Awata, Hiroshi; Linder, Stephen; Mitchell, Laura E.; Delclos, George L.
Asian subgroups. Results: Asians had significantly higher levels of all five metal biomarkers than other race/ethnic groups (p < 0.05), regardless of sociodemographic, physical, dietary, behavioral, or geographic characteristics. We also found variations in biomarker levels across the Asian subgroups. In general, Asian Indians had lower levels than the other two Asian subgroups, except for blood lead. The following characteristics were found to be significant predictors of several biomarker levels: sex, age, education, birthplace, smoking, and fish consumption.Results: Asians had significantly higher levels of all five metal biomarkers than other race/ethnic groups (p < 0.05), regardless of sociodemographic, physical, dietary, behavioral, or geographic characteristics. We also found variations in biomarker levels across the Asian subgroups. In general, Asian Indians had lower levels than the other two Asian subgroups, except for blood lead. The following characteristics were found to be significant predictors of several biomarker levels: sex, age, education, birthplace, smoking, and fish consumption. Conclusions: Overall, the Asian group had the highest geometric mean biomarker levels for all of the five metal variables. Furthermore, we provided evidence that significant variations in the biomarker levels are present across the Asian subgroups in the United States.Conclusions: Overall, the Asian group had the highest geometric mean biomarker levels for all of the five metal variables. Furthermore, we provided evidence that significant variations in the biomarker levels are present across the Asian subgroups in the United States. Citation: Awata H, Linder S, Mitchell LE, Delclos GL. 2017. Biomarker levels of toxic metals among Asian populations in the United States: NHANES 2011–2012. Environ Health Perspect 125:306–313; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP27Citation: Awata H, Linder S, Mitchell LE, Delclos GL. 2017. Biomarker levels of toxic metals among Asian populations
Awata, Hiroshi; Linder, Stephen; Mitchell, Laura E; Delclos, George L
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently found that Asians have considerably higher biomarker levels of cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic than whites, blacks, Mexican Americans, and other Hispanics in the United States. Our goal was to further evaluate the higher metal biomarker levels among Asians. Biomarker data (blood cadmium, blood lead, blood mercury, urinary total arsenic, and urinary dimethylarsinic acic) from individuals ≥ 6 years of age were obtained from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We compared geometric mean levels of these five metal biomarkers in Asians with those of four other NHANES race/ethnic groups (white, black, Mexican American, and other Hispanic), and across three Asian subgroups (Chinese, Asian Indian, and other Asian). We also evaluated associations between biomarker levels and sociodemographic, physical, dietary, and behavioral covariates across the Asian subgroups. Asians had significantly higher levels of all five metal biomarkers than other race/ethnic groups (p < 0.05), regardless of sociodemographic, physical, dietary, behavioral, or geographic characteristics. We also found variations in biomarker levels across the Asian subgroups. In general, Asian Indians had lower levels than the other two Asian subgroups, except for blood lead. The following characteristics were found to be significant predictors of several biomarker levels: sex, age, education, birthplace, smoking, and fish consumption. Overall, the Asian group had the highest geometric mean biomarker levels for all of the five metal variables. Furthermore, we provided evidence that significant variations in the biomarker levels are present across the Asian subgroups in the United States. Citation: Awata H, Linder S, Mitchell LE, Delclos GL. 2017. Biomarker levels of toxic metals among Asian populations in the United States: NHANES 2011-2012. Environ Health Perspect 125:306-313; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP27.
Ladabaum, Uri; Clarke, Christina A; Press, David J; Mannalithara, Ajitha; Myer, Parvathi A; Cheng, Iona; Gomez, Scarlett Lin
Heritable and environmental factors may contribute to differences in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence across populations. We capitalized on the resources of the California Cancer Registry (CCR) and California's diverse Asian population to perform a cohort study exploring the relationships between CRC incidence, nativity, and neighborhood-level factors across Asian subgroups. We identified CRC cases in the CCR from 1990 to 2004 and calculated age-adjusted CRC incidence rates for non-Hispanic Whites and US-born vs. foreign-born Asian ethnic subgroups, stratified by neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and "ethnic enclave." Trends were studied with joinpoint analysis. CRC incidence was lowest among foreign-born South Asians (22.0/100,000; 95% confidence interval (CI): 19.7-24.5/100,000) and highest among foreign-born Japanese (74.6/100,000; 95% CI: 70.1-79.2/100,000). Women in all Asian subgroups except Japanese, and men in all Asian subgroups except Japanese and US-born Chinese, had lower CRC incidence than non-Hispanic Whites. Among Chinese men and Filipino women and men, CRC incidence was lower among foreign-born than US-born persons; the opposite was observed for Japanese women and men. Among non-Hispanic Whites, but not most Asian subgroups, CRC incidence decreased over time. CRC incidence was inversely associated with neighborhood SES among non-Hispanic Whites, and level of ethnic enclave among Asians. CRC incidence rates differ substantially across Asian subgroups in California. The significant associations between CRC incidence and nativity and residence in an ethnic enclave suggest a substantial effect of acquired environmental factors. The absence of declines in CRC incidence rates among most Asians during our study period may point to disparities in screening compared with Whites.
... Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to a friend by ... an even more serious problem as the world population and longevity increases. The other major glaucoma type ...
Man, Ryan Eyn Kidd; Li, Ling-Jun; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien Yin; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Sabanayagam, Charumathi
This population-based cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and risk factors of suboptimal vitamin D levels (assessed using circulating 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D)) in a multi-ethnic sample of Asian adults. Plasma 25(OH)D concentration of 1139 Chinese, Malay and Indians (40–80 years) were stratified into normal (≥30 ng/mL), and suboptimal (including insufficiency and deficiency, <30 ng/mL) based on the 2011 Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of demographic, lifestyle and clinical risk factors with the outcome. Of the 1139 participants, 25(OH)D concentration was suboptimal in 76.1%. In multivariable models, age ≤65 years (compared to age >65 years), Malay and Indian ethnicities (compared to Chinese ethnicity), and higher body mass index, HbA1c, education and income levels were associated with suboptimal 25(OH)D concentration (p < 0.05). In a population-based sample of Asian adults, approximately 75% had suboptimal 25(OH)D concentration. Targeted interventions and stricter reinforcements of existing guidelines for vitamin D supplementation are needed for groups at risk of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency. PMID:28327512
Man, Ryan Eyn Kidd; Li, Ling-Jun; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien Yin; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Sabanayagam, Charumathi
This population-based cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and risk factors of suboptimal vitamin D levels (assessed using circulating 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D)) in a multi-ethnic sample of Asian adults. Plasma 25(OH)D concentration of 1139 Chinese, Malay and Indians (40-80 years) were stratified into normal (≥30 ng/mL), and suboptimal (including insufficiency and deficiency, <30 ng/mL) based on the 2011 Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of demographic, lifestyle and clinical risk factors with the outcome. Of the 1139 participants, 25(OH)D concentration was suboptimal in 76.1%. In multivariable models, age ≤65 years (compared to age >65 years), Malay and Indian ethnicities (compared to Chinese ethnicity), and higher body mass index, HbA1c, education and income levels were associated with suboptimal 25(OH)D concentration (p < 0.05). In a population-based sample of Asian adults, approximately 75% had suboptimal 25(OH)D concentration. Targeted interventions and stricter reinforcements of existing guidelines for vitamin D supplementation are needed for groups at risk of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency.
Zhou, Mengge; Zhao, Dong
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most common autosomal disorder characterized by an elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level and a high risk of premature cardiovascular disease. In this review, we summarize information on FH studies in Asian countries, focusing on mean cholesterol level, FH frequency, diagnostic criteria, genotypes, and clinical care of FH patients in Asian populations. Compared with Western countries, most Asian countries had lower mean cholesterol levels, with a significant variation between different countries. In the limited studies reported, a frequency of 1/900 was reported in Hokuriku district, Japan in 1977 and a frequency of 1/85 among Christian Lebanese in 1979. Recently, a population study in China reported frequencies of 0.47% and 0.28%. However, the different FH frequencies reported were based on different diagnostic criteria. Of 28 publications from 16 Asian countries or regions, 14 used self-defined FH criteria. Only one specific guideline for FH was available, which was developed by Japanese scientists. Six Asian countries joined the Make Early Diagnosis to Prevent Early Deaths program in the late 1990s, and the estimated diagnosis rates of FH ranged from 3% to 10% in these countries. A more recent study explored the awareness, knowledge, and perception of FH among practitioners in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. The study found that the correct rates of these FH-related questions were low and concluded that lack of country-specific criteria and guidelines may contribute to the lack of FH knowledge in the present survey. More attention and resources should be focused on raising awareness, improving care, and increasing FH research in Asian populations.
Ahmed, Syed Masud; Hadi, Abdullahel; Razzaque, Abdur; Ashraf, Ali; Juvekar, Sanjay; Ng, Nawi; Kanungsukkasem, Uraiwan; Soonthornthada, Kusol; Van Minh, Hoang; Huu Bich, Tran
Background The major chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) operate through a cluster of common risk factors, whose presence or absence determines not only the occurrence and severity of the disease, but also informs treatment approaches. Primary prevention based on mitigation of these common risk factors through population-based programmes is the most cost-effective approach to contain the emerging epidemic of chronic NCDs. Objectives This study was conducted to explore the extent of risk factors clustering for the major chronic NCDs and its determinants in nine INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) sites of five Asian countries. Design Data originated from a multi-site chronic NCD risk factor prevalence survey conducted in 2005. This cross-sectional survey used a standardised questionnaire developed by the WHO to collect core data on common risk factors such as tobacco use, intake of fruits and vegetables, physical inactivity, blood pressure levels, and body mass index. Respondents included randomly selected sample of adults (25–64 years) living in nine rural HDSS sites in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam. Results Findings revealed a substantial proportion (>70%) of these largely rural populations having three or more risk factors for chronic NCDs. Chronic NCD risk factors clustering was associated with increasing age, being male, and higher educational achievements. Differences were noted among the different sites, both between and within country. Conclusions Since there is an extensive clustering of risk factors for the chronic NCDs in the populations studied, the interventions also need to be based on a comprehensive approach rather than on a single factor to forestall its cumulative effects which occur over time. This can work best if it is integrated within the primary health care system and the HDSS can be an invaluable epidemiological resource in this endeavor. PMID:20027260
Weber, Mary Beth; Oza-Frank, Reena; Staimez, Lisa R; Ali, Mohammed K; Narayan, K M Venkat
This review summarizes the current data on diabetes risk factors, prevalence, and prevention efforts in Asia and Asian migrant populations. Studies indicate that type 2 diabetes mellitus is a large and growing threat to public health in Asian populations. Furthermore, Asian subgroups (e.g., South Asians/Asian Indians, Chinese) have unique risk factor profiles for developing diabetes, which differ from other populations and between Asian ethnic groups. Lifestyle intervention programs are effective in preventing diabetes in Asians, as with other ethnicities. The strength of these findings is lessened by the lack of systematically collected data using objective measurements. Large epidemiologic studies of diabetes prevalence and risk factor profiles and translational trials identifying sustainable and culturally acceptable lifestyle programs for Asian subgroups are needed.
As an introduction to Asian literature, this course guide explores the literatures of Japan, China, and India. Included are (1) a course description with a suggested time schedule of activities; (2) recommendations for necessary student achievement level; (3) course objectives; and (4) listings of materials (e.g., books, records, slides, films,…
Li, Ke; Jia, JianJun; Wang, ZhenFu; Zhang, ShanChun
Background We investigated the clinical value of serum levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and human soluble protein-100β (S-100β) in acute cerebral infarction (ACI) patients. Material/Methods A literature search of electronic databases identified relevant case-control studies that examined the correlations between NSE and S-100β serum levels, and ACI. The retrieved studies were screened based on our strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, and high-quality studies were subsequently selected for meta-analysis. STATA software (Version 12.0, Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA) was utilized for statistical analysis. Results A total of 13 case-control studies, containing 911 ACI patients and 686 healthy controls, were enrolled in this meta-analysis. The results of the meta-analysis showed that serum levels of NSE and S-100β in ACI patients were significantly higher than the control group. Subgroup analysis based on ethnicity revealed that the serum levels of NSE and S-100β in ACI patients were significantly higher than the control group in Asian population. In Caucasian population, the serum levels of NSE in case group was significantly higher than the control group, but no significant differences in serum levels of S-100β were observed between ACI patients and the control group. Conclusions Based on our results, we conclude that serum levels of NSE and S-100β strongly correlate with ACI in Asian population, and may be important clinical markers for diagnosis and treatment of ACI. PMID:26124190
Awata, Hiroshi; Linder, Stephen; Mitchell, Laura E.; Delclos, George L.
with their corresponding biomarker levels in U.S. Asians. Citation: Awata H, Linder S, Mitchell LE, Delclos GL. 2017. Association of dietary intake and biomarker levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury among Asian populations in the United States: NHANES 2011–2012. Environ Health Perspect 125:314–323; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP28 PMID:27586241
Awata, Hiroshi; Linder, Stephen; Mitchell, Laura E; Delclos, George L
. Citation: Awata H, Linder S, Mitchell LE, Delclos GL. 2017. Association of dietary intake and biomarker levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury among Asian populations in the United States: NHANES 2011-2012. Environ Health Perspect 125:314-323; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP28.
A study was conducted to compare population levels of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Florida, Texas and Puerto Rico. Four grove locations were studied in Florida, one location near each of the following cities: Leesburg, Vero Beach, Fort Pierce, and Immoka...
Islam, Farah; Khanlou, Nazilla; Tamim, Hala
employed, having a regular medical doctor, and inactive physical activity level were associated with greater risk for South Asian Canadian-born populations. Mental health outreach programs need to be cognizant of the differences in prevalence rates and characteristics of mental health outcomes for South Asian immigrant and Canadian-born populations to better tailor mental health services to be responsive to the unique mental health needs of South Asian populations in Canada.
populations, while not being currently employed, having a regular medical doctor, and inactive physical activity level were associated with greater risk for South Asian Canadian-born populations. Conclusions Mental health outreach programs need to be cognizant of the differences in prevalence rates and characteristics of mental health outcomes for South Asian immigrant and Canadian-born populations to better tailor mental health services to be responsive to the unique mental health needs of South Asian populations in Canada. PMID:24884792
Vann, Barbara H.; Ryu, Jai P.
Data from the 1990 Census and recent Current Population Survey reports are used to describe population change among Asian-Americans. Comparisons are made between Asian-Americans and the general non-Asian population and among Asian-Americans, focusing on four subgroups: Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, and Koreans. Specific features examined in…
Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Boutin-Foster, Carla
The purpose of this literature review is to describe and assess the cultural barriers to behavior change in migrant South Asians, given the high morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease in this population. We reviewed studies that explored the relationship between South Asian culture in the Diaspora and lifestyle behaviors. Our review produced 91 studies, of which 25 discussed the relationship between various aspects of South Asians’ belief system and their approach to modifying lifestyle habits. We identify 6 specific categories of beliefs which play the largest role in the difficulties South Asians describe with behavior change: gender roles, body image, physical activity misconceptions, cultural priorities, cultural identity, and explanatory model of disease. Future research and interventions should account for these cultural factors to successfully improve dietary habits and physical activity levels in migrant South Asian populations. PMID:22180198
Yates, Thomas; Henson, Joe; Edwardson, Charlotte; Bodicoat, Danielle H; Davies, Melanie J; Khunti, Kamlesh
Objective We investigate differences between White and South Asian (SA) populations in levels of objectively measured and self-reported physical activity. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Leicestershire, UK, 2010–2011. Participants Baseline data were pooled from two diabetes prevention trials that recruited a total of 4282 participants from primary care with a high risk score for type 2 diabetes. For this study, 2843 White (age=64±8, female=37%) and 243 SA (age=58±9, female=34%) participants had complete physical activity data and were included in the analysis. Outcome measures Moderate-intensity to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and walking activity were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and a combination of piezoelectric pedometer (NL-800) and accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X) were used to objectively measure physical activity. Results Compared to White participants, SA participants self-reported less MVPA (30 vs 51 min/day; p<0.001) and walking activity (11 vs 17 min/day; P=0.001). However, there was no difference in objectively measured ambulatory activity (5992 steps/day vs 6157 steps/day; p=0.75) or in time spent in MVPA (18.0 vs 21.5 min/day; p=0.23). Results were largely unaffected when adjusted for age, sex and social deprivation. Compared to accelerometer data, White participants overestimated their time in MVPA by 51 min/day and SA participants by 21 min/day. Conclusions SA and White groups undertook similar levels of physical activity when measured objectively despite self-reported estimates being around 40% lower in the SA group. This emphasises the limitations of comparing self-reported lifestyle measures across different populations and ethnic groups. Trial registration number Reports baseline data from: Walking Away from Type 2 Diabetes (ISRCTN31392913) and Let's Prevent Diabetes (NCT00677937). PMID:26204908
Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Chailurkit, Laor; Warodomwichit, Daruneewan; Ratanachaiwong, Wipa; Yamwong, Sukit; Chanprasertyothin, Suwannee; Attia, John; Sritara, Piyamitr; Ongphiphadhanakul, Boonsong
Fetuin-A is associated with body mass index (BMI) as well as components of the metabolic syndrome. However, it is unclear if fetuin-A affects BMI or the other way around. We therefore assessed the causal association between fetuin-A and BMI or vice versa, utilizing a bidirectional Mendelian randomization approach. This was a study of 2558 subjects from the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) cohort. Two polymorphisms, that is, rs2248690 in the alpha2-Hereman-Schmid glycoprotein (AHSG) gene and rs9939609 in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene were genotyped. Bidirectional causal models were constructed using a two-stage least-square instrumental variable (IV) regression. First, rs2248690 locus was used as the instrumental variable for the effect of circulating fetuin-A on BMI, and then, the FTO rs9939609 locus was used as the instrumental variable for the effect of BMI on circulating fetuin-A. Among the 2558 subjects, the prevalence of the minor AHSG (T) and FTO (A) alleles was 17.9% and 22.1%, respectively. The AHSG rs2248690 locus was highly related to serum fetuin-A levels (P < 0.001). Likewise, the FTO rs9939609 locus and BMI were highly associated (P < 0.001). Mendelian randomization analyses showed that circulating fetuin-A, instrumented by the AHSG rs2248690 locus, was associated with BMI (coefficient = 2.26; 95% CI: 0.39, 4.12). In contrast, BMI, instrumented by the FTO rs9939609 locus, was not associated with circulating fetuin-A (coefficient = 0.0007; 95% CI: -0.0242, 0.0256). Our findings suggest a causal association leading from circulating fetuin-A to BMI. There was no evidence of reverse causality from BMI to fetuin-A. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Streifel, Marissa A; Tobin, Patrick C; Hunt, Lucia; Nadel, Hannah; Molongoski, John J; Aukema, Brian H
From a regulatory perspective, Asian gypsy moth is a species complex consisting of three species of Lymantria and two subspecies of Lymantria dispar (L.), differing from the European subspecies, L. dispar dispar (L.), by having consistently flight-capable females. As such, the invasion potential in North America is thought to exceed that of European gypsy moth. USDA-APHIS therefore has a monitoring program to detect Asian gypsy moth at high-risk introduction pathways. Molecular markers are used to improve the diagnosis of Asian gypsy moth. One such marker, which targets the FS1 locus, detects an allele, FS1-A, prevalent in Asian populations but occurring at low frequencies (3-6%) throughout the European gypsy moth's range in North America. However, some locales, such as Minnesota, exhibit elevated FS1-A frequencies. We studied the distribution of the FS1-A allele in northern Minnesota, 2013-2014, assessing spatial patterns in the distribution of the FS1-A allele using Moran's I and using spatial regression techniques to examine if the FS1-A allele was associated with putative movement pathways. We also used time series analysis to discern if temporal patterns in FS1-A or possible introduction events occurred. Our results indicated that FS1-A occurred randomly in space and time. We found no evidence that elevated FS1-A frequencies were associated with movement pathways or possible immigration events into this region over the two years. Elevated frequencies of the FS1-A allele within this region could be due to genetic drift and allelic surfing along the expanding population front, or to selection of physiological or behavioral traits. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Shu, Zhen-Bo; Cao, Hai-Ping; Li, Yong-Chao; Sun, Li-Bo
To compare the effects of laparoscopic-assisted gastrectomy (LAG) and open gastrectomy (OG) on serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in gastric cancer (GC) patients from Asia. The following scientific literature databases were searched for relevant clinical studies: PubMed, EBSCO, Ovid, Wiley, Web of Science, Cochrane library, EMBASE, WANFANG and VIP databases. The studies retrieved from database searches were screened based on stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria to select high quality cohort studies for the present meta-analysis. The data extracted from final selected studies were analyzed using STATA 12.0 software. A total of 54 studies were initially retrieved from database searches, and 11 clinical cohort studies were eventually enrolled in this meta-analysis. The 11 selected studies contained a combined total of 767 GC patients (427 patients in LAG group and 340 patients in OG group). Meta-analysis results demonstrated that postoperative serum IL-6 levels in GC patients in LAG group was significantly lower than the OG group (SMD = -2.16, 95% CI = -3.19 ~ -1.14, P < 0.001). The difference in serum IL-6 levels between the preoperative and postoperative GC patients was significantly lower in the LAG group compared to the difference found in the OG group (SMD = -3.44, 95% CI = -4.87 ~ -2.01, P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis based on country showed that, in both Chinese and Japanese GC patients, the postoperative increase in serum IL-6 levels in LAG group were significantly lower than the increase observed in the OG group (all P < 0.05). In Korean GC patients, the postoperative increase in serum IL-6 levels was not significantly different between the LAG group and OG group (all P > 0.05). Our results provide strong evidence that LAG is associated with significantly lower serum IL-6 levels, compared to OG. Thus, LAG carries markedly lower risk of adverse inflammatory reactions in GC patients among Asian population.
Human body acquires a significant amount of vitamin D by cutaneous synthesis under the action of sunlight and less is supplied through nutritional sources. Diversified sociocultural and economic determinants have been identified that limit the dietary intake of vitamin D and enough distribution of sunlight to maintain optimal levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Consequently, the world has witnessed a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in resource-limited South Asian countries. The purpose of this review is to provide a South Asian perspective of vitamin D status, critically examining India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, and to shed light on potential determinants (latitude and season, sunshine exposure habits, age, gender, and genetic factors) leading to hypovitaminosis D among a variety of population groups. Literature search was carried out using bibliographic databases "PubMed," "Google Scholar," and "ScienceDirect.com." Serum 25(OH)D level, 20-50 nmol/L, was mainly taken as vitamin D deficiency, and determinants of low serum 25(OH)D concentration of the population under study were also considered. The review concludes that vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among South Asian populations and global efforts are needed to overcome hypovitaminosis in the region. In addition, dietary diversification, supplementation and fortification of foods with vitamin D, adequate exposure to sunlight, and consumption of animal foods were suggested as viable approaches to maintain 25(OH)D levels for optimal health.
Hamilton, Sarah N; Ho, Cheryl; Laskin, Janessa; Zhai, Yongliang; Mak, Paul; Wu, Jonn
The effect of ethnicity on nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) outcomes is unclear. This retrospective analysis examines survival and the impact of concurrent chemoradiation (chemoRT) among Asian and non-Asian patients. Subjects included 380 consecutive patients with NPC treated at a Canadian institution from 2000 to 2009. Five-year Kaplan-Meier progression-free survival (PFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS) were compared between Asian (n=279) and non-Asian (n=101) subjects. Multivariable analysis was performed using Cox regression modeling. Two-variable interaction terms with concurrent chemoRT were used to examine whether concurrent chemoRT conferred different effects among subgroups. Asian subjects presented with earlier stage (P=0.005), were younger, had better performance status, and were less likely smokers (all P<0.001). Survival among Asian versus non-Asian subjects with stage I/II NPC were: PFS 68% versus 59% (P=0.04), DSS 87% versus 77% (P=0.08), and OS 84% versus 74% (P=0.003). Corresponding rates with stage III/IVA/IVB disease were PFS 49% versus 42% (P=0.12), DSS 72% versus 46% (P=0.001), and OS 70% versus 44% (P<0.001). On multivariable analysis, Asian ethnicity, age below 65 years, ECOG performance status 0-1, early stage, staging MRI use, and concurrent chemoRT were associated with improved DSS and OS (P<0.05). On testing interactions with concurrent chemoRT, Asian versus non-Asian ethnicity was significant (hazard ratio 3.9), suggesting that concurrent chemoRT conferred more benefit among non-Asian compared with Asian subjects. In this population-based study, Asian ethnicity was associated with improved DSS and OS. Concurrent chemoRT conferred more benefit among non-Asian compared with Asian subjects.
Iqbal, M A
Efforts by governments of South Asian countries to improve the economic growth and welfare of the people are being negated by high fertility. In some countries, the expenditures on health programs have increased and the programs have expanded rapidly without any concomitant improvement in efficiency or cost-effectiveness. This highlights the urgency of tackling the problems of not only population growth but also of managing population programs. There are similarities as well as differences in the management of population programs in the South Asian countries. Bangladesh has a population policy with a strong political will behind it. It also has a sound administrative structure and organization. Some areas that need attention are building up the operational relationship between health and family planning personnel, improved infrastructure development, more community involvement, and better evaluation. Some states in India have shown outstanding success in population programs, and some have successfully experimented with beyond family planning methods. A greater awareness of family planning among health staff, a solid information base for decision making, and management training for medical officers and staff are also needed. Pakistan's population program has had uneven results in the past, but it has now developed multi-sectoral components in decentralized field activities, involvement of local organizations and leaders, and better information, education, and social marketing, but it still needs to plan for evaluation and strengthen management training. Of the South Asian countries, Sri Lanka, with a high level of literacy and health care, has shown the best achievement in its social sector. The coverage through the maternal and child health service delivery system has been commendable with 94% of deliveries through institutions. Regional meetings have identified program management problem areas in 1) planning, control, and coordination of program implementation, 2
Ye, Kaixiong; Cao, Chang; Lin, Xu; O'Brien, Kimberly O; Gu, Zhenglong
HFE, a major regulator of iron (Fe) homeostasis, has been suggested to be under positive selection in both European and Asian populations. While the genetic variant under selection in Europeans (a non-synonymous mutation, C282Y) has been relatively well-studied, the adaptive variant in Asians and its functional consequences are still unknown. Identifying the adaptive HFE variants in Asians will not only elucidate the evolutionary history and the genetic basis of population difference in Fe status, but also assist the future practice of genome-informed dietary recommendation. Using data from the International HapMap Project, we confirmed the signatures of positive selection on HFE in Asian populations and identified a candidate adaptive haplotype that is common in Asians (52.35-54.71%) but rare in Europeans (5.98%) and Africans (4.35%). The T allele at tag SNP rs9366637 (C/T) captured 95.8% of this Asian-common haplotype. A significantly reduced HFE expression was observed in individuals carrying T/T at rs9366637 compared to C/C and C/T, indicating a possible role of gene regulation in adaptation. We recruited 57 women of Asian descent and measured Fe absorption using stable isotopes in those homozygous at rs9366637. We observed a 22% higher absorption in women homozygous for the Asian-common haplotype (T/T) compared to the control genotype (C/C). Additionally, compared with a group of age-matched Caucasian women, Asian women exhibited significantly elevated Fe absorption. Our results indicate parallel adaptation of HFE gene in Europeans and Asians with different genetic variants. Moreover, natural selection on HFE may have contributed to elevated Fe absorption in Asians. This study regarding population differences in Fe homeostasis has significant medical impact as high Fe level has been linked to an increased disease risk of metabolic syndromes.
