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Sample records for asian pear pyrus

  1. De novo assembly, functional annotation, and marker development of Asian pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) fruit transcriptome through massively parallel sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, J F; Gao, Z; Lou, Y S; Luo, M; Song, S R; Xu, W P; Wang, S P; Zhang, C X

    2015-12-28

    This study investigated the Asian pear transcriptome using the RNA-Seq normalized fruit cDNA library to create a transcriptomic resource for unigene and marker discovery. Following the removal of lowquality reads, 127,085,054 trimmed reads were assembled de novo to yield 37,649 non-redundant unigenes with an average length of 599 bp. Alternative splicing events were detected in 4121 contigs. A total of 30,560 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 7443 simple sequence repeat (SSR) makers were obtained. Approximately 21,449 (56.9%) unigenes were categorized into three gene ontology groups; 3682 (9.8%) were classified into 25 cluster of orthologous groups; and 10,451 (27.8%) were assigned to six Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Differentially expressed genes were investigated using the reads per kilobase of the exon model per million reads methodology. A total of 546 unigenes showed significant differences in expression levels at different fruit developmental stages. Gene ontology categories associated with various aspects, including carbohydrate metabolic processes, transmembrane transport, and signal transduction, were enriched with genes with divergent expressions. These Pyrus pyrifolia transcriptome data provide a rich resource for the discovery and identification of new genes. Furthermore, the numerous putative SSRs and SNPs detected in this study will be important resources for the future development of a linkage map or of marker-assisted breeding programs for the Asian pear.

  2. Micropropagation of pear (Pyrus sp.).

    PubMed

    Reed, Barbara M; Denoma, Jeanine; Wada, Sugae; Postman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Elements of micropropagation include establishment of shoot tip cultures, proliferation, rooting, and acclimatization of the resulting plantlets. The wide genetic variation in Pyrus makes micropropagation challenging for many genotypes. Initiation of shoots is most successful from forced dormant shoots or from scions grafted onto seedling rootstocks to impose juvenility. Clean shoots are recovered after testing for contaminants at the initiation stage on ½ strength Murashige and Skoog 1962 medium (MS), at pH 6.9 for 1 week or by streaking on nutrient agar. Although pear species and cultivars are cultured on several well-known media, MS is the most commonly used. Our studies showed that multiplication and growth of shoots are best on Pear Medium with higher concentrations of calcium chloride, potassium phosphate, and magnesium sulfate than MS medium and 4.4 μM N(6) benzyladenine. Pear shoots are often recalcitrant to rooting; however, a 5 s dip in 10 mM indole-3-butyric acid or naphthalene acetic acid before planting on basal medium without plant growth regulators is effective for many genotypes. Pear shoots store well at 1-4°C, and can hold for as long as 4 years without reculture. Cryopreservation protocols are available for long-term storage of pear shoot tips. Acclimation of in vitro-rooted or micrografted shoots in a mist bed follows standard procedures.

  3. Phenolic compounds and chromatographic profiles of pear skins (Pyrus spp.).

    PubMed

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M

    2008-10-08

    A standardized profiling method based on liquid chromatography with diode array and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometric detection (LC-DAD-ESI/MS) was used to analyze the phenolic compounds in the skins of 16 pears (Pyrus spp.). Thirty-four flavonoids and 19 hydroxycinnamates were identified. The main phenolic compounds (based on peak area) in all of the pear skins were arbutin and chlorogenic acid. The remaining phenolics varied widely in area and allowed the pears to be divided into four groups. Group 1, composed of four Asian pears (Asian, Asian brown, Korean, and Korean Shinko), contained only trace quantities of the remaining phenolics. Yali pear (group 2) contained significant amounts of dicaffeoylquinic acids. Fragrant pear (group 3) contained significant quantities of quercetin glycosides and lesser quantities of isorhamnetin glycosides and the glycosides of luteolin, apigenin, and chrysoeriol. The remaining 10 pears (group 4) (Bartlett, Beurre, Bosc, Comice, D'Anjou, Forelle, Peckham, Red, Red D'Anjou, and Seckel) contained significant quantities of isorhamnetin glycosides and their malonates and lesser quantities of quercetin glycosides. Red D'Anjou, D'Anjou, and Seckel pears also contained cyanidin 3-O-glucoside. Thirty-two phenolic compounds are reported in pear skins for the first time.

  4. Characterization of CIPK Family in Asian Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd) and Co-expression Analysis Related to Salt and Osmotic Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jun; Lin, Jing; Li, Hui; Li, Xiaogang; Yang, Qingsong; Cheng, Zong-Ming; Chang, Youhong

    2016-01-01

    Asian pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) is one of the most important fruit crops in the world, and its growth and productivity are frequently affected by abiotic stresses. Calcineurin B-like interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) as caladium-sensor protein kinases interact with Ca2+-binding CBLs to extensively mediate abiotic stress responses in plants. Although the pear genome sequence has been released, little information is available about the CIPK genes in pear, especially in response to salt and osmotic stresses. In this study, we systematically identified 28 CIPK family members from the sequenced pear genome and analyzed their organization, phylogeny, gene structure, protein motif, and synteny duplication divergences. Most duplicated PbCIPKs underwent purifying selection, and their evolutionary divergences accompanied with the pear whole genome duplication. We also investigated stress -responsive expression patterns and co-expression networks of CIPK family under salt and osmotic stresses, and the distribution of stress-related cis-regulatory elements in promoter regions. Our results suggest that most PbCIPKs could play important roles in the abiotic stress responses. Some PbCIPKs, such as PbCIPK22, -19, -18, -15, -8, and -6 can serve as core regulators in response to salt and osmotic stresses based on co-expression networks of PbCIPKs. Some sets of genes that were involved in response to salt did not overlap with those in response to osmotic responses, suggesting the sub-functionalization of CIPK genes in stress responses. This study revealed some candidate genes that play roles in early responses to salt and osmotic stress for further characterization of abiotic stress responses medicated by CIPKs in pear. PMID:27656193

  5. Characterization of CIPK Family in Asian Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd) and Co-expression Analysis Related to Salt and Osmotic Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jun; Lin, Jing; Li, Hui; Li, Xiaogang; Yang, Qingsong; Cheng, Zong-Ming; Chang, Youhong

    2016-01-01

    Asian pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) is one of the most important fruit crops in the world, and its growth and productivity are frequently affected by abiotic stresses. Calcineurin B-like interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) as caladium-sensor protein kinases interact with Ca(2+)-binding CBLs to extensively mediate abiotic stress responses in plants. Although the pear genome sequence has been released, little information is available about the CIPK genes in pear, especially in response to salt and osmotic stresses. In this study, we systematically identified 28 CIPK family members from the sequenced pear genome and analyzed their organization, phylogeny, gene structure, protein motif, and synteny duplication divergences. Most duplicated PbCIPKs underwent purifying selection, and their evolutionary divergences accompanied with the pear whole genome duplication. We also investigated stress -responsive expression patterns and co-expression networks of CIPK family under salt and osmotic stresses, and the distribution of stress-related cis-regulatory elements in promoter regions. Our results suggest that most PbCIPKs could play important roles in the abiotic stress responses. Some PbCIPKs, such as PbCIPK22, -19, -18, -15, -8, and -6 can serve as core regulators in response to salt and osmotic stresses based on co-expression networks of PbCIPKs. Some sets of genes that were involved in response to salt did not overlap with those in response to osmotic responses, suggesting the sub-functionalization of CIPK genes in stress responses. This study revealed some candidate genes that play roles in early responses to salt and osmotic stress for further characterization of abiotic stress responses medicated by CIPKs in pear.

  6. Identification of Pyrus single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and evaluation for genetic mapping in European pear and interspecific Pyrus hybrids.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Sara; Saeed, Munazza; Knäbel, Mareike; Kim, YoonKyeong; Troggio, Michela; Malnoy, Mickael; Velasco, Riccardo; Fontana, Paolo; Won, KyungHo; Durel, Charles-Eric; Perchepied, Laure; Schaffer, Robert; Wiedow, Claudia; Bus, Vincent; Brewer, Lester; Gardiner, Susan E; Crowhurst, Ross N; Chagné, David

    2013-01-01

    We have used new generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from three European pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivars and subsequently developed a subset of 1096 pear SNPs into high throughput markers by combining them with the set of 7692 apple SNPs on the IRSC apple Infinium® II 8K array. We then evaluated this apple and pear Infinium® II 9K SNP array for large-scale genotyping in pear across several species, using both pear and apple SNPs. The segregating populations employed for array validation included a segregating population of European pear ('Old Home'×'Louise Bon Jersey') and four interspecific breeding families derived from Asian (P. pyrifolia Nakai and P. bretschneideri Rehd.) and European pear pedigrees. In total, we mapped 857 polymorphic pear markers to construct the first SNP-based genetic maps for pear, comprising 78% of the total pear SNPs included in the array. In addition, 1031 SNP markers derived from apple (13% of the total apple SNPs included in the array) were polymorphic and were mapped in one or more of the pear populations. These results are the first to demonstrate SNP transferability across the genera Malus and Pyrus. Our construction of high density SNP-based and gene-based genetic maps in pear represents an important step towards the identification of chromosomal regions associated with a range of horticultural characters, such as pest and disease resistance, orchard yield and fruit quality.

  7. Phenolic compounds and chromatographic profiles of pear skins (Pyrus spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standardized profiling method based on liquid chromatography with diode array and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometric detection (LC-DAD-ESI/MS) was used to analyze the phenolic components of 16 pear skins (Pyrus spp., varieties and cultivars). More than 30 flavonoids and 13 hydroxycinnamat...

  8. Constituents of twig bark of pear cultivars (Pyrus species).

    PubMed

    Tomosaka, Hideyuki; Tamimoto, Hideaki; Tsukagoshi, Yuki; Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Ooka, Hisako; Ota, Michiya

    2012-08-01

    Organic solvent extracts from fresh twig bark of Japanese pear cultivars (Pyrus serotina) Shinko and Nijisseiki, and European pear cultivar (P. communis) Le Lectier were obtained by maceration with n-hexane and EtOAc, and analyzed in GC-EIMS experiments. In these two Japanese cultivars, the lupeol, betulin, epifriedelinol, friedelin and arbutin contents of Nijisseiki were higher than those of Shinko. In the case of the lupane-type triterpenes, lupeol and betulin, the lupeol content of Japanese pears Shinko and Nijisseiki was higher than that of European pear Le Lectier. The betulin content of Le Lectier was higher than those of Shinko and Nijisseiki. Friedelane-type triterpenes, epifriedelinol and friedelin, were not detected in twig bark of Le Lectier. Quantitative and qualitative differences in the constituents of these three pear cultivars were observed.

  9. The genome of the pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.).

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Wang, Zhiwen; Shi, Zebin; Zhang, Shu; Ming, Ray; Zhu, Shilin; Khan, M Awais; Tao, Shutian; Korban, Schuyler S; Wang, Hao; Chen, Nancy J; Nishio, Takeshi; Xu, Xun; Cong, Lin; Qi, Kaijie; Huang, Xiaosan; Wang, Yingtao; Zhao, Xiang; Wu, Juyou; Deng, Cao; Gou, Caiyun; Zhou, Weili; Yin, Hao; Qin, Gaihua; Sha, Yuhui; Tao, Ye; Chen, Hui; Yang, Yanan; Song, Yue; Zhan, Dongliang; Wang, Juan; Li, Leiting; Dai, Meisong; Gu, Chao; Wang, Yuezhi; Shi, Daihu; Wang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Huping; Zeng, Liang; Zheng, Danman; Wang, Chunlei; Chen, Maoshan; Wang, Guangbiao; Xie, Lin; Sovero, Valpuri; Sha, Shoufeng; Huang, Wenjiang; Zhang, Shujun; Zhang, Mingyue; Sun, Jiangmei; Xu, Linlin; Li, Yuan; Liu, Xing; Li, Qingsong; Shen, Jiahui; Wang, Junyi; Paull, Robert E; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Shaoling

    2013-02-01

    The draft genome of the pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) using a combination of BAC-by-BAC and next-generation sequencing is reported. A 512.0-Mb sequence corresponding to 97.1% of the estimated genome size of this highly heterozygous species is assembled with 194× coverage. High-density genetic maps comprising 2005 SNP markers anchored 75.5% of the sequence to all 17 chromosomes. The pear genome encodes 42,812 protein-coding genes, and of these, ~28.5% encode multiple isoforms. Repetitive sequences of 271.9 Mb in length, accounting for 53.1% of the pear genome, are identified. Simulation of eudicots to the ancestor of Rosaceae has reconstructed nine ancestral chromosomes. Pear and apple diverged from each other ~5.4-21.5 million years ago, and a recent whole-genome duplication (WGD) event must have occurred 30-45 MYA prior to their divergence, but following divergence from strawberry. When compared with the apple genome sequence, size differences between the apple and pear genomes are confirmed mainly due to the presence of repetitive sequences predominantly contributed by transposable elements (TEs), while genic regions are similar in both species. Genes critical for self-incompatibility, lignified stone cells (a unique feature of pear fruit), sorbitol metabolism, and volatile compounds of fruit have also been identified. Multiple candidate SFB genes appear as tandem repeats in the S-locus region of pear; while lignin synthesis-related gene family expansion and highly expressed gene families of HCT, C3'H, and CCOMT contribute to high accumulation of both G-lignin and S-lignin. Moreover, alpha-linolenic acid metabolism is a key pathway for aroma in pear fruit.

  10. Pyrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear species belong to the genus Pyrus, the subtribe Pyrinae, the subfamily Maloideae (Pomoideae) in the family Rosaceae. There are at least 26 widely recognized primary species and 10 naturally occurring interspecific hybrid taxa, which are distributed in Europe, temperate Asia and mountainous are...

  11. Caffeoyl triterpenes from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) fruit peels and their antioxidative activities against oxidation of rat blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Kim, Chan Mi; Lee, Hyoung Jae; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Jeong-An; Kim, Wol-Soo; Park, Keun-Hyung; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2013-05-15

    Six triterpenes, including three caffeoyl triterpenes, were purified and isolated from pear fruit ( Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai cv. Chuwhangbae) peel extracts using various column chromatography techniques with a guided 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. The isolated compounds were identified as betulinic aldehyde (1), lupeol (2), betulinic acid (3), 3-O-cis-caffeoylbetulinic acid (4), 3-O-trans-caffeoylbetulinic acid (5), and 3-O-trans-caffeoyloleanolic acid (6) on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Four compounds (1, 4-6) were identified from Asian pear fruit for the first time. In addition, compounds 4-6, containing a caffeic acid moiety, showed higher DPPH radical-scavenging and suppression effects against copper ion-induced oxidation of rat blood plasma than other compounds without a caffeic acid moiety.

  12. Candidate Resistant Genes of Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) to Alternaria alternata Revealed by Transcriptome Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoping; Hu, Hongju; Yu, Dazhao; Sun, Zhonghai; He, Xiujuan; Zhang, Jingguo; Chen, Qiliang; Tian, Rui; Fan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Pear black spot (PBS) disease, which is caused by Alternaria alternata (Aa), is one of the most serious diseases affecting sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivation worldwide. To investigate the defense mechanisms of sand pear in response to Aa, the transcriptome of a sand pear germplasm with differential resistance to Aa was analyzed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Four libraries derived from PBS-resistant and PBS-susceptible sand pear leaves were characterized through inoculation or mock-inoculation. In total, 20.5 Gbp of sequence data and 101,632,565 reads were generated, representing 44717 genes. Approximately 66% of the genes or sequenced reads could be aligned to the pear reference genome. A large number (5213) of differentially expressed genes related to PBS resistance were obtained; 34 microsatellites were detected in these genes, and 28 genes were found to be closely related to PBS resistance. Using a transcriptome analysis in response to PBS inoculation and comparison analysis to the PHI database, 4 genes (Pbr039001, Pbr001627, Pbr025080 and Pbr023112) were considered to be promising candidates for sand pear resistance to PBS. This study provides insight into changes in the transcriptome of sand pear in response to PBS infection, and the findings have improved our understanding of the resistance mechanism of sand pear to PBS and will facilitate future gene discovery and functional genome studies of sand pear.

  13. The Draft Genome Sequence of European Pear (Pyrus communis L. ‘Bartlett’)

    PubMed Central

    Pindo, Massimo; Thrimawithana, Amali; Deng, Cecilia; Ireland, Hilary; Fiers, Mark; Dzierzon, Helge; Cestaro, Alessandro; Fontana, Paolo; Bianco, Luca; Lu, Ashley; Storey, Roy; Knäbel, Mareike; Saeed, Munazza; Montanari, Sara; Kim, Yoon Kyeong; Nicolini, Daniela; Larger, Simone; Stefani, Erika; Allan, Andrew C.; Bowen, Judith; Harvey, Isaac; Johnston, Jason; Malnoy, Mickael; Troggio, Michela; Perchepied, Laure; Sawyer, Greg; Wiedow, Claudia; Won, Kyungho; Viola, Roberto; Hellens, Roger P.; Brewer, Lester; Bus, Vincent G. M.; Schaffer, Robert J.; Gardiner, Susan E.; Velasco, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    We present a draft assembly of the genome of European pear (Pyrus communis) ‘Bartlett’. Our assembly was developed employing second generation sequencing technology (Roche 454), from single-end, 2 kb, and 7 kb insert paired-end reads using Newbler (version 2.7). It contains 142,083 scaffolds greater than 499 bases (maximum scaffold length of 1.2 Mb) and covers a total of 577.3 Mb, representing most of the expected 600 Mb Pyrus genome. A total of 829,823 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected using re-sequencing of ‘Louise Bonne de Jersey’ and ‘Old Home’. A total of 2,279 genetically mapped SNP markers anchor 171 Mb of the assembled genome. Ab initio gene prediction combined with prediction based on homology searching detected 43,419 putative gene models. Of these, 1219 proteins (556 clusters) are unique to European pear compared to 12 other sequenced plant genomes. Analysis of the expansin gene family provided an example of the quality of the gene prediction and an insight into the relationships among one class of cell wall related genes that control fruit softening in both European pear and apple (Malus×domestica). The ‘Bartlett’ genome assembly v1.0 (http://www.rosaceae.org/species/pyrus/pyrus_communis/genome_v1.0) is an invaluable tool for identifying the genetic control of key horticultural traits in pear and will enable the wide application of marker-assisted and genomic selection that will enhance the speed and efficiency of pear cultivar development. PMID:24699266

  14. The draft genome sequence of European pear (Pyrus communis L. 'Bartlett').

    PubMed

    Chagné, David; Crowhurst, Ross N; Pindo, Massimo; Thrimawithana, Amali; Deng, Cecilia; Ireland, Hilary; Fiers, Mark; Dzierzon, Helge; Cestaro, Alessandro; Fontana, Paolo; Bianco, Luca; Lu, Ashley; Storey, Roy; Knäbel, Mareike; Saeed, Munazza; Montanari, Sara; Kim, Yoon Kyeong; Nicolini, Daniela; Larger, Simone; Stefani, Erika; Allan, Andrew C; Bowen, Judith; Harvey, Isaac; Johnston, Jason; Malnoy, Mickael; Troggio, Michela; Perchepied, Laure; Sawyer, Greg; Wiedow, Claudia; Won, Kyungho; Viola, Roberto; Hellens, Roger P; Brewer, Lester; Bus, Vincent G M; Schaffer, Robert J; Gardiner, Susan E; Velasco, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    We present a draft assembly of the genome of European pear (Pyrus communis) 'Bartlett'. Our assembly was developed employing second generation sequencing technology (Roche 454), from single-end, 2 kb, and 7 kb insert paired-end reads using Newbler (version 2.7). It contains 142,083 scaffolds greater than 499 bases (maximum scaffold length of 1.2 Mb) and covers a total of 577.3 Mb, representing most of the expected 600 Mb Pyrus genome. A total of 829,823 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected using re-sequencing of 'Louise Bonne de Jersey' and 'Old Home'. A total of 2,279 genetically mapped SNP markers anchor 171 Mb of the assembled genome. Ab initio gene prediction combined with prediction based on homology searching detected 43,419 putative gene models. Of these, 1219 proteins (556 clusters) are unique to European pear compared to 12 other sequenced plant genomes. Analysis of the expansin gene family provided an example of the quality of the gene prediction and an insight into the relationships among one class of cell wall related genes that control fruit softening in both European pear and apple (Malus × domestica). The 'Bartlett' genome assembly v1.0 (http://www.rosaceae.org/species/pyrus/pyrus_communis/genome_v1.0) is an invaluable tool for identifying the genetic control of key horticultural traits in pear and will enable the wide application of marker-assisted and genomic selection that will enhance the speed and efficiency of pear cultivar development.

  15. A transcriptome approach towards understanding the development of ripening capacity in European pears (Pyrus communis L. cv Bartlett)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The capacity of European pear fruit (Pyrus communis L.) to ripen after harvest develops during the final stages of growth on the tree. The objective of this study was to characterize changes in ‘Bartlett’ pear fruit physico-chemical properties and transcription profiles during fruit maturation leadi...

  16. Effects and action mechanisms of Korean pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Shingo) on alcohol detoxification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Sun; Isse, Toyoshi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Woo, Hyun-Su; Kim, An Keun; Park, Jong Y; Yang, Mihi

    2012-11-01

    Korean pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Shingo) has been used as a traditional medicine for alleviating alcohol hangover. However, scientific evidence for its effectiveness or mechanism is not clearly established. To investigate its mechanism of alcohol detoxification, both in vitro and in vivo studies were performed with an aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) alternated animal model. The pear extract (10 mL/kg bw) was administered to Aldh2 normal (C57BL/6) and deficient (Aldh2 -/-) male mice. After 30 min, ethanol (1 g or 2 g/kg bw) was administered to the mice via gavage. Levels of alcohol and acetaldehyde in blood were quantified by GC/MS. First, it was observed that the pears stimulated both alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and ALDH activities by 2∼3-  and 1.3-fold in in vitro studies, respectively. Second, mouse PK data (AUC(∞) and C(max) ) showed that the pear extract decreased the alcohol level in blood regardless of ALDH2 genotype. Third, the pear increased the acetaldehyde level in blood in Aldh2 deficient mice but not in Aldh2 normal mice. Therefore, the consistent in vitro and in vivo data suggest that Korean pears stimulate the two key alcohol-metabolizing enzymes. These stimulations could be the main mechanism of the Korean pear for alcohol detoxification. Finally, the results suggest that polymorphisms of human ALDH2 could bring out individual variations in the effects of Korean pear on alcohol detoxification.

  17. Self-incompatibility alleles in Polish wild pear (Pyrus pyraster (L.) Burgsd.): a preliminary analysis.

    PubMed

    Wolko, Ł; Antkowiak, W; Sips, M; Słomski, R

    2010-01-01

    Wild pear (Pyrus pyraster, syn. P. communis var. pyraster) is thought to be one of the species that gave rise to all other members of the genus Pyrus, although intraspecific hybridizations with cultivated varieties could cause the disappearance of original species characteristics. S-RNase alleles from 7 different wild pear individuals, collected from various regions of Poland, were cloned on the basis of the PCR method and nucleotide sequence analyses. The hypervariable (HV) region is responsible for allele-specific S-RNase activity in the self-incompatibility mechanism. The high level of polymorphism of its sequences may constitute a source of valuable phylogenetic information. From all individuals, 14 sequences were obtained successfully, and 9 of them were novel alleles. Phylogenetic analysis of these alleles was based on the amino acid sequence interpretation of coding regions and intron nucleotide sequences. The research conducted on a limited pool of available P. pyraster alleles gives only an initial insight into possible S-RNase allele polymorphisms in wild populations. At this stage, the results do not confirm a strong influence of cultivated pear species on the wild pear.

  18. Polymorphism of SFBB-gamma and its use for S genotyping in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Kakui, Hiroyuki; Tsuzuki, Takeshi; Koba, Takato; Sassa, Hidenori

    2007-09-01

    Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) exhibits the S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility where the pollen-part determinant, pollen S, had long remained elusive. Recent identification of S locus F-box brothers (SFBB) in Japanese pear and apple suggested that the multiple F-box genes are the pollen S candidates as they exhibited pollen specific expression, S haplotype-specific polymorphisms and linkage to the S locus. In Japanese pear, three SFBBs were identified from a single S haplotype, and they were more homologous to other haplotype genes of the same group (i.e., alpha-, beta- and gamma-groups). In this study, we isolated new seven PpSFBB(-gamma) genes from different S genotypes of Japanese pear. These genes showed S haplotype-specific polymorphisms, however, sequence similarities among them were very high. Based on the sequence polymorphisms of the PpSFBB(-gamma) genes, we developed a CAPS/dCAPS system for S genotyping of the Japanese pear cultivars. This new S genotyping system was found to not only be able to discriminate the S(1)-S(9), but also be suitable for identification of the mutant S(4sm) haplotype for the breeding of self-compatible cultivars, and detection of new S haplotypes such as S(k).

  19. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of different anatomical parts of pear (Pyrus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Kolniak-Ostek, Joanna

    2016-07-15

    Sugar, organic acid, triterpenoid and phenolic composition as well as antioxidant capacity of different anatomical parts of pear were studied. Fruits and leaves of 'Radana' pear (Pyrus communis L.) were used. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of the pear pulp, peel, leaves and seeds. Fructose was the major sugar in pulp, seeds and peel (227.46, 45.36 and 67.49 g/kg dry mass [DM], respectively), while sorbitol was predominant in leaves (40.66 g/kg DM). Malic acid was the major organic acid, followed by citric and shikimic acids. The highest concentration of triterpenoids (3460.5 μg/g DM) was determined in pear peel, and ursolic acid was predominant. Leaves were characterized by the highest amount of phenolics (5326.7 mg/100 g DM) and the highest DPPH and FRAP values (2027.9 and 3539.6 μmol TE/100 g DM, respectively). Pear leaves and seeds may be selected as potential sources of phytochemicals.

  20. Hydroxycinnamoylmalic acids and their methyl esters from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) fruit peel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Hoon; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Hyoung Jae; Ma, Young-Kyu; Kwon, Joseph; Park, Seong Hwa; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Jeong An; Kim, Wol-Soo; Park, Keun-Hyung; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2011-09-28

    Two novel caffeoylmalic acid methyl esters, 2-O-(trans-caffeoyl)malic acid 1-methyl ester (6) and 2-O-(trans-caffeoyl)malic acid 4-methyl ester (7), were isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai cv. Chuhwangbae) fruit peels. In addition, 5 known hydroxycinnamoylmalic acids and their methyl esters were identified: 2-O-(trans-coumaroyl)malic acid (1), 2-O-(cis-coumaroyl)malic acid (2), 2-O-(cis-coumaroyl)malic acid 1-methyl ester (3), 2-O-(trans-coumaroyl)malic acid 1-methyl ester (4), and 2-O-(trans-caffeoyl)malic acid (phaselic acid, 5). The chemical structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic data from ESI MS and NMR. Of all the isolated compounds, five hydroxycinnamoylmalic acids and their methyl esters (2-4, 6, 7) were identified in the pear for the first time.

  1. [Polymorphism of microsatellite loci in cultivars and species of pear (Pyrus L.)].

    PubMed

    Iakovin, N A; Fesenko, I A; Isachkin, A V; Karlov, G I

    2011-05-01

    Using five SSR markers, polymorphism ofmicrosatellite loci was examined in 46 cultivars and five species of pear (Pyrus ussuriensis, P. bretscgneideri, P. pyraster, and P. elaegnifolia). Most of the accessions examined demonstrated the presence of unique allele sets. The degree of relationship between Russian and Western European pear cultivar was established. It was demonstrated that P. ussuriensis and its first generation progeny were genetically distant from typical cultivars of P. communis, as well as from the P. communis x P. ussuriensis hybrids of later generations. SSR estimates of the cultivar relatedness were shown to correlate with the corresponding pedigree-based estimates. A number of SSR alleles specific to P. ussuriensis were identified. Based on the analysis of microsatellite loci, the allelic composition was determined for each cultivar examined. These data can serve as a molecular certificate of the cultivar.

  2. Extraction of arbutin and its comparative content in branches, leaves, stems, and fruits of Japanese pear Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Kousui.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Chizuru; Ichitani, Masaki; Kunimoto, Ko-Ki; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Arbutin is a tyrosinase inhibitor and is extensively used as a human skin-whitening agent. This study investigated the optimum conditions for extracting arbutin by ultrasonic homogenization from discarded branches pruned from Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Kousui) trees. The arbutin content was measured in the branches and also in the leaves, stems, fruit peel, and fruit flesh.

  3. Cloning, characterization and promoter analysis of S-RNase gene promoter from Chinese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-ying; Wuyun, Ta-na; Zeng, Hong-yan

    2012-09-01

    The 5'-flanking region of the S(12)-, S(13)-, S(21)-RNase with a length of 854 bp, 1448 bp and 1137 bp were successfully isolated by TAIL-PCR from genomic DNA from 'Jinhua', 'Maogong' (Pyrus pyrifolia) and 'Yali' (Pyrus bretschneideri) genomic DNA. Sequence alignment and analysis of S(13)-, S(12)-, S(21)-RNase gene promoter sequences with S(2)-, S(3)-, S(4)-, S(5)-RNase 5'-flanking sequences indicated that a homology region of about 240 bp exists in the regions just upstream of the putative TATA boxes of the seven Chinese/Japanese pear S-RNase genes. Phylogenetic tree suggests that the homology region between the Chinese/Japanese pear and apple S-RNase gene promoter regions reflects the divergence of S-RNase gene was formed before the differentiation of subfamilies. Full length and a series of 5'-deletion fragments-GUS fusions were constructed and introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana plants. GUS activity were detected in S(12)-pro-(1 to 5)-GUS-pBll01.2 transgenic pistils and progressively decreased from S(12)-pro-1-GUS-pBI l01.2 to S(12)-pro-5-GUS-pBll01.2. No GUS activity was detected in S(12)-pro-6-GUS-pBll01.2 transgenic pistil and other tissues of non-transformants and all transgenic plants. The result suggested S(12)-RNase promoter is pistil specific expression promoter.

  4. Pear Skin Stain Caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola on Niitaka Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ki-Woong; Oh, Soh-Young; Yoon, Deok-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Pear skin stains on ‘Niitaka’ pears, which occur from the growing stage to the cold storage stage, reportedly negatively influence the marketing of pears. These stains on fruit skin are likely due to a pathogenic fungus that resides on the skin and is characterized by dark stains; however, the mycelium of this fungus does not penetrate into the sarcocarp and is only present on the cuticle layer of fruit skin. A pathogenic fungus was isolated from the skin lesions of infected fruits, and its pathogenicity was subsequently tested. According to the pathogenicity test, Mycosphaerella sp. was strongly pathogenic, while Penicillium spp. and Alternaria spp. showed modest pathogenicity. In this present study, we isolated the pathogenic fungus responsible for the symptoms of pears (i.e., dark brown-colored specks) and identified it as Mycosphaerella graminicola based on its morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequence of the beta-tubulin gene. M. graminicola was pathogenic to the skin of ‘Niitaka’ pears, which are one of the most widely growing varieties of pears in South Korea. PMID:25289008

  5. Change in chemical constituents and free radical-scavenging activity during Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cultivar fruit development.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Eun Hee; Yun, Hae Rim; Jeong, Hang Yeon; Lee, Yu Geon; Kim, Wol-Soo; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2015-01-01

    Changes in chemical constituent contents and DPPH radical-scavenging activity in fruits of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cultivars during the development were investigated. The fruits of seven cultivars (cv. Niitaka, Chuhwangbae, Wonhwang, Hwangkeumbae, Hwasan, Manpungbae, and Imamuraaki) were collected at 15-day intervals after day 20 of florescence. Vitamins (ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol), arbutin, chlorogenic acid, malaxinic acid, total caffeic acid, total flavonoids, and total phenolics were the highest in immature pear fruit on day 20 after florescence among samples at different growth stages. All of these compounds decreased gradually in the fruit during the development. Immature pear fruit on day 35 or 50 after florescence exhibited higher free radical-scavenging activity than that at other times, although activities were slightly different among cultivars. The chemical constituent contents and free radical-scavenging activity were largely different among immature fruits of the pear cultivars, but small differences were observed when they matured.

  6. Development of flower buds in the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) from late autumn to early spring.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takanori; Tuan, Pham Anh; Katsumi-Horigane, Akemi; Bai, Songling; Ito, Akiko; Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Ono, Hiroshi; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2015-06-01

    We periodically investigated the lateral flower bud morphology of 1-year shoots of 'Kosui' pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) in terms of dormancy progression, using magnetic resonance imaging. The size of flower buds did not change significantly during endodormancy, but rapid enlargement took place at the end of the ecodormancy stage. To gain insight into the physiological status during this period, we analyzed gene expression related to cell cycle-, cell expansion- and water channel-related genes, namely cyclin (CYC), expansin (EXPA), tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIP) and plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIP). Constant but low expression of pear cyclin genes (PpCYCD3s) was observed in the transition phase from endodormancy to ecodormancy. The expression levels of PpCYCD3s were consistent with few changes in flower bud size, but up-regulated before the sprouting stage. In contrast, the expression of pear expansin and water channel-related genes (PpEXPA2, PpPIP2A, PpPIP2B, PpIδTIP1A and PpIδTIP1B) were low until onset of the rapid enlargement stage of flower buds. However, expression of these genes rapidly increased during sprouting along with a gradual increase of free water content in the floral primordia of buds. Taken together, these results suggest that flower bud size tends to stay constant until the endodormancy phase transition. Rapid enlargement of flower buds observed in March is partly due to the enhancement of the cell cycle. Then, sprouting takes place concomitant with the increase in cell expansion and free water movement.

  7. Identification by suppression subtractive hybridization of genes expressed in pear (Pyrus spp.) upon infestation with Cacopsylla pyri (Homoptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Salvianti, Francesca; Bettini, Priscilla P; Giordani, Edgardo; Sacchetti, Patrizia; Bellini, Elvio; Buiatti, Marcello

    2008-11-28

    The molecular interaction between pear tree (Pyrus spp.) and the phloem-feeding psylla Cacopsylla pyri (Linnaeus) was investigated through the construction and characterization of cDNA subtracted libraries. Genes expressed upon insect infestation were identified in the susceptible pear cultivar Bartlett and in the resistant selection NY10355. In both interactions, genes involved in the plant defense response were induced, confirming the observed similarity between the response to pathogens and to insects with piercing/sucking mouthparts. However, the two expression profiles were found to be different, with more genes involved in the response to biotic and abiotic stress being activated in the resistant plant than in the susceptible one. Further characterization of the identified genes could lead to the development of molecular markers associated with tolerance/resistance to pear psylla.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) flower buds transitioning through endodormancy.

    PubMed

    Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Ito, Akiko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2013-07-01

    The transcriptomes of endodormant and ecodormant Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai 'Kosui') flower buds were analyzed using RNA-seq technology and compared. Among de novo assembly of 114,191 unigenes, 76,995 unigenes were successfully annotated by BLAST searches against various databases. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that oxidoreductases were enriched in the molecular function category, a result consistent with previous observations of notable changes in hydrogen peroxide concentration during endodormancy release. In the GO categories related to biological process, the abundance of DNA methylation-related gene transcripts also significantly changed during endodormancy release, indicating the involvement of epigenetic regulation. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis also showed the changes in transcript abundance of genes involved in the metabolism of various phytohormones. Genes for both ABA and gibberellin biosynthesis were down-regulated, whereas the genes encoding their degradation enzymes were up-regulated during endodormancy release. In the ethylene pathway, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), a gene encoding the rate-limiting enzyme for ethylene biosynthesis, was induced towards endodormancy release. All of these results indicated the involvement of phytohormones in endodormancy release. Furthermore, the expression of dormancy-associated MADS-box (DAM) genes was down-regulated concomitant with endodormancy release, although changes in the abundance of these gene transcripts were not as significant as those identified by transcriptome analysis. Consequently, characterization of the Japanese pear transcriptome during the transition from endormancy to ecodormancy will provide researchers with useful information for data mining and will facilitate further experiments on endodormancy especially in rosaceae fruit trees.

  9. Structural, Evolutionary, and Functional Analysis of the Class III Peroxidase Gene Family in Chinese Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri)

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yunpeng; Han, Yahui; Meng, Dandan; Li, Dahui; Jin, Qing; Lin, Yi; Cai, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Peroxidases (PRXs) are widely existed in various organisms and could be divided into different types according to their structures and functions. Specifically, the Class III Peroxidase, a plant-specific multi-gene family, involves in many physiological processes, such as the metabolism of auxin, the extension and thickening of cell wall, as well as the formation of lignin. By searching the pear genome database, 94 non-redundant PRXs from Pyrus bretschneideri (PbPRXs) were identified. Subsequently, analysis of phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, conserved motifs, and microsynteny was performed. These PbPRXs were unevenly distributed among 17 chromosomes of pear. In addition, 26 segmental duplication events but only one tandem duplication were occurred in these PbPRXs, implying segmental duplication was the main contributor to the expansion of the PbPRX family. By the Ka/Ks analysis, 26 out of 27 duplicated PbPRXs has experienced purifying selection. Twenty motifs were identified in PbPRXs based on the MEME analysis, 11 of which were enriched in pear. A total of 41 expressed genes were identified from ESTs of pear fruit. According to qRT-PCR, the expression trends of five PbPRXs in subgroup C were consistent with the change of lignin content during pear fruit development. So we inferred that the five PbPRXs were candidate genes involved in the lignin synthesis pathway. These results provided useful information for further researches of PRX genes in pear. PMID:28018406

  10. Structural, Evolutionary, and Functional Analysis of the Class III Peroxidase Gene Family in Chinese Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri).

    PubMed

    Cao, Yunpeng; Han, Yahui; Meng, Dandan; Li, Dahui; Jin, Qing; Lin, Yi; Cai, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Peroxidases (PRXs) are widely existed in various organisms and could be divided into different types according to their structures and functions. Specifically, the Class III Peroxidase, a plant-specific multi-gene family, involves in many physiological processes, such as the metabolism of auxin, the extension and thickening of cell wall, as well as the formation of lignin. By searching the pear genome database, 94 non-redundant PRXs from Pyrus bretschneideri (PbPRXs) were identified. Subsequently, analysis of phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, conserved motifs, and microsynteny was performed. These PbPRXs were unevenly distributed among 17 chromosomes of pear. In addition, 26 segmental duplication events but only one tandem duplication were occurred in these PbPRXs, implying segmental duplication was the main contributor to the expansion of the PbPRX family. By the Ka/Ks analysis, 26 out of 27 duplicated PbPRXs has experienced purifying selection. Twenty motifs were identified in PbPRXs based on the MEME analysis, 11 of which were enriched in pear. A total of 41 expressed genes were identified from ESTs of pear fruit. According to qRT-PCR, the expression trends of five PbPRXs in subgroup C were consistent with the change of lignin content during pear fruit development. So we inferred that the five PbPRXs were candidate genes involved in the lignin synthesis pathway. These results provided useful information for further researches of PRX genes in pear.

  11. Genome-Wide Analysis of Sorbitol Dehydrogenase (SDH) Genes and Their Differential Expression in Two Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) Fruits.

    PubMed

    Dai, Meisong; Shi, Zebin; Xu, Changjie

    2015-06-09

    Through RNA-seq of a mixed fruit sample, fourteen expressed sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) genes have been identified from sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai). Comparative phylogenetic analysis of these PpySDHs with those from other plants supported the closest relationship of sand pear with Chinese white pear (P. bretschneideri). The expression levels varied greatly among members, and the strongest six (PpySDH2, PpySDH4, PpySDH8, PpySDH12, PpySDH13 and PpySDH14) accounted for 96% of total transcript abundance of PpySDHs. Tissue-specific expression of these six members was observed in nine tissues or organs of sand pear, with the greatest abundance found in functional leaf petioles, followed by the flesh of young fruit. Expression patterns of these six PpySDH genes during fruit development were analyzed in two sand pear cultivars, "Cuiguan" and "Cuiyu". Overall, expression of PpySDHs peaked twice, first at the fruitlet stage and again at or near harvest. The transcript abundance of PpySDHs was higher in "Cuiguan" than in "Cuiyu", accompanied by a higher content of sugars and higher ratio of fructose to sorbitol maintained in the former cultivar at harvest. In conclusion, it was suggested that multiple members of the SDH gene family are possibly involved in sand pear fruit development and sugar accumulation and may affect both the sugar amount and sugar composition.

  12. Genome-Wide Analysis of Sorbitol Dehydrogenase (SDH) Genes and Their Differential Expression in Two Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Meisong; Shi, Zebin; Xu, Changjie

    2015-01-01

    Through RNA-seq of a mixed fruit sample, fourteen expressed sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) genes have been identified from sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai). Comparative phylogenetic analysis of these PpySDHs with those from other plants supported the closest relationship of sand pear with Chinese white pear (P. bretschneideri). The expression levels varied greatly among members, and the strongest six (PpySDH2, PpySDH4, PpySDH8, PpySDH12, PpySDH13 and PpySDH14) accounted for 96% of total transcript abundance of PpySDHs. Tissue-specific expression of these six members was observed in nine tissues or organs of sand pear, with the greatest abundance found in functional leaf petioles, followed by the flesh of young fruit. Expression patterns of these six PpySDH genes during fruit development were analyzed in two sand pear cultivars, “Cuiguan” and “Cuiyu”. Overall, expression of PpySDHs peaked twice, first at the fruitlet stage and again at or near harvest. The transcript abundance of PpySDHs was higher in “Cuiguan” than in “Cuiyu”, accompanied by a higher content of sugars and higher ratio of fructose to sorbitol maintained in the former cultivar at harvest. In conclusion, it was suggested that multiple members of the SDH gene family are possibly involved in sand pear fruit development and sugar accumulation and may affect both the sugar amount and sugar composition. PMID:26068235

  13. Erwinia uzenensis sp. nov., a novel pathogen that affects European pear trees (Pyrus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Takayuki; Mizuno, Akifumi; Tsukamoto, Takanori; Shimizu, Yoshiaki; Saito, Norihiko; Sato, Shigeyoshi; Kikuchi, Shigemi; Uzuki, Tsuneyasu; Azegami, Koji; Sawada, Hiroyuki

    2012-08-01

    Bacteria were isolated from black lesions on shoots of European pear trees (Pyrus communis L.) in an orchard in Japan. Previous characterization of this novel pathogen by phenotypic and genotypic methods suggested that it should belong to the genus Erwinia but might not correspond to either Erwinia amylovora or Erwinia pyrifoliae. Here, phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, gyrB, and rpoD gene sequences indicated that it could not be assigned to any recognized species of the genus Erwinia. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that the bacterial strains represented a novel species. The DNA G+C contents, the fatty acid profile and phenotypic characteristics resembled those previously reported for members of the genus Erwinia. On the basis of these and previous results, the pathogen represents a novel species of the genus Erwinia, for which the name Erwinia uzenensis sp. nov. (type strain: YPPS 951(T) = LMG 25843(T) = NCPPB 4475(T)) is proposed.

  14. Fine mapping of the gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)

    PubMed Central

    Terakami, Shingo; Moriya, Shigeki; Adachi, Yoshihiko; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Saito, Toshihiro; Abe, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Black spot disease, which is caused by the Japanese pear pathotype of the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. We mapped a gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivar ‘Kinchaku’ (Aki gene) at the top of linkage group 11, similar to the positions of the susceptibility genes Ani in ‘Osa Nijisseiki’ and Ana in ‘Nansui’. Using synteny-based marker enrichment, we developed novel apple SSR markers in the target region. We constructed a fine map of linkage group 11 of ‘Kinchaku’ and localized the Aki locus within a 1.5-cM genome region between SSR markers Mdo.chr11.28 and Mdo.chr11.34. Marker Mdo.chr11.30 co-segregated with Aki in all 621 F1 plantlets of a ‘Housui’ × ‘Kinchaku’ cross. The physical size of the Aki region, which includes three markers (Mdo.chr11.28, Mdo.chr11.30, and Mdo.chr11.34), was estimated to be 250 Kb in the ‘Golden Delicious’ apple genome and 107 Kb in the ‘Dangshansuli’ Chinese pear genome. Our results will help to identify the candidate gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear. PMID:27162498

  15. Fine mapping of the gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai).

    PubMed

    Terakami, Shingo; Moriya, Shigeki; Adachi, Yoshihiko; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Saito, Toshihiro; Abe, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-03-01

    Black spot disease, which is caused by the Japanese pear pathotype of the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. We mapped a gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivar 'Kinchaku' (Aki gene) at the top of linkage group 11, similar to the positions of the susceptibility genes Ani in 'Osa Nijisseiki' and Ana in 'Nansui'. Using synteny-based marker enrichment, we developed novel apple SSR markers in the target region. We constructed a fine map of linkage group 11 of 'Kinchaku' and localized the Aki locus within a 1.5-cM genome region between SSR markers Mdo.chr11.28 and Mdo.chr11.34. Marker Mdo.chr11.30 co-segregated with Aki in all 621 F1 plantlets of a 'Housui' × 'Kinchaku' cross. The physical size of the Aki region, which includes three markers (Mdo.chr11.28, Mdo.chr11.30, and Mdo.chr11.34), was estimated to be 250 Kb in the 'Golden Delicious' apple genome and 107 Kb in the 'Dangshansuli' Chinese pear genome. Our results will help to identify the candidate gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear.

  16. F-box genes: Genome-wide expansion, evolution and their contribution to pollen growth in pear (Pyrus bretschneideri).

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Ming; Yin, Hao; Qiao, Xin; Tan, Xu; Gu, Chao; Wang, Bao-Hua; Cheng, Rui; Wang, Ying-Zhen; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2016-12-01

    F-box gene family, as one of the largest gene families in plants, plays crucial roles in regulating plant development, reproduction, cellular protein degradation and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, comprehensive analysis of the F-box gene family in pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) and other Rosaceae species has not been reported yet. Herein, we identified a total of 226 full-length F-box genes in pear for the first time. And these genes were further divided into various subgroups based on specific domains and phylogenetic analysis. Intriguingly, we observed that whole-genome duplication and dispersed duplication have a major contribution to F-box family expansion. Furthermore, the dynamic evolution for different modes of gene duplication was dissected. Interestingly, we found that dispersed and tandem duplicate have been evolving at a high rate. In addition, we found that F-box genes exhibited functional specificity based on GO analysis, and most of the F-box genes were significantly enriched in the protein binding (GO: 0005515) term, supporting that F-box genes might play a critical role for gene regulation in pear. Transcriptome and digital expression profiles revealed that F-box genes are involved in the development of multiple pear tissues. Overall, these results will set stage for elaborating the biological role of F-box genes in pear and other plants.

  17. Mapping of an anthocyanin-regulating MYB transcription factor and its expression in red and green pear, Pyrus communis.

    PubMed

    Pierantoni, Luca; Dondini, Luca; De Franceschi, Paolo; Musacchi, Stefano; Winkel, Brenda S J; Sansavini, Silviero

    2010-12-01

    'Max Red Bartlett' is a red bud mutation of the yellow pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar 'Williams' (known as 'Bartlett' in North America). Anthocyanins are the most important pigments for red colour in fruits. Synthesis of anthocyanins is mediated by a number of well-characterized enzymes that include chalcone synthase (CHS), flavanone-3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT). Expression of the genes encoding these five enzymes was examined in pear fruit skin in order to elucidate the molecular mechanism for red coloration. In addition, the gene PcMYB10, encoding an R2R3 MYB transcription factor involved in anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway regulation, was isolated from both 'Williams' and 'Max Red Bartlett'. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence suggests that this gene is an ortholog of anthocyanin regulators known in other plant species. Its expression level was significantly higher in 'Max Red Bartlett' (red pear) compared with the original yellow variety 'Williams'. Although the map position of PcMYB10 corresponds to that of MdMYBa and MdMYB10, which control pigmentation of apple fruit skin, PcMYB10 is not directly responsible for red versus yellow colour in the two pear varieties, as the mutation underlying this difference maps to a different region of the pear genome.

  18. Primitive Genepools of Asian Pears and Their Complex Hybrid Origins Inferred from Fluorescent Sequence-Specific Amplification Polymorphism (SSAP) Markers Based on LTR Retrotransposons

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shuang; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Yu, Peiyuan; Yue, Xiaoyan; Ahmed, Maqsood; Cai, Danying; Teng, Yuanwen

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence indicated that interspecific hybridization was the major mode of evolution in Pyrus. The genetic relationships and origins of the Asian pear are still unclear because of frequent hybrid events, fast radial evolution, and lack of informative data. Here, we developed fluorescent sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP) markers with lots of informative sites and high polymorphism to analyze the population structure among 93 pear accessions, including nearly all species native to Asia. Results of a population structure analysis indicated that nearly all Asian pear species experienced hybridization, and originated from five primitive genepools. Four genepools corresponded to four primary Asian species: P. betulaefolia, P. pashia, P. pyrifolia, and P. ussuriensis. However, cultivars of P. ussuriensis were not monophyletic and introgression occurred from P. pyrifolia. The specific genepool detected in putative hybrids between occidental and oriental pears might be from occidental pears. The remaining species, including P. calleryana, P. xerophila, P. sinkiangensis, P. phaeocarpa, P. hondoensis, and P. hopeiensis in Asia, were inferred to be of hybrid origins and their possible genepools were identified. This study will be of great help for understanding the origin and evolution of Asian pears. PMID:26871452

  19. The phenolic content and its involvement in the graft incompatibility process of various pear rootstocks (Pyrus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Hudina, Metka; Orazem, Primoz; Jakopic, Jerneja; Stampar, Franci

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the influence of various rootstocks for pear on the phytochemical composition in the phloem above and below the graft union and the role of phenols in pear graft incompatibility. Assays of phloem with cambium from 4-year-old 'Conference', 'Abate Fetel' and 'Williams' pear trees grafted on different rootstocks: Quince MA, Quince BA 29, Fox 11, Farold 40 (Daygon), seedling Pyrus communis L. and own rooted (P. communis L.) were analyzed with HPLC-MS. The most abundant phenolic compound in phloem above and below the graft union was arbutin, followed by procyanidin B1 and chlorogenic acid. In 'Conference' and 'Abate Fetel', higher arbutin content levels were measured above the graft union, while in the incompatible scion of 'Williams' on quince MA higher arbutin content levels were measured below the graft union. In all three observed cultivars (in 'Conference' the difference was not significant) grafted on Fox 11 rootstock, the highest content of arbutin was measured below the graft union. The results indicate that not only catechin and procyanidin B1, but also arbutin and several flavonols could be involved in graft incompatibility. All cultivars grafted on quince rootstocks had higher levels of epicatechin and procyanidin B2 below the graft union, even though some differences were not significant. It seems that those phenols do not affect pear incompatibility. A severe incompatibility between Fox 11 rootstock and 'Williams' was detected.

