned (north-central Taiwan). The Eurasian Moho is similarly folded, but it does not overturn. Shortening across the plate boundary is accomplished by a combination of subduction of Eurasian lithosphere, folding and thrusting in the Eurasian upper crust, and a secondary subduction zone within the PSP. We hypothesize that: (1) once arc-continent collision occurs, subduction of Eurasian continental lower crust and upper mantle can continue by lithospheric delamination and by continuity with the much larger Eurasian slab to the south; (2) the upper crust of EU deforms by faulting and folding; (3) the present convergence rate of about 90 mm/yr is limited to the last 2 Ma, whereas the long-term rate is about 30 mm/yr and in Taiwan the difference is being taken up by secondary subduction within the PSP margin; (4) a margin-parallel STEP (Subduction-Transform-Edge-Propagator) fault forms the northern limit of Eurasian subduction, which allows the whole system to propagate self-similarly southwestward.

  10. Organic geochemistry of mid-continent Ordovician oils

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    Early Paleozoic oils retain the biochemical imprint of oceanic life prior to evolution of land plants and vertebrates. Thus, these oils have geochemical features which make them unique with respect to younger oils, but also share some common properties with the latter. Characteristic mid-continent Ordovician oil features include predominance of n-C/sub 14/ to n-C/sub 19/ over n-C/sub 20/+ alkanes in the C/sub 15/+ saturate hydrocarbon fraction, low amounts of isoprenoids and abundant C/sub 27/ and C/sub 29/ diasteranes relative to normal steranes. Properties common to both Ordovician and younger oils are: nearly equal amounts of C/sub 15/+ n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics and pristane/phytane ratios of 0.7 to 1.6. Collectively, these Ordovician oils have a relatively negative stable carbon isotopic composition but are not unique with respect to other marine oils. Although terpane distributions are generally similar to geologically-younger oils, the Ordovician oils contain significant amounts of C/sub 19/, C/sub 20/, and C/sub 21/ tricyclic diterpanes relative to the C/sub 23/ homolog as well as large contributions by C/sub 31/+ pentacyclic triterpanes. Presence of long-chained n-alkanes, C/sub 29/ steranes, and C/sub 24/ tetracyclic terpanes, which are generally accepted as input from land plants in, e.g., Tertiary deposits, are also present in Ordovician oils. The characteristics listed above describe oils from the Williston and Michigan basins as well as Ordovician oils from Kansas and Oklahoma.

  11. Northern and eastern margins of the Siberian continent in Triassic

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, A.Yu. )

    1993-09-01

    Siliciclastic sedimentation has been predominant on the northern and eastern margins of the Siberian continent since the Triassic period. Seven transgression-regression cycles can be recognized in the Triassic succession: Griesbachien-Dienerian, Smithian-Low Spathian, Upper Spathian, Anissian (with subcycles), Ladian, Carnian, and Norlan (with subcycles). All zonal units were distinguished within transgressive portions of the cycles. Regressive portions of the cycles formed practically instantaneously. Very high sedimentation rate (300-3000 mm/1000 yr), specific structures of sedimentary rocks, and distribution of unconformities led to the conclusion that active avalanche sedimentation at the basin margins was of major significance. six facies regions are recognized in the sedimentation area: Taimyr, Kotuy-Anabar, Leno-Anabar, Bur-Olenek, Verkhoyansk, and Novosibirsk (New Siberian Islands). The main source areas were located at the Patoma Mountains for the eastern margin and at the Anabar anticline and Olenek uplift for the northern margin. Most sediments were transported to the eastern margin by a large river with a huge delta which was similar in size to the modern Lena's delta. Sediments were further distributed by contour streams. Local synsedimentary structures controlled the paleogeography of the entire area. The paleogeographical evolution of the eastern margin is the history of this delta development. The rifting activities with the trappean magmatism were the main events at the northern margin, especially in the Talmyr area. The pelagic sedimentation has been predominant in the New Siberian Islands area and most of the Laptev Sea aquatoria. The organic-rich sediments have been distinguished in Low Olenekian (Smithian), Low Anissian, Low Ladinian, and Low Carnian substages. Most of them could be hydrocarbon source rocks. Triassic oil and gas seeps have been discovered at the northern portion of the Vilyui syncline, near the Lena's delta and the Nordvic Bay.