The Fourth Asian and Pacific Population Conference was held at Denpasar, Indonesia, August 19-27, 1992. The theme of the Conference was Population and Sustainable Development: Goals and Strategies into the Twenty-first Century. Prior to the Conference three preparatory seminars were held: on population, environment and sustainable development (Thailand, 1991); on migration and urbanization (Seoul, 1992); and on planning and implementation of family planning/family health and welfare programs (Beijing, 1992). The Conference, jointly sponsored by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), adopted the Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development, which spells out regional goals and recommendations for population and sustainable development into the 21st century. The preamble recognizes that population plays a decisive role in all human endeavors, especially in safeguarding the environment and the pursuit of sustainable development. Population problems must be addressed on local, national, regional, and global levels. It is urged that all members make a commitment to incorporate population and environmental concerns into efforts to achieve sustainable development. The population goals should include attainment of replacement level fertility of about 2.2 children per woman by the year 2010. In the Asian countries the present average is 3.1 children per woman. The rate of infant mortality should also be reduced to 40 per 1000 live births during this period. A number of recommendations are also made concerning population, environment, and development; urbanization, internal and international migration; family planning and maternal and child health; population and human resources development; women and population; population and poverty alleviation; mortality and morbidity; aging; population data, research and information dissemination; and resource mobilization.
He, Hongjuan; Lei, Lei; Chen, Erfei; Dong, Jing; Zhang, Kejin; Yang, Jin
To explore the association of the APOA5 gene c.553G>T polymorphism with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) susceptibility and altered triglyceride levels. We searched the PubMed, Google Scholar, and CNKI databases for published studies relating to analyses of these associations. Case-control and comparative studies of the association between the APOA5 c.553G>T variant and altered triglyceride levels were included. In total, the meta-analysis involved 10 studies on HTG, which provided 2219 cases and 3401 controls. To measure the correlation between the c.553G>T polymorphism and HTG susceptibility, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The overall OR was calculated using a random-effects model. Compared with APOA5 c.553 GG carriers, c.553T carriers displayed an increased risk of HTG in the Asian population, with an overall random effects OR of 3.55 (95% CI: 2.46-5.13) in the dominant model. There was significant heterogeneity among the studies (Pheterogeneity: Chi(2) = 45.80, I(2) = 75.98%), which may be largely explained by certain patient types. Both the sensitivity analysis and publication bias suggested that the overall result was acceptable. Subgroup analysis showed a large difference in serum triglyceride levels based on the c.553 G > T polymorphism in healthy individuals and HTG patients. APOA5 c.553T carriers exhibit higher triglyceride levels than GG carriers. Our results suggest that APOA5 c. 553T is an independent risk factor for HTG and increased triglyceride levels in the Asian population. APOA5 c. 553T could be employed as a genetic risk marker for HTG and increased triglyceride levels.
Southern Asian population education programs have developed common materials on population and family life education. Countries involved were Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. The development of materials occurred as a byproduct of workshop conducted in Nepal from December 3-7, 1990 and December 2-10, 1991 in Sri Lanka. The 1st meeting was organized by UNESCO's Population Education Advisory team, and 6 curriculum topics were identified. Pretesting of materials was conducted between meetings. The final product was a set of 10 posters and 2 comic strips on the quality of life developed by India for elementary level use; a family life and sex education syllabus developed by Sri Lanka for secondary school use; 5 modules with teacher's guides and sample lessons for secondary school use; 5 modules and a teacher's guide on transmission of values on population education by Pakistan; 25 flip charts on maternal and child health for illiterates developed by Nepal; and a field guide on environmental protection for nonformal field workers developed by Bangladesh. Materials were designed through brainstorming sessions, designing of materials by experts, review by other groups, and retesting on target audiences. Revision followed pretesting. The plan for assuring use of materials was to have UNESCO print prototypes and then participants would seek financial support for country supplies. A suggestion was made to leave ample space for insertion of local language captions. Another suggestion was that the cartoon strip "Girls are Pearls" be printed on students' exercise books for all member countries. Member countries should also have available selected materials translated into English and distributed. UNESCO should continue to play the role of facilitator of information and expertise exchange among member countries. Another mutually cooperative activity was the Group Training Course on Population Education for the South Asian subregion held in December 1991.
Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Huang, Ruikun; Wang, Jiandong; Yan, Han; Zheng, Yali; Hao, Jiming
Vehicle emissions containing air pollutants created substantial environmental impacts on air quality for many traffic-populated cities in eastern Asia. A high-resolution emission inventory is a useful tool compared with traditional tools (e.g. registration data-based approach) to accurately evaluate real-world traffic dynamics and their environmental burden. In this study, Macau, one of the most populated cities in the world, is selected to demonstrate a high-resolution simulation of vehicular emissions and their contribution to air pollutant concentrations by coupling multimodels. First, traffic volumes by vehicle category on 47 typical roads were investigated during weekdays in 2010 and further applied in a networking demand simulation with the TransCAD model to establish hourly profiles of link-level vehicle counts. Local vehicle driving speed and vehicle age distribution data were also collected in Macau. Second, based on a localized vehicle emission model (e.g. the emission factor model for the Beijing vehicle fleet - Macau, EMBEV-Macau), this study established a link-based vehicle emission inventory in Macau with high resolution meshed in a temporal and spatial framework. Furthermore, we employed the AERMOD (AMS/EPA Regulatory Model) model to map concentrations of CO and primary PM2.5 contributed by local vehicle emissions during weekdays in November 2010. This study has discerned the strong impact of traffic flow dynamics on the temporal and spatial patterns of vehicle emissions, such as a geographic discrepancy of spatial allocation up to 26 % between THC and PM2.5 emissions owing to spatially heterogeneous vehicle-use intensity between motorcycles and diesel fleets. We also identified that the estimated CO2 emissions from gasoline vehicles agreed well with the statistical fuel consumption in Macau. Therefore, this paper provides a case study and a solid framework for developing high-resolution environment assessment tools for other vehicle-populated cities
Schlötterer, Christian; Neumeier, Hannah; Sousa, Carla; Nolte, Viola
Mark-recapture experiments showed that D. melanogaster has high dispersal capabilities. Consistent with a highly migratory species, only very low levels of differentiation were described for D. melanogaster populations from the same continent. We reinvestigated the population structure in D. melanogaster using 49 polymorphic markers in 23 natural populations. While European and American D. melanogaster populations showed very low differentiation, Asian D. melanogaster populations were highly structured. Despite the high differentiation of Asian flies, we confirm that all non-African populations are derived from a single colonization event. We propose that the availability of D. melanogaster populations with high and low population structure provides a novel tool for the identification of ecologically important adaptations by hitchhiking mapping. PMID:16204221
Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Harney, Eadaoin; Castillo, Cristina; Hoogervorst, Tom; Antao, Tiago; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Cardona, Alexia; Pierron, Denis; Letellier, Thierry; Wee, Joseph; Abdullah, Syafiq; Metspalu, Mait; Kivisild, Toomas
The history of human settlement in Southeast Asia has been complex and involved several distinct dispersal events. Here we report the analyses of 1825 individuals from Southeast Asia including new genome-wide genotype data for 146 individuals from three Mainland Southeast Asian (Burmese, Malay and Vietnamese) and four Island Southeast Asian (Dusun, Filipino, Kankanaey and Murut) populations. While confirming the presence of previously recognized major ancestry components in the Southeast Asian population structure, we highlight the Kankanaey Igorots from the highlands of the Philippine Mountain Province as likely the closest living representatives of the source population that may have given rise to the Austronesian expansion. This conclusion rests on independent evidence from various analyses of autosomal data and uniparental markers. Given the extensive presence of trade goods, cultural and linguistic evidence of Indian influence in Southeast Asia starting from 2.5kya we also detect traces of a South Asian signature in different populations in the region dating to the last couple of thousand years. PMID:27302840
Mörseburg, Alexander; Pagani, Luca; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Harney, Eadaoin; Castillo, Cristina; Hoogervorst, Tom; Antao, Tiago; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Brucato, Nicolas; Cardona, Alexia; Pierron, Denis; Letellier, Thierry; Wee, Joseph; Abdullah, Syafiq; Metspalu, Mait; Kivisild, Toomas
The history of human settlement in Southeast Asia has been complex and involved several distinct dispersal events. Here, we report the analyses of 1825 individuals from Southeast Asia including new genome-wide genotype data for 146 individuals from three Mainland Southeast Asian (Burmese, Malay and Vietnamese) and four Island Southeast Asian (Dusun, Filipino, Kankanaey and Murut) populations. While confirming the presence of previously recognised major ancestry components in the Southeast Asian population structure, we highlight the Kankanaey Igorots from the highlands of the Philippine Mountain Province as likely the closest living representatives of the source population that may have given rise to the Austronesian expansion. This conclusion rests on independent evidence from various analyses of autosomal data and uniparental markers. Given the extensive presence of trade goods, cultural and linguistic evidence of Indian influence in Southeast Asia starting from 2.5 kya, we also detect traces of a South Asian signature in different populations in the region dating to the last couple of thousand years.
Koh, Wei-Liang; Koh, Mark Jean-Aan; Tay, Yong-Kwang
There are few studies comparing pityriasis lichenoides (PL) in adults and children, with fewer involving Asians. We compared the clinical profile and treatment outcomes of 10 adults and five children diagnosed with PL. We retrospectively reviewed a series of patients diagnosed with PL at our hospital from 2002 to 2008. We identified 10 adults and five children (nine adults and four children with pityriasis lichenoides chronica; one adult and one child with pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta). Mean age of onset of disease was 42.2 years in adults and 12.2 years in children. Median duration of disease before presentation was 5.5 months in adults and 6 months in children. Trunk and limbs were the most common sites of involvement. Itch was present in the majority. Almost all patients did not respond to topical corticosteroids. A good response was seen in three adults and two children treated with oral antibiotics. Three adults and two children responded to treatment with narrow-band ultraviolet B phototherapy. The median time to resolution was 8 months in adults and 21 months in children. Postinflammatory dyspigmentation was seen in six adults and four children. PL presents similarly in adults and children; however, it runs a longer course in children. In our series, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation was common, which may be explained by our patients' darker skin phototypes. We routinely prescribe oral antibiotics initially in patients without contraindications. Phototherapy may be useful in patients not responding to antibiotics. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.
Zaid, R B; Nargis, M; Neelotpol, S; Sayeed, M A; Banu, A; Shurovi, S; Hassan, K N; Salimullah, M; Ali, L; Azad Khan, A K
The Marma, Tripura, and Chakma are tribal populations of South Asian countries such as Bangladesh. The populations are thought to be immigrants who started moving from their original home in the Far East toward the west and south. We randomly selected 80 Marma, 53 Tripura, and 43 Chakma to determine acetylation capacity and acetylator phenotype. The mean acetylation capacities were 63% in the Marma, 65% in the Tripura, and 70% in the Chakma. The acetylator phenotype was bimodally distributed as fast and slow acetylator. The frequencies of fast acetylator were 83% in the Marma, 89% in the Tripura, and 88% in the Chakma. According to acetylation capacity, the tribes are different from the founder nontribal populations of Bangladesh. They identify themselves as having a separate single population origin. The frequency of fast acetylator predicted served as the acetylator status of the Far East Asian population. The segregation of populations by acetylator phenotype on geographic longitude might be appropriate for geonational identification of Asian populations.
United Way, Inc., Los Angeles, CA.
This demographic study of the Asian Pacific Population in Los Angeles County (California) summarizes social and economic data from other sources. Trends and statistical data are presented for the following groups of Asian-Americans: Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Asian Indian, Hawaiian, Vietnamese, and other Asians. The following topics are…
United Way, Inc., Los Angeles, CA.
This demographic study of the Asian Pacific Population in Los Angeles County (California) summarizes social and economic data from other sources. Trends and statistical data are presented for the following groups of Asian-Americans: Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Asian Indian, Hawaiian, Vietnamese, and other Asians. The following topics are…
Impact of high lipoprotein(a) levels on in-stent restenosis and long-term clinical outcomes of angina pectoris patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents in Asian population.
Park, Sang-Ho; Rha, Seung-Woon; Choi, Byoung-Geol; Park, Ji-Young; Jeon, Ung; Seo, Hong-Seog; Kim, Eung-Ju; Na, Jin-Oh; Choi, Cheol-Ung; Kim, Jin-Won; Lim, Hong-Euy; Park, Chang-Gyu; Oh, Dong-Joo
Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is known to be associated with cardiovascular complications and atherothrombotic properties in general populations. However, it has not been examined whether Lp(a) levels are able to predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES). A total of 595 consecutive patients with angina pectoris who underwent elective PCI with DES were enrolled from 2004 to 2010. The patients were divided into two groups according to the levels of Lp(a): Lp(a) < 50 mg/dL (n = 485 patients), and Lp(a) ≥ 50 mg/dL (n = 111 patients). The 6-9-month angiographic outcomes and 3-year cumulative major clinical outcomes were compared between the two groups. Binary restenosis occurred in 26 of 133 lesions (19.8%) in the high Lp(a) group and 43 of 550 lesions (7.9%) in the low Lp(a) group (P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the reference vessel diameter, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lesion length, and Lp(a) ≥ 50 mg/dL were predictors of binary restenosis. In the Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, Lp(a) > 50 mg/dL was significantly associated with the 3-year adverse clinical outcomes including any myocardial infarction, revascularization (target lesion revascularization (TLR) and target vessel revascularization (TVR)), TLR-major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), TVR-MACE, and All-MACEs. In our study, high Lp(a) level ≥ 50 mg/dL in angina pectoris patients undergoing elective PCI with DES was significantly associated with binary restenosis and 3-year adverse clinical outcomes in an Asian population.
Apalikova, O V; Eliseĭkina, M G; Kovalev, M Iu; Brykov, V A
The distribution of the diploid and triploid forms and the correspondence between ploidy and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogenetic lineages of the silver crucian carp have been studied in Far Eastern water bodies and the Syr Darya River. Both diploid and triploid forms have been found in large river systems (the Amur, Suifun, Tumangan, and Syr Darya river basins). Only the diploid form has been detected in lakes of Bol'shoi Pelis Island (Peter the Great Bay of the Sea of Japan), Sakhalin Island, and the Kamchatka River basin (the Kamchatka Peninsula). It has been confirmed that there are two mtDNA phylogroups in the silver crucian carp in the area studied. Both mtDNA phylogenetic lineages are present in the Suifun and Tumangan river basins. Only one mtDNA phylogroup (characteristic of the gynogenetic form) has been detected in two samples from the Amur River and in the Syr Darya population. The other mtDNA phylogroup is predominant in insular populations and in Kamchatka. The gynogenetic form carries only mtDNA phylogroup I, whereas both phylogroups have been found in diploid bisexual fish. The existence of only two mtDNA phylogroups substantially differing from each other indicates that the gynogenetic form has emerged from the diploid form only once and evolved independently for a long time after that. The absence of haplotypes transitional between the two mtDNA phylogroups suggests that the secondary contact between the gynogenetic and bisexual forms in continental populations occurred within recent historical time. The obtained data confirm that genetic (though asymmetric) exchange between the two forms is possible, which explains the high morphological and, probably, genetic similarity between them.
Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Vitalis, Renaud; Ségurel, Laure; Austerlitz, Frédéric; Georges, Myriam; Théry, Sylvain; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Hegay, Tatyana; Aldashev, Almaz; Nasyrova, Firuza; Heyer, Evelyne
Located in the Eurasian heartland, Central Asia has played a major role in both the early spread of modern humans out of Africa and the more recent settlements of differentiated populations across Eurasia. A detailed knowledge of the peopling in this vast region would therefore greatly improve our understanding of range expansions, colonizations and recurrent migrations, including the impact of the historical expansion of eastern nomadic groups that occurred in Central Asia. However, despite its presumable importance, little is known about the level and the distribution of genetic variation in this region. We genotyped 26 Indo-Iranian- and Turkic-speaking populations, belonging to six different ethnic groups, at 27 autosomal microsatellite loci. The analysis of genetic variation reveals that Central Asian diversity is mainly shaped by linguistic affiliation, with Turkic-speaking populations forming a cluster more closely related to East-Asian populations and Indo-Iranian speakers forming a cluster closer to Western Eurasians. The scattered position of Uzbeks across Turkic- and Indo-Iranian-speaking populations may reflect their origins from the union of different tribes. We propose that the complex genetic landscape of Central Asian populations results from the movements of eastern, Turkic-speaking groups during historical times, into a long-lasting group of settled populations, which may be represented nowadays by Tajiks and Turkmen. Contrary to what is generally thought, our results suggest that the recurrent expansions of eastern nomadic groups did not result in the complete replacement of local populations, but rather into partial admixture.
Population aging is the increasing number and proportion of old persons aged 60 years and above in the developing countries and 65 years and above in the developed countries that exceeds 10% of the total population. In Asia, the last decade of the 20th century is marked by significant changes in the age structure due to the process of population aging. The implications of this aging population on the life of Asian countries has to be addressed since demographically the current situation is changing rapidly and there lie the future challenges that have to be answered. Due to the growing size of the elderly population, Asia will need better plans to prevent these elderly groups from turning into the socioeconomically vulnerable group of society. However, many governments are not prepared with effective policies, programs, and services that are particularly designed to care for the elderly. The provision of infrastructure and services, including education, employment, health and housing are necessary steps that need to be taken. Some of the suggested measures include: the Social Safety Net Programs; the implementation of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Plan of Action on Rural Development and Poverty Eradication; and strengthen volunteerism and the role of private sector in human development. The role of the media in transmitting information concerning policies and programs intended to increase the welfare of the older persons is also very important.
This article attempts to highlight the prevalence of zinc deficiency and its health and economic consequences in South Asian developing countries and to shed light on possible approaches to combating zinc deficiency. A computer-based search was performed on PubMed, Google, and ScienceDirect.com to retrieve relevant scientific literature published between 2000 and 2012. The search yielded 194 articles, of which 71 were culled. Studies were further screened on the basis of population groups, age and sex, pregnancy, and lactation. The most relevant articles were included in the review. Cutoffs for serum zinc concentration defined for zinc deficiency were 65 microg/dL for males and females aged < 10 years, 66 microg/dL for non-pregnant females, and 70 microg/dL for males aged > or = 10 years. Population segments from rural and urban areas of South Asian developing countries were included in the analysis. They comprised pregnant and lactating women, preschool and school children. The analysis reveals that zinc deficiency is high among children, pregnant and lactating women in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal. Diarrhoea has been established as a leading cause to intensify zinc deficiency in Bangladesh. Little has been done in Sri Lanka and Nepal to estimate the prevalence of zinc deficiency precisely. A substantial population segment of the South Asian developing countries is predisposed to zinc deficiency which is further provoked by increased requirements for zinc under certain physiological conditions. Supplementation, fortification, and dietary diversification are the most viable strategies to enhancing zinc status among various population groups.
Techataweewan, N; Toomsan, Y; Maneenin, C; Tungsrithong, N; Tayles, N
Supernumerary heads of biceps brachii are one of the most common anatomic variants in the muscular system and appear to develop under genetic control and vary in prevalence among populations. Variation in prevalence and morphology therefore has the potential to contribute to understanding of human population history. Until now, there has been no publication of the prevalence of the variant in Southeast Asian populations. The aim of this research is to document the prevalence and morphology of the variant in a sample of Thai cadavers and to consider the significance of the findings. The method used was dissection of arms of 162 donated cadavers at Khon Kaen University, Thailand. The sample showed high prevalence of third heads of biceps brachii in 35% of cadavers, compared with the prevalence of up to 25% reported in large samples worldwide. The sample also showed equal prevalence in males and females and one-third present bilaterally. This pattern is similar to that found in East Asia, and very different from the low prevalence found in South Asia. The morphology of the supernumerary heads does not appear to be different from elsewhere in the world based on the minimal comparable data available in the literature. The Southeast-East Asian pattern of prevalence is consistent with current theories of population history in the region and suggests anatomical variation of the postcranial soft tissues may ultimately contribute to understanding of past human migrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Iyengar, G V; Kawamura, H; Dang, H S; Parr, R M; Wang, J W; Cho, S Y; Natera, E S
Contents of cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in some selected human organs were estimated for adult Asian population using data obtained in four Asian countries: China, India, Philippines, and Republic of Korea, as part of a Coordinated Research Program of the International Atomic Energy Agency on "Ingestion and Organ contents of elements of importance in radiation protection." These countries together represent more than 40% of the world population. Highly sensitive analytical techniques were employed to measure cesium in skeletal muscle, iodine in thyroid, strontium in skeleton, thorium and uranium in skeleton, liver, kidneys, and lungs where, in comparison to other organs, these elements are present in higher concentrations. The organ contents for adult Asian population, when compared with the corresponding data proposed for Reference Man by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), showed about 40 times lower kidneys content and about 10 times lower skeleton content of uranium. The content of thorium in skeleton for Asian population was also half of the ICRP Reference Man value. Interestingly, organ contents for the other elements such as iodine in thyroid, cesium in skeletal muscle, and strontium in skeleton were comparable for Asian and the Caucasian population (represented by ICRP Reference Man). Organ contents for these elements were also calculated by applying the new ICRP models of these elements to their daily intakes. The comparison of the calculated and measured organ contents showed that despite uncertainties in the organ content values arising due to the inter-country variations in daily dietary intakes, the contents were within a factor of two to three. This observation is significant since human data both on organ contents and ingestion were obtained at environmental level of intakes. The study suggests that currently available ICRP models for these elements are quite realistic.
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Basic Continuing Education.
Designed to expose teachers of Asian populations to innovative teaching techniques and to help them develop teaching skills and a deeper cross-cultural awareness and appreciation of Asian cultures, a 2-week institute covered skills in teaching English as a second language and aspects of Asian culture and language that significantly affect language…
Kanga, Lambert H B; Eason, Julius; Haseeb, Muhammad; Qureshi, Jawwad; Stansly, Philip
The development of insecticide resistance in Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, populations is a serious threat to the citrus industry. As a contribution to a resistance management strategy, we developed a glass vial technique to monitor field populations of Asian citrus psyllid for insecticide resistance. Diagnostic concentrations needed to separate susceptible genotypes from resistant individuals were determined for cypermethrin (0.5 μg per vial), malathion (1.0 μg per vial), diazinon (1.0 μg per vial), carbaryl (1.0 μg per vial), carbofuran (0.1 μg per vial), methomyl (1.0 μg per vial), propoxur (1.0 μg per vial), endosulfan (1.0 μg per vial), imidacloprid (0.5 μg per vial), acetamiprid (5.0 μg per vial), chlorfenapyr (2.5 μg per vial), and fenpyroximate (2.5 μg per vial). In 2014, resistance to two carbamate insecticides (carbaryl and carbofuran), one organophosphate (malathion), one pyrethroid (cypermethrin), and one pyrazole (fenpyroximate) was detected in field populations of Asian citrus psyllid in Immokalee, FL. There was no resistance detected to diazinon, methomyl, propoxur, endosulfan, imidacloprid, and chlorfenapyr. The levels of insecticide resistance were variable and unstable, suggesting that resistance could be successfully managed. The results validate the use of the glass vial bioassay to monitor for resistance in Asian citrus psyllid populations and provide the basis for the development of a resistance management strategy designed to extend the efficacy of all classes of insecticides used for control of the Asian citrus psyllid.
Teo, Boon Wee; Xu, Hui; Wang, Danhua; Li, Jialiang; Sinha, Arvind Kumar; Shuter, Borys; Sethi, Sunil; Lee, Evan J C
Clinical practice guidelines recommend using equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) management and research. The MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) Study and CKD-EPI (CKD Epidemiology Collaboration) equations originally were derived from a North American population and had an ethnic coefficient adjustment for African Americans. A Chinese coefficient for the MDRD Study equation subsequently was determined, but this has not been externally validated. We compared the accuracy of the equations, evaluated the ethnic coefficients, and assessed the equations for disease staging in a multiethnic Asian population with CKD. A diagnostic test study comparing the Asian coefficient (and subgroups)-modified MDRD Study and CKD-EPI equations and a cross-sectional study assessing disease staging. 232 outpatients (52% men; 40.5% Chinese, 32% Malay, and 27.5% Indian/other) with stable CKD. Asian and ethnicity-based modifications of the MDRD Study and CKD-EPI equations. Measured GFR using 3-sample plasma clearance of technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA), calculated using the slope-intercept method, with body surface area normalization (du Bois) and Brochner-Mortensen correction. Overall, the CKD-EPI equation is more accurate than the MDRD Study equation throughout the GFR range, with improved bias (median difference of estimated GFR - measured GFR) and root mean square error (P <0.001). CKD-EPI versus MDRD Study equation: bias, 1.1 ± 13.8 vs -1.0 ± 15.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2); precision, 12.1 vs 12.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Ethnic coefficients did not improve estimates of GFR significantly. The correctness of staging was improved using the CKD-EPI equation. All participants had CKD, but few were of European descent. The reference GFR technique was different from the original studies. The CKD-EPI is more accurate than the MDRD Study equation, particularly at higher GFRs. Therefore, we recommend adopting the
O'Hare, William P.; Felt, Judy C.
Newly available statistical data from the March 1990 Supplement of the Current Population Survey (CPS) indicates that Asians and Pacific Islanders were the fastest growing minority group in the United States during the 1980s. While the size of the Asian American population trails behind the Hispanic American and Black populations, changes in…
Hu, Ya; Ding, Qiliang; He, Yungang; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li
In this study, we present an analysis of Neanderthal introgression at the dipeptidase 1 gene, DPEP1. A Neanderthal origin for the putative introgressive haplotypes was demonstrated using an established three-step approach. This introgression was under positive natural selection, reached a frequency of >50%, and introduced a homocysteine level- and pigmentation-associated allele (rs460879-T) into East Asians. However, the same allele was also found in non-East Asians, but not from Neanderthal introgression. It is likely that rs460879-T was lost in East Asians and was reintroduced subsequently through Neanderthal introgression. Our findings suggest that Neanderthal introgression could reintroduce an important previously existing allele into populations where the allele had been lost. This study sheds new light on understanding the contribution of Neanderthal introgression to the adaptation of non-Africans.