  20. MYB Transcription Factors in Chinese Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.): Genome-Wide Identification, Classification, and Expression Profiling during Fruit Development.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yunpeng; Han, Yahui; Li, Dahui; Lin, Yi; Cai, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    The MYB family is one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. Although, some MYBs were reported to play roles in secondary metabolism, no comprehensive study of the MYB family in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) has been reported. In the present study, we performed genome-wide analysis of MYB genes in Chinese pear, designated as PbMYBs, including analyses of their phylogenic relationships, structures, chromosomal locations, promoter regions, GO annotations, and collinearity. A total of 129 PbMYB genes were identified in the pear genome and were divided into 31 subgroups based on phylogenetic analysis. These PbMYBs were unevenly distributed among 16 chromosomes (total of 17 chromosomes). The occurrence of gene duplication events indicated that whole-genome duplication and segmental duplication likely played key roles in expansion of the PbMYB gene family. Ka/Ks analysis suggested that the duplicated PbMYBs mainly experienced purifying selection with restrictive functional divergence after the duplication events. Interspecies microsynteny analysis revealed maximum orthology between pear and peach, followed by plum and strawberry. Subsequently, the expression patterns of 20 PbMYB genes that may be involved in lignin biosynthesis according to their phylogenetic relationships were examined throughout fruit development. Among the 20 genes examined, PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 exhibited expression patterns consistent with the typical variations in the lignin content previously reported. Moreover, sub-cellular localization analysis revealed that two proteins PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 were localized to the nucleus. All together, PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 were inferred to be candidate genes involved in the regulation of lignin biosynthesis during the development of pear fruit. This study provides useful information for further functional analysis of the MYB gene family in pear.

  1. Genome-Wide Function, Evolutionary Characterization and Expression Analysis of Sugar Transporter Family Genes in Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd).

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Ming; Zheng, Dan-man; Li, Lei-ting; Qiao, Xin; Wei, Shu-wei; Bai, Bin; Zhang, Shao-ling; Wu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    The sugar transporter (ST) plays an important role in plant growth, development and fruit quality. In this study, a total of 75 ST genes were identified in the pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd) genome based on systematic analysis. Furthermore, all ST genes identified were grouped into eight subfamilies according to conserved domains and phylogenetic analysis. Analysis of cis-regulatory element sequences of all ST genes identified the MYBCOREATCYCB1 promoter in sucrose transporter (SUT) and monosaccharide transporter (MST) genes of pear, while in grape it is exclusively found in SUT subfamily members, indicating divergent transcriptional regulation in different species. Gene duplication event analysis indicated that whole-genome duplication (WGD) and segmental duplication play key roles in ST gene amplification, followed by tandem duplication. Estimation of positive selection at codon sites of ST paralog pairs indicated that all plastidic glucose translocator (pGlcT) subfamily members have evolved under positive selection. In addition, the evolutionary history of ST gene duplications indicated that the ST genes have experienced significant expansion in the whole ST gene family after the second WGD, especially after apple and pear divergence. According to the global RNA sequencing results of pear fruit development, gene expression profiling showed the expression of 53 STs. Combined with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, two polyol/monosaccharide transporter (PLT) and three tonoplast monosaccharide transporter (tMT) members were identified as candidate genes, which may play important roles in sugar accumulation during pear fruit development and ripening. Identification of highly expressed STs in fruit is important for finding novel genes contributing to enhanced levels of sugar content in pear fruit.

  2. Differential expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and transcription factor PcMYB10 in pears (Pyrus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Ban, Zhao-Jun; Li, Xi-Hong; Wu, Mao-Yu; Wang, Ai-Li; Jiang, Yu-Qian; Jiang, Yun-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Anthocyanin biosynthesis in various plants is affected by environmental conditions and controlled by the transcription level of the corresponding genes. In pears (Pyrus communis cv. 'Wujiuxiang'), anthocyanin biosynthesis is significantly induced during low temperature storage compared with that at room temperature. We further examined the transcriptional levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in 'Wujiuxiang' pears during developmental ripening and temperature-induced storage. The expression of genes that encode flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, anthocyanidin synthase, UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase, and R2R3 MYB transcription factor (PcMYB10) was strongly positively correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in 'Wujiuxiang' pears in response to both developmental and cold-temperature induction. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed the expression patterns of the set of target genes, of which PcMYB10 and most anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were related to the same cluster. The present work may help explore the molecular mechanism that regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis and its response to abiotic stress at the transcriptional level in plants.

  3. Dormancy-associated MADS-box genes and microRNAs jointly control dormancy transition in pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group) flower bud.

    PubMed

    Niu, Qingfeng; Li, Jianzhao; Cai, Danying; Qian, Minjie; Jia, Huimin; Bai, Songling; Hussain, Sayed; Liu, Guoqin; Teng, Yuanwen; Zheng, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Bud dormancy in perennial plants is indispensable to survival over winter and to regrowth and development in the following year. However, the molecular pathways of endo-dormancy induction, maintenance, and release are still unclear, especially in fruit crops. To identify genes with roles in regulating endo-dormancy, 30 MIKC(C)-type MADS-box genes were identified in the pear genome and characterized. The 30 genes were analysed to determine their phylogenetic relationships with homologous genes, genome locations, gene structure, tissue-specific transcript profiles, and transcriptional patterns during flower bud dormancy in 'Suli' pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group). The roles in regulating bud dormancy varied among the MIKC gene family members. Yeast one-hybrid and transient assays showed that PpCBF enhanced PpDAM1 and PpDAM3 transcriptional activity during the induction of dormancy, probably by binding to the C-repeat/DRE binding site, while DAM proteins inhibited the transcriptional activity of PpFT2 during dormancy release. In the small RNA-seq analysis, 185 conserved, 24 less-conserved, and 32 pear-specific miRNAs with distinct expression patterns during bud dormancy were identified. Joint analyses of miRNAs and MIKC genes together with degradome data showed that miR6390 targeted PpDAM transcripts and degraded them to release PpFT2. Our data show that cross-talk among PpCBF, PpDAM, PpFT2, and miR6390 played important roles in regulating endo-dormancy. A model for the molecular mechanism of dormancy transition is proposed: short-term chilling in autumn activates the accumulation of CBF, which directly promotes DAM expression; DAM subsequently inhibits FT expression to induce endo-dormancy, and miR6390 degrades DAM genes to release endo-dormancy.

  4. Effects of elevated CO sub 2 concentrations on glycolysis in intact Bartlett pear fruit. [Pyrus communis L

    SciTech Connect

    Kerbel, E.L.; Kader, A.A.; Romani, R.J. )

    1988-04-01

    Mature intact Bartlett pear fruit (Pyrus communis L.) were stored under a continuous flow of air or air + 10% CO{sub 2} for 4 days at 20{degree}C. Fruit kept under elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations exhibited reduced respiration (O{sub 2} consumption) and ethylene evolution rates, and remained firmer and greener than fruit stored in air. Protein content, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate levels, and ATP:phosphofructokinase and PPi:phosphofructokinase activities declined, while levels of fructose 6-phosphate and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate increased in fruit exposed to air + 10% CO{sub 2}. These results are discussed in light of a possible inhibitory effect of CO{sub 2} at the site of action of both phosphofructokinases in the glycolytic pathway, which could account, at least in part, for the observed reduction in respiration.

  5. Comparative transcriptome analysis of climacteric fruit of Chinese pear (Pyrus ussuriensis) reveals new insights into fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guohui; Li, Tong; Li, Xinyue; Tan, Dongmei; Jiang, Zhongyu; Wei, Yun; Li, Juncai; Wang, Aide

    2014-01-01

    The fruit of Pyrus ussuriensis is typically climacteric. During ripening, the fruits produce a large amount of ethylene, and their firmness drops rapidly. Although the molecular basis of climacteric fruit ripening has been studied in depth, some aspects remain unclear. Here, we compared the transcriptomes of pre- and post-climacteric fruits of Chinese pear (P. ussuriensis c.v. Nanguo) using RNA-seq. In total, 3,279 unigenes were differentially expressed between the pre- and post-climacteric fruits. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were subjected to Gene Ontology analysis, and 31 categories were significantly enriched in the groups 'biological process', 'molecular function' and 'cellular component'. The DEGs included genes related to plant hormones, such as ethylene, ABA, auxin, GA and brassinosteroid, and transcription factors, such as MADS, NAC, WRKY and HSF. Moreover, genes encoding enzymes related to DNA methylation, cytoskeletal proteins and heat shock proteins (HSPs) showed differential expression between the pre- and post-climacteric fruits. Select DEGs were subjected to further analysis using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and the results were consistent with those of RNA-seq. Our data suggest that in addition to ethylene, other hormones play important roles in regulating fruit ripening and may interact with ethylene signaling during this process. DNA methylation-related methyltransferase and cytoskeletal protein genes are also involved in fruit ripening. Our results provide useful information for future research on pear fruit ripening.

  6. Low molecular weight chitosan is an effective antifungal agent against Botryosphaeria sp. and preservative agent for pear (Pyrus) fruits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunguang; Li, Bin; Zhang, Xuedan; Peng, Nan; Mei, Yuxia; Liang, Yunxiang

    2017-02-01

    Antifungal activity and preservative effect of a low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC) sample, derived from chitosan by enzymatic hydrolysis, were investigated in vitro and in vivo. A pathogenic fungal strain was isolated from decayed pear (Pyrus bretschneideri cv. "Huangguan") fruit and identified as Botryosphaeria sp. W-01. LMWC was shown to strongly inhibit W-01 growth based on studies of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and effects on mycelial biomass and radial growth of the fungus. LMWC treatment of W-01 cells reduced ergosterol synthesis and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔY), early events of apoptosis. Transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy studies revealed that LMWC penetrated inside W-01 hyphae, thereby inducing ultrastructural damage. LMWC coating had a significant preservative effect on wounded and nonwounded pear fruits, by inhibiting postharvest decay and browning processes. LMWC activated several defense-related enzymes (polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, chitinase), maintained nutritional value, and slowed down weight loss. Our findings indicate the strong potential of LMWC as a natural preservative agent for fruits and vegetables.

  7. Genomic prediction of trait segregation in a progeny population: a case study of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In cross breeding, it is important to choose a good parental combination that has high probability of generating offspring with desired characteristics. This study examines a method for predicting the segregation of target traits in a progeny population based on genome-wide markers and phenotype data of parental cultivars. Results The proposed method combines segregation simulation and Bayesian modeling for genomic selection. Marker segregation in a progeny population was simulated based on parental genotypes. Posterior marker effects sampled via Markov Chain Monte Carlo were used to predict the segregation pattern of target traits. The posterior distribution of the proportion of progenies that fulfill selection criteria was calculated and used for determining a promising cross and the necessary size of the progeny population. We applied the proposed method to Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) data to demonstrate the method and to show how it works in the selection of a promising cross. Verification using an actual breeding population suggests that the segregation of target traits can be predicted with reasonable accuracy, especially in a highly heritable trait. The uncertainty in predictions was reflected on the posterior distribution of the proportion of progenies that fulfill selection criteria. A simulation study based on the real marker data of Japanese pear cultivars also suggests the potential of the method. Conclusions The proposed method is useful to provide objective and quantitative criteria for choosing a parental combination and the breeding population size. PMID:24028660

  8. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Climacteric Fruit of Chinese Pear (Pyrus ussuriensis) Reveals New Insights into Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Dongmei; Jiang, Zhongyu; Wei, Yun; Li, Juncai; Wang, Aide

    2014-01-01

    The fruit of Pyrus ussuriensis is typically climacteric. During ripening, the fruits produce a large amount of ethylene, and their firmness drops rapidly. Although the molecular basis of climacteric fruit ripening has been studied in depth, some aspects remain unclear. Here, we compared the transcriptomes of pre- and post-climacteric fruits of Chinese pear (P. ussuriensis c.v. Nanguo) using RNA-seq. In total, 3,279 unigenes were differentially expressed between the pre- and post-climacteric fruits. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were subjected to Gene Ontology analysis, and 31 categories were significantly enriched in the groups ‘biological process’, ‘molecular function’ and ‘cellular component’. The DEGs included genes related to plant hormones, such as ethylene, ABA, auxin, GA and brassinosteroid, and transcription factors, such as MADS, NAC, WRKY and HSF. Moreover, genes encoding enzymes related to DNA methylation, cytoskeletal proteins and heat shock proteins (HSPs) showed differential expression between the pre- and post-climacteric fruits. Select DEGs were subjected to further analysis using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and the results were consistent with those of RNA-seq. Our data suggest that in addition to ethylene, other hormones play important roles in regulating fruit ripening and may interact with ethylene signaling during this process. DNA methylation-related methyltransferase and cytoskeletal protein genes are also involved in fruit ripening. Our results provide useful information for future research on pear fruit ripening. PMID:25215597

  9. Sequence characterization and spatiotemporal expression patterns of PbS26-RNase gene in Chinese White Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Jia, Baoguang; Zou, Feng; Tan, Xiaofeng; Liu, Min; Song, Zhibo; Zeng, Yanling; Jiang, Nan; Yuan, Deyi

    2014-01-01

    Many flowering plants exhibit an important intraspecific reproductive barrier phenomenon, that is, self-incompatibility (SI), in which S-RNase genes play a significant role. To clarify the specific function of S-RNase genes in Chinese pears, the full length cDNA of PbS 26 -RNase was isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology from Chinese white pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) cultivar "Hongpisu." The cDNA sequence for PbS 26 -RNase was deposited in GenBank under accession number EU081888. At the amino acid level, the PbS 26 -RNase displayed the highest similarity (96.9%) with PcSa-RNase of P. communis, and only seven amino acid differences were present in the two S-RNases. Phylogenetic analysis of rosaceous S-RNases indicated that the PbS 26 -RNase clustered with maloideous S-RNases, forming a subfamily-specific not a species-specific group. The PbS 26 -RNase gene was specifically expressed in the style but not other tissues/organs. The expression level of the PbS 26 -RNase gene rapidly increased at bell balloon stage (BBS), and then it dropped after pollination. However, the abundance of the PbS 26 -RNase gene transcript in the style was greater after cross-pollination than after self-pollination. In addition, a method for rapidly detecting the PbS 26 -RNase gene was developed via allele-specific primers design. The present study could provide a scientific basis for fully clarifying the mechanism of pear SI at the molecular level.

  10. Two neutral variants segregating at the gametophytic self-incompatibility locus of European pear (Pyrus communis L.) (Rosaceae, Pyrinae).

    PubMed

    Sanzol, J

    2010-09-01

    Extensive survey of the S-locus diversity of plant species with RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility has failed to identify neutral variation segregating within S-allele specificities. Although this is the expected result according to population genetics theory, it conflicts with recent models of S-allele evolution, which suggest that new specificities might arise by a continuous process of subtle changes that individually do not alter the specificity of the S-genes, but whose cumulative effects result in new S-allele functions. Genomic analysis of S-RNase sequences associated with the S(104) (=S(4), =S(b)) allele of European pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivars yielded two distinct variants (named herein S(104-1) and S(104-2)) that differed at five nucleotide positions within the open reading frame, two of which resulted in changes in the predicted protein sequence. Test-cross experiments indicated that the S-alleles associated with the S(104-1) and S(104-2)RNases exhibit the same pollen and pistil functions, suggesting that they are two neutral variants segregating within the S(104) haplotype of European pear. These allelic forms might represent transitional states in the process of generating new specificities in the species, in accordance with models that predict S-function transition through neutral intermediates. This possibility was further evaluated through the pattern of molecular evolution of functionally distinct European pear S-RNases, which indicated that most recent S-allele diversification in this species proceeded in the absence of adaptive selective pressure.

  11. Compositional changes in 'Bartlett' pear ( Pyrus communis L.) cell wall polysaccharides as affected by sunlight conditions.

    PubMed

    Raffo, María D; Ponce, Nora M A; Sozzi, Gabriel O; Vicente, Ariel R; Stortz, Carlos A

    2011-11-23

    Preharvest conditions can have a great impact on fruit quality attributes and postharvest responses. Firmness is an important quality attribute in pear, and excessive softening increases susceptibility to bruising and decay, thus limiting fruit postharvest life. Textural characteristics of fruits are determined at least in part by cell wall structure and disassembly. Few studies have analyzed the influence of fruit preharvest environment in softening, cell wall composition, and degradation. In the current work 'Bartlett' pears grown either facing the sun (S) or in the shade (H) were harvested and stored for 13 days at 20 °C. An evaluation of fruit soluble solids, acidity, color, starch degradation, firmness, cell wall yield, pectin and matrix glycan solubilization, depolymerization, and monosaccharide composition was carried out. Sun-exposed pears showed more advanced color development and similar levels of starch degradation, sugars, and acids than shaded fruit. Sunlight-grown pears were at harvest firmer than shade-grown pears. Both fruit groups softened during storage at 20 °C, but even after ripening, sun-exposed pears remained firmer. Sunlight exposure did not have a great impact on pectin molecular weight. Instead, at harvest a higher proportion of water-solubilized uronic acids and alkali-solubilized neutral sugars and a larger mean molecular size of tightly bound glycans was found in sun-exposed pears. During ripening cell wall catabolism took place in both sun- and shade-grown pears, but pectin solubilization was clearly delayed in sun-exposed fruit. This was associated with decreased removal of RG I-arabinan side chains rather than with reduced depolymerization.

  12. Proteomic analysis of 'Zaosu' pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) and its early-maturing bud sport.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueting; Zhai, Rui; Feng, Wenting; Zhang, Shiwei; Wang, Zhigang; Qiu, Zonghao; Zhang, Junke; Ma, Fengwang; Xu, Lingfei

    2014-07-01

    Maturation of fruits involves a series of physiological, biochemical, and organoleptic changes that eventually make fleshy fruits attractive, palatable, and nutritional. In order to understand the mature mechanism of the early-maturing bud sport of 'Zaosu' pear, we analyzed the differences of proteome expression between the both pears in different mature stages by the methods of a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. Seventy-five differential expressed protein spots (p<0.05) were obtained between 'Zaosu' pear and its early-maturing bud sport, but only sixty-eight were demonstratively identified in the database of NCBI and uniprot. The majority of proteins were linked to metabolism, energy, stress response/defense and cell structure. Additionally, our data confirmed an increase of proteins related to cell-wall modification, oxidative stress and pentose phosphate metabolism and a decrease of proteins related to photosynthesis and glycolysis during the development process of both pears, but all these proteins increased or decreased faster in the early-maturing bud sport. This comparative analysis between both pears showed that these proteins were closely associated with maturation and could provide more detailed characteristics of the maturation process of both pears.

  13. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolution and Functional Divergence of MYB Transcription Factors in Chinese White Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolong; Xue, Cheng; Li, Jiaming; Qiao, Xin; Li, Leiting; Yu, Li'ang; Huang, Yuhua; Wu, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The MYB superfamily is large and functionally diverse in plants. To date, MYB family genes have not yet been identified in Chinese white pear (Pyrus bretschneideri), and their functions remain unclear. In this study, we identified 231 genes as candidate MYB genes and divided them into four subfamilies. The R2R3-MYB (PbrMYB) family shared an R2R3 domain with 104 amino acid residues, including five conserved tryptophan residues. The Pbr MYB family was divided into 37 functional subgroups including 33 subgroups which contained both MYB genes of Rosaceae plants and AtMYB genes, and four subgroups which included only Rosaceae MYB genes or AtMYB genes. PbrMYB genes with similar functions clustered into the same subgroup, indicating functional conservation. We also found that whole-genome duplication (WGD) and dispersed duplications played critical roles in the expansion of the MYB family. The 87 Pbr MYB duplicated gene pairs dated back to the two WGD events. Purifying selection was the primary force driving Pbr MYB gene evolution. The 15 gene pairs presented 1-7 codon sites under positive selection. A total of 147 expressed genes were identified from RNA-sequencing data of fruit, and six Pbr MYB members in subgroup C1 were identified as important candidate genes in the regulation of lignin synthesis by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Further correlation analysis revealed that six PbrMYBs were significantly correlated with five structural gene families (F5H, HCT, CCR, POD and C3'H) in the lignin pathway. The phylogenetic, evolution and expression analyses of the MYB gene family in Chinese white pear establish a solid foundation for future comprehensive functional analysis of Pbr MYB genes.

  14. Prediction of retrotransposons and assessment of genetic variability based on developed retrotransposon-based insertion polymorphism (RBIP) markers in Pyrus L.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuang; Zong, Yu; Yue, Xiaoyan; Postman, Joseph; Teng, Yuanwen; Cai, Danying

    2015-02-01

    Interspecific hybridization has been considered the major mode of evolution in Pyrus (pear), and thus, the genetic relationships within this genus have not been well documented. Retrotransposons are ubiquitous components of plant genomes and 42.4 % of the pear genome was reported to be long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, implying that retrotransposons might be significant in the evolution of Pyrus. In this study, 1,836 putative full-length LTR retrotransposons were isolated and 196 retrotransposon-based insertion polymorphism (RBIP) primers were developed, of which 24 pairs to the Ppcr1 subfamily of copia retrotransposons were used to analyze genetic diversity among 110 Pyrus accessions from Eurasia. Our results showed that Ppcr1 replicated many times in the development of cultivated Asian pears. The genetic structure analysis and the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram indicated that all accessions could be divided into Oriental and Occidental groups. In Oriental pears, wild pea pears clustered separately into independent groups in accordance with their morphological classifications. Cultivars of P. ussuriensis Maxim, P. pyrifolia Nakai, and P. pyrifolia Chinese white pear were mingled together, which inferred that hybridization events occurred during the development of the cultivated Asian pears. In Occidental pears, two clades were obtained in the UPGMA dendrogram in accordance with their geographical distribution; one contained the European species and the other included species from North Africa and West Asia. New findings in this study will be important to further understand the phylogeny of Pyrus and origins of cultivated pears.

  15. Characterization and high-pressure microfluidization-induced activation of polyphenoloxidase from Chinese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Jianhua; Xie, Mingyong; Liu, Chengmei; Liu, Weilin; Wan, Jie

    2009-06-24

    Polyphenoloxidase (PPO) from Chinese pear ( Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) was characterized using catechol as a substrate. PPO had a V(max) of 289.2 units/min and a K(m) of 3.8 mmol/L, which indicates that P. pyrifolia Nakai PPO has a great affinity for catechol. The catalyzing reaction velocity was proportional to the PPO concentration. The optimum pH and temperature for PPO activity were 4.5 and 45 degrees C, respectively. In addition, an investigation was made on the effect of high-pressure microfluidization of treatment pressure, treatment pass, and enzyme solution temperature on P. pyrifolia Nakai PPO. As the treatment pressure increased, the PPO relative activity was elevated from 100% untreated to 182.57% treated at 180 MPa. PPO relative activity was enhanced as the treatment pass increased. PPO solution temperature (25, 35, and 45 degrees C) had a significant effect on PPO relative activity when treated at 120 and 140 MPa.

  16. The Properties of Terrestrial Laser System Intensity for Measuring Leaf Geometries: A Case Study with Conference Pear Trees (Pyrus Communis)

    PubMed Central

    Balduzzi, Mathilde A.F.; Van der Zande, Dimitry; Stuckens, Jan; Verstraeten, Willem W.; Coppin, Pol

    2011-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology can be a valuable tool for describing and quantifying vegetation structure. However, because of their size, extraction of leaf geometries remains complicated. In this study, the intensity data produced by the Terrestrial Laser System (TLS) FARO LS880 is corrected for the distance effect and its relationship with the angle of incidence between the laser beam and the surface of the leaf of a Conference Pear tree (Pyrus Commmunis) is established. The results demonstrate that with only intensity, this relationship has a potential for determining the angle of incidence with the leaves surface with a precision of ±5° for an angle of incidence smaller than 60°, whereas it is more variable for an angle of incidence larger than 60°. It appears that TLS beam footprint, leaf curvatures and leaf wrinkles have an impact on the relationship between intensity and angle of incidence, though, this analysis shows that the intensity of scanned leaves has a potential to eliminate ghost points and to improve their meshing. PMID:22319374

  17. Influence of heat stress on leaf ultrastructure, photosynthetic performance, and ascorbate peroxidase gene expression of two pear cultivars (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong-feng; Zhang, Dong; Liu, Guo-qin; Hussain, Sayed; Teng, Yuan-wen

    2013-12-01

    Plants encounter a variety of stresses in natural environments. One-year-old pot-grown trees of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai cv. Cuiguan and Wonhwang) were exposed to two heat stress regimes. Under constant short-term heat stress, chloroplasts and mitochondria were visibly damaged. Relative chlorophyll content and maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II were significantly decreased, which indicated that the leaf photosynthetic capability declined. Under chronic heat stress, mesophyll cell ultrastructure was not obviously damaged, but leaf photosynthetic capability was still restrained. As chronic heat stress was a simulation of the natural environment in summer, further study of the responses under this stress regime was undertaken. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity was increased in 'Cuiguan', but not in 'Wonhwang'. Inducible expression of PpAPX genes in the cytoplasm, chloroplasts and peroxisomes was consistent with increased APX activity in 'Cuiguan', whereas only weak induction of PpAPX genes was observed in 'Wonhwang'. The isoenzymes cytosolic APX1 (cAPX1) and stromal APX (sAPX) were confirmed to be localized in the cytoplasm and chloroplasts, respectively.

  18. Diversity of S-alleles and mate availability in 3 populations of self-incompatible wild pear (Pyrus pyraster).

    PubMed

    Hoebee, S E; Angelone, S; Csencsics, D; Määttänen, K; Holderegger, R

    2012-01-01

    Small populations of self-incompatible plants may be expected to be threatened by the limitation of compatible mating partners (i.e., S-Allee effect). However, few empirical studies have explicitly tested the hypothesis of mate limitation in small populations of self-incompatible plants. To do so, we studied wild pear (Pyrus pyraster), which possesses a gametophytic self-incompatibility system. We determined the S-genotypes in complete samplings of all adult trees from 3 populations using a PCR-RFLP approach. We identified a total of 26 different S-alleles, homologous to S-alleles of other woody Rosaceae. The functionality of S-alleles and their Mendelian inheritance were verified in artificial pollination experiments and investigations of pollen tube growth. The smallest population (N = 8) harbored 9 different S-alleles and showed a mate availability of 92.9%, whereas the 2 larger populations harbored 18 and 25 S-alleles and exhibited mate availabilities of 98.4% and 99.2%, respectively. Therefore, we conclude that even small populations of gametophytic self-incompatible plants may exhibit high diversity at the S-locus and are not immediately threatened owing to reduced mate availability.

  19. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of a gene for sucrose transporter from pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huping; Zhang, Shujun; Qin, Gaihua; Wang, Lifen; Wu, Tao; Qi, Kaijie; Zhang, Shaoling

    2013-12-01

    Here we report the cloning of a sucrose transporter cDNA from pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. cv 'Yali') fruit and an analysis of the expression of the gene. A cDNA clone, designated PbSUT1 was identified as a sucrose transporter cDNA from its sequence homology at the amino acid level to sucrose transporters that have been cloned from other higher plant species. PbSUT1 potentially encoded a protein of 499 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 53.4 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 9.21. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the PbSUT1 belonged to type III SUTs and was more closely related to the MdSUT1 from apple fruit. Some major facilitator superfamily (MFS)-specific sequence motifs were found in the predicted PbSUT1 peptides, and an MFS_1 domain was located at the amino acid positions of 29-447 of the sequence. A study of gene expression along fruit development showed that PbSUT1 transcripts are present at all stages but significantly increase before fruit enlargement and during the ripening process with increasing sucrose levels. In contrast, the expression levels don't change much during the period of rapid fruit growth. This work shows that sucrose transporter may play a role in the accumulation of sugars during maturation and in maintaining the internal cellular distribution.

  20. Molecular analysis of two Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) spontaneous self-compatible mutants, Yan Zhuang and Jin Zhui.

    PubMed

    Li, M F; Li, X F; Han, Zh H; Shu, H R; Li, T Zh

    2009-09-01

    Yan Zhuang and Jin Zhui are spontaneous bud mutants of Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) from Ya Li. Both fruit set rate and seed number after self-pollination, together with pollen tube growth, prove that Yan Zhuang and Jin Zhui are self-compatible. The fruit set rate and seed number after cross-pollination suggest that the self-compatibility of Yan Zhuang and Jin Zhui may be due to natural mutations of the stylar S allele and pollen S allele, respectively. PCR amplification of the S-RNase gene in self-pollinated progeny of Yan Zhuang and Jin Zhui show that they contain point mutations in the stylar S(21) allele and pollen S(34) allele, respectively. The cDNA sequence of the Yan Zhuang stylar S-RNase gene revealed that the 182nd nucleotide of the S(21)-RNase (cDNA) sequence had been substituted resulting in a Gly to Val mutation, and this might affect the stability of the S-RNase. In addition, Western blotting showed that one Yan Zhuang stylar S-RNase was absent and the expression level of another S-RNase protein was decreased compared to Ya Li. Therefore, we suggest that the self-compatibility of Yan Zhuang is caused by a point mutation in an S(21)-RNase nucleotide.

  1. The properties of terrestrial laser system intensity for measuring leaf geometries: a case study with Conference Pear trees (Pyrus communis).

    PubMed

    Balduzzi, Mathilde A F; Van der Zande, Dimitry; Stuckens, Jan; Verstraeten, Willem W; Coppin, Pol

    2011-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology can be a valuable tool for describing and quantifying vegetation structure. However, because of their size, extraction of leaf geometries remains complicated. In this study, the intensity data produced by the Terrestrial Laser System (TLS) FARO LS880 is corrected for the distance effect and its relationship with the angle of incidence between the laser beam and the surface of the leaf of a Conference Pear tree (Pyrus commmunis) is established. The results demonstrate that with only intensity, this relationship has a potential for determining the angle of incidence with the leaves surface with a precision of ±5° for an angle of incidence smaller than 60°, whereas it is more variable for an angle of incidence larger than 60°. It appears that TLS beam footprint, leaf curvatures and leaf wrinkles have an impact on the relationship between intensity and angle of incidence, though, this analysis shows that the intensity of scanned leaves has a potential to eliminate ghost points and to improve their meshing.

  2. Two MYB transcription factors regulate flavonoid biosynthesis in pear fruit (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.).

    PubMed

    Zhai, Rui; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Shiwei; Meng, Geng; Song, Linyan; Wang, Zhigang; Li, Pengmin; Ma, Fengwang; Xu, Lingfei

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoid compounds play important roles in the modern diet, and pear fruits are an excellent dietary source of these metabolites. However, information on the regulatory network of flavonoid biosynthesis in pear fruits is rare. In this work, 18 putative flavonoid-related MYB transcription factors (TFs) were screened by phylogenetic analysis and four of them were correlated with flavonoid biosynthesis patterns in pear fruits. Among these MYB-like genes, the specific functions of two novel MYB TFs, designated as PbMYB10b and PbMYB9, were further verified by both overexpression and RNAi transient assays. PbMYB10b, a PAP-type MYB TF with atypical motifs in its conserved region, regulated the anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin pathways by inducing the expression of PbDFR, but its function could be complemented by other MYB TFs. PbMYB9, a TT2-type MYB, not only acted as the specific activator of the proanthocyanidin pathway by activating the PbANR promoter, but also induced the synthesis of anthocyanins and flavonols by binding the PbUFGT1 promoter in pear fruits. The MYBCORE-like element has been identified in both the PbUFGT1 promoter and ANR promoters in most species, but it was not found in UFGT promoters isolated from other species. This finding was also supported by a yeast one-hybrid assay and thus enhanced the likelihood of the interaction between PbMYB9 and the PbUFGT1 promoter.

  3. Identification and characterization of a novel chitinase with antifungal activity from 'Baozhu' pear (Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim.).

    PubMed

    Han, Peng; Yang, Chengcheng; Liang, Xiaobo; Li, Lirong

    2016-04-01

    A novel chitinase from the 'Baozhu' pear was found, purified, and characterized in this report. This chitinase was a monomer with a molecular mass of 28.9 kDa. Results of the internal peptide sequence analyses classify this chitinase as a class III chitinase. In the enzymatic hydrolytic assay, this chitinase could hydrolyze chitin derivatives into di-N-acetylchitobiose (GlcNAc2) as a major product in the initial phase, as well as hydrolyze GlcNAc2 into N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), which represents both chitobiosidase and β-N-acetylglucosaminase activity. Biological analyses showed that this chitinase exhibits strong antifungal activity toward agricultural pathogenic fungi. In total, chitinase from 'Baozhu' pear is a novel bifunctional chitinase that could be a potential fungicide in the biological control of plant diseases.

  4. Potential assessment of genome-wide association study and genomic selection in Japanese pear Pyrus pyrifolia.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Terakami, Shingo; Takada, Norio; Sawamura, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2013-03-01

    Although the potential of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in fruit tree breeding has been reported, bi-parental QTL mapping before MAS has hindered the introduction of MAS to fruit tree breeding programs. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are an alternative to bi-parental QTL mapping in long-lived perennials. Selection based on genomic predictions of breeding values (genomic selection: GS) is another alternative for MAS. This study examined the potential of GWAS and GS in pear breeding with 76 Japanese pear cultivars to detect significant associations of 162 markers with nine agronomic traits. We applied multilocus Bayesian models accounting for ordinal categorical phenotypes for GWAS and GS model training. Significant associations were detected at harvest time, black spot resistance and the number of spurs and two of the associations were closely linked to known loci. Genome-wide predictions for GS were accurate at the highest level (0.75) in harvest time, at medium levels (0.38-0.61) in resistance to black spot, firmness of flesh, fruit shape in longitudinal section, fruit size, acid content and number of spurs and at low levels (<0.2) in all soluble solid content and vigor of tree. Results suggest the potential of GWAS and GS for use in future breeding programs in Japanese pear.

  5. Differential expression of ferritin genes in response to abiotic stresses and hormones in pear (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Xi, Li; Xu, Kuanyong; Qiao, Yushan; Qu, Shenchun; Zhang, Zhen; Dai, Wenhao

    2011-10-01

    In this study, the expression patterns of four ferritin genes (PpFer1, PpFer2, PpFer3, and PpFer4) in pear were investigated using quantitative real-time PCR. Analysis of tissue-specific expression revealed higher expression level of these genes in leaves than in other tested tissues. These ferritin genes were differentially expressed in response to various abiotic stresses and hormones treatments. The expression of ferritin wasn't affected by Fe(III)-citrate treatment. Abscisic acid significantly enhanced the expression of all four ferritin genes, especially PpFer2, followed by N-benzylyminopurine, gibberellic acid, and indole-3-acetic acid. The expression peaks of PpFer1 and PpFer3 in leaves appeared at 6, 6, and 12 h, respectively, after pear plant was exposed to oxidative stress (5 mM H(2)O(2)), salt stress (200 mM NaCl), and heat stress (40°C). A significant increase in PpFer4 expression was detected at 6 h after salt stress or heat stress. The expression of ferritin genes was not altered by cold stress. These results suggested that ferritin genes might be functionally important in acclimation of pear to salt and oxidative stresses. Hormone treatments had no significant effect on expression of ferritin genes compared to abiotic stresses. This showed accumulation of ferritin genes could be operated by different transduction pathways under abiotic stresses and hormones treatments.

  6. Rapid identification of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase genotypes in cultivars of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) using CAPS markers.

    PubMed

    Itai, A; Kotaki, T; Tanabe, K; Tamura, F; Kawaguchi, D; Fukuda, M

    2003-05-01

    In Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai), fruit storage potential is closely related to the amount of ethylene produced. We have developed a rapid and accurate method for analyzing genes involved in high ethylene production during fruit ripening in Japanese pear. This involves cleaved-amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) of two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase genes (PPACS1 and PPACS2). Two CAPS markers (A for PPACS1 and B for PPACS2), associated with the amount of ethylene produced, were identified. Marker A was associated with high ethylene producers and marker B with moderate ethylene producers. The absence of these two markers enabled the identification of low ethylene producers. Using these markers, we have identified ethylene genotypes for 40 Japanese pear cultivars and two Chinese pear (P. bretschneideri) cultivars that are commercially important and used in breeding programs. Furthermore, we performed linkage analysis of these two genes in the F(2) population, which revealed that the recombination frequency between the two markers was 20.8 +/- 3.6%. This information is critical to the selection of parents and in breeding strategies to improve storage ability of Japanese pears.

  7. Hydrogen Sulfide Prolongs Postharvest Storage of Fresh-Cut Pears (Pyrus pyrifolia) by Alleviation of Oxidative Damage and Inhibition of Fungal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shuai-Ping; Wu, Jun; Li, Yan-Hong; Zheng, Ji-Lian; Han, Yi; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has proved to be a multifunctional signaling molecule in plants and animals. Here, we investigated the role of H2S in the decay of fresh-cut pears (Pyrus pyrifolia). H2S gas released by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) prolonged the shelf life of fresh-cut pear slices in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, H2S maintained higher levels of reducing sugar and soluble protein in pear slices. H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide radicals (•O2−) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Further investigation showed that H2S fumigation up-regulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD), while it down-regulated those of lipoxygenase (LOX), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Furthermore, H2S fumigation effectively inhibited the growth of two fungal pathogens of pear, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium expansum, suggesting that H2S can be developed as an effective fungicide for postharvest storage. The present study implies that H2S is involved in prolonging postharvest storage of pears by acting as an antioxidant and fungicide. PMID:24454881

  8. Exploring Candidate Genes for Pericarp Russet Pigmentation of Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) via RNA-Seq Data in Two Genotypes Contrasting for Pericarp Color

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-zhi; Dai, Mei-song; Zhang, Shu-jun; Shi, Ze-bin

    2014-01-01

    Sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) russet pericarp is an important trait affecting both the quality and stress tolerance of fruits. This trait is controlled by a relative complex genetic process, with some fundamental biological questions such as how many and which genes are involved in the process remaining elusive. In this study, we explored differentially expressed genes between the russet- and green-pericarp offspring from the sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cv. ‘Qingxiang’ × ‘Cuiguan’ F1 group by RNA-seq-based bulked segregant analysis (BSA). A total of 29,100 unigenes were identified and 206 of which showed significant differences in expression level (log2fold values>1) between the two types of pericarp pools. Gene Ontology (GO) analyses detected 123 unigenes in GO terms related to ‘cellular_component’ and ‘biological_process’, suggesting developmental and growth differentiations between the two types. GO categories associated with various aspects of ‘lipid metabolic processes’, ‘transport’, ‘response to stress’, ‘oxidation-reduction process’ and more were enriched with genes with divergent expressions between the two libraries. Detailed examination of a selected set of these categories revealed repressed expressions of candidate genes for suberin, cutin and wax biosynthesis in the russet pericarps.Genes encoding putative cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and peroxidase (POD) that are involved in the lignin biosynthesis were suggested to be candidates for pigmentation of sand pear russet pericarps. Nine differentially expressed genes were analyzed for their expressions using qRT-PCR and the results were consistent with those obtained from Illumina RNA-sequencing. This study provides a comprehensive molecular biology insight into the sand pear pericarp pigmentation and appearance quality formation. PMID:24400075

  9. Exploring candidate genes for pericarp russet pigmentation of sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) via RNA-Seq data in two genotypes contrasting for pericarp color.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-zhi; Dai, Mei-song; Zhang, Shu-jun; Shi, Ze-bin

    2014-01-01

    Sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) russet pericarp is an important trait affecting both the quality and stress tolerance of fruits. This trait is controlled by a relative complex genetic process, with some fundamental biological questions such as how many and which genes are involved in the process remaining elusive. In this study, we explored differentially expressed genes between the russet- and green-pericarp offspring from the sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cv. 'Qingxiang' × 'Cuiguan' F1 group by RNA-seq-based bulked segregant analysis (BSA). A total of 29,100 unigenes were identified and 206 of which showed significant differences in expression level (log2fold values>1) between the two types of pericarp pools. Gene Ontology (GO) analyses detected 123 unigenes in GO terms related to 'cellular_component' and 'biological_process', suggesting developmental and growth differentiations between the two types. GO categories associated with various aspects of 'lipid metabolic processes', 'transport', 'response to stress', 'oxidation-reduction process' and more were enriched with genes with divergent expressions between the two libraries. Detailed examination of a selected set of these categories revealed repressed expressions of candidate genes for suberin, cutin and wax biosynthesis in the russet pericarps.Genes encoding putative cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and peroxidase (POD) that are involved in the lignin biosynthesis were suggested to be candidates for pigmentation of sand pear russet pericarps. Nine differentially expressed genes were analyzed for their expressions using qRT-PCR and the results were consistent with those obtained from Illumina RNA-sequencing. This study provides a comprehensive molecular biology insight into the sand pear pericarp pigmentation and appearance quality formation.

  10. Quantitative Proteomics-Based Reconstruction and Identification of Metabolic Pathways and Membrane Transport Proteins Related to Sugar Accumulation in Developing Fruits of Pear (Pyrus communis).

    PubMed

    Reuscher, Stefan; Fukao, Yoichiro; Morimoto, Reina; Otagaki, Shungo; Oikawa, Akira; Isuzugawa, Kanji; Shiratake, Katsuhiro

    2016-03-01

    During their 6 month development, pear (Pyrus communis) fruits undergo drastic changes in their morphology and their chemical composition. To gain a better understanding of the metabolic pathways and transport processes active during fruit development, we performed a time-course analysis using mass spectrometry (MS)-based protein identification and quantification of fruit flesh tissues. After pre-fractionation of the samples, 2,841 proteins were identified. A principal component analysis (PCA) separated the samples from seven developmental stages into three distinct clusters representing the early, mid and late developmental phase. Over-representation analysis of proteins characteristic of each developmental phase revealed both expected and novel biological processes relevant at each phase. A high abundance of aquaporins was detected in samples from fruits in the cell expansion stage. We were able quantitatively to reconstruct basic metabolic pathways such as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which indicates sufficient coverage to reconstruct other metabolic pathways. Most of the enzymes that presumably contribute to sugar accumulation in pear fruits could be identified. Our data indicate that invertases do not play a major role in the sugar conversions in developing pear fruits. Rather, sucrose might be broken down by sucrose synthases. Further focusing on sugar transporters, we identified several putative sugar transporters from diverse families which showed developmental regulation. In conclusion, our data set comprehensively describes the proteome of developing pear fruits and provides novel insights about sugar accumulation as well as candidate genes for key reactions and transport steps.

  11. Physical mapping of black spot disease resistance/susceptibility-related genome regions in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) by BAC-FISH.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Terakami, Shingo; Takada, Norio; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-06-01

    Black spot disease, caused by Alternaria alternata Japanese pear pathotype, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. In the present study, the locations of black spot disease resistance/susceptibility-related genome regions were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization using BAC clone (BAC-FISH) on Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai) chromosomes. Root tips of self-pollinated seedlings of 'Osa Gold' were used as materials. Chromosome samples were prepared by the enzymatic maceration and air-drying method. The BAC clone adjacent to the black spot disease-related gene was labeled as a probe for FISH analysis. Black spot disease-related genome regions were detected in telomeric positions of two medium size chromosomes. These two sites and six telomeric 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA sites were located on different chromosomes as determined from the results of multi-color FISH. The effectiveness of the physical mapping of useful genes on pear chromosomes achieved by the BAC-FISH method was unequivocally demonstrated.

  12. Physiological differences between bud breaking and flowering after dormancy completion revealed by DAM and FT/TFL1 expression in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Ito, Akiko; Saito, Takanori; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Bai, Songling; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2016-01-01

    The regulatory mechanisms underlying bud breaking (scale leaf elongation) and flowering in the lateral flower buds of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai 'Kosui') are unknown. To more fully characterize these processes, we treated pear trees with different amounts of chilling initiated at different times. Chilling for ∼900 h at 6 °C always induced bud breaking (scale elongation in ≥70% lateral flower bud) when provided between October and February, whereas chilling provided earlier (between October and December) was less effective on flowering (floret growth and development) than later chilling and the flowering rate increased with longer chilling durations. During chilling, the expression of pear DAMs (PpMADS13-1, 13-2 and 13-3) in lateral flower buds decreased as chilling accumulated irrespective of the timing of chilling. In addition, pear TFL1 (PpTFL1-1a) in the lateral flower buds was expressed at higher levels when the time interval for chilling was earlier. On the other hand, during forcing at 15 °C after chilling, the expression pattern of all three PpMADS13 genes was similar among the treatments, and the expression levels seemed lower in the treatment where scale leaves of the lateral flower bud elongated faster, whereas pear FT (PpFT2a) was expressed at higher levels in the buds whose flower clusters elongated more vigorously during forcing. From these results, we infer that flowering time may be mediated via the balance of flowering-related genes FT and TFL1, whereas bud breaking may be regulated via the DAM genes in Japanese pear.

  13. Dickeyafangzhongdai sp. nov., a plant-pathogenic bacterium isolated from pear trees (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Tian, Yanli; Zhao, Yuqiang; Yuan, Xiaoli; Yi, Jianping; Fan, Jiaqin; Xu, Zhigang; Hu, Baishi; De Boer, Solke H; Li, Xiang

    2016-09-01

    Gram-stain-negative, pectinolytic bacteria were repeatedly isolated from pear trees displaying symptoms of bleeding canker in China. Three strains, JS5T, LN1 and QZH3, had identical 16S rRNA gene sequences that shared 99 % similarity to the type strain of Dickeya dadantii. Phylogenetic analysis of strains JS5T, LN1 and QZH3 with isolates representing all species of the genus Dickeya and related Pectobacterium species supported their affiliation to Dickeya. Multi-locus sequence typing employing concatenated sequences encoding recA, fusA, gapA, purA, rplB, dnaX and the intergenic spacer illustrated a phylogeny which placed strains JS5T, LN1 and QZH3 as a distinct clade, separate from all other species of the genus Dickeya. Average nucleotide identity values obtained in comparison with all species of the genus Dickeya supported the distinctiveness of strain JS5T within the genus Dickeya. Additionally, all three strains were phenotypically distinguished from other species of the genus Dickeya by failing to hydrolyse casein, and by producing acids from (-)-d-arabinose, (+)melibiose, (+)raffinose, mannitol and myo-inositol, but not from 5-keto-d-gluconate or β-gentiobiose. The name Dickeya fangzhongdai sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these strains; the type strain is JS5T (=CGMCC 1.15464T=DSM 101947T).

  14. Molecular analysis of the processes of surface brown spot (SBS) formation in pear fruit (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. cv. Dangshansuli) by de novo transcriptome assembly.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pu; Xue, Cheng; Wu, Ting-ting; Heng, Wei; Jia, Bing; Ye, Zhenfeng; Liu, Li; Zhu, Liwu

    2013-01-01

    Browning disorder, which usually occurs post-harvest in pears subjected to long-term storage, can cause browning of the pear flesh and/or core. In 2011, investigators in China found a novel type of brown spot (designated as surface brown spot, SBS) in pre-harvest 'Dangshansuli' pears (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.). SBS has a large impact on the exterior quality of the pears. Interestingly, the brown coloration was only found on the peel and not the flesh or the core. In this paper, de novo transcriptome analysis of the exocarp of pears with SBS using Illumina sequencing showed that SBS up-regulated the expression of genes related to oxidative phosphorylation, phenolic compound synthesis and polyphenoloxidase (PPO), and SBS was associated with inhibition of primary and secondary metabolism genes. Ca(2+)-sensor proteins might be involved in the signal transduction that occurs during the process of SBS formation, and this signaling is likely to be regulated by H2O2, abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA3). Phytohormone and mineral element analyses confirmed that GA3, ABA, H2O2 and Ca(2+) contribute to SBS formation. In addition to the seasonal characteristics, low levels of O2 and Ca(2+) in the fruit are potential causes of the browning response due to exposure to oxidative stress, oxidative-reductive imbalance and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which affected the membrane integrity. Disruption of the membranes allows for PPO and phenolic compounds to come into contact, and the phenolic compounds are oxidized to form the browning pigments.

  15. Different biosynthesis patterns among flavonoid 3-glycosides with distinct effects on accumulation of other flavonoid metabolites in pears (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.).

    PubMed

    Zhai, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Ting; Feng, Wen-Ting; Chen, Sha-Sha; Xu, Ling-Fei; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Jiang-Li; Li, Peng-Min; Ma, Feng-Wang

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoid biosynthesis profile was clarified by fruit bagging and re-exposure treatments in the green Chinese pear 'Zaosu' (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) and its red mutant 'Red Zaosu'. Two distinct biosynthesis patterns of flavonoid 3-glycosides were found in 'Zaosu' pear. By comparison with 'Red Zaosu', the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-galactosides and flavonoid 3-arabinosides were inhibited by bagging and these compounds only re-accumulated to a small degree in the fruit peel of 'Zaosu' after the bags were removed. In contrast, the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-gluctosides and flavonoid 3-rutinosides was reduced by bagging and then increased when the fruits were re-exposed to sunlight. A combination of correlation, multicollinearity test and partial-correlation analyses among major flavonoid metabolites indicated that biosynthesis of each phenolic compound was independent in 'Zaosu' pear, except for the positive correlation between flavonoid 3-rutincosides and flavanols. In contrast with the green pear cultivar, almost all phenolic compounds in the red mutant had similar biosynthesis patterns except for arbutin. However, only the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-galactosides was relatively independent and strongly affected the synthesis of the other phenolic compounds. Therefore, we propose a hypothesis that the strong accumulation of flavonoid 3-galactosides stimulated the biosynthesis of other flavonoid compounds in the red mutant and, therefore, caused systemic variation of flavonoid biosynthesis profiles between 'Zaosu' and its red mutant. This hypothesis had been further demonstrated by the enzyme activity of UFGT, and transcript levels of flavonoid biosynthetic genes and been well tested by a stepwise linear regression forecasting model. The gene that encodes flavonoid 3-galacosyltransferase was also identified and isolated from the pear genome.

  16. Molecular Analysis of the Processes of Surface Brown Spot (SBS) Formation in Pear Fruit (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. cv. Dangshansuli) by De Novo Transcriptome Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pu; Xue, Cheng; Wu, Ting-ting; Heng, Wei; Jia, Bing; Ye, Zhenfeng; Liu, Li; Zhu, Liwu

    2013-01-01

    Browning disorder, which usually occurs post-harvest in pears subjected to long-term storage, can cause browning of the pear flesh and/or core. In 2011, investigators in China found a novel type of brown spot (designated as surface brown spot, SBS) in pre-harvest ‘Dangshansuli’ pears (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.). SBS has a large impact on the exterior quality of the pears. Interestingly, the brown coloration was only found on the peel and not the flesh or the core. In this paper, de novo transcriptome analysis of the exocarp of pears with SBS using Illumina sequencing showed that SBS up-regulated the expression of genes related to oxidative phosphorylation, phenolic compound synthesis and polyphenoloxidase (PPO), and SBS was associated with inhibition of primary and secondary metabolism genes. Ca2+-sensor proteins might be involved in the signal transduction that occurs during the process of SBS formation, and this signaling is likely to be regulated by H2O2, abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA3). Phytohormone and mineral element analyses confirmed that GA3, ABA, H2O2 and Ca2+ contribute to SBS formation. In addition to the seasonal characteristics, low levels of O2 and Ca2+ in the fruit are potential causes of the browning response due to exposure to oxidative stress, oxidative-reductive imbalance and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which affected the membrane integrity. Disruption of the membranes allows for PPO and phenolic compounds to come into contact, and the phenolic compounds are oxidized to form the browning pigments. PMID:24058529

  17. Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the roots of Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Japanese pear) in orchards with variable amounts of soil-available phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yuko; Ido, Akifumi; Iwase, Koji; Matsumoto, Teruyuki; Yamato, Masahide

    2013-01-01

    We examined the colonization rate and communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the roots of Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Japanese pear) in orchards to investigate the effect of phosphorus (P) fertilization on AMF. Soil cores containing the roots of Japanese pear were collected from 13 orchards in Tottori Prefecture, Japan. Soil-available P in the examined orchards was 75.7 to 1,200 mg kg(-1), showing the extreme accumulation of soil P in many orchards. The AMF colonization rate was negatively correlated with soil-available P (P <0.01). AMF communities were examined on the basis of the partial fungal DNA sequences of the nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) amplified by AMF-specific primers AML1 and AML2. The obtained AMF sequences were divided into 14 phylotypes, and the number of phylotypes (species richness) was also negatively correlated with soil-available P (P <0.05). It was also suggested that some AM fungi may be adapted to high soil-available P conditions. Redundancy analysis showed the significant effects of soil pH, available P in soil, and P content in leaves of P. pyrifolia var. culta trees on AMF distribution. These results suggested that the accumulation of soil-available P affected AMF communities in the roots of Japanese pear in the orchard environment.