  12. Asians in New York City: A Demographic Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steingasser, Jean; And Others

    This demographic survey provides the following information on Asian Americans: (1) states with the highest Asian American population; (2) ethnic breakdown among Asians; (3) Asian immigration history and legislation affecting it; (4) individual immigration histories of Asian Americans in New York City (New York), including the Chinese, Japanese,…

  13. Resurgent Ethnicity among Asian Americans: Ethnic Neighborhood Context and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Emily

    2012-01-01

    In this study I investigate the associations of neighborhood socioeconomic and social environments with the health of Asian Americans living in both Asian ethnic neighborhoods and non-Asian neighborhoods. I use a sample of 1962 Asian Americans from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS, 2003-04). Three key findings emerge. First,…

  14. PLM in the context of the maritime virtual education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raicu, Alexandra; Oanta, Emil M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents new approaches regarding the use of Product Lifecycle Management concept to achieve knowledge integration of the academic disciplines in the maritime education context. The philosophy of the educational system is now changing faster worldwide and it is in a continuous developing process. There is a demand to develop modern educational facilities for CAD/CAE/CAM training of the future maritime engineers, which offers collaborative environments between the academic disciplines and the teachers. It is well known that the students must understand the importance of the connectivity between the academic disciplines and the computer aided methods to interface them. Thus, besides the basic knowledge and competences acquired from the CAD courses, students learn how to increase the design productivity, to create a parametric design, the original instruments of automatic design, 3D printing methods, how to interface the CAD/CAE/CAM applications. As an example, the Strength of Materials discipline briefly presents alternate computer aided methods to compute the geometrical characteristics of the cross sections using the CAD geometry, creation the free body diagrams and presentation the deflected shapes of various educational models, including the rotational effect when the forces are not applied in the shear center, using the results of the FEM applications. During the computer aided engineering academic disciplines, after the students design and analyze a virtual 3D model they can convert it into a physical object using 3D printing method. Constanta Maritime University offers a full understanding of the concept of Product Lifecycle Management, collaborative creation, management and dissemination.

  15. Advanced Ship Detection For Spaceborne Based Maritime Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radius, Andrea; Ferreira, Joao; Carmo, Paulo; Marques, Paulo

    2013-12-01

    In the last years the increase in marine traffic generated the necessity of global monitoring for marine environment management in terms of safety, security and fisheries. The increasing number of new satellite-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems, and the intrinsic capability of the transmitted electromagnetic pulses to interact with the ships and to retrieve its cinematic characteristics, made this instrument particularly fit to improve global maritime awareness through the fusion with cooperative data (AIS, VMS, LRIT). The growing need of global maritime awareness gave a push to the realization of different projects in the European context, each one focused on a different particular objective. Particularly useful is the synergy between the operational and research aspects, being the goal of the last to improve the state of the art in the field of ship detection. Two European projects are the key to strive this synergy: the project MARitime Security Service (MARISS), which implements the operational capability, and the R&D Dolphin projects, which is focused on the deep exploitation of remote sensing data and on the technological development of advanced techniques for ship detection and classification purposes, and Seabilla project, which is also dedicated to improve the current ship detection capability and to fuse all the available information from different data sources for border surveillance optimization. This paper introduces the multipurpose Edisoft Vessel Detection software (EdiVDC) implemented by the EDISOFT company, which comes from the necessity to respect increasingly stringent requirements in terms of ship detection. The EdiVDC software is being operationally used in the framework of the MARISS project and it integrates advanced processing algorithms, developed in the scope of the Dolphin project with the cooperation of ISEL-IT (Instituto de Telecomunicações), and data simulators, developed in the context of the Seabilla project, improving