Gujral, Unjali P; Pradeepa, R; Weber, Mary Beth; Narayan, KM Venkat; Mohan, V
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. While all ethnic groups are affected, the prevalence of T2DM in South Asians, both in their home countries and abroad, is extremely high and is continuing to rise rapidly. Innate biological susceptibilities coupled with rapid changes in physical activity, diet, and other lifestyle behaviors are contributing factors propelling the increased burden of disease in this population. The large scope of this problem calls for investigations into the cause of increased susceptibility and preventative efforts at both the individual and population level that are aggressive, culturally sensitive, and start early. In this review, we outline the biological and environmental factors that place South Asians at elevated risk for T2DM, compared with Caucasian and other ethnic groups. PMID:23317344
Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Kwon, Simona C.; Nadkarni, Smiti Kapadia; Islam, Nadia S.
The shift toward a health equity framework for eliminating the health disparities burden of racial/ethnic minority populations has moved away from a disease-focused model to a social determinants framework that aims to achieve the highest attainment of health for all. The New York University Center for the Study of Asian American Health (CSAAH) has identified core themes and strategies for advancing population health equity for Asian American populations in New York City that are rooted in the following: social determinants of health; multisectoral, community-engaged approaches; leveraging community assets; improved disaggregated data collection and access to care; and building sustainability through community leadership and infrastructure-building activities. We describe the strategies CSAAH employed to move the dial on population health equity. PMID:25905858
Glaser, Sally L; Hsu, Joe L
Hodgkin's disease (HD) has been reported to be rare in Asians. Data sparseness has hindered studies exploring the relative contributions of environment and heredity to HD etiology, and individual risk factors have never been studied in an Asian population. With the most recent, uniformly collected population-based data from the US and Asia, we compared HD incidence rates in Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, and Asian Indians in the US and in Asia. HD incidence rates were quite low in all Asian subgroups, but approximately double in US Asians as in native Asians. In both, rates were lower for Japanese and Chinese than for Filipinos and Asian Indians. A modest young-adult rate peak occurred for most US Asian groups, but not for any population in Asia. In data from a population-based case-control study of HD in San Francisco area women, young-adult Asian cases, like young-adult cases of other racial/ethnic groups, had childhood social environments indicative of less early contact with children. Given environmental and lifestyle differences between the US and Asia, the consistently low rates of HD in Asians suggest genetic resistance to disease development, possibly associated with HLA type. International and inter-ethnic differences, and risk factor patterns in case-control data, implicate environmental influences in the etiology of HD.
Brown, Linda Morris; Gridley, Gloria; Wu, Anna H.; Falk, Roni T.; Hauptmann, Michael; Kolonel, Laurence N.; West, Dee W.; Nomura, Abraham M. Y.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Hoover, Robert N.; Ziegler, Regina G.
Studies have shown that breast cancer incidence rates among Asian migrants to the United States approach U.S. incidence rates over several generations, implicating potentially modifiable exposures such as moderate alcohol use that has been linked to excess breast cancer risk in other populations. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of alcohol intake, primarily low levels, on breast cancer risk in Asian-American women and explore whether smoking and alcohol contributed to the in breast cancer incidence rates observed among Asian migrants to the United States. Study subjects in this population-based case-control study included 597 incident cases of breast cancer of Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino ethnicity living in San Francisco-Oakland, Los Angeles, and Oahu, Hawaii and 966 population controls frequency matched on age, ethnicity, and area of residence. The fraction of smokers and drinkers was significantly higher in women born in Western compared with Eastern countries. However, breast cancer risk was not significantly associated with smoking (odds ratio (OR) = 1.2, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.9–1.6) or alcohol drinking (OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.7–1.1) in this population of low consumers of alcohol (median intake among drinkers in grams per day was 0.48 for cases and 0.40 for controls). These data suggest that low alcohol intake is not related to increased breast cancer risk in Asian-American women and that neither alcohol nor cigarette use contributed to the elevated risks in Asian-American women associated with migration patterns and Westernization. PMID:19597702
Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Vitalis, Renaud; Ségurel, Laure; Austerlitz, Frédéric; Georges, Myriam; Théry, Sylvain; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Hegay, Tatyana; Aldashev, Almaz; Nasyrova, Firuza; Heyer, Evelyne
Located in the Eurasian heartland, Central Asia has played a major role in both the early spread of modern humans out of Africa and the more recent settlements of differentiated populations across Eurasia. A detailed knowledge of the peopling in this vast region would therefore greatly improve our understanding of range expansions, colonizations and recurrent migrations, including the impact of the historical expansion of eastern nomadic groups that occurred in Central Asia. However, despite its presumable importance, little is known about the level and the distribution of genetic variation in this region. We genotyped 26 Indo-Iranian- and Turkic-speaking populations, belonging to six different ethnic groups, at 27 autosomal microsatellite loci. The analysis of genetic variation reveals that Central Asian diversity is mainly shaped by linguistic affiliation, with Turkic-speaking populations forming a cluster more closely related to East-Asian populations and Indo-Iranian speakers forming a cluster closer to Western Eurasians. The scattered position of Uzbeks across Turkic- and Indo-Iranian-speaking populations may reflect their origins from the union of different tribes. We propose that the complex genetic landscape of Central Asian populations results from the movements of eastern, Turkic-speaking groups during historical times, into a long-lasting group of settled populations, which may be represented nowadays by Tajiks and Turkmen. Contrary to what is generally thought, our results suggest that the recurrent expansions of eastern nomadic groups did not result in the complete replacement of local populations, but rather into partial admixture. PMID:20823912
Chan, Karen M.K.; Li, Chi Mei; Ma, Estella P.M.; Yiu, Edwin M.L.; McPherson, Bradley
Background noise is known to adversely affect speech perception and speech recognition. High levels of background noise in school classrooms may affect student learning, especially for those pupils who are learning in a second language. The current study aimed to determine the noise level and teacher speech-to-noise ratio (SNR) in Hong Kong classrooms. Noise level was measured in 146 occupied classrooms in 37 schools, including kindergartens, primary schools, secondary schools and special schools, in Hong Kong. The mean noise levels in occupied kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and special school classrooms all exceeded recommended maximum noise levels, and noise reduction measures were seldom used in classrooms. The measured SNRs were not optimal and could have adverse implications for student learning and teachers’ vocal health. Schools in urban Asian environments are advised to consider noise reduction measures in classrooms to better comply with recommended maximum noise levels for classrooms. PMID:25599758
Chan, Karen M K; Li, Chi Mei; Ma, Estella P M; Yiu, Edwin M L; McPherson, Bradley
Background noise is known to adversely affect speech perception and speech recognition. High levels of background noise in school classrooms may affect student learning, especially for those pupils who are learning in a second language. The current study aimed to determine the noise level and teacher speech-to-noise ratio (SNR) in Hong Kong classrooms. Noise level was measured in 146 occupied classrooms in 37 schools, including kindergartens, primary schools, secondary schools and special schools, in Hong Kong. The mean noise levels in occupied kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and special school classrooms all exceeded recommended maximum noise levels, and noise reduction measures were seldom used in classrooms. The measured SNRs were not optimal and could have adverse implications for student learning and teachers' vocal health. Schools in urban Asian environments are advised to consider noise reduction measures in classrooms to better comply with recommended maximum noise levels for classrooms.
Derenko, Miroslava ; Malyarchuk, Boris ; Grzybowski, Tomasz ; Denisova, Galina ; Dambueva, Irina ; Perkova, Maria ; Dorzhu, Choduraa ; Luzina, Faina ; Lee, Hong Kyu ; Vanecek, Tomas ; Villems, Richard ; Zakharov, Ilia
To elucidate the human colonization process of northern Asia and human dispersals to the Americas, a diverse subset of 71 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages was chosen for complete genome sequencing from the collection of 1,432 control-region sequences sampled from 18 autochthonous populations of northern, central, eastern, and southwestern Asia. On the basis of complete mtDNA sequencing, we have revised the classification of haplogroups A, D2, G1, M7, and I; identified six new subhaplogroups (I4, N1e, G1c, M7d, M7e, and J1b2a); and fully characterized haplogroups N1a and G1b, which were previously described only by the first hypervariable segment (HVS1) sequencing and coding-region restriction-fragment–length polymorphism analysis. Our findings indicate that the southern Siberian mtDNA pool harbors several lineages associated with the Late Upper Paleolithic and/or early Neolithic dispersals from both eastern Asia and southwestern Asia/southern Caucasus. Moreover, the phylogeography of the D2 lineages suggests that southern Siberia is likely to be a geographical source for the last postglacial maximum spread of this subhaplogroup to northern Siberia and that the expansion of the D2b branch occurred in Beringia ∼7,000 years ago. In general, a detailed analysis of mtDNA gene pools of northern Asians provides the additional evidence to rule out the existence of a northern Asian route for the initial human colonization of Asia. PMID:17924343
Tsai, Yi-Wen; Yang, Chung-Lin; Kuo, Ken N.
Abstract Background Gender-sensitive tobacco control policies are being challenged, and new directions are being sought because public health efforts have reduced cigarette consumption more substantially among men than among women. To better target women, it would help to identify the protective cultural factors that promote resiliency in women and discourage them from smoking. Whereas western cultures have generated a great deal of gender-specific research and programs on the prevention of smoking in women, Asian cultures have not. Taking a personal and sociocultural perspective, this study examines the effect of gender on smoking behaviors in Taiwan. Methods In a 2004 cross-sectional random-sampled interview survey, 827 adult men and 90 adult women smokers in Taiwan were queried about the time they began smoking, maintenance of their habits, and their readiness to change. Results The male/female smoking rate ratio was 9.5 (45.7% vs. 4.8%). Men smoked significantly more cigarettes per day than women (18 vs. 11). We found Taiwanese women started smoking around 20 years old, much later than their western counterparts. We also found that whereas the smoking behavior of the men was very sensitive to social environment and structural factors, that of women revolved around their desire to control their weight and handle their emotions. Conclusions Differences in the smoking behavior of men and women are a result of a different sociocultural environment and the life trajectories and social circumstances embedded within it. Comprehensive tobacco control policies need to be tailored to not just smoking behavior alone or one population alone but to the determinants of smoking behavior in specific groups, for example, women. Even when targeting women, some effort may be needed on targeting women of different ethnicities, for instance, Asian women in whom the prevalence is increasing at alarming rates. PMID:18681817
Shah, Arti; Kanaya, Alka M
The rising prevalence of diabetes in South Asians has significant health and economic implications. South Asians are predisposed to the development of diabetes due to biologic causes which are exacerbated by lifestyle and environmental factors. Furthermore, they experience significant morbidity and mortality from complications of diabetes, most notably coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, understanding the pathophysiology and genetics of diabetes risk factors and its associated complications in South Asians is paramount to curbing the diabetes epidemic. With this understanding, the appropriate screening, preventative and therapeutic strategies can be implemented and further developed. In this review, we discuss in detail the biologic and lifestyle factors that predispose South Asians to diabetes and review the epidemiology and pathophysiology of microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes in South Asians. We also review the ongoing and completed diabetes prevention and management studies in South Asians.
Shah, Arti; Kanaya, Alka M.
The increasing prevalence of diabetes in South Asians has significant health and economic implications. South Asians are predisposed to the development of diabetes due to biologic and lifestyle factors. Furthermore, they experience significant morbidity and mortality from complications of diabetes, most notably coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, understanding the pathophysiology and genetics of diabetes risk factors and its associated complications in South Asians is paramount to curbing the diabetes epidemic. With this understanding, the appropriate screening, preventative and therapeutic strategies can be implemented and further developed. In this review, we discuss in detail the biologic and lifestyle factors that predispose South Asians to diabetes and review the epidemiology and pathophysiology of microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes in South Asians. We also review the ongoing and completed diabetes prevention and management studies in South Asians. PMID:24643902
Srinivasaiah, Nishant M.; Vaidyanathan, Srinivas; Sinha, Anindya
Background A dearth in understanding the behavior of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at the scale of populations and individuals has left important management issues, particularly related to human-elephant conflict (HEC), unresolved. Evaluation of differences in behavior and decision-making among individual elephants across groups in response to changing local ecological settings is essential to fill this gap in knowledge and to improve our approaches towards the management and conservation of elephants. Methodology/Principal Findings We hypothesized certain behavioral decisions that would be made by Asian elephants as reflected in their residence time and movement rates, time-activity budgets, social interactions and group dynamics in response to resource availability and human disturbance in their habitat. This study is based on 200 h of behavioral observations on 60 individually identified elephants and a 184-km2 grid-based survey of their natural and anthropogenic habitats within and outside the Bannerghatta National Park, southern India during the dry season. At a general population level, the behavioral decisions appeared to be guided by the gender, age and group-type of the elephants. At the individual level, the observed variation could be explained only by the idiosyncratic behaviors of individuals and that of their associating conspecific individuals. Recursive partitioning classification trees for residence time of individual elephants indicated that the primary decisions were taken by individuals, independently of their above-mentioned biological and ecological attributes. Conclusions/Significance Decision-making by Asian elephants thus appears to be determined at two levels, that of the population and, more importantly, the individual. Models based on decision-making by individual elephants have the potential to predict conflict in fragmented landscapes that, in turn, could aid in mitigating HEC. Thus, we must target individuals, in addition to
Srinivasaiah, Nishant M; Anand, Vijay D; Vaidyanathan, Srinivas; Sinha, Anindya
A dearth in understanding the behavior of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at the scale of populations and individuals has left important management issues, particularly related to human-elephant conflict (HEC), unresolved. Evaluation of differences in behavior and decision-making among individual elephants across groups in response to changing local ecological settings is essential to fill this gap in knowledge and to improve our approaches towards the management and conservation of elephants. We hypothesized certain behavioral decisions that would be made by Asian elephants as reflected in their residence time and movement rates, time-activity budgets, social interactions and group dynamics in response to resource availability and human disturbance in their habitat. This study is based on 200 h of behavioral observations on 60 individually identified elephants and a 184-km(2) grid-based survey of their natural and anthropogenic habitats within and outside the Bannerghatta National Park, southern India during the dry season. At a general population level, the behavioral decisions appeared to be guided by the gender, age and group-type of the elephants. At the individual level, the observed variation could be explained only by the idiosyncratic behaviors of individuals and that of their associating conspecific individuals. Recursive partitioning classification trees for residence time of individual elephants indicated that the primary decisions were taken by individuals, independently of their above-mentioned biological and ecological attributes. Decision-making by Asian elephants thus appears to be determined at two levels, that of the population and, more importantly, the individual. Models based on decision-making by individual elephants have the potential to predict conflict in fragmented landscapes that, in turn, could aid in mitigating HEC. Thus, we must target individuals, in addition to populations, in our efforts to manage and conserve this threatened
Zhang, Yue-miao; Zhou, Xu-jie; Nath, Swapan K.; Sun, Celi; Zhao, Ming-hui; Zhang, Hong
Ten novel loci have been found to be associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility by a recent genome-wide association study conducted in Europeans. To test their disease associations and genetic similarities/differences in Asians and Europeans, we genotyped the 10 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and performed an association study. A Chinese cohort from Northern China was recruited as the discovery population, and three East Asian cohorts were included for independent replication. The 10 SNPs were genotyped using TaqMan allele discrimination assays. To prioritize the associated SNPs, different layers of the public functional data were integrated. Among the 10 SNPs, rs564799 in IL12A was shared in both ethnicities (Padjust = 5.91 × 10−4; odds ratio = 1.22, 1.10–1.35). We also confirmed the reported polymorphism rs7726414 in TCF7 in the current study (Padjust = 4.12 × 10−8; odds ratio = 1.46, 1.28–1.66). The directions and magnitudes of the allelic effects for most of the 10 SNPs were comparable between Europeans and Asians. However, higher risk allele frequencies and population-attributable risk percentages were observed in Asians than in Europeans. We also identified the most likely functional SNPs at each locus. In conclusion, both genetic similarities and differences across ethnicities have been observed, providing further evidence for a genetic basis of the high incidence of SLE in Asian ancestry. PMID:28128292
Mateus Pereira, L H; Socorro, A; Fernandez, I; Masleh, M; Vidal, D; Bianchi, N O; Bonatto, S L; Salzano, F M; Herrera, R J
This study attempts to ascertain genetic affinities between Native American and East Asian populations by analyzing four polymorphic Alu insertions (PAIs) and three L1 polymorphic loci. These two genetic systems demonstrated strong congruence when levels of diversity and genetic distances were considered. Overall, genetic relatedness within Native American groups does not correlate with geographical and linguistic structure, although strong grouping for Native Americans with East Asians was demonstrated, with clear discrimination from African and European groups. Most of the variation was assigned to differences occurring within groups, but the interpopulation variation found for South Amerindians was recognizably higher in comparison to the other sampled groups of populations. Our data suggest that bottleneck events followed by strong influence of genetic drift in the process of the peopling of the Americas may have been determinant factors in delineating the genetic background of present-day South Amerindians. Since no clear subgroups were detected within Native Americans and East Asians, there is no indication of multiple waves in the early colonization of the New World.
Zhang, Shuyan; Zhang, Donghui; Jiang, Yongshuai; Wu, Lina; Shang, Hong; Liu, Jiafeng; Feng, Rennan; Liao, Mingzhi; Zhang, Liangcai; Liu, Yong; Liu, Guiyou; Li, Keshen
It is reported that CLU rs2279590 polymorphism is significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in European ancestry. Recent studies investigated rs2279590 polymorphism in Asian population (Chinese, Japanese and Korean). Four studies showed negative association and two studies showed weak association between rs2279590 and AD. We believe that the weak association or no association may be caused by the relatively small sample size in Asian population. Here, we reinvestigated the association in Asian population. Meanwhile, to investigate the genetic heterogeneity of the rs2279590 polymorphism in Asian and Caucasian populations, we searched the PubMed and AlzGene databases and selected 11 independent studies (6 studies in Asian population and 5 studies in Caucasian population) including 20,655 individuals (8,605 cases and 12,050 controls) for meta-analysis. Our results showed significant association between rs2279590 polymorphism and AD in Asian population with P = 2.00E-04 and P = 2.00E-04 using additive and recessive models, respectively. We observed no significant heterogeneity between Asian and Caucasian populations. We believe that our results may be helpful to understand the mechanisms of CLU in AD pathogenesis and will be useful for future genetic studies in AD.
Vij, Shubha; Kuhl, Heiner; Kuznetsova, Inna S; Komissarov, Aleksey; Yurchenko, Andrey A; Van Heusden, Peter; Singh, Siddharth; Thevasagayam, Natascha M; Prakki, Sai Rama Sridatta; Purushothaman, Kathiresan; Saju, Jolly M; Jiang, Junhui; Mbandi, Stanley Kimbung; Jonas, Mario; Hin Yan Tong, Amy; Mwangi, Sarah; Lau, Doreen; Ngoh, Si Yan; Liew, Woei Chang; Shen, Xueyan; Hon, Lawrence S; Drake, James P; Boitano, Matthew; Hall, Richard; Chin, Chen-Shan; Lachumanan, Ramkumar; Korlach, Jonas; Trifonov, Vladimir; Kabilov, Marsel; Tupikin, Alexey; Green, Darrell; Moxon, Simon; Garvin, Tyler; Sedlazeck, Fritz J; Vurture, Gregory W; Gopalapillai, Gopikrishna; Kumar Katneni, Vinaya; Noble, Tansyn H; Scaria, Vinod; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Jerry, Dean R; O'Brien, Stephen J; Schatz, Michael C; Dalmay, Tamás; Turner, Stephen W; Lok, Si; Christoffels, Alan; Orbán, László
We report here the ~670 Mb genome assembly of the Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer), a tropical marine teleost. We used long-read sequencing augmented by transcriptomics, optical and genetic mapping along with shared synteny from closely related fish species to derive a chromosome-level assembly with a contig N50 size over 1 Mb and scaffold N50 size over 25 Mb that span ~90% of the genome. The population structure of L. calcarifer species complex was analyzed by re-sequencing 61 individuals representing various regions across the species' native range. SNP analyses identified high levels of genetic diversity and confirmed earlier indications of a population stratification comprising three clades with signs of admixture apparent in the South-East Asian population. The quality of the Asian seabass genome assembly far exceeds that of any other fish species, and will serve as a new standard for fish genomics.
Vij, Shubha; Kuhl, Heiner; Kuznetsova, Inna S.; Komissarov, Aleksey; Yurchenko, Andrey A.; Van Heusden, Peter; Singh, Siddharth; Thevasagayam, Natascha M.; Prakki, Sai Rama Sridatta; Purushothaman, Kathiresan; Saju, Jolly M.; Jiang, Junhui; Mbandi, Stanley Kimbung; Jonas, Mario; Hin Yan Tong, Amy; Mwangi, Sarah; Lau, Doreen; Ngoh, Si Yan; Liew, Woei Chang; Shen, Xueyan; Hon, Lawrence S.; Drake, James P.; Boitano, Matthew; Hall, Richard; Chin, Chen-Shan; Lachumanan, Ramkumar; Korlach, Jonas; Trifonov, Vladimir; Kabilov, Marsel; Tupikin, Alexey; Green, Darrell; Moxon, Simon; Garvin, Tyler; Sedlazeck, Fritz J.; Vurture, Gregory W.; Gopalapillai, Gopikrishna; Kumar Katneni, Vinaya; Noble, Tansyn H.; Scaria, Vinod; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Jerry, Dean R.; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Schatz, Michael C.; Dalmay, Tamás; Turner, Stephen W.; Lok, Si; Christoffels, Alan; Orbán, László
We report here the ~670 Mb genome assembly of the Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer), a tropical marine teleost. We used long-read sequencing augmented by transcriptomics, optical and genetic mapping along with shared synteny from closely related fish species to derive a chromosome-level assembly with a contig N50 size over 1 Mb and scaffold N50 size over 25 Mb that span ~90% of the genome. The population structure of L. calcarifer species complex was analyzed by re-sequencing 61 individuals representing various regions across the species’ native range. SNP analyses identified high levels of genetic diversity and confirmed earlier indications of a population stratification comprising three clades with signs of admixture apparent in the South-East Asian population. The quality of the Asian seabass genome assembly far exceeds that of any other fish species, and will serve as a new standard for fish genomics. PMID:27082250
Duda, T. F.
The genetic population structure of the recently introduced Asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis, in San Francisco Bay was described using starch gel electrophoresis at eight presumptive loci. Specimens were taken from five environmentally distinct sites located throughout the bay. The population maintains a high degree of genetic variation, with a mean heterozygosity of 0.295, a mean polymorphism of 0.75, and an average of 3.70 alleles per locus. The population is genetically homogeneous, as evidenced from genetic distance values and F-statistics. However, heterogeneity of populations was indicated from a contingency chi-square test. Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and heterozygote deficiencies were found at the Lap-1 locus for all populations and at the Lap-2 locus for a single population. High levels of variability could represent a universal characteristic of invading species, the levels of variability in the source population(s), and/or the dynamics of the introduction. Lack of differentiation between subpopulations may be due to the immaturity of the San Francisco Bay population, the “general purpose” phenotype genetic strategy of the species, high rates of gene flow in the population, and/or the selective neutrality of the loci investigated.
Tragante, Vinicius; van Iperen, Erik P. A.; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Castillo, Berta Almoguera; Chen, Fang; Yanek, Lisa R.; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Li, Yun R.; Ferwerda, Bart; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chen, Wei-Min; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Cushman, Mary; Duan, Yanan; Duggan, David; Evans, Michele K.; Fernandes, Jyotika K.; Fornage, Myriam; Garcia, Melissa; Garvey, W. Timothy; Glazer, Nicole; Gomez, Felicia; Harris, Tamara B.; Halder, Indrani; Howard, Virginia J.; Keller, Margaux F.; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Kooperberg, Charles; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; LaCroix, Andrea; Liu, Kiang; Liu, Yongmei; Musunuru, Kiran; Newman, Anne B.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Ordovas, Jose; Peter, Inga; Post, Wendy; Redline, Susan; Reis, Steven E.; Saxena, Richa; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Volcik, Kelly A.; Wang, Xingbin; Yusuf, Salim; Zonderland, Alan B.; Anand, Sonia S.; Becker, Diane M.; Psaty, Bruce; Rader, Daniel J.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Sale, Michèle M.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Hegele, Robert A.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Nalls, Michael A.; Taylor, Herman A.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Drenos, Fotios; Wilson, James G.; Keating, Brendan J.