  18. Comparative Genomic Analysis of the GRF Genes in Chinese Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd), Poplar (Populous), Grape (Vitis vinifera), Arabidopsis and Rice (Oryza sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yunpeng; Han, Yahui; Jin, Qing; Lin, Yi; Cai, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Growth-regulating factors (GRFs) are plant-specific transcription factors that have important functions in regulating plant growth and development. Previous studies on GRF family members focused either on a single or a small set of genes. Here, a comparative genomic analysis of the GRF gene family was performed in poplar (a model tree species), Arabidopsis (a model plant for annual herbaceous dicots), grape (one model plant for perennial dicots), rice (a model plant for monocots) and Chinese pear (one of the economical fruit crops). In total, 58 GRF genes were identified, 12 genes in rice (Oryza sativa), 8 genes in grape (Vitis vinifera), 9 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, 19 genes in poplar (Populus trichocarpa) and 10 genes in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri). The GRF genes were divided into five subfamilies based on the phylogenetic analysis, which was supported by their structural analysis. Furthermore, microsynteny analysis indicated that highly conserved regions of microsynteny were identified in all of the five species tested. And Ka/Ks analysis revealed that purifying selection plays an important role in the maintenance of GRF genes. Our results provide basic information on GRF genes in five plant species and lay the foundation for future research on the functions of these genes. PMID:27933074

  19. Distinct transcriptome profiles reveal gene expression patterns during fruit development and maturation in five main cultivated species of pear (Pyrus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming-Yue; Xue, Cheng; Xu, Linlin; Sun, Honghe; Qin, Meng-Fan; Zhang, Shaoling; Wu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The transcriptomes of five pear cultivars, ‘Hosui’ (P. pyrifolia), ‘Yali’ (P. bretschneideri), ‘Kuerlexiangli’ (P. sinkiangensis), ‘Nanguoli’ (P. ussuriensis), and ‘Starkrimson’ (P. communis) were sequenced at seven key fruit developmental stages, from fruit setting to maturation and fruit senescence after harvesting. In total, 33,136 genes that could be mapped by reads, were analyzed. Most gene expression cluster models showed a steadily decreasing trend. Gene expression patterns had obvious differences according to maturity type, that is, post-ripening cultivars were still vigorous at maturity, and showed a higher proportion of up-regulated genes; non post-ripening cultivars had a gradually decreasing tendency during fruit maturation. Meanwhile, differentially expressed genes related to fruit quality and development, such as stone cells, sugar, acid and hormones, were identified. Co-expression analysis revealed that several ethylene synthesis genes and polyphenoloxidase-related genes interacted with each other directly, and an indirect relationship was reflected between ethylene synthesis genes and ethylene response genes. In addition, the highly diverse SNPs represented the great differences between oriental and occidental pears. Understanding how RNA-seq based gene-expression patterns and differential gene expression contribute to fruit quality allows us to build models for gene-expression for fruit development of Pyrus species. PMID:27305967

  20. Chemical composition and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of peels and flesh from 10 different pear varieties (Pyrus spp.).

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Wang, Tingting; Zhou, Bin; Gao, Wenyuan; Cao, Jingguo; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the contents of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total triterpenes between peel and flesh of ten different pear cultivars. The monomeric compounds were analyzed by HPLC, their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were also measured. Peel and flesh from Yaguang, Hongpi, Qingpi and Guifei varieties contained relatively more total phenolic, total flavonoids and total triterpene, and showed stronger antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, while Lvbaoshi and Youran appeared to be weakest among them. All the chemical components found in the pear peel were approximately 6-20 times higher than those in the flesh of pear. For the monomeric compounds, arbutin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, and rutin were the dominant components contained in the ten pear cultivars both in peel and in flesh. All of the analyses suggested that the peel of pear might be an excellent polyphenol and triterpenes source.

  1. Development of a transgenic early flowering pear (Pyrus communis L.) genotype by RNAi silencing of PcTFL1-1 and PcTFL1-2.

    PubMed

    Freiman, Aviad; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Golobovitch, Sara; Yablovitz, Zeev; Korchinsky, Raia; Cohen, Yuval; Samach, Alon; Chevreau, Elisabeth; Le Roux, Pierre-Marie; Patocchi, Andrea; Flaishman, Moshe A

    2012-06-01

    Trees require a long maturation period, known as juvenile phase, before they can reproduce, complicating their genetic improvement as compared to annual plants. 'Spadona', one of the most important European pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivars grown in Israel, has a very long juvenile period, up to 14 years, making breeding programs extremely slow. Progress in understanding the molecular basis of the transition to flowering has revealed genes that accelerate reproductive development when ectopically expressed in transgenic plants. A transgenic line of 'Spadona', named Early Flowering-Spadona (EF-Spa), was produced using a MdTFL1 RNAi cassette targeting the native pear genes PcTFL1-1 and PcTFL1-2. The transgenic line had three T-DNA insertions, one assigned to chromosome 2 and two to chromosome 14 PcTFL1-1 and PcTFL1-2 were completely silenced, and EF-Spa displayed an early flowering phenotype: flowers developed already in tissue culture and on most rooted plants 1-8 months after transfer to the greenhouse. EF-Spa developed solitary flowers from apical or lateral buds, reducing vegetative growth vigor. Pollination of EF-Spa trees generated normal-shaped fruits with viable F1 seeds. The greenhouse-grown transgenic F1 seedlings formed shoots and produced flowers 1-33 months after germination. Sequence analyses, of the non-transgenic F1 seedlings, demonstrated that this approach can be used to recover seedlings that have no trace of the T-DNA. Thus, the early flowering transgenic line EF-Spa obtained by PcTFL1 silencing provides an interesting tool to accelerate pear breeding.

  2. Transcriptome profiling reveals differential gene expression in proanthocyanidin biosynthesis associated with red/green skin color mutant of pear (Pyrus communis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanan; Yao, Gaifang; Yue, Wenquan; Zhang, Shaoling; Wu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanin concentration is the key determinant for red skin color in pear fruit. However, the molecular basis for development of red skin is complicated and has not been well-understood thus far. “Starkrimson” (Pyrus communis L.), an introduced red pear cultivated in the north of China and its green mutant provides a desirable red/green pair for identification of candidate genes involved in color variation. Here, we sequenced and annotated the transcriptome for the red/green color mutant at three stages of development using Illumina RNA-seq technology. The total number of mapped reads ranged from 26 to 46 million in six libraries. About 70.11–71.95% of clean reads could be mapped to the reference genome. Compared with green colored fruit, a total of 2230 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in red fruit. Gene Ontology (GO) terms were defined for 4886 differential transcripts involved in 15 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Three DEGs were identified as candidate genes in the flavonoid pathway, LAR, ANR, and C3H. Tellingly, higher expression was found for genes encoding ANR and LAR in the green color mutant, promoting the proanthocyanidin (PA) pathway and leading to lower anthocyanin. MYB-binding cis-motifs were identified in the promoter region of LAR and ANR. Based on these findings, we speculate that the regulation of PA biosynthesis might be a key factor for this red/green color mutant. Besides the known MYB and MADS transcription families, two new families, AP2 and WRKY, were identified as having high correlation with anthocyanin biosynthesis in red skinned pear. In addition, qRT-PCR was used to confirm the transcriptome results for 17 DEGs, high correlation of gene expression, further proved that AP2 and WARK regulated the anthocyanin biosynthesis in red skinned “Starkrimson,” and ANR and LAR promote PA biosynthesis and contribute to the green skinned variant. This study can serve as a valuable new resource

  3. Transcriptome profiling reveals differential gene expression in proanthocyanidin biosynthesis associated with red/green skin color mutant of pear (Pyrus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanan; Yao, Gaifang; Yue, Wenquan; Zhang, Shaoling; Wu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanin concentration is the key determinant for red skin color in pear fruit. However, the molecular basis for development of red skin is complicated and has not been well-understood thus far. "Starkrimson" (Pyrus communis L.), an introduced red pear cultivated in the north of China and its green mutant provides a desirable red/green pair for identification of candidate genes involved in color variation. Here, we sequenced and annotated the transcriptome for the red/green color mutant at three stages of development using Illumina RNA-seq technology. The total number of mapped reads ranged from 26 to 46 million in six libraries. About 70.11-71.95% of clean reads could be mapped to the reference genome. Compared with green colored fruit, a total of 2230 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in red fruit. Gene Ontology (GO) terms were defined for 4886 differential transcripts involved in 15 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Three DEGs were identified as candidate genes in the flavonoid pathway, LAR, ANR, and C3H. Tellingly, higher expression was found for genes encoding ANR and LAR in the green color mutant, promoting the proanthocyanidin (PA) pathway and leading to lower anthocyanin. MYB-binding cis-motifs were identified in the promoter region of LAR and ANR. Based on these findings, we speculate that the regulation of PA biosynthesis might be a key factor for this red/green color mutant. Besides the known MYB and MADS transcription families, two new families, AP2 and WRKY, were identified as having high correlation with anthocyanin biosynthesis in red skinned pear. In addition, qRT-PCR was used to confirm the transcriptome results for 17 DEGs, high correlation of gene expression, further proved that AP2 and WARK regulated the anthocyanin biosynthesis in red skinned "Starkrimson," and ANR and LAR promote PA biosynthesis and contribute to the green skinned variant. This study can serve as a valuable new resource laying a

  4. Evaluation of fruit quality and susceptibility to blue mold of nine Asian pear cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine Asian pear cultivars (Atago, Hosui, Isiiwase, Kosui, Olympic, Shinko, Shinsui, Ya Li, and Yoinashi) were evaluated for quality (firmness, titratable acidity, and soluble solids) and susceptibility to the blue mold pathogen Penicillium expansum. Fruit were grown at the University of Maryland Ext...

  5. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Related to Dehydration Resistance in a Highly Drought-Tolerant Pear, Pyrus betulaefolia, as through RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Li, Kong-Qing; Xu, Xiao-Yong; Huang, Xiao-San

    2016-01-01

    Drought is a major abiotic stress that affects plant growth, development and productivity. Pear is one of the most important deciduous fruit trees in the world, but the mechanisms of drought tolerance in this plant are still unclear. To better understand the molecular basis regarding drought stress response, RNA-seq was performed on samples collected before and after dehydration in Pyrus betulaefolia. In total, 19,532 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. These genes were annotated into 144 Gene Ontology (GO) terms and 18 clusters of orthologous groups (COG) involved in 129 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) defined pathways. These DEGs comprised 49 (26 up-regulated, 23 down-regulated), 248 (166 up-regulated, 82 down-regulated), 3483 (1295 up-regulated, 2188 down-regulated), 1455 (1065 up-regulated, 390 down-regulated) genes from the 1 h, 3 h and 6 h dehydration-treated samples and a 24 h recovery samples, respectively. RNA-seq was validated by analyzing the expresson patterns of randomly selected 16 DEGs by quantitative real-time PCR. Photosynthesis, signal transduction, innate immune response, protein phosphorylation, response to water, response to biotic stimulus, and plant hormone signal transduction were the most significantly enriched GO categories amongst the DEGs. A total of 637 transcription factors were shown to be dehydration responsive. In addition, a number of genes involved in the metabolism and signaling of hormones were significantly affected by the dehydration stress. This dataset provides valuable information regarding the Pyrus betulaefolia transcriptome changes in response to dehydration and may promote identification and functional analysis of potential genes that could be used for improving drought tolerance via genetic engineering of non-model, but economically-important, perennial species.

  6. A genome-wide identification and characterization of mircoRNAs and their targets in 'Suli' pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group).

    PubMed

    Niu, Qingfeng; Qian, Minjie; Liu, Guoqin; Yang, Fengxia; Teng, Yuanwen

    2013-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNA molecules that are endogenous regulators of gene expression. miRNAs play a crucial role in cells via degradation of target mRNAs or by inhibition of target protein translation. In the present study, 186 new potentially conserved pear miRNAs belonging to 37 families were identified. The length of mature miRNAs ranged from 19 to 24 nt, and most of the miRNAs (154 out of 186) were 21 nt in length. The length of pre-miRNAs in pear was also found to vary from 62 to 282 nt with an average of 105 ± 43 nt. The potential miRNAs belonged to 29 clusters involving 20 different miRNA families. Using these potential miRNAs, we further scoured of the pear genome and found 326 potential target genes, which included transcription factors, stress responsive genes, and the genes involved in transmembrane transport and signal transduction. Gene ontology analysis of these potential targets suggested that 47 biological processes were potentially regulated by miRNAs, including oxidation-reduction, stress response, transport, etc. KEGG pathway analysis showed that the identified miRNAs were found in 15 metabolism networks which were related to starch and sucrose metabolism, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, among others. Our study will help in the further understanding of the essential role of miRNAs in growth and development and stress response of pear.

  7. A New Insight into the Evolution and Functional Divergence of SWEET Transporters in Chinese White Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri).

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaming; Qin, Mengfan; Qiao, Xin; Cheng, Yinsheng; Li, Xiaolong; Zhang, Huping; Wu, Jun

    2017-03-01

    SWEET genes are a recently identified plant gene family that play an indispensable role in sugar efflux. However, no systematic study has been performed in pear. In this research, 18 SWEET transporters identified in pear, almost twice the number found in woodland strawberry and Japanese apricot, were divided into four clades. Conserved motifs and six exons of the SWEET transporters were found in six species. SWEET transporters contained seven transmembrane segments (TMSs) that evolved from an internal duplication of an ancestral three-TMSs unit, connected by TMS4. This is the first direct evidence identifying internal repeats through bioinformatics analysis. Whole-genome duplication (WGD) or segmental duplication and dispersed duplication represent the main driving forces for SWEET family evolution in six species, with former duplications more important in pear. Gene expression results suggested that PbSWEET15 and PbSWEET17 have no expression in any tissues because of critical lost residues and that 62.5% of PbSWEET duplicate gene pairs have functional divergence. Additionally, PbSWEET6, PbSWEET7 and PbSWEET14 were found to play important roles in sucrose efflux from leaves, and the high expression of PbSWEET1 and PbSWEET2 might contribute to unloading sucrose from the phloem in the stem. Finally, PbSWEET5, PbSWEET9 and PbSWEET10 might contribute to pollen development. Overall, our study provides important insights into the evolution of the SWEET gene family in pear and four other Rosaceae, and the important candidate PbSWEET genes involved in the development of different tissues were identified in pear.

  8. Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Japanese pear) and an understory herbaceous plant Plantago asiatica.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yuko; Ido, Akifumi; Matsumoto, Teruyuki; Yamato, Masahide

    2013-01-01

    We investigated communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the fine roots of Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta, and Plantago asiatica to consider the relationship between orchard trees and herbaceous plants in AMF symbioses. The AMF communities were analyzed on the basis of the partial fungal DNA sequences of the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA), which were amplified using the AMF-specific primers AML1 and AML2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the obtained AMF sequences were divided into 23 phylotypes. Among them, 12 phylotypes included AMF from both host plants, and most of the obtained sequences (689/811) were affiliated to them. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the host plant species did not have a significant effect on the distribution of AMF phylotypes, whereas the effects of sampling site, soil total C, soil total N and soil-available P were significant. It was also found that the mean observed overlaps of AMF phylotypes between the paired host plants in the same soil cores (27.1% of phylotypes shared) were significantly higher than the mean 1,000 simulated overlaps (14.2%). Furthermore, the same AMF sequences (100% sequence identity) were detected from both host plants in 8/12 soil cores having both roots. Accordingly, we concluded that Py. pyrifolia and Pl. asiatica examined shared some AMF communities, which suggested that understory herbaceous plants may function as AMF inoculum sources for orchard trees.

  9. Partitioning of 13C-photosynthate from Spur Leaves during Fruit Growth of Three Japanese Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) Cultivars Differing in Maturation Date

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, CAIXI; TANABE, KENJI; TAMURA, FUMIO; ITAI, AKIHIRO; WANG, SHIPING

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims In fruit crops, fruit size at harvest is an important aspect of quality. With Japanese pears (Pyrus pyrifolia), later maturing cultivars usually have larger fruits than earlier maturing cultivars. It is considered that the supply of photosynthate during fruit development is a critical determinant of size. To assess the interaction of assimilate supply and early/late maturity of cultivars and its effect on final fruit size, the pattern of carbon assimilate partitioning from spur leaves (source) to fruit and other organs (sinks) during fruit growth was investigated using three genotypes differing in maturation date. • Methods Partitioning of photosynthate from spur leaves during fruit growth was investigated by exposure of spurs to 13CO2 and measurement of the change in 13C abundance in dry matter with time. Leaf number and leaf area per spur, fresh fruit weight, cell number and cell size of the mesocarp were measured and used to model the development of the spur leaf and fruit. • Key Results Compared with the earlier-maturing cultivars ‘Shinsui’ and ‘Kousui’, the larger-fruited, later-maturing cultivar ‘Shinsetsu’ had a greater total leaf area per spur, greater source strength (source weight × source specific activity), with more 13C assimilated per spur and allocated to fruit, smaller loss of 13C in respiration and export over the season, and longer duration of cell division and enlargement. Histology shows that cultivar differences in final fruit size were mainly attributable to the number of cells in the mesocarp. • Conclusions Assimilate availability during the period of cell division was crucial for early fruit growth and closely correlated with final fruit size. Early fruit growth of the earlier-maturing cultivars, but not the later-maturing ones, was severely restrained by assimilate supply rather than by sink limitation. PMID:15655106

  10. Respiration and protein synthesis in nongrowing cultured pear fruit cells in response to ethylene and modified atmospheres. [Pyrus communis L. Passe Crassane

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, C.J.; Romani, R.J.

    1988-07-01

    The respiration of pear fruit (Pyrus communis L. Passe Crassane) cells was monitored after subculture into an auxin-free, mannitol-enriched medium in which the cells remained viable but did not grow. Respiration rates were affected by the presence or absence of sucrose in the medium even though the cells retained reserves of sucrose and starch. Provided the medium contained respirable carbohydrate, exposure to ethylene (1-10 microliters per liter) increased the respiration rate with some acceleration of cell death. In the range from 10 to 2% oxygen by volume, the respiration rate of the cells decreased with oxygen concentration resulting in some prolongation of cell life. Thus, in their responses to ethylene and modified atmospheres, the cells reflected the behavior of harvested fruits. Having defined conditions under which respiration rate could be varied without apparent influence on the quiescent state of the cells, they sought a connection between maintenance respiration and protein turnover. Relative rates of protein synthesis were assessed by measuring ribosome distribution between monosomes and polysomes. In general, the higher the respiration rate the higher the proportion of polysomes supporting the thesis that protein turnover is a variable component of maintenance metabolism. Protein turnover in cells incubated in the presence or absence of sucrose was measured as retained {alpha}-amino-{sup 3}H following a pulse of {sup 3}H{sub 2}O. Turnover was shown to be a quantitatively important component of the maintenance budget and to be more rapidly in cells in media supplemented with sucrose through the chase period. The experiments illustrate that cultured cells may be used to explore aspects of the maintenance metabolism of resting or senescent cells that are not amenable to study in bulky fruit tissues.

  11. Pigmentation in sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) fruit: biochemical characterization, gene discovery and expression analysis with exocarp pigmentation mutant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-zhi; Zhang, Shujun; Dai, Mei-song; Shi, Ze-bin

    2014-05-01

    Exocarp color of sand pear is an important trait for the fruit production and has caused our concern for a long time. Our previous study explored the different expression genes between the two genotypes contrasting for exocarp color, which indicated the different suberin, cutin, wax and lignin biosynthesis between the russet- and green-exocarp. In this study, we carried out microscopic observation and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis to detect the differences of tissue structure and biochemical composition between the russet- and green-exocarp of sand pear. The green exocarp was covered with epidermis and cuticle which was replaced by a cork layer on the surface of russet exocarp, and the chemicals of the russet exocarp were characterized by lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. We explored differential gene expression between the russet exocarp of 'Niitaka' and its green exocarp mutant cv. 'Suisho' using Illumina RNA-sequencing. A total of 559 unigenes showed different expression between the two types of exocarp, and 123 of them were common to the previous study. The quantitative real time-PCR analysis supports the RNA-seq-derived gene with different expression between the two types of exocarp and revealed the preferential expression of these genes in exocarp than in mesocarp and fruit core. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed divorced expression of lipid metabolic process genes, transport genes, stress responsive genes and other biological process genes in the two types of exocarp. Expression changes in lignin metabolism-related genes were consistent with the different pigmentation of russet and green exocarp. Increased transcripts of putative genes involved the suberin, cutin and wax biosynthesis in 'Suisho' exocarp could facilitate deposition of the chemicals and take a role in the mutant trait responsible for the green exocarp. In addition, the divorced expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters involved in the trans

  12. Microgeographical, inter-individual, and intra-individual variation in the flower characters of Iberian pear Pyrus bourgaeana (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Zywiec, Magdalena; Delibes, Miguel; Fedriani, José M

    2012-07-01

    Flower characteristics have been traditionally considered relatively constant within species. However, there are an increasing number of examples of variation in flower characteristics. In this study, we examined the variation in attracting and rewarding flower characters at several ecological levels in a metapopulation of Pyrus bourgaeana in the Doñana area (SW Spain). We answered the following questions: what are the variances of morphological and nectar characters of flowers? How important are intra-individual and inter-individual variance in flower characters? Are there microgeographical differences in flower characters? And if so, are they consistent between years? In 2008 and 2009, we sampled flowers of 72 trees from five localities. For six flower morphological and two nectar characteristics, we calculated coefficients of variation (CV). The partitioning of total variation among-localities, among-individuals, and within-individuals was estimated. To analyze differences among localities and their consistency between years, we conducted generalized linear mixed models. The CVs of nectar characters were always higher than those of morphological characters. As expected, inter-individual variation was the main source of variation of flower morphology, but nectar characters had significant variation at both intra- and inter-individual levels. For most floral traits, there were no differences among localities. Our study documents that variation is a scale-dependent phenomenon and that it is essential to consider intra- and inter-individual variance when investigating the causes and consequences of variation. It also shows that single year studies of floral characters should be viewed with caution.

  13. Involvement of EARLY BUD-BREAK, an AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Gene, in Bud Break in Japanese Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) Lateral Flower Buds: Expression, Histone Modifications and Possible Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Anh Tuan, Pham; Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2016-05-01

    In the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) 'Kosui', three developmental stages of lateral flower buds have been proposed to occur during ecodormancy to the flowering phase, i.e. rapid enlargement, sprouting and flowering. Here, we report an APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor gene, named pear EARLY BUD-BREAK (PpEBB), which was highly expressed during the rapid enlargement stage occurring prior to the onset of bud break in flower buds. Gene expression analysis revealed that PpEBB expression was dramatically increased during the rapid enlargement stage in three successive growing seasons. PpEBB transcript levels peaked 1 week prior to onset of bud break in 'Kosui' potted plants treated with hydrogen cyanamide or water under forcing conditions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR showed that higher levels of active histone modifications (trimethylation of the histone H3 tail at Lys4) in the 5'-upstream and start codon regions of the PpEBB gene were associated with the induced expression level of PpEBB during the rapid enlargement stage. In addition, we provide evidence that PpEBB may interact with and regulate pear four D-type cyclin (PpCYCD3) genes during bud break in 'Kosui' lateral flower buds. PpEBB significantly increased the promoter activities of four PpCYCD3 genes in a dual-luciferase assay using tobacco leaves. Taken together, our findings uncovered aspects of the bud break regulatory mechanism in the Japanese pear and provided further evidence that the EBB family plays an important role in bud break in perennial plants.

  14. Susceptibility of pear to European pear sawfly fruit infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European pear sawfly, Hoplocampa brevis (Klug), is a relatively new pest in the Mid-Atlantic fruit production region. A plot containing twelve Pyrus communis pear cultivars and one breeder’s selection in a randomized block design was surveyed for fruit damage. Infestation frequency ranged from...

  15. Carboxymethyl cellulose coating and low-dose gamma irradiation improves storage quality and shelf life of pear (Pyrus communis L., Cv. Bartlett/William).

    PubMed

    Hussain, Peerzada R; Meena, Raghuveer S; Dar, Mohd A; Wani, Ali M

    2010-01-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coatings alone and in combination with gamma irradiation were tested for maintaining the storage quality and extending shelf life of pear. Matured green pears were CMC coated at levels 0.25% to 1.0% w/v and gamma irradiated at 1.5 kGy. The treated fruit including control was stored under ambient (temperature 25 ± 2 °C, RH 70%) and refrigerated (temperature 3 ± 1 °C, RH 80%) conditions. Irradiation alone at 1.5 kGy gave 8 and 4 d extension in shelf life of pear following 45 and 60 d of refrigeration, respectively. CMC coating at 1.0% w/v was effective in giving 6 and 2 d extension in shelf life of pear following 45 and 60 d of refrigeration, respectively. All combinatory treatments delayed the decaying of pear during postrefrigerated storage, but combination of 1.0% w/v CMC and 1.5 kGy irradiation proved significantly (P≤0.05) effective in maintaining the storage quality and delaying the decaying of pear. The above combinatory treatment gave an extension of 12 and 6 d in shelf life of pear during postrefrigerated storage at 25 ± 2 °C, RH 70% following 45 and 60 d of refrigeration.

  16. Characterization and Expression Profiling Analysis of Calmodulin Genes in Response to Salt and Osmotic Stresses in Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) and in Comparison with Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaogang; Yang, Qingsong; Cheng, Qunkang

    2017-01-01

    A genome-wide identification and cloning of CaM genes in pear was conducted and in compared with Arabidopsis that indicated a conserved expansion of CaM genes in pear, and PbCaMs and AtCaMs had a similar distribution of cis-elements and expressions in response to salt and osmotic stress. In particular, PbCaM1 and PbCaM3 were both significantly upregulated in response to salt and osmotic stress in pear. PMID:28373986

  17. Genomic characterization, phylogenetic comparison and differential expression of the cyclic nucleotide-gated channels gene family in pear (Pyrus bretchneideri Rehd.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianqing; Yin, Hao; Gu, Jinping; Li, Leiting; Liu, Zhe; Jiang, Xueting; Zhou, Hongsheng; Wei, Shuwei; Zhang, Shaoling; Wu, Juyou

    2015-01-01

    The cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (CNGC) family is involved in the uptake of various cations, such as Ca(2+), to regulate plant growth and respond to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, there is far less information about this family in woody plants such as pear. Here, we provided a genome-wide identification and analysis of the CNGC gene family in pear. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 21 pear CNGC genes could be divided into five groups (I, II, III, IVA and IVB). The majority of gene duplications in pear appeared to have been caused by segmental duplication and occurred 32.94-39.14 million years ago. Evolutionary analysis showed that positive selection had driven the evolution of pear CNGCs. Motif analyses showed that Group I CNGCs generally contained 26 motifs, which was the greatest number of motifs in all CNGC groups. Among these, eight motifs were shared by each group, suggesting that these domains play a conservative role in CNGC activity. Tissue-specific expression analysis indicated that functional diversification of the duplicated CNGC genes was a major feature of long-term evolution. Our results also suggested that the P-S6 and PBC & hinge domains had co-evolved during the evolution. These results provide valuable information to increase our understanding of the function, evolution and expression analyses of the CNGC gene family in higher plants.

  18. Sequence divergence and loss-of-function phenotypes of S locus F-box brothers genes are consistent with non-self recognition by multiple pollen determinants in self-incompatibility of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Kakui, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masaki; Ushijima, Koichiro; Kitaguchi, Miyoko; Kato, Shu; Sassa, Hidenori

    2011-12-01

    The S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI) of Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and Plantaginaceae is controlled by at least two tightly linked genes located at the complex S locus; the highly polymorphic S-RNase for pistil specificity and the F-box gene (SFB/SLF) for pollen. Self-incompatibility in Prunus (Rosaceae) is considered to represent a 'self recognition by a single factor' system, because loss-of-function of SFB is associated with self-compatibility, and allelic divergence of SFB is high and comparable to that of S-RNase. In contrast, Petunia (Solanaceae) exhibits 'non-self recognition by multiple factors'. However, the distribution of 'self recognition' and 'non-self recognition' SI systems in different taxa is not clear. In addition, in 'non-self recognition' systems, a loss-of-function phenotype of pollen S is unknown. Here we analyze the divergence of SFBB genes, the multiple pollen S candidates, of a rosaceous plant Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) and show that intrahaplotypic divergence is high and comparable to the allelic diversity of S-RNase while interhaplotypic divergence is very low. Next, we analyzed loss-of-function of the SFBB1 type gene. Genetic analysis showed that pollen with the mutant haplotype S(4sm) lacking SFBB1-S(4) is rejected by pistils with an otherwise compatible S(1) while it is accepted by other non-self pistils. We found that the S(5) haplotype encodes a truncated SFBB1 protein, even though S(5) pollen is accepted normally by pistils with S(1) and other non-self haplotypes. These findings suggest that Japanese pear has a 'non-self recognition by multiple factors' SI system, although it is a species of Rosaceae to which Prunus also belongs.

  19. Study on chemical composition, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities of extracts from Chinese pear fruit (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.).

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Zhang, Junying; Gao, Wenyuan; Wang, Haiyang

    2012-10-01

    Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. belongs to the genus Pyrus, a member of Rosaceae family. It is a routine edible fruit, and also used as a folk medicine to treat cough, eliminate constipation, and relieve alcoholism. In order to clarify the active compounds of P. bretschneideri, the phytochemical study were performed. Five compounds were isolated and identified as 2β,19α-dihydroxy ursolic acid, quercitrin, dibutyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate and α-amyrin. Additionally, we investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial effects of the fractions of P. bretschneideri partitioned with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol, respectively. In the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema test, the EtOAc fraction showed the strongest inhibition of edema formation 0.5-5 h after edema induction, followed by n-butanol. EtOAc also displayed potent anti-inflammatory activity against xylene-induced ear edema (22.03% and 43.69%, respectively) and acetic acid-induced extravasation of Evan's blue dye (39.58% and 49.92%, respectively) at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg. While, the anti-microbial results showed that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions exhibited strong activity against the bacteria strains. Moreover, 2β,19α-dihydroxy ursolic acid, α-amyrin and quercitrin could significantly inhibit the ear edema induced by xylene at the dose of 20 mg/kg, and exhibited moderate anti-microbial activities against the bacteria strains.

  20. Proteomic analysis of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) ripening process provides new evidence for the sugar/acid metabolism difference between core and mesocarp.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhen; Zhang, Chengjun; Luo, Meng; Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Li, Jiefa; Wang, Lei; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Wang, Shiping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao

    2016-12-01

    Pears are one of the most popular nutrient-rich fruits in the world. The pear core and mesocarp have significantly different metabolism, although they display similar profiles. Most strikingly, the core is more acidic in taste. Our results showed that there is more titrated acid but lower total soluble solids in the core compared to the mesocarp, and the content of citric acid was more than 17-fold higher in the core compared to the mesocarp at the ripening stage. Proteomics was used to investigate the difference between core and mesocarp tissues during "Cuiguan" pear ripening. Fifty-four different protein expression patterns were identified in the core and mesocarp. In general, common variably expressed proteins between the core and mesocarp were associated with important physiological processes, such as glycolysis, pyruvate metabolic processes, and oxidative stress. Further, protein level associated qRT-PCR verification revealed a higher abundance of fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and NADP-dependent malic enzymes, which may play a role in the low acid content in the mesocarp, whereas a higher abundance of disulfide isomerase-like 2-2 and calcium-dependent lipid-binding in the core may explain why it is less prone to accumulate sugar. The different levels of a few typical ROS scavenger enzymes suggested that oxidative stress is higher in the core than in the mesocarp. This study provides the first characterization of the pear core proteome and a description of its variation compared to the mesocarp during ripening.

  1. The relationship between the morphology and structure and the quality of fruits of two pear cultivars (Pyrus communis L.) during their development and maturation.

    PubMed

    Konarska, Agata

    2013-01-01

    The flavour and nutritional values of pears are appreciated by consumers worldwide, who, however, demand specific fruit quality, that is, attractive appearance, firmness and flavour, and health safety as well as long-term shelf life and storability. Pear cultivars differ in terms of the above-mentioned traits; therefore, we undertook investigations to demonstrate the differences in structure of fruits of two pear cultivars that determine fruit quality in its broadest sense. The micromorphology, anatomy, and ultrastructure of "Clapp's Favourite" and "Conference" fruits in the fruit set stage and in the harvest maturity stage were investigated under light microscope and scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The fruits of "Clapp's Favourite" and "Conference" in the fruit set stage exhibited distinct differences in the values of anatomical parameters only. Substantial differences in fruit structure were observed in the harvest maturity stage. The analyses indicate that firmness and durability of pear fruits are largely influenced by the presence of russeting, the proportion of closed lenticels and number of stone cells, and the content of starch grains and tannin compounds. The thickness of the cuticle and presence of epicuticular waxes as well as the number of lenticels and the number and depth of microcracks play a minor role.

  2. Histone modification and signalling cascade of the dormancy-associated MADS-box gene, PpMADS13-1, in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) during endodormancy.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takanori; Bai, Songling; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Akiko; Nakajima, Ikuko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2015-06-01

    Dormancy-associated MADS-box (DAM) genes play an important role in endodormancy phase transition. We investigated histone modification in the DAM homolog (PpMADS13-1) from Japanese pear, via chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR, to understand the mechanism behind the reduced expression of the PpMADS13-1 gene towards endodormancy release. Our results indicated that the reduction in the active histone mark by trimethylation of the histone H3 tail at lysine 4 contributed to the reduction of PpMADS13-1 expression towards endodormancy release. In contrast, the inactive histone mark by trimethylation of the histone H3 tail at lysine 27 in PpMADS13-1 locus was quite low, and these levels were more similar to a negative control [normal mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG)] than to a positive control (AGAMOUS) in endodormancy phase transition. The loss of histone variant H2A.Z also coincided with the down-regulation of PpMADS13-1. Subsequently, we investigated the PpMADS13-1 signalling cascade and found that PpCBF2, a pear C-repeated binding factor, regulated PpMADS13-1 expression via interaction of PpCBF2 with the 5'-upstream region of PpMADS13-1 by transient reporter assay. Furthermore, transient reporter assay confirmed no interaction between the PpMADS13-1 protein and the pear FLOWERING LOCUS T genes. Taken together, our results enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying endodormancy phase transition in Japanese pear.

  3. Comparative genomic analysis reveals multiple long terminal repeats, lineage-specific amplification, and frequent interelement recombination for Cassandra retrotransposon in pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.).

    PubMed

    Yin, Hao; Du, Jianchang; Li, Leiting; Jin, Cong; Fan, Lian; Li, Meng; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Shaoling

    2014-06-04

    Cassandra transposable elements belong to a specific group of terminal-repeat retrotransposons in miniature (TRIM). Although Cassandra TRIM elements have been found in almost all vascular plants, detailed investigations on the nature, abundance, amplification timeframe, and evolution have not been performed in an individual genome. We therefore conducted a comprehensive analysis of Cassandra retrotransposons using the newly sequenced pear genome along with four other Rosaceae species, including apple, peach, mei, and woodland strawberry. Our data reveal several interesting findings for this particular retrotransposon family: 1) A large number of the intact copies contain three, four, or five long terminal repeats (LTRs) (∼20% in pear); 2) intact copies and solo LTRs with or without target site duplications are both common (∼80% vs. 20%) in each genome; 3) the elements exhibit an overall unbiased distribution among the chromosomes; 4) the elements are most successfully amplified in pear (5,032 copies); and 5) the evolutionary relationships of these elements vary among different lineages, species, and evolutionary time. These results indicate that Cassandra retrotransposons contain more complex structures (elements with multiple LTRs) than what we have known previously, and that frequent interelement unequal recombination followed by transposition may play a critical role in shaping and reshaping host genomes. Thus this study provides insights into the property, propensity, and molecular mechanisms governing the formation and amplification of Cassandra retrotransposons, and enhances our understanding of the structural variation, evolutionary history, and transposition process of LTR retrotransposons in plants.

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-57 - Sand pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sand pears from China. 319.56-57 Section 319.56-57... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-57 Sand pears from China. Fresh sand pears (Pyrus pyrifolia) from China may be imported into the United States...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-57 - Sand pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sand pears from China. 319.56-57 Section 319.56-57... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-57 Sand pears from China. Fresh sand pears (Pyrus pyrifolia) from China may be imported into the United States...

  6. Isolation and characterization of Calcineurin B-like gene (PbCBL1) and its promoter in birch-leaf pear (Pyrus betulifolia Bunge).

    PubMed

    Xu, Y Y; Li, H; Lin, J; Li, X G; Chang, Y H

    2015-12-14

    Calcium plays a critical role in regulating abiotic stress responses in plants. Calcineurin B-like (CBL) proteins are calcium sensors in calcium signaling pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying calcium signaling remain to be elucidated. In this study, the CBL1 gene, which codes for the CBL protein, was isolated from the birch-leaf pear. One 2,969-bp sequence was cloned using PCR, and using the cloned 2,027-bp sequence was isolated from pear genomic DNA via genome walking. Sequencing analysis revealed that the 4,996-bp sequence was a PbCBL1 gene consisting of eight exons and seven introns, and the 2,027-bp sequence was identified as the promoter of the PbCBL1 gene, which contains the basic promoter elements TATA and CAAT boxes. In addition, some other cis-acting elements including heat, cold, drought, and hormone responsive elements were also present. To further investigate the activity of this promoter, the sequence was used to drive a GUS fusion gene into leaf discs of tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. GUS gene expression could be regulated by the PbCBL1 promoter following induction by GA, ABA, SA, and MeJA. Furthermore, the results of real-time RT-qPCR indicate that the PbCBL1 gene can respond to changes in the intracellular calcium concentration, and that it can be induced by cold, heat, drought, and stress by several hormones including GA, ABA, SA, and MeJA. PbCBL1 gene may be involved in several signal transduction pathways, and play an important role in the condition of adversity stress in pear.

  7. Effect of extending the photoperiod with low-intensity red or far-red light on the timing of shoot elongation and flower-bud formation of 1-year-old Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Ito, Akiko; Saito, Takanori; Nishijima, Takaaki; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effects of light quality (wavelength) on shoot elongation and flower-bud formation in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai), we treated 1-year-old trees with the following: (i) 8 h sunlight + 16 h dark (SD); (ii) 8 h sunlight + 16 h red light (LD(SD + R)); or (iii) 8 h sunlight + 16 h far-red (FR) light (LD(SD + FR)) daily for 4 months from early April (before the spring flush) until early August in 2009 and 2010. In both years, shoot elongation stopped earlier in the LD(SD + FR) treatment than in the SD and LD(SD + R) treatments. After 4 months of treatments, 21% (2009) or 40% (2010) of LD(SD + FR)-treated trees formed flower buds in the shoot apices, whereas all the shoot apices from SD or LD(SD + R)-treated plants remained vegetative. With an additional experiment conducted in 2012, we confirmed that FR light at 730 nm was the most efficacious wavelength to induce flower-bud formation. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expression of two floral meristem identity gene orthologues, LEAFY (PpLFY2a) and APETALA1 (PpMADS2-1a), were up-regulated in the shoot apex of LD(SD + FR). In contrast, the expression of a flowering repressor gene, TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (PpTFL1-1a, PpTFL1-2a), was down-regulated. In addition, expression of an orthologue of the flower-promoting gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (PpFT1a) was positively correlated with flower-bud formation, although the expression of another orthologue, PpFT2a, was negatively correlated with shoot growth. Biologically active cytokinin and gibberellic acid concentrations in shoot apices were reduced with LD(SD + FR) treatment. Taken together, our results indicate that pear plants are able to regulate flowering in response to the R : FR ratio. Furthermore, LD(SD + FR) treatment terminated shoot elongation and subsequent flower-bud formation in the shoot apex at an earlier time, possibly by influencing the expression of flowering-related genes and modifying

  8. Comparative gas exchange characteristics of potted, glasshouse-grown almond, apple, fig, grape, olive, peach and Asian pear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, S.S.; Larsen, F.E.; Bendel, R.B.; Radamaker, G.K.; Bassman, J.H.; Bidlake, W.R.; Wir, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    Net photosynthesis (Pn), dark respiration (Rd), transpirational flux density (TFD) and leaf conductance (kl) on glasshouse-grown plants of almond, apple, fig, grape, olive, peach and Asian pear were examined under various laboratory environmental conditions. Grape and almond had the highest light-saturated photosynthetic rates, greater than 20 ??mol CO2 m-2 s-1. Apple had the lowest temperature optimum for Pn, 20??C. Almond had the highest Rd rate between 10 and 50??C, but grape had the highest Q10 for respiration, a value of 2.5. Apple, olive and grape stomata were most sensitive to the leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference. Apple had the greatest sensitivity of Pn to the vapor pressure difference. ?? 1992.

  9. Systematic Review of Pears and Health

    PubMed Central

    Reiland, Holly; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Fruit consumption is universally promoted, yet consumption of fruit remains low in the United States. We conducted a systematic review on pear consumption and health outcomes searching both PubMed and Agricola from 1970 to present. The genus Pyrus L. consists of species of pears cultivated in Europe, parts of Asia, South America, and North America. Like most fruit, pears are concentrated in water and sugar. Pears are high in dietary fiber, containing 6 g per serving. Pears, similar to apples, are concentrated in fructose, and the high fiber and fructose in pears probably explain the laxative properties. Pears contain antioxidants and provide between 27 and 41 mg of phenolics per 100 g. Animal studies with pears suggest that pears may regulate alcohol metabolism, protect against ulcers, and lower plasma lipids. Human feeding studies with pears have not been conducted. In epidemiological studies, pears are combined with all fresh fruits or with apples, because they are most similar in composition. The high content of dietary fiber in pears and their effects on gut health set pears apart from other fruit and deserves study. PMID:26663955

  10. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera leucotricha on Callery pear in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Podosphaera leucotricha (Ellis & Everh.) E.S. Salmon (Ascomycetes, Erysiphales) is the etiological agent of a powdery mildew disease that occurs on rosaceous plants, primarily Malus and Pyrus. This fungus is nearly circumglobal. In May 2009, leaves of Bradford pear (Pyrus calleryana Decne.), some di...

  11. The disappearance rate and risk assessment of thiacloprid residues in Asian pear using liquid chromatography confirmed with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Md Humayun; Abd El-Aty, A M; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Kim, Sung-Woo; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Lee, Young-Jun; Truong, Lieu T B; Lee, Kang-Bong; Kim, Mi-Ra; Shin, Ho-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han

    2016-10-03

    This study was undertaken to quantify the residue levels and propose the dissipation kinetics of thiacloprid formulated as suspension concentrate in field-incurred Asian pears grown under two different open-field conditions. Samples were extracted with 20% distilled water in acetonitrile; partitioned with brine water and dichloromethane; and purified with a Florisil solid phase extraction cartridge. The analyte was identified with an LC ultraviolet detector, and field-incurred samples were confirmed using LC-MS/MS. The calibration curve was linear over the range 0.05-5.0 mg/L with a satisfactory coefficient of determination (R(2)  = 0.9994). The limits of detection and limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.003 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. The recovery rate fortified to blank samples at LOQ, 10× LOQ, and the maximum residue limit (MRL) were between 73.7 and 86.2% with relative standard deviation ≤9.0%. The residual concentrations at both sites were considerably lower than the MRL (0.7 mg/kg) set by the Korean Ministry of Food Drug Safety, with biological half-lives of 5.0 and 7.4 days, for sites 1 and 2, respectively. From the pre-harvest residue limit curve, it was predicted that if the residues were <1.13 or 1.40 mg/kg 10 days before harvest, the residue level would be lower than the MRL during harvest. Risk assessment on day 0 showed an acceptable daily intake (%) of 13.0% and 11.0% for sites 1 and site 2, respectively, which indicates that the residual amounts are not hazardous to the Korean population.

  12. First report of Gymnosporangium sabinae, European pear rust, on Bradford pear in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bradford pear, Pyrus calleryana Decne., is well known as an ornamental plant for its flowers, leaf color in fall, and disease resistance, making it desirable as a street tree. In August and October 2008, the aecial stage of Gymnosporangium sabinae (Dicks.) G. Winter was collected on leaves of P. cal...

  13. First report of European pear rust (pear trellis rust) caused by Gymnosporangium sabinae in Virginia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In November 2014, leaves of ornamental pear (Pyrus calleryana, cultivar unknown) with bright orange to reddish spots typical of infection by a rust fungus were submitted to the Virginia Tech Plant Disease Clinic from a landscape in Frederick County, VA, for diagnosis. Brown aecia with bulbous bases ...

  14. Nomenclature and Genetic Relationships of Apples and Pears from Terceira Island

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heritage apple (Malus domestica Borkh. hybrids) and pear (Pyrus communis L. hybrid) trees grow in villages throughout Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal. Some of these pears have different names but similar morphology. The objective of this study was to determine synonymy, homology, and phylogeny of ...

  15. Biological Control of Phacidiopycnis Rot in ‘d’Anjou’ Pears

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phacidiopycnis rot, caused by Phacidiopycnis piri, is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of pears (Pyrus) in the U.S. and a major disease of ‘d’Anjou’ pears grown in Washington State. Phacidiopycnis rot can originate from infection of wounds on the fruit. In this study, two biocontrol...

  16. Effects of elicitors of host plant defenses on pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Foerster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a key pest of cultivated pear (Pyrus communis L.) in North America and Europe. We examined the effects of foliar applications of three commercially available chemical elicitors of host-plant defenses, Actigard, Employ, and ODC, ...

  17. Expression and genomic structure of the dormancy-associated MADS box genes MADS13 in Japanese pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) that differ in their chilling requirement for endodormancy release.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takanori; Bai, Songling; Ito, Akiko; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Saito, Toshihiro; Ubi, Banjamin Ewa; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2013-06-01

    We isolated three dormancy-associated MADS-box (DAM) genes (MADS13-1, MADS13-2 and MADS13-3) and showed regulated expression concomitant with endodormancy establishment and release in the leaf buds of Japanese pear 'Kosui'. Comparative analysis between 'Kosui' and Taiwanese pear TP-85-119 ('Hengshanli'), a less dormant pear cultivar, showed reduction of MADS13-1 expression level in 'Hengshanli' earlier than in 'Kosui' towards endodormancy release, suggesting the possible relationship between chilling requirement and MADS13-1 expression. Application of hydrogen cyanamide accelerated endodormancy release with a reduction in MADS13 expression, whereas heat treatment in autumn inhibited endodormancy establishment without induction of MADS13 expression, indicating a close relationship between the MADS13 expression pattern and endodormancy phase transitions. Moreover, both the cis-acting regulatory elements and the methylation status in the 5' upstream region of the MADS13-1 gene were not largely different between 'Kosui' and 'Hengshanli'. Genomic structures of MADS13-1 from 'Kosui' and 'Hengshanli' revealed a 3218 bp insertion in the first intron of 'Hengshanli' that might be ascribed to the lower expression of MADS13-1tw; however, this insertion was also found in pear genotypes with a high chilling requirement. These results indicated that the low expression of MADS13-1 in 'Hengshanli' towards endodormancy release could not be explained by the identified cis-acting regulatory elements, the methylation status of the putative promoter or by intron insertion.

  18. Molecular evolution of Adh and LEAFY and the phylogenetic utility of their introns in Pyrus (Rosaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Pyrus includes some of the most important commercial fruit crops, including pears. There are long-standing alternative views on the origin of putative hybrids. Previous efforts have used the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS) revealed a poorly resolved phylog...

  19. Polyribosomes from Pear Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Drouet, Alain; Hartmann, Claude

    1979-01-01

    Polysome profiles were examined from lyophilized peel tissue of ripening pear (Pyrus communis, L. var. Passe-Crassane). Messenger RNA chains bearing up to eight ribosomes (octamers) were resolved and exhibited the highest absorption peak when ribonuclease activity was eliminated during extraction. Neither normal ripening nor the increase of large polyribosomes that normally accompanies ripening and senescence of the fruit occurred when pretreatment at 0 C was omitted. Normal ripening and increase of large polyribosomes would, however, be initiated by an ethylene treatment. The size distribution of the polyribosomes remained essentially constant throughout a 4-month cold storage; there was, however, a large increase in ribosomes by the 12th week of storage. PMID:16661101

  20. Fast Detection of Phenolic Compounds in Extracts of Easter Pears (Pyrus communis) from the Atacama Desert by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-Q/Orbitrap/MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Simirgiotis, Mario J; Quispe, Cristina; Bórquez, Jorge; Areche, Carlos; Sepúlveda, Beatriz

    2016-01-15

    A small Chilean variety of pears growing in the town of Toconao, an oasis located at the northeastern edge of the Salar de Atacama, northern Chile, was studied by means of modern PDA and high resolution mass spectral data (UHPLC-PDA-HESI-orbitrap-MS/MS). In addition, the antioxidant features of the fruits were compared with the varieties Packhman's Triumph and Abate Fetel and correlated with the presence of phenolic compounds. The non-pigmented phenolics were fingerprinted and related to the antioxidant capacities measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SA), and total content of phenolics and flavonoids measured by spectroscopic methods. The machine allowed a fast separation of 15 min employing a flow rate of 1 mL per minute and could accurately identify 25 compounds, including several isorhamnetin derivatives and phenolic acids, present in the peel and pulps of this Chilean variety for the first time. The compounds were monitored using a wavelength range of 210-800 nm. The native small Chilean pear showed the highest antioxidant activity measured as the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power and superoxide anion scavenging activity (8.61 ± 0.65 μg/mL, 712.63 ± 12.12 micromols trolox equivalents (μmol/TE)/100 g FW, and 82.89% ± 2.52% at 100 μg/mL, respectively).

  1. Relative Susceptibility of Quince, Pear, and Apple Cultivars to Fire Blight Following Greenhouse Inoculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora (EA) is one of the most serious diseases of plants in the family Rosaceae, and Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) is considered one of the most susceptible host genera. Apple (Malus sp.) and pear (Pyrus sp.) cultivars ranging from most susceptible to most resistan...

  2. Determining optimum in vitro mineral nutrition for diverse pear germplasm using response surface methodology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complex chemical interactions in media and variation in genotype response make it very difficult to optimize mineral nutrition of in vitro plants. The USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Corvallis, Oregon has about 2000 unique pear (Pyrus L.) accessions in the field and over 200 as in vit...

  3. Diversity of odor-active compounds from local cultivars and wild accessions of Iwateyamanashi (Pyrus ussuriensis var. aromatica) revealed by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA).

    PubMed

    Katayama, Hironori; Ohe, Miho; Sugawara, Etsuko

    2013-03-01

    Some local cultivars and wilds of Iwateyamanashi (Pyrus ussuriensis var. aromatica) that grows wild in Northern Tohoku, Japan have good aromatic fruit. Iwateyamanashi may be valuable germplasms as a donor of odor compounds in breeding of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia), because almost all Japanese pear cultivars have faint odor. Fruits odors from a local cultivar 'Sanenashi', a wild accession (i0830) in Iwateyamanashi, cultivars of 'Kosui' and 'La France' were characterized at first with comparative Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA). Application of AEDA, based on Gas chromatography/Olfactometry analysis (GC/O), on the odor concentration prepared from 'Sanenashi' indicated the presence of 33 odor-active compounds including methyl and ethyl esters, aldehydes and alcohol. The eleven odor compounds from 16 accessions of Iwateyamanashi showed various combinations and wide range of odor concentrations by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Especially 2 accessions of local cultivar 'Natsunashi' plotted in the highly ethyl ester group might be useful for Japanese pear breeding.