  16. Aging Asian Upper Blepharoplasty and Brow

    PubMed Central

    Park, David Daehwan

    2015-01-01

    The preoperative comprehensive evaluation of aging Asian patients seeking an Asian upper blepharoplasty and brow lift is imperative and should be performed meticulously. There are many methods of upper Asian face rejuvenation. Among them, the proper selection of operative technique is necessary. The operative technique for an aging Asian upper blepharoplasty and brow lift should be performed based on anatomical structures and their relationship. Modifications to the procedure are correlated with the degree of periorbital aging. The height of double fold in an aging Asian upper blepharoplasty should not exceed 10 mm from the eyelid margin when the eye is closed. The preservation of orbital fat during a blepharoplasty is needed for the prevention of periorbital hollowing, which looks older. For satisfactory results in aging Asian upper blepharoplasty and brow lift, the harmonization of the position of the upper eyelid and eyebrow is important. Noninvasive rejuvenation such as botulinum toxin and filler are good options for facial rejuvenation. PMID:26306086

  17. Correlates of suicidal behaviors among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Duldulao, Aileen Alfonso; Takeuchi, David T; Hong, Seunghye

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of suicidal ideation, suicide plan and suicide attempt among Asian Americans focusing on nativity and gender. Analyses are performed on data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (N = 2095), the first ever study conducted on the mental health of a national sample of Asian Americans. The sample is comprised of adults with 998 men (47%) and 1,097 (53%) women. Analysis of weighted lifetime prevalence of suicidal behaviors revealed that U.S.-born Asian American women had higher prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide plan than U.S.-born Asian American men and immigrant Asian American men and women. In multivariate analyses controlling for socio-demographic differences such as ethnicity, marital status and income, differences in suicidal behaviors are found only between U.S.-born women and U.S.-born men. The findings demonstrate the need to disaggregate data by immigrant status as well as socio-demographic correlates.

  18. Aesthetic facial surgery for the asian male.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2005-11-01

    Cosmetic surgery of the Asian face has become increasingly popular in the Far East and the West. The Asian male identity has undergone an evolution in Western media toward a more positive change. The standards of beauty have also changed, being defined by more multicultural models and styles of dress than before. To undertake cosmetic surgery of the Asian face, particularly of the Asian male, requires a different psychological understanding of the individual as well as an entirely different surgical technique in most cases. This brief article does not delve into the technical details of each procedure but concentrates on the salient differences in how to approach the Asian male patient for each of the different procedures, including Asian blepharoplasty, augmentation rhinoplasty, lip reduction, dimple fabrication, otoplasty, facial contouring and aging face procedures, and hair restoration.

  19. Characteristics of a Maritime Interdiction Operations Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    the robots would have fallen a long distance to the concrete floor.) The team members then practiced throwing weights and the actual robots onto a...distance should be 5 m, with an objective distance of 10 m, onto a steel deck. 3.4 Waterproofing and Flotation Being a maritime system, the robot and its...OCU must possess some degree of waterproofing . At the minimum, the OCU should be splash proof (IP64), while the robot should be waterproof to 1 m

  20. Environments for online maritime simulators with cloud computing capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raicu, Gabriel; Raicu, Alexandra

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the cloud computing environments, network principles and methods for graphical development in realistic naval simulation, naval robotics and virtual interactions. The aim of this approach is to achieve a good simulation quality in large networked environments using open source solutions designed for educational purposes. Realistic rendering of maritime environments requires near real-time frameworks with enhanced computing capabilities during distance interactions. E-Navigation concepts coupled with the last achievements in virtual and augmented reality will enhance the overall experience leading to new developments and innovations. We have to deal with a multiprocessing situation using advanced technologies and distributed applications using remote ship scenario and automation of ship operations.