Meta-analyses of European populations has successfully identified genetic variants in over 100 loci associated with lipid levels, but our knowledge in other ethnicities remains limited. To address this, we performed dense genotyping of ∼2,000 candidate genes in 7,657 African Americans, 1,315 Hispanics and 841 East Asians, using the IBC array, a custom ∼50,000 SNP genotyping array. Meta-analyses confirmed 16 lipid loci previously established in European populations at genome-wide significance level, and found multiple independent association signals within these lipid loci. Initial discovery and in silico follow-up in 7,000 additional African American samples, confirmed two novel loci: rs5030359 within ICAM1 is associated with total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (p = 8.8×10−7 and p = 1.5×10−6 respectively) and a nonsense mutation rs3211938 within CD36 is associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (p = 13.5×10−12). The rs3211938-G allele, which is nearly absent in European and Asian populations, has been previously found to be associated with CD36 deficiency and shows a signature of selection in Africans and African Americans. Finally, we have evaluated the effect of SNPs established in European populations on lipid levels in multi-ethnic populations and show that most known lipid association signals span across ethnicities. However, differences between populations, especially differences in allele frequency, can be leveraged to identify novel signals, as shown by the discovery of ICAM1 and CD36 in the current report. PMID:23236364
Elbers, Clara C; Guo, Yiran; Tragante, Vinicius; van Iperen, Erik P A; Lanktree, Matthew B; Castillo, Berta Almoguera; Chen, Fang; Yanek, Lisa R; Wojczynski, Mary K; Li, Yun R; Ferwerda, Bart; Ballantyne, Christie M; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chen, Wei-Min; Cupples, L Adrienne; Cushman, Mary; Duan, Yanan; Duggan, David; Evans, Michele K; Fernandes, Jyotika K; Fornage, Myriam; Garcia, Melissa; Garvey, W Timothy; Glazer, Nicole; Gomez, Felicia; Harris, Tamara B; Halder, Indrani; Howard, Virginia J; Keller, Margaux F; Kamboh, M Ilyas; Kooperberg, Charles; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; LaCroix, Andrea; Liu, Kiang; Liu, Yongmei; Musunuru, Kiran; Newman, Anne B; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Ordovas, Jose; Peter, Inga; Post, Wendy; Redline, Susan; Reis, Steven E; Saxena, Richa; Schreiner, Pamela J; Volcik, Kelly A; Wang, Xingbin; Yusuf, Salim; Zonderland, Alan B; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Diane M; Psaty, Bruce; Rader, Daniel J; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Rotter, Jerome I; Sale, Michèle M; Tsai, Michael Y; Borecki, Ingrid B; Hegele, Robert A; Kathiresan, Sekar; Nalls, Michael A; Taylor, Herman A; Hakonarson, Hakon; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Drenos, Fotios; Wilson, James G; Keating, Brendan J
Meta-analyses of European populations has successfully identified genetic variants in over 100 loci associated with lipid levels, but our knowledge in other ethnicities remains limited. To address this, we performed dense genotyping of ∼2,000 candidate genes in 7,657 African Americans, 1,315 Hispanics and 841 East Asians, using the IBC array, a custom ∼50,000 SNP genotyping array. Meta-analyses confirmed 16 lipid loci previously established in European populations at genome-wide significance level, and found multiple independent association signals within these lipid loci. Initial discovery and in silico follow-up in 7,000 additional African American samples, confirmed two novel loci: rs5030359 within ICAM1 is associated with total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (p = 8.8×10(-7) and p = 1.5×10(-6) respectively) and a nonsense mutation rs3211938 within CD36 is associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (p = 13.5×10(-12)). The rs3211938-G allele, which is nearly absent in European and Asian populations, has been previously found to be associated with CD36 deficiency and shows a signature of selection in Africans and African Americans. Finally, we have evaluated the effect of SNPs established in European populations on lipid levels in multi-ethnic populations and show that most known lipid association signals span across ethnicities. However, differences between populations, especially differences in allele frequency, can be leveraged to identify novel signals, as shown by the discovery of ICAM1 and CD36 in the current report.
Thwaites, Stephen E; Robless, Peter A
Central vein stenosis occurs commonly after instrumentation of the major thoracic veins. We aimed to investigate factors that contributed to this condition in an Asian hemodialysis population, and the results of intervention. Hemodialysis patients diagnosed with central vein stenosis between January 2003 and December 2008, were identified from the records of the National University Hospital, Singapore. Eligible controls had a minimum of 2 years of hemodialysis via an arteriovenous fistula and/or central venous catheter, without clinical or radiological evidence of central vein stenosis. Central vein stenosis was diagnosed in 108 patients. The most common presenting features were arm swelling (32%) and failed hemodialysis catheter insertion (28%). The median frequency of permanent hemodialysis catheter insertion in those who subsequently developed venous stenosis (1.44 per patient per year) was 4 times that of controls (0.36 per patient per year; p<0.001). Ischemic heart disease (p = 0.03) and in certain patients, arteriovenous fistula surgery were associated with the development of central vein stenosis; whereas line sepsis, diabetes, and hypertension were not. Central vein angioplasty was attempted in 53 patients; the primary patency was 52% at 1 year. Central vein stenosis is associated with a higher frequency of hemodialysis catheter insertion and access surgery. Efforts to decrease permanent hemodialysis catheter use should reduce the incidence of central vein stenosis.
Qin, Pengfei; Zhou, Ying; Lou, Haiyi; Lu, Dongsheng; Yang, Xiong; Wang, Yuchen; Jin, Li; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Xu, Shuhua
Historical records indicate that extensive cultural, commercial and technological interaction occurred between European and Asian populations. What have been the biological consequences of these contacts in terms of gene flow? We systematically estimated gene flow between Eurasian groups using genome-wide polymorphisms from 34 populations representing Europeans, East Asians, and Central/South Asians. We identified recent gene flow between Europeans and Asians in most populations we studied, including East Asians and Northwestern Europeans, which are normally considered to be non-admixed populations. In addition we quantitatively estimated the extent of this gene flow using two statistical approaches, and dated admixture events based on admixture linkage disequilibrium. Our results indicate that most genetic admixtures occurred between 2,400 and 310 years ago and show the admixture proportions to be highly correlated with geographic locations, with the highest admixture proportions observed in Central Asia and the lowest in East Asia and Northwestern Europe. Interestingly, we observed a North-to-South decline of European gene flow in East Asians, suggesting a northern path of European gene flow diffusing into East Asian populations. Our findings contribute to an improved understanding of the history of human migration and the evolutionary mechanisms that have shaped the genetic structure of populations in Eurasia. PMID:25833680
Qin, Pengfei; Zhou, Ying; Lou, Haiyi; Lu, Dongsheng; Yang, Xiong; Wang, Yuchen; Jin, Li; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Xu, Shuhua
Historical records indicate that extensive cultural, commercial and technological interaction occurred between European and Asian populations. What have been the biological consequences of these contacts in terms of gene flow? We systematically estimated gene flow between Eurasian groups using genome-wide polymorphisms from 34 populations representing Europeans, East Asians, and Central/South Asians. We identified recent gene flow between Europeans and Asians in most populations we studied, including East Asians and Northwestern Europeans, which are normally considered to be non-admixed populations. In addition we quantitatively estimated the extent of this gene flow using two statistical approaches, and dated admixture events based on admixture linkage disequilibrium. Our results indicate that most genetic admixtures occurred between 2,400 and 310 years ago and show the admixture proportions to be highly correlated with geographic locations, with the highest admixture proportions observed in Central Asia and the lowest in East Asia and Northwestern Europe. Interestingly, we observed a North-to-South decline of European gene flow in East Asians, suggesting a northern path of European gene flow diffusing into East Asian populations. Our findings contribute to an improved understanding of the history of human migration and the evolutionary mechanisms that have shaped the genetic structure of populations in Eurasia.
Jensen, Arthur R.; Inouye, Arlene R.
In a study in which Asian-American, white, and black children in grades 2-6 in a California school district were given a battery of tests including measures of IQ, scholastic achievement, and short-term memory, factor analysis of the tests yielded two main factors identified as Level I (memory) and Level II (general intelligence) in Jensen's…
Jensen, Arthur R.; Inouye, Arlene R.
In a study in which Asian-American, white, and black children in grades 2-6 in a California school district were given a battery of tests including measures of IQ, scholastic achievement, and short-term memory, factor analysis of the tests yielded two main factors identified as Level I (memory) and Level II (general intelligence) in Jensen's…
Zhou, Qingyu; Cheung, Yin Bun; Jada, Srinivasa Rao; Lim, Wan Teck; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Gray, Joe W; Lee, Ann S G; Chowbay, Balram
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis if longer CA dinucleotide repeats are more common in the Asian population and also to gain insights into the interplay between the CA dinucleotide repeats and the frequencies of EGFR gene expression and amplifications as this might have therapeutic implications with regards to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The EGFR intron 1 polymorphism was analysed in three distinct healthy Asian subjects, namely, Chinese (N = 96), Malays (N = 98) and Indians (N = 100). Comparative genomic hybridisation was performed to investigate for changes in DNA copy number in relation to the polymorphic CA dinucleotide repeats in breast tumor tissues (N = 22). The frequency of short alleles with 14 and 15 CA repeats were most common in the Asian populations and significantly higher than those reported for Caucasians. The frequency of 20 CA repeats was 5%, almost 13-fold lower than previous reports. EGFR amplifications were detected in 23% and 11% of breast tumor tissues harboring short and long CA repeats, respectively. Our results show that the frequency of alleles encoding for short CA dinucleotide repeats is common in Asian populations. EGFR expression and amplification levels were also higher in Asian breast tumor tissues with short CA dinucleotide repeats. These findings suggest that the EGFR intron 1 polymorphism may influence response to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors in breast cancer patients and further studies are warranted.
Ee, Tat Xin; Allen, John Carson; Malhotra, Rahul; Koh, Huishan; Østbye, Truls; Tan, Thiam Chye
To define the optimal gestational weight gain (GWG) for the multiethnic Singaporean population. Data from 1529 live singleton deliveries was analyzed. A multinomial logistic regression analysis, with GWG as the predictor, was conducted to determine the lowest aggregated risk of a composite perinatal outcome, stratified by Asia-specific body mass index (BMI) categories. The composite perinatal outcome, based on a combination of delivery type (cesarean section [CS], vaginal delivery [VD]) and size for gestational age (small [SGA], appropriate [AGA], large [LGA]), had six categories: (i) VD with LGA; (ii) VD with SGA; (iii) CS with AGA; (iv) CS with SGA; (v) CS with LGA; (vi) and VD with AGA. The last was considered as the 'normal' reference category. In each BMI category, the GWG value corresponding to the lowest aggregated risk was defined as the optimal GWG, and the GWG values at which the aggregated risk did not exceed a 5% increase from the lowest aggregated risk were defined as the margins of the optimal GWG range. The optimal GWG by pre-pregnancy BMI category, was 19.5 kg (range, 12.9 to 23.9) for underweight, 13.7 kg (7.7 to 18.8) for normal weight, 7.9 kg (2.6 to 14.0) for overweight and 1.8 kg (-5.0 to 7.0) for obese. The results of this study, the first to determine optimal GWG in the multiethnic Singaporean population, concur with the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines in that GWG among Asian women who are heavier prior to pregnancy, especially those who are obese, should be lower. However, the optimal GWG for underweight and obese women was outside the IOM recommended range. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Tan, W S; Lim, J F; Tang, C L; Eu, K W
With improvements in surgical techniques, instrumentation and perioperative care, Hartmann's procedure is now less frequently performed. Restoration of intestinal continuity after Hartmann's procedure has traditionally been viewed to be technically demanding and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This is a study of outcomes after the reversal of Hartmann's procedure in an Asian population. A prospectively collected database showed that 255 patients had undergone Hartmann's procedure from October 1989 to October 2005. Patients who subsequently underwent Hartmann's reversal were identified and their records reviewed retrospectively. Hartmann's reversal was attempted in 49 patients. The most common indication for Hartmann's procedure was colorectal carcinoma (49.0%). The median interval between resection and reversal was 23 weeks. Reversal was successful in 46 (93.9%) patients, with 79.6% experiencing no intraoperative complications. Failure of reversal was significantly associated with prior radiotherapy to the pelvis (p-value = 0.007). Anastomotic leak rates and re-bleeding rates were both 0.0%. 79.6% of patients made an uneventful recovery with no postoperative complications. There was no significant increase in the complication rate in older patients or patients with higher American Society of Anesthesiologists status. The overall incidence of 30-day morbidity and mortality was 20.4% and 0.0%, respectively. In our population, Hartmann's procedure is more commonly performed for colorectal cancer rather than for diverticular disease, resulting in lower rates of stoma reversal. Hartmann's reversal could be performed with acceptable morbidity and minimal mortality, although prior radiotherapy and shorter rectal stump may pose challenges during reversal surgery.
The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), is a severe pest of cultivated maize that is endemic to the major production regions of China. Populations show phenotypic variation in obligatory or facultative diapause in response to selection within local environments, which affects the levels...
Jin, Hongbin; Pinheiro, Paulo S.; Xu, Jianbo; Amei, Amei
Cancer incidence disparities exist among specific Asian American populations. However, the existing reports exclude data from large metropoles like Chicago, Houston, and New York. Moreover, incidence rates by subgroup have been underestimated due to the exclusion of Asians with unknown subgroup. Cancer incidence data for 2009 to 2011 for eight states accounting for 68% of the Asian American population were analyzed. Race for cases with unknown subgroup was imputed using stratified proportion models by sex, age, cancer site, and geographic regions. Age-standardized incidence rates were calculated for 17 cancer sites for the six largest Asian subgroups. Our analysis comprised 90,709 Asian and 1,327,727 non-Hispanic white cancer cases. Asian Americans had significantly lower overall cancer incidence rates than non-Hispanic whites (336.5 per 100,000 and 541.9 for men, 299.6 and 449.3 for women, respectively). Among specific Asian subgroups, Filipino men (377.4) and Japanese women (342.7) had the highest overall incidence rates while South Asian men (297.7) and Korean women (275.9) had the lowest. In comparison to non-Hispanic whites and other Asian subgroups, significantly higher risks were observed for colorectal cancer among Japanese, stomach cancer among Koreans, nasopharyngeal cancer among Chinese, thyroid cancer among Filipinos, and liver cancer among Vietnamese. South Asians had remarkably low lung cancer risk. Overall, Asian Americans have a lower cancer risk than non-Hispanic whites, except for nasopharyngeal, liver and stomach cancers. The unique portrayal of cancer incidence patterns among specific Asian subgroups in this study provides a new baseline for future cancer surveillance research and health policy. PMID:26661680
Jeong, Choongwon; Nakagome, Shigeki; Di Rienzo, Anna
Despite recent advances in population genomics, much remains to be elucidated with regard to East Asian population history. The Ainu, a hunter-gatherer population of northern Japan and Sakhalin island of Russia, are thought to be key to elucidating the prehistory of Japan and the peopling of East Asia. Here, we study the genetic relationship of the Ainu with other East Asian and Siberian populations outside the Japanese archipelago using genome-wide genotyping data. We find that the Ainu represent a deep branch of East Asian diversity more basal than all present-day East Asian farmers. However, we did not find a genetic connection between the Ainu and populations of the Tibetan plateau, rejecting their long-held hypothetical connection based on Y chromosome data. Unlike all other East Asian populations investigated, the Ainu have a closer genetic relationship with northeast Siberians than with central Siberians, suggesting ancient connections among populations around the Sea of Okhotsk. We also detect a recent genetic contribution of the Ainu to nearby populations, but no evidence for reciprocal recent gene flow is observed. Whole genome sequencing of contemporary and ancient Ainu individuals will be helpful to understand the details of the deep history of East Asians. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.
Jeong, Choongwon; Nakagome, Shigeki; Di Rienzo, Anna
Despite recent advances in population genomics, much remains to be elucidated with regard to East Asian population history. The Ainu, a hunter–gatherer population of northern Japan and Sakhalin island of Russia, are thought to be key to elucidating the prehistory of Japan and the peopling of East Asia. Here, we study the genetic relationship of the Ainu with other East Asian and Siberian populations outside the Japanese archipelago using genome-wide genotyping data. We find that the Ainu represent a deep branch of East Asian diversity more basal than all present-day East Asian farmers. However, we did not find a genetic connection between the Ainu and populations of the Tibetan plateau, rejecting their long-held hypothetical connection based on Y chromosome data. Unlike all other East Asian populations investigated, the Ainu have a closer genetic relationship with northeast Siberians than with central Siberians, suggesting ancient connections among populations around the Sea of Okhotsk. We also detect a recent genetic contribution of the Ainu to nearby populations, but no evidence for reciprocal recent gene flow is observed. Whole genome sequencing of contemporary and ancient Ainu individuals will be helpful to understand the details of the deep history of East Asians. PMID:26500257
Background Most of what is known regarding the epidemiology of mortality from heart failure (HF) comes from studies within Western populations with few data available from the Asia-Pacific region where the burden of heart failure is increasing. Methods Individual level data from 543694 (85% Asian; 36% female) participants from 32 cohorts in the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration were included in the analysis. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for mortality from HF were estimated separately for Asians and non-Asians for a quintet of cardiovascular risk factors: systolic blood pressure, diabetes, body mass index, cigarette smoking and total cholesterol. All analyses were stratified by sex and study. Results During 3,793,229 person years of follow-up there were 614 HF deaths (80% Asian). The positive associations between elevated blood pressure, obesity, and cigarette smoking were consistent for Asians and non-Asians. There was evidence to indicate that diabetes was a weaker risk factor for death from HF for Asians compared with non-Asians: HR 1.26 (95% CI: 0.74-2.13) versus 3.04 (95% CI 1.76-5.25) respectively; p for interaction = 0.022. Additional adjustment for covariates did not materially change the overall associations. There was no good evidence to indicate that total cholesterol was a risk factor for HF mortality in either population. Conclusions Most traditional cardiovascular risk factors including elevated blood pressure, obesity and cigarette smoking appear to operate similarly to increase the risk of death from HF in Asians and non-Asians populations alike. PMID:24884382
Bush, H M; Williams, R G; Lean, M E; Anderson, A S
Italians in Britain have low rates of coronary heart disease while South Asians have high rates, which correspond to a tendency to central abdominal fat deposition and overweight. World variations in attitudes to body size are thought to be related to economic security. This cross-sectional study employed a range of measures including photographic silhouettes of known BMI to investigate the attitudes of 259 South Asian, Italian and general population women (aged 20-42 years) towards body size. Migrants are compared with British-born minority members. Our results indicate that although migrant South Asians were less happy with their weight than migrant Italians, fewer had tried to lose weight in the past or had experienced external pressures to change their bodies. More migrant South Asians than Italians or general population women equated one of the four largest shapes (BMI 28-38) with health and successful reproduction. All groups wanted to resemble one of the two thinnest shapes, equating them with longevity, likelihood of marriage and job success. British-born South Asians generally showed a considerable degree of convergence towards general population women's negative attitudes to large body size, but British-born Italians' attitudes were significantly more negative even than general population women. The study's conclusions were that South Asian health beliefs are an important focus of resistance to slimness. The tendency of migrant South Asians to equate large size with health contrasts with the opposing views of Italian and general population women. British-born South Asians' views are modifying from those of migrants, but significant differences remain when compared with general population women and British-born Italians. Present differences in economic security offer only a partial explanation; South Asian attitudes may be explained by economic insecurity in the past.
Siddiquee, Tasnima; Bhowmik, Bishwajit; Da Vale Moreira, Nayla Cristina; Mujumder, Anindita; Mahtab, Hajera; Khan, A K Azad; Hussain, Akhtar
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide including Bangladesh. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of general and central obesity in a rural Bangladeshi population based on newly proposed cut off level for Asian population. 2293 subjects aged ≥ 20 years from rural Bangladesh were randomly recruited to participate in a population-based, cross sectional survey, conducted in 2009. Both socio-demographic and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Age adjusted data for anthropometric indices were examined. The age standardized prevalence of overweight (BMI 23-24.9 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) were 17.7 (95% confidence interval (CI): 16.1, 19.2%) and 26.2% (95% CI: 24.4, 27.9%), respectively. The age standardized prevalence of central obesity based on WC (M ≥ 90 & F ≥ 80 cm) and WHR (M ≥ 0.90 & F ≥ 0.80) were 39.8% (95% CI: 37.9, 41.7%) and 71.6% (95% CI: 69.8, 73.4%) respectively. The result shows that prevalence of central obesity was more in female than male. Study shows middle age, medium and high socioeconomic status (SES), low education levels, physical inactivity, high consumption of carbohydrate, protein and fat, were significant risk indicators for general and central obesity. Smoking was shown as protective factor for both general and central obesity. In rural Bangladeshi population, the prevalence of both general and central obesity was high among both sexes with the use of newly proposed cut off points for Asian population. Gender, diet, physical activity, education levels and SES were associated with the increase prevalence of obesity.
Zhu, Shu-Hong; Wong, Shiushing; Tang, Hao; Shi, Chih-Wen; Chen, Moon S
Asian immigrants to the U.S. are participants in a natural experiment on the effects of social norms on tobacco cessation. Smoking is socially acceptable in most Asian countries. When Asian smokers move to U.S. states such as California, they experience a radically different social norm toward smoking. This study examines ever smokers among two groups of Asian immigrants in California, Chinese and Koreans, and finds that most have quit smoking. The quit ratios (percent of ever smokers who have quit) for Chinese (52.5%) and Korean immigrants (51.1%) have quit ratios for ever smokers in California in general (53.3%), which is among the highest in the U.S. These high quit ratios contrast sharply with much lower quit ratios for Chinese in China (11.5%) and for Koreans in Korea (22.3%). Such large differences in quit ratios are the results of accumulated differences over the years, because of dramatic differences in annual cessation rates: Chinese in California quit at roughly seven times the rate of Chinese in China, and Koreans in California three times that of Koreans in Korea. Analyses further show that these large differences in annual cessation rates come mainly from the fact that these immigrants in California made quit attempts at a much higher rate than their counterparts in their home countries. These results suggest that creating an impetus to drive up quit attempts, which often results from a significant change in social norms toward smoking, is the most important strategy to improve cessation on the population level.
Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Eding, H; Simianer, H; Weigend, S
Genetic diversity and population structure of 113 chicken populations from Africa, Asia and Europe were studied using 29 microsatellite markers. Among these, three populations of wild chickens and nine commercial purebreds were used as reference populations for comparison. Compared to commercial lines and chickens sampled from the European region, high mean numbers of alleles and a high degree of heterozygosity were found in Asian and African chickens as well as in Red Junglefowl. Population differentiation (FST ) was higher among European breeds and commercial lines than among African, Asian and Red Junglefowl populations. Neighbour-Net genetic clustering and structure analysis revealed two main groups of Asian and north-west European breeds, whereas African populations overlap with other breeds from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean region. Broilers and brown egg layers were situated between the Asian and north-west European clusters. structure analysis confirmed a lower degree of population stratification in African and Asian chickens than in European breeds. High genetic differentiation and low genetic contributions to global diversity have been observed for single European breeds. Populations with low genetic variability have also shown a low genetic contribution to a core set of diversity in attaining maximum genetic variation present from the total populations. This may indicate that conservation measures in Europe should pay special attention to preserving as many single chicken breeds as possible to maintain maximum genetic diversity given that higher genetic variations come from differentiation between breeds. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.
Khan, Nadia A; McAlister, Finlay A; Pilote, Louise; Palepu, Anita; Quan, Hude; Hill, Michael D; Fang, Jiming; Kapral, Moira K
Little is known about potential ethnic differences in stroke incidence. We compared incidence and time trends of ischemic stroke and primary intracerebral hemorrhage in South Asian, Chinese and white persons in a population-based study. Population based census and administrative data analysis in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia, Canada using validated ICD 9/ICD 10 coding for acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke (1997-2010). There were 3290 South Asians, 4444 Chinese and 160944 white patients with acute ischemic stroke and 535 South Asian, 1376 Chinese and 21842 white patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. South Asians were younger than whites at onset of stroke (70 vs. 74 years for ischemic and 67 vs. 71 years for hemorrhagic stroke). Age and sex adjusted ischemic stroke incidence in 2010 was 43% lower in Chinese and 63% lower in South Asian than in White patients. Age and sex adjusted intracerebral hemorrhage incidence was 18% higher in Chinese patients, and 66% lower in South Asian relative to white patients. Stroke incidence declined in all ethnic groups (relative reduction 69% in South Asians, 25% in Chinese, and 34% in white patients for ischemic stroke and for intracerebral hemorrhage, 79% for South Asians, 51% for Chinese and 30% in white patients). Although stroke rates declined across all ethnic groups, these rates differed significantly by ethnicity. Further study is needed to understand mechanisms underlying the higher ischemic stroke incidence in white patients and intracerebral hemorrhage in Chinese patients.
Rajesh, H; Lee, W Y; Fook-Chong, S; Yu, S L
We aimed to identify the variables associated with ovarian hyperstimulation in Asian patients and compare them with western standards. This is a retrospective case record analysis of 79 patients with ovarian hyperstimulation at a tertiary restructured hospital. Gonadotropin doses resulting in hyperstimulation did not vary between long and antagonist cycles in women less than 35 years with polycystic ovaries (PCO). Mean oestradiol levels at hyperstimulation were not different between PCO and non-PCO patients in a long cycle. Hyperstimulation was mostly due to higher starting doses. Total follicle counts of more than 20 on Day 5-7 after stimulation may be predictive of subsequent hyperstimulation. Hyperstimulation tended to be more severe in lean PCO patients, and prophylactic albumin helped to reduce its severity. Gonadotropin doses at stimulation should start at 150 iu or less in women below 35 years of age, with a step up of 37.5 iu, as necessary. Transfer should be abandoned in the presence of high oestradiol levels (more than 5,000 pg/ml), when the total number of intermediate and large follicle count exceeds 30 on the day of oocyte retrieval, or when more than 19 eggs are retrieved. Variables in the Asian population appear to be similar to those in the western population.
Tan, Eng-King; Lee, Jennie; Hunter, Christine; Shinawi, Lina; Fook-Chong, S; Jankovic, Joseph
Recent discoveries of disease-causing genes in Parkinson's disease (PD) have generated considerable interest regarding genetic testing in PD. The attitudes toward genetic testing are largely influenced by knowledge and preconceived notions. We investigated the relationship between knowledge of and attitude towards predictive genetic testing of PD in two independent centers in America and Asia involving PD patients and caregivers. In a prospective study involving 515 subjects comprising of PD patients and their caregivers in two independent centers in America and Asia, the level of knowledge about genetic testing and patients' attitudes towards such testing were evaluated using a standardized questionnaire. American PD patients had a higher level of knowledge of PD genetics than Asian PD (31.1% vs. 12.3%, p=0.0002). A greater number of American PD patients and caregivers reported a positive attitude towards the potential medical benefits of genetic testing compared to their Asian counterparts (85.4% vs. 42.2%, 92.2% vs. 32.1%, p<0.00005), but a more negative attitude towards potential compromise in getting health and life insurance (43.7% vs. 25.8%, p=0.0002). However, in the Asian cohort, multivariate analysis revealed that a high level of genetics knowledge was associated with a positive attitude response regarding the potential medical benefits of testing (p<0.0005), but a negative attitude towards compromises in healthcare and life insurance, getting a job and starting a family (p<0.0005). These associations were not observed amongst American subjects. The relationship between level of genetic knowledge and attitude towards potential risks and benefits of predictive genetic testing in PD was distinctly different in two independent, racially and culturally different PD populations and caregivers. These observations have clinical implications in the development of PD genetic counseling programs.