  4. Auxin inhibition of ripening in bartlett pears.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, C; Dyck, R

    1973-01-01

    The effect of indoleacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on the ripening of intact mature-green pears (Pyrus communis var. Bartlett) was investigated using a vacuum infiltration technique.The effects of indoleacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mm each were studied on softening, degreening, and on ethylene and CO(2) evolution. Softening and degreening were inhibited increasingly in response to increased concentrations of indoleacetic acid. This inhibitory property was amplified by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid at concentrations comparable to those of indoleacetic acid. Application of the auxins also prevented the climacteric rise in respiration, but stimulated ethylene synthesis. Despite the presence of elevated ethylene levels, the inhibitory auxin effect was predominant.It is proposed that endogenous auxins in fruit represent a resistance factor in ripening and must be inactivated before ripening can occur.

  5. Genome mapping of postzygotic hybrid necrosis in an interspecific pear population

    PubMed Central

    Montanari, Sara; Brewer, Lester; Lamberts, Robert; Velasco, Riccardo; Malnoy, Mickael; Perchepied, Laure; Guérif, Philippe; Durel, Charles-Eric; Bus, Vincent G M; Gardiner, Susan E; Chagné, David

    2016-01-01

    Deleterious epistatic interactions in plant inter- and intraspecific hybrids can cause a phenomenon known as hybrid necrosis, characterized by a typical seedling phenotype whose main distinguishing features are dwarfism, tissue necrosis and in some cases lethality. Identification of the chromosome regions associated with this type of incompatibility is important not only to increase our understanding of the evolutionary diversification that led to speciation but also for breeding purposes. Development of molecular markers linked to the lethal genes will allow breeders to avoid incompatible inbred combinations that could affect the expression of important agronomic tratis co-segregating with these genes. Although hybrid necrosis has been reported in several plant taxa, including Rosaceae species, this phenomenon has not been described previously in pear. In the interspecific pear population resulting from a cross between PEAR3 (Pyrus bretschneideri × Pyrus communis) and ‘Moonglow’ (P. communis), we observed two types of hybrid necrosis, expressed at different stages of plant development. Using a combination of previously mapped and newly developed genetic markers, we identified three chromosome regions associated with these two types of lethality, which were genetically independent. One type resulted from a negative epistatic interaction between a locus on linkage group 5 (LG5) of PEAR3 and a locus on LG1 of ‘Moonglow’, while the second type was due to a gene that maps to LG2 of PEAR3 and which either acts alone or more probably interacts with another gene of unknown location inherited from ‘Moonglow’. PMID:26770810

  6. Bioinformatic and expression analysis of the OMT gene family in Pyrus bretschneideri cv. Dangshan Su.

    PubMed

    Cheng, X; Xiong, Y; Li, D H; Cheng, J; Cao, Y P; Yan, C C; Jin, Q; Sun, N; Cai, Y P; Lin, Y

    2016-09-02

    With high nutritional value in its fruits, Dangshan Su pear has been widely cultivated in China. The stone cell content in fruits is a key factor affecting fruit quality in pear, and the formation of stone cells has been associated with lignin biosynthesis. O-Methyltransferase (OMT) is a key enzyme involved in lignin metabolism within the phenylpropanoid pathway. Here, we screened 26 OMT genes from the Pyrus bretschneideri cv. Dangshan Su genome using the DNATOOLs software. To characterize the OMT gene family in pear, gene structure, chromosomal localization, and conserved motifs of PbOMTs were analyzed. PbOMTs were divided into two categories, type I (designated PbCCOMTs) and type II (designated PbCOMTs), indicating the differentiation of function during evolution. Based on the analysis of multiple sequence alignment, cis-element prediction, and phylogenetic relationships, two candidate genes, PbCCOMT1 and PbCCOMT3, were selected for the analysis of temporal and spatial gene expression in pear. The promoter regions of both PbCCOMT1 and PbCCOMT3 contain regulatory motifs for lignin synthesis. Moreover, the two genes show high similarity and close phylogenetic relationships with CCOMTs in other species. Expression analysis showed that transcript levels of two PbCCOMTs were positively associated with the contents of both stone cells and lignin during the development of pear fruit. These results suggest that PbCCOMT1 and PbCCOMT3 are closely associated with lignin biosynthesis. These findings will help clarify the function of PbOMTs in lignin metabolism and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying stone cell formation in pear.

  7. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan's history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars 'Chojuro' and 'Nijisseiki' around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars 'Niitaka' and 'Shinko' were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including 'Kosui', 'Hosui', and 'Akizuki', which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, 'Gold Nijisseiki' has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, 'Nansui' from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress.

  8. Identification, classification, and transcription profiles of the B-type response regulator family in pear

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ling; Qian, Minjie; Zhong, Linbing; Teng, Yuanwen

    2017-01-01

    Type-B response regulators (B-RRs) are transcription factors that function in the final step of two-component signaling systems. In model plants, B-RRs have been shown to play important roles in cytokinin signal transduction. However, the functions of B-RRs in pear have not been well studied. In this report, we conducted a genome-wide analysis and identified 11 putative genes encoding B-PpRR proteins based on the published genome sequence of Pyrus bretschneideri. A phylogenetic tree of the B-PpRR family was constructed, and the motif distribution, chromosome localization, and gene structure of B-PpRR family genes were determined. Gene transcript profiles, which were determined from transcriptome data, indicated that B-PpRR genes potentially function during pear fruit development, bud dormancy, and light/hormone-induced anthocyanin accumulation. Treatment of the fruitlets of ‘Cuiguan’ pear (Pyrus pyrifolia), which never accumulates anthocyanin, with the cytokinin N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)- N′-phenylurea (CPPU) clearly induced anthocyanin accumulation. Anthocyanins accumulated in the skin of fruitlets by 16 days after CPPU treatment, along with the significant activation of most anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. Analyses of B-PpRR transcript levels suggested that B-PpRR genes mediated this accumulation of anthocyanins. These findings enrich our understanding of the function of B-PpRR genes in the physiological processes of pear. PMID:28207822

  9. Differential gene expression analysis of 'Chili' (Pyrus bretschneideri) fruit pericarp with two types of bagging treatments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuling; Zhang, Xinfu; Wang, Ran; Bai, Yingxin; Liu, Chenglian; Yuan, Yongbing; Yang, Yingjie; Yang, Shaolan

    2017-01-01

    Preharvest bagging is a simple, grower-friendly and safe physical protection technique commonly applied to many fruits, and the application of different fruit bags can have various effects. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the fruit quality effects of different bagging treatments, digital gene expression (DGE) profiling of bagged and unbagged 'Chili' (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) pear pericarp during development was performed. Relative to unbagged fruit, a total of 3022 and 769 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in the polyethylene (PE)-bagged and non-woven fabric-bagged fruit, respectively. DEGs annotated as photosynthesis-antenna proteins and photosynthesis metabolism pathway were upregulated in non-woven fabric-bagged fruit but downregulated in the PE-bagged fruit. Non-woven fabric bagging inhibited lignin synthesis in 'Chili' pear pericarp by downregulating DEGs involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis; consequently, the fruit lenticels in non-woven fabric-bagged fruit were smaller than those in the other treatments. The results indicate that the non-woven fabric bagging method has a positive effect on the appearance of 'Chili' pear fruit but neither of the two bagging treatments is conducive to the accumulation of soluble sugar.

  10. Population Structure of and Conservation Strategies for Wild Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim. in China

    PubMed Central

    Wuyun, Tana; Amo, Hitomi; Xu, Jingshi; Ma, Teng; Uematsu, Chiyomi; Katayama, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    Pyrus ussriensis Maxim. is native to the northern part of China, but whose habitats are currently being destroyed by environmental changes and human deforestation. An investigation of population structure and genetic diversity of wild Ussurian pear is a priority in order to acquire fundamental knowledge for conservation. A total of 153 individuals of wild Ussurian pear from the main habitats, Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Inner Mongolia in China, possessed low genetic diversity as a result of habitat fragmentation. The genetic diversity of the populations in Inner Mongolia and north east of Heilongjiang was especially low and there was the possibility of inbreeding. Wild Ussurian pears were divided into 5 groups based on the Bayesian clustering method using 20 nuclear SSRs (nSSRs) and 5 groups by haplotype distributions using 16 chloroplast SSRs (cpSSRs), and the populations in Inner Mongolia and north east of Heilongjiang represented unique genotypes. AMOVA indicated there was a 20.05% variation in nSSRs and a 44.40% variation in cpSSRs among populations. These values are relatively high when compared to those of other tree species. Haplotype E, positioned in the center of the cpSSR analysis network and showed the largest number of connections with other haplotypes, represented the most important haplotype. Inner Mongolia and the north east of Heilongjiang are two areas that need urgent conservation because of their genetic vulnerability and peculiarity. We determined 4 conservation units based on the clustering by nSSRs and cpSSRs, and geographic factor. This information is helpful in deciding the conservation strategies for wild Ussurian pear in China. PMID:26252516

  11. Population Structure of and Conservation Strategies for Wild Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim. in China.

    PubMed

    Wuyun, Tana; Amo, Hitomi; Xu, Jingshi; Ma, Teng; Uematsu, Chiyomi; Katayama, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    Pyrus ussriensis Maxim. is native to the northern part of China, but whose habitats are currently being destroyed by environmental changes and human deforestation. An investigation of population structure and genetic diversity of wild Ussurian pear is a priority in order to acquire fundamental knowledge for conservation. A total of 153 individuals of wild Ussurian pear from the main habitats, Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Inner Mongolia in China, possessed low genetic diversity as a result of habitat fragmentation. The genetic diversity of the populations in Inner Mongolia and north east of Heilongjiang was especially low and there was the possibility of inbreeding. Wild Ussurian pears were divided into 5 groups based on the Bayesian clustering method using 20 nuclear SSRs (nSSRs) and 5 groups by haplotype distributions using 16 chloroplast SSRs (cpSSRs), and the populations in Inner Mongolia and north east of Heilongjiang represented unique genotypes. AMOVA indicated there was a 20.05% variation in nSSRs and a 44.40% variation in cpSSRs among populations. These values are relatively high when compared to those of other tree species. Haplotype E, positioned in the center of the cpSSR analysis network and showed the largest number of connections with other haplotypes, represented the most important haplotype. Inner Mongolia and the north east of Heilongjiang are two areas that need urgent conservation because of their genetic vulnerability and peculiarity. We determined 4 conservation units based on the clustering by nSSRs and cpSSRs, and geographic factor. This information is helpful in deciding the conservation strategies for wild Ussurian pear in China.

  12. Two new lignan glycosides from the fruits of Pyrus ussuriensis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ze-Qing; Su, Yan-Fang; Yang, Fei; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Li, Tian-Xiang

    2016-12-01

    Two new lignan glycosides, ussuriensislignan A (1) and ussuriensislignan B (2), together with seventeen known compounds (3-19), were isolated from the fruits of Pyrus ussuriensis. Their structures were determined by various spectroscopic methods. This is the first report of the isolation of lignans (compounds 1-3) from the genus Pyrus, and compounds 3-6, 12-16 were reported from Pyrus for the first time.

  13. Genetic structure and diversity of the wild Ussurian pear in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Hironori; Amo, Hitomi; Wuyun, Tana; Uematsu, Chiyomi; Iketani, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The Ussurian pear is the most important cultivated pear in the northern part of China. Cultivated Ussurian pears are considered to have derived from Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim. which is native to the northeast of China. In Japan, two varieties of P. ussuriensis, P. ussuriensis var. aromatica and var. hondoensis are native to the northern area and the central area of the main island respectively. In order to reveal the origin of Pyrus ussuriensis var. aromatica distributed in the northern area of main island of Japan, more than 40 explorations have been performed in Japan and in China, and more than 30 natural habitats were recognized. These natural habitats are at risk of extinction because of human development and forest degradation caused by climate change. Population structure and genetic diversity of P. ussuriensis in China and P. ussuriensis var. aromatica in Japan have been investigated using both morphological and molecular markers in order to define appropriate conservation units, and to provide a good focus for conservation management. Distant evolutionary relationships between P. ussuriensis Maxim. in China and P. ussuriensis var. aromatica in Japan inferred from population genetic structure and phylogenetic analysis are also discussed.

  14. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan’s history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars ‘Chojuro’ and ‘Nijisseiki’ around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars ‘Niitaka’ and ‘Shinko’ were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including ‘Kosui’, ‘Hosui’, and ‘Akizuki’, which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, ‘Gold Nijisseiki’ has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, ‘Nansui’ from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress. PMID:27069390

  15. Diversity of odor-active compounds from local cultivars and wild accessions of Iwateyamanashi (Pyrus ussuriensis var. aromatica) revealed by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA)

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Hironori; Ohe, Miho; Sugawara, Etsuko

    2013-01-01

    Some local cultivars and wilds of Iwateyamanashi (Pyrus ussuriensis var. aromatica) that grows wild in Northern Tohoku, Japan have good aromatic fruit. Iwateyamanashi may be valuable germplasms as a donor of odor compounds in breeding of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia), because almost all Japanese pear cultivars have faint odor. Fruits odors from a local cultivar ‘Sanenashi’, a wild accession (i0830) in Iwateyamanashi, cultivars of ‘Kosui’ and ‘La France’ were characterized at first with comparative Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA). Application of AEDA, based on Gas chromatography/Olfactometry analysis (GC/O), on the odor concentration prepared from ‘Sanenashi’ indicated the presence of 33 odor-active compounds including methyl and ethyl esters, aldehydes and alcohol. The eleven odor compounds from 16 accessions of Iwateyamanashi showed various combinations and wide range of odor concentrations by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Especially 2 accessions of local cultivar ‘Natsunashi’ plotted in the highly ethyl ester group might be useful for Japanese pear breeding. PMID:23641185

  16. Pearly Penile Papules

    MedlinePlus

    Young Men's Health http://youngmenshealthsite.org/guides/pearly-penile-papules/ ≡ Menu Ask Us Health Guides Quizzes Parents About Us Donate General Health Sexual Health Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness ...

  17. Draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar syringae strain FF5, causal agent of stem tip dieback disease on ornamental pear.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Kee Hoon; Jones, Jonathan D G; Studholme, David J

    2012-07-01

    Pseudomonas syringae FF5 causes stem tip dieback disease on ornamental pear (Pyrus calleryana). Its genome encodes a complete type III secretion system (T3SS) and HopAC1, HopM1, AvrE1, HopI1, HopAA1, HopJ1, HopAH2, HopAH1, HopAG1, and HopAZ1. Lacking detectable homologues of other T3SS effectors, it may encode novel, undiscovered effectors.

  18. Oxidative turnover of auxins in relation to the onset of ripening in bartlett pear.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, C

    1975-03-01

    Pears (Pyrus communis var. Bartlett) kept in 100% O(2) showed an increase in the rate of softening, chlorophyll degradation, and ethylene evolution. The O(2) application could overcome, in part, the inhibition of ripening by 1 mm indoleacetic acid. Ripening of pears was also accelerated by the application of solutions containing indoleacetic acid-oxidation products, obtained by an overnight incubation of 0.1 and 1 mm indoleacetic acid with traces of H(2)O(2) and horseradish peroxidase. Although both treatments stimulated ethylene evolution, the promotion of ripening could not be attributed to an indirect ethylene effect. Indoleacetic acid oxidation products obtained in vivo by high O(2) tensions or in vitro by enzymatic degradation may function in the promotion of fruit ripening and the synthesis of ethylene.

  19. Fragrant pear sexuality recognition with machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Benxue; Ying, Yibin

    2006-10-01

    In this research, a method to identify Kuler fragrant pear's sexuality with machine vision was developed. Kuler fragrant pear has male pear and female pear. They have an obvious difference in favor. To detect the sexuality of Kuler fragrant pear, images of fragrant pear were acquired by CCD color camera. Before feature extraction, some preprocessing is conducted on the acquired images to remove noise and unnecessary contents. Color feature, perimeter feature and area feature of fragrant pear bottom image were extracted by digital image processing technique. And the fragrant pear sexuality was determined by complexity obtained from perimeter and area. In this research, using 128 Kurle fragrant pears as samples, good recognition rate between the male pear and the female pear was obtained for Kurle pear's sexuality detection (82.8%). Result shows this method could detect male pear and female pear with a good accuracy.

  20. Population structure and fruit production of Pyrus bourgaeana D. are affected by land-use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas-Castro, Salvador; Fernández-Haeger, Juan; Jordano-Barbudo, Diego

    2016-11-01

    The Iberian wild pear (Pyrus bourgaeana D.) is a rare, fleshy-fruited tree restricted to dehesas and evergreen sclerophyllous Mediterranean forests in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula. It produces palatable fruits and leaves attractive to different species groups, playing an important trophic role in the ecological networks of Mediterranean ecosystems. However, the intensification in the traditional land-use linked to these areas could threaten the stability of the wild pear populations in the short/medium-term. In order to determine the population dynamics of this relevant species in relation to the land-use history, we selected two populations (southern Spain) subjected to different land-use management, dehesa (D) and abandoned olive grove (AOG). An analysis of 122 adult trees reported an overall density of 0.6 trees ha-1. The tree age was estimated by tree-rings analysis in all adult trees. Dendrometric parameters, reproductive features, and germination rates were also measured. Regeneration was clearly biased, as evidenced by the truncated age structure. A low correlation (R2 = 34%) between age and DBH (diameter at breast height) (244 cores analysed) showed that diameter seems not to be a reliable predictor of tree age. Trees from AOG populations had significantly-higher values of DBH, height and crown diameter, but were less productive in terms of fruits and seeds. Nested analysis of variance showed significant variation in fruit production, fruit size, dry mass, water content and seed viability. There were also significant differences in masting. No evidence was found to demonstrate that fruit production, seed viability, or germination rate influence the low natural recruitment of this species. These findings indicate that the traditional agrosilvopastoral practices carried out in the study area for decades, and its subsequent intensification, have strongly influenced the ecological structure of the Iberian wild pear populations at the local scale, which

  1. Differential gene expression analysis of ‘Chili’ (Pyrus bretschneideri) fruit pericarp with two types of bagging treatments

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuling; Zhang, Xinfu; Wang, Ran; Bai, Yingxin; Liu, Chenglian; Yuan, Yongbing; Yang, Yingjie; Yang, Shaolan

    2017-01-01

    Preharvest bagging is a simple, grower-friendly and safe physical protection technique commonly applied to many fruits, and the application of different fruit bags can have various effects. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the fruit quality effects of different bagging treatments, digital gene expression (DGE) profiling of bagged and unbagged ‘Chili’ (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) pear pericarp during development was performed. Relative to unbagged fruit, a total of 3022 and 769 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in the polyethylene (PE)-bagged and non-woven fabric-bagged fruit, respectively. DEGs annotated as photosynthesis-antenna proteins and photosynthesis metabolism pathway were upregulated in non-woven fabric-bagged fruit but downregulated in the PE-bagged fruit. Non-woven fabric bagging inhibited lignin synthesis in ‘Chili’ pear pericarp by downregulating DEGs involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis; consequently, the fruit lenticels in non-woven fabric-bagged fruit were smaller than those in the other treatments. The results indicate that the non-woven fabric bagging method has a positive effect on the appearance of ‘Chili’ pear fruit but neither of the two bagging treatments is conducive to the accumulation of soluble sugar. PMID:28280542

  2. 77 FR 72245 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... Processed Pear Committee (Committee) established under the Oregon-Washington pear marketing order....

  3. Development and Fecundity Performance of Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Reared on Shoots and Fruits of Peach and Pear in Different Seasons.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Li, Guangwei; Xu, Xiangli; Wu, Junxiang

    2015-12-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) is a globally important insect pest. In some parts of its geographic range, the oriental fruit moth shifts its attack from peach orchards to pear orchards late in the growing season. The phenological effects of host plants on the performance of the moth were evaluated by examining the development and fecundity of the moth reared on peach (Prunus persica variety "Shahong") and pear (Pyrus bretshneideri variety "Dangshan Su") collected at various times of the growing season under laboratory conditions. Results showed that the moth developed faster on shoots and fruits of peach than on those of pear. The preimaginal survival rate was the highest on peach shoots, and the moth could not survive on pear fruit collected on May 10. For both peach and pear, the boring rates of neonatal larvae were significantly higher on shoots than on fruits, and the pupal mass of females was significantly higher on fruits than on shoots. The boring rate increased with pear fruits growing during later days. Fecundity was significantly less on pear shoots than on the other plant materials. The results of this study suggest a possible host adaptation process in oriental fruit moth.

  4. PEARS Emission Line Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzkal, Nor; Rothberg, Barry; Ly, Chun; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Grogin, Norman A.; Dahlen, Tomas; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Walsh, Jeremy; Hathi, Nimish P.; Cohen, Seth; Belini, Andrea; Holwerda, Benne W.; Straughn, Amber; Mechtley, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitless grism spectroscopic data obtained vl'ith the Advanced Camera for Surveys on HST. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random surveY of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations to support the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data we are able to identify star forming galaxies within the redshift volume 0 < z < 1.5. Star forming regions in the PEARS survey are pinpointed independently of the host galaxy. This method allOW8 us to detect the presence of multiple emission line regions (ELRs) within a single galaxy. 1162 [OII], [OIII] and/or H-alpha emission lines have been identified in the PEARS sample of approx 906 galaxies down to a limiting flux of approx 10 - 18 erg/s/sq cm . The ELRs have also been compared to the properties of the host galaxy, including morphology, luminosity, and mass. From this analysis we find three key results: 1) The computed line luminosities show evidence of a flattening in the luminosity function with increasing redshift; 2) The star forming systems show evidence of disturbed morphologies, with star formation occurring predominantly within one effective (half-light) radius. However, the morphologies show no correlation with host stellar mass; and 3) The number density of star forming galaxies with M(*) >= 10(exp 9) Solar M decreases by an order of magnitude at z<=0.5 relative to the number at 0.5 < z < 0.9 in support of the argument for galaxy downsizing.

  5. Prickly Pear Spine Keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Odat, Thabit Ali Mustafa; Al-Tawara, Mohammad Jebreel; Hammouri, Eman Hussein

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To study the ocular and extra-ocular features, clinical presentation, and treatment of prickly pear glochids. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 23 eyes of 21 patients with ocular prickly pear spines who were seen between August and October 2011 in the outpatient ophthalmic clinic at Prince Rashid Bin Al Hassan military hospital in Jordan. Medical records of patients including age, gender, history of exposure to prickly pear plants, and ocular examination were reviewed. All glochids were localized and removed with forceps under topical anesthesia with the patient at the slit lamp. Patients were followed up after one week. Results: The mean age of patients was 37.1 years with a male to female ratio of 1.6: 1. Involvement of the right eye was seen in 61.9% patients, left eye in 28.6% patients, and bilateral involvement in 9.5% patients. Glochids were most commonly found in the upper subtarsal conjunctival space (47.6%) followed by inferior palpebral conjunctiva in 23.8% eyes. The most common complaint was eye irritation in 95.2% patients. Pain was a complaint in 57.1% patients. Superior corneal epithelial erosions or ulcer were found in 33.3% patients, inferior corneal epithelial erosions in 19.1% patients, and diffuse epithelial erosions in 9.5% patients. Glochids were found in other parts of the body in 38.1% patients. Conclusion: Although prickly pear glochid ocular surface injury is not uncommon in the region during summer, it should be considered in patient with eye pain during that period. Farmers who are in close contact with prickly pears should use protective eyeglasses and gloves. PMID:24669148

  6. Attractants from Bartlett pear for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Alan L.; Light, Douglas M.

    2001-08-01

    The alkyl ethyl and methyl esters of (2 E,4 Z)-2,4-decadienoic acid found in head-space samples of ripe Bartlett pear ( Pyrus communis L.) stimulated a response from neonate larvae of the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), in both static-air Petri-plate and in upwind Y-tube and straight-tube olfactometer bioassays. In comparison with the known CM neonate attractant, ( E,E)-α-farnesene, ethyl (2 E,4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate was attractive at 10-fold and 1,000-fold lower threshold dosages in the Petri-plate and in the Y-tube bioassays, respectively. Methyl (2 E,4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate was attractive to CM neonates in these bioassays at much higher doses than ethyl (2 E,4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate. Other principal head-space volatiles from ripe pear fruit and pear leaves, including butyl acetate, hexyl acetate, ( Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and ( E)-β-ocimene, were not attractive to CM neonates. The potential uses of these pear kairomones for monitoring and control of CM in walnuts and apple are discussed.

  7. Inhibition of pear fruit ripening by mannose.

    PubMed

    Watkins, C B; Frenkel, C

    1987-09-01

    Softening of the flesh and the rise in ethylene evolution and respiration associated with ripening in pear (Pyrus communis L.) fruit was delayed when mannose was vacuum infiltrated into intact fruit. The extent of delay could be modified by altering the concentration or the volume of mannose applied to the fruit. Inhibition of ripening was associated with phosphorylation of mannose to mannose 6-phosphate (M6P), and accumulation of M6P was associated with lowered levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi), glucose 6-phosphate (G6P), and ATP in the fruit tissue. Subsequently, however, as the M6P was metabolized, the levels of Pi, G6P, and ATP increased and ripening processes were concomitantly released from inhibition. Hence, the degree of inhibition by mannose or the release from inhibition was related to the level of M6P in the fruit and its rate of metabolism. The data provide correlative evidence to support a view that one inhibitory effect of mannose is depletion of Pi in the cell as a result of phosphorylation of mannose to M6P. Inhibition of ripening by mannose was not alleviated by co-application of glucose as a competitive substrate for the hexokinase(s), or by Pi, presumably the depleted metabolite. Also, incubation of tissue disks with M6P resulted in inhibition of ethylene production and respiration. The structural analogs of mannose, glucosamine, and 2-deoxyglucose, which have been shown to mimic mannose action in several plant tissues, did not cause inhibition of ripening of pear fruit comparable with that associated with mannose. Both analogs stimulated respiration, and glucosamine caused only a small inhibition of softening and ethylene evolution. Another mannose analog, alpha-methylmannoside, did inhibit fruit ripening though to a lesser extent than mannose. Its influence was also associated with accumulation of M6P and a decrease of Pi levels. We conclude that the mannose effect may, in part, be due to M6P toxicity, as well as by depletion of Pi.

  8. Longitudinal NMR parameter measurements of Japanese pear fruit during the growing process using a mobile magnetic resonance imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geya, Yuto; Kimura, Takeshi; Fujisaki, Hirotaka; Terada, Yasuhiko; Kose, Katsumi; Haishi, Tomoyuki; Gemma, Hiroshi; Sekozawa, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameter measurements of Japanese pear fruit (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai, Kosui) were performed using an electrically mobile magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system with a 0.2 T and 16 cm gap permanent magnet. To measure the relaxation times and apparent diffusion coefficients of the pear fruit in relation to their weight, seven pear fruits were harvested almost every week during the cell enlargement period and measured in a research orchard. To evaluate the in situ relaxation times, six pear fruits were longitudinally measured for about two months during the same period. The measurements for the harvested samples showed good agreement with the in situ measurements. From the measurements of the harvested samples, it is clear that the relaxation rates of the pear fruits linearly change with the inverse of the linear dimension of the fruits, demonstrating that the relaxation mechanism is a surface relaxation. We therefore conclude that the mobile MRI system is a useful device for measuring the NMR parameters of outdoor living plants.

  9. Sex Attraction in Pear Psylla

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a major economic pest of pears, have been shown to use a female-produced sex attractant pheromone. We compared the chemical profiles obtained from solvent extracts of diapausing and post-diapause winterform males and females, with g...

  10. Evidence for a photoprotective function of low-temperature-induced anthocyanin accumulation in apple and pear peel.

    PubMed

    Steyn, Willem J; Wand, Stephanie J E; Jacobs, Gerard; Rosecrance, Richard C; Roberts, Stephanie C

    2009-08-01

    The light requirement and low-temperature stimulation of anthocyanin synthesis in peel of apple (Malus domestica) and pears (Pyrus communis) and the presence of anthocyanins in immature fruits are not congruent with a visual function in dispersal. We hypothesized that anthocyanins afford photoprotection to peel during low-temperature-induced light stress and that the protection is not a fortuitous side-effect of light absorption by anthocyanin. The extent of photoinhibition at harvest and after light stress treatment in pear cultivars differing in redness decreased with increasing red color on the sun-exposed sides of fruits. Green-shaded sides of the pears showed comparable levels of photoinhibition indicating that pears did not differ in their inherent photosensitivity. Apple and pear peel show considerable short-term fluctuation in redness in response to temperature, with red color increasing rapidly in response to low temperature and just as quickly fading in response to high temperature. Briefly, shading pears and apples during cold conditions for 2 days reduced the accumulation of anthocyanin and increased the photosensitivity of peel. Subsequent shading during warm conditions did not affect the accumulation of anthocyanin or the photosensitivity of peel indicating that the response at low temperature was not due to shade adaptation. The assessment of photosystem II (PSII) efficiency and quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence between 16 and 40 degrees C indicated that 'Forelle' pear peel was particularly sensitive to photostress at low temperature. The photosynthetic system in mature 'Forelle' leaves was comparatively much less sensitive to light stress at low temperature. Results support the view that anthocyanins are adaptable light screens deployed to modulate light absorption in sensitive tissues such as fruit peel in response to environmental triggers such as cold front snaps.

  11. 7 CFR 927.4 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pears. 927.4 Section 927.4 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.4 Pears. (a) Pears means and includes any and all varieties...

  12. 7 CFR 927.4 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pears. 927.4 Section 927.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.4 Pears. (a) Pears means and includes any and all varieties...

  13. 7 CFR 927.4 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pears. 927.4 Section 927.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.4 Pears. (a) Pears means and includes any and all varieties...

  14. 7 CFR 927.4 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pears. 927.4 Section 927.4 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.4 Pears. (a) Pears means and includes any and all varieties...

  15. 7 CFR 927.4 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pears. 927.4 Section 927.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.4 Pears. (a) Pears means and includes any and all varieties...

  16. Global changes in DNA methylation in seeds and seedlings of Pyrus communis after seed desiccation and storage.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Marcin; Barciszewska, Mirosława Z; Barciszewski, Jan; Plitta, Beata P; Chmielarz, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    The effects of storage and deep desiccation on structural changes of DNA in orthodox seeds are poorly characterized. In this study we analyzed the 5-methylcytosine (m(5)C) global content of DNA isolated from seeds of common pear (Pyrus communis L.) that had been subjected to extreme desiccation, and the seedlings derived from these seeds. Germination and seedling emergence tests were applied to determine seed viability after their desiccation. In parallel, analysis of the global content of m(5)C in dried seeds and DNA of seedlings obtained from such seeds was performed with a 2D TLC method. Desiccation of fresh seeds to 5.3% moisture content (mc) resulted in a slight reduction of DNA methylation, whereas severe desiccation down to 2-3% mc increased DNA methylation. Strong desiccation of seeds resulted in the subsequent generation of seedlings of shorter height. A 1-year period of seed storage induced a significant increase in the level of DNA methylation in seeds. It is possible that alterations in the m(5)C content of DNA in strongly desiccated pear seeds reflect a reaction of desiccation-tolerant (orthodox) seeds to severe desiccation. Epigenetic changes were observed not only in severely desiccated seeds but also in 3-month old seedlings obtained from these seeds. With regard to seed storage practices, epigenetic assessment could be used by gene banks for early detection of structural changes in the DNA of stored seeds.

  17. Pre-harvest foliar application of ethephon strengthens gibberellins-induced fruit expansion in Pyrus pyrifolia.

    PubMed

    Ma, C; Wang, L; Lee, U Y; Tanabe, K; Kang, S; Zhang, C X

    2016-12-23

    To identify the roles of ethylene in fruit development in Japanese pear Pyrus pyrifolia 'Niitaka', one of the non-climacteric genotypes, source-sink strength and fruit development during fruit expansion were investigated when ethephon was applied after a conventional gibberellic acid (GA) lanolin paste treatment on the pedicel. The results demonstrate that the conventional GA treatment during the early stage of fruit expansion resulted in larger fruit size and advanced fruit maturation, but pre-harvest foliar application of ethephon only advanced fruit maturation. However, pre-harvest foliar application of ethephon with a preceding conventional GA treatment during the early stage of fruit expansion dramatically improved fruit size and advanced fruit maturation over GA or ethephon alone. Moreover, the early foliar application of ethephon showed a better efficacy in increasing fruit size than the late spraying. A further study revealed that when ethephon was applied after the conventional GA treatment, it improved source-sink strength associated with leaf photosynthesis and the specific rate of [(13)C] accumulation in fruit, and also strengthened cell expansion more than did GA or ethephon alone.

  18. Iron homeostasis and fire blight susceptibility in transgenic pear plants overexpressing a pea ferritin gene.

    PubMed

    Djennane, Samia; Cesbron, Colette; Sourice, Sophie; Cournol, Raphael; Dupuis, Fabrice; Eychenne, Magali; Loridon, Karine; Chevreau, Elisabeth

    2011-05-01

    The bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora causes the devastating disease known as fire blight in some rosaceous plants including apple and pear. One of the pathogenicity factors affecting fire blight development is the production of a siderophore, desferrioxamine, which overcomes the limiting conditions in plant tissues and also protects bacteria against active oxygen species. In this paper we examine the effect of an iron chelator protein encoded by the pea ferritin gene on the fire blight susceptibility of pear (Pyrus communis). Transgenic pear clones expressing this gene controlled either by the constitutive promoter CaMV 35S or by the inducible promoter sgd24 promoter were produced. The transgenic clones produced were analysed by Q-RT-PCR to determine the level of expression of the pea transgene. A pathogen-inducible pattern of expression of the pea transgene was observed in sgd24-promoter transformants. Adaptation to iron deficiency in vitro was tested in some transgenic clones and different iron metabolism parameters were measured. No strong effect on iron and chlorophyll content, root reductase activity and fire blight susceptibility was detected in the transgenic lines tested. No transformants showed a significant reduction in susceptibility to fire blight in greenhouse conditions when inoculated with E. amylovora.

  19. The red sport of 'Zaosu' pear and its red-striped pigmentation pattern are associated with demethylation of the PyMYB10 promoter.

    PubMed

    Qian, Minjie; Sun, Yongwang; Allan, Andrew C; Teng, Yuanwen; Zhang, Dong

    2014-11-01

    'Zaosu' pear, a hybrid of Pyrus pyrifolia and Pyrus communis, is a popular cultivar developed in China. 'Zaosu Red' is a bud sport of 'Zaosu' with red shoots, young leaves, and fruit. After grafting of 'Zaosu Red', reverse mutations in some branches lead to a loss of colour in leaves and stems. Also, the mature fruit of 'Zaosu Red' exhibits two phenotypes; fully red and striped. The aim of this study was to establish the mechanism of the red colour mutation in 'Zaosu' and the striped pigmentation pattern in fruit of 'Zaosu Red'. The accumulation of anthocyanins and transcript levels of the genes PpUFGT2 and PyMYB10 were highly correlated. The open reading frames (ORF) and promoter regions of these two key genes were cloned and compared between 'Zaosu' and its bud sports, but no sequence differences were found. The R2R3 MYB, PyMYB10, can activate expression of genes encoding enzymes of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. A yeast one-hybrid assay showed that PyMYB10 was associated with the -658 to -172bp fragment of the PpUFGT2 promoter, probably via a MYB binding site (MBS) located at -466bp. The PyMYB10 promoter had lower methylation levels in anthocyanin-rich tissues, indicating that the red bud sport of 'Zaosu' pear and the striped pigmentation pattern of 'Zaosu Red' pear are associated with demethylation of the PyMYB10 promoter.

  20. Formation of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins in the transition zones of fire blight-infected stems of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference'.

    PubMed

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Beuerle, Till; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-05-01

    In the rosaceous subtribe Pyrinae (formerly subfamily Maloideae), pathogen attack leads to formation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans. Accumulation of these phytoalexins was studied in greenhouse-grown grafted shoots of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference' after inoculation with the fire blight bacterium, Erwinia amylovora. No phytoalexins were found in leaves. However, both classes of defence compounds were detected in the transition zone of stems. The flanking stem segments above and below this zone, which were necrotic and healthy, respectively, were devoid of detectable phytoalexins. The transition zone of apple stems contained the biphenyls 3-hydroxy-5-methoxyaucuparin, aucuparin, noraucuparin and 2'-hydroxyaucuparin and the dibenzofurans eriobofuran and noreriobofuran. In pear, aucuparin, 2'-hydroxyaucuparin, noreriobofuran and in addition 3,4,5-trimethoxybiphenyl were detected. The total phytoalexin content in the transition zone of pear was 25 times lower than that in apple. Leaves and stems of mock-inoculated apple and pear shoots lacked phytoalexins. A number of biphenyls and dibenzofurans were tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against some Erwinia amylovora strains. The most efficient compound was 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl (MIC=115 μg/ml), the immediate product of biphenyl synthase which initiates phytoalexin biosynthesis.

  1. Metabolic Profiling of Developing Pear Fruits Reveals Dynamic Variation in Primary and Secondary Metabolites, Including Plant Hormones.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Akira; Otsuka, Takao; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Isuzugawa, Kanji; Murayama, Hideki; Saito, Kazuki; Shiratake, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Metabolites in the fruits of edible plants include sweet sugars, visually appealing pigments, various products with human nutritional value, and biologically active plant hormones. Although quantities of these metabolites vary during fruit development and ripening because of cell division and enlargement, there are few reports describing the actual dynamics of these changes. Therefore, we applied multiple metabolomic techniques to identify the changes in metabolite levels during the development and ripening of pear fruits (Pyrus communis L. 'La France'). We quantified and classified over 250 metabolites into six groups depending on their specific patterns of variation during development and ripening. Approximately half the total number of metabolites, including histidine and malate, accumulated transiently around the blooming period, during which cells are actively dividing, and then decreased either rapidly or slowly. Furthermore, the amounts of sulfur-containing amino acids also increased in pear fruits around 3-4 months after the blooming period, when fruit cells are enlarging, but virtually disappeared from ripened fruits. Some metabolites, including the plant hormone abscisic acid, accumulated particularly in the receptacle prior to blooming and/or fruit ripening. Our results show several patterns of variation in metabolite levels in developing and ripening pear fruits, and provide fundamental metabolomic data that is useful for understanding pear fruit physiology and enhancing the nutritional traits of new cultivars.

  2. Involvement of hydrogen peroxide in the regulation of senescence in pear.

    PubMed

    Brennan, T; Frenkel, C

    1977-03-01

    Endogenous peroxide levels in pear fruit (Pyrus communis) were measured using a titanium assay method, and were found to increase during senescence in both Bartlett and Bosc varieties. Application of glycolic acid or xanthine, serving as substrates for the formation of H(2)O(2), increased the peroxide content of the tissue and accelerated the onset of ripening, as measured by increased softening and ethylene evolution. Application of ethylene also induced increased peroxide levels. Ripening processes were similarly promoted when peroxides were conserved by inhibiting the activity of catalase with hydroxylamine or potassium cyanide. By comparison, the inhibition of glycolate oxidase with alphahydroxy-2-pyridinemethanesulfonic acid decreased the peroxide content of the tissue and delayed the onset of ripening. These results indicate that the onset of ripening correlates with the peroxide content of fruit tissues as occurring under normal conditions or as influenced by the treatments. Hydrogen peroxide may be involved in oxidative processes required in the initiation and the promotion of ripening.

  3. Initiation of Ripening in Bartlett Pear with an Antiauxin alpha(p-Chlorophenoxy)isobutyric Acid.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, C; Haard, N F

    1973-10-01

    A vacuum infiltration technique was used to apply an anti-auxin, alpha-(p-chlorophenoxy) isobutyric acid to mature green pears (Pyrus communis var. Bartlett). Application of alpha-(p-chlorophenoxy) isobutyric acid, at 0.02, 0.2, and 2.0 mm progressively accelerated the onset of chlorophyll degradation, softening, and CO(2) evolution. The action of alpha(p-chlorophenoxy) isobutyric acid is apparently independent of ethylene, since the auxin analogue depressed ethylene evolution and could overcome ethylene deficiency in fruit ripening under hypobaric conditions.The auxin analogue decreased the Michaelis constant of indoleacetic acid oxidase in vitro, suggesting that the antiauxin action of alpha-(p-chlorophenoxy) isobutyric acid is the acceleration in the breakdown of endogenous auxins in fruit and subsequently the initiation of ripening.

  4. Cellular Senescence, Radiation Damage to Mitochondria, and the Compensatory Response in Ripening Pear Fruits 1

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Roger J.; Yu, Ida K.; Ku, Lily L.; Fisher, L. Karl; Dehgan, Nancy

    1968-01-01

    A compensatory response, viz. in vivo recovery from radiation damage to mitochondria, occurs in preclimacteric pear fruits (Pyrus communis L.) treated with ionizing radiation. The compensatory response is absent or markedly impaired in senescent fruits irradiated at or near the climacteric peak. Senescent cells failed to recover from harmful effects of radiation on: 1) mitochondrial yield, 2) in vivo incorporation of amino acids into mitochondrial protein, and 3) mitochondrial respiratory control and ADP/O. A diminished response to “split-dose” irradiation and a delayed rate of recovery confirmed the degeneracy and loss of compensatory power with cell age. A loss of restorative activity, especially in mitochondria that supply the cell with essential energy, may underlie the more obvious signs of cumulative stress that accompany cellular senescence. Use of ionizing radiation as an investigative tool and the molecular implications of radiation damage, recovery, and cellular senescence are discussed. PMID:16656887

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas syringae Pathovar Syringae Strain FF5, Causal Agent of Stem Tip Dieback Disease on Ornamental Pear

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Kee Hoon; Jones, Jonathan D. G.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae FF5 causes stem tip dieback disease on ornamental pear (Pyrus calleryana). Its genome encodes a complete type III secretion system (T3SS) and HopAC1, HopM1, AvrE1, HopI1, HopAA1, HopJ1, HopAH2, HopAH1, HopAG1, and HopAZ1. Lacking detectable homologues of other T3SS effectors, it may encode novel, undiscovered effectors. PMID:22740663

  6. 77 FR 21623 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Fresh Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Fresh Pears... decreased the assessment rate established for the Fresh Pear Committee (Committee) for the 2011-2012 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.501 to $0.471 per standard box or equivalent of fresh winter pears...

  7. 7 CFR 917.176 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and (5) the number of packages, by size, for each container type. (c) Report of pears held in storage. Each shipper who has pears under refrigeration in a storage warehouse shall upon request, file with the... the date specified in the request, of pears in storage outside of the State of California and...

  8. 7 CFR 917.176 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and (5) The number of packages, by size, for each container type. (c) Report of pears held in storage. Each shipper who has pears under refrigeration in a storage warehouse shall upon request, file with the... the date specified in the request, of pears in storage outside of the State of California and...

  9. The PEAR proposition.

    PubMed

    Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J

    2007-01-01

    For more than a quarter century, the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research (PEAR) laboratory has engaged in a broad range of experiments on consciousness-related physical anomalies and has proposed a corresponding selection of theoretical models that have combined to illuminate the fundamental nature of the provocative phenomena that emerge. Productive pursuit of this topic has inescapably involved a spectrum of political, cultural, personal, and interpersonal factors that are normally not encountered in more conventional scientific scholarship, but have both enriched and complicated the enterprise in many ways. Some of the insights gleaned from the work are objectively specifiable, such as the scale and structural character of the anomalous effects; their relative insensitivity to objective physical correlates, including distance and time; the oscillating sequential patterns of performance they display; the major discrepancies between male and female achievements; and their irregular replicability at all levels of experience. But many others relate to subjective issues, such as the responsiveness of the effects to conscious and unconscious intention and to individual and collective resonance; the relevance of ambience and attitude in their generation; and the importance of intrinsic uncertainty as a source of the anomalies. This blend of empirical features predicates radical excursions of the dedicated models, and hence of the more general scientific paradigms, to allow consciousness and its subjective information processing capacities a proactive role in the establishment of objective reality, with all of the complications of specificity, causality, and reproducibility that entails. The attendant complexities of conceptualization, formulation, and implementation notwithstanding, pragmatic applications of these phenomena in many sectors of public endeavor now can be foreseen.

  10. Low temperature, but not photoperiod, controls growth cessation and dormancy induction and release in apple and pear.

    PubMed

    Heide, O M; Prestrud, A K

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to most temperate woody species, apple and pear and some other woody species of the Rosaceae family are insensitive to photoperiod, and no alternative environmental seasonal signal is known to control their dormancy. We studied growth and dormancy induction in micropropagated plants of four apple (Malus pumila Mill.) and one pear (Pyrus communis L.) commercial rootstock cultivars in controlled environments. The results confirm that growth cessation and dormancy induction in apple and pear are not influenced by photoperiod, and demonstrate that low temperature (< 12 degrees C) consistently induces both processes, regardless of photoperiodic conditions. Successive stages of the autumn syndrome (growth cessation, formation of bud scales and winter buds, leaf senescence and abscission, and dormancy induction) occurred in response to low temperature. Long days increased internode length at higher temperatures, but had no significant effect on leaf production in any of the cultivars. Chilling at 6 or 9 degrees C for at least 6 weeks (about 1000 h) was required for dormancy release and growth resumption, whereas treatment at 12 degrees C was marginally effective, even after 14 weeks of exposure. We are thus faced with the paradox that the same low temperature conditions that induce dormancy are also required for dormancy release in these species.

  11. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Candidate Genes Related to Color Fading of ‘Red Bartlett’ (Pyrus communis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhigang; Du, Hong; Zhai, Rui; Song, Linyan; Ma, Fengwang; Xu, Lingfei

    2017-01-01

    The red color of fruit is an attractive plant trait for consumers. Plants with color-faded fruit have a lower commercial value, such as ‘Red Bartlett’ pears (Pyrus communis L.) that have dark-red fruit in the early stages of fruit development that subsequently fade to red-green at maturity. To identify the reason for color fading, we first analyzed the anthocyanin content of peel from ‘Red Bartlett,’ which displays the color fading phenomenon, and ‘Starkrimson,’ which has no color fading. Results showed that the anthocyanin content of ‘Red Bartlett’ peel decreased significantly late in fruit development, while in ‘Starkrimson’ there was no significant decrease. Next, RNA-Sequencing was used to identify 947 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between ‘Red Bartlett’ and ‘Starkrimson.’ Among them, 471 genes were upregulated and 476 genes were downregulated in ‘Red Bartlett’ at the late development stage relative to ‘Starkrimson.’ During ‘Red Bartlett’ color fading, the structural gene LDOX and six GST family genes were downregulated, while FLS, LAC, POD, and five light-responding genes were significantly upregulated. Additionally, 45 genes encoding transcription factors MYB, bHLH, WRKY, NAC, ERF, and zinc finger were identified among 947 DEGs. Changes in the expression of these genes may be responsible for the decrease in anthocyanin accumulation in ‘Red Bartlett’ fruit. Taken together, this study demonstrated that color fading of ‘Red Bartlett’ was closely linked to reduced anthocyanin biosynthesis, increased anthocyanin degradation and suppression of anthocyanin transport. It also provided novel evidence for the involvement of light signals in the color fading of red-skinned pears.

  12. Expression of Biphenyl Synthase Genes and Formation of Phytoalexin Compounds in Three Fire Blight-Infected Pyrus communis Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Swiddan, Asya K.; Abdelaziz, Sahar; Gaid, Mariam; Richter, Klaus; Fischer, Thilo C.; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    Pear (Pyrus communis) is an economically important fruit crop. Drops in yield and even losses of whole plantations are caused by diseases, most importantly fire blight which is triggered by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. In response to the infection, biphenyls and dibenzofurans are formed as phytoalexins, biosynthesis of which is initiated by biphenyl synthase (BIS). Two PcBIS transcripts were cloned from fire blight-infected leaves and the encoded enzymes were characterized regarding substrate specificities and kinetic parameters. Expression of PcBIS1 and PcBIS2 was studied in three pear cultivars after inoculation with E. amylovora. Both PcBIS1 and PcBIS2 were expressed in ‘Harrow Sweet’, while only PcBIS2 transcripts were detected in ‘Alexander Lucas’ and ‘Conference’. Expression of the PcBIS genes was observed in both leaves and the transition zone of the stem; however, biphenyls and dibenzofurans were only detected in stems. The maximum phytoalexin level (~110 μg/g dry weight) was observed in the transition zone of ‘Harrow Sweet’, whereas the concentrations were ten times lower in ‘Conference’ and not even detectable in ‘Alexander Lucas’. In ‘Harrow Sweet’, the accumulation of the maximum phytoalexin level correlated with the halt of migration of the transition zone, whereby the residual part of the shoot survived. In contrast, the transition zones of ‘Alexander Lucas’ and ‘Conference’ advanced down to the rootstock, resulting in necrosis of the entire shoots. PMID:27410389

  13. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat...

  16. Asians and Asian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

    This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered of particular interest in the study of Asians and Asian-Americans. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically within the following subject…

  17. Expression of flowering locus T2 transgene from Pyrus communis L. delays dormancy and leaf senescence in Malus×domestica Borkh, and causes early flowering in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Freiman, Aviad; Golobovitch, Sara; Yablovitz, Zeev; Belausov, Eduard; Dahan, Yardena; Peer, Reut; Avraham, Lior; Freiman, Zohar; Evenor, Dalia; Reuveni, Moshe; Sobolev, Vladimir; Edelman, Marvin; Shahak, Yosepha; Samach, Alon; Flaishman, Moshe A

    2015-12-01

    Annual and perennial plants represent two different evolutionary strategies based on differential synchronization of their reproductive development. The mobile signal protein FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) plays a central role in mediating the onset of reproduction in both plant types. Two novel FT-like genes from pear (Pyrus communis)-PcFT1 and PcFT2-were isolated, and their expression profiles were determined for one annual cycle. The effects of PcFT2 on flowering were investigated in annual (tobacco) and perennial (apple) plants by means of grafting and generating transgenic plants. Long-distance graft transmission of PcFT2 in both annual and perennial plants was confirmed using a 35S::PcFT2-YFP construct. Ectopic overexpression of PcFT2 caused early flowering in tobacco but not in apple. Transgenic apples were less sensitive to short-day-induced dormancy, and this phenotype was also observed in wild-type apples grafted onto the transgenic plants. Comparison of PcFT2 protein structure to the paralogous FT proteins from apple and pear showed alterations that could influence protein structure and thus the florigen-activation complex. PcFT2 protein seems to function by promoting flowering as all other FT proteins in the annual plant tobacco while in the perennial plant apple PcFT2 does not promote flowering but delays senescence. This observation may hint to a modified function of FT2 in perennial plants.

  18. Identification of the expressed protein and the impact of change in ascorbate peroxidase activity related to endodormancy breaking in Pyrus pyrifolia.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Yoshihiro; Kuroki, Katsuou; Jiang, Mingfeng; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Tamura, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    Endodormancy is an important feature of perennial deciduous fruit trees that survive in the extreme climates brought about by seasonal variation. To acquire a comprehensive knowledge of the biochemical processes occurring just before endodormancy breaking, the buds collected in the pre-breaking period (PP) phase were used as samples to identify the proteins related to the breaking of endodormancy in the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai). Using nano-ESI-LC-MS/MS analysis, 96 proteins were overlapped by analyses of three times and identified as expressed proteins at the PP stage. Among these proteins, dehydrin, several classes of heat shock proteins (HSP), auxin-binding protein, and auxin-induced protein were identified in the floral bud in the PP stage. The majority of these proteins were involved primarily in the oxidation-reduction process. We focused on catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) as enzymes regulating the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the bud. From measurements taken during the deepest period (DP), PP, mid-breaking period (MP), and late-breaking period (LP) of endodormancy, CAT activity decreased gradually, while APX activity also decreased from DP to MP, but then increased rapidly during LP. Protein data for PP and the rapid increase in APX activity observed in LP provided knowledge of the biochemical processes that regulate the consecutive transition from endodormancy breaking to ecodormancy induction in the Japanese pear.

  19. Host Suitability of Eight Prunus spp. and One Pyrus communis Rootstocks to Pratylenchus vulnus, P. neglectus, and P. thornei

    PubMed Central

    Pinochet, J.; Verdejo-Lucas, S.; Marull, J.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of Pratylenchus vulnus on rootstocks of eight commonly used Prunus spp. and one Pyrus communis were evaluated under greenhouse conditions during a 15-month period. In a first experiment, two almonds (Moncayo and Garrigues), one peach (GF-305), and two peach-almond hybrids (GF-677 and Adafuel) inoculated with 2,000 nematodes per plant proved to be good hosts of P. vulnus. Highest (P < 0.05) numbers of nematodes per gram of fresh root weight were recovered from Adafuel and GF-677. Root weights were higher in uninoculated compared to inoculated plants of all rootstocks, whereas top weights of uninoculated Garrigues, GF-305, and GF-677 differed (P < 0.05) from those of inoculated plants. In a second experiment, three plum (Marianna 2624, Myrobalan 605, and San Julian 655-2) and one pear (OHF-333) rootstocks were also found to be good hosts of P. vulnus, although significantly fewer nematodes were recovered from Myrohalan 605 roots than from the other three materials. Inoculated OHF-333 and San Julian 655-2 differed (P < 0.05) in root weights over uninoculated plants. Only inoculated San Julian 655-2 showed differences in top weights over uninoculated treatments. Rootstocks were poor or non-hosts for P. neglectus and P. thornei. PMID:19283165

  20. 78 FR 24036 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... Oregon-Washington pear marketing order. The marketing order regulates the handling of processed...

  1. 76 FR 53811 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears...: This rule decreases the assessment rate established for the Processed Pear Committee (Committee) for the 2011-2012 and subsequent fiscal periods from $8.41 to $7.73 per ton of summer/fall processed...

  2. 77 FR 21624 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Affirmation of interim rule..., an interim rule that decreased the assessment rate established for the Processed Pear...

  3. 76 FR 54075 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Fresh Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Fresh Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: This rule decreases the assessment rate established for the Fresh Pear...

  4. 78 FR 21521 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Affirmation of interim rule..., an interim rule that decreased the assessment rate established for the Processed Pear...

  5. 77 FR 72197 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears...: This rule decreases the assessment rate established for the Processed Pear Committee (Committee) for the 2012-2013 and subsequent fiscal periods from $7.73 to $7.00 per ton of summer/fall processed...

  6. Pear ACO genes encoding putative 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase homologs are functionally expressed during fruit ripening and involved in response to salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Xing

    2012-10-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase catalyzes the final reaction of the ethylene biosynthetic pathway, converting ACC into ethylene. Past studies have shown a possible link between ACC oxidase and salicylic acid during fruit ripening in pear, but the relationship has received no more than modest study at the gene expression level. In this study, two cDNA clones encoding putative ACC oxidase, PpACO1 and PpACO2, were isolated from a cDNA library constructed by our own laboratory and produced using mRNA from mesocarp of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai. cv.Whangkeumbae). One cDNA clone, designated PpACO1 (GenBank accession No. JN807390), comprised an open reading frame of 945 bp encoding a protein of 314 amino acids. The other cDNA, designated PpACO2 (GenBank accession No. JN807392), encodes a protein with 322 amino acids that shares high similarity with the known plant ACOs. Using PCR amplification techniques, two genomic clones corresponding to PpACO1 and PpACO2 were isolated and shown to contain independently three introns with typical GT/AG boundaries defining the splice junctions. The PpACO1 gene product shared 99 % identity with an ACC oxidase from pear (Pyrus × bretschneideri Rehd.cv.Yali), and phylogenetic analyses clearly placed the gene product in the ACC oxidase cluster of the pear 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily tree. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that the two PpACO genes are differentially expressed in pear tissues. PpACO1 and PpACO2 were predominantly expressed in fruit. The transcripts of PpACO1 were accumulated at relatively low levels in early fruit, but strongly high levels in fruit ripening and senescence stages, while the transcripts of PpACO2 were accumulated at higher levels in early fruit and much lower levels with further fruit cell development than the transcripts of PpACO1. In addition, PpACO1 gene was down-regulated in fruit by salicylic acid (SA). Nevertheless, PpACO2 gene was dramatically up-regulated in

  7. 7 CFR 917.176 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... held in storage. Each shipper who has pears under refrigeration in a storage warehouse shall upon... total quantity, as of the date specified in the request, of pears in storage outside of the State of California and in storage in the State of California. Effective Date Note: At 59 FR 10056, Mar. 3,...

  8. 7 CFR 917.176 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... held in storage. Each shipper who has pears under refrigeration in a storage warehouse shall upon... total quantity, as of the date specified in the request, of pears in storage outside of the State of California and in storage in the State of California. Effective Date Note: At 59 FR 10056, Mar. 3,...

  9. 7 CFR 917.176 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... held in storage. Each shipper who has pears under refrigeration in a storage warehouse shall upon... total quantity, as of the date specified in the request, of pears in storage outside of the State of California and in storage in the State of California. Effective Date Note: At 59 FR 10056, Mar. 3,...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long...

  12. 21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pears. 145.176... § 145.176 Artificially sweetened canned pears. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pears is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned pears by § 145.175(a) except...

  13. 21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pears. 145.176... § 145.176 Artificially sweetened canned pears. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pears is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned pears by § 145.175(a) except...

  14. 21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pears. 145.176... § 145.176 Artificially sweetened canned pears. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pears is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned pears by § 145.175(a) except...

  15. PyMYB10 and PyMYB10.1 Interact with bHLH to Enhance Anthocyanin Accumulation in Pears

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shouqian; Sun, Shasha; Chen, Xiaoliu; Wu, Shujing; Wang, Deyun; Chen, Xuesen

    2015-01-01

    Color is an important agronomic trait of pears, and the anthocyanin content of fruit is immensely significant for pear coloring. In this study, an anthocyanin-activating R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, PyMYB10.1, was isolated from fruits of red sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Aoguan). Alignments of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences suggested that PyMYB10.1 was involved in anthocyanin regulation. Similar to PyMYB10, PyMYB10.1 was predominantly expressed in red tissues, including the skin, leaf and flower, but it was minimally expressed in non-red fruit flesh. The expression of this gene could be induced by light. Dual-luciferase assays indicated that both PyMYB10 and PyMYB10.1 activated the AtDFR promoter. The activation of AtDFR increased to a greater extent when combined with a bHLH co-factor, such as PybHLH, MrbHLH1, MrbHLH2, or AtbHLH2. However, the response of this activation depended on the protein complex formed. PyMYB10-AtbHLH2 activated the AtDFR promoter to a greater extent than other combinations of proteins. PyMYB10-AtbHLH2 also induced the highest anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco transient-expression assays. Moreover, PybHLH interacted with PyMYB10 and PyMYB10.1. These results suggest that both PyMYB10 and PyMYB10.1 are positive anthocyanin biosynthesis regulators in pears that act via the formation of a ternary complex with PybHLH. The functional characterization of PyMYB10 and PyMYB10.1 will aid further understanding of the anthocyanin regulation in pears. PMID:26536358

  16. Two pear glutathione S-transferases genes are regulated during fruit development and involved in response to salicylic acid, auxin, and glucose signaling.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hai-Yan; Li, Zheng-Hong; Zhang, Yu-Xing; Chen, Liang; Xiang, Di-Ying; Zhang, Yu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Two genes encoding putative glutathione S-transferase proteins were isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) and designated PpGST1 and PpGST2. The deduced PpGST1 and PpGST2 proteins contain conserved Glutathione S-transferase N-terminal domain (GST_N) and Glutathione S-transferase, C-terminal domain (GST_C). Using PCR amplification technique, the genomic clones corresponding to PpGST1 and PpGST2 were isolated and shown to contain two introns and a singal intron respectively with typical GT/AG boundaries defining the splice junctions. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that PpGST1 belonged to Phi class of GST superfamilies and had high homology with apple MdGST, while PpGST2 was classified into the Tau class of GST superfamilies. The expression of PpGST1 and PpGST2 genes was developmentally regulated in fruit. Further study demonstrated that PpGST1 and PpGST2 expression was remarkably induced by glucose, salicylic acid (SA) and indole-3-aceticacid (IAA) treatments in pear fruit, and in diseased fruit. These data suggested that PpGST1 and PpGST2 might be involved in response to sugar, SA, and IAA signaling during fruit development of pear.

  17. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals That Ethylene/H2O2-Mediated Hypersensitive Response and Programmed Cell Death Determine the Compatible Interaction of Sand Pear and Alternaria alternata

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Lin, Jing; Chang, Youhong; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    A major restriction on sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) production is black spot disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria alternata. However, the pear response mechanism to A. alternata is unknown at the molecular level. Here, host responses of a resistant cultivar Cuiguan (CG) and a susceptible cultivar Sucui1 (SC1) to A. alternata infection were investigated. We found that the primary necrotic lesion formed at 1 dpi and the expansion of lesions was aggressive in SC1. Data from transcriptomic profiles using RNA-Seq technology identified a large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between CG and SC1 in the early phase of A. alternata infection. K-mean cluster and Mapman analysis revealed that genes involved in ethylene (ET) biosynthesis and ET signaling pathway, such as ACS, ACOs, and ERFs, and in hypersensitive response (HR) and programmed cell death (PCD) were significantly enriched and up-regulated in the susceptible cultivar SC1. Conversely, genes involved in response to hydrogen peroxide and superoxide were differentially up-regulated in the resistant cultivar CG after inoculation with the fungus. Furthermore, ET levels were highly accumulated in SC1, but not in CG. Higher activities of detoxifying enzymes such as catalases were detected in CG. Our results demonstrate that the ET-/H2O2-mediated PCD and detoxifying processes play a vital role in the interaction of pear and A. alternata. PMID:28261248

  18. Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of the cation proton antiporters family in pear and four other Rosaceae species.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongsheng; Qi, Kaijie; Liu, Xing; Yin, Hao; Wang, Peng; Chen, Jianqing; Wu, Juyou; Zhang, Shaoling

    2016-08-01

    The monovalent cation proton antiporters (CPAs) play essential roles in plant nutrition, development, and signal transduction by regulating ion and pH homeostasis of the cell. The CPAs of plants include the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, K(+) efflux antiporter, and cation/H(+) exchanger families. However, currently, little is known about the CPA genes in Rosaceae species. In this study, 220 CPA genes were identified from five Rosaceae species (Pyrus bretschneideri, Malus domestica, Prunus persica, Fragaria vesca, and Prunus mume), and 53 of which came from P. bretschneideri. Phylogenetic, structure, collinearity, and gene expression analyses were conducted on the entire CPA genes of pear. Gene expression data showed that 35 and 37 CPA genes were expressed in pear fruit and pollen tubes, respectively. The transcript analysis of some CPA genes under abiotic stress conditions revealed that CPAs may play an important role in pollen tubes growth. The results presented here will be useful in improving understanding of the complexity of the CPA gene family and will promote functional characterization in future studies.

  19. Ethylene Production by Auxin-Deprived, Suspension-Cultured Pear Fruit Cells in Response to Auxins, Stress, or Precursor

    PubMed Central

    Puschmann, Rolf; Romani, Roger

    1983-01-01

    Auxin-deprived, mannitol-supplemented, suspension-cultured pear (Pyrus communis L. Passe Crassane) fruit cells produce large quantities (20-40 nanoliters ethylene per 106 cells per hour) of ethylene in response to auxins, CuCl2 or 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). Maximum rates of production are achieved about 12 hours after the addition of optimal amounts of indoleacetic acid (IAA), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4 to 5 hours after the addition of CuCl2 and 1 to 2 hours after the addition of ACC. Supraoptimal concentrations of IAA result in a lag phase followed by a normal response. High concentrations of NAA and 2,4-D result in an early (4-5 hours) stress response and injury. Continuous protein and RNA synthesis are essential for elaboration of the full IAA response; only protein synthesis is necessary for the response to CuCl2 and ACC. Based on polysomal states and rates of amino acid incorporation, CuCl2 partially inhibits protein synthesis while nonetheless stimulating ethylene production. In general, ethylene production by the pear cells resembles that of other plant systems. Some differences may reflect the sensitivity of the cells and are discussed. The relatively high levels of ethylene produced and the experimental convenience of the cultured cells should make them especially suitable for further investigations of ethylene production and physiology. PMID:16663320

  20. Expression and regulation of pear 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase gene (PpACS1a) during fruit ripening, under salicylic acid and indole-3-acetic acid treatment, and in diseased fruit.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Xing

    2014-06-01

    In plants, the level of ethylene is determined by the activity of the key enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS). A gene encoding an ACC synthase protein was isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia). This gene designated PpACS1a (GenBank accession no. KC632526) was 1488 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 495 amino acids that shared high similarity with other pear ACC synthase proteins. The PpACS1a was grouped into type-1 subfamily of plant ACS based on its conserved domain and phylogenetic status. Real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PpACS1a was differentially expressed in pear tissues and predominantly expressed in anthers. The expression signal of PpACS1a was also detected in fruit and leaves, but no signal was detected in shoots and petals. Furthermore, the PpACS1a expression was regulated during fruit ripening. In addition, the PpACS1a gene expression was regulated by salicylic acid (SA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in fruit. Moreover, the expression of the PpACS1a was up-regulated in diseased pear fruit. These results indicated that PpACS1a might be involved in fruit ripening and response to SA, IAA and disease.

  1. Erwinia amylovora affects the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway in mature leaves of Pyrus communis cv. Conférence.

    PubMed

    Vrancken, K; Holtappels, M; Schoofs, H; Deckers, T; Treutter, D; Valcke, R

    2013-11-01

    Flavonoids, which are synthesized by the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway, not only contribute to fruit colour and photoprotection, they also may provide antimicrobial and structural components during interaction with micro-organisms. A possible response of this pathway was assessed in both mature and immature leaves of shoots of 2-year-old pear trees cv. Conférence, which were inoculated with the gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora strain SGB 225/12, were mock-inoculated or were left untreated. The phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway was analysed by histological studies, by gene expression using RT-qPCR and by HPLC analyses of the metabolites at different time intervals after infection. Transcription patterns of two key genes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and chalcone synthase (CHS) related to the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway showed differences between control, mock-inoculated and E. amylovora-inoculated mature leaves, with the strongest reaction 48 h after inoculation. The impact of E. amylovora was also visualised in histological sections, and confirmed by HPLC, as epicatechin -which is produced via ANR- augmented 72 h after inoculation in infected leaf tissue. Besides the effect of treatments, ontogenesis-related differences were found as well. The increase of certain key genes, the rise in epicatechin and the visualisation in several histological sections in this study suggest a non-negligible impact on the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway in Pyrus communis due to inoculation with E. amylovora. In this study, we propose a potential role of this pathway in defence mechanisms, providing a detailed analysis of the response of this system attributable to inoculation with E. amylovora.

  2. Cloning and expression analysis of PpSUT2 encoding a sucrose transporter in pear.

    PubMed

    Tang, J; Lin, J; Zhang, B L; Wang, Z H; Li, X G; Chang, Y H

    2014-10-31

    A 1794-bp cDNA fragment was amplified from mRNA isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia NaKai. Cuiguan) leaves by using primers based on the sequences generated during the analysis of the pear transcriptome. The 597-amino acid sequence encoded by the cDNA was compared with the sequences in GenBank, and it was found to be similar to that of members of the sucrose-proton co-transporter family. The hydrophobic protein, which was predicted to have 11 transmembrane domains, was designated as PpSUT2. Real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated the accumulation of PpSUT2 mRNA throughout the plant, with the highest levels in the buds. Analysis of the expression of PpSUT2 during fruit development showed that the abundance of its transcripts increased at the end of April and then decreased to the lowest level at the end of July. Subcellular localization studies with the pCXDG vector as a probe demonstrated that PpSUT2 localized to cell membranes. An expression vector was constructed by inserting the PpSUT2 cDNA into pET32(a), and the vector was expressed in Escherichia coli (strain BL21) after induction with 1 mM isopropyl b-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside at 25°C. Analysis using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis identified the induction of a 71-kDa protein. Further analysis indicated that PpSUT2 might be not directly involved in sucrose transport, instead, functioning as a sucrose sensor on the cytoplasmic membrane.

  3. Factors involved in alleviating water stress by partial crop removal in pear trees.

    PubMed

    Marsal, Jordi; Mata, Merce; Arbones, Amadeu; Del Campo, Jesus; Girona, Joan; Lopez, Gerardo

    2008-09-01

    We studied the relief of water stress associated with fruit thinning in pear (Pyrus communis L.) trees during drought to determine what mechanisms, other than stomatal adjustment, were involved. Combinations of control irrigation (equal to crop water use less effective rainfall) and deficit irrigation (equal to 20% of control irrigation), fruit load (unthinned and thinned to 40 fruits per tree) and root pruning (pruned and unpruned) treatments were applied to pear (cv. 'Conference') trees during Stage II of fruit development. Daily patterns of midday stem water potential (Psi(stem)) and leaf conductance to water vapor (g(l)) of deficit-irrigated trees differed after fruit thinning. In response to fruit thinning, gl progressively declined with water stress until 30 days after fruit thinning and then leveled off, whereas the effects of decreased fruit load on Psi(stem) peaked 30-40 days after fruit thinning and then tended to decline. Soil water depletion was significantly correlated with fruit load during drought. Our results indicate that stomatal adjustment and the resulting soil water conservation were the factors determining the Psi(stem) response to fruit thinning. However, these factors could not explain differences in daily patterns between g(l) and Psi(stem) after fruit thinning. In all cases, effects of root pruning treatments on Psi(stem) in deficit-irrigated trees were transitory (Psi(stem) recovered from root pruning in less than 30 days), but the recovery of Psi(stem) after root pruning was faster in trees with low fruit loads. This behavior is compatible with the concept that the water balance (reflected by Psi(stem) values) was better in trees with low fruit loads compared with unthinned trees, perhaps because more carbon was available for root growth. Thus, a root growth component is hypothesized as a mechanism to explain the bimodal Psi(stem) response to fruit thinning during drought.

  4. Oligosaccharide formation during commercial pear juice processing.

    PubMed

    Willems, Jamie L; Low, Nicholas H

    2016-08-01

    The effect of enzyme treatment and processing on the oligosaccharide profile of commercial pear juice samples was examined by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection and capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Industrial samples representing the major stages of processing produced with various commercial enzyme preparations were studied. Through the use of commercially available standards and laboratory scale enzymatic hydrolysis of pectin, starch and xyloglucan; galacturonic acid oligomers, glucose oligomers (e.g., maltose and cellotriose) and isoprimeverose were identified as being formed during pear juice production. It was found that the majority of polysaccharide hydrolysis and oligosaccharide formation occurred during enzymatic treatment at the pear mashing stage and that the remaining processing steps had minimal impact on the carbohydrate-based chromatographic profile of pear juice. Also, all commercial enzyme preparations and conditions (time and temperature) studied produced similar carbohydrate-based chromatographic profiles.

  5. Over-expression of the apple spermidine synthase gene in pear confers multiple abiotic stress tolerance by altering polyamine titers.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiao-Peng; Pang, Xiao-Ming; Matsuda, Narumi; Kita, Masayuki; Inoue, Hiromichi; Hao, Yu-Jin; Honda, Chikako; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2008-04-01

    An apple spermidine synthase (SPDS) gene (MdSPDS1) was verified to encode a functional protein by the complementation of the spe3 yeast mutant, which lacks the SPDS gene. To justify our hypothesis that apple SPDS is involved in abiotic stress responses and to obtain transgenic fruit trees tolerant to abiotic stresses as well, MdSPDS1-over-expressing transgenic European pear (Pyrus communis L. 'Ballad') plants were created by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A total of 21 transgenic lines showing various spermidine (Spd) titers and MdSPDS1 expression levels were obtained. Selected lines were exposed to salt (150 mM NaCl), osmosis (300 mM mannitol), and heavy metal (500 microM CuSO4) stresses for evaluating their stress tolerances. Transgenic line no. 32, which was revealed to have the highest Spd accumulation and expression level of MdSPDS1, showed the strongest tolerance to these stresses. When growth increments, electrolyte leakage (EL), and values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were monitored, line no. 32 showed the lowest growth inhibition and the least increase in EL or TBARS under stress conditions. Spd titers in wild-type and transgenic lines showed diverse changes upon stresses, and these changes were not consistent with the changes in MdSPDS1 expressions. Moreover, there were no differences in the sodium concentration in the shoots between the wild type and line no. 32, whereas the copper concentration was higher in the wild type than in line no. 32. Although the mechanism(s) underlying the involvement of polyamines in stress responses is not known, these results suggest that the over-expression of the SPDS gene substantially increased the tolerance to multiple stresses by altering the polyamine titers in pear. Thus, MdSPDS1-over-expressing transgenic pear plants could be used to improve desert land and/or to repair polluted environments.

  6. Oxidative stress associated with rootstock-scion interactions in pear/quince combinations during early stages of graft development.

    PubMed

    Irisarri, Patricia; Binczycki, Piotr; Errea, Pilar; Martens, Helle Juel; Pina, Ana

    2015-03-15

    Exposing a plant to stress situations, such as grafting, generally triggers antioxidant defense systems. In fruit tree grafting, quince (Cydonia oblonga) is widely used as a rootstock for pear (Pyrus communis L.), but several economically important pear cultivars are incompatible with available quince rootstocks. In this study, grafts were established using an in vitro callus graft system mimicking the events taking place in fruit trees. In vitro grown callus from pear [P. communis L. cv. 'Conference' (Co) and cv. 'William' (Wi)] and quince (C. oblonga Mill. clone 'BA29') was used to establish the compatible homografts 'Co/Co', 'Wi/Wi' and 'BA29/BA29', the compatible heterograft 'Co/BA29' and the incompatible heterograft 'Wi/BA29'. The main objective was to determine whether specific isoforms of genes involved in oxidative stress [superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT)] are differentially expressed at the graft interface from compatible and incompatible unions throughout 3 weeks after grafting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and programmed cell death were also evaluated in the course of graft development. Genes differentially expressed between compatible and incompatible heterografts were identified. Transcript levels of six antioxidant genes (SOD1, SOD3, APX3, APX6, CAT1 and CAT3) were down-regulated 10 days after grafting (DAG) in the incompatible heterograft in comparison to the compatible one. Likewise, SOD enzymatic activities were significantly higher at 1 and 10 days after wounding in the compatible cultivar 'Co' than in the incompatible one 'Wi'. These findings, together with live cell imaging of ROS-specific probes, ultrastructural mitochondrial changes and DNA fragmentation related to apoptotic processes, give indications that within incompatible rootstock/scion interfaces, either the level of ROS is increased or there is a less efficient detoxification system.

  7. The Change of First-flowering Date over South Korea Projected from Downscaled IPCC AR5 Simulation: Peach and Pear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J. B.; Hur, J.

    2014-12-01

    The variations in the first-flowering date (FFD) of peach (Prunus persica) and pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) under future climate change in South Korea are investigated using simulations obtained from five models of the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. For the study, daily temperature simulations with Historical (1986-2005), and RCP (2071-2090) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are statistically downscaled to 50 peach and pear FFD (FFDpeach and FFDpear, respectively) observation sites over South Korea. The number of days transformed to standard temperature (DTS) method is selected as the phenological model and applied to simulations for estimating FFDpeach and FFDpear over South Korea, due to its superior performance on the target plants and region compared to the growing degree days (GDD) and chill days (CD) methods. In the analysis, mean temperatures for early spring (February to April) over South Korea in 2090 under RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are expected to have increased by 1.9K and 3.3K, respectively. Among the early spring months of February to April, February shows the largest temperature increase of 2.1K and 3.7K for RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios, respectively. The increased temperature during February and March accelerates the plant growth rate and thereby advances FFDpeach by 7.0 and 12.7 days and FFDpear by 6.1 and 10.7 days, respectively. These results imply that the present flowering of peach and pear in the middle of April will have advanced to late March or early April by the end of this century. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of the Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under Grant Project No. PJ009953, Republic of Korea.

  8. Characterization of cold hardiness in quince: potential pear rootstock candidates for northern pear production regions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US pear industry lacks a size-controlling, precocious rootstock for pear production. Commercially available selections of quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) have been reported to possess insufficient cold tolerance for northern latitude sites. Fifty in-situ clonal quince accessions with diverse orig...

  9. Polyphenolic Profile of Pear Leaves with Different Resistance to Pear Psylla (Cacopsylla pyri).

    PubMed

    Fotirić Akšić, Milica M; Dabić, Dragana Č; Gašić, Uroš M; Zec, Gordan N; Vulić, Todor B; Tešić, Živoslav Lj; Natić, Maja M

    2015-09-02

    The European pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is one of the most serious arthropod pests of pear. Since proper control of this pest is essential, better understanding of the complex plant-pest relationship is mandatory. This research deals with constitutive polyphenolic profiles in leaves of 22 pear cultivars of diverse origin (P. communis, P. pyrifolia, and P. pyrifolia × P. communis) and different resistance to psylla. The study was designed to show which differences in the polyphenolic profile of leaves from resistant and susceptible pear cultivars could be utilized as information in subsequent breeding programs. The results demonstrated that the leaves of Oriental pear cultivars contained much higher amounts of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, aesculin, and naringin, that, together with detected 3-O-(6″-O-p-coumaroyl)-hexoside, apigenin, apigenin 7-O-rutinoside, and hispidulin, indicated a clear difference between the species and might represent phenolics responsible for psylla resistance.

  10. Phylogeny and evolutionary histories of Pyrus L. revealed by phylogenetic trees and networks based on data from multiple DNA sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reconstructing the phylogeny of Pyrus has been difficult due to the wide distribution of the genus and lack of informative data. In this study, we collected 110 accessions representing 25 Pyrus species and constructed both phylogenetic trees and phylogenetic networks based on multiple DNA sequence d...

  11. Natural polyamines and synthetic analogs modify the growth and the morphology of Pyrus communis pollen tubes affecting ROS levels and causing cell death.

    PubMed

    Aloisi, Iris; Cai, Giampiero; Tumiatti, Vincenzo; Minarini, Anna; Del Duca, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    Polyamines (PAs) are small molecules necessary for pollen maturation and tube growth. Their role is often controversial, since they may act as pro-survival factors as well as factors promoting Programmed Cell Death (PCD). The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of exogenous PAs on the apical growth of pear (Pyrus communis) pollen tube and to understand if PAs and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are interconnected in the process of tip-growth. In the present study besides natural PAs, also aryl-substituted spermine and methoctramine (Met 6-8-6) analogs were tested. Among the natural PAs, Spm showed strongest effects on tube growth. Spm entered through the pollen tube tip, then diffused in the sub-apical region that underwent drastic morphological changes, showing enlarged tip. Analogs were mostly less efficient than natural PAs but BD23, an asymmetric synthetic PAs bearing a pyridine ring, showed similar effects. These effects were related to the ability of PAs to cause the decrease of ROS level in the apical zone, leading to cell death, counteracted by the caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO (DEVD). In conclusions, ROS are essential for pollen germination and a strict correlation between ROS regulation and PA concentration is reported. Moreover, an imbalance between ROS and PAs can be detrimental thereby driving pollen toward cell death.

  12. High-density genetic linkage map construction and identification of fruit-related QTLs in pear using SNP and SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Li, Lei-Ting; Li, Meng; Khan, M. Awais; Li, Xiu-Gen; Chen, Hui; Yin, Hao; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Pear (Pyrus spp) is an important fruit crop, grown in all temperate regions of the world, with global production ranked after grape and apples among deciduous tree crops. A high-density linkage map is a valuable tool for fine mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) and map-based gene cloning. In this study, we firstly constructed a high-density linkage map of pear using SNPs integrated with SSRs, developed by the rapid and robust technology of restriction-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq). The linkage map consists of 3143 SNP markers and 98 SSRs, 3241 markers in total, spanning 2243.4 cM, with an average marker distance of 0.70 cM. Anchoring SSRs were able to anchor seventeen linkage groups to their corresponding chromosomes. Based on this high-density integrated pear linkage map and two years of fruit phenotyping, a total of 32 potential QTLs for 11 traits, including length of pedicel (LFP), single fruit weight (SFW), soluble solid content (SSC), transverse diameter (TD), vertical diameter (VD), calyx status (CS), flesh colour (FC), juice content (JC), number of seeds (NS), skin colour (SC), and skin smooth (SS), were identified and positioned on the genetic map. Among them, some important fruit-related traits have for the first time been identified, such as calyx status, length of pedicel, and flesh colour, and reliable localization of QTLs were verified repeatable. This high-density linkage map of pear is a worthy reference for mapping important fruit traits, QTL identification, and comparison and combination of different genetic maps. PMID:25129128

  13. Season-long volatile emissions from peach and pear trees in situ, overlapping profiles, and olfactory attraction of an oligophagous fruit moth in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Najar-Rodriguez, A; Orschel, B; Dorn, S

    2013-03-01

    Insect herbivores that have more than one generation per year and reproduce on different host plants are confronted with substantial seasonal variation in the volatile blends emitted by their hosts. One way to deal with such variation is to respond to a specific set of compounds common to all host plants. The oriental fruit moth Cydia (=Grapholita) molesta is a highly damaging invasive pest. The stone fruit peach (Prunus persica) is its primary host, whereas pome fruits such as pear (Pyrus communis) are considered secondary hosts. In some parts of their geographic range, moth populations switch from stone to pome fruit orchards during the growing season. Here, we tested whether this temporal switch is facilitated by female responses to plant volatiles. We collected volatiles from peach and pear trees in situ and characterized their seasonal dynamics by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We also assessed the effects of the natural volatile blends released by the two plant species on female attraction by using Y-tube olfactometry. Finally, we related variations in volatile emissions to female olfactory responses. Our results indicate that the seasonal host switch from peach to pear is facilitated by the changing olfactory effect of the natural volatile blends being emitted. Peach volatiles were only attractive early and mid season, whereas pear volatiles were attractive from mid to late season. Blends from the various attractive stages shared a common set of five aldehydes, which are suggested to play an essential role in female attraction to host plants. Particular attention should be given to these aldehydes when designing candidate attractants for oriental fruit moth females.

  14. 76 FR 78168 - Importation of Chinese Sand Pears From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    .... Whereas we limit the origin of Ya pears and fragrant pears grown for export to the United States to areas.... List of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 319 Coffee, Cotton, Fruits, Imports, Logs, Nursery stock, Plant...

  15. Asian blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2014-08-01

    This article discusses in detail the cultural aesthetic issues that confront the surgeon interested in performing Asian blepharoplasty in terms of defining an aesthetic Asian ideal and the subject of natural and ethnic preservation of identity. The surgical methodology of how to perform a full-incision-based Asian blepharoplasty is outlined in a stepwise fashion along with the perioperative concerns (preoperative planning and counseling, nature of recovery, and complications and revision surgery).

  16. Plains Prickly Pear Cactus Response to Fire and Fuel Loads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of prickly pear on rangelands has lead to numerous studies aimed at understanding prickly pear response to various natural and human induced treatments. Information is lacking on Plains prickly pear response to varied fuel loads. Pads of clones from three soil types (claypan, gravel, si...

  17. 7 CFR 917.461 - Pear Regulation 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pear Regulation 12. 917.461 Section 917.461... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Grade and Size Regulation § 917.461 Pear Regulation 12. (a) No handler shall ship: (1) Bartlett...

  18. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fresh pear reports. 927.125 Section 927.125... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.125 Fresh pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish to...

  19. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced...

  20. 7 CFR 927.237 - Processed pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processed pear assessment rate. 927.237 Section 927... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.237 Processed pear...

  1. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced...

  2. 7 CFR 927.126 - Processed pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processed pear reports. 927.126 Section 927.126... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.126 Processed pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  3. 7 CFR 927.121 - Pears for gift purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pears for gift purposes. 927.121 Section 927.121... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.121 Pears for gift purposes. There...

  4. 7 CFR 917.461 - Pear Regulation 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pear Regulation 12. 917.461 Section 917.461... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Grade and Size Regulation § 917.461 Pear Regulation 12. (a) No handler shall ship: (1) Bartlett...

  5. 7 CFR 927.236 - Fresh pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fresh pear assessment rate. 927.236 Section 927.236... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.236 Fresh pear assessment rate. On and after July...

  6. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced...

  7. 7 CFR 927.122 - Consumer direct pear sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consumer direct pear sales. 927.122 Section 927.122... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.122 Consumer direct pear...

  8. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced...

  9. 7 CFR 927.121 - Pears for gift purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pears for gift purposes. 927.121 Section 927.121... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.121 Pears for gift purposes. There...

  10. 7 CFR 917.461 - Pear Regulation 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pear Regulation 12. 917.461 Section 917.461... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Grade and Size Regulation § 917.461 Pear Regulation 12. (a) No handler shall ship: (1) Bartlett...

  11. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fresh pear reports. 927.125 Section 927.125... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.125 Fresh pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish to...

  12. 7 CFR 927.126 - Processed pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processed pear reports. 927.126 Section 927.126... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.126 Processed pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  13. 7 CFR 927.126 - Processed pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processed pear reports. 927.126 Section 927.126... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.126 Processed pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  14. 7 CFR 927.121 - Pears for gift purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pears for gift purposes. 927.121 Section 927.121... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.121 Pears for gift purposes. There...

  15. 7 CFR 927.237 - Processed pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processed pear assessment rate. 927.237 Section 927... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.237 Processed pear...

  16. 7 CFR 927.237 - Processed pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processed pear assessment rate. 927.237 Section 927... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.237 Processed pear...

  17. 7 CFR 927.126 - Processed pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processed pear reports. 927.126 Section 927.126... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.126 Processed pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  18. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fresh pear reports. 927.125 Section 927.125... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.125 Fresh pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish to...

  19. 7 CFR 927.237 - Processed pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processed pear assessment rate. 927.237 Section 927... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.237 Processed pear...

  20. 7 CFR 927.126 - Processed pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processed pear reports. 927.126 Section 927.126... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.126 Processed pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  1. 7 CFR 927.237 - Processed pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processed pear assessment rate. 927.237 Section 927... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.237 Processed pear...

  2. 7 CFR 927.122 - Consumer direct pear sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consumer direct pear sales. 927.122 Section 927.122... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.122 Consumer direct pear...

  3. 7 CFR 927.122 - Consumer direct pear sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consumer direct pear sales. 927.122 Section 927.122... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.122 Consumer direct pear...

  4. 7 CFR 927.121 - Pears for gift purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pears for gift purposes. 927.121 Section 927.121... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.121 Pears for gift purposes. There...

  5. 7 CFR 917.461 - Pear Regulation 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pear Regulation 12. 917.461 Section 917.461... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Grade and Size Regulation § 917.461 Pear Regulation 12. (a) No handler shall ship: (1) Bartlett...

  6. 7 CFR 927.121 - Pears for gift purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pears for gift purposes. 927.121 Section 927.121... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.121 Pears for gift purposes. There...

  7. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced...

  8. Classification of Korla fragrant pears using NIR hyperspectral imaging analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Korla fragrant pears are small oval pears characterized by light green skin, crisp texture, and a pleasant perfume for which they are named. Anatomically, the calyx of a fragrant pear may be either persistent or deciduous; the deciduous-calyx fruits are considered more desirable due to taste and tex...

  9. 78 FR 24033 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Modification of the Assessment Rate for Fresh Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Modification of the Assessment Rate for Fresh Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate established for the Fresh Pear Committee (Committee) for the 2012-2013 and subsequent...

  10. Pear 14-3-3a gene (Pp14-3-3a) is regulated during fruit ripening and senescense, and involved in response to salicylic acid and ethylene signalling.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haiyan; Zhang, Yuxing

    2014-12-01

    14-3-3 proteins play important roles in regulating plant development and phytohormone (abscisic acid, gibberellin and brassinosteroids) signalling. However, their regulation in fruit ripening and senescense, and response to salicylic acid and ethylene signalling are yet to be illustrated. One cDNA encoding putative 14-3-3 protein was isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) and designated Pp14-3-3a. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that Pp14-3-3a belonged to ε-like group of 14-3-3 superfamilies. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression of Pp14-3-3a gene was developmentally regulated in the fruit. Further study demonstrated that Pp14-3-3a expression was inhibited by salicylic acid and induced by ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid in pear fruit. These data suggested that Pp14-3-3a might be involved in response to salicylic acid and ethylene signalling during fruit ripening and senescence of pear.

  11. Daily prickly pear consumption improves platelet function.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, R; Budinsky, A; Efthimiou, Y; Stomatopoulos, J; Oguogho, A; Sinzinger, H

    2003-07-01

    Prickly pear is traditionally used by Pima Indians as a dietary nutrient against diabetes mellitus. We examined the effect of daily consumption of 250 g in 8 healthy volunteers and 8 patients with mild familial heterozygous hypercholesterolemia on various parameters of platelet function. Beside its action on lipids and lipoproteins, prickly pear consumption significantly reduced the platelet proteins (platelet factor 4 and beta-thromboglobulin), ADP-induced platelet aggregation and improved platelet sensitivity (against PGI2 and PGE1) in volunteers as well as in patients. Also plasma 11-DH-TXB2 and the WU-test showed a significant improvement in both patients and volunteers. In contrast, collagen-induced platelet aggregation and the number of circulating endothelial cells showed a significant response in patients only. No influence of prickly pear ingestion on peripheral platelet count was monitored. The dietary run-in period did not influence any of the parameters of haemostasis examined. No sex difference was seen. Prickly pear may induce at least part of its beneficial actions on the cardiovascular system via decreasing platelet activity and thereby improving haemostatic balance.

  12. Improved Mineral Nutrition for Pear Shoot Cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository has over 200 pear accessions in culture, encompassing 18 species. Plant growth response on standard tissue culture medium varies widely due to the wide horticultural diversity of this collection. We used a systematic response-surface approach to eva...

  13. Pyrus pashia: A persuasive source of natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Sabahat Zahra; Ali, Saima; Rehman, Azizur; Rubab, Kaniz; vAbbasi, Muhammad Athar; Ajaib, Muhammad; Z Rasool, Zahid Ghulam

    2015-09-01

    Pyrus pashia Buch. & Ham. was subjected to extraction with methanol. Methanolic extracts of fruit, bark and leaf were partitioned separately with four organic solvents in order of increasing polarity, asn-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol after dissolving in distilled water. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenolics, flavonoides, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides in large amount in chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol soluble fractions. The antioxidant activity of crude methanolic extracts, all the obtained fourorganic fractions and remaining aqueous fractions was evaluated by different methods such as: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and total antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdenum complex method as well as determination of total phenolics. The results of antioxidant activity exhibited that chloroform soluble fraction of fruit showed the highest value of percent inhibition of DPPH (48.16 ± 0.21 μg/ml) at the concentration of 10 μg/ml. Ethyl acetate soluble fraction displayed the lowest antioxidant activity having IC50 value of bark as (8.64 ± 0.32 μg/ml) relative to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), having IC50 of 12.1 ± 0.92 μg/ml. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction of bark revealed the highest FRAPs value (174.618 ± 0.11TE µM/ml) among all the three parts. This fraction also showed the highest value of total antioxidant activity as (1.499 ± 0.90), determined by phosphomolybdenum complex method. Moreover, this fraction also conferred the highest phenolic content (393.19 ± 0.72) as compared to other studied fractions of fruit and leaf.

  14. Classification of Korla fragrant pears using NIR hyperspectral imaging analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Xiuqin; Yang, Chun-Chieh; Ying, Yibin; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kuanglin

    2012-05-01

    Korla fragrant pears are small oval pears characterized by light green skin, crisp texture, and a pleasant perfume for which they are named. Anatomically, the calyx of a fragrant pear may be either persistent or deciduous; the deciduouscalyx fruits are considered more desirable due to taste and texture attributes. Chinese packaging standards require that packed cases of fragrant pears contain 5% or less of the persistent-calyx type. Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging was investigated as a potential means for automated sorting of pears according to calyx type. Hyperspectral images spanning the 992-1681 nm region were acquired using an EMCCD-based laboratory line-scan imaging system. Analysis of the hyperspectral images was performed to select wavebands useful for identifying persistent-calyx fruits and for identifying deciduous-calyx fruits. Based on the selected wavebands, an image-processing algorithm was developed that targets automated classification of Korla fragrant pears into the two categories for packaging purposes.

  15. Effect of pH on Penetration of Naphthaleneacetic Acid and Naphthaleneacetamide Through Isolated Pear Leaf Cuticle 1

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Robert F.; Bukovac, Martin J.

    1972-01-01

    Penetration of naphthaleneacetic acid through enzymatically isolated upper pear (Pyrus communis L. cv. Bartlett) leaf cuticle increased as the donor pH was decreased. Naphthaleneacetamide penetration was not influenced by donor pH. The effect of pH on naphthaleneacetic acid penetration was reversible. Higher receiver (simulated leaf interior) pH favored penetration of naphthaleneacetic acid. Changes in the degree of dissociation, and hence polarity, as controlled by hydrogen ion concentration was the prime factor in the response of naphthaleneacetic acid to pH. At pH values lower than the pK (4.2 for naphthaleneacetic acid), the molecule was primarily undissociated, lipophilic, and penetrated into the cuticle; whereas, at pH values above the pK naphthaleneacetic acid was ionized, hydrophilic, and penetrated the cuticle with difficulty or not at all. Data presented are consistent with the hypothesis that naphthaleneacetic acid and naphthaleneacetamide penetration through the cuticle takes place by diffusion. PMID:16658011

  16. More for less: Improving the biomass yield of a pear cell suspension culture by design of experiments

    PubMed Central

    Rasche, Stefan; Herwartz, Denise; Schuster, Flora; Jablonka, Natalia; Weber, Andrea; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell suspension cultures are widely used for the production of recombinant proteins and secondary metabolites. One of the most important steps during process development is the optimization of yields by testing different cultivation parameters, including the components of the growth medium. However, we have shown that the biomass yield of a cell suspension culture derived from the pear cultivar Pyrus communis cv. Champagner Bratbirne can be significantly improved solely by varying the temperature, inoculum density, illumination, and incubation time. In contrast to medium optimization, these simple physical factors are easily controlled and varied, thereby reducing the effort required. Using an experimental design approach, we improved the biomass yield from 146 g fresh weight (FW)/L to 407 g FW/L in only 5 weeks, simultaneously reducing the costs of goods sold per kg biomass from €125 to €45. Our simple approach therefore offers a rapid, efficient and economical process for the optimization of plant cell suspension cultures. PMID:26988402

  17. Influence of maturity and storage period on physical and biochemical characteristics of pear during post cold storage at ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kirandeep; Dhillon, W S

    2015-08-01

    The fruits of semi-soft pear (Pyrus communis) cv. Punjab Beauty harvested at three different harvest dates were stored at 0-1(0) C temperature with 90-95 % Relative Humidity for 30, 45, 60 and 75 days to assess the physical and chemical changes during storage. After every storage interval, the fruits were removed and kept at room temperature for 3 and 6 days to study the shelf life of fruits. Immature fruits always had the highest values of flesh firmness; optimum-mature fruits had the next and over-mature fruits the lowest at each corresponding sampling period during storage. The fruits harvested at optimum stage of maturity exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) lower incidence of fruit softening and physiological loss in weight. These fruits retained excellent quality up to 60 days of storage in cool chamber with 3 days shelf life at ambient temperature. The fruits of first harvest date were incapable of developing acceptable flavor and quality upon ripening throughout the storage period. However, the fruits harvested at post-optimum stage recorded maximum physiological loss in weight and lesser firmness thus making them suitable for immediate consumption with no shelf life at ambient temperature storage.

  18. Recent advances in the cryopreservation of shoot-derived germplasm of economically important fruit trees of Actinidia, Diospyros, Malus, Olea, Prunus, Pyrus and Vitis.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Carla; De Carlo, Anna; Engelmann, Florent

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the advances made over the last decade in cryopreservation of economically important vegetatively propagated fruit trees. Cryopreservation protocols have been established using both dormant buds sampled on field-grown plants and shoot tips sampled on in vitro plantlets. In the case of dormant buds, scions are partially dehydrated by storage at -5 °C, and then cooled slowly to -30 °C using low cooling rates (c.a. 1 °C/h) before immersion in liquid nitrogen. After slow rewarming and rehydration of samples, regrowth takes place either through grafting of buds on rootstocks or excision of apices and inoculation in vitro. In the case of shoot tips of in vitro plantlets, the cryopreservation techniques employed are the following: controlled rate cooling procedures involving slow prefreezing followed by immersion in liquid nitrogen or vitrification-based procedures including encapsulation-dehydration, vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification and droplet-vitrification. The current status of cryopreservation for a series of fruit tree species including Actinidia, Diospyros, Malus, Olea, Prunus, Pyrus and Vitis is presented. Routine application of cryopreservation for long-term germplasm storage in genebanks is currently limited to apple and pear, for which large cryopreserved collections have been established at NCGRP, Fort Collins (USA), using dormant buds and in vitro shoot tips, respectively. However, there are a growing number of examples of pilot scale testing experiments under way for different species in various countries. Progress in the further development and application of cryopreservation techniques will be made through a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the induction of tolerance to dehydration and cryopreservation in frozen explants.

  19. Asian Narrative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minami, Masahiko

    The distinctive features of narratives told by Asians, particularly Japanese, who are non-native speakers of English and residing in the United States are analyzed. Focus is on the narrative structure produced and the communication problems occurring due to cultural traits, particularly as they differ from North American norms. Educational and…

  20. Combining Pear Ester with Codlemone Improves Management of Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several management approaches utilizing pear ester combined with codlemone have been developed in the first 10 years after the discovery of this ripe pear fruit volatile’s kairomonal activity for larvae and both sexes of codling moth. These include a lure that consistently outperforms other high loa...

  1. 7 CFR 917.461 - Pear Regulation 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... pears were grown in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (b)(5) of this section. (2) Any box or... size not smaller than the size known commercially as size 165; (3) Any box or container, other than...-Red (Max-Red Bartlett, Red Bartlett) varieties of pears unless such box or container is stamped...

  2. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... shipments total 2,500 44-pound net weight standard boxes or container equivalents of fresh pears, furnish to... specified. (d) Each handler who has shipped less than 2,500 44-pound net weight standard boxes or container equivalents of fresh pears during any reporting period of the shipping season may, in lieu of reporting...

  3. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... shipments total 2,500 44-pound net weight standard boxes or container equivalents of fresh pears, furnish to... specified. (d) Each handler who has shipped less than 2,500 44-pound net weight standard boxes or container equivalents of fresh pears during any reporting period of the shipping season may, in lieu of reporting...

  4. 78 FR 34 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Modification of the Assessment Rate for Fresh Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Modification of the Assessment Rate for Fresh Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule would increase the assessment rate established for the Fresh...

  5. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  6. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  7. 7 CFR 927.120 - Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. 927.120... PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.120 Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. Pears which do not meet the requirements of the then effective grade,...

  8. 7 CFR 927.120 - Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. 927.120... PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.120 Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. Pears which do not meet the requirements of the then effective grade,...

  9. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  10. 7 CFR 927.120 - Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. 927.120... PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.120 Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. Pears which do not meet the requirements of the then effective grade,...

  11. 7 CFR 927.120 - Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. 927.120... PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.120 Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. Pears which do not meet the requirements of the then effective grade,...

  12. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  13. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  14. 7 CFR 927.120 - Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. 927.120... PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.120 Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. Pears which do not meet the requirements of the then effective grade,...

  15. Duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction reveals competition between Erwinia amylovora and E. pyrifoliae on pear blossoms.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Susan M; Kim, Won-Sik; Castle, Alan J; Svircev, Antonet M

    2008-06-01

    Erwinia amylovora and E. pyrifoliae are the causative agents of fire blight and Asian pear blight, respectively. The pathogens are closely related, with overlapping host ranges. Data are unavailable on the current distribution of E. pyrifoliae and on the interaction between the two species when they are present together on the same host. In this study, a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was developed to monitor the population dynamics of E. amylovora and E. pyrifoliae on the surface of Bartlett pear blossoms. Bacterial cells washed from blossoms were used directly as the PCR template without DNA extraction. Primers and a probe based on the E. amylovora levansucrase gene detected all E. amylovora strains. All E. pyrifoliae strains, including the Japanese Erwinia strains previously described as E. amylovora, were detected with a primer and probe combination based on the E. pyrifoliae hrpW gene. Disease development and severity were not significantly different in blossoms inoculated with individual Erwinia species or with a mixture of the two species. However, E. amylovora grew to greater population sizes than did E. pyrifoliae in both single species inoculations and in mixtures, suggesting that E. amylovora has a greater competitive fitness on Bartlett pear blossoms than E. pyrifoliae.

  16. Aroma-Active Compounds in Bartlett Pears and Their Changes during the Manufacturing Process of Bartlett Pear Brandy.

    PubMed

    Zierer, Bianca; Schieberle, Peter; Granvogl, Michael

    2016-12-21

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis to Bartlett pears and the fermented mash produced thereof revealed 24 and 34 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range between 8 and 8192. Twenty-eight compounds, which have not been described before in Bartlett pears or in fermented pear mash, were identified. While ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear-like, metallic odor impression), hexyl acetate (green, fruity), and acetic acid (vinegar-like) showed the highest concentrations in Bartlett pears, ethanol (ethanolic), acetic acid, 3-methyl-1-butanol (malty), 1-hexanol (grassy, marzipan-like), (S)-2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (sweaty), and 2-phenylethanol (flowery, honey-like) were present at the highest amounts in the fermented mash. The key aroma compounds were quantitated in each pear brandy production step (pears, fermented mash, distillate, and aged distillate) by stable isotope dilution analysis showing a clear influence of each step on the overall aroma of the spirit and, consequently, revealing clearly changing concentrations (e.g., of ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, (E)-β-damascenone, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and ethyl (E,E)-2,4-decadienoate) and different aroma perceptions during the manufacturing process. In addition, the concentrations of the so-called "pear esters" ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate and ethyl (E,E)-2,4-decadienoate were determined in 6 different pear varieties (Abate Fetel, Anjou, Bartlett, Forelle, Kaiser Alexander, and Packham's Triumph) clearly demonstrating the aroma potential of the variety Bartlett, which is mostly used for brandy production due to the high amounts of both esters eliciting a typical pear-like odor impression.