Comas, D; Calafell, F; Mateu, E; Pérez-Lezaun, A; Bosch, E; Martínez-Arias, R; Clarimon, J; Facchini, F; Fiori, G; Luiselli, D; Pettener, D; Bertranpetit, J
Central Asia is a vast region at the crossroads of different habitats, cultures, and trade routes. Little is known about the genetics and the history of the population of this region. We present the analysis of mtDNA control-region sequences in samples of the Kazakh, the Uighurs, the lowland Kirghiz, and the highland Kirghiz, which we have used to address both the population history of the region and the possible selective pressures that high altitude has on mtDNA genes. Central Asian mtDNA sequences present features intermediate between European and eastern Asian sequences, in several parameters-such as the frequencies of certain nucleotides, the levels of nucleotide diversity, mean pairwise differences, and genetic distances. Several hypotheses could explain the intermediate position of central Asia between Europe and eastern Asia, but the most plausible would involve extensive levels of admixture between Europeans and eastern Asians in central Asia, possibly enhanced during the Silk Road trade and clearly after the eastern and western Eurasian human groups had diverged. Lowland and highland Kirghiz mtDNA sequences are very similar, and the analysis of molecular variance has revealed that the fraction of mitochondrial genetic variance due to altitude is not significantly different from zero. Thus, it seems unlikely that altitude has exerted a major selective pressure on mitochondrial genes in central Asian populations. PMID:9837835
Osirike, A B
This article presents an overview of the Asian Population History Conference held in Taipei, Taiwan, January 4-8, 1996. 41 papers were presented on seven themes: Asian population growth, epidemiological transition and public health, mortality trends in pretransitional populations, marriage patterns and demographic systems, fertility levels and trends in pretransitional Asian populations, migration and population distribution, and family systems. Papers were presented by Anthony Reid; Chris Wilson; Bruce Fetter; Sumit Guha; Sheila Zurbrigg; Timothy Dyson and Monica Das Gupta; Cameron Campbell; Robert Shepherd; Ann Jannetta; Chai-Bin Park, Eise Yokoyama, and Sadahiko Nozaki; Peter Boomgaard; Jose Antonio Ortega Osona; Osamu Saito; Ts'ui-jung Liu and Shi-yung Liu; Wen Shang Yang; Dallas Fernando; Bruce Caldwell; A. Francis Gealogo; S. Irudaya Rajan; Kiyoshi Hamano; Guo Songyi; Wang Feng and James Lee; Christopher Langford; Terence H. Hull; Paul K.C. Liu; Xizhe Peng and Yangfang Hou; Ken'ichi Tomobe; Nokiro O. Tsuya; Peter Xenos; Daniel Doeppers; Chaonan Chen and Su-fen Liu; Jiang Tao; Akira Hayami and Emiko Ochiai; Arthur P. Wolf and Chuang Ying-chang; Myron L. Cohen; Burton Pasternak; Zhongwei Zhao; Li-shou Yang, Arland Thornton, and Tamara Hareven; Chi-chun Yi and Yu-hsia Lu; Lai Huimin; Ding Yizhuang; and John Caldwell, who chaired the concluding session. John Caldwell concluded that the conference provided an impressive collection of findings on Asian population history. There was much more research possible, particularly research based on India's rich historical data archives. Research was needed to confirm the assertion that Asian mortality transition began after the two world wars. A focus on natural family planning methods used prior to the transition was suggested. International Union for Scientific Study of Population Committee Chairman David Reher suggested multidisciplinary research on Asian differences in fertility, mortality, and migration. Hayami and Ts
Lagisetty, Pooja A; Wen, Ming; Choi, Hwajung; Heisler, Michele; Kanaya, Alka M; Kandula, Namratha R
South Asians have a high burden of cardiovascular disease compared to other racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Little has been done to evaluate how neighborhood environments may influence cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension and type 2 diabetes in this immigrant population. We evaluated the association of perceived neighborhood social cohesion with hypertension and type 2 diabetes among 906 South Asian adults who participated in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America Study. Multivariable logistic regression adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, and physiologic covariates. Subgroup analyses examined whether associations differed by gender. South Asian women living in neighborhoods with high social cohesion had 46 % reduced odds of having hypertension than those living in neighborhoods with low social cohesion (OR 0.54, 95 % CI 0.30-0.99). Future research should determine if leveraging neighborhood social cohesion prevents hypertension in South Asian women.
Bennett, Claudette E.
This report presents Current Population Survey data on the demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the Asian American and Pacific Islander population in the United States. This is the first CPS report on this population. The Bureau of the Census collected data for this report using the March 1991 and 1990 supplements to the CPS.…
Hoffmann, M; Coy, M R; Kingdom Gibbard, H N; Pelz-Stelinski, K S
The symbiotic relationships between bacteria of the genus Wolbachia (order Rickettsiales) and their arthropod hosts are diverse and can range from mutualism to parasitism. Whereas effects of Wolbachia on host biology are well investigated, little is known about diversity and abundance of Wolbachia in their natural hosts. The phloem-feeding Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is naturally infected with Wolbachia (wDi). In the current study, we calculated the within-host density of Wolbachia in Florida D. citri populations using quantitative polymerase chain reaction for detection of the Wolbachia outer surface protein gene, wsp. Gene quantities were normalized to the D. citri wingless gene (Wg) to estimate Wolbachia abundance in individual D. citri. Using this method, significant geographic differences in Wolbachia densities were detected among Florida D. citri populations, with higher infection levels occurring in male versus female hosts.
Setiawan, Didik; Luttjeboer, Jos; Pouwels, Koen B; Wilschut, Jan C; Postma, Maarten J
Cervical cancer is a serious public-health problem in Asian countries. Since human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main risk factor for cervical cancer, HPV vaccination is considered a promising strategy to prevent cervical cancer. However, comprehensive immunogenicity and safety information for Asian populations is lacking. We searched four electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and clinicaltrials.gov. We reviewed selected manuscripts and extracted the pooled relative risk (RR) from immunogenicity and safety information on HPV vaccination among women in Asian countries. We identified two quadrivalent-vaccine studies and eight bivalent-vaccine studies conducted in Asian countries. Analysis across these studies suggested that the HPV vaccines significantly enhanced HPV16- and HPV18-specific antibody among both uninfected (RR 85.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) 31.51-233.04 and 62.77; 95% CI 37.4-105.51) and infected individuals (RR 8.60; 95% CI 6.95-10.64 and RR 8.13; 95% CI 5.96-11.11). Furthermore, HPV vaccination among Asian populations has a favorable safety profile, with only slightly higher risks of local (RR: 1.89; 95% CI 1.65-2.17) and systemic (RR: 1.33; 95% CI 1.18-1.50) adverse events in vaccinated individuals compared with controls. For Asian populations, HPV vaccines enhance the level of HPV16- and HPV18-specific antibodies for both uninfected and infected individuals. Also, the risk of adverse events related to vaccination are acceptable. More data are needed to establish vaccine efficacy with regard to prevention of HPV infection and further outcomes including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer.
Tiwari, Siddharth; Mann, Rajinder S; Rogers, Michael E; Stelinski, Lukasz L
Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, is a major pest of citrus because it vectors the putative causal agent of huanglongbing disease. Insecticides are currently the basis of psyllid management programs, and the number of annual insecticide applications has increased significantly. In this paper, a series of investigations of insecticide resistance among field populations of adult and immature ACP in Florida is described. In 2009, the highest level of resistance for adult ACP, as compared with the laboratory susceptible (LS) population, was found with imidacloprid with an LD(50) resistance ratio (RR(50) ) of 35 in one population. This was followed by chlorpyriphos (RR(50) = 17.9, 13.3, 11.8 and 6.9), thiamethoxam (RR(50) = 15 and 13), malathion (RR(50) = 5.4 and 5.0) and fenpropathrin (RR(50) = 4.8). In 2010, mortality of adults from all five sites sampled was lower than with the LS population at three diagnostic concentrations of each insecticide tested. Among nymph populations, indications of resistance were observed with carbaryl (RR(50) = 2.9), chlorpyriphos (RR(50) = 3.2), imidacloprid (RR(50) = 2.3 and 3.9) and spinetoram (RR(50) = 4.8 and 5.9). General esterase, glutathione S-transferase and monooxygenase levels were also elevated in field-collected adult and nymph ACP as compared with the LS population. The present results suggest that varying levels of insecticide susceptibility exist in ACP populations across the citrus-growing areas of Florida. Increased levels of detoxifying enzymes in these populations may partially explain these differences. The present results indicate that insecticide resistance may become an emerging problem for ACP control if effective resistance management is not practiced. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
Lee, Hee Yun; Rhee, Taeho Greg; Kim, Nam Keol; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S
Asian American immigrants have a lower level of health literacy than non-Latino whites, but their level of health literacy and its impact on health outcomes may differ among subgroups. We investigated the level of health literacy across five subgroups of Asian American immigrants and explored the association between health literacy and self-rated health status and symptoms of depression. We utilized a cross-sectional survey research design and a population-based sampling strategy using the 2007 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). We sampled 30,615 non-Latino whites and 3,053 Asian American immigrants (1,058 Chinese, 598 Koreans, 534 Filipinos, 416 South Asians, and 447 Vietnamese). We used two questions as proxy measures to assess the level of health literacy in non-Latino whites and in both aggregated and disaggregated Asian American immigrant groups. We then investigated the effect of health literacy on two main health outcomes: self-rated health status and depression symptoms. The level of health literacy varied across the five subgroups of Asian American immigrants. Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese groups had the lowest levels of health literacy, while Filipinos showed the highest level. Health literacy was positively correlated with health status in Chinese and Korean immigrants, and negatively correlated with depression symptoms in Korean and South Asian immigrants. We found heterogeneity in health literacy among Asian American immigrants and found that health literacy had varying associations with health outcomes. The aggregated Asian American immigrant group results may mask the true health disparities that each Asian American immigrant group faces. Koreans were the only group found to have a significant association between the proxy for health literacy and both health outcomes. Further research is needed to better understand the causes of heterogeneity and to investigate health literacy as a critical determinant of immigrant health.
Ma, Grace X.; Tan, Yin; Toubbeh, Jamil I.; Su, Xuefen; Shive, Steven E.; Lan, Yajia
The relationship between acculturation and smoking behavior was examined in four Asian-American groups that included recent immigrants and US-born Koreans, Chinese, Vietnamese and Cambodians residing in the Delaware Valley of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The study was part of a community-based, comprehensive cross-sectional study designed to…
A WHO expert consultation addressed the debate about interpretation of recommended body-mass index (BMI) cut-off points for determining overweight and obesity in Asian populations, and considered whether population-specific cut-off points for BMI are necessary. They reviewed scientific evidence that suggests that Asian populations have different associations between BMI, percentage of body fat, and health risks than do European populations. The consultation concluded that the proportion of Asian people with a high risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease is substantial at BMIs lower than the existing WHO cut-off point for overweight (> or =25 kg/m2). However, available data do not necessarily indicate a clear BMI cut-off point for all Asians for overweight or obesity. The cut-off point for observed risk varies from 22 kg/m2 to 25 kg/m2 in different Asian populations; for high risk it varies from 26 kg/m2 to 31 kg/m2. No attempt was made, therefore, to redefine cut-off points for each population separately. The consultation also agreed that the WHO BMI cut-off points should be retained as international classifications. The consultation identified further potential public health action points (23.0, 27.5, 32.5, and 37.5 kg/m2) along the continuum of BMI, and proposed methods by which countries could make decisions about the definitions of increased risk for their population.
Kim, Bernard Y; Lohmueller, Kirk E
It has been hypothesized that the greater proportion of Neandertal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans is due to the fact that purifying selection is less effective at removing weakly deleterious Neandertal alleles from East Asian populations. Using simulations of a broad range of models of selection and demography, we have shown that this hypothesis cannot account for the higher proportion of Neandertal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans. Instead, more complex demographic scenarios, most likely involving multiple pulses of Neandertal admixture, are required to explain the data. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Bernard Y.; Lohmueller, Kirk E.
It has been hypothesized that the greater proportion of Neandertal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans is due to the fact that purifying selection is less effective at removing weakly deleterious Neandertal alleles from East Asian populations. Using simulations of a broad range of models of selection and demography, we have shown that this hypothesis cannot account for the higher proportion of Neandertal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans. Instead, more complex demographic scenarios, most likely involving multiple pulses of Neandertal admixture, are required to explain the data. PMID:25683122
Rajaram, Nadia; Mariapun, Shivaani; Eriksson, Mikael; Tapia, Jose; Kwan, Pui Yoke; Ho, Weang Kee; Harun, Faizah; Rahmat, Kartini; Czene, Kamila; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Hall, Per; Teo, Soo Hwang
Mammographic density is a measurable and modifiable biomarker that is strongly and independently associated with breast cancer risk. Paradoxically, although Asian women have lower risk of breast cancer, studies of minority Asian women in predominantly Caucasian populations have found that Asian women have higher percent density. In this cross-sectional study, we compared the distribution of mammographic density for a matched cohort of Asian women from Malaysia and Caucasian women from Sweden, and determined if variations in mammographic density could be attributed to population differences in breast cancer risk factors. Volumetric mammographic density was compared for 1501 Malaysian and 4501 Swedish healthy women, matched on age and body mass index. We used multivariable log-linear regression to determine the risk factors associated with mammographic density and mediation analysis to identify factors that account for differences in mammographic density between the two cohorts. Compared to Caucasian women, percent density was 2.0% higher among Asian women (p < 0.001), and dense volume was 5.7 cm(3) higher among pre-menopausal Asian women (p < 0.001). Dense volume was 3.0 cm(3) lower among post-menopausal Asian women (p = 0.009) compared to post-menopausal Caucasian women, and this difference was attributed to population differences in height, weight, and parity (p < 0.001). Our analysis suggests that among post-menopausal women, population differences in mammographic density and risk to breast cancer may be accounted for by height, weight, and parity. Given that pre-menopausal Asian and Caucasian women have similar population risk to breast cancer but different dense volume, development of more appropriate biomarkers of risk in pre-menopausal women is required.
Liber, Alex C; Ross, Hana; Ratanachena, Sophapan; Dorotheo, E Ulysses; Foong, Kin
To monitor and analyse impacts of the interaction between tobacco excise tax policy and industry price strategy, on the price level and variation of cigarettes sold in five Southeast Asian countries (Indonesia, Cambodia, Lao PDR, the Philippines and Vietnam). Prices of cigarette sold by sticks and packs were collected through an in-person survey of retailers during 2011. Mean cigarette prices and price variation were calculated in each study country for single cigarettes, whole packs and brand groups. Price variation of whole packs was greater in countries with ad-valorem excise tax structures (Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam) than in countries with multitiered specific excise taxes (Indonesia and the Philippines). The price variation for single sticks appeared to be driven by local currency denomination. Cigarettes sold individually cost more per stick than cigarettes sold in whole packs in every brand group except for Indonesia's domestic brands. Tobacco industry strategy and excise tax structure drove the price level and variation of cigarettes sold in packs, while currency denominations influence the selling price of single sticks. To maximise the effectiveness of tobacco tax policies, countries should adopt specific excise tax structures to decrease cigarette price variation, which would minimise opportunities for smokers to 'trade down' to a cheaper brand to avoid a tax-driven price increase. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Edea, Z; Bhuiyan, M S A; Dessie, T; Rothschild, M F; Dadi, H; Kim, K S
Knowledge about genetic diversity and population structure is useful for designing effective strategies to improve the production, management and conservation of farm animal genetic resources. Here, we present a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of genetic diversity, population structure and admixture based on 244 animals sampled from 10 cattle populations in Asia and Africa and genotyped for 69,903 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mainly derived from the indicine breed. Principal component analysis, STRUCTURE and distance analysis from high-density SNP data clearly revealed that the largest genetic difference occurred between the two domestic lineages (taurine and indicine), whereas Ethiopian cattle populations represent a mosaic of the humped zebu and taurine. Estimation of the genetic influence of zebu and taurine revealed that Ethiopian cattle were characterized by considerable levels of introgression from South Asian zebu, whereas Bangladeshi populations shared very low taurine ancestry. The relationships among Ethiopian cattle populations reflect their history of origin and admixture rather than phenotype-based distinctions. The high within-individual genetic variability observed in Ethiopian cattle represents an untapped opportunity for adaptation to changing environments and for implementation of within-breed genetic improvement schemes. Our results provide a basis for future applications of genome-wide SNP data to exploit the unique genetic makeup of indigenous cattle breeds and to facilitate their improvement and conservation.
Kim, Young Uk; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Jong-Young; Park, Kiejung
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become popular as an approach for the identification of large numbers of phenotype-associated variants. However, differences in genetic architecture and environmental factors mean that the effect of variants can vary across populations. Understanding population genetic diversity is valuable for the investigation of possible population specific and independent effects of variants. EvoSNP-DB aims to provide information regarding genetic diversity among East Asian populations, including Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Non-redundant SNPs (1.6 million) were genotyped in 54 Korean trios (162 samples) and were compared with 4 million SNPs from HapMap phase II populations. EvoSNP-DB provides two user interfaces for data query and visualization, and integrates scores of genetic diversity (Fst and VarLD) at the level of SNPs, genes, and chromosome regions. EvoSNP-DB is a web-based application that allows users to navigate and visualize measurements of population genetic differences in an interactive manner, and is available online at [http://biomi.cdc.go.kr/EvoSNP/]. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(8): 416-421] PMID:23977990
Murray, Nicole; Norton, Heather L; Parra, Esteban J
Two OCA2 polymorphisms (rs1800414 and rs74653330) have been associated with pigmentation in East Asians. We explored the distribution of these markers in a panel of samples from populations around the world. The derived allele of rs1800414 has high frequencies in a broad East-Asian region, whereas the derived allele of rs74653330 is primarily restricted to northern East Asia. Our data suggest that these polymorphisms may have been selected independently in different regions of East Asia. PMID:27081560
Stevens, June; Nowicki, Eric M
Investigators have questioned whether body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) cut-points for obesity used in the United States and Europe are appropriate for Asian countries. A recent study examined the association between BMI and mortality in a population-based cohort of Japanese men and women. These and other results did not indicate a need for lower cut-points in Asians.
Dai, Zhaoli; Wang, Renwei; Ang, Li-Wei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay
While epidemiologic studies suggest that bone turnover biomarkers may predict hip fracture risk, findings are inconsistent and Asian data are lacking. We conducted a matched case-control (1:1) study nested in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort of Chinese men and women (45-74years) recruited from 1993 to 1998 in Singapore. One hundred cases with incident hip fracture and 100 individually matched controls were randomly selected from 63,257 participants. Serum bone turnover biomarkers, namely bone alkaline phosphatase (bone ALP), osteocalcin (OC), procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP), N-terminal and C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX-I and CTX-I) were measured using immunoassays. Hip fracture cases had significantly higher serum levels of OC, PINP, CTX-I and NTX-I than controls (p<0.05). There was a dose-dependent positive relationship between OC, PINP, CTX-I and NTX-I and risk of hip fracture (all Ps for trend≤0.006), where the risk was significantly increased by 4.32-8.23 folds for the respective BTM [Quartile (Q) 4 vs. Q1]. The odds ratio [OR (95% CI)] at the highest quartile (Q4) was 6.63 (2.02-21.18) for PINP and 4.92 (1.67-14.51) for CTX-I. The joint effect of PINP and CTX-I showed a 7-fold increase in risk (OR: 7.36; 95% CI: 2.53-21.41) comparing participants with higher levels of PINP (Q4) and CTX-I (Q3-Q4) to those with low levels of PINP (Q1-Q3) and CTX-I (Q1-Q2). Our data demonstrated that higher serum levels of bone turnover biomarkers were associated with increased risk of hip fracture in an Asian population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dai, Zhaoli; Wang, Renwei; Ang, Li-Wei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay
While epidemiologic studies suggest that bone turnover biomarkers may predict hip fracture risk, findings are inconsistent and Asian data are lacking. We conducted a matched case-control (1:1) study nested in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort of Chinese men and women (45–74 years) recruited from 1993–1998 in Singapore. One hundred cases with incident hip fracture and 100 individually matched controls were randomly selected from 63,257 participants. Serum bone turnover biomarkers, namely bone alkaline phosphatase (bone ALP), osteocalcin (OC), procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP), N-terminal and C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX-I and CTX-I) were measured using immunoassays. Hip fracture cases had significantly higher serum levels of OC, PINP, CTX-I and NTX-I than controls (p<0.05). There was a dose-dependent positive relationship between OC, PINP, CTX-I and NTX-I and risk of hip fracture (all Ps for trend≤0.006), where the risk was significantly increased by 4.32–8.23 folds for the respective BTM [Quartile (Q) 4 vs. Q1]. The odds ratio [OR (95% CI)] at the highest quartile (Q4) was 6.63 (2.02–21.18) for PINP and 4.92 (1.67–14.51) for CTX-I. The joint effect of PINP and CTX-I showed a 7-fold increase in risk (OR: 7.36; 95% CI: 2.53–21.41) comparing participants with higher levels of PINP (Q4) and CTX-I (Q3-Q4) to those with low levels of PINP (Q1-Q3) and CTX-I (Q1-Q2). Our data demonstrated that higher serum levels of bone turnover biomarkers were associated with increased risk of hip fracture in an Asian population. PMID:26555636
Rooney, David; Lye, Weng Kit; Tan, Gavin; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Kumari, Neelam; Zheng, Ying Feng; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Y; Sabanayagam, Charumathi
Body mass index (BMI) is an established risk factor for diabetes. However, the association between BMI and diabetic retinopathy (DR) has been inconclusive. We aimed to assess the association between BMI and DR in a large population-based sample of multi-ethnic Asian adults in Singapore. We examined 2,278 adults aged ≥40 years with diabetes who participated in three population-based studies conducted from 2004 to 2011: the Singapore Malay Eye Study, the Singapore Indian Eye Study, and the Singapore Chinese Eye Study. Retinal photographs taken from both eyes were graded for any and vision-threatening (VTDR) using the modified Airlie House Classification. BMI (kg/m(2)) was categorized into normal/underweight (<25), overweight (25-29.9), and obese (≥30). The prevalence rates of any and VTDR in the study population were 35.1 % and 9.1 %, respectively. The prevalence of any and VTDR decreased with increasing categories of BMI (P trend <0.001 and 0.005). In multivariable models adjusted for potential confounders, compared to those with normal weight, the odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) of any DR was 0.71 (0.57-0.88) for overweight and 0.70 (0.53-0.92) for obese. Corresponding estimates for VTDR were 0.84 (0.59-1.21) for overweight and 0.58 (0.35-0.94) for obese. The inverse association between BMI and any DR was consistently present when BMI was analyzed as a continuous variable and in analyses stratified by ethnicity and age. In a population-based sample of multi-ethnic Asian adults, BMI levels were inversely associated with any DR and VTDR.
Cabezas, Andres F; Krebes, Kristi; Hussey, Michael M; Santoni, Brandon G; Kim, Hyuong Sik; Frankle, Mark A; Oh, Joo Han
The aim of this study was to determine if there were significant differences in glenohumeral joint morphology between North American and East Asian populations that may influence sizing and selection of shoulder arthroplasty systems. Computed tomography reconstructions of 92 North American and 58 East Asian patients were used to perform 3-dimensional measurements. The proximal humeral position was normalized in all patients by aligning it with the scapular plane utilizing anatomic landmarks. Measurements were performed on the humerus and scapula and included coronal and axial humeral head radius, humeral neck shaft and articular arc angles, glenoid height and width, and critical shoulder angle. Glenohumeral relationships were also measured and included lateral distance to the greater tuberosity and acromion, abduction lever arm, and acromial index. Parametric and nonparametric statistical analyses were used to compare population metrics. East Asian glenohumeral measurements were significantly smaller for all linear metrics (p < 0.05), with the exception of acromial length, which was greater than in the North American cohort (p < 0.001). The increase in acromial length affected all measurements involving the acromion including abduction lever arms. No difference was found between the neck shaft and articular angular measurements. The East Asian population exhibited smaller shoulder morphometrics than their North American cohort, with the exception of an extended acromial overhang. The morphologic data can provide some additional factors to consider when choosing an optimal shoulder implant for the East Asian population, in addition to creating future designs that may better accommodate this population.
Cabezas, Andres F.; Krebes, Kristi; Hussey, Michael M.; Santoni, Brandon G.; Kim, Hyuong Sik
Background The aim of this study was to determine if there were significant differences in glenohumeral joint morphology between North American and East Asian populations that may influence sizing and selection of shoulder arthroplasty systems. Methods Computed tomography reconstructions of 92 North American and 58 East Asian patients were used to perform 3-dimensional measurements. The proximal humeral position was normalized in all patients by aligning it with the scapular plane utilizing anatomic landmarks. Measurements were performed on the humerus and scapula and included coronal and axial humeral head radius, humeral neck shaft and articular arc angles, glenoid height and width, and critical shoulder angle. Glenohumeral relationships were also measured and included lateral distance to the greater tuberosity and acromion, abduction lever arm, and acromial index. Parametric and nonparametric statistical analyses were used to compare population metrics. Results East Asian glenohumeral measurements were significantly smaller for all linear metrics (p < 0.05), with the exception of acromial length, which was greater than in the North American cohort (p < 0.001). The increase in acromial length affected all measurements involving the acromion including abduction lever arms. No difference was found between the neck shaft and articular angular measurements. Conclusions The East Asian population exhibited smaller shoulder morphometrics than their North American cohort, with the exception of an extended acromial overhang. The morphologic data can provide some additional factors to consider when choosing an optimal shoulder implant for the East Asian population, in addition to creating future designs that may better accommodate this population. PMID:27583111
Xu, Chang Fen; Tan, Eugene S J; Feng, Liang; Santhanakrishnan, Rajalakshmi; Chan, Michelle M Y; Nyunt, Shwe Zin; Ng, Tze Pin; Ling, Lieng Hsi; Richards, A Mark; Lam, Carolyn S P; Lim, Toon Wei
Electrocardiographic (ECG) criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), such as the Cornell and Sokolow-Lyon voltage criteria were derived from Western populations. However, their utility and accuracy for diagnosing echocardiographic LVH in Asian populations is unclear. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of ECG criteria for LVH in Asians and to determine if alternative gender-specific ECG cut-offs may improve its diagnostic accuracy. ECG and echocardiographic assessments were performed on 668 community-dwelling Asian adults (50.9% women; 57 ± 10 years) in Singapore. The accuracy of ECG voltage criteria was compared to echocardiographic LVH criteria based on the American Society of Echocardiography guidelines, and Asian ethnicity and gender-specific partition values. Echocardiographic LVH was present in 93 (13.6%) adults. Cornell criteria had low sensitivity (5.5%) and high specificity (98.9%) for diagnosing LVH. Modified gender specific cut-offs (18 mm in women, 22 mm in men) improved sensitivity (8.8% to 17.5%, 0% to 14.7%, respectively) whilst preserving specificity (98.2% to 94.2%, 100% to 95.8%). Similarly, Sokolow-Lyon criteria had poor sensitivity (7.7%) and high specificity (96.1%) for diagnosing LVH. Lowering the cut-off value from 35 mm to 31 mm improved the sensitivity in women from 3.5% to 14% while preserving specificity at 94.2%. A cut-off of 36 mm was optimal in men (sensitivity of 14.7%, specificity of 95.5%). Current ECG criteria for LVH derived in Western cohorts have limited sensitivity in Asian populations. Our data suggests that ethnicity- and gender-specific ECG criteria may be needed.