  17. Arthropod community organization and development in pear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gut, Larry J.; Liss, W. J.; Westigard, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    Arthropod communities in pear are conceptualized as hierarchically organized systems in which several levels of organization or subsystems can be recognized between the population level and the community as a whole. An individual pear tree is taken to be the community habitat with arthropod subcommunities developing on leaf, fruit, and wood subcommunity habitats. Each subcommunity is composed of trophically organized systems of populations. Each system of populations is comprised of a functional group or guild of phytophagous arthropods that use the habitat primarily for feeding but also for overwintering or egg deposition, and associated groups of specialized predators, parasitoids, and hyperparasitoids. Several species move from one subcommunity to another during the course of community development and thus integrate community subsystems. Community development or change in organization through time is conceptualized as being jointly determined by the development of the habitat and the organization of the species pool. The influence of habitat development on community development within a species pool is emphasized in this research. Seasonal habitat development is expressed as change in the kinds and biomasses of developmental states of wood, leaf, and fruit subcommunity habitats. These changes are accompanied by changes in the kinds, biomasses, and distributions of associated community subsystems.

  18. Changing perspectives on pearly mussels, North America's most imperiled animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strayer, David L.; Downing, John A.; Haag, Wendell R.; King, Timothy L.; Layzer, James B.; Newton, Teresa J.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    2004-01-01

    Pearly mussels (Unionacea) are widespread, abundant, and important in freshwater ecosystems around the world. Catastrophic declines in pearly mussel populations in North America and other parts of the world have led to a flurry of research on mussel biology, ecology, and conservation. Recent research on mussel feeding, life history, spatial patterning, and declines has augmented, modified, or overturned long-held ideas about the ecology of these animals. Pearly mussel research has begun to benefit from and contribute to current ideas about suspension feeding, life-history theory, metapopulations, flow refuges, spatial patterning and its effects, and management of endangered species. At the same time, significant gaps in understanding and apparent paradoxes in pearly mussel ecology have been exposed. To conserve remaining mussel populations, scientists and managers must simultaneously and aggressively pursue both rigorous research and conservation actions.

  19. Genomics of pear and other Rosaceae fruit trees

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    The family Rosaceae includes many economically important fruit trees, such as pear, apple, peach, cherry, quince, apricot, plum, raspberry, and loquat. Over the past few years, whole-genome sequences have been released for Chinese pear, European pear, apple, peach, Japanese apricot, and strawberry. These sequences help us to conduct functional and comparative genomics studies and to develop new cultivars with desirable traits by marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. These genomics resources also allow identification of evolutionary relationships in Rosaceae, development of genome-wide SNP and SSR markers, and construction of reference genetic linkage maps, which are available through the Genome Database for the Rosaceae website. Here, we review the recent advances in genomics studies and their practical applications for Rosaceae fruit trees, particularly pear, apple, peach, and cherry. PMID:27069399

  20. Genomics of pear and other Rosaceae fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    The family Rosaceae includes many economically important fruit trees, such as pear, apple, peach, cherry, quince, apricot, plum, raspberry, and loquat. Over the past few years, whole-genome sequences have been released for Chinese pear, European pear, apple, peach, Japanese apricot, and strawberry. These sequences help us to conduct functional and comparative genomics studies and to develop new cultivars with desirable traits by marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. These genomics resources also allow identification of evolutionary relationships in Rosaceae, development of genome-wide SNP and SSR markers, and construction of reference genetic linkage maps, which are available through the Genome Database for the Rosaceae website. Here, we review the recent advances in genomics studies and their practical applications for Rosaceae fruit trees, particularly pear, apple, peach, and cherry.

  1. Spermidine levels are implicated in heavy metal tolerance in a spermidine synthase overexpressing transgenic European pear by exerting antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiao-Peng; Ban, Yusuke; Inoue, Hiromichi; Matsuda, Narumi; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2010-02-01

    To verify whether spermidine synthase (SPDS) can confer long-term multi-heavy metal tolerance, in vitro shoots of a transgenic European pear (Pyrus communis L. 'Ballad') line #32 overexpressing apple SPDS (MdSPDS1), as well as a wild type (WT) line, were subjected to stress using either CdCl(2), PbCl(2), ZnCl(2), or a combination thereof. Based on either shoot height increment or fresh weight and morphological changes upon heavy metal stress, the performance of the transgenic line #32 was better than that of WT. Although SPDS expression levels and spermidine (Spd) contents in line #32 were higher than those in WT, possibly due to transgene (MdSPDS1) expression, no obvious inductions of SPDS expression and increases in Spd-content were observed by long-term stress treatments in both lines. When the glutathione (GSH) content was compared with or without stress in each line, GSH was significantly depleted in line #32 with stress, but not as much as in WT. The activities of glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase and the content of malondialdehyde, an indicator for lipid peroxidation, changed upon stress toward a more favorable status for survival in line #32 than in WT. These antioxidant parameters were positively related to Spd-content. The accumulation of heavy metals tended to be less in line #32 than in WT except for Zn stress, and the Ca content showed an opposite trend. These results suggest that Spd-levels are implicated in enhanced heavy metal tolerance, possibly by exerting an antioxidant activity as well as by the properties of Spd per se including metal chelator.

  2. Evaluation of reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression for real time-quantitative PCR in Pyrus pyrifolia using different tissue samples and seasonal conditions.

    PubMed

    Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ubi, Benjamin E; Saito, Takanori; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2014-01-01

    We have evaluated suitable reference genes for real time (RT)-quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia). We tested most frequently used genes in the literature such as β-Tubulin, Histone H3, Actin, Elongation factor-1α, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, together with newly added genes Annexin, SAND and TIP41. A total of 17 primer combinations for these eight genes were evaluated using cDNAs synthesized from 16 tissue samples from four groups, namely: flower bud, flower organ, fruit flesh and fruit skin. Gene expression stabilities were analyzed using geNorm and NormFinder software packages or by ΔCt method. geNorm analysis indicated three best performing genes as being sufficient for reliable normalization of RT-qPCR data. Suitable reference genes were different among sample groups, suggesting the importance of validation of gene expression stability of reference genes in the samples of interest. Ranking of stability was basically similar between geNorm and NormFinder, suggesting usefulness of these programs based on different algorithms. ΔCt method suggested somewhat different results in some groups such as flower organ or fruit skin; though the overall results were in good correlation with geNorm or NormFinder. Gene expression of two cold-inducible genes PpCBF2 and PpCBF4 were quantified using the three most and the three least stable reference genes suggested by geNorm. Although normalized quantities were different between them, the relative quantities within a group of samples were similar even when the least stable reference genes were used. Our data suggested that using the geometric mean value of three reference genes for normalization is quite a reliable approach to evaluating gene expression by RT-qPCR. We propose that the initial evaluation of gene expression stability by ΔCt method, and subsequent evaluation by geNorm or NormFinder for limited number of superior gene candidates will be a practical way of finding out

  3. Standardized Phenotyping: A coordinated effort for Malus, Pyrus, Prunus and Fragaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inventory and descriptive data for international apple, pear, strawberry, peach and cherry collections are not available in a shared database. The Genome Database for Rosaceae (GDR) is developing tables that will present collection information in a format that is searchable and publicly accessible....

  4. Ethnopsychopharmacology considerations for Asians and Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Wong, Felicia K; Pi, Edmond H

    2012-03-01

    Asians comprise more than 60% of the world's population and are the fastest growing minority group in the United States. Today's psychiatrist must learn to recognize and appreciate the unique factors that influence mental health outcomes in this group. Asian Americans are affected by psychiatric disorders at similar rates as non-Asians, but are significantly underrepresented in psychiatric clinics. When Asians and Asian Americans do present for psychiatric treatment, they often do so with higher severity of illness, and variable levels of compliance. Studies over the past three decades have suggested that pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of various psychotropic medications may be different in Asians, leading to differences in dosage requirements and side-effect profiles. These variations appear to be largely determined by genetic predisposition, but are also influenced by other factors such as environment, social support, cultural perceptions, and physicians' prescribing habits. In this paper, we provide an overview of biological and socio-cultural issues as they relate to psychopharmacology in Asians and Asian Americans, with the hope that a better understanding of these issues will lead to improved mental health care delivery to this population both in the United States, as well as in Asian countries.

  5. Jonker pear analysis of oxide superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Su, M.Y.; Eisbernd, C.E.; Mason, T.O. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1990-02-01

    Data for the normal state of the superconducting oxide systems YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6 + {ital y}} and EuBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6 + {ital y}}, and the nonsuperconducting system La{sub 3}Ba{sub 3}Cu{sub 6}O{sub 12.5 + {ital y}}, when plotted as thermoelectric coefficient versus logarithm of conductivity, exhibit Jonker pear behavior, confirming the semiconducting character of these materials. The symmetry of the plots indicates similar conduction parameters (density-of-states (DOS), transport constants, and mobilities) for {ital p}- and {ital n}-type mechanisms. Band gaps on the order of 0.5 eV are obtained. DOS-mobility products for the above-mentioned systems and La{sub 2 {minus} {ital x}}Ba{sub {ital x}}CuO{sub 4} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} scale roughly according to the density of copper ions in these materials and fall in the range 10{sup 20} to 10{sup 21} (cm {center dot} V {center dot} s){sup {minus} 1}. Assuming DOS equal to copper content results in mobilities on the order of 0.15 cm{sup 2} {center dot} V{sup {minus} 1} {center dot} s{sup 1}. These results are discussed in terms of possible semiconduction mechanisms.

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-29 - Ya variety pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ya variety pears from China. 319.56-29 Section 319.56... variety pears from China. Ya variety pears may be imported into the United States from China only in... organization (NPPO) of China in an APHIS-approved export growing area in the Hebei or Shandong Provinces....

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-29 - Ya variety pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ya variety pears from China. 319.56-29 Section 319.56... variety pears from China. Ya variety pears may be imported into the United States from China only in... organization (NPPO) of China in an APHIS-approved export growing area in the Hebei or Shandong Provinces....

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-29 - Ya variety pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ya variety pears from China. 319.56-29 Section 319.56... variety pears from China. Ya variety pears may be imported into the United States from China only in... organization (NPPO) of China in an APHIS-approved export growing area in the Hebei or Shandong Provinces....

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-29 - Ya variety pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ya variety pears from China. 319.56-29 Section 319.56... variety pears from China. Ya variety pears may be imported into the United States from China only in... organization (NPPO) of China in an APHIS-approved export growing area in the Hebei or Shandong Provinces....

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-29 - Ya variety pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ya variety pears from China. 319.56-29 Section 319.56... variety pears from China. Ya variety pears may be imported into the United States from China only in... organization (NPPO) of China in an APHIS-approved export growing area in the Hebei or Shandong Provinces....

  15. 76 FR 4202 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Amendment To Allow Additional Exemptions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... marketing order for the fresh pear industry is provided by the Fresh Pear Committee (Committee). For each... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Amendment To Allow Additional Exemptions AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with request...

  16. 7 CFR 927.150 - Reapportionment of the Processed Pear Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reapportionment of the Processed Pear Committee. 927... PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 927.150 Reapportionment of the Processed Pear Committee. Pursuant to § 927.20(c), on and after July 1, 2013, the...

  17. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  18. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  19. 76 FR 27848 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Amendment To Allow Additional Exemptions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Amendment To Allow... added an exemption to the marketing order for Oregon-Washington pears that provides for the sale of fresh pears directly to consumers without regard to regulation. For each customer, the interim...

  20. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  1. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  2. 75 FR 77563 - Nectarines, Pears, and Peaches Grown in California; Continuance Referenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 916 and 917 Nectarines, Pears, and Peaches Grown in California... document directs that referenda be conducted among eligible California nectarine, pear, and peach growers... nectarines, pears, and peaches grown in California. DATES: The referenda will be conducted from January...

  3. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  4. A new phenolic compound with antioxidant activity from the branches and leaves of Pyrus pashia.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Jie; Zheng, Xi; Wan, Chun-Ping; Cai, Le; Li, Ying; Huang, Lin; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2016-01-01

    The branches and leaves of Pyrus pashia are used to cure abdominal pain and diarrhoea in Chinese folk medicine. A new phenilic compound, 4-O-β-d-glucopyranosylbenzyl-benzoate ester (1), along with 21 known ones (2-22) were isolated from the branches and leaves of this plant. Compounds 2 and 3 displayed remarkable antioxidant activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (IC50 = 13.26 ± 0.04 μM, 13.28 ± 0.11 μM, respectively), which were at the same grade as positive control rutin. The caffeoyl group in compounds 2 and 3 was supposed to play an important role in the antioxidant activities.

  5. 21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pears. 145.176 Section 145.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  6. 21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pears. 145.176 Section 145.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  7. 7 CFR 927.236 - Fresh pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Committee: (a) $0.366 per 44-pound net weight standard box or container equivalent for any or all varieties or subvarieties of fresh pears classified as “summer/fall”; (b) $0.501 per 44-pound net weight... “winter”; and (c) $0.000 per 44-pound net weight standard box or container equivalent for any or...

  8. 7 CFR 927.236 - Fresh pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Committee: (a) $0.366 per 44-pound net weight standard box or container equivalent for any or all varieties or subvarieties of fresh pears classified as “summer/fall”; (b) $0.501 per 44-pound net weight... “winter”; and (c) $0.000 per 44-pound net weight standard box or container equivalent for any or...

  9. 7 CFR 927.236 - Fresh pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Committee: (a) $0.366 per 44-pound net weight standard box or container equivalent for any or all varieties or subvarieties of fresh pears classified as “summer/fall”; (b) $0.471 per 44-pound net weight... “winter”; and (c) $0.000 per 44-pound net weight standard box or container equivalent for any or...

  10. 7 CFR 927.236 - Fresh pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Committee: (a) $0.449 per 44-pound net weight standard box or container equivalent for any or all varieties or subvarieties of fresh pears classified as “summer/fall”; (b) $0.449 per 44-pound net weight... “winter”; and (c) $0.000 per 44-pound net weight standard box or container equivalent for any or...

  11. Authenticity analysis of pear juice employing chromatographic fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Willems, Jamie L; Low, Nicholas H

    2014-12-03

    Pear juice is predominately composed of carbohydrates/polyols (>95% of the total soluble solids), making it susceptible to adulteration by the addition of less expensive commercial sweeteners. In this research, the major carbohydrate and polyol (fructose, glucose, sucrose, and sorbitol) content of 32 pure pear juices representing five world producing regions and three years of production was determined. Additionally, methods employing oligosaccharide profiling to detect the debasing of these samples with four commercial sweeteners (HFCS 55 and 90, TIS, and HIS) were developed using capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (CGC-FID) and high-performance liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD). Detection limits for the four commercial sweeteners ranged from 0.5 to 5.0% (v/v). In addition, the developed CGC-FID method could be used to (a) detect the addition of pear to apple juice via arbutin detection and (b) determine if a pear juice was produced using enzymatic liquefaction via the presence of O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-d-glucopyranose (cellobiose), all within a single chromatographic analysis.

  12. 77 FR 75007 - Importation of Sand Pears From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... fruit moth. Ceroplastes japonicus Green, Japanese wax scale. Ceroplastes rubens Maskell, red wax scale... on diseases of Malus spp. has discovered that the ] causal agent of apple and pear ring spot, which... causal agent of apple ring rot in China is Botryosphaeria dothidea,'' Plant Disease 4 (April 2012),...

  13. 7 CFR 457.111 - Pear crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... removed from the orchard; (3) Earthquake; (4) Volcanic eruption; or (5) Failure of the irrigation water... weather: (i) Prevents the proper application of control measures or causes properly applied control... such pears. 12. Late and Prevented Planting The late and prevented planting provisions of the...

  14. 7 CFR 457.111 - Pear crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... removed from the orchard; (3) Earthquake; (4) Volcanic eruption; or (5) Failure of the irrigation water... weather: (i) Prevents the proper application of control measures or causes properly applied control... such pears. 12. Late and Prevented Planting The late and prevented planting provisions of the...

  15. 7 CFR 457.111 - Pear crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... removed from the orchard; (3) Earthquake; (4) Volcanic eruption; or (5) Failure of the irrigation water... weather: (i) Prevents the proper application of control measures or causes properly applied control... such pears. 12. Late and Prevented Planting The late and prevented planting provisions of the...

  16. 7 CFR 457.111 - Pear crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... removed from the orchard; (3) Earthquake; (4) Volcanic eruption; or (5) Failure of the irrigation water... weather: (i) Prevents the proper application of control measures or causes properly applied control... such pears. 12. Late and Prevented Planting The late and prevented planting provisions of the...

  17. 7 CFR 457.111 - Pear crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... has not been removed from the orchard; (3) Earthquake; (4) Volcanic eruption; or (5) Failure of the..., unless adverse weather: (i) Prevents the proper application of control measures or causes properly...) by the number of tons of such pears. 12. Late and Prevented Planting The late and prevented...

  18. Genetic diversity of wild European and Mediterranean pear species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many pear species are native to Europe, the Middle East, and Northern Africa. These seemingly distinct species readily hybridize resulting in nomenclatures that do not reflect their phylogenetic history. We have used microsatellite and chloroplast sequence markers as well as phenotypic traits to dif...

  19. "Pear Blossom's Magic: A Cinderella Story." Standards of Learning Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    Virginia Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through fifth grade are listed in this paper with student activities related to observation of live theatre performances of "Pear Blossom's Magic: A Cinderella Story" written by George Wead. This play toured in Virginia in 1999-2000 and was performed by the high school theater touring…

  20. X-ray resonator with pear-shaped reflectors

    SciTech Connect

    Churikov, V A

    2003-11-30

    An X-ray resonator design is proposed in which peculiar pear-shaped reflectors, which are grazing-incidence X-ray mirrors, serve as optical elements. Special features of this resonator are relatively high reflector efficiencies and the axial symmetry of the output radiation. (resonators)

  1. Effects of dormancy progression and low-temperature response on changes in the sorbitol concentration in xylem sap of Japanese pear during winter season.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akiko; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2013-04-01

    In order to elucidate which physiological event(s) are involved in the seasonal changes of carbohydrate dynamics during winter, we examined the effects of different low temperatures on the carbohydrate concentrations of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai). For four winter seasons, large increases in the sorbitol concentration of shoot xylem sap occurred during mid- to late December, possibly due to the endodormancy completion and low-temperature responses. When trees were kept at 15 °C from 3 November to 3 December in order to postpone the initiation and completion of chilling accumulation that would break endodormancy, sorbitol accumulation in xylem sap was always higher from trees with sufficient chilling accumulation than from trees that received insufficient chilling. However, an additional increase in xylem sap sorbitol occurred around late December in trees regardless of whether their chilling accumulation naturally progressed or was postponed. To examine different temperature effects more closely, we compared the carbohydrate concentrations of trees subjected to either 6 or 0 °C treatment. The sorbitol concentration in xylem sap tremendously increased at 0 °C treatment compared with 6 °C treatment. However, an additional increase in xylem sap sorbitol occurred at both the temperatures when sufficient chilling accumulated with a peak coinciding with the peak expression in shoots of the sorbitol transporter gene (PpSOT2). Interestingly, the total carbohydrate concentration of shoots tremendously increased with exposure to 0 °C compared with exposure to 6 °C, but was not affected by the amount of accumulated chilling. Instead, as chilling accumulated the ratio of sorbitol to total soluble sugars in shoots increased. We presumed that carbohydrates in the shoot tissues may be converted to sorbitol and loaded into the xylem sap so that the sorbitol accumulation patterns were synchronized with the progression of dormancy, whereas the total

  2. Emerging Asian Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trezise, Philip H.

    What we can expect in the future from the miracle economies of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, whether they pose a threat to the older industrial states of Western Europe and North American, and whether China is to be the next emerging Asian economy are discussed. The amazing economic recovery of these East Asian countries…

  3. The New Asian Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  4. Program for energy analysis of residences (PEAR) (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    Corin, N.

    1989-01-01

    PEAR is an interactive program for residential building energy analysis utilizing a comprehensive DOE-2.1 data base for residential buildings. The extensive data base is used by PEAR to estimate the annual energy use of houses with typical conservation measures such as ceiling, wall, and floor insulation, different window types and glazing layers, infiltration levels, and equipment efficiency. It also allows the user to include the effects of roof and wall color, movable night insulation on the windows, reflective and heat absorbing glass, an attached sunspace, and use of a night setback. Software Description: The software is written in the Turbo Pascal programming language for implementation on an IBM PC microcomputer using MS-DOS operating system. Software requires 128K of memory and a hard disk or two floppy disk drives with either a monochrome or color monitor. A graphics adapter is needed to implement the Bar Chart option.

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Italy, the Netherlands, Northern Ireland, Norway, Portugal, the Republic of Ireland, Spain, Sweden, and... Ireland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and Germany; and pears from Belgium, France, Great Britain,...

  6. [Leaf morphology and photosynthetic characteristics of wild Ussurian pear in China].

    PubMed

    Dong, Xing-guang; Cao, Yu-fen; Tian, Lu-ming; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Ying; Qi, Dan

    2015-05-01

    The wild Ussurian pear was the most important wild pear resource in northern China, belonging to the most hardiness species. Taking 48 accessions of wild Ussurian pear and 2 accessions of cultivated Ussurian pear as test materials, this paper studied the morphology of leaves, chlorophyll content, and photosynthetic characteristics. We compared the difference between the wild and cultivated Ussurian pear, analyzed the photosynthetic characteristics of wild Ussurian pear, clarified the interrelationships between the indices, and established significant linear equations of photosynthesis and water-related physiological indices. The results showed that the leaf morphological index, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic indices for cultivated Ussurian pear were significantly lower than their average values for wild Ussurian pear. The specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content ( LDMC) , and intercellular CO2 concentration had low coefficients of variation, and the other 8 indices had variation coefficient indices between 0.12-0.41. So, the level of diversity was high, indicating obvious difference in photosynthetic characteristic of wild pear resources in China. The photosynthetic indices were significantly correlated with chlorophyll composition (Chl a/b) and LDMC. The photosynthetic rate had significant exponential correlation with the intercellular CO2 concentration, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance. The photosynthetic rate was mainly affected by stomatal limitation. The wild variety 'Jinzhoushanli' was selected as high photosynthetic genetic resource.

  7. Antioxidant and Anticlastogenic Capacity of Prickly Pear Juice

    PubMed Central

    Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Melo, Fernando; Morales-González, José A.; Vázquez-Alvarado, Patricia; Muñoz-Juárez, Sergio; Zuñiga-Pérez, Clara; Sumaya-Martínez, Maria Teresa; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Hernández-Ceruelos, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Opuntia spp. are the most abundant of the Cactaceae family, grown throughout America and the Mediterranean central area. Its fruit, known as cactus pear or prickly pear, is an oval berry grouped in different colors. Some studies have shown its antioxidant activities which may help in preventing chronic pathologies such as diabetes. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of three varieties of prickly pear juice (red-purple, white-green and yellow-orange) in five different concentrations (100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg/mL) by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) colorimetric method, selecting the best variety to determine its anticlastogenic potential against methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). The results indicate that the highest antioxidant was found in the juice of the prickly pear red-purple variety (PPRP), in all concentrations. Its anticlastogenic potential was therefore evaluated with a micronucleus assay. The experiment was run over two weeks. A negative control was included along with a positive control with MMS (40 mg/kg), a group of mice treated with PPRP (25 mL/kg), and three groups with PPRP (in doses of 25, 16.5 and 8.3 mL/kg) plus the mutagen. The PPRP was administered daily by oral gavage and the MMS was injected intraperitoneally five days prior to the end of the experiment. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in order to determine the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE). The results indicated that PPRP is not a genotoxic agent, on the contrary, it may reduce the number of MNPE. In this regard, the PPRP showed an anticlastogenic effect directly proportional to its concentrations. Thus, the highest protection was obtained with a concentration of 25 mL/kg after 48 h of treatment. PMID:24145870

  8. Dermatitis and keratoconjunctivitis caused by a prickly pear (Opuntia microdasys).

    PubMed

    Whiting, D A; Bristow, J H

    1975-08-16

    Two patients were affected by the barbed bristles of the ornamental cactus Opuntia microdasys, a small prickly pear plant. Dermatitis occurred in both patients and consisted of itchy papules produced by implantation of the glochids. One patient developed a severe keratoconjunctivitis in the right eye, which cleared after a glochid had been located in the palpebral conjunctiva, and removed. The glochids were studied under light and scanning electron microscopes and their structral details are described.

  9. Antioxidant and anticlastogenic capacity of prickly pear juice.

    PubMed

    Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Melo, Fernando; Morales-González, José A; Vázquez-Alvarado, Patricia; Muñoz-Juárez, Sergio; Zuñiga-Pérez, Clara; Sumaya-Martínez, Maria Teresa; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Hernández-Ceruelos, Alejandra

    2013-10-18

    Plants belonging to the genus Opuntia spp. are the most abundant of the Cactaceae family, grown throughout America and the Mediterranean central area. Its fruit, known as cactus pear or prickly pear, is an oval berry grouped in different colors. Some studies have shown its antioxidant activities which may help in preventing chronic pathologies such as diabetes. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of three varieties of prickly pear juice (red-purple, white-green and yellow-orange) in five different concentrations (100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg/mL) by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) colorimetric method, selecting the best variety to determine its anticlastogenic potential against methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). The results indicate that the highest antioxidant was found in the juice of the prickly pear red-purple variety (PPRP), in all concentrations. Its anticlastogenic potential was therefore evaluated with a micronucleus assay. The experiment was run over two weeks. A negative control was included along with a positive control with MMS (40 mg/kg), a group of mice treated with PPRP (25 mL/kg), and three groups with PPRP (in doses of 25, 16.5 and 8.3 mL/kg) plus the mutagen. The PPRP was administered daily by oral gavage and the MMS was injected intraperitoneally five days prior to the end of the experiment. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in order to determine the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE). The results indicated that PPRP is not a genotoxic agent, on the contrary, it may reduce the number of MNPE. In this regard, the PPRP showed an anticlastogenic effect directly proportional to its concentrations. Thus, the highest protection was obtained with a concentration of 25 mL/kg after 48 h of treatment.

  10. Determination of antioxidant constituents in cactus pear fruits.

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, José A; Almela, Luís; Obón, José M; Castellar, Rosario

    2010-09-01

    An analytical study was carried out on the presence of antioxidant constituents and the in vitro antioxidant capacity in the extracts of three species of Spanish red-skinned cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus-indica, Opuntia undulata and Opuntia stricta). The cactus pear fruit extracts were analyzed for determined constituents: ascorbic acid, flavonoids (quercetin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, kaempferol and luteolin), betalains, taurine, total carotenoids and total phenolics. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by means of two different methods: the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) method and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical method. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extract had the strongest antioxidant capacity and taurine content. O. stricta fruits were the richest in ascorbic acid and total phenolics, whereas O. undulata fruits showed the highest carotenoid content. Quercetin and isorhamnetin were the main flavonoids detected. This study provides basic information on the presence of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity in extracts of cactus pear fruits, in order to consider these extracts as ingredient for the production of health-promoting food.

  11. miRNA expression during prickly pear cactus fruit development.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Cárdenas, Flor de Fátima; Caballero-Pérez, Juan; Gutiérrez-Ramos, Ximena; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; de Folter, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. They are involved in the control of many developmental processes, including fruit development. The increasing amount of information on miRNAs, on their expression, abundance, and conservation between various species, provides a new opportunity to study the role of miRNAs in non-model plant species. In this work, we used a combination of Northern blot and tissue print hybridization analysis to identify conserved miRNAs expressed during prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) fruit development. Comparative profiling detected the expression of 34 miRNAs, which were clustered in three different groups that were associated with the different phases of fruit development. Variation in the level of miRNA expression was observed. Gradual expression increase of several miRNAs was observed during fruit development, including miR164. miR164 was selected for stem-loop RT-PCR and for a detailed spatial-temporal expression analysis. At early floral stages, miR164 was mainly localized in meristematic tissues, boundaries and fusion zones, while it was more homogenously expressed in fruit tissues. Our results provide the first evidence of miRNA expression in the prickly pear cactus and provide the basis for future research on miRNAs in Opuntia. Moreover, our analyses suggest that miR164 plays different roles during prickly pear cactus fruit development.

  12. PEAR2.1. Residential Building Energy Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R.L.

    1992-01-16

    PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) provides an easy-to-use and accurate method of estimating the energy and cost savings associated with various energy conservation measures in site-built single-family homes. Measures such as ceiling, wall, and floor insulation; different window type and glazing layers; infiltration levels; and equipment efficiency can be considered. PEAR also allows the user to consider the effects of roof and wall color, movable night insulation on the windows, reflective and heat absorbing glass, an attached sunspace, and use of a night temperature setback. Regression techniques permit adjustments for different building geometries, window areas and orientations, wall construction, and extension of the data to 880 U.S. locations determined by climate parameters. Based on annual energy savings, user-specified costs of conservation measures, fuel, lifetime of measure, loan period, and fuel escalation and interest rates, PEAR calculates two economic indicators; the Simple Payback Period (SPP) and the Savings-to-Investment Ratio (SIR). Energy and cost savings of different sets of conservation measures can be compared in a single run. The program can be used both as a research tool by energy policy analysts and as a method for nontechnical energy calculation by architects, home builders, home owners, and others in the building industry.

  13. Mitochondrial dysfunction mediated by cytoplasmic acidification results in pollen tube growth cessation in Pyrus pyrifolia.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongbin; Zhou, Hongsheng; Chen, Jianqing; Jiang, Xueting; Tao, Shutian; Wu, Juyou; Zhang, Shaoling

    2015-04-01

    The length of pollen tubes grown in synthetic media is normally shorter than those grown in vivo. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the cessation of pollen tube growth under culture conditions remain(s) largely unknown. Here, we report a previously unknown correlation between vacuolar function and the cell's ability to sustain mitochondrial functions in pear pollen tubes. The pear pollen tubes in vitro grew slowly after 15 hours post-cultured (HPC) and nearly ceased growth at 18 HPC. There was increased malondialdehyde content and membrane ion leakage at 15 HPC compared with 12 HPC. Furthermore, cytoplasmic acidification mainly mediated by decreased vacuolar H(+)-ATPase [V-ATPase, Enzyme Commission (EC) 3.6.1.3] activity was observed in pollen tubes after 15 HPC, and this further resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction, including mitochondrial structure disruption, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse and decreases in both oxygen consumption and ATP production. Our findings suggest that vacuoles and mitochondria intimately linked in regulating pollen tube elongation.

  14. Identification of a canonical SCF(SLF) complex involved in S-RNase-based self-incompatibility of Pyrus (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Chi; Li, Maofu; Wu, Junkai; Guo, Han; Li, Qun; Zhang, Yu'e; Chai, Jijie; Li, Tianzhong; Xue, Yongbiao

    2013-02-01

    S-RNase-based self-incompatibility (SI) is an intraspecific reproductive barrier to prevent self-fertilization found in many species of the Solanaceae, Plantaginaceae and Rosaceae. In this system, S-RNase and SLF/SFB (S-locus F-box) genes have been shown to control the pistil and pollen SI specificity, respectively. Recent studies have shown that the SLF functions as a substrate receptor of a SCF (Skp1/Cullin1/F-box)-type E3 ubiquitin ligase complex to target S-RNases in Solanaceae and Plantaginaceae, but its role in Rosaceae remains largely undefined. Here we report the identification of two pollen-specific SLF-interacting Skp1-like (SSK) proteins, PbSSK1 and PbSSK2, in Pyrus bretschneideri from the tribe Pyreae of Rosaceae. Both yeast two-hybrid and pull-down assays demonstrated that they could connect PbSLFs to PbCUL1 to form a putative canonical SCF(SLF) (SSK/CUL1/SLF) complex in Pyrus. Furthermore, pull-down assays showed that the SSK proteins could bind SLF and CUL1 in a cross-species manner between Pyrus and Petunia. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis revealed that the SSK-like proteins from Solanaceae, Plantaginaceae and Rosaceae form a monoclade group, hinting their shared evolutionary origin. Taken together, with the recent identification of a canonical SCF(SFB) complex in Prunus of the tribe Amygdaleae of Rosaceae, our results show that a conserved canonical SCF(SLF/SFB) complex is present in Solanaceae, Plantaginaceae and Rosaceae, implying that S-RNase-based self-incompatibility shares a similar molecular and biochemical mechanism.

  15. Native pears of Sardinia affect Penicillium expansum pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cubaiu, L; Azara, E; Ladu, G; Venditti, T; D'Hallewin, G

    2013-01-01

    Penicillium expansum causes blue mould rot, a serious post-harvest disease of pome fruits and is the main producer of the mycotoxin patulin. The occurrence of natural resistance against different hostpathogens, has been evidenced in some pear accessions of the Sardinian germoplasm. The aim of this research was to correlate P. expansum growth and patulin production on these indigenous pear accessions. In vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out with seven accessions ('Sarmentina', 'Vacchesa', 'De Puleu', 'De su Duca', 'Natalina', 'Oliena', 'Laconi 5') belonging to the CNR-ISPA ex situ collection and one national control cultivar ('Abate'). A wild type P. expansum from our collection was isolated from blue mould-decayed Sardinian pear fruit and selected for its aggressiveness and patulin production. The in vivo assay was carried out using 5 x 2 cm (Ø x thickness) sterilized fruit discs wounded and inoculated by a 10(5)UFC/mL concentration of P. expansum. Fruit discs were incubated at 23 degrees C for 7 days before analysis. The in vitro experiments, aimed at monitoring over time P. expansum mycelial growth and patulin accumulation, were performed with a standard medium (PDA) and a pear puree Agar Medium (PAM). Petri dishes with PDA and PAM were inoculated centrally with P. expansum conidia (10(5)UFC/ml) and then incubated at 23 degrees C for 7 days. Mycelial growth on Sardinian PAMs was inhibited in comparison to 'Abate' PAM and PDA. In particular, the accessions 'Sarmentina' and 'Vacchesa' showed the maximum inhibitory activity both in vitro and in vivo. Patulin production was detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mycotoxin concentration in Sardinian PAMs was lower than that detected in PDA medium, pointing out a positive correlation between fungal growth inhibition and patulin production. The lowest concentration of patulin was found in 'Sarmentina' PAM. Based on these findings, some of Sardinian pear accessions seems to

  16. Asian Bilingual Education Teacher Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, John; Lum, John

    A guide to bilingual education for Asians contains chapters on bilingual and multicultural education characteristics; the learner; Asian and Asian American learners; bilingual program designs, methodology, and classroom activities; instructional materials and resources for Asian bilingual education programs; and teacher competencies, staff…

  17. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to a friend by ... an even more serious problem as the world population and longevity increases. The other major glaucoma type ...

  18. Therapy for Asian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Joe

    1978-01-01

    In order that Asian Americans be more adequately provided with mental health services, it will be necessary to: (1) have a thorough educational campaign over a long period of time to help Asians overcome their negative prejudices against mental illness, (2) devise culturally relevant diagnostic techniques, and (3) have treatment consonant with the cultural backgrounds of the patients and befitting the role expectations of the patients. It is likely that even with an excellent educational campaign, appropriate diagnoses, and culturally sensitive treatment methods, the first patients we will see will be those most seriously and chronically disturbed, probably when the family feels no longer able to cope with their psychotic behavior. We hope that subsequently, through the educational campaign and also through the outreach efforts of the Asian Mental Health Clinic, Asian Americans who are not psychotic but who want relief from psychosomatic symptoms, tension, depression, or help with family or marital problems will apply. PMID:702561

  19. Obesity and Asian Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Management System Report to Congress Knowledge Center Capacity Building Information Services Events Calendar Resource Guide Justice ... Workforce Diversity Grants Youth Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Asian American Asthma ...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The... applicable provisions of this subpart: (1) Apples from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great...

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The... applicable provisions of this subpart: (1) Apples from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The... applicable provisions of this subpart: (1) Apples from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great...

  3. Transferability of apple EST-SSRs and assessment of genetic diversity in pear genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 1,062 apple EST-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were screened and evaluated for cross-species transferability onto two different pear cultivars. PCR amplification of pear DNA leaf tissue samples was successful using 721 primer pairs demonstrating a high efficiency of transfe...

  4. Attraction of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) to Female Psylla in Pear Orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster), is a major economic pest of pears in North America and Europe. Laboratory studies have shown that males of both the summerform and winterform morphotypes in this species are attracted to volatiles from females. The present study tested whether attrac...

  5. Identification of a Sex Attractant Pheromone for Male Winterform Pear Psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a major economic pest of pears, have been shown to use a female-produced sex attractant pheromone. We compared the chemical profiles obtained from cuticular extracts of diapausing and post-diapause winterform males and females, with...

  6. Application of Exogenous Ethylene Inhibits Postharvest Peel Browning of ‘Huangguan’ Pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peel browning disorder has an enormous impact on the exterior quality of ‘Huangguan’ pear whereas the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In this study, the effect of exogenous ethylene on peel browning of pear fruits stored at 0' was evaluated. Results showed that ethylene effectively inhibited ...

  7. Combined approaches using sex pheromone and pear ester for behavioral disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies utilized the attractive properties of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., for behavioural disruption. Standard dispensers loaded with codlemone alone or in combination with pear ester (c...

  8. Acaricidal activities of materials derived from Pyrus ussuriensis fruits against stored food mites.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Yang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2012-07-01

    The acaricidal activities of materials derived from Pyrus ussuriensis fruits were evaluated against Tyrophagus putrescentiae and compared with that of commercial acaricide (benzyl benzoate). On the basis of the 50 % lethal dose (LD(50)) values, the ethyl acetate fraction of the fractions obtained from an aqueous extract of P. ussuriensis fruits had the highest acaricidal activity (16.32 μg/cm(2)) against T. putrescentiae. The acaricidal constituent of P. ussuriensis fruits was isolated by chromatographic techniques and identified as 1,4-benzoquinone. On the basis of the LD(50) values, 1,4-benzoquinone (1.98 μg/cm(2)) was 5.9 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (11.69 μg/cm(2)), followed by 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (3.29 μg/cm(2)), and 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (5.03 μg/cm(2)) against T. putrescentiae in the fumigant bioassay. In a filter paper bioassay, the acaricidal activity of 1,4-benzoquinone (0.07 μg/cm(2)) was 120.1 times more effective than that of benzyl benzoate (8.41 μg/cm(2)), followed by 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (0.11 μg/cm(2)) and 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (0.30 μg/cm(2)) against T. putrescentiae. These results demonstrate that P. ussuriensis fruit-derived material and its derivatives have potential as new preventive agents for the control of stored food mites.

  9. The Asian methanol market

    SciTech Connect

    Nagase, Hideki

    1995-12-31

    For the purpose of this presentation, Asia has been broadly defined as a total of 15 countries, namely Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Myanmar, India, Vietnam, Australia and New Zealand. In 1994 and the first half of 1995, the methanol industry and its derivative industries experienced hard time, because of extraordinarily high methanol prices. In spite of this circumstance, methanol demand in Asian countries has been growing steadily and remarkably, following Asian high economic growth. Most of this growth in demand has been and will continue to be met by outside supply. However, even with increased import of methanol from outside of Asia, as a result of this growth, Asian trade volume will be much larger in the coming years. Asian countries must turn their collective attention to making logistics and transportation for methanol and its derivatives more efficient in the Asian region to make better use of existing supply resources. The author reviews current economic growth as his main topic, and explains the forecast of the growth of methanol demand and supply in Asian countries in the near future.

  10. Vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase purified from pear fruit.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Y; Kanayama, Y; Shiratake, K; Yamaki, S

    1999-02-01

    A vacuolar H(+)-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase was purified from pear fruit through selective detergent treatments, Superose 6 and Mono Q column chromatography. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 850 mumol h-1 mg protein-1. The Mr of V-PPase was 66 kDa by SDS-PAGE and the polypeptide cross-reacted with the antiserum against V-PPase of mung bean. The purified V-PPase was stimulated by potassium and inhibited by calcium and N, N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide.

  11. Field performance of vegetative form traits of neopolyploids produced by in vitro colchicine treatment in Pyrus communis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The induction of polyploidy to improve agronomically and economically useful characters is a process commonly used in crop plants. Neopolyploids were obtained from pear diploid cultivar ‘Fertility’ by in vitro colchicine treatment. Different ploidy clones were rooted to be transferred to the field...

  12. Development of a novel and efficient strategy for practical identification of Pyrus spp (Rosaceae) cultivars using RAPD fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Lin, J; Wang, X C; Chang, Y H; Fang, J G

    2011-05-24

    Accurate and reliable cultivar identification of crop species is essential to guarantee plant material identity for purposes of registration, cultivar protection and production. To facilitate identification of plant cultivars, we developed a novel strategy for efficient recording of DNA molecular fingerprints in genotyped plant individuals. These fingerprints can be used as efficient referential information for quick plant identification. We made a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker analysis of 68 pear cultivars. All pear genotypes could be distinguished by a combination of eight 11-mer primers. The efficiency of the method was further verified by correct identification of four cultivars randomly chosen from the initial 68. The advantages of this identification include use of fewer primers and ease of cultivar separation by the corresponding primers marked on the cultivar identification diagram. The cultivar identification diagram can efficiently serve for pear cultivar identification by readily providing the information needed to separate cultivars. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most efficient strategy for identification of plant varieties using DNA markers; it could be employed for the development of the pear industry and for the utilization of DNA markers to identify other plant species.

  13. Minority Women's Health: Asian-Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Home > Minority Women's Health > Asian-Americans Minority Women's Health Asian-Americans Health conditions common in Asian- ... to top Health conditions common in Asian-American women Breast cancer Cancer Cervical cancer Diabetes Heart disease ...

  14. Molecular identification of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) found on Korean pears.

    PubMed

    Park, Doo-Sang; Leem, Yu Jin; Hahn, Kyu-Woong; Suh, Soo-Jung; Hong, Ki-Jeong; Oh, Hyun-Woo

    2010-02-01

    Mealybugs are under a strict regulation at foreign trades of agricultural products because they are one of the most economically damaging groups of insects on food crops and ornamental plants. However, the absence of morphological characteristics enabling the discrimination of early life stages often cause a significant delay or rejection of a shipment when infested fruit is discovered, causing significant economic loss. A polymerase chain reaction-based method for species identification was developed for six mealybug species known to infest Korean pears including two regulated insects, Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana) and Crisicoccus matsumotoi (Siraiwa). Six sets of species-specific primers were designed based on the sequence comparison of the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 regions. Efficiency tests against 29 mealybug samples showed that this method could effectively discriminate different mealybug species regardless of their developmental stages. Blind tests against 11 field collected mealybug nymph samples indicated that a single polymerase chain reaction is enough to discriminate unidentified mealybugs collected on Korean pears. This new method will facilitate trade and export requirements, as well as identify the species at any stage of mealybug intercepted.

  15. A Continuum Model for Metabolic Gas Exchange in Pear Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Q. Tri; Verboven, Pieter; Verlinden, Bert E.; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Vandewalle, Stefan; Nicolaï, Bart M.

    2008-01-01

    Exchange of O2 and CO2 of plants with their environment is essential for metabolic processes such as photosynthesis and respiration. In some fruits such as pears, which are typically stored under a controlled atmosphere with reduced O2 and increased CO2 levels to extend their commercial storage life, anoxia may occur, eventually leading to physiological disorders. In this manuscript we have developed a mathematical model to predict the internal gas concentrations, including permeation, diffusion, and respiration and fermentation kinetics. Pear fruit has been selected as a case study. The model has been used to perform in silico experiments to evaluate the effect of, for example, fruit size or ambient gas concentration on internal O2 and CO2 levels. The model incorporates the actual shape of the fruit and was solved using fluid dynamics software. Environmental conditions such as temperature and gas composition have a large effect on the internal distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide in fruit. Also, the fruit size has a considerable effect on local metabolic gas concentrations; hence, depending on the size, local anaerobic conditions may result, which eventually may lead to physiological disorders. The model developed in this manuscript is to our knowledge the most comprehensive model to date to simulate gas exchange in plant tissue. It can be used to evaluate the effect of environmental stresses on fruit via in silico experiments and may lead to commercial applications involving long-term storage of fruit under controlled atmospheres. PMID:18369422

  16. PEAR: a microcomputer program for residential energy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R.; Huang, Y.J.; Byrne, S.; Turiel, I.; Bull, J.

    1985-11-01

    We have designed a software package called PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences), which is written with user-friendly input and output and runs on the IBM PC. PEAR provides an easy-to-use and very fast compilation and extrapolation of a comprehensive DOE-2.1 database for residential buildings. The current version, which covers five residential building prototypes in over 800 locations, estimates energy and cost savings resulting from typical conversion measures such as ceiling, wall and floor insulation, window type and glazing layers, infiltration levels, and equipment efficiency. It also allows the user to adjust for optional measures including roof or wall color, movable insulation, whole-house fans, night temperature setback, reflective or heat absorbing glass, thermal mass in exterior walls, and two attached sunspace options. The program is designed to be used as a research tool by energy and policy analysts, and as a non-technical energy calculation method by architects, home builders, home owners, and others in the building industry.

  17. Renovation of a pear orchard site with sludge compost

    SciTech Connect

    Korcak, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    A lime-stabilized sewage sludge compost was used as a surface amendment to improve the soil and nutritional status of a number of established pear cultivars grown on an acidic, low fertility soil site. Leaf Ca status was significantly increased while trace metals were not elevated and in most cases decreased by sludge compost over the course of the study. Soil chemical properties were modified in a manner similar to liming. Addition of sludge composts, particularly low metal containing materials, appears to represent an acceptable aid in renovating established pear orchards located on poor soil sites. Leaf, fruit flesh or peel Cd were not significantly effected by the compost addition. The compost added twice the recommended level of available N the first year and sub-optimum N the following two years. Leaf N, although significantly increased in the composted versus non-composted controls, was below sufficiency levels by the third year after addition. This indicates that compost cannot fully supply required N from a one time application even over the short term.

  18. Betalain, Acid ascorbic, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pears.

    PubMed

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R(2) = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R(2) = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•.

  19. Betalain, Acid Ascorbic, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Purple, Red, Yellow and White Cactus Pears

    PubMed Central

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

  20. Cutaneous Melanoma in Asians

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Yub

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a rare disease in Asians but potentially the most aggressive form of skin cancer worldwide. It can occur in any melanocyte-containing anatomic site. Four main cutaneous melanoma subtypes are recognized: lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM), and nodular melanoma. Generally, excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation increases the risk of melanoma. The exception is ALM, which is the most common melanoma subtype in Asians and is not associated with UV radiation. ALM presents as dark brownish to black, irregular maculopatches, nodules, or ulcers on the palms, soles, and nails. The lesions may be misdiagnosed as more benign lesions, such as warts, ulcers, hematomas, foreign bodies, or fungal infections, especially in amelanotic acral melanomas where black pigments are absent. The aim of this brief review is to improve understanding and the rate of early detection thereby reducing mortality, especially regarding cutaneous melanoma in Asians. PMID:27689028

  1. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  2. Asian Students and Multiethnic Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Gary; Glass, Diane

    Asian students are the most successful racial group in American schools, and this success has led to the model minority stereotype. However, the question of Asian students and school segregation is seldom examined, largely because of the traditional academic success of Asian students. This study compares the level of racial segregation Asian…

  3. Scrolling and Strolling, Asian Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Joan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a lesson on Asian cultures. Asian cultures demonstrate respect for nature through their art. Students learned how to use Asian brush techniques and designs to create scrolls. They also learned how to write Haiku, a three-line form of poetry that uses a pattern of syllables.

  4. Roots: An Asian American Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tachiki, Amy, Ed.; And Others

    A documentary collection of the experiences of Asian Americans from a multitude of perspectives, including a scholarly focus and also containing contemporary expressions, comprises "Roots: An Asian American Reader." The volume is said to be designed to meet the needs of Asian Americans by providing a compilation of materials in readily…

  5. Asian American Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Paul Public Schools, Minn.

    This comprehensive Asian American curriculum and resource guide for elementary school teachers consists of lessons developed as part of an in-service teacher education workshop. The guide is divided into three topic areas: stereotyping; similarities; and differences. The format for lessons in all sections contains a title, key concepts,…

  6. Asian Americans in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnow, Stanley; Yoshihara, Nancy

    This booklet is a detailed primer on the Asian American experience in the United States covering history, family and acculturation, education, culture and the arts, economics, discrimination and violence, and politics. An introduction reviews some basic demographics and looks at racial issues in light of the riots in Los Angeles (California) in…

  7. Asian-American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, William T.; Yu, Elena S. H.

    Although Asian Americans enjoy the image of a "successful minority," they also have endured hardships and prejudices. This report traces the history of the Japanese and Chinese experience in the United States. Some similarities are discernible in the immigration patterns of the two ethnic populations. The first wave of immigrants…

  8. HIV Among Asians

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Asians Format: Select One File [143K] Recommend ...

  9. Diabetes in Asians

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing globally, particularly in Asia. According to the 2013 Diabetes Atlas, an estimated 366 million people are affected by diabetes worldwide; 36% of those affected live in the Western Pacific region, with a significant proportion in East Asia. The reasons for this marked increase in the prevalence of diabetes can be extrapolated from several distinct features of the Asian region. First, the two most populated countries, China and India, are located in Asia. Second, Asians have experienced extremely rapid economic growth, including rapid changes in dietary patterns, during the past decades. As a result, Asians tend to have more visceral fat within the same body mass index range compared with Westerners. In addition, increased insulin resistance relative to reduced insulin secretory function is another important feature of Asian individuals with diabetes. Young age of disease onset is also a distinctive characteristic of these patients. Moreover, changing dietary patterns, such as increased consumption of white rice and processed red meat, contributes to the deteriorated lifestyle of this region. Recent studies suggest a distinctive responsiveness to novel anti-diabetic agents in Asia; however, further research and efforts to reverse the increasing prevalence of diabetes are needed worldwide. PMID:26435131

  10. History of Asian American psychology.

    PubMed

    Leong, Frederick T L; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-10-01

    An overview of the history of Asian American psychology is provided by reviewing the context for the development of the field as well as the early founding of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). The presidents of AAPA as well as key events and conferences are noted. The involvement of AAPA leaders in national mental health policies and activities are reviewed. The substantive areas of Asian American psychology and the education and training of Asian American psychologists are also discussed. The article ends with some comments about the future of Asian American psychology.

  11. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Prickly Pear's Spines and Glochids: A qualitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, T.; Ponce, L.; Bilmes, G.; Arronte, A.; Alvira, F.

    2008-04-01

    A qualitative LIBS analysis of Prickly Pear is presented. The spectra for Q:Switch regime from cladode and spine are similar, while shows an intense electronic noise due the high absorption in spines for free-running regime.

  12. Effect of ultrasound on survival and growth of Escherichia coli in cactus pear juice during storage.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Cansino, Nelly Del Socorro; Reyes-Hernández, Isidro; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Jaramillo-Bustos, Diana Pamela; Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasound as a conservation method for the inactivation of Escherichia coli inoculated into cactus pear juices (green and purple). Total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and the kinetics of E. coli in cactus pear juices treated by ultrasound (60%, 70%, 80% and 90% amplitude levels for 1, 3 and 5min) were evaluated over 5 days. Total inactivation was observed in both fruit juices after 5min of ultrasound treatment at most amplitude levels (with the exception of 60% and 80%). After one and two days of storage, the recovery of bacteria counts was observed in all cactus pear juices. Ultrasound treatment at 90% amplitude for 5min resulted in non-detectable levels of E. coli in cactus pear juice for 2 days. The parameters of pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids were unaffected.

  13. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Prickly Pear's Spines and Glochids: A qualitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, T.; Ponce, L.; Bilmes, G.; Arronte, A.; Alvira, F.

    2008-04-15

    A qualitative LIBS analysis of Prickly Pear is presented. The spectra for Q:Switch regime from cladode and spine are similar, while shows an intense electronic noise due the high absorption in spines for free-running regime.

  14. Different positively selected sites at the gametophytic self-incompatibility pistil S-RNase gene in the Solanaceae and Rosaceae (Prunus, Pyrus, and Malus).

    PubMed

    Vieira, Jorge; Morales-Hojas, Ramiro; Santos, Raquel A M; Vieira, Cristina P

    2007-08-01

    In this work we perform a comparative study on the location of positively selected sites (those likely responsible for defining specificity differences) at the S-RNase gene, the pistil component of the gametophytic self-incompatibility system. For Plantaginaceae and Rosaceae (Prunus and Pyrus/Malus) this is the first study of this kind. A clear sign of positive selection was observed for 13, 17, and 27 amino acid sites in Solanaceae, Prunus, and Pyrus/Malus, respectively, using two different methodologies. In Plantaginaceae no clear positively selected sites were identified. Possible reasons for this result are discussed. Indirect experimental evidence suggests that the identified positively selected amino acid sites play a role in specificity determination. The percentage of positively selected sites is similar in Solanaceae and Rosaceae but the location of those sites is different.

  15. Adulteration of apple with pear juice: emphasis on major carbohydrates, proline, and arbutin.

    PubMed

    Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Low, Nicholas H

    2006-06-28

    Detection of juice-to-juice adulteration based on chemical composition studies is a common method used by government regulatory agencies and food companies. This study investigated the use of major carbohydrate (fructose, glucose and sucrose), polyol (sorbitol), proline, and phenolic profiles as indicators of pear adulteration of apple juice (PAAJ). For this work, a total of 105 authentic apple juice samples from 13 countries and 27 authentic pear juice samples from 5 countries were analyzed. Because the major carbohydrate ranges for these juices showed significant overlap their use as markers for PAAJ detection would be very limited. It was found that sorbitol and proline means for apple and pear were significantly different; however, their broad natural ranges would afford PAAJ at levels up to 30% without detection. In addition, careful selection of the pear juice used as the adulterant would further limit the usefulness of these markers for PAAJ detection. Arbutin was conclusively identified as a marker for pear juice on the basis of its presence in all 27 authentic pear samples and its absence (<0.5 microg/mL) in all 105 apple juice samples analyzed in this study. The application of the developed HPLC-PDA method for arbutin analysis to detect PAAJ at levels as low as 2% (v/v) was demonstrated. A confirmation method for the presence of arbutin in pure pear juice and apple adulterated with pear juice was introduced on the basis of the hydrolysis of arbutin to hydroquinone employing beta-glucosidase, with reactant and product monitoring by HPLC-PDA.

  16. Transferability of Newly Developed Pear SSR Markers to Other Rosaceae Species.

    PubMed

    Fan, L; Zhang, M-Y; Liu, Q-Z; Li, L-T; Song, Y; Wang, L-F; Zhang, S-L; Wu, J

    2013-01-01

    A set of 120 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) was developed from the newly assembled pear sequence and evaluated for polymorphisms in seven genotypes of pear from different genetic backgrounds. Of these, 67 (55.8 %) primer pairs produced polymorphic amplifications. Together, the 67 SSRs detected 277 alleles with an average of 4.13 per locus. Sequencing of the amplification products from randomly picked loci NAUPy31a and NAUpy53a verified the presence of the SSR loci. When the 67 primer pairs were tested on 96 individual members of eight species in the Rosaceae family, 61.2 % (41/67) of the tested SSRs successfully amplified a PCR product in at least one of the Rosaceae genera. The transferability from pear to different species varied from 58.2 % (apple) to 11.9 % (cherry). The ratio of transferability also reflected the closer relationships within Maloideae over Prunoideae. Two pear SSR markers, NAUpy43c and NAUpy55k, could distinguish the 20 different apple genotypes thoroughly, and UPGMA cluster analysis grouped them into three groups at the similarity level of 0.56. The high level of polymorphism and good transferability of pear SSRs to Rosaceae species indicate their promise for application to future molecular screening, map construction, and comparative genomic studies among pears and other Rosaceae species.

  17. Pink discoloration of canned pears: role of procyanidin chemical depolymerization and procyanidin/cell wall interactions.

    PubMed

    Le Bourvellec, Carine; Gouble, Barbara; Bureau, Sylvie; Loonis, Michèle; Plé, Yves; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2013-07-10

    After canning, pear pieces turn occasionally from whitish-beige to pink. Conditions were set up to obtain this discoloration systematically and investigate its mechanism. Canned pears showed a significantly lower L* coordinate compared with fresh pears, and the L* coordinate of canned pears decreased with decreasing pH. The values of the a* and b* coordinates increased significantly after processing, the increase being greater for the more acidic pH values, with corresponding redder colors. After canning, polyphenol concentrations decreased significantly, mainly due to loss of procyanidins. This supported the hypothesis of conversion of procyanidins to anthocyanin-like compounds. However, no soluble product was detected at 520 nm, the characteristic wavelength of anthocyanins. When purified procyanidins were treated at 95 °C at three different pH values (2.7, 3.3, and 4.0), procyanidin concentrations decreased after treatment, the more so as the pH was lower, and a pinkish color also appeared, attributed to tannin-anthocyanidin pigment. The pink color was bound to cell walls. Extraction of the neoformed pink entities was attempted by successive solvent extractions followed by cell wall degrading enzymes. The pink color persisted in the residues, and canned pears gave significantly higher amounts of residues after solvent and enzyme treatments than fresh pears. Procyanidins were the entities responsible for the appearance of pink discoloration. However, it seems that this pink discoloration also involved the formation of strong, probably covalent, bonds to the cell wall.

  18. Application of infrared lock-in thermography for the quantitative evaluation of bruises on pears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ghiseok; Kim, Geon-Hee; Park, Jongmin; Kim, Dae-Yong; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2014-03-01

    An infrared lock-in thermography technique was adjusted for the detection of early bruises on pears. This mechanical damage is usually difficult to detect in the early stage after harvested using conventional visual sorting or CCD sensor-based imaging processing methods. We measured the thermal emission signals from pears using a highly sensitive mid-infrared thermal camera. These images were post-processed using a lock-in method that utilized the periodic thermal energy input to the pear. By applying the lock-in method to infrared thermography, the detection sensitivity and signal to noise ratio were enhanced because of the phase-sensitive narrow-band filtering effect. It was also found that the phase information of thermal emission from pears provides good metrics with which to identify quantitative information about both damage size and damage depth for pears. Additionally, a photothermal model was implemented to investigate the behavior of thermal waves on pears under convective conditions. Theoretical results were compared to experimental results. These results suggested that the proposed lock-in thermography technique and resultant phase information can be used to detect mechanical damage to fruit, especially in the early stage of bruising.

  19. Mood disorders in Asians.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Albert; Chang, Doris

    2014-02-01

    Mood disorders are disorders that have a disturbance in mood as the predominant feature. They are common psychiatric disorders and are associated with significant distress and functional impairment. As the theory of mood disorders is based on the philosophy of mind/body dichotomy in the West, it contradicts the holistic tradition of medicine in the East. This may partially explain why many Asians with mood disorders emphasize their physical symptoms in discussions with their treatment providers. In the development of the DSM and ICD diagnostic systems, it is presumed that the diagnostic categories are applicable to all races and ethnicities. Similarly, many consider pharmacological and psychological treatment approaches to mood disorders universally applicable. To effectively treat Asians with mood disorders, clinicians need to customize biological and psychosocial interventions in consideration of patients' potential genetic and cultural differences.

  20. Milestones of Asian Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Fakhro, Abdulla; Wagner, Ryan D.; Kim, Yong Kyu; Nguyen, Anh H.

    2015-01-01

    The field of plastic surgery originally developed out of the necessity to reconstruct the human body after the destruction of war. However, injured soldiers were not the only people who desired a change in appearance. After World War II, many people in Asian countries sought to attain a more Western look through surgery. Along with eyes, the nose was the main focus for these cosmetic procedures. In this article, the authors examine the evolution of Asian rhinoplasty from its original description in 1964 to the present. The characteristic anatomical differences between the Western and Asian nose are identified in relation to the technical challenges for rhinoplasty surgeons. Then the benefits and risks of the two major surgical approaches, autograft versus alloplast, are detailed. Finally, the coevolution of techniques and implant usage is traced from a dorsum-only implant, to an L-shaped implant, a cartilaginous cap graft with a one-piece rhinoplasty, an I-shaped implant, and a two-piece augmentation rhinoplasty. Outlining these changes demonstrates the advancement of the field of plastic surgery and the growing expectations of the patient. These advancements have provided the tools necessary to better align a patient's aesthetic goals and their unique anatomical presentation with a specific surgical approach. PMID:26648800

  1. Apple volatiles synergize the response of codling moth to pear ester.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Cole, Lyn; Revell, John; Manning, Lee-Anne; Twidle, Andrew; Knight, Alan L; Bus, Vincent G M; Suckling, David M

    2013-05-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major cosmopolitan pest of apple and other pome fruits. Ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) has been identified as a host-derived kairomone for female and male codling moths. However, pear ester has not performed similarly in different fruit production areas in terms of the relative magnitude of moth catch, especially the proportion of females caught. Our work was undertaken to identify host volatiles from apples, and to investigate whether these volatiles can be used to enhance the efficacy of host kairomone pear ester for monitoring female and male codling moths. Volatiles from immature apple trees were collected in the field using dynamic headspace sampling during the active period of codling moth flight. Using gas chromatography-electroantennogram detector (GC/EAD) analysis, six compounds elicited responses from antennae of females. These compounds were identified by GC/mass spectrometry (MS) and comparisons to authentic standards as nonanal, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, (Z,E)-α-farnesene, and (E,E)-α-farnesene. When the EAD-active compounds were tested individually in the field, no codling moths were caught except for a single male with decanal. However, addition of (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, or (E,E)-α-farnesene to pear ester in a binary mixture enhanced the efficacy of pear ester for attracting female codling moths compared to pear ester alone. Addition of the 6-component blend to the pear ester resulted in a significant increase in the number of males attracted, and enhanced the females captured compared to pear ester alone; the number of males and females caught was similar to that with the pear ester plus acetic acid combination lure. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to synergize the response of codling moth to host kairomone by using other host volatiles. The new apple-pear ester host kairomone blend

  2. Contacts and Conflicts; The Asian Immigration Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Asian American Studies Center.

    In this curriculum guide to the Asian immigration experience, the topics discussed include: major immigration periods, early contributions of Asian immigrants, Chinese immigration, Japanese immigration, Filipino immigration, Korean immigration, early Asian women in America, Asian immigration to Hawaii, anti-Asian hostility, the exploitation of…

  3. Current Update in Asian Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary: There has been a tremendous growth of cosmetic surgery among Asians worldwide. Rhinoplasty is second only to blepharoplasty in terms of popularity among Asians regarding cosmetic surgical procedures. Most Asians seek to improve their appearance while maintaining the essential features of their ethnicity. There are considerable ethnic nasal and facial variations in this population alone. Successful rhinoplasty in Asians must take into account underlying anatomic differences between Asians and whites. Due to ethnic variations, cultural differences, and occasional language barriers, careful preoperative counseling is necessary to align the patient’s expectations with the limitations of the procedure. This article will review the many facets of Asian rhinoplasty as it is practiced today. PMID:25289326

  4. Recent advances in Asian rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong-Ryul; Won, Tae-Bin

    2011-04-01

    Asian rhinoplasty is an expanding topic in the field of rhinoplasty. Although the main principles of various rhinoplasty techniques apply equally to the Asian nose, Asian rhinoplasty is unique owing to its different anatomy and ethnicity. In recent years there have been some noteworthy developments in Asian rhinoplasty. Traditional techniques using alloplastic implants with endonasal approach are changing due to the advent of new beauty concept, introduction of new techniques, and development of newly improved materials. In this review, we will highlight some of the recent advances of Asian rhinoplasty with emphasis on dorsal augmentation, advances in implant material and tip surgery using autologous cartilage. Finally with increase of revision cases, issues relevant to revision rhinoplasty in Asians will be addressed.

  5. Cooperative program for Asian pediatricians.

    PubMed

    Sakakihara, Y; Nakamura, Y

    1993-12-01

    The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians (CPAP) is a non-government organization established in 1989 to promote mutual understanding and friendship among young pediatricians in Asian countries. Unlike other government programs and non-government organizations, CPAP is solely facilitating mutual relationships among young inexperienced pediatricians who would otherwise have no chance to travel overseas. It has been funded by donations from members of the alumni association of the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Tokyo and many private companies and individuals. The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians has so far invited 36 Asian pediatricians from 11 countries. By constructing a human network among Asian pediatricians, it is hoped that CPAP will contribute to making international cooperation in the Asian region easier and smoother.

  6. Rhinoplasty in the Asian Patient.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong Ryul; Won, Tae-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous goal of rhinoplasty is to make a natural-looking and attractive nose that blends harmoniously with the face. Rhinoplasty among Asians includes characteristics that distinguish the procedure from its white counterpart. Anatomic differences of the Asian nose coupled with differences in aesthetic standards demand they be approached in a unique way. In this article, peculiar aspects of Asian rhinoplasty are addressed with emphasis on surgical techniques used to obtain reliable results.

  7. Metabolomics-Based Analysis of Banana and Pear Ingestion on Exercise Performance and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Nieman, David C; Gillitt, Nicholas D; Sha, Wei; Meaney, Mary Pat; John, Casey; Pappan, Kirk L; Kinchen, Jason M

    2015-12-04

    Bananas and pears vary in sugar and phenolic profiles, and metabolomics was utilized to measure their influence on exercise performance and recovery. Male athletes (N = 20) cycled for 75 km while consuming water (WATER), bananas (BAN), or pears (PEAR) (0.6 g carbohydrate/kg each hour) in randomized order. UPLC-MS/MS and the library of purified standards maintained by Metabolon (Durham, NC) were used to analyze metabolite shifts in pre- and postexercise (0-h, 1.5-h, 21-h) blood samples. Performance times were 5.0% and 3.3% faster during BAN and PEAR versus WATER (P = 0.018 and P = 0.091, respectively), with reductions in cortisol, IL-10, and total leukocytes, and increases in blood glucose, insulin, and FRAP. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) showed a distinct separation between trials immediately (R(2)Y = 0.877, Q(2)Y = 0.457) and 1.5-h postexercise (R(2)Y = 0.773, Q(2)Y = 0.441). A total of 107 metabolites (primarily lipid-related) increased more than 2-fold during WATER, with a 48% and 52% reduction in magnitude during BAN and PEAR recovery (P < 0.001). Increases in metabolites unique to BAN and PEAR included fructose and fruit constituents, and sulfated phenolics that were related to elevated FRAP. These data indicate that BAN and PEAR ingestion improves 75-km cycling performance, attenuates fatty acid utilization and oxidation, and contributes unique phenolics that augment antioxidant capacity.

  8. Agreements with the Asian Development Bank

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the Asian Development Bank cooperate to reinforce Asian countries which are now strengthening their environmental laws, ministries, and compliance mechanisms. Download agreements with the Asian Development Bank on this page.

  9. Baseline predictors of central aortic blood pressure: a PEAR substudy.

    PubMed

    Rosenwasser, Rebecca F; Shah, Niren K; Smith, Steven M; Wen, Xuerong; Gong, Yan; Gums, John G; Nichols, Wilmer W; Chapman, Arlene B; Boerwinkle, Eric; Johnson, Julie; Epstein, Benjamin

    2014-03-01

    Elevated central systolic blood pressure (BP) increases the risk of cardiovascular events and appears superior to peripheral BP for long term risk prediction. The objective of this study was to identify demographic and clinical factors associated with central pressures in patients with uncomplicated hypertension. We prospectively examined peripheral BP, central aortic BP, and arterial wall properties and wave reflection in 57 subjects with uncomplicated essential hypertension in the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) Study. Significant predictors of central SBP included height, smoking status, heart rate (HR), and peripheral systolic BP (SBP), while central diastolic BP (DBP) was explained by peripheral DBP and HR. These variables accounted for nearly all of the variability in central SBP and central DBP (R(2) = 0.94 and R(2) = 0.98, respectively). Central pulse pressure variability was largely explained by gender, ex-smoking status, HR, peripheral SBP, and peripheral DBP (R(2) = 0.94). Central augmented pressure had a direct relationship with smoking status, peripheral SBP, and duration of hypertension, whereas it was indirectly related to height, HR, and peripheral DBP. Easily obtainable demographic and clinical factors are associated with central pressures in essential hypertensive persons. These relationships should be considered in future studies to improve assessment of BP to reduce cardiovascular risk and mortality.

  10. Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice.

    PubMed

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Yadira; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2013-09-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is a berry with a tasty pulp full of seeds that constitutes about 10-15% of the edible pulp. In Mexico, cactus pear is mainly consumed fresh, but also has the potential to be processed in other products such as juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrasound conditions at amplitude levels ranging (40% and 60% for 10, 15, 25 min; 80% for 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 25 min) on the characteristics of purple cactus pear juice. The evaluated parameters were related with the quality (stability, °Brix, pH), microbial growth, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and % chelating activity) of purple cactus pear juices. The ultrasound treatment for time period of 15 and 25 min significantly reduced the microbial count in 15 and 25 min, without affecting the juice quality and its antioxidant properties. Juice treated at 80% of amplitude level showed an increased of antioxidant compounds. Our results demonstrated that sonication is a suitable technique for cactus pear processing. This technology allows the achievement of juice safety and quality standards without compromising the retention of antioxidant compounds.

  11. Asian American Curriculum Guide: Elementary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Paul Public Schools, Minn.

    Designed to meet the need for elementary school students to understand the status, needs, and contributions of Asian Americans, this curriculum guide was developed as a result of an in-service teacher education workshop. The basic premise of the guide is the recognition that student awareness and understanding of Asian Americans should be…

  12. Southeast Asian Refugee Parent Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Mary M.

    This paper summarizes the findings of a descriptive research project conducted among Southeast Asian parents in an Oregon school district, and discusses the issue of fieldwork methodology among refugee populations. The district studied had a student population of 18,000 (kindergarten through grade 12), with Southeast Asian refugees accounting for…

  13. The Asian Newspaper's Reluctant Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, John A., Ed.

    This book is composed of 19 articles written by both Asian and American scholars on the history and present conditions of newspapers in 15 Asian nations: China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Australia, Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, the Philippines, Thailand, South Vietnam, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan. Two overviews of the Asian…

  14. The Asian in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Stanford M.

    Articles, essays, and book reviews on Asian Americans are included in this anthology. The articles focus on some of the following topics: (1) the Chinese diaspora in America from 1850 to 1943, (2) the significance of Asians in American society, (3) the Chinese on the urban frontier, (4) marriage and the family among Chinese immigrants to America…

  15. Handbook of Asian American Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lee C., Ed.; Zane, Nolan W. S., Ed.

    This handbook integrates descriptions and evaluations of current psychological research on all ethnic subgroups of Asian Americans, providing insights into the diverse and varied nature of Asian American cultures. Following a Foreword by Dick Suinn, the chapters are: (1) "An Overview" (Lee C. Lee); (2) "Research Methods: The Construct Validity of…

  16. Basic Skills in Asian Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    This publication contains field tested learning activities which will help secondary students develop basic skills while learning about Asian history, culture, and geography. The activities can be used or easily adapted by teachers in any Asian studies course. The publication is organized by the skills taught. These are: reading; applying…

  17. 40 CFR 180.1323 - Ethyl-2E,4Z-decadienoate (Pear Ester); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethyl-2E,4Z-decadienoate (Pear Ester... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1323 Ethyl-2E,4Z-decadienoate (Pear Ester); exemption... for residues of the biochemical pesticide, ethyl-2E,4Z-decadienoate (pear ester), in or on all...

  18. ATTRACTION OF MALE SUMMERFORM PEAR PSYLLA TO VOLATILES FROM FEMALE PSYLLA: EFFECTS OF FEMALE AGE, MATING STATUS, AND PRESENCE OF HOST PLANT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a pest of pears throughout North America and western Europe. Previous studies in our laboratory showed that males of the overwintering form (winterform morphotype) were attracted to volatiles from pear shoots infested with post-d...

  19. Plains Prickly Pear Response to Fire: Effects of Fuel Load, Heat, Fire Weather, and Donor Site Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plains prickly pear (Opuntia polyacantha Haw.) is common throughout the Great Plains and like related species, often becomes detrimental to agricultural production. We examined direct fire effects on plains prickly pear and mechanisms of tissue damage to facilitate development of fire prescriptions...

  20. Comparison of accessions from the UK and US national pear germplasm collections with a standardized set of microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standardized set of 12 microsatellite markers, previously agreed upon following an ECP/GR workshop in 2006, was used to screen accessions from the UK National Pear Collection at Brogdale and from the US National Pear Germplasm Repository (NCGR), Corvallis. Eight standard varieties were chosen from...

  1. Comparing mating disruption of codling moth with standard and meso dispensers loaded with pear ester and codlemone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted with hand-applied combo dispensers loaded with the sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), and the pear volatile, (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) for control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in apple, Malus domestica Bordkhausen during 2012. Two types of...

  2. Intraseasonal oscillations in East Asian and South Asian monsoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, V.

    2016-11-01

    This study has investigated the relation between the East Asian monsoon and the South Asian monsoon at intraseasonal time scale during the boreal summer. Applying a data adaptive method on daily anomalies of precipitation, two leading intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) were extracted separately in the regions of South Asia, tropical East Asia and subtropical East Asia. The first ISO has a period of about 45 days and propagates northward and eastward over the South Asian and tropical East Asian regions. The second ISO, with a period of about 26 days, propagates northeastward over South Asia and northwestward over tropical East Asia. Although both the ISOs are also present over the subtropical East Asia, the variance is low while no propagation is evident. The circulation patterns associated with the ISOs were found to be consistent with the corresponding precipitation patterns of the ISOs. The two ISOs also reveal consistency with the space-time evolution of diabatic heating, convection, vertical motion, upper-level divergence and moisture transport. The zonal and meridional propagation of the ISOs provide a strong link between the South Asian monsoon and East Asian monsoon regions. The subtropical East Asian region seems to have a weaker link with the other monsoon regions.

  3. A Part, Yet Apart: South Asians in Asian America. Asian American History and Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankar, Lavina Dhingra, Ed.; Srikanth, Rajini, Ed.

    The essays in this collection consider the extent to which South Asian Americans are included within "Asian America" as the term is applied to academic programs and admissions policies, grassroots community organizing and politics, and critical analyses of cultural products. The essays are: (1) "Within Kaleidoscope Eyes: The…

  4. Chemical and biochemical changes in prickly pears with different ripening behaviour.

    PubMed

    Silos-Espino, Héctor; Fabian-Morales, Lourdes; Osuna-Castro, Juan Alberto; Valverde, María Elena; Guevara-Lara, Fidel; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2003-10-01

    Chemical and biochemical changes were studied in ripening prickly pears from three Opuntia morphospecies with different ripening behaviour: Naranjona (O. ficus-indica), Blanca Cristalina (Opuntia sp.), and Charola (O. streptacantha), of early, intermediate, and late ripening, respectively. At fullyripe stage (commercial maturity), Blanca Cristalina showed the biggest fruits, the hardest texture, and its pulp had the highest protein content. There were no significant differences among morphospecies in pH or total soluble solids in fully ripe fruits. The three species exhibited considerable levels of vitamin C, dietary fibre, and minerals such as calcium, iron, and zinc. Protein expression was analysed in pulp and skin from every species at physiological and commercial maturity. Some proteins appeared at both stages, while many others expressed differentially. This study evaluated prickly pear components important for human nutrition and health, and provided basic information on pricky pear ripening, with a view to its control and to improving shelf life.

  5. SIDE-EFFECTS OF COMMONLY USED CROP PROTECTION PRODUCTS IN PEAR ON TWO BENEFICIAL MIRIDAE BUGS.

    PubMed

    Vrancken, K; Belien, T; Bylemans, D

    2015-01-01

    Anthocoris nemoralis, Anthocoris nemorum and Orius spp. are not the only beneficial predatory bugs inhabiting pear orchards in Belgium. Quite often, the Miridae bugs Heterotoma spp. and Pilophorus spp. can be found during spring and summer in these orchards, thereby feeding on several pests such as psyllids, aphids, spider mites, ... . Side-effects are usually assessed on Anthocoris and Orius spp., but due to the potential importance of Miridae bugs in pest reduction, we tested some commonly used crop protection products used in pear cultivation on Heterotoma planicornis and Pilophorus perplexus (residue-based tests in petri-dishes). One day after treatment, mortalities already could be observed for some products. Seven days after treatment, abamectin, deltamethrin and thiacloprid were considered the most toxic products as stated by the IOBC classification. This outcome was then analysed with regard to different treatment schedules, providing insights in potential side-effects on crop protection treatments on the composition of beneficial fauna in pear orchards.

  6. Photoacoustic monitoring of the pulsed laser ablation of glochids on prickly pear fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arronte, M.; Flores, T.; Ponce, L.; Ortega-Martínez, E.

    2006-02-01

    The use of the photoacoustic technique for real time monitoring of the efficiency and cleaning sites localization during the laser assisted removal of the spiky glochids from prickly pear fruit is proposed. Prickly pear areoles were irradiated with high energy microsecond Nd: YAG laser sequence of pulses up to the entirely removal of the glochids agglomerate. Strong selective absorption of the laser radiation leads to the formation of a high pressure plasma. The photoacoustic experiments were done in open air conditions using a standard electret transducer. Results obtained from photoacoustic signal analysis display high sensibility and signal to noise ratio for in situ monitoring of the process.

  7. Effect of ethylene and temperature conditioning on sensory attributes and chemical composition of 'Comice' pears.

    PubMed

    Makkumrai, Warangkana; Sivertsen, Hanne; Sugar, David; Ebeler, Susan E; Negre-Zakharov, Florence; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2014-06-04

    'Comice' is among the pear varieties most difficult to ripen after harvest. Ethylene, cold temperature, and intermediate (10 °C) temperature conditioning have been successfully used to stimulate the ability of 'Comice' pears to ripen. However, the sensory quality of pears stimulated to ripen by different conditioning treatments has not been evaluated. In this study, a descriptive sensory analysis of 'Comice' pears conditioned to soften to 27, 18, and 9 N firmness with ethylene exposure for 3 or 1 days, storage at 0 °C for 25 or 15 days, or storage at 10 °C for 10 days was performed. Sensory attributes were then related to changes in chemical composition, including volatile components, water-soluble polyuronides, soluble solids content (SSC), and titratable acidity (TA). The sensory profile of fruit conditioned with ethylene was predominant in fibrous texture and low in fruity and pear aroma. Fruit conditioned at 0 °C was described as crunchy at 27 and 18 N firmness and became juicy at 9 N firmness. Fruit conditioned at 0 °C produced the highest quantity of alcohols and fewer esters than fruit conditioned at 10 °C, and they had higher fruity and pear aroma than fruit conditioned with ethylene, but lower than fruit conditioned at 10 °C. Fruit held at 10 °C were predominant in fruity and pear aroma and had the highest concentration of esters. Water-soluble polyuronides were strongly, positively correlated (r > 0.9) with sensory attributes generally associated with ripeness, including juiciness, butteriness, and sweetness and negatively correlated (r > -0.9) with sensory attributes generally associated with the unripe stage, such as firmness and crunchiness. However, water-soluble polyuronides were not significantly different among conditioning treatments. Sensory sweetness was not significantly correlated with SSC, but TA and SSC/TA were significantly correlated with sensory tartness. However, there were no significant differences among the conditioning

  8. A Catholic Response to the Asian Presence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Suzanne E., Ed.; And Others

    This report, the result in part of a series of hearings with Asian parents, educators, ministers, and many non-Asian Church leaders ministering to Asian communities within the United States, treats many aspects of educating and welcoming Asian groups into the Roman Catholic Church in the United States. The text includes a report on those hearings,…

  9. Racism and Asian American Student Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Jennifer Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American…

  10. Asian upper lid blepharoplasty surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Charles K; Ahn, Sang Tae; Kim, Nakyung

    2013-01-01

    Upper lid blepharoplasty is the most common plastic surgery procedure in Asia and has consistently maintained its position as cultural acceptance and techniques have evolved. Asian upper lid blepharoplasty is a complex procedure that requires comprehensive understanding of the anatomy and precise surgical technique. The creation of the supratarsal crease has gone through many evolutions in technique but the principles and goals remain the same: a functional, natural-appearing eyelid crease that brings out the beauty of the Asian eye. Recent advances have improved functional and aesthetic outcomes of Asian upper lid blepharoplasty.

  11. Not Asian, Black or White? Reflections on South Asian American Racial Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibria, Nazli

    1996-01-01

    Examines the race ambiguity of South Asians and the risk of being socially ignored and marginalized, including that of the pan-Asian movement. It argues that recent participation of second-generation South Asians in protesting anti-Asian hate crimes and discrimination in higher education bespeak the possibilities of a pan-Asian grouping that is…

  12. Osteoporosis and Asian American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... not supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Publication available in: PDF ( ... Are Available? Resources For Your Information What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones ...

  13. History of IPM in California pears--50 years of pesticide use and the transition to biologically intensive IPM.

    PubMed

    Weddle, Patrick W; Welter, Stephen C; Thomson, Don

    2009-12-01

    During the 1960s, the California pear industry, on a per acre basis, was among the heaviest users of pesticides. Each season, multiple sprays of up to 14 active ingredients (chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates and carbamates) were typically applied for control of insects and mites. The cost of control escalated while damage from arthropod pests increased owing to greater pest resistance and more pest resurgence. The pear industry suffered classic symptoms of the 'pesticide treadmill'. By the late 1960s, key pear industry leaders demanded action. Simultaneously, newly emerging concepts of IPM were being developed and funded. With public awareness and environmental activism on the rise in the wake of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, the stage was set for change. This paper elucidates how pear growers, university researchers and extension agents, environmentalists, government regulators, private consultants, farm chemical suppliers and others contributed to the reduction in insecticide use in California pear orchards. Today, arthropod IPM in pears is characterized as relatively low input, biologically intensive and very successful. For example, in 2008 many pear growers only applied between three and five active ingredients (mainly organically certified) per season for control of arthropods.

  14. Asian American Education: Identities, Racial Issues, and Languages. Research on the Education of Asian Pacific Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rong, Xue Lan, Ed.; Endo, Russell, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Asian American Education--Asian American Identities, Racial Issues, and Languages presents groundbreaking research that critically challenges the invisibility, stereotyping, and common misunderstandings of Asian Americans by disrupting "customary" discourse and disputing "familiar" knowledge. The chapters in this anthology…

  15. Bounds for Asian basket options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  16. Evaluating the Influence of the Microsatellite Marker Set on the Genetic Structure Inferred in Pyrus communis L.

    PubMed Central

    Urrestarazu, Jorge; Royo, José B.; Santesteban, Luis G.; Miranda, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Fingerprinting information can be used to elucidate in a robust manner the genetic structure of germplasm collections, allowing a more rational and fine assessment of genetic resources. Bayesian model-based approaches are nowadays majorly preferred to infer genetic structure, but it is still largely unresolved how marker sets should be built in order to obtain a robust inference. The objective was to evaluate, in Pyrus germplasm collections, the influence of the SSR marker set size on the genetic structure inferred, also evaluating the influence of the criterion used to select those markers. Inferences were performed considering an increasing number of SSR markers that ranged from just two up to 25, incorporated one at a time into the analysis. The influence of the number of SSR markers used was evaluated comparing the number of populations and the strength of the signal detected, and also the similarity of the genotype assignments to populations between analyses. In order to test if those results were influenced by the criterion used to select the SSRs, several choosing scenarios based on the discrimination power or the fixation index values of the SSRs were tested. Our results indicate that population structure could be inferred accurately once a certain SSR number threshold was reached, which depended on the underlying structure within the genotypes, but the method used to select the markers included on each set appeared not to be very relevant. The minimum number of SSRs required to provide robust structure inferences and adequate measurements of the differentiation, even when low differentiation levels exist within populations, was proved similar to that of the complete list of recommended markers for fingerprinting. When a SSR set size similar to the minimum marker sets recommended for fingerprinting it is used, only major divisions or moderate (FST>0.05) differentiation of the germplasm are detected. PMID:26382618

  17. The effect of gamma irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment on physicochemical and sensory properties of bartlett pears.

    PubMed

    Abolhassani, Yalda; Caporaso, Fred; Rakovski, Cyril; Prakash, Anuradha

    2013-09-01

    A major concern in exporting agricultural commodities is the introduction or spread of exotic quarantine pests to the new area. To prevent spread of insect pests, various phytosanitary measures are used. Worldwide commercial use of irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment has increased greatly in recent years; however, trade has been limited to tropical fruits. Bartlett pear is a major summer variety of California pears with great potential and market for export. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation at dose levels of 400, 600, and 800 Gy on physicochemical properties and sensory attributes of early and late harvest Bartlett pears was investigated. Firmness and color changes indicate that irradiation delayed the ripening of pears by 1 d. For the early harvest pears, scarring, bruising, and off flavor were significantly increased at the highest irradiation dose (800 Gy). The appearance of early harvest 800 Gy irradiated pears was the only attribute that received significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower scores than the control in consumer testing. For the late harvest pears, the 400 Gy fruit had lowest levels of scarring and bruising as rated by trained panelist but consumers did not score the control and 800 Gy fruit differently for any attribute. Titratable acidity, total soluble solids, and chroma were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased and hue increased by irradiation for the early harvest pears. These results suggest that there was a difference in radiotolerance of early and late harvest pears, but in both cases, irradiation at 400 to 600 Gy seemed to maintain best quality.

  18. Isoform identification, recombinant production and characterization of the allergen lipid transfer protein 1 from pear (Pyr c 3).

    PubMed

    Ramazzina, Ileana; Amato, Stefano; Passera, Elisabetta; Sforza, Stefano; Mistrello, Gianni; Berni, Rodolfo; Folli, Claudia

    2012-01-10

    Non-specific lipid transfer proteins belonging to LTP1 family represent the most important allergens for non pollen-related allergies to Rosaceae fruits in the Mediterranean area. Peach LTP1 (Pru p 3) is a major allergen and is considered the prototypic allergenic LTP. On the contrary, pear allergy without pollinosis seems to be under-reported when compared to other Rosaceae fruits suggesting that the as-yet-uncharacterized pear LTP1 (Pyr c 3) has in vivo a low allergenicity. We report here on the identification of four cDNAs encoding for LTP1 in pear fruits. The two isoforms exhibiting amino acid sequences most similar to those of peach and apple homologues were obtained as recombinant proteins. Such isoforms exhibited CD spectra and lipid binding ability typical of LTP1 family. Moreover, pear LTP1 mRNA was mainly found in the peel, as previously shown for other Rosaceae fruits. By means of IgE ELISA assays a considerable immunoreactivity of these proteins to LTP-sensitive patient sera was detected, even though allergic reactions after ingestion of pear were not reported in the clinical history of the patients. Finally, the abundance of LTP1 in protein extracts from pear peel, in which LTP1 from Rosaceae fruits is mainly confined, was estimated to be much lower as compared to peach peel. Our data suggest that the two isoforms of pear LTP1 characterized in this study possess biochemical features and IgE-binding ability similar to allergenic LTPs. Their low concentrations in pear might be the cause of the low frequency of LTP-mediated pear allergy.

  19. A new postharvest fruit rot in apple and pear caused by Phacidium lacerum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples and pears, an unknown postharvest fruit rot was observed in Washington State. The disease appeared to originate from infection of the stem and calyx tissue of the fruit or wounds on the fruit. An unknown pycnidial fungus was consistently isolated fro...

  20. Effect of the yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum on postharvest decay and patulin accumulation in apples and pears.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ruiyu; Yu, Ting; Guo, Shuanghuan; Hu, Hao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Karlovsky, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a strain of marine yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum on postharvest blue mold and patulin accumulation in apples and pears stored at 23°C was evaluated. The occurrence and severity of apple and pear decay caused by Penicillium expansum were significantly inhibited by R. paludigenum. However, the application of the yeast at a high concentration (10(8) cells per ml) enhanced patulin accumulation after 7 days of storage; the amount of patulin increased 24.2 times and 12.6 times compared to the controls in infected apples and pears, respectively. However, R. paludigenum reduced the patulin concentration in the growth medium by both biological degradation and physical adsorption. Optimal in vitro patulin reduction was observed at 30°C and at pH 6.0. R. paludigenum incubated at 28°C was tolerant to patulin at concentrations up to 100 mg/liter. In conclusion, R. paludigenum was able to control postharvest decay in apples and pears and to remove patulin in vitro effectively. However, because the yeast induced patulin accumulation in fruit, the assessment of mycotoxin content after biological treatments in postharvest decay control is important. R. paludigenum may also be a promising source of gene(s) and enzyme(s) for patulin degradation and may be a tool to decrease patulin contamination in commercial fruit-derived products.

  1. Plant growth responses of apple and pear trees to doses of glyphosate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate is commonly used for intra-row weed management in perennial plantations, where unintended crop exposure to this herbicide can cause growth reduction. The objective of this research was to analyze the initial plant growth behavior of young apple and pear plants exposed to glyphosate. Glyph...

  2. Infra-red imaging technology for detection of bruise damages of Shingo pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bruise damage on pears is one of the most crucial internal quality factors that needs to be detected in postharvest quality sorting processes. Development of sensitive detection methods for the defects including fruit bruise is necessary to ensure accurate quality assessment. Infra-red imaging tech...

  3. Hyperspectral near-infrared imaging for the detection of physical damages of pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bruise damage on pears is one of the most crucial internal quality factors, which needs to be detected in postharvest quality sorting processes. Thus, a reliable non-destructive detection method for the fruit defects including bruises is necessary to ensure accurate quality assessment. Infra-red ima...

  4. Differentiation of deciduous-calyx Korla fragrant pears using NIR hyperspectral imaging analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging was investigated as a potential method for automatic sorting of pears according to their calyx type. The hyperspectral images were analyzed and wavebands at 1190 nm and 1199 nm were selected for differentiating deciduous-calyx fruits from persistent-calyx ones. A ...

  5. Diversity of unavailable polysaccharides and dietary fiber in domesticated nopalito and cactus pear fruit (Opuntia spp.).

    PubMed

    Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Trejo, Carlos; Arroyo-Peña, V Baruch; Sánchez Urdaneta, Adriana Beatriz; Balois Morales, Rosendo

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify mucilages, pectins, hemicelluloses, and cellulose of nopalitos (edible, as vegetable, young cladodes of flat-stemmed spiny cacti) of most consumed Mexican cultivars, and sweet and acid cactus pear fruits of Opuntia spp. The hypothesis is that, regardless of their unavailable polysaccharides diversity, nopalitos and cactus pear fruits are rich sources of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. Twelve cultivars of Opuntia spp. were used. Nopalitos had a significant variation in structural polysaccharides among the cultivars: mucilages (from 3.8 to 8.6% dry matter (DM)) averaged near a half of pectins content (from 6.1 to 14.2% DM) and tightly bound hemicelluloses (from 2.2 to 4.7% DM), which were the less abundant polysaccharides, amounted 50% of the loosely bound hemicelluloses (from 4.3 to 10.7% DM). Acid fruits (or 'xoconostle') had significantly higher unavailable polysaccharides content than sweet fruit, and contain similar proportions than nopalitos. Unavailable polysaccharides represent a high proportion of dry tissues of nopalitos and cactus pear fruits, composition of both of these soluble and insoluble polysaccharides (total dietary fiber) widely vary among cultivars without an evident pattern. Nopalitos and cactus pear fruit can be considered an excellent source of dietary fiber.

  6. RECTAL IMPACTION DUE TO PRICKLY PEAR SEEDS BEZOAR: A CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Marchese, S; Bertucci, B; Manti, F; Berritto, D; Roperto, A G; Tamburrini, S

    2015-01-01

    Fecal impaction is the third cause of lower gastrointestinal tract obstruction after strictures for colon cancer and postoperative adhesions. A rapid diagnosis is necessary to avoid complications due to intestinal obstruction. Rectal phytobezoar due to prickly pear fruit seeds are an extremely rare entity, in the literature about twenty similar cases are described. Prickly pears are common in many countries, even in the Mediterranean area. When the ingestion of their fruit is excessive, this can be harmful, leading to the formation of phytobezoar causing fecal impaction. We describe the first case of phytobezoar due to prickly pear fruit seeds in continental Europe: a 76-year-old Italian female who ingested almost 40 prickly pear fruit leading to the composition of a large rectal phytobezoar. The patient presented clinically with fecal impaction, diagnosed by imaging and successfully treated by rectal irrigation and manual disimpaction. Our aim is to remind the physicians of these risks in evaluating patients with intestinal obstruction, when there is positive anamnesis for provenience from some areas in which these fruits are eaten. We also want to underline the role of Imaging Multi Detector Computed Tomography (MDCT) in the diagnosis of these very uncommon entities.

  7. PEAR1 gene polymorphism in a Chinese pedigree with pulmonary thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yingyun; Sun, Silong; Liang, Jie; Liu, Shengguo; Jiang, Yiqi; Xu, Lan; Mei, Junpu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To explore the correlation between platelet endothelial aggregation receptor-1 (PEAR1) genetic polymorphism and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). Variant loci of the PEAR1 gene were screened in a PTE pedigree, followed by verification using Sanger sequencing. These polymorphic loci were validated in 101 PTE patients and 132 matched normal patients using MassARRAY single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping methods. The frequency differences between the allele and genotypes were compared using the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium test and Chi-square test. The correlation between the PEAR1 gene SNP and PTE was analyzed by comparing the between-group variance differences using the χ2 test. Three SNPs were identified in the PTE pedigree. There was a heterozygous transition of T>C in rs1952294, and a transition of C>T in rs778026543 in 2 members in the pedigree; however, the rs778026543 was not identified in the 101 PTE patients and 132 healthy controls. The genotype and allele frequencies of rs822442 did not differ significantly between PTE patients and healthy controls (P > 0.05). The variance difference at rs778026543 between pedigree members and healthy controls was significant (P < 0.001), supporting its potential heredity. The PEAR1 polymorphism, rs778026543, but not rs1952294 and rs822442, may be a susceptibility SNP for PTE. PMID:28002340

  8. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in Bartlett pear brandies by means of the sensomics concept.

    PubMed

    Willner, Bianca; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-10-09

    The aroma compounds in two commercial Bartlett pear brandies clearly differing in their overall aroma profiles were detected in the volatile fractions by the aroma extract dilution analysis. In brandy A eliciting the more intense pear-like, fruity aroma, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, (E)-β-damascenone, 1,1-diethoxyethane, 2- and 3-methylbutanol, (S)-2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid, and 2-phenylethanol were found with the highest Flavor Dilution (FD) factors. In brandy B judged to have a weaker overall aroma, also (E)-β-damascenone, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, and 2-phenylethanol revealed high FD factors, while many odorants showed lower FD factors. Fourty-four odor-active compounds were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays, and the odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentrations to odor thresholds) confirmed (E)-β-damascenone and ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate as important aroma compounds in brandy A, while the OAVs of most odorants were much lower in brandy B. By aroma recombination studies, the aromas of both brandies could be matched using reference odorants in the same concentrations as they occurred in the spirits. In 15 commercial Bartlett pear brandies ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate and (E,E)-2,4-decadienoate eliciting a pear-like aroma showed a reasonable correlation of their concentrations with the overall aroma quality.

  9. PEAR1 gene polymorphism in a Chinese pedigree with pulmonary thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yingyun; Sun, Silong; Liang, Jie; Liu, Shengguo; Jiang, Yiqi; Xu, Lan; Mei, Junpu

    2016-12-01

    To explore the correlation between platelet endothelial aggregation receptor-1 (PEAR1) genetic polymorphism and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE).Variant loci of the PEAR1 gene were screened in a PTE pedigree, followed by verification using Sanger sequencing. These polymorphic loci were validated in 101 PTE patients and 132 matched normal patients using MassARRAY single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping methods. The frequency differences between the allele and genotypes were compared using the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test and Chi-square test. The correlation between the PEAR1 gene SNP and PTE was analyzed by comparing the between-group variance differences using the χ test.Three SNPs were identified in the PTE pedigree. There was a heterozygous transition of T>C in rs1952294, and a transition of C>T in rs778026543 in 2 members in the pedigree; however, the rs778026543 was not identified in the 101 PTE patients and 132 healthy controls. The genotype and allele frequencies of rs822442 did not differ significantly between PTE patients and healthy controls (P > 0.05). The variance difference at rs778026543 between pedigree members and healthy controls was significant (P < 0.001), supporting its potential heredity.The PEAR1 polymorphism, rs778026543, but not rs1952294 and rs822442, may be a susceptibility SNP for PTE.

  10. Evaluation of potential alternative European pear cultivars for U.S. West Coast growers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    California, Oregon, and Washington produced 98% of the commercial U.S. pear crop from 2003 to 2005, consisting of 'Williams Bartlett' (51%), 'Beurre Anjou' (36%), 'Beurre Bosc' (11%), and 2% others, mainly 'Doyenne du Comice', 'Red Clapp's Favorite', 'Seckel', and 'Concorde'. Declining processing d...

  11. Fall and summer pruning to control vigor in d'Anjou pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlling vigor in d’Anjou trees is an ongoing challenge in Washington pear orchards. Vigor depends on: nitrogen fertilization, cultivar, rootstock, and pruning/training system. Cultivar d’Anjou is inherently more vigorous than other cultivars, like Bartlett, which induces a more manageable tree...

  12. Xylella taiwanensis sp. nov. cause of pear leaf scorch disease in Taiwan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a group of xylem-limited and nutritionally fastidious plant pathogenic bacteria. While mostly found in the Americas, new X. fastidiosa strains have been reported from other continents such as Asia, including a pear leaf scorch (PLS) strain from Taiwan. Current taxonomy of X. fa...

  13. 76 FR 8917 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Proposed Rules #0...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY:...

  14. Genetic Relationships within Heritage Apple and Pear Cultivars in the Azores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of the Açores cooperative initiative program (ACIP) scientists from the US Department of Agriculture and Serviço de Desenvolvimento Agario da Terceira are collaborating to identify heritage apples and pears collected from locations throughout Terceira, Açores, Portugal. Nine apple microsatel...

  15. Pears and renal stones: possible weapon for prevention? A comprehensive narrative review.

    PubMed

    Manfredini, R; De Giorgi, A; Storari, A; Fabbian, F

    2016-01-01

    Urinary stones have been recognized as a human disease since dawn of history and treatment of this condition is reported by Egyptian medical writings. Also, pears have a very long history, being one of the earliest cultivated fruit trees and also known for medicinal use. Urinary tract stone formation represents a common condition and also a significant burden for health care service, due also to possible frequent relapses. Furthermore, urinary stones have been reported to have relationship with different metabolic derangements, and appropriate diet could contribute to avoid or reduce urinary stone formation. Citrate is an inhibitor of crystal growth in the urinary system, and hypocitraturia represents a main therapeutical target in stone formers. Pears contain a significant amount of malic acid, a precursor of citrate, and have antioxidant activity as well. A diet supplemented with pears, and associated with low consumption of meat and salt could impact positively cardiometabolic risk and urinary tract stone formation. However, very few studies evaluated the impact of pears utilization on health, and none on urinary tract stone formation in particular. High content in malate could warrant protection against stone formation, avoiding patients at high risk to be compelled to assume a considerable and expensive amount of pills.

  16. Stability of pear-shaped configurations bifurcated from a pressurized spherical balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Y. B.; Xie, Y. X.

    2014-08-01

    It is well-known that for most spherical rubber balloons the pressure versus volume curve associated with uniform inflation is N-shaped (the pressure increases rapidly to a maximum, falls to a minimum, and subsequently increases monotonically), and that somewhere along the descending branch of this curve the spherical shape may bifurcate into a pear shape through localized thinning near one of the poles. The bifurcation is associated with the (uniform) surface tension reaching a maximum. It is previously known that whenever a pear-shaped configuration becomes possible, it has lower energy than the co-existing spherical configuration, but the stability of the pear-shaped configuration itself is unknown. With the use of the energy stability criterion, it is shown in this paper that the pear-shaped configuration is unstable under pressure control, but stable under mass control. Our calculations are carried out using the Ogden material model as an example, but it is expected that the qualitative stability results should also be valid for other material models that predict a similar N-shaped behavior for uniform inflation.

  17. Biofilm production and resistance to disinfectants in Salmonella strains isolated from prickly pear, water, and soil.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to: i) determine the capacity of Salmonella isolated from prickly pear (10 strains), water samples (2 strains), and soil (3 strains) to form biofilms, and ii) evaluate the bactericidal effect of citric acid, lactic acid, and sodium hypochlorite on biofilm-forming st...

  18. Evaluating dispensers loaded with codlemone and pear ester for disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyvinyl chloride polymer (pvc) dispensers loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) plus the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were compared with similar dispensers and a commercial dispenser (Isomate®-C Plus) loaded with codle...

  19. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in orchards treated with pear ester and sex pheromone combo dispensers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lures for monitoring codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in apple and walnut blocks treated with Cidetrak CM-DA Combo dispensers loaded with pear ester, ethyl (E, Z)-2,4-decadienoate (PE), and sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Total and female moth catches with combin...

  20. Rape: an Asian perspective.

    PubMed

    Nadesan, K

    2001-06-01

    Rape is one of the fastest growing violent crimes in many parts of the world. Rape laws have been amended in most countries in an attempt to cope with the proliferation of this crime. Even though the legal definition of rape and the procedural laws have been amended, rape remains a serious problem in both the developed and developing nations. In some countries the offence of rape carries severe punishment sometimes even the death sentence. In many jurisdictions the term 'sexual penetration' is being used instead of 'sexual intercourse'. Sexual penetration includes sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio or any other intrusions involving any part of a human body or of any object into the genital or anal opening of a person's body. In many countries rape and other sexual offences have been replaced with a series of gender neutral and graded offences with appropriate punishments. Medical examination can provide independent, scientific, corroborative evidence that may be of value to the court in arriving at a judgement. Doctors should have a clear understanding of different rape laws in order to apprectiate the various issues involved. Special knowledge, skill and experience are essential to conduct a good-quality medical examination. There is a dearth of trained forensic physicians in many Asian countries. However, managing a rape victim (survivor) goes for beyond proving the case in a court of law. There should be an adequate rehabilitation programme available to the victims to help them cope.

  1. Application of Exogenous Ethylene Inhibits Postharvest Peel Browning of ‘Huangguan’ Pear

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yurong; Yang, Mengnan; Wang, Jingjing; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Wang, Qingguo

    2017-01-01

    Peel browning disorder has an enormous impact on the exterior quality of ‘Huangguan’ pear whereas the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Although different methods have been applied for inhibiting the peel browning of ‘Huangguan’ pear, there are numerous issues associated with these approaches, such as time cost, efficacy, safety and stability. In this study, to develop a rapid, efficient and safe way to protect ‘Huangguan’ pear from skin browning, the effect of exogenous ethylene on peel browning of pear fruits stored at 0°C was evaluated. Results showed that ethylene treatments at 0.70–1.28 μL/L significantly decreased the browning rate and browning index from 73.80% and 0.30 to 6.80% and 0.02 after 20 days storage at 0°C, respectively, whereas ethylene treatments at 5 μL/L completely inhibited the occurrence of browning. In addition, ethylene treatments at 5 μL/L decreased the electrolyte leakage and respiration rate, delayed the loss of total phenolic compounds. Furthermore, ethylene (5 μL/L) treatment significantly enhanced the activity of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and increased the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl inhibition rate, but inhibited the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). Our data revealed that ethylene prevented the peel browning through improving antioxidant enzymes (CAT, APX and SOD) activities and reducing PPO activity, electrolyte leakage rate and respiration rate. This study demonstrates that exogenous ethylene application may provide a safe and effective alternative method for controlling browning, and contributes to the understanding of peel browning of ‘Huangguan’ pear. PMID:28149298

  2. Identification of Erwinia amylovora Genes Induced during Infection of Immature Pear Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Youfu; Blumer, Sara E.; Sundin, George W.