Lee, Sunghee; Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Tsui, Jennifer
We examined health status and access to care among Asian Americans by the following acculturation indicators: nativity, percent lifetime in the US, self-rated English proficiency, and interview language, to assess whether any measure better distinguishes acculturation. Data from the 2003 California Health Interview Survey were used to study the sample of 4,170 US-born and foreign-born Asians by acculturation indicators. We performed t-tests to compare differences in demographics, health status and behaviors, and access to care between the foreign-born and US-born Asians, and between various classifications within foreign-born and the US-born Asian group. Our results showed that foreign-born Asians who interviewed in English more closely resembled US-born Asians than foreign-born Asians who interviewed in languages other than English. Compared to interview language, dichotomizing the sample by other acculturation indicators showed smaller differences between the divided groups. Interview language may serve as a better measure for acculturation especially among foreign-born populations with a high proportion of limited English proficiency. In immigrant public health research studies, interview language may be used as an important covariate for health disparities.
The author examines whether gains of learning of Asian students are the same or different if they are from (a) East Asia, (b) South and Central Asia, or (c) Southeast Asia at undergraduate and graduate levels. Results indicated that East Asian students' gains of learning in personal development, science and development, general education,…
Hu, Qiang; Yan, Li; Liu, Biao; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Wang, Jianmin; Liu, Song
The incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is higher in populations of Asian ancestry than European ancestry (EA). We sought to investigate HCC mutational differences between the two populations, which may reflect differences in the prevalence of etiological factors. We compared HCC somatic mutations in patients of self-reported Asian American and EA from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and assessed associations of tumor mutations with established HCC risk factors. Although the average mutation burden was similar, TP53 and RB1 were mutated at a much higher frequency in Asian Americans than in EAs (TP53: 43% vs. 21%; RB1: 19% vs. 2%). Three putative oncogenic genes, including TRPM3, SAGE1, and ADAMTS7, were mutated exclusively in Asians. In addition, VEGF binding pathway, a druggable target by tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as sorafenib, was mutated at a higher frequency among Asians (13% vs. 2%); while the negative regulation of IL17 production, involved in inflammation and autoimmunity, was mutated only in EAs (12% vs. 0). Accounting for HCC risk factors had little impact on any of the mutational differences. In conclusion, we demonstrated here mutational differences in important cancer genes and pathways between Asian and European ancestries. These differences may have implications for the prevention and treatment of HCC. PMID:27246981
Cheng, Zhen Hadassah
Mental illness stigma is prevalent among Asian Americans, and it is a key barrier that prevents them from seeking psychological services. Limited studies have experimentally examined how Asian Americans respond to biological and social explanations of mental illness. Understanding how to educate and communicate about mental illness effectively is crucial in increasing service utilization among Asian Americans. To assess how genetic, neurobiological, and social explanations for the onset of depression affects Asian American and European American's mental illness stigma. 231 Asian Americans and 206 European Americans read about an individual with major depression and were randomly assigned to be informed that the cause was either genetic, neurobiological, social, or unknown. Various stigma outcomes, including social distance, fear, and depression duration were assessed. Consistent with prior research, Asian Americans had higher baseline levels of stigma compared to European Americans. Greater social essentialist beliefs predicted positive stigma outcomes for Asian Americans, such as a greater willingness to be near, help, and hire someone with depression, but genetic essentialist beliefs predicted negative stigma outcomes, such as fear. In addition, a social explanation for the etiology of depression led to lower stigma outcomes for Asian Americans; it decreased their fear of someone with depression and increased the perception that depression is treatable. For European Americans, both genetic and social essentialist beliefs predicted a greater perception of depression treatability. Although genetics do play a role in the development of depression, emphasizing a social explanation for the origin of depression may help reduce stigma for Asian Americans.
Dudzik, Beatrix; Jantz, Richard L
It has been brought to the attention of the authors of Fordisc 3.1 that Hispanic samples will often misclassify as Japanese when Asian population samples are included. This study examined this problem in an effort to better document the occurrence and deduce possible causes via comparative analyses. Asian and Hispanic samples were first compared utilizing the existing samples from the University of Tennessee's Forensic Data Bank. Additional modern Japanese, Thai, and Korean samples collected by the first author that have previously not been utilized in analyses were subsequently included. Results of this study confirm frequent rates of misclassification among Hispanic and Japanese groups. Furthermore, a close morphological relationship is identified through further group comparisons and the addition of data used in conjunction with Fordisc samples. Similarities identified among Hispanic and Japanese crania may stem from similar population histories reflected in ancestral Native American and East Asian populations.
Wall, Jeffrey D.; Yang, Melinda A.; Jay, Flora; Kim, Sung K.; Durand, Eric Y.; Stevison, Laurie S.; Gignoux, Christopher; Woerner, August; Hammer, Michael F.; Slatkin, Montgomery
Neanderthals were a group of archaic hominins that occupied most of Europe and parts of Western Asia from ∼30,000 to 300,000 years ago (KYA). They coexisted with modern humans during part of this time. Previous genetic analyses that compared a draft sequence of the Neanderthal genome with genomes of several modern humans concluded that Neanderthals made a small (1–4%) contribution to the gene pools of all non-African populations. This observation was consistent with a single episode of admixture from Neanderthals into the ancestors of all non-Africans when the two groups coexisted in the Middle East 50–80 KYA. We examined the relationship between Neanderthals and modern humans in greater detail by applying two complementary methods to the published draft Neanderthal genome and an expanded set of high-coverage modern human genome sequences. We find that, consistent with the recent finding of Meyer et al. (2012), Neanderthals contributed more DNA to modern East Asians than to modern Europeans. Furthermore we find that the Maasai of East Africa have a small but significant fraction of Neanderthal DNA. Because our analysis is of several genomic samples from each modern human population considered, we are able to document the extent of variation in Neanderthal ancestry within and among populations. Our results combined with those previously published show that a more complex model of admixture between Neanderthals and modern humans is necessary to account for the different levels of Neanderthal ancestry among human populations. In particular, at least some Neanderthal–modern human admixture must postdate the separation of the ancestors of modern European and modern East Asian populations. PMID:23410836
Wall, Jeffrey D; Yang, Melinda A; Jay, Flora; Kim, Sung K; Durand, Eric Y; Stevison, Laurie S; Gignoux, Christopher; Woerner, August; Hammer, Michael F; Slatkin, Montgomery
Neanderthals were a group of archaic hominins that occupied most of Europe and parts of Western Asia from ∼30,000 to 300,000 years ago (KYA). They coexisted with modern humans during part of this time. Previous genetic analyses that compared a draft sequence of the Neanderthal genome with genomes of several modern humans concluded that Neanderthals made a small (1-4%) contribution to the gene pools of all non-African populations. This observation was consistent with a single episode of admixture from Neanderthals into the ancestors of all non-Africans when the two groups coexisted in the Middle East 50-80 KYA. We examined the relationship between Neanderthals and modern humans in greater detail by applying two complementary methods to the published draft Neanderthal genome and an expanded set of high-coverage modern human genome sequences. We find that, consistent with the recent finding of Meyer et al. (2012), Neanderthals contributed more DNA to modern East Asians than to modern Europeans. Furthermore we find that the Maasai of East Africa have a small but significant fraction of Neanderthal DNA. Because our analysis is of several genomic samples from each modern human population considered, we are able to document the extent of variation in Neanderthal ancestry within and among populations. Our results combined with those previously published show that a more complex model of admixture between Neanderthals and modern humans is necessary to account for the different levels of Neanderthal ancestry among human populations. In particular, at least some Neanderthal-modern human admixture must postdate the separation of the ancestors of modern European and modern East Asian populations.
He, L; Tuomilehto, J; Qiao, Q; Söderberg, S; Daimon, M; Chambers, J; Pitkäniemi, J
This review investigated the population impact of major modifiable type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk factors, with special focus on native Asian Indians, to estimate population attributable risks (PARs) and compare them with estimates from Chinese and Japanese populations. Information was obtained on risk factors in 21,041 Asian Indian, 17,774 Chinese and 17,986 Japanese populations from multiple, large, cross-sectional studies (the DECODA project) of T2D. Crude and adjusted PARs were estimated for the major T2D risk factors. Age had the highest crude and adjusted PARs among Asian Indians and Chinese in contrast to waist-hip ratio among Japanese. After adjusting for age, the PAR for body mass index (BMI) in Asian Indians (41.4% [95% CI: 37.2%; 45.4%]) was second only to triglycerides (46.4% [95% CI: 39.5%; 52.8%]) compared with 35.8% [95% CI: 29.9%; 41.4%] in Japanese and 38.4% [95% CI: 33.5%; 43.2%] in Chinese people. The PAR for BMI adjusted for age, LDL and triglycerides (39.7% [95% CI: 31.6%; 47.2%]) was higher than for any other factor in Asian Indians, and was much higher than in the Chinese (16.8% [95% CI: 3.0%; 30.9%]) and Japanese (30.4% [95% CI: 17.5%; 42.2%]) populations. This review provides estimates of the association between major risk factors and prevalences of T2D among Asian populations by examining their PARs from large population-based samples. From a public-health point of view, the importance of BMI in Asian Indians is especially highlighted in comparison to the other Asian populations. Given these results and other recent findings on the causality link between BMI and T2D, it can be postulated that obesity may be involved in the aetiology of T2D through interaction with ethnic-specific genetic factors, although ethnicity itself is not a direct risk factor for T2D as people of all ethnic backgrounds develop diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Shuyan; Li, Xuling; Ma, Guoda; Jiang, Yongshuai; Liao, Mingzhi; Feng, Rennan; Zhang, Liangcai; Liu, Jiafeng; Wang, Guangyu; Zhao, Bin; Jiang, Qinghua; Li, Keshen; Liu, Guiyou
Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified three single nucleotide polymorphisms rs11136000, rs2279590, and rs9331888 in CLU gene to be significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Caucasian ancestry. Both rs11136000 and rs2279590 variants were successfully replicated in Asian population. However, previous studies reported either a weak association or no association between rs9331888 polymorphism and AD in Asian population. Here, we searched the PubMed, AlzGene, and Google Scholar databases. We selected 12 independent studies that evaluated the association between the rs9331888 polymorphism and AD using a case-control design. Using an additive model, we did not identify significant heterogeneity among these 12 studies. We observed significant association between rs9331888 polymorphism and AD in pooled populations (P = 2.26E - 07, odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.14). In subgroup analysis, we did not identify significant heterogeneity in both Asian and Caucasian populations. We identified significant association in Caucasian population (P = 1.67E - 08, OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.08-1.18) but not in East Asian population (P = 0.49, OR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.96-1.10).
Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Khoo, Eric Y H; Lye, Weng Kit; Ikram, M Kamran; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Cheng, Ching Yu; Tan, Maudrene L S; Salim, Agus; Lee, Jeannette; Lim, Su-Chi; Tavintharan, Subramaniam; Thai, Ah-Chuan; Heng, Derrick; Ma, Stefan; Tai, E Shyong; Wong, Tien Y
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% (47.5 mmol/mol) has recently been included as a criterion for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. It is unclear whether this criterion is appropriate in Asians. To examine the relationship between HbA1c and diabetes-specific moderate retinopathy in Asian ethnic groups. Four independent population-based cross-sectional studies (2004-2011) in Singapore representing the three major Asian ethnic groups (n = 13 170 adults aged ≥ 25 y: Chinese, 5834; Malays, 3596; and Indians, 3740). Moderate retinopathy was assessed from digital retinal photographs and defined as a level >43 using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scale. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for detecting moderate retinopathy were compared across ethnic groups at different HbA1c cut-points. HbA1c levels were higher in Indians and Malays compared to Chinese (P < .001). The prevalence of moderate retinopathy below HbA1c <6.5% was <1% in all ethnic groups. At HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, the sensitivity for detecting moderate retinopathy was lower in Chinese subjects compared to Indians and Malays (75.8 vs 86.0 and 85.3%), but specificity (89.7 vs 71.9 and 76.3%) was higher; however, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were similar among Chinese, Indians, and Malays (10.5, 12.3, 12.4%; and 99.6, 99.1, 99.2%, respectively). The AUCs were similar across all three ethnic groups (0.861, 0.851, and 0.853). Our study supports the use of HbA1c for diagnosing diabetes in Asians. Despite some interethnic variation in the relationship of HbA1c and retinopathy, a cut-point of 6.5% performs reasonably well in the three major Asian ethnic groups.
Asian Indians are the third largest and fastest growing Asian subgroup in the U.S. and considered the model minority due to their high education and income level. Unlike other Asian immigrants, they are a more heterogeneous group with a genetic predisposition for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Current national surveys are incapable of…
Wong, Felicia K; Pi, Edmond H
Asians comprise more than 60% of the world's population and are the fastest growing minority group in the United States. Today's psychiatrist must learn to recognize and appreciate the unique factors that influence mental health outcomes in this group. Asian Americans are affected by psychiatric disorders at similar rates as non-Asians, but are significantly underrepresented in psychiatric clinics. When Asians and Asian Americans do present for psychiatric treatment, they often do so with higher severity of illness, and variable levels of compliance. Studies over the past three decades have suggested that pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of various psychotropic medications may be different in Asians, leading to differences in dosage requirements and side-effect profiles. These variations appear to be largely determined by genetic predisposition, but are also influenced by other factors such as environment, social support, cultural perceptions, and physicians' prescribing habits. In this paper, we provide an overview of biological and socio-cultural issues as they relate to psychopharmacology in Asians and Asian Americans, with the hope that a better understanding of these issues will lead to improved mental health care delivery to this population both in the United States, as well as in Asian countries.
Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Lin, Chih-Peng; Huang, Tsun-Ying; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Hsieh, Wei-Hsin; Lin, Chun-Yen; Yin, Hsiang-I; Tseng, Li-Hui; Lee, James Chun-I
Ancestry informative single-nucleotide polymorphism (AISNP) panels for differentiating between East and Southeast Asian populations are scarce. This study aimed to identify AISNPs for ancestry assignment of five East and Southeast Asian populations, and Caucasians. We analyzed 145 autosomal SNPs of the 627 DNA samples from individuals of six populations (234 Taiwanese Han, 91 Filipinos, 79 Indonesians, 60 Thais, 71 Vietnamese, and 92 Caucasians) using arrays. The multiple logistic regression model and a multi-tier approach were used for ancestry classification. We observed that 130 AISNPs were effective for classifying the ethnic origins with fair accuracy. Among the 130 AISNPs, 122 were useful for stratification between these five Asian populations and 64 were effective for differentiating between Caucasians and these Asian populations. For differentiation between Caucasians and Asians, an accuracy rate of 100% was achieved in these 627 subjects with 50 optimal AISNPs among the 64 effective SNPs. For classification of the five Asian populations, the accuracy rates of ancestry inference using 20 to 57 SNPs for each of the two Asian populations ranged from 74.1% to 100%. Another 14 degraded DNA samples with incomplete profiling were analyzed, and the ancestry of 12 (85.7%) of those subjects was accurately assigned. We developed a 130-AISNP panel for ethnic origin differentiation between the five East and Southeast Asian populations and Caucasians. This AISNP set may be helpful for individual ancestral assignment of these populations in forensic casework.
Gandhi, Rajiv; Razak, Fahad; Tso, Peggy; Davey, J Roderick; Mahomed, Nizar N
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a known risk factor for the development of osteoarthritis (OA). We asked whether the prevalence of MS varies across ethnicity among patients who undergo total knee arthroplasty for end-stage OA. In our population of 1460 patients undergoing primary knee arthroplasty, MS was defined as body mass index greater than 30 kg/m(2), diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Among the 1334 white patients, 114 (8.5%) had MS as compared with 3 of 36 (8.3%) blacks and 18 of 90 (20%) Asians (P = .006) Adjusted analysis showed that those of Asian ethnicity had a 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.8; P = .03) times greater odds of MS as compared with those of other ethnicity. Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for OA, and Asians demonstrate a greater prevalence of MS as compared with whites and blacks in this population. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Li; Dong, Lu; Lin, Liu; Feng, Limin; Yan, Fan; Wang, Lanxin; Guo, Xianming; Luo, Aidong
We monitored the last remaining Asian elephant populations in China over the past decade. Using DNA tools and repeat genotyping, we estimated the population sizes from 654 dung samples collected from various areas. Combined with morphological individual identifications from over 6,300 elephant photographs taken in the wild, we estimated that the total Asian elephant population size in China is between 221 and 245. Population genetic structure and diversity were examined using a 556-bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA, and 24 unique haplotypes were detected from DNA analysis of 178 individuals. A phylogenetic analysis revealed two highly divergent clades of Asian elephants, α and β, present in Chinese populations. Four populations (Mengla, Shangyong, Mengyang, and Pu’Er) carried mtDNA from the α clade, and only one population (Nangunhe) carried mtDNA belonging to the β clade. Moreover, high genetic divergence was observed between the Nangunhe population and the other four populations; however, genetic diversity among the five populations was low, possibly due to limited gene flow because of habitat fragmentation. The expansion of rubber plantations, crop cultivation, and villages along rivers and roads had caused extensive degradation of natural forest in these areas. This had resulted in the loss and fragmentation of elephant habitats and had formed artificial barriers that inhibited elephant migration. Using Geographic Information System, Global Positioning System, and Remote Sensing technology, we found that the area occupied by rubber plantations, tea farms, and urban settlements had dramatically increased over the past 40 years, resulting in the loss and fragmentation of elephant habitats and forming artificial barriers that inhibit elephant migration. The restoration of ecological corridors to facilitate gene exchange among isolated elephant populations and the establishment of cross-boundary protected areas between China and Laos to secure their natural
Zhang, Li; Dong, Lu; Lin, Liu; Feng, Limin; Yan, Fan; Wang, Lanxin; Guo, Xianming; Luo, Aidong
We monitored the last remaining Asian elephant populations in China over the past decade. Using DNA tools and repeat genotyping, we estimated the population sizes from 654 dung samples collected from various areas. Combined with morphological individual identifications from over 6,300 elephant photographs taken in the wild, we estimated that the total Asian elephant population size in China is between 221 and 245. Population genetic structure and diversity were examined using a 556-bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA, and 24 unique haplotypes were detected from DNA analysis of 178 individuals. A phylogenetic analysis revealed two highly divergent clades of Asian elephants, α and β, present in Chinese populations. Four populations (Mengla, Shangyong, Mengyang, and Pu'Er) carried mtDNA from the α clade, and only one population (Nangunhe) carried mtDNA belonging to the β clade. Moreover, high genetic divergence was observed between the Nangunhe population and the other four populations; however, genetic diversity among the five populations was low, possibly due to limited gene flow because of habitat fragmentation. The expansion of rubber plantations, crop cultivation, and villages along rivers and roads had caused extensive degradation of natural forest in these areas. This had resulted in the loss and fragmentation of elephant habitats and had formed artificial barriers that inhibited elephant migration. Using Geographic Information System, Global Positioning System, and Remote Sensing technology, we found that the area occupied by rubber plantations, tea farms, and urban settlements had dramatically increased over the past 40 years, resulting in the loss and fragmentation of elephant habitats and forming artificial barriers that inhibit elephant migration. The restoration of ecological corridors to facilitate gene exchange among isolated elephant populations and the establishment of cross-boundary protected areas between China and Laos to secure their natural
Background Leptin, an adipocytokine produced by adipose tissue, along with the traditional cardiometabolic risk factors, contributes to the development of cardiovascular complications. At the same time, ethnic features of adipocytokines have been insufficiently investigated, especially among Asians, who have an increased risk of cardiovascular complications compared with Europeans. Aim of study was to investigate the relationship between leptin levels and age, gender, anthropometric parameters, lipid parameters, arterial hypertension (AH), and obesity in the adult population of ethnic Kyrgyz people living in Central Asia. Results In total, 322 ethnic Kyrgyz (145 men, 177 women) aged ≥ 30 years were studied. Waist and hip circumference, body mass index, blood glucose, lipids, leptin, and homeostatic model assessment were measured. Patients in the upper quartile of leptin levels had high values of BMI, WC, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glucose, and HOMA index compared with patients with lower leptin levels. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and AH increased with higher levels of leptin. Leptin positively correlated with BMI, WC, triglycerides, and glucose concentrations in patients of both sexes. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, elevated leptin levels increased by 30 times the risk of obesity in men, regardless of the presence of type 2 diabetes, and 17.7 times in women. Conclusion Leptin is associated with general and abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance in Kyrgyz patients. PMID:24981337
Chen, Peng; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Lee, Jong-Young; Li, Huaixing; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Liang, Jun; Long, Jirong; Tabara, Yasuharu; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Pereira, Mark A.; Kim, Young Jin; Go, Min Jin; Stram, Daniel O.; Vithana, Eranga; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Liu, Jianjun; Liao, Jiemin; Ye, Xingwang; Wang, Yiqin; Lu, Ling; Young, Terri L.; Lee, Jeannette; Thai, Ah Chuan; Cheng, Ching-Yu; van Dam, Rob M.; Friedlander, Yechiel; Heng, Chew-Kiat; Koh, Woon-Puay; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Chang, Li-Ching; Pan, Wen-Harn; Qi, Qibin; Isono, Masato; Zheng, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin; Gao, Yutang; Yamamoto, Ken; Ohnaka, Keizo; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Hsiung, Chao A.; Cui, Jinrui; Sheu, Wayne H.-H.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Hsu, Chris; Okada, Yukinori; Kubo, Michiaki; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; van Rooij, Frank J.A.; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Huang, Jinyan; Huang, Tao; Yuan, Jianmin; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Gross, Myron D.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Miki, Tetsuro; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Qi, Lu; Chen, Yuan-Tson; Lin, Xu; Aung, Tin; Wong, Tien-Yin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Kim, Bong-Jo; Kato, Norihiro
Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is used as a measure of glycemic control and also as a diagnostic criterion for diabetes. To discover novel loci harboring common variants associated with HbA1c in East Asians, we conducted a meta-analysis of 13 genome-wide association studies (GWAS; N = 21,026). We replicated our findings in three additional studies comprising 11,576 individuals of East Asian ancestry. Ten variants showed associations that reached genome-wide significance in the discovery data set, of which nine (four novel variants at TMEM79 [P value = 1.3 × 10−23], HBS1L/MYB [8.5 × 10−15], MYO9B [9.0 × 10−12], and CYBA [1.1 × 10−8] as well as five variants at loci that had been previously identified [CDKAL1, G6PC2/ABCB11, GCK, ANK1, and FN3KI]) showed consistent evidence of association in replication data sets. These variants explained 1.76% of the variance in HbA1c. Several of these variants (TMEM79, HBS1L/MYB, CYBA, MYO9B, ANK1, and FN3K) showed no association with either blood glucose or type 2 diabetes. Among individuals with nondiabetic levels of fasting glucose (<7.0 mmol/L) but elevated HbA1c (≥6.5%), 36.1% had HbA1c <6.5% after adjustment for these six variants. Our East Asian GWAS meta-analysis has identified novel variants associated with HbA1c as well as demonstrated that the effects of known variants are largely transferable across ethnic groups. Variants affecting erythrocyte parameters rather than glucose metabolism may be relevant to the use of HbA1c for diagnosing diabetes in these populations. PMID:24647736
Lim, Laurence Shen; Saw, Seang-Mei; Jeganathan, V Swetha E; Tay, Wan Ting; Aung, Tin; Tong, Louis; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Yin
To examine the distribution and systemic determinants of ocular biometry as measured using partial laser interferometry in an adult Asian population. A population-based, cross-sectional study of 3280 persons (78.7% participation rate) ages 40 to 80 years, of Malay ethnicity residing in Singapore, was conducted. Axial ocular dimensions, including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and corneal curvature (CC), were determined with partial laser interferometry. Participants had a comprehensive interview and a standardized examination. After 492 persons were excluded who had undergone cataract surgery, data on 2788 subjects were available. The mean AL, ACD, and CC were 23.55, 3.10, and 7.65 mm, respectively. AL and ACD decreased with increasing age. In multivariate models that adjusted for age, sex, education, height, weight, number of reading hours, diabetes, and current smoking, longer AL was associated with being male, height, increasing weight, higher education levels, and total reading hours. Increasing CC was associated with greater age and greater height and weight after multivariable adjustment. Age, sex, and stature were the most consistent predictors of the results of ocular biometry in the Singapore Malay adult population.
Seng, Kok-Yong; Hee, Kim-Hor; Soon, Gaik Hong; Sapari, Nur Sabrina; Soong, Richie; Goh, Boon-Cher; Lee, Lawrence Soon-U
We aim to evaluate the influence of covariates, including cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) genetic polymorphisms, on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam (MDZ) in Asian cancer patients, using a population pharmacokinetic approach. Pharmacokinetic data were obtained from 24 adult cancer patients who received an intravenous bolus dose of 1 mg MDZ as a CYP3A phenotyping probe, 1-day before starting FOLFIRI chemotherapy. Concentrations of MDZ and its major metabolites, 1'-hydroxymidazolam (1OHM) and 1'-hydroxymidazolam glucuronide (HMG) were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The population pharmacokinetic study was conducted using NONMEM. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and genetic polymorphisms were screened as covariates. A two-compartment model for MDZ and two sequential compartments representing 1OHM and HMG best described the data. The CYP3A5*3 and total bilirubin level significantly influenced MDZ clearance. The population typical MDZ clearance for CYP3A5*3 expressers was 22% lower than non-expressers. Baseline bodyweight was a statistically significant covariate for clearance and distribution volume of 1OHM. Creatinine clearance was positively correlated with HMG clearance. Our data indicate that CYP3A5*3, total bilirubin, bodyweight, and creatinine clearance are important predictors of MDZ and metabolite pharmacokinetics. Further studies in more patients are needed to explore the links between the identified covariates and the disposition of MDZ and its metabolites.
Dong, Hao; Manfredini, Matteo; Kurosu, Satomi; Yang, Wenshan; Lee, James Z
Human child survival depends on adult investment, typically from parents. However, in spite of recent research advances on kin influence and birth order effects on human infant and child mortality, studies that directly examine the interaction of kin context and birth order on sibling differences in child mortality are still rare. Our study supplements this literature with new findings from large-scale individual-level panel data for three East Asian historical populations from northeast China (1789-1909), northeast Japan (1716-1870), and north Taiwan (1906-1945), where preference for sons and first-borns is common. We examine and compare male child mortality risks by presence/absence of co-resident parents, grandparents, and other kin, as well as their interaction effects with birth order. We apply discrete-time event-history analysis on over 172,000 observations of 69,125 boys aged 1-9 years old. We find that in all three populations, while the presence of parents is important for child survival, it is more beneficial to first/early-borns than to later-borns. Effects of other co-resident kin are however null or inconsistent between populations. Our findings underscore the importance of birth order in understanding how differential parental investment may produce child survival differentials between siblings.
Nguyen, Anh Bao; Breen, Nancy; Clark, Trenette T; Moser, Richard
To examine health outcomes and chronic conditions for the biracial Asian population in California. We hypothesized that the biracial population will display intermediate (or an average of) outcomes in comparison to their monoracial counterparts. The study was cross-sectional. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, multivariable regression models predicted health outcomes (ie, diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, disability status, BMI, and general health) and compared health outcomes among various (mono- and bi-) racial and ethnic groups. Data were collected from 238,897 adult (aged ≥ 18 years) respondents after merging iterations of the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) administered in 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2009. Multivariate results revealed that Whites reported better health overall than biracial Asians and other monoracial groups. Biracial Asians displayed BMI ranges that were intermediate between their monoracial constituents. BMI is a more proximal health outcome and is more sensitive to lifestyles and behaviors. As a result, BMI may be a better indicator than chronic diseases in showing that biracial Asians have adopted health behaviors and practices that fall between their mono-racial counterparts. Future epidemiological research should examine the prevalence of more proximal health outcomes among biracial Asians and assess how it differs by developmental age.
Hasunuma, Tomoko; Tohkin, Masahiro; Kaniwa, Nahoko; Jang, In‐Jin; Yimin, Cui; Kaneko, Masaru; Saito, Yoshiro; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Uyama, Yoshiaki
Aim To examine whether strict control of clinical trial conditions could reduce apparent differences of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters among ethnic groups. Methods Open‐label, single dose PK studies of moxifloxacin, simvastatin and meloxicam were conducted in healthy male subjects from three East Asian populations (Japanese, Chinese and Koreans) and one Caucasian population as a control. These three drugs were selected because differences in PK parameters have been reported, even though the backgrounds of these East Asian populations are similar. Moxifloxacin (400 mg) was administered orally to 20 subjects, and plasma and urine levels of moxifloxacin and its metabolite (M2) were measured. Simvastatin (20 mg) was given to 40 subjects, and plasma levels of simvastatin and simvastatin acid were measured. Meloxicam (7.5 mg) was given to 30 subjects and its plasma concentration was determined. Intrinsic factors (polymorphism of UGT1A1 for moxifloxacin, SLCO1B1 for simvastatin, and CYP2C9 for meloxicam) were also examined. Results AUCinf values for moxifloxacin, simvastatin and meloxicam showed no significant differences among the East Asian groups. Cmax values of moxifloxacin and simvastatin, but not meloxicam, showed significant differences. There were no significant differences of data for M2 or simvastatin acid. Genetic analysis identified significant differences in the frequencies of relevant polymorphisms, but these differences did not affect the PK parameters observed. Conclusions Although there were some differences in PK parameters among the three East Asian groups, the present study performed under strictly controlled conditions did not reproduce the major ethnic differences observed in previous studies. PMID:26774055
Galzote, Carlos; Estanislao, Roderico; Suero, Michael Oliver; Khaiat, Alain; Mangubat, Maria Isabel; Moideen, Rafeeq; Tagami, Hachiro; Wang, Xuemin
We aimed to evaluate the impact of age and skincare habits on facial skin of different Asian ethnicities by comparing skin properties and skincare habits among various Asian populations of varying age groups. We evaluated approximately 100 female subjects each from a total of eight Asian cities in China, India, South Korea, Japan, and the Philippines grouped according to age ranging from 14 to 75 years during a summer season. Facial skin was characterized using dermatological examinations of the cheek and instrumental evaluations of the forehead and cheek. Information regarding personal skincare habits was collected using a questionnaire. In 834 female subjects, characteristics related to skin surface moisture, elasticity, and sebum level decreased with age. Differences in skincare habits corresponded with variations in skin parameters. Subjects with the least severe photodamage reported a generally early onset of their skincare habits. These results demonstrate common trends as well as inherent differences in skin characteristics among Asian populations, reflecting the impact of age and the diversity of skincare habits of Asian women. These results may be beneficial when developing new skincare products that are well suited to these Asian populations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
A study was conducted to assess the incidence of a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in a Florida population of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri. The bacterium is the presumed causal agent of Asiatic huanglongbing, a serious citrus disease also known as citrus greening or yel...
Spyrou, N.M.; Ridge, C.; Boucher, B.J.
We have instigated a pilot study to investigate the trace element status of selected type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) populations of Caucasians and South Asians living in southeast England and matched controls. As part of this program, betel nut-based chewing substances, some with and others without tobacco leaves incorporated, have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis.
Alan J. Sawyer; William S. Panagakos; Audra E. Horner; Kevin J. Freeman
The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is an introduced pest of hardwood trees in North America. This paper addresses population spread in open landscapes and wooded areas, with emphasis on recent findings from Staten Island, NY, and Worcester, MA.
Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Galanti, Giorgio; Cala', Piergiuseppe; Calabrese, Maria
The aim of this study was to review current evidence on interventional studies aimed at the prevention of type 2 diabetes in Asian population with lifestyle interventions. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes sharply increased in most Asian countries during the last decades. This issue has now also relevant implication for Europe where different surveys are also consistently revealing an higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes and other and major CVD risk factors among subjects originating from Asian Countries than in the native population. Nutrition and lifestyle transition seem to play a role in disclosing the predisposition for the development of type 2 diabetes and great interest is now shown toward the possibility to intervene with lifestyle intervention on at risk populations. A meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials showed that lifestyle interventions are highly effective also in the Asian population. All studies were, however, conducted with an individual approach based on the identification of high-risk individuals. When ethnic minority groups have to be addressed, an approach directed to the community rather than to the individual might, however, be more effective. This review reinforces the importance for policy-makers to consider the involvement of the whole community of minority immigrant groups with lifestyle intervention programs.
Wong, Li Ping; Khoo, Ee Ming
To determine the prevalence of dysmenorrhea, its impact, and the treatment-seeking behavior of adolescent Asian girls. A cross-sectional study with 1092 girls from 15 public secondary schools and 3 ethnic groups in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Overall, 74.5% of the girls who had reached menarche had dysmenorrhea; 51.7% of these girls reported that it affected their concentration in class; 50.2% that it restricted their social activities; 21.5% that it caused them to miss school; and 12.0% that it caused poor school performance. Ethnicity and form at school were significantly associated with the poor concentration, absenteeism, and restriction of social and recreational activities attributed to dysmenorrhea. Only 12.0% had consulted a physician, and 53.3% did nothing about their conditions. There were ethnic differences in the prevalence, impact, and management of dysmenorrhea. There is a need for culture-specific education regarding menstruation-related conditions in the school curriculum. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand).
This report summarizes information compiled at a Regional Workshop on Population and Family Education, organized by the UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Asia and held in Bangkok, Thailand, September 7 - October 7, 1970. The objectives of the workshop were to study how elements of population and family education can be incorporated in the…
Gao, H; Salim, A; Lee, J; Tai, E S; van Dam, R M
Diabetes in Asia constitutes approximately half of the global burden. Although insulin resistance and incidence of type 2 diabetes differ substantially between ethnic groups within Asia, the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. We evaluated to what extent body fatness, adiponectin levels and inflammation mediate the relationship between ethnicity and insulin resistance in an Asian setting. Cross-sectional population-based study. In total, 4136 adult Chinese, Malays and Asian Indians residing in Singapore. Insulin resistance was assessed using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and systemic inflammation by C-reactive protein (CRP). Data were analyzed using path analysis. HOMA-IR was highest in Asian Indians, intermediate in Malays and lowest in Chinese (P<0.001). The difference in HOMA-IR between Malays and Chinese disappeared after adjusting for body mass index (BMI). For the comparison of Asian Indians with Chinese, the association between ethnicity and HOMA-IR was mediated by BMI (men: 32.9%; women: 48.5%), BMI-adjusted waist circumference (men: 6.1%; women: 3.5%), and CRP (men: 5.1%; women: 5.6%), and unidentified factors (men: 47.2%; women: 26.5%). Part of the mediating effects of body fatness was indirect through effects of body fatness on CRP and adiponectin concentrations. Mediators of ethnic differences in insulin resistance differed markedly depending on the ethnic groups compared. General adiposity explained the difference in insulin resistance between Chinese and Malays, whereas abdominal fat distribution, inflammation and unexplained factors contributed to excess insulin resistance in Asian Indians as compared with Chinese and Malays. These findings suggest that interventions targeting excess weight gain can reduce ethnic disparities in insulin resistance among Asian Indians, Chinese and Malays.
... or Unintentional Injuries All Injuries Assault or Homicide Suicide and Self-Inflicted Injury Life Stages and Populations Age Groups Adolescent Health Child Health Infant Health Older Persons' Health ...
Regmi, Krishna; Kunwar, Anju; Ortega, Leonard
Background Malaria is one of the deadliest mosquito-borne diseases in the world. More than 80% of the total populations are at risk of malaria in the 22 countries in Asia and the Pacific. South Asia alone is home to an estimated 1.4 billion people at risk of contracting malaria. Despite the remarkable progress in reducing the burden of malaria, evidence of the disease based on knowledge of the social and cultural contexts from a South Asian perspective is limited. Our objective was to understand the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria in South Asian communities. Methodology We conducted a systematic literature review, searching six databases, between 1990 and 2015, focusing on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria in South Asia. Databases were searched using both ‘free terms’ and ‘index terms’ funnelled using Boolean operators and truncations. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were set, and included papers were scrutinised, employing a critical appraisal tool to find the best available evidences to support the study purpose. Results and discussion Evidence from 32 articles (26 quantitative, four qualitative and two mixed methods). General knowledge and awareness of the disease, its transmission, and control and preventative measures were generally found to be lacking amongst both the general public and healthcare professionals. In addition, the study shows that poor socio-economic factors – including limited access to services due to poor/limited availability – and issues of affordability are considered as major risk factors. Conclusion This review suggests the importance of increasing health awareness, mobilising the local or community healthcare professionals, for prevention as well as early detection and effective treatment of malaria among people who are at risk. Malaria is also a disease associated with poverty and socio-cultural factors; therefore, strong political will, wider partnerships between health and non-health sectors
Riou, Samuel; Combreau, Olivier; Judas, Jacky; Lawrence, Mark; Al Baidani, Mohamed Saleh; Pitra, Christian
The Asian houbara bustard Chlamydotis macqueenii is a partial migrant of conservation concern found in deserts of central Asia and the Middle East. In the southern part of the species range, resident populations have been greatly fragmented and reduced by sustained human pressure. In the north, birds migrate from breeding grounds between West Kazakhstan and Mongolia to wintering areas in the Middle East and south central Asia. Extensive satellite tracking has shown substantial partitioning in migration routes and wintering grounds, suggesting a longitudinal barrier to present-day gene flow among migrants. In this context, we explored genetic population structure using 17 microsatellite loci and sampling 108 individuals across the range. We identified limited but significant overall differentiation (F(CT) = 0.045), which was overwhelmingly due to the differentiation of resident Arabian populations, particularly the one from Yemen, relative to the central Asian populations. Population structure within the central Asian group was not detectable with the exception of subtle differentiation of West Kazakh birds on the western flyway, relative to eastern populations. We interpret these patterns as evidence of recent common ancestry in Asia, coupled with a longitudinal barrier to present-day gene flow along the migratory divide, which has yet to translate into genetic divergence. These results provide key parameters for a coherent conservation strategy aimed at preserving genetic diversity and migration routes.
Agius, Mark; Talwar, A; Murphy, S; Zaman, Rashid
Little research has been done to ascertain how patients and families of South Asian origin access and use early intervention mental health services today. The aim of this retrospective study is to gain a better understanding of how well South Asian patients engage with standard psycho-social interventions. In June 2003 an audit was conducted amongst 75 patients from different ethnic groups in Luton. Measures of engagement with mental health services included; number of missed outpatient appointments over one year and compliance with medication regimes. The results of this audit showed that South Asian patients are more likely to miss appointments and refuse to take medication in comparison to their Caucasian or Afro- Caribbean counter-parts. Further analysis revealed that the Bangladeshi subgroup had missed more appointments and had a greater proportion of medication refusal in comparison to the other Asian subgroups. These results support the pioneering work by Dr Robin Pinto in the 1970s he observed that Asian patients perceive and utilise mental health services in a different way compared to the Caucasian population. The observations from our study depict the difficulties in engaging ethnic minority patients into existing services. Hence we argue that future interventions should be adapted and tailored to overcome cultural and language barriers with patients and their families.
Li, Junyi; Wu, Sujuan; Yang, Liguang; Li, Yi-Xue; Liu, Bing-Ya; Li, Yuan-Yuan
Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers and has very high incidence and mortality rate in Asian population. To tackle the problems of infiltration and heterogeneity, more accurate biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis as well as effective targets for treatment are needed to achieve better outcomes of gastric cancer patients. Recently, methods and algorithms for analyzing high-throughput sequencing data have greatly facilitated the molecular profiling of gastric cancer. Nevertheless, prognostic biomarkers for gastric cancer that can be potentially applied in clinic are still lacking. In this study, we performed differential regulatory analysis based on gene co-expression network for four different cohorts of Asian gastric cancer samples and their clinical data. We identified a 36-gene prognostic signature specific for gastric cancer, particularly for Asian population. We further analyzed differential regulatory patterns related to these featured genes, such as C1S, and suggested hypotheses for investigating their roles in gastric cancer pathogenesis. Findings from present study suggest a 36-gene signature which is based on differential regulatory analysis and can predict the prognosis of gastric cancer. Our research explores molecular mechanism of gastric cancer at transcriptional regulation level and provides potential drug targets. This integrated biomarker searching scheme is extendable to other cancer study for not only prognostic prediction, but also pathogenesis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Kharrat, Najla; Abdelmouleh, Wafa; Abdelhedi, Rania; Alfadhli, Suad; Rebai, Ahmed
DNA variations within the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) gene have been shown to be involved in the aetiology of several common diseases and the therapeutic response. This study reports a comparison of haplotype analysis of five SNPs in the ACE gene region using a sample of 100 healthy subjects derived from five different populations (Tunisian, Iranian, Kuwaiti, Bahraini and Indian). Strong linkage disequilibrium was found among all SNPs studied for all populations. Two SNPs (rs1800764 and rs4340) were identified as key SNPs for all populations. These SNPs will be valuable for future effective association studies of the ACE gene polymorphisms in Arab and Asian populations.
Iyengar, G V; Kawamura, H; Dang, H S; Parr, R M; Wang, J; Akhter, Perveen; Cho, S Y; Natera, E; Miah, F K; Dojosubroto, J; Nguyen, M S
Within the framework of a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, the daily dietary intakes of seven elements by adult populations living in nine Asian countries were estimated. The countries that participated in the study were Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, South Korea (Republic of Korea, ROK), and Vietnam and together they represented more than half of the world population. The seven elements studied were calcium, cesium, iodine, potassium, strontium, thorium, and uranium. These elements have chemical and biological similarity to some of the radionuclides abundantly encountered during nuclear power production and therefore data on these elements could provide important information on their biokinetic behavior. Analyses of diet samples for these seven elements were carried out using highly sensitive and reliable analytical techniques. One thousand one hundred and sixty analytical determinations were made on two hundred and twenty samples of typical diets consumed in these countries to estimate the daily intakes of these elements by the adult Asian population. The median daily dietary intakes for the adult Asian population were found to be 0.45 g calcium, 7 microg cesium, 90 microg iodine, 1.75 g potassium, 1.65 mg strontium, 1 microg thorium, and 1 microg uranium. When compared with the intakes proposed for ICRP Reference Man by International Commission for Radiological Protection, these intakes were lower by factors of 0.41 for calcium, 0.7 for cesium, 0.45 for iodine, 0.53 for potassium, 0.87 for strontium, 0.33 for thorium, and 0.52 for uranium. The lower daily intakes of calcium, cesium, and iodine by Asian population could be due to significantly lower consumption of milk and milk products, which are rich in these elements. The significantly lower intake of calcium in most of the Asian countries may lead to higher uptake of fission nuclide 90Sr and could result in
Vogelmann, James E.; Gastony, Gerald J.
Genetic relationships among the seven species of Agastache sect. Agastache common in North America and the one found in eastern Asia were assessed using starch-gel electrophoresis of twelve enzymatic proteins. Nei's (1976) genetic distance and identity values, calculated among the 32 populations used in this study, partitioned the Agastache section into four discrete groups: (1) A. nepetoides (eastern North America), (2) A. scrophulariifolia and A. foeniculum (eastern and central North America), (3) the four species of the western U.S. (A. urticifolia, A. occidentalis, A. parvifolia, and A. cusickii), and (4) A. rugosa (eastern Asia). The Asian Agastache, separated from its American congeners for over 12 million years, differed from American populations at only two (the IDH-1 and LAP-1 alleles) of the fifteen loci surveyed; these alleles were not found in any of the North American plants. Nei's genetic distances between the Asian and North American populations ranged from 0.2877 to 0.6734.
Yang, Canchao; Wang, Longwu; Liang, Wei; Møller, Anders P
Although many biological phenotypes are generally regarded as consistent across the distributional range of a species, some traits such as egg discrimination behavior have been shown to display extensive intraspecific variation as a response to selection from brood parasitism. We investigated the egg recognition ability in an Asian population of tree sparrows (Passer montanus), and we compared that with the ability to recognize and reject intraspecific foreign eggs in a population in Europe. Extensive artificial parasitism with model eggs and real eggs of eight sympatric birds that vary in background color and markings revealed that egg recognition capacity is completely absent in this Asian population of tree sparrows. This result contrasts with previous studies in European populations showing extensive ability for discriminating between own and foreign eggs. Different evolutionary equilibria or differences in the risk of conspecific parasitism may account for differences in egg discrimination ability between European and Asian populations of tree sparrows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jia, Feifei; Teer, Jamie K; Knepper, Todd C; Lee, Jae K; Zhou, Hong-Hao; He, Yi-Jing; McLeod, Howard L
Differences in response to cancer treatments have been observed among racially and ethnically diverse gastric cancer (GC) patient populations. In the era of targeted therapy, mutation profiling of cancer is a crucial aspect of making therapeutic decisions. Mapping driver gene mutations for the GC patient population as a whole has significant potential to advance precision therapy. GC patients with sequencing data (N = 473) were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA; n = 295), Moffitt Cancer Center Total Cancer Care™ (TCC; n = 33), and three published studies (n = 145). In addition, relevant somatic mutation frequency data were obtained from cBioPortal, the TCC database, and an in-house analysis tool, as well as relevant publications. We found that the somatic mutation rates of several driver genes vary significantly between GC patients of Asian and Caucasian descent, with substantial variation across different geographic regions. Non-parametric statistical tests were performed to examine the significant differences in protein-altering somatic mutations between Asian and Caucasian GC patient groups. The frequencies of somatic mutations of five genes were: APC (Asian: Caucasian 6.06 vs. 14.40%, p = 0.0076), ARIDIA (20.7 vs. 32.1%, p = 0.01), KMT2A (4.04 vs. 12.35%, p = 0.003), PIK3CA (9.6 vs. 18.52%, p = 0.01), and PTEN (2.52 vs. 9.05%, p = 0.008), showing significant differences between Asian and Caucasian GC patients. Our study found significant differences in protein-altering somatic mutation frequencies in diverse geographic populations. In particular, we found that the somatic patterns may offer better insight and important opportunities for both targeted drug development and precision therapeutic strategies between Asian and Caucasian GC patients.
Khoo, Chin Meng; Sairazi, Sarina; Taslim, Siska; Gardner, Daphne; Wu, Yi; Lee, Jeannette; van Dam, Rob M.; Shyong Tai, E.
OBJECTIVE The development of obesity-related metabolic disorders varies with ethnicity. We examined whether ethnicity modifies the relationship between BMI and three metabolic pathways (insulin resistance, inflammation, and adiponectin) that are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed data from 4,804 Chinese, Malay, and Asian-Indian residents of Singapore with complete data on insulin resistance (IR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and total adiponectin levels. Linear regression models with an interaction term ethnicity*BMI were used to evaluate whether ethnicity modifies the association between BMI and IR, CRP, and adiponectin. RESULTS In both uni- and multivariate analyses, BMI was directly associated with IR and CRP and inversely with adiponectin across all ethnic groups. When compared with Chinese and Malays, Asian-Indians had higher IR and CRP and lower adiponectin levels. The associations between BMI and its metabolic pathways were significantly stronger in Chinese than in other ethnic groups. The increase in IR and CRP and the decrease in adiponectin for each unit increase in BMI were greater in Chinese than in other ethnic groups. The findings were similar when waist circumference was used in the analyses instead of BMI. CONCLUSIONS The impact of BMI on IR, CRP, and adiponectin appears greater in Chinese as compared with other major Asian ethnic groups. This may partly explain the rapid increase in the prevalence of diabetes and CVD in Chinese populations and highlights the importance of weight management in Asian ethnic groups despite the apparently low levels of obesity. PMID:21464462
Chhabra, S; Narang, R; Krishnan, LR; Vasisht, S; Agarwal, DP; Srivastava, LM; Manchanda, SC; Das, N
Background A close association between Sst I polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region of the apolipoproteinC3 (APOC3) gene and levels of plasma triglycerides (TG) had been reported by different investigators. Hypertriglyceridemia(HTG) is a known risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) in the context of Asian Indians. We conducted a study on the relationship between APOC3 SstI polymorphism (S1S1, S1S2 and S2S2 genotypes) and plasma TG levels in a group of 139 male healthy volunteers from Northern India. Methods DNA samples were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by SstI digestion. Digested PCR products were run on 3% agarose gel and visualized by ethidium bromide staining. Results Rare S2 allele was highly prevalent in our study population (0.313) as compared to the Caucasians (0.00–0.11). The genotypic distribution was in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. S2 allele was almost two times more prevalent in the HTG group (N = 34) as compared to NTG group (N = 105) (p = 0.001). Multiple logistic regression revealed S1S2 individuals had age-adjusted odds ratio of 2.43 (95%CI = 0.99–6.01, p = 0.054) and S2S2 had 9.9 (95%CI = 2.66–37.29, p = 0.0006) for developing HTG in comparison to S1S1 genotype. Conclusions Our study shows a significant association between rare S2 allele and HTG in Asian Indians. PMID:12052247
Jonnalagadda, Manjari; Bharti, Neeraj; Patil, Yatish; Ozarkar, Shantanu; K, Sunitha Manjari; Joshi, Rajendra; Norton, Heather
Skin pigmentation is a polygenic trait showing wide phenotypic variations among global populations. While numerous pigmentation genes have been identified to be under positive selection among European and East populations, genes contributing to phenotypic variation in skin pigmentation within and among South Asian populations are still poorly understood. The present study uses data from the Phase 3 of the 1000 genomes project focusing on two South Asian populations-GIH (Gujarati Indian from Houston, Texas) and ITU (Indian Telugu from UK), so as to decode the genetic architecture involved in adaptation to ultraviolet radiation in South Asian populations. Statistical tests included were (1) tests to identify deviations of the Site Frequency Spectrum (SFS) from neutral expectations (Tajima's D, Fay and Wu's H and Fu and Li's D* and F*), (2) tests focused on the identification of high-frequency haplotypes with extended linkage disequilibrium (iHS and Rsb), and (3) tests based on genetic differentiation between populations (LSBL). Twenty-two pigmentation genes fall in the top 1% for at least one statistic in the GIH population, 5 of which (LYST, OCA2, SLC24A5, SLC45A2, and TYR) have been previously associated with normal variation in skin, hair, or eye color. In comparison, 17 genes fall in the top 1% for at least one statistic in the ITU population. Twelve loci which are identified as outliers in the ITU scan were also identified in the GIH population. These results suggest that selection may have affected these loci broadly across the region. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Seo, Dongwon; Bhuiyan, Md Shamsul Alam; Sultana, Hasina; Heo, Jung Min; Lee, Jun Heon
Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS) markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market.
Thumboo, Julian; Fong, Kok Yong; Machin, David; Chan, Siew Pang; Soh, Chang Heok; Leong, Keng Hong; Feng, Pao Hsii; Thio, Szu tien; Boey, Mee Leng
The relationships between ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) have not been well characterised in most Asian populations. We therefore studied the influence of ethnicity and SES on HRQoL in a multi-ethnic urban Asian population, adjusting for the influence of other known determinants of HRQoL. In a disproportionately stratified, cross-sectional, population-based survey, Chinese, Malay and Indian subjects in Singapore completed the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) HRQoL measure and were assessed to determine demographic, socio-economic, psychosocial and other characteristics. Multiple linear regression models were used to study the influence of ethnicity and SES on SF-36 scores while adjusting for the influence of other determinants of HRQoL. The survey participation rate was 92.8%. Ethnic differences in HRQoL were present for all 8 SF-36 scales (p<0.001 for all scales except General Health) among the 4122 Chinese, Malays and Indians surveyed. These ethnic groups also differed in several known determinants of HRQoL (e.g., Chinese had more years of education and Indians had more chronic medical conditions). After adjusting for the influence of these factors, ethnicity and SES independently influenced HRQoL, with mean differences in SF-36 scores due to ethnicity ranging from 1.4 to 13.1 points. Educational level and housing type (markers of SES) were also associated with SF-36 scores (0.5-0.6 point increase per year of education and 3.5-4.0 point increase with better housing type, respectively). Better HRQoL was also associated with better family support, and poorer HRQoL with acute and chronic medical conditions and sick days. The study concludes that ethnicity and SES are associated with clinically important differences in HRQoL in a multi-ethnic, urban Asian population.
Chong, E; Wang, H; King-Shier, K M; Quan, H; Rabi, D M; Khan, N A
To determine the prescribing of and adherence to oral hypoglycaemic agents, insulin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers and statin therapy among South-Asian, Chinese and white people with newly diagnosed diabetes. The present study was a population-based cohort study using administrative and pharmacy databases to include all South-Asian, Chinese and white people aged ≥ 35 years with diabetes living in British Columbia, Canada (1997-2006). Adherence to each class of medication was measured using proportion of days covered over 1 year with optimum adherence defined as ≥ 80%. The study population included 9529 South-Asian, 14 084 Chinese and 143 630 white people with diabetes. The proportion of people who were prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, statin or oral hypoglycaemic agents was ≤ 50% for all groups. South-Asian and Chinese people had significantly lower adherence for all medications than white people, with the lowest adherence to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment (South-Asian people: adjusted odds ratio 0.37, 95% CI 0.34-0.39; P<0.0001; Chinese people: adjusted odds ratio 0.50, 95% CI 0.47-0.54; P<0.0001) and statin therapy (South-Asian people: adjusted odds ratio 0.47, 95% CI 0.41 - 0.53, P < 0.0001; Chinese people: adjusted odds ratio 0.72, 95% CI 0.67 - 0.77; P<0.0001) compared with white people. Adherence to evidence-based pharmacotherapy was substantially worse among the South-Asian and Chinese populations. Care providers need to be alerted to the high levels of non-adherence in these groups and the underlying causes need to be investigated. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.