    2005-01-01

    The enterobacterium Erwinia amylovora is a devastating plant pathogen causing necrotrophic fire blight disease of apple, pear, and other rosaceous plants. In this study, we used a modified in vivo expression technology system to identify E. amylovora genes that are activated during infection of immature pear tissue, a process that requires the major pathogenicity factors of this organism. We identified 394 unique pear fruit-induced (pfi) genes on the basis of sequence similarity to known genes and separated them into nine putative function groups including host-microbe interactions (3.8%), stress response (5.3%), regulation (11.9%), cell surface (8.9%), transport (13.5%), mobile elements (1.0%), metabolism (20.3%), nutrient acquisition and synthesis (15.5%), and unknown or hypothetical proteins (19.8%). Known virulence genes, including hrp/hrc components of the type III secretion system, the major effector gene dspE, type II secretion, levansucrase (lsc), and regulators of levansucrase and amylovoran biosynthesis, were upregulated during pear tissue infection. Known virulence factors previously identified in E. (Pectobacterium) carotovora and Pseudomonas syringae were identified for the first time in E. amylovora and included HecA hemagglutinin family adhesion, Peh polygalacturonase, new effector HopPtoCEA, and membrane-bound lytic murein transglycosylase MltEEA. An insertional mutation within hopPtoCEA did not result in reduced virulence; however, an mltEEA knockout mutant was reduced in virulence and growth in immature pears. This study suggests that E. amylovora utilizes a variety of strategies during plant infection and to overcome the stressful and poor nutritional environment of its plant hosts. PMID:16291682

  3. Identification of Erwinia amylovora genes induced during infection of immature pear tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Youfu; Blumer, Sara E; Sundin, George W

    2005-12-01

    The enterobacterium Erwinia amylovora is a devastating plant pathogen causing necrotrophic fire blight disease of apple, pear, and other rosaceous plants. In this study, we used a modified in vivo expression technology system to identify E. amylovora genes that are activated during infection of immature pear tissue, a process that requires the major pathogenicity factors of this organism. We identified 394 unique pear fruit-induced (pfi) genes on the basis of sequence similarity to known genes and separated them into nine putative function groups including host-microbe interactions (3.8%), stress response (5.3%), regulation (11.9%), cell surface (8.9%), transport (13.5%), mobile elements (1.0%), metabolism (20.3%), nutrient acquisition and synthesis (15.5%), and unknown or hypothetical proteins (19.8%). Known virulence genes, including hrp/hrc components of the type III secretion system, the major effector gene dspE, type II secretion, levansucrase (lsc), and regulators of levansucrase and amylovoran biosynthesis, were upregulated during pear tissue infection. Known virulence factors previously identified in E. (Pectobacterium) carotovora and Pseudomonas syringae were identified for the first time in E. amylovora and included HecA hemagglutinin family adhesion, Peh polygalacturonase, new effector HopPtoC(EA), and membrane-bound lytic murein transglycosylase MltE(EA). An insertional mutation within hopPtoC(EA) did not result in reduced virulence; however, an mltE(EA) knockout mutant was reduced in virulence and growth in immature pears. This study suggests that E. amylovora utilizes a variety of strategies during plant infection and to overcome the stressful and poor nutritional environment of its plant hosts.

  4. South Asian high and Asian-Pacific-American climate teleconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peiqun; Song, Yang; Kousky, Vernon E.

    2005-11-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the mid-Pacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion, they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  5. Effect of host tree species on cellulase activity and bacterial community composition in the gut of larval Asian longhorned beetle.

    PubMed

    Geib, Scott M; Jimenez-Gasco, Maria Del Mar; Carlson, John E; Tien, Ming; Hoover, Kelli

    2009-06-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis, the Asian longhorned beetle, is a wood-boring insect that can develop in a wide range of healthy deciduous hosts and requires gut microbes to aid in wood degradation and digestion. Here we show that larval A. glabripennis harbor a diverse gut bacterial community, and this community can be extremely variable when reared in different host trees. A. glabripennis reared in a preferred host (Acer saccharum) had the highest gut bacterial diversity compared with larvae reared either in a secondary host (Quercus palustris), a resistant host (Pyrus calleryana), or on artificial diet. The gut microbial community of larval A. glabripennis collected from field populations on Brooklyn, NY, showed the highest degree of complexity among all samples in this study. Overall, when larvae fed on a preferred host, they harbored a broad diversity of gut bacteria spanning the alpha-, beta-, gamma-Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Cellulase activities (beta-1,4-endoglucanase, beta-1,4-exoglucanase, and beta-1,4-glucosidase) in the guts of larvae fed in a preferred host (A. saccharum) or a secondary host (Q. palustris) were significantly higher than that of artificial diet fed larvae. Larvae that fed on wood from a resistant host (P. calleryana) showed suppressed total gut cellulase activity. Results show that the host tree can impact both gut microbial community complexity and cellulase activity in A. glabripennis.

  6. Asian Energy Security

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Hayes, PhD

    2003-12-01

    OAK-B135 In the Asian Energy Security (AES) Project, Nautilus Institute works together with a network of collaborating groups from the countries of Northeast Asia to evaluate the energy security implications of different national and regional energy ''paths''. The goal of the Asia Energy Security project is to illuminate energy paths--and the energy policy choices that might help to bring them about--that result in a higher degree of energy security for the region and for the world as a whole, that is, to identify energy paths that are ''robust'' in meeting many different energy security and development objectives, while also offering flexibility in the face of uncertainty. In work to date, Nautilus has carefully assembled a network of colleagues from the countries of the region, trained them together as a group in the use of a common, flexible, and transparent energy and environmental analysis planning software tool (LEAP, the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning system), and worked with them to prepare base-year energy sector models for each country. To date, complete data sets and models for ''Business as Usual'' (BAU) energy paths have been compiled for China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea. A partial data set and BAU path has been compiled for the Russian Far East, and a data set is being started in Mongolia, where a team of researchers has just joined the AES project. In several countries, ''Alternative'' energy paths have been developed as well, or partially elaborated. National energy sector developments, progress on national LEAP modeling, additional LEAP training, and planning for the next phase of the AES project were the topics of a recent (early November) workshop held in Vancouver, British Columbia. With funding from the Department of Energy, Nautilus is poised to build upon the successes of the project to date with a coordinated international effort to research the energy security ramifications of

  7. Depression among Asian Americans: Review and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of the prevalence and manifestation of depression among Asian Americans and discusses some of the existing issues in the assessment and diagnosis of depression among Asian Americans. The authors point out the diversity and increasing numbers of Asian Americans and the need to provide better mental health services for this population. While the prevalence of depression among Asian Americans is lower than that among other ethnic/racial groups, Asian Americans receive treatment for depression less often and its quality is less adequate. In addition, the previous belief that Asians somatize depression may become obsolete as more evidence appears to support that Westerners may “psychologize” depression. The cultural validity of the current DSM-IV conceptualization of depression is questioned. In the course of the review, the theme of complexity emerges: the heterogeneity of ethnic Asian American groups, the multidimensionality of depression, and the intersectionality of multiple factors among depressed Asian Americans. PMID:21961060

  8. Antimicrobial Activity of Xoconostle Pears (Opuntia matudae) against Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Laboratory Medium

    PubMed Central

    Hayek, Saeed A.; Ibrahim, Salam A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of xoconostle pears (Opuntia matudae) against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Xoconostle pears were sliced, blended, and centrifuged. The supernatant was then filtered using a 0.45 μm filter to obtain direct extract. Direct extract of xoconostle pears was tested against four strains of E. coli O157:H7 in brain heart infusion (BHI) laboratory medium using growth over time and agar well diffusion assays. Our results showed that direct extract of xoconostle pears had a significant (P < 0.05) inhibitory effect at 4, 6, and 8% (v/v) concentrations and complete inhibitory effect at 10% (v/v) during 8 h of incubation at 37°C. Minimum inhibitory volume (MIV) was 400 μL mL−1 (v/v) and minimum lethal volume (MLV) was 650 μL mL−1 (v/v). The inhibitory effect of xoconostle pears found to be concentration dependent and not strain dependent. Thus, xoconostle pears extract has the potential to inhibit the growth of E. coli O157:H7 and could provide a natural means of controlling pathogenic contamination, thereby mitigating food safety risks. PMID:22934117

  9. Asian and Non-Asian Attitudes toward Rape, Sexual Harassment, and Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, M. Alexis; Gorzalka, Boris B.

    2002-01-01

    Explored potential differences between Asian and non-Asian Canadian university students regarding their attitudes toward coercive and noncoercive sexual behavior. Student surveys indicated that Asian students' attitudes were significantly more conservative. Asian students were more tolerant of rape myths and sexual harassment. They demonstrated…

  10. Asian Americans. A Status Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    ethnic groups or from 1 of 25 identified Pacific Island cultures (see table 1.1 and footnotes). In 1980, the Chinese. Filipino, Japanese, Indiar. Korean...Statistics on Asian American 62 Education Appendix VI: Cancer Deaths per 100,000 Population 63 (1978-81) Appendix VII: Cultural and Religious Barriers...themselves as from 1 of 28 Asian countries of origin or ethnic groups or from I of 25 identified Pacific Island cultures (see-map- :)n-ppA-0-and M) The

  11. Numerical Algorithm for Delta of Asian Option.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Boxiang; Yu, Yang; Wang, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    We study the numerical solution of the Greeks of Asian options. In particular, we derive a close form solution of Δ of Asian geometric option and use this analytical form as a control to numerically calculate Δ of Asian arithmetic option, which is known to have no explicit close form solution. We implement our proposed numerical method and compare the standard error with other classical variance reduction methods. Our method provides an efficient solution to the hedging strategy with Asian options.

  12. Variability among the Most Rapidly Evolving Plastid Genomic Regions is Lineage-Specific: Implications of Pairwise Genome Comparisons in Pyrus (Rosaceae) and Other Angiosperms for Marker Choice

    PubMed Central

    Ter-Voskanyan, Hasmik; Allgaier, Martin; Borsch, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Plastid genomes exhibit different levels of variability in their sequences, depending on the respective kinds of genomic regions. Genes are usually more conserved while noncoding introns and spacers evolve at a faster pace. While a set of about thirty maximum variable noncoding genomic regions has been suggested to provide universally promising phylogenetic markers throughout angiosperms, applications often require several regions to be sequenced for many individuals. Our project aims to illuminate evolutionary relationships and species-limits in the genus Pyrus (Rosaceae)—a typical case with very low genetic distances between taxa. In this study, we have sequenced the plastid genome of Pyrus spinosa and aligned it to the already available P. pyrifolia sequence. The overall p-distance of the two Pyrus genomes was 0.00145. The intergenic spacers between ndhC–trnV, trnR–atpA, ndhF–rpl32, psbM–trnD, and trnQ–rps16 were the most variable regions, also comprising the highest total numbers of substitutions, indels and inversions (potentially informative characters). Our comparative analysis of further plastid genome pairs with similar low p-distances from Oenothera (representing another rosid), Olea (asterids) and Cymbidium (monocots) showed in each case a different ranking of genomic regions in terms of variability and potentially informative characters. Only two intergenic spacers (ndhF–rpl32 and trnK–rps16) were consistently found among the 30 top-ranked regions. We have mapped the occurrence of substitutions and microstructural mutations in the four genome pairs. High AT content in specific sequence elements seems to foster frequent mutations. We conclude that the variability among the fastest evolving plastid genomic regions is lineage-specific and thus cannot be precisely predicted across angiosperms. The often lineage-specific occurrence of stem-loop elements in the sequences of introns and spacers also governs lineage-specific mutations

  13. On Asian American Ice Queens and Multigeneration Asian Ethnics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuan, Mia

    1999-01-01

    Reactions to the success of ice-skating stars Kristi Yamaguchi and Michelle Kwan illustrate the ways in which Asian ethnics continue to find themselves excluded from the U.S. racial and cultural center. Although they may be long-time Americans, they are not perceived as such. (SLD)

  14. The Asian American: The Historical Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hundley, Norris, Jr., Ed.

    The essays in this volume look at Asian Americans, their ideas and ways of life, on their own terms, relating them to both Asian and United States history. Roger Daniels presents an overview of East Asian immigrants through a review of the literature by American historians. An essay by Stanford M. Lyman, which follows, analyzes San Francisco's…

  15. 16 Extraordinary Asian Americans. Student Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    Asian Americans have made many contributions to American life. The 1990 U.S. Census showed that Asian Americans represented about 3% of the total U.S. population. This textbook presents the stories of 16 Asian Americans and their significant accomplishments. Brief biographies are presented of: (1) Daniel K. Inouye, U.S. Senator from Hawaii; (2)…

  16. Effect of maturity and cold storage on ethylene biosynthesis and ripening in ‘Bartlett’ pears treated after harvest with 1-MCP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To further our understanding of the response of ‘Bartlett’ pear fruit to 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and their ability to recover the capacity to ripen, ‘Bartlett’ pears were treated with 0.3 µL L-1 1-MCP for 12 h at 20 °C immediately after harvest in two seasons and to pear fruit of four maturitie...

  17. Composition of pulp, skin and seeds of prickly pears fruit (Opuntia ficus indica sp.).

    PubMed

    El Kossori, R L; Villaume, C; El Boustani, E; Sauvaire, Y; Méjean, L

    1998-01-01

    The proximate composition of pulp, skin and seeds of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) was investigated and is reported on a dry weight basis. The most abundant component of the pulp and skin was ethanol-soluble carbohydrates. Pulp contained glucose (35%) and fructose (29%) while the skin contained essentially glucose (21%). Protein content was 5.1% (pulp), 8.3% (skin) and 11.8% (seeds). Starch was found in each of the three parts of the fruit. Pulp fibers were rich in pectin (14.4%), skin and seeds were rich in cellulose (29.1 and 45.1%, respectively). Skin was remarkable for its content of calcium (2.09%) and potassium (3.4%). Prickly pear is a neglected nutritional source which should be more widely used because of its potential nutrient contribution.

  18. Efficient dye-sensitized solar cells using red turnip and purple wild sicilian prickly pear fruits.

    PubMed

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Di Marco, Gaetano; Cazzanti, Silvia; Caramori, Stefano; Argazzi, Roberto; Di Carlo, Aldo; Bignozzi, Carlo Alberto

    2010-01-20

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled by using the bougainvillea flowers, red turnip and the purple wild Sicilian prickly pear fruit juice extracts as natural sensitizers of TiO(2) films. The yellow orange indicaxanthin and the red purple betacyanins are the main components in the cocktail of natural dyes obtained from these natural products. The best overall solar energy conversion efficiency of 1.7% was obtained, under AM 1.5 irradiation, with the red turnip extract, that showed a remarkable current density (Jsc = 9.5 mA/cm(2)) and a high IPCE value (65% at lambda = 470 nm). Also the purple extract of the wild Sicilian prickly pear fruit showed interesting performances, with a Jsc of 9.4 mA/cm(2), corresponding to a solar to electrical power conversion of 1.26%.

  19. The effect of variety and location on cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit quality.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Maryna; Nel, Philip; Osthoff, Gernot; Labuschagne, Maryke T

    2010-06-01

    Little is known about the performance of South African cactus pear varieties in different agro-ecological regions. Effects of locality on internal quality parameters of available cactus pear varieties were examined. With only one exception, no significant differences among the mean replication values for the different parameters between the different locations were observed. The differences between mean values for most individual parameters at the three localities were highly significant. Highly significant differences between the mean values for the measured characteristics were observed, not only among the locations (except for the pulp glucose values), but also for the influences of genotype and interaction between locality and genotype. Significant variations existed between mean values of the different characteristics between localities. Genotype x environmental interactions were noted. It was concluded that Meyers is the most appropriate cultivar for economical purposes in South Africa.

  20. [Measurement and analysis on complex refraction indices of pear pollen in infrared band].

    PubMed

    Li, Le; Hu, Yi-hua; Gu, You-lin; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Yi-zheng; Chen, Shan-jing

    2015-01-01

    Pollen is an important part of bioaerosols, and its complex refractive index is a crucial parameter for study on optical characteristics and detection, identification of bioaerosols. The reflection spectra of pear pollen within the 2. 5 - 15µm waveband were measured by squash method. Based on the measured data, the complex refractive index of pear pollen within the wave-band of 2. 5 to 15 µm was calculated by using Kramers-Kroning (K-K) relation, and calculation deviation about incident angle and different reflectivities at high and low frequencies.were analyzed. The results indicate that 18 degrees angle of incidence and different reflectivities at high and low frequencies have little effect on the results, and it is practicable to calculate the complex refractive index of pollen based on its reflection spectral data. The data of complex refractive index of pollen have some reference value for optical characteristics of pollen, detection and identification of bioaerosols.

  1. Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Red Turnip and Purple Wild Sicilian Prickly Pear Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Di Marco, Gaetano; Cazzanti, Silvia; Caramori, Stefano; Argazzi, Roberto; Di Carlo, Aldo; Bignozzi, Carlo Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled by using the bougainvillea flowers, red turnip and the purple wild Sicilian prickly pear fruit juice extracts as natural sensitizers of TiO2 films. The yellow orange indicaxanthin and the red purple betacyanins are the main components in the cocktail of natural dyes obtained from these natural products. The best overall solar energy conversion efficiency of 1.7% was obtained, under AM 1.5 irradiation, with the red turnip extract, that showed a remarkable current density (Jsc = 9.5 mA/cm2) and a high IPCE value (65% at λ = 470 nm). Also the purple extract of the wild Sicilian prickly pear fruit showed interesting performances, with a Jsc of 9.4 mA/cm2, corresponding to a solar to electrical power conversion of 1.26%. PMID:20162014

  2. Asian American Curriculum Guide: Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Paul Public Schools, Minn.

    Created as part of an in-service teacher education workshop, this guide for a secondary school Asian American curriculum is divided into a section for junior high students and a section for senior high students. In each section, the same pattern is followed. Lesson plans are arranged by subject and grade and are followed by student worksheets when…

  3. Asian-Americans: Psychological Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sue, Stanley, Ed.; Wagner, Nathaniel N., Ed.

    The contents of this book, the purpose of which is the integration of research findings with impressionistic material to provide a better understanding of Asian-Americans, are organized into five parts. Among the five articles included in Part 1, "Introductory Section," are: "The Jap Image," D. Ogawa; "The Evacuation: Impact on the Family," James…

  4. Entertainment Education in Asian Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett; Singhal, Arvind

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes the main lessons learned from various entertainment-education projects (the process of purposely designing and implementing a media message to both entertain and educate) conducted in Asian nations in recent years. Seeks to draw understandings about the basic process of social change and development that result from the…

  5. South Asians in College Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad-Stout, David J.; Nath, Sanjay R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this article is to provide information on the assessment and treatment of South Asian college students for mental health practitioners. We provide a brief historical review of the cultures from which these students come and the process of migration to the United States and also make recommendations for work with these students in the…

  6. Managing ‘Bartlett’ pear fruit ripening with 1-methylcyclopropene reapplication during cold storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Repeated low-dose 1-MCP-applications were evaluated during cold storage of ‘Bartlett’ pear fruit to overcome long-term ripening inhibition of a high dose 1-MCP treatment at harvest. Fruit were exposed to 1-MCP at 0, 0.42, 4.2 or 42 umol m-3 at harvest in year one, and to 0, 0.42 or 42 umol m-3 in y...

  7. Comparing Apples and Pears: Women's Perceptions of Their Body Size and Shape

    PubMed Central

    Hediger, Mary L.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Stanford, Joseph B.; Peterson, C. Matthew; Croughan, Mary S.; Chen, Zhen; Louis, Germaine M. Buck

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is a growing public health problem among reproductive-aged women, with consequences for chronic disease risk and reproductive and obstetric morbidities. Evidence also suggests that body shape (i.e., regional fat distribution) may be independently associated with risk, yet it is not known if women adequately perceive their shape. This study aimed to assess the validity of self-reported body size and shape figure drawings when compared to anthropometric measures among reproductive-aged women. Methods Self-reported body size was ascertained using the Stunkard nine-level figures and self-reported body shape using stylized pear, hourglass, rectangle, and apple figures. Anthropometry was performed by trained researchers. Body size and body mass index (BMI) were compared using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Fat distribution indicators were compared across body shapes for nonobese and obese women using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's exact test. Percent agreement and kappa statistics were computed for apple and pear body shapes. Results The 131 women studied were primarily Caucasian (81%), aged 32 years, with a mean BMI of 27.1 kg/m2 (range 16.6–52.8 kg/m2). The correlation between body size and BMI was 0.85 (p<0.001). Among nonobese women, waist-to-hip ratios (WHR) were 0.75, 0.75, 0.80, and 0.82 for pear, hourglass, rectangle, and apple, respectively (p<0.001). Comparing apples and pears, the percent agreement (kappa) for WHR≥0.80 was 83% (0.55). Conclusions Self-reported size and shape were consistent with anthropometric measures commonly used to assess obesity and fat distribution, respectively. Self-reported body shape may be a useful proxy measure in addition to body size in large-scale surveys. PMID:22873752

  8. Seasonal variability in Prickly Pear Creek water quality and macroinvertebrate communities

    SciTech Connect

    Baldigo, B.P.; Baker, J.R.; Kinney, W.L.; Fillinger, M.

    1986-12-01

    Prickly Pear Creek, Montana, was sampled during four seasons in 1982 and 1983 to attempt to relate biological responses to fluctuations in discharge, in-stream toxicity, and metal concentration in the water column. The biota (macroinvertebrate) were definitely impacted directly downstream from a metal source during all seasons, but no definite relationships among discharge, metal concentration, and biological response could be established on a seasonal basis.

  9. NIR assessment of soluble solids and firmness for pears of different cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiaping; Zhou, Ying; Ying, Yibin; Lu, HuiShan; Xu, Huirong

    2006-10-01

    Development of nondestructive measurements of soluble solids and firmness, which are two important ripeness and quality attributes of fruits, benefits the producers, processors and packers. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in detecting soluble solid content (SSC) and firmness for pears of three cultivars 'Cuiguan', 'Xueqing' and 'Xizilv' (n=160 of each cultivar). Relationships between nondestructive NIR spectral measurements and firmness and SSC of pear fruits were established by partial least square regression (PLSR) method. Models were developed for each cultivar, every two cultivars, and for all three cultivars in the spectral range of 800-2500 nm. The results of the models for all three cultivars turned out the best. For SSC assessment: correlation coefficients of calibration (r cal), root mean standard errors of calibration (RMSEC) and root mean standard errors of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.93, 0.35 °Brix and 0.50 °Brix for all three cultivars, respectively. For firmness assessment: rcal, RMSEC and RMSEP were0.92, 2.29 N, 2.95 N for all three cultivars, respectively. The results indicate that NIR spectroscopy can be used for predicting SSC and firmness of pear fruit and are the basis for the development of NIR analyzer suitable for on line application.

  10. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of three viruses in pear plants by a multiplex RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bingyu; Wang, Guoping; Ma, Xiaofang; Liu, Wenbin; Tang, Huihui; Zhu, Hui; Hong, Ni

    2014-02-01

    A multiplex RT-PCR (mRT-PCR) assay was developed for detection and differentiation of the Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), which are viruses frequently occurring in pear trees. Different combinations of mixed primer pairs were tested for their specificity and sensitivity for the simultaneous detection of the three viruses. Three primer pairs were used to amplify their fragments of 247bp, 358bp and 500bp, respectively. The primer pair for ASPV was designed in this work, while the primer pairs for ACLSV and ASGV were from previous reports. The sensitivity and specificity of the mRT-PCR assay for the three viruses were comparable to that of each uniplex RT-PCR. The mRT-PCR was applied successfully for the detection of three viruses in leaves of pear and apple plants, but was unreliable in the detection of ASGV in dormant barks. In conclusion, this mRT-PCR provides a useful tool for the routine and rapid detection and the differentiation of three pear viruses.

  11. Revision rhinoplasty for the Asian nose.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2008-08-01

    Revision rhinoplasty of the Asian nose requires a combination of cultural sensitivity and unique surgical strategies to achieve a successful outcome. Cultural sensitivity means understanding some of the folkloric motivations to undergo rhinoplasty and divergent ethnic standards of beauty. Basic techniques for Asian rhinoplasty are reviewed as a prerequisite knowledge for revision rhinoplasty of the Asian nose, specifically a combination technique of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene for bridge augmentation and autogenous cartilage tip grafting. Revision Asian nose surgery oftentimes involves removal of a previously placed solid silicone implant, which remains the most popular option for augmentation rhinoplasty in Asia. Strategies for revision rhinoplasty in the Asian nose are then reviewed.

  12. Health Care Expenditures Among Asian American Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Ortega, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    Using two nationally representative data sets, this study examined health care expenditure disparities between Caucasians and different Asian American subgroups. Multivariate analyses demonstrate that Asian Americans, as a group, have significantly lower total expenditures compared with Caucasians. Results also point to considerable heterogeneities in health care spending within Asian American subgroups. Findings suggest that language assistance programs would be effective in reducing disparities among Caucasians and Asian American subgroups with the exception of Indians and Filipinos, who tend to be more proficient in English. Results also indicate that citizenship and nativity were major factors associated with expenditure disparities. Socioeconomic status, however, could not explain expenditure disparities. Results also show that Asian Americans have lower physician and pharmaceutical costs but not emergency department or hospital expenditures. These findings suggest the need for culturally competent policies specific to Asian American subgroups and the necessity to encourage cost-effective treatments among Asian Americans. PMID:23223329

  13. Health care expenditures among Asian American subgroups.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Ortega, Alexander N

    2013-06-01

    Using two nationally representative data sets, this study examined health care expenditure disparities between Caucasians and different Asian American subgroups. Multivariate analyses demonstrate that Asian Americans, as a group, have significantly lower total expenditures compared with Caucasians. Results also point to considerable heterogeneities in health care spending within Asian American subgroups. Findings suggest that language assistance programs would be effective in reducing disparities among Caucasians and Asian American subgroups with the exception of Indians and Filipinos, who tend to be more proficient in English. Results also indicate that citizenship and nativity were major factors associated with expenditure disparities. Socioeconomic status, however, could not explain expenditure disparities. Results also show that Asian Americans have lower physician and pharmaceutical costs but not emergency department or hospital expenditures. These findings suggest the need for culturally competent policies specific to Asian American subgroups and the necessity to encourage cost-effective treatments among Asian Americans.

  14. Bioavailability of Iron to Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain A506 on Flowers of Pear and Apple.

    PubMed

    Temple, Todd N; Stockwell, Virginia O; Loper, Joyce E; Johnson, Kenneth B

    2004-12-01

    ABSTRACT The addition of 0.1 mM FeCl(3) to a defined culture medium induces the bacterial epiphyte Pseudomonas fluorescens strain A506 (A506) to produce an antibiotic toxic to the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora. Consequently, because A506 is registered and applied as a commercial product to suppress E. amylovora before floral infection of pear and apple, the relative availability of iron to A506 on surfaces of pear and apple flowers is of potential significance. An 'iron biosensor' construct of A506 was developed by transformation with an iron-regulated promoter (pvd) fused to a promoterless ice nucleation reporter gene (inaZ). This construct, A506 (pvd-inaZ), established high populations on pear and apple flowers, ranging from 10(4) to 10(6) CFU/flower. In seven trials on pear and apple trees, A506 (pvd-inaZ) expressed high ice nucleation activity (INA) on flowers, indicating limited iron bioavailability or a low-iron environment unlikely to induce antibiotic production by A506. A506 (pvd-inaZ) also colonized flowers when mixed with chemicals containing iron: FeSO(4) or the iron chelates ferric ethylenediaminedi-(o-hydroxyphenyl-acetic) acid (FeEDDHA) and ferric diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (FeDTPA). These compounds represent an array of commercial iron formulations applied to foliage to avert iron chlorosis. Treatment of flowers with a mixture of A506 (pvd-inaZ) and 3 mM FeEDDHA or FeDTPA significantly decreased INA compared with flowers treated with A506 (pvd-inaZ) in water. Lower concentrations (0.3 mM) of FeEDDHA, however, did not consistently suppress INA. These results indicate that apple and pear flowers represent an iron-limited environment to A506 and that treatment with 3 mM FeEDDHA is needed to increase significantly the level of iron available to this bacterium.

  15. Prickly pear (Opuntia sp.) pectin reverses low density lipoprotein receptor suppression induced by a hypercholesterolemic diet in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M L; Lin, E C; Trejo, A; McNamara, D J

    1992-12-01

    The effects of prickly pear pectin on plasma LDL metabolism were investigated by feeding guinea pigs either a diet containing 15 g/100 g lard and 0.25 g/100 g cholesterol (LC diet) or the LC diet in which cellulose was partially replaced (2.5 g/100 g) by prickly pear pectin (LC-P diet). The LC-P diet lowered plasma LDL cholesterol concentrations by 33% (P < 0.001). Low density lipoprotein composition was modified by intake of prickly pear pectin; the relative percentages of free and esterified cholesterol were lower and triglycerides were higher in LDL from animals fed the LC-P diet (P < 0.05). Intake of prickly pear pectin did not affect hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity; however, hepatic free and esterified cholesterol concentrations were lowered by 46 and 64%, respectively. Hepatic apolipoprotein B/E receptor expression (Bmax) was 60% higher in animals fed the LC-P diet (P < 0.01). Similar to the in vitro data, receptor-mediated LDL fractional catabolic rates were 190% higher in animals fed the LC-P diet (P < 0.05), whereas apolipoprotein LDL flux rates were not affected. Apolipoprotein LDL pool size and fractional catabolic rates exhibited a significant correlation (r = -0.52, P < 0.01). These data indicate that an increase in apolipoprotein B/E receptor expression is a major metabolic response by which intake of prickly pear pectin decreases plasma LDL concentrations.

  16. Corridor use by Asian elephants.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wenjing; Lin, Liu; Luo, Aidong; Zhang, Li

    2009-06-01

    There are 18 km of Kunming-Bangkok Highway passing through the Mengyang Nature Reserve of Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province, China. From September 2005 to September 2006 the impact of this highway on movement of wild Asian elephants between the eastern and western part of the nature reserve was studied using track transecting, rural surveys and direct monitoring. Our results showed that the number of crossroad corridors used by Asian elephants diminished from 28 to 23 following the construction of the highway. In some areas, the elephant activity diminished or even disappeared, which indicated a change in their home ranges. The utilization rate of artificial corridors was 44%. We also found that elephants preferred artificial corridors that were placed along their original corridors. During the research, wild elephants revealed their adaptation to the highway. They were found walking across the highway road surface many times and for different reasons. We suggest that the highway management bureau should revise their management strategies to mitigate the potential risks caused by elephants on the road for the safety of the public and to protect this endangered species from harm. It is also very important to protect and maintain current Asian elephants corridors in this region.

  17. Asian Rhinoplasty with Rib Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myung Ju; Song, Hyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    An Asian rhinoplasty is one of the most popular procedures in plastic surgery. The anatomical characteristics of the Asian nose are quite different from those of other races, including low dorsum height, short columella, a thick soft tissue covering on the tip with flaccid lower lateral cartilage, and a sunken midface with relative protrusion of the mouth due to maxilla or premaxillary retrusion. For augmentation and lengthening of the nose, a silicone implant has been commonly used in Asian countries. However, many patients suffer from silicone-related complications, which induce soft tissue contraction and deform the already fragile nasal structure. Additionally, revision surgery is also increasing in frequency due to greater patient sophistication and higher expectation that the end rhinoplasty result to be more harmonious with the patient's overall facial structure. In these circumstances, a rhinoplasty using autologous rib cartilage, giving strong support and enough amount of the cartilage to correct deformed structure and midface skeletal retrusion. If properly performed with enough experience, a rib cartilage rhinoplasty will provide excellent and long-lasting results with low risk. PMID:26648806

  18. Attraction of Male Winterform Pear Psylla to Female-produced Volatiles and to Female Extracts and Evidence of Male-Male Repellency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a major pest of commercial pears in North America and Europe. Olfactometer trials have shown that males of both the summerform and winterform morphotype are attracted to female-infested host material. Additional work with the su...

  19. Asians in New York City: A Demographic Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steingasser, Jean; And Others

    This demographic survey provides the following information on Asian Americans: (1) states with the highest Asian American population; (2) ethnic breakdown among Asians; (3) Asian immigration history and legislation affecting it; (4) individual immigration histories of Asian Americans in New York City (New York), including the Chinese, Japanese,…

  20. Resurgent Ethnicity among Asian Americans: Ethnic Neighborhood Context and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Emily

    2012-01-01

    In this study I investigate the associations of neighborhood socioeconomic and social environments with the health of Asian Americans living in both Asian ethnic neighborhoods and non-Asian neighborhoods. I use a sample of 1962 Asian Americans from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS, 2003-04). Three key findings emerge. First,…

  1. Aging Asian Upper Blepharoplasty and Brow

    PubMed Central

    Park, David Daehwan

    2015-01-01

    The preoperative comprehensive evaluation of aging Asian patients seeking an Asian upper blepharoplasty and brow lift is imperative and should be performed meticulously. There are many methods of upper Asian face rejuvenation. Among them, the proper selection of operative technique is necessary. The operative technique for an aging Asian upper blepharoplasty and brow lift should be performed based on anatomical structures and their relationship. Modifications to the procedure are correlated with the degree of periorbital aging. The height of double fold in an aging Asian upper blepharoplasty should not exceed 10 mm from the eyelid margin when the eye is closed. The preservation of orbital fat during a blepharoplasty is needed for the prevention of periorbital hollowing, which looks older. For satisfactory results in aging Asian upper blepharoplasty and brow lift, the harmonization of the position of the upper eyelid and eyebrow is important. Noninvasive rejuvenation such as botulinum toxin and filler are good options for facial rejuvenation. PMID:26306086

  2. Correlates of suicidal behaviors among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Duldulao, Aileen Alfonso; Takeuchi, David T; Hong, Seunghye

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of suicidal ideation, suicide plan and suicide attempt among Asian Americans focusing on nativity and gender. Analyses are performed on data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (N = 2095), the first ever study conducted on the mental health of a national sample of Asian Americans. The sample is comprised of adults with 998 men (47%) and 1,097 (53%) women. Analysis of weighted lifetime prevalence of suicidal behaviors revealed that U.S.-born Asian American women had higher prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide plan than U.S.-born Asian American men and immigrant Asian American men and women. In multivariate analyses controlling for socio-demographic differences such as ethnicity, marital status and income, differences in suicidal behaviors are found only between U.S.-born women and U.S.-born men. The findings demonstrate the need to disaggregate data by immigrant status as well as socio-demographic correlates.

  3. Aesthetic facial surgery for the asian male.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2005-11-01

    Cosmetic surgery of the Asian face has become increasingly popular in the Far East and the West. The Asian male identity has undergone an evolution in Western media toward a more positive change. The standards of beauty have also changed, being defined by more multicultural models and styles of dress than before. To undertake cosmetic surgery of the Asian face, particularly of the Asian male, requires a different psychological understanding of the individual as well as an entirely different surgical technique in most cases. This brief article does not delve into the technical details of each procedure but concentrates on the salient differences in how to approach the Asian male patient for each of the different procedures, including Asian blepharoplasty, augmentation rhinoplasty, lip reduction, dimple fabrication, otoplasty, facial contouring and aging face procedures, and hair restoration.

  4. Asian Americans: growth, change, and diversity.

    PubMed

    Gardner, R W; Robey, B; Smith, P C

    1985-10-01

    The 1980 US census counted 3.5 million Asian Americans, up from 1.4 million in 1970. Asian Americans made up just 1.5% of the total US population of 226.5 million as of April 1, 1980, but this was the 3rd largest racial or ethnic minority after blacks and Hispanics. Asians increased far more during the 1970s (141%) than blacks (17%) or Hispanics (39%). This Bulletin examines the characteristics of Asian Americans, how their numbers have grown, where they live, how different groups vary in age structure, childbearing, health, and longevity. It reports on the kinds of households Asian Americans form and how they fare with regard to education, occupation, and income. Asian Americans are now often perceived as the model minority. As a whole, they are better educated, occupy higher rungs on the occupational ladder, and earn more than the general US population and even white Americans. This Bulletin presents the 1st comprehensive look at many important facts about Asian Americans and how the groups differ. Special tabulations of data collected in the 1980 census are provided. The 1980 census data are the latest available to give a true picture at the national level of Asian Americans and the various groups among them. The Bulletin examines the current numbers of Asian Americans and how this population is defined. The major Asian American groups are Chinese (21%), Filipinos (20%), Japanese (15%), Vietnamese (21%), Koreans (11%), and Asian Indians (10%). Except for the latest-arrived Vietnamese, the fertility of the 6 groups is lower than the white average. The following areas are also discussed: mortality and health; families and households; education; Asian youth; employment; income and poverty; and future prospects.

  5. Asian Values and Democratic Citizenship: Exploring Attitudes among South Korean Eighth Graders Using Data from the ICCS Asian Regional Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Ryan Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing data from the 2009 IEA International Civic and Citizenship Study Asian Regional Module, this secondary analysis explores the relationship between traditional Asian values and democratic citizenship. Findings identify two dimensions of Asian values: Asian civic values and obedience to authority. Among South Korean students, Asian civic…

  6. Improved monitoring of female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with pear ester plus acetic acid in sex pheromone-treated orchards.

    PubMed

    Knight, Alan

    2010-08-01

    The performance of clear delta traps baited with 3.0 mg of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and 5.0 ml of acetic acid in separate lures was compared with orange delta traps baited with a single lure containing 3.0 mg of both pear ester and the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in apple, Malus domestica (Borkhausen). Residual analyses and field tests demonstrated that both the pear ester and acetic acid lures were effective for at least 8 wk. The two trap-lure combinations caught a similar number of total moths in an orchard treated with sex pheromone dispensers during short-term trials in 2008. However, the mean catch of female moths was significantly higher and male moths significantly lower in clear traps baited with pear ester and acetic acid versus orange traps baited with pear ester and codlemone. Season-long studies were conducted with these two trap-lure combinations in orchards treated with (n = 6) and without (n = 7) sex pheromone dispensers during 2009. The two trap-lure combinations caught similar numbers of moths in dispenser-treated orchards. In contrast, total catch was significantly higher (>2-fold) in the orange compared with the clear traps in untreated orchards. The clear caught >6-fold more females than the orange trap in both types of orchards. These studies suggest that deploying clear delta traps baited with pear ester and acetic acid can be an effective monitoring tool for female codling moth and an alternative to codlemone-baited traps in sex pheromone-treated orchards.

  7. Investigation of ascorbate metabolism during inducement of storage disorders in pear.

    PubMed

    Cascia, Giuseppe; Bulley, Sean M; Punter, Matthew; Bowen, Judith; Rassam, Maysoon; Schotsmans, Wendy C; Larrigaudière, Christian; Johnston, Jason W

    2013-02-01

    In pear and apple, depletion of ascorbate has previously been associated with development of stress-related flesh browning. This disorder occurs in intact fruit and differs from browning associated with tissue maceration and processing. We investigated changes in ascorbate content, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities and gene expression of l-galactose pathway genes, ascorbate recycling genes and APXs from harvest to 30 days storage for three pear varieties ['Williams Bon Chretien' (WBC), 'Doyenne du Comice' and 'Beurre Bosc']. The pears were stored at 0.5°C in air or controlled atmosphere (CA, 2 kPa O(2) and 5 kPa CO(2)). Storage in CA caused significant amounts of storage disorders in WBC only. Ascorbate content generally declined after harvest, although a transient increase in ascorbate in the form of dehydroascorbate (DHA) between harvest and 3 days was observed in CA stored WBC, possibly due to low at-harvest monodehydroascorbate reductase and CA-decreased dehydroascorbate reductase expression. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction indicated that all cultivars responded to CA storage by increasing transcripts for APXs, and surprisingly the pre-l-galactose pathway gene GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase, of which the product GDP mannose, is utilized either for cell wall polysaccharides, protein N-glycosylation or ascorbate production. Overall, the small differences in ascorbate we observed suggest how ascorbate is utilized, rather than ascorbate content, determines the potential to develop internal browning. Moreover, a transitory increase in DHA postharvest may indicate that fruits are at risk of developing the disorder.

  8. Yeast biocontrol of fungal spoilage of pears stored at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Robiglio, Andrea; Sosa, M Cristina; Lutz, M Cecilia; Lopes, Christian A; Sangorrín, Marcela P

    2011-06-30

    To reduce the use of fungicides, biological control with yeasts has been proposed in postharvest pears. Most studies of antagonists selection have been carried out at room temperature. However, in regions like North Patagonia where fruits are stored at -1/0 °C during 5-7 months the selection of potential antagonist agents must be carried out at low temperature. In this study, 75 yeast cultures were isolated from healthy pears from two Patagonian cold-storage packinghouses. Aureobasidium pullulans, Cryptococcus albidus, Cryptococcus difluens, Pichia membranifaciens, Pichia philogaea, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast species were identified. Additionally, 13 indigenous isolates of Penicillium expansum and 10 isolates of Botrytis cinerea were obtained from diseased pears, characterized by aggressiveness and tested for sensitivity to postharvest fungicides. The yeasts were pre-selected for their ability to grow at low temperature. In a first biocontrol assay using the most aggressive and the most sensitive isolate of each pathogen, two epiphytic isolates of A. pullulans and R. mucilaginosa were the most promising isolates to be used as biocontrol agents. They reduced the decay incidence by P. expansum to 33% and the lesion diameter in 88% after 60 days of incubation in cold. Foreign commercial yeast used as a reference in assays, only reduced 30% of lesion diameter in the same conditions. Yeasts were not able to reduce the incidence of B. cinerea decay. The control activity of the best two yeasts was compared with the control caused by the fungicides in a second bioassay, obtaining higher levels of protection against P. expansum by the yeasts. These two regional yeasts isolates could be promising tools for the future development of commercial products for biological control.

  9. [Hyperspectral technology combined with CARS algorithm to quantitatively determine the SSC in Korla fragrant pear].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Bai-Shao; Ni, Jun-Hui; Li, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has large data volume and high dimensionality, and original spectra data includes a lot of noises and severe scattering. And, quality of acquired hyperspectral data can be influenced by non-monochromatic light, external stray light and temperature, which resulted in having some non-linear relationship between the acquired hyperspectral data and the predicted quality index. Therefore, the present study proposed that competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) algorithm is used to select the key variables from visible and near infrared hyperspectral data. The performance of CARS was compared with full spectra, successive projections algorithm (SPA), Monte Carlo-uninformative variable elimination (MC-UVE), genetic algorithm (GA) and GA-SPA (genetic algorithm-successive projections algorithm). Two hundred Korla fragrant pears were used as research object. SPXY algorithm was used to divided sample set to correction set with 150 samples and prediction set with 50 samples, respectively. Based on variables selected by different methods, linear PLS and nonlinear LS-SVM models were developed, respectively, and the performance of models was assessed using parameters r2, RMSEP and RPD. A comprehensive comparison found that GA, GA-SPA and CARS can effectively select the variables with strong and useful information. These methods can be used for selection of Vis-NIR hyperspectral data variables, particularly for CARS. LS-SVM model can obtain the best results for SSC prediction of Korla fragrant pear based on variables obtained from CARS method. r2, RMSEP and RPD were 0.851 2, 0.291 3 and 2.592 4, respectively. The study showed that CARS is an effectively hyperspectral variable selection method, and nonlinear LS-SVM model is more suitable than linear PLS model for quantitatively determining the quality of fra- grant pear based on hyperspectral information.

  10. [Evaluation of Sugar Content of Huanghua Pear on Trees by Visible/Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui-jun; Ying, Yi-bin

    2015-11-01

    A method of ambient light correction was proposed to evaluate the sugar content of Huanghua pears on tree by visible/near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS). Due to strong interference of ambient light, it was difficult to collect the efficient spectral of pears on tree. In the field, covering the fruits with a bag blocking ambient light can get better results, but the efficiency is fairly low, the instrument corrections of dark and reference spectra may help to reduce the error of the model, however, the interference of the ambient light cannot be eliminated effectively. In order to reduce the effect of ambient light, a shutter was attached to the front of probe. When opening shutter, the spot spectrum were obtained, on which instrument light and ambient light acted at the same time. While closing shutter, background spectra were obtained, on which only ambient light acted, then the ambient light spectra was subtracted from spot spectra. Prediction models were built using data on tree (before and after ambient light correction) and after harvesting by partial least square (PLS). The results of the correlation coefficient (R) are 0.1, 0.69, 0.924; the root mean square error of prediction (SEP) are 0. 89°Brix, 0.42°Brix, 0.27°Brix; ratio of standard deviation (SD) to SEP (RPD) are 0.79, 1.69, 2.58, respectively. The results indicate that, method of background correction used in the experiment can reduce the effect of ambient lighting on spectral acquisition of Huanghua pears in field, efficiently. This method can be used to collect the visible/near infrared spectrum of fruits in field, and may give full play to visible/near-infrared spectroscopy in preharvest management and maturity testing of fruits in the field.

  11. "How Asian Am I?": Asian American Youth Cultures, Drug Use, and Ethnic Identity Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Evans, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the construction of ethnic identity in the narratives of 100 young Asian Americans in a dance club/rave scene. Authors examine how illicit drug use and other consuming practices shape their understanding of Asian American identities, finding three distinct patterns. The first presents a disjuncture between Asian American…

  12. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of the prickly pear's spines and glochids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, T.; Arronte, M.; Ponce, L.; Peña-Díaz, M.

    2006-02-01

    A qualitative analysis of laser breakdown experiment in prickle pear ablation is presented. The experiments were made using a pulse free-running Nd:YAG laser, and consist in irradiating both the areole and cortex zones. It was find out that the intensity of spectra captured from ablated glochids depends from number of pulses and the presence of water. The picks observed on the electronic noise can be associated with combustion products obtained during thermal laser interaction. It was demonstrated that LIBS technique can be used for on-line monitoring in laser de-thorning machine.

  13. Hurdle technology applied to prickly pear beverages for inhibiting Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    García-García, R; Escobedo-Avellaneda, Z; Tejada-Ortigoza, V; Martín-Belloso, O; Valdez-Fragoso, A; Welti-Chanes, J

    2015-06-01

    The effect of pH reduction (from 6·30-6·45 to 4·22-4·46) and the addition of antimicrobial compounds (sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate) on the inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli in prickly pear beverages formulated with the pulp and peel of Villanueva (V, Opuntia albicarpa) and Rojo Vigor (RV, Opuntia ficus-indica) varieties during 14 days of storage at 25°C, was evaluated. RV variety presented the highest microbial inhibition. By combining pH reduction and preservatives, reductions of 6·2-log10 and 2·3-log10 for E. coli and S. cerevisiae were achieved respectively. Due to the low reduction of S. cerevisiae, pulsed electric fields (PEF) (11-15 μs/25-50 Hz/27-36 kV cm(-1)) was applied as another preservation factor. The combination of preservatives, pH reduction and PEF at 13-15 μs/25-50 Hz for V variety, and 11 μs/50 Hz, 13-15 μs/25-50 Hz for RV, had a synergistic effect on S. cerevisiae inhibition, achieving at least 3·4-log10 of microbial reduction immediately after processing, and more than 5-log10 at fourth day of storage at 25°C maintained this reduction during 21 days of storage (P > 0·05). Hurdle technology using PEF in combination with other factors is adequate to maintain stable prickly pear beverages during 21 days/25°C. Significance and impact of the study: Prickly pear is a fruit with functional value, with high content of nutraceuticals and antioxidant activity. Functional beverages formulated with the pulp and peel of this fruit represent an alternative for its consumption. Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are micro-organisms that typically affect fruit beverage quality and safety. The food industry is looking for processing technologies that maintain quality without compromising safety. Hurdle technology, including pulsed electric fields (PEF) could be an option to achieve this. The combination of PEF, pH reduction and preservatives is an alternative to obtain safe and minimally processed

  14. Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Population Profiles > Asian American > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders Among Asian Americans, chronic liver disease is a leading cause of death. While ...

  15. National Conference on Asians in America and Asian Americans. Sponsored by the Asian American Assembly for Policy Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Univ. of New York, NY. City Coll. Dept. of Asian Studies.

    In this report, the activities of a conference on Asian Americans and Asians in America are summarized and papers presented are reprinted. Topics considered in the papers include education, employment, affirmative action, identity, pluralism, Chinese cultural background, teaching of English, cross-cultural situations, development of comprehensive…

  16. Acoustics of old Asian bells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    2004-05-01

    The art of casting bronze bells developed to a high level of sophistication in China during the Shang dynasty (1766-1123 BC). Many chimes of two-tone bells remain from the Western and Eastern Zhou dynasties (1122-249 BC). With the spread of Buddhism from the third century, large round temple bells developed in China and later in Korea, Japan, and other Asian countries. Vibrational modes of some of these bells have been studied by means of holographic interferometry and experimental modal testing. Their musical as well as acoustical properties are discussed.

  17. Awareness and Use of South Asian Tobacco Products Among South Asians in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Hrywna, Mary; Jane Lewis, M; Mukherjea, Arnab; Banerjee, Smita C; Steinberg, Michael B; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-12-01

    South Asians are the third largest Asian group in the US and among the fastest growing racial groups in New Jersey. Tobacco consumption among South Asians is characterized by several smoked and smokeless tobacco products indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. However, there is a paucity of research on tobacco use behaviors among South Asians in the US. The goal of this study was to examine the awareness and use of South Asian tobacco products such as bidis, gutkha, paan, paan masala, and zarda as well as other potentially carcinogenic products such as supari, their context of use, and their cultural significance among South Asians living in the US. Eight focus groups were conducted with South Asian adults living in Central New Jersey. Overall, participants were aware of a wide variety of foreign and American tobacco products with older South Asians identifying a greater variety of indigenous products compared to younger South Asians. Hookah was consistently recognized as popular among the younger generation while products such as paan or paan masala were more commonly identified with elders. Use of tobacco-related products such as paan and supari were described as common at social gatherings or after meals. In addition, light or social users of South Asian tobacco products, including products not consistently defined as tobacco, may not report tobacco use on a survey. Better understanding of the use of these products among South Asians and how some may classify tobacco usage can inform future research and public health interventions in these communities.

  18. Asian Diversity: More Than Meets the Eye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations, CA.

    This informational booklet describes the diversity among Asian Americans who, because of similar physical characteristics, are often assumed to be alike. Asian Americans differ not only in their families' national origin, but in just about every other way imaginable, including economic status, life experience, culture, customs, tastes, values,…

  19. Asian Cinema and the Social Imaginary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissanayake, Wimal

    2009-01-01

    There is growing interest by schools and universities in understanding Asian societies and cultures. One way of deepening this interest productively is through the imaginative use of cinema. In this article, the author explores how cinema can be a window into the dynamics of contemporary Asian societies and cultures. Through "aesthetic…

  20. Understanding and Counseling Asian American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandras, Kananur V.

    Asian American students who encounter personal problems may hesitate to utilize counseling and mental health facilities on campuses, being fearful that family, friends and/or relatives may consider them emotionally unstable. Counselors and mental health workers may lack understanding of language and cultural background of Asian-American students,…