Tiwari, Suresh K; Wang, Jianli
Health services in Canada are publicly funded. However, the use of health services, especially mental health services, by ethnic minority groups in Canada, has not been well studied. The objectives of the study were to estimate the 12-month prevalence of mental health service use by ethnicities, overall and among those with major depression, and to identify factors associated with mental health services use in different ethnic groups in Canada. Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS-1.1) were used. Participants included in this analysis were white who were born in Canada (n = 108,192), white immigrants (n = 10,892), Chinese (n = 1,785), South Asian (n = 1,214), and South East Asian immigrants (n = 818). Participants were selected using multiple staged, stratified random sampling procedures from household residents aged 12 years or older in ten provinces. White people were more likely to have used mental health services than Chinese participants and those from South Asian and South East Asian regions. The Chinese participants appeared to be less likely to have used mental health services than those in the South Asian and South East Asian groups, in those without major depression. In Canada, Asian immigrants are less likely to use mental health service use than white people. More studies are needed to examine factors affecting mental health service use in Asian immigrants living in North America.
Yuliwulandari, R; Kashiwase, K; Nakajima, H; Uddin, J; Susmiarsih, T P; Sofro, A S M; Tokunaga, K
Identification of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antigens that are known as the highest polymorphic genes has become a valuable tool for tissue transplantation, platelet transfusion, disease susceptibility or resistance, and forensic and anthropological studies. In the present study, the allele and haplotype frequencies of HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 were studied in 237 unrelated healthy Western Javanese (Indonesia) by the high-resolution polymerase chain reaction-Luminex method. A total of 18 A, 40 B, and 20 DRB1 alleles were identified. The most frequent HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 alleles were HLA-A*2407 (21.6%), HLA-B*1502 (11.6%) and HLA-B*1513 (11.2%), and DRB1*1202 (37.8%), respectively. The most frequent two-locus haplotypes were HLA-A*2407-B*3505 (7%) and HLA-B*1513-DRB1*1202 (9.2%), and three-locus haplotypes were HLA-A*3401-B*1521-DRB1*150201 (4.6%), HLA-A*2407-B*3505-DRB1*1202 (4.3%), and HLA-A*330301-B*440302-DRB1*070101 (4.2%). HLA allele and haplotype frequencies in addition to phylogenetic tree and principal component analyses based on the four-digit sequence-level allele frequencies for HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 showed that Western Javanese (Indonesia) was closest to Southeast Asian populations.
Background Identification of high-risk individuals is crucial for effective implementation of type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention programs. Several studies have shown that multivariable predictive functions perform as well as the 2-hour post-challenge glucose in identifying these high-risk individuals. The performance of these functions in Asian populations, where the rise in prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is expected to be the greatest in the next several decades, is relatively unknown. Methods Using data from three Asian populations in Singapore, we compared the performance of three multivariate predictive models in terms of their discriminatory power and calibration quality: the San Antonio Health Study model, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities model and the Framingham model. Results The San Antonio Health Study and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities models had better discriminative powers than using only fasting plasma glucose or the 2-hour post-challenge glucose. However, the Framingham model did not perform significantly better than fasting glucose or the 2-hour post-challenge glucose. All published models suffered from poor calibration. After recalibration, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities model achieved good calibration, the San Antonio Health Study model showed a significant lack of fit in females and the Framingham model showed a significant lack of fit in both females and males. Conclusions We conclude that adoption of the ARIC model for Asian populations is feasible and highly recommended when local prospective data is unavailable. PMID:22497781
Chin, Calvin Woon-Loong; Chia, Elian Hui San; Ma, Stefan; Heng, Derrick; Tan, Maudrene; Lee, Jeanette; Tai, E Shyong; Salim, Agus
Identification of high-risk individuals is crucial for effective implementation of type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention programs. Several studies have shown that multivariable predictive functions perform as well as the 2-hour post-challenge glucose in identifying these high-risk individuals. The performance of these functions in Asian populations, where the rise in prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is expected to be the greatest in the next several decades, is relatively unknown. Using data from three Asian populations in Singapore, we compared the performance of three multivariate predictive models in terms of their discriminatory power and calibration quality: the San Antonio Health Study model, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities model and the Framingham model. The San Antonio Health Study and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities models had better discriminative powers than using only fasting plasma glucose or the 2-hour post-challenge glucose. However, the Framingham model did not perform significantly better than fasting glucose or the 2-hour post-challenge glucose. All published models suffered from poor calibration. After recalibration, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities model achieved good calibration, the San Antonio Health Study model showed a significant lack of fit in females and the Framingham model showed a significant lack of fit in both females and males. We conclude that adoption of the ARIC model for Asian populations is feasible and highly recommended when local prospective data is unavailable.
Edwards, Melissa; Bigham, Abigail; Tan, Jinze; Li, Shilin; Gozdzik, Agnes; Ross, Kendra; Jin, Li; Parra, Esteban J.
The last decade has witnessed important advances in our understanding of the genetics of pigmentation in European populations, but very little is known about the genes involved in skin pigmentation variation in East Asian populations. Here, we present the results of a study evaluating the association of 10 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) located within 5 pigmentation candidate genes (OCA2, DCT, ADAM17, ADAMTS20, and TYRP1) with skin pigmentation measured quantitatively in a sample of individuals of East Asian ancestry living in Canada. We show that the non-synonymous polymorphism rs1800414 (His615Arg) located within the OCA2 gene is significantly associated with skin pigmentation in this sample. We replicated this result in an independent sample of Chinese individuals of Han ancestry. This polymorphism is characterized by a derived allele that is present at a high frequency in East Asian populations, but is absent in other population groups. In both samples, individuals with the derived G allele, which codes for the amino acid arginine, show lower melanin levels than those with the ancestral A allele, which codes for the amino acid histidine. An analysis of this non-synonymous polymorphism using several programs to predict potential functional effects provides additional support for the role of this SNP in skin pigmentation variation in East Asian populations. Our results are consistent with previous research indicating that evolution to lightly-pigmented skin occurred, at least in part, independently in Europe and East Asia. PMID:20221248
Kanthimathi, Sekar; Chidambaram, Manickam; Bodhini, Dhanasekaran; Liju, Samuel; Bhavatharini, Aruyerchelvan; Uma, Ram; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan; Radha, Venkatesan
Earlier studies have provided evidence that the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) share common genetic background. A recent genome wide association study (GWAS) showed a strong association of six novel gene variants with T2DM among south Asians but not with Europeans. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these variants that confer susceptibility to T2DM in Asian Indian population also correlate with GDM in Asian Indian population. In addition to these novel variants, three T2DM associated SNPs that were previously identified by GWAS in Caucasian populations, which also showed association with T2DM in south Indian population in our previous study were also evaluated for their susceptibility to GDM in our population. The study groups comprised unrelated pregnant women with GDM (n = 518) and pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n = 1220). A total of nine SNPs in or near nine loci, namely AP3S2 (rs2028299), BAZ1B (rs12056034), CDKN2A/B (rs7020996), GRB14 (rs3923113), HHEX (rs7923837), HMG20A (rs7178572), HNF4A (rs4812829), ST6GAL1 (rs16861329) and VPS26A (rs1802295) were genotyped using the MassARRAY system. Among these nine SNPs that previously showed an association with T2DM in Asian Indians, HMG20A (rs7178572) and HNF4A (rs4812829) gene variants showed a significant association with GDM. The risk alleles of rs7178572 in HMG20A and rs4812829 in HNF4A gene conferred 1.24 and 1.28 times higher risk independently and about 1.44 and 1.97 times increased susceptibility to GDM for one and two risk genotypes, respectively. We report that the HMG20A (rs7178572) and HNF4A (rs4812829) variants that have previously shown a strong association with T2DM in Asian Indians also contributes significant risk to GDM in this population. This is the first report of the association of HMG20A (rs7178572) and HNF4A (rs4812829) variants with GDM.
Chen, Ling; Jin, Shaofei
The incidence of cutaneous melanoma (CM) has rapidly increased over the past four decades. CM is often overlooked in East Asian populations due to its low incidence, despite East Asia making up 22% of the world's population. Since the 1990s, Caucasian populations have seen a plateau in CM mortality rates; however, there is little data investigating the mortality rates of CM in East Asian populations. In this study, the World Health Organization Mortality Database with the joinpoint regression method, and a generalized additive model were used to investigate trends in age standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) of CM in four East Asia regions (Japan, Republic of Korea (Korea), China: Hong Kong (Hong Kong), and Singapore) over the past six decades. In addition, mortality rate ratios by different variables (i.e., sex, age group, and region) were analyzed. Our results showed ASMRs of CM in East Asia significantly increased non-linearly over the past six decades. The joinpoint regression method indicated women had greater annual percentage changes than men in Japan, Korea, and Hong Kong. Men had significantly greater mortality rate ratio (1.51, 95% CI [1.48-1.54]) than women. Mortality rate ratios in 30-59 and 60+ years were significant greater than in the 0-29 years. Compared to Hong Kong, mortality rate ratio was 0.72 (95% CI [0.70-0.74]) times, 0.73 (95% CI [0.70-0.75]) times, and 1.02 (95% CI [1.00-1.05]) times greater in Japan, Korea, and Singapore, respectively. Although there is limited research investigating CM mortality rates in East Asia, results from the present study indicate that there is a significant growth in the ASMRs of CM in East Asian populations, highlighting a need to raise awareness of CM in the general population.
The incidence of cutaneous melanoma (CM) has rapidly increased over the past four decades. CM is often overlooked in East Asian populations due to its low incidence, despite East Asia making up 22% of the world’s population. Since the 1990s, Caucasian populations have seen a plateau in CM mortality rates; however, there is little data investigating the mortality rates of CM in East Asian populations. In this study, the World Health Organization Mortality Database with the joinpoint regression method, and a generalized additive model were used to investigate trends in age standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) of CM in four East Asia regions (Japan, Republic of Korea (Korea), China: Hong Kong (Hong Kong), and Singapore) over the past six decades. In addition, mortality rate ratios by different variables (i.e., sex, age group, and region) were analyzed. Our results showed ASMRs of CM in East Asia significantly increased non-linearly over the past six decades. The joinpoint regression method indicated women had greater annual percentage changes than men in Japan, Korea, and Hong Kong. Men had significantly greater mortality rate ratio (1.51, 95% CI [1.48–1.54]) than women. Mortality rate ratios in 30−59 and 60+ years were significant greater than in the 0−29 years. Compared to Hong Kong, mortality rate ratio was 0.72 (95% CI [0.70–0.74]) times, 0.73 (95% CI [0.70–0.75]) times, and 1.02 (95% CI [1.00–1.05]) times greater in Japan, Korea, and Singapore, respectively. Although there is limited research investigating CM mortality rates in East Asia, results from the present study indicate that there is a significant growth in the ASMRs of CM in East Asian populations, highlighting a need to raise awareness of CM in the general population. PMID:28028475
Despite the heterogeneous nature of interethnic drinking differences within racial groups, research has demonstrated that cautious generalizations can be made when comparing Asian and White drinking patterns. Persons in the United States who identify their race as "Asian" drink much less than their White counterparts, and they report fewer problems. Some have speculated that drinking patterns between racial groups are mediated by culturally influenced social learning. To date there has been very little research examining the expectancy of reinforcement from drinking between different racial, cultural or ethnic groups. The current study of 637 white and 179 Asian university students examined differences in alcohol consumption and problem levels, the social context of drinking, and alcohol expectancies. Results show considerable differences between Asian and White drinking and level of associated problems, as well as similarities and differences in social drinking contexts. It also appears that Asians expected greater tension reduction from drinking despite drinking less overall. Implications for further research are suggested that would link racial, and more specifically, ethnic drinking differences with culturally defined alcohol expectancies.
Cheung, Yin Bun; Luo, Nan; Ng, Raymond; Lee, Chun Fan
To develop an algorithm for mapping the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) to the 5-level EuroQoL Group's 5-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) utility index. A survey of 238 breast cancer patients in Singapore was conducted. Models using various regression methods with or without recognizing the upper boundary of utility values at 1 were fitted to predict the EQ-5D-5L utility index based on the five subscale scores of the FACT-B. Data from a follow-up survey of these patients were used to validate the results. A model that maps the physical, emotional, functional well-being and the breast cancer concerns subscales of the FACT-B to the EQ-5D-5L utility index was derived. The social well-being subscale was not associated to the utility index. Although theoretical assumptions may not be valid, ordinary least square outperformed other regression methods. The mean predicted utility index within each performance status level at follow-up deviated from the observed mean less than the minimally important difference of EQ-5D for cancer patients. The mapping algorithm converts the FACT-B to the EQ-5D utility index. This enables oncologists, clinical researchers and policy makers to obtain a quantitative utility summary of a patient's health status when only the FACT-B is assessed.
Shah, Baiju R; Griffiths, Rebecca; Hall, Stephen F
The highest rates of thyroid cancer are observed in Pacific Island nations as well as Australia and Asian countries bordering the Pacific. The objective of this study was to determine the risk for thyroid cancer among immigrants to Canada from Southeast and East Asia compared with immigrants from other regions and nonimmigrants. This was a population-based, longitudinal cohort study using health care administrative data to examine all residents of Ontario without pre-existing thyroid cancer. Individuals were followed from January 1997 or 5 years after they became eligible for health care coverage in Ontario, whichever came later. Patients were followed until March 2015 for incident-differentiated thyroid cancer, and then for recurrence. The study followed 14,659,733 individuals for a median of 17 years. Thyroid cancer incidence was 43.8 cases per 100,000 person-years among Southeast Asian immigrants, 28.6 cases per 100,000 person-years among East Asian immigrants, 21.5 cases per 100,000 person-years among other immigrants, and 14.5 cases per 100,000 person-years among nonimmigrants. Incidence was highest among immigrants from the Philippines (52.7 cases per 100,000 person-years), South Korea (33.5 cases per 100,000 person-years), and China (30.0 cases per 100,000 person-years). Adjusted hazard ratios for thyroid cancer compared with nonimmigrants were 2.66 (95% confidence interval, 2.48-2.84) for Southeast Asian immigrants, 1.87 (95% confidence interval, 1.75-2.00) for East Asian immigrants, and 1.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.45-1.57) for other immigrants. Immigrants were more likely to have papillary histology and stage I cancer. East Asian immigrants, but not Southeast Asian immigrants, had a lower risk of recurrence (hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.94] and 1.01 [95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.26], respectively). Immigrants from Southeast and East Asia had markedly higher thyroid cancer incidence than nonimmigrants. At particularly elevated
"The speed at which Japan's population is aging is mainly a result of its rapid economic development, which is common to many other East Asian countries. Two aspects of the aging of the population are an increasing share of the elderly and a declining labor force. The larger the number of elderly, the more the transfer of income between generations, and the fiscal burden rises. The shrinking workforce will lower the economic growth directly, and indirectly through the falling saving ratio. However, the negative impacts from aging can largely be offset by stimulating participation of older persons in the labor force."
Yao, Hong-Bing; Wang, Chuan-Chao; Tao, Xiaolan; Shang, Lei; Wen, Shao-Qing; Zhu, Bofeng; Kang, Longli; Jin, Li; Li, Hui
There is a long-going debate on the genetic origin of Chinese Muslim populations, such as Uygur, Dongxiang, and Hui. However, genetic information for those Muslim populations except Uygur is extremely limited. In this study, we investigated the genetic structure and ancestry of Chinese Muslims by analyzing 15 autosomal short tandem repeats in 652 individuals from Dongxiang, Hui, and Han Chinese populations in Gansu province. Both genetic distance and Bayesian-clustering methods showed significant genetic homogeneity between the two Muslim populations and East Asian populations, suggesting a common genetic ancestry. Our analysis found no evidence of substantial gene flow from Middle East or Europe into Dongxiang and Hui people during their Islamization. The dataset generated in present study are also valuable for forensic identification and paternity tests in China. PMID:27924949
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer worldwide. In Asian and western Pacific countries where HBV is endemic, estimated prevalence of chronic HBV infection ranges from 2.4%-16.0%, and liver cancer is a leading cause of mortality. Although population-based prevalence data for Asians/ Pacific Islanders (A/PIs) living in the United States are lacking, they are believed to constitute a sizeable percentage of persons with chronic HBV infection in the United States, a country of low endemicity. To assess the prevalence of chronic HBV infection among A/PI populations living in New York City, the Asian American Hepatitis B Program (AAHBP) conducted a seroprevalence study among persons who participated in an ongoing hepatitis B screening, evaluation, and treatment program. The results indicated that approximately 15% of participants who had not been previously tested had chronic HBV infection; all were born outside the United States. Screening programs are needed in A/PI communities in the United States to identify persons with chronic HBV infection so that they can be referred for appropriate medical management to prevent cirrhosis and liver cancer and so that their susceptible household and sex contacts can receive hepatitis B vaccine.
Zhu, Hong; Xia, Wei; Mo, Xing-Bo; Lin, Xiang; Qiu, Ying-Hua; Yi, Neng-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Deng, Fei-Yan; Lei, Shu-Feng
Objective Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex autoimmune disease. Using a gene-based association research strategy, the present study aims to detect unknown susceptibility to RA and to address the ethnic differences in genetic susceptibility to RA between European and Asian populations. Methods Gene-based association analyses were performed with KGG 2.5 by using publicly available large RA datasets (14,361 RA cases and 43,923 controls of European subjects, 4,873 RA cases and 17,642 controls of Asian Subjects). For the newly identified RA-associated genes, gene set enrichment analyses and protein-protein interactions analyses were carried out with DAVID and STRING version 10.0, respectively. Differential expression verification was conducted using 4 GEO datasets. The expression levels of three selected ‘highly verified’ genes were measured by ELISA among our in-house RA cases and controls. Results A total of 221 RA-associated genes were newly identified by gene-based association study, including 71‘overlapped’, 76 ‘European-specific’ and 74 ‘Asian-specific’ genes. Among them, 105 genes had significant differential expressions between RA patients and health controls at least in one dataset, especially for 20 genes including 11 ‘overlapped’ (ABCF1, FLOT1, HLA-F, IER3, TUBB, ZKSCAN4, BTN3A3, HSP90AB1, CUTA, BRD2, HLA-DMA), 5 ‘European-specific’ (PHTF1, RPS18, BAK1, TNFRSF14, SUOX) and 4 ‘Asian-specific’ (RNASET2, HFE, BTN2A2, MAPK13) genes whose differential expressions were significant at least in three datasets. The protein expressions of two selected genes FLOT1 (P value = 1.70E-02) and HLA-DMA (P value = 4.70E-02) in plasma were significantly different in our in-house samples. Conclusion Our study identified 221 novel RA-associated genes and especially highlighted the importance of 20 candidate genes on RA. The results addressed ethnic genetic background differences for RA susceptibility between European and Asian populations and
Yu, Junhong; Rawtaer, Iris; Fam, Johnson; Jiang, Min-Jun; Feng, Lei; Kua, Ee Heok; Mahendran, Rathi
Research looking at the association between sleep and psychiatric symptoms in elderly Asian populations is lacking. The present study examines the sleep correlates of depression and anxiety in a sample of cognitively healthy older adults. The Geriatric Depression Scale, Geriatric Anxiety Inventory, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were administered to a community sample of elderly participants (n = 107; 81 women; Mage = 71.3 years, SD = 5.7) RESULTS: Geriatric Depression Scale and Geriatric Anxiety Inventory scores are both significantly correlated with sleep disturbance. Geriatric Depression Scale scores are uniquely associated with daytime dysfunction, and Geriatric Anxiety Inventory scores are uniquely associated with perceived sleep quality, sleep latency, and global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores. Depression and anxiety in a cohort of elderly Asian subjects are associated with a number of sleep-related issues; both are related to a somewhat different profile of sleep problems. © 2015 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2015 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.
Teo, Boon Wee; Bagchi, Soumita; Xu, Hui; Toh, Qi Chun; Li, Jialiang; Lee, Evan J C
Clinical practice guidelines recommend using creatinine-based equations to estimate glomerular filtration rates (GFRs). While these equations were formulated for Caucasian-American populations and have adjustment coefficients for African-American populations, they are not validated for other ethnicities. The Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaborative Group (CKD-EPI) recently developed a new equation that uses both creatinine and cystatin C. We aimed to assess the accuracy of this equation in estimating the GFRs of participants (healthy and with chronic kidney disease [CKD]) from a multiethnic Asian population. Serum samples from the Asian Kidney Disease Study and the Singapore Kidney Function Study were used. GFR was measured using plasma clearance of 99mTc-DTPA. GFR was estimated using the CKD-EPI equations. The performance of GFR estimation equations were examined using median and interquartile range values, and the percentage difference from the measured GFR. The study comprised 335 participants (69.3% with CKD; 38.5% Chinese, 29.6% Malays, 23.6% Indians, 8.3% others), with a mean age of 53.5 ± 15.1 years. Mean standardised serum creatinine was 127 ± 86 μmol/L, while mean standardised serum cystatin C and mean measured GFR were 1.43 ± 0.74 mg/L and 67 ± 33 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. The creatinine-cystatin C CKD-EPI equation performed the best, with an estimated GFR of 67 ± 35 mL/min/1.73 m2. The new creatinine-cystatin C equation estimated GFR with little bias, and had increased precision and accuracy in our multiethnic Asian population. This two-biomarker equation may increase the accuracy of population studies on CKD, without the need to consider ethnicity.
Ewang-Emukowhate, Mfon; Perera, Dilinika; Wierzbicki, Anthony S D M
The global burden of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing. Obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide and is associated with dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Excess risks of T2DM and CVD are found in migrant Indian Asian and West African populations but with increasing urbanization similar changes are occurring in the original populations and are likely to predispose to a large increase in worldwide burden of CVD. Genetic and environmental factors interacting together play a role in the lipid patterns observed. Dyslipidaemia in the MetS associated with insulin resistance is characterised by an atherogenic lipid profile comprising elevated triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and increased numbers of small dense low density lipoprotein particles. The pattern of dyslipidaemia varies across different ethnic groups with increases in triglycerides and a reduction in HDL-C being the commonest pattern in non-Caucasians. This review surveys the literature on dyslipidaemia in Indian Asian and West African populations and how it relates to CVD risk in those populations. It is important that dyslipidaemia and other conventional risk factors for CVD are adequately addressed and managed especially in high-risk populations.
Liu, Xuanyao; Lu, Dongsheng; Saw, Woei-Yuh; Shaw, Philip J; Wangkumhang, Pongsakorn; Ngamphiw, Chumpol; Fucharoen, Suthat; Lert-Itthiporn, Worachart; Chin-Inmanu, Kwanrutai; Chau, Tran Nguyen Bich; Anders, Katie; Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; de Silva, H Janaka; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Kimura, Ryosuke; Nabika, Toru; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Tabara, Yasuharu; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Ken; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Mamatyusupu, Dolikun; Yang, Wenjun; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Jin, Li; Hoh, Boon-Peng; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R; Ong, RickTwee-Hee; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Dunstan, Sarah J; Simmons, Cameron; Tongsima, Sissades; Suriyaphol, Prapat; Kato, Norihiro; Xu, Shuhua; Teo, Yik-Ying
The Asian Diversity Project (ADP) assembled 37 cosmopolitan and ethnic minority populations in Asia that have been densely genotyped across over half a million markers to study patterns of genetic diversity and positive natural selection. We performed population structure analyses of the ADP populations and divided these populations into four major groups based on their genographic information. By applying a highly sensitive algorithm haploPS to locate genomic signatures of positive selection, 140 distinct genomic regions exhibiting evidence of positive selection in at least one population were identified. We examined the extent of signal sharing for regions that were selected in multiple populations and observed that populations clustered in a similar fashion to that of how the ancestry clades were phylogenetically defined. In particular, populations predominantly located in South Asia underwent considerably different adaptation as compared with populations from the other geographical regions. Signatures of positive selection present in multiple geographical regions were predicted to be older and have emerged prior to the separation of the populations in the different regions. In contrast, selection signals present in a single population group tended to be of lower frequencies and thus can be attributed to recent evolutionary events.
Li, Jia; Bian, Chao; Hu, Yinchang; Mu, Xidong; Shen, Xueyan; Ravi, Vydianathan; Kuznetsova, Inna S.; Sun, Ying; You, Xinxin; Qiu, Ying; Zhang, Xinhui; Yu, Hui; Huang, Yu; Xu, Pao; Gu, Ruobo; Xu, Junmin; Orbán, László; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Shi, Qiong
Asian arowana (Scleropages formosus), an ancient teleost belonging to the Order Osteoglossomorpha, has been a valuable ornamental fish with some varieties. However, its biological studies and breeding germplasm have been remarkably limited by the lack of a reference genome. To solve these problems, here we report high-quality genome sequences of three common varieties of Asian arowana (the golden, red and green arowana). We firstly generated a chromosome-level genome assembly of the golden arowana, on basis of the genetic linkage map constructed with the restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq). In addition, we obtained draft genome assemblies of the red and green varieties. Finally, we annotated 22,016, 21,256 and 21,524 protein-coding genes in the genome assemblies of golden, red and green varieties respectively. Our data were deposited in publicly accessible repositories to promote biological research and molecular breeding of Asian arowana. PMID:27922628
Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Getz, Thomas D.; Zarcadoolas, Christina; Panzara, Anthony D.; Esposito, Valerie; Wodika, Alicia B.; Caron, Colleen; Migliore, Beverly; Quilliam, Daniela N.
Limited resources have led to a lack of comprehensive state outreach strategies that are geared for non-English speaking constituencies. The investigators worked with Southeast Asian communities in Rhode Island to determine perceptions and levels of trust with various health authorities providing health messaging about fish-consumption practices.…
Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Getz, Thomas D.; Zarcadoolas, Christina; Panzara, Anthony D.; Esposito, Valerie; Wodika, Alicia B.; Caron, Colleen; Migliore, Beverly; Quilliam, Daniela N.
Limited resources have led to a lack of comprehensive state outreach strategies that are geared for non-English speaking constituencies. The investigators worked with Southeast Asian communities in Rhode Island to determine perceptions and levels of trust with various health authorities providing health messaging about fish-consumption practices.…
Listman, J B; Malison, R T; Sanichwankul, K; Ittiwut, C; Mutirangura, A; Gelernter, J
In Thailand, the term Hill Tribe is used to describe populations whose members traditionally practice slash and burn agriculture and reside in the mountains. These tribes are thought to have migrated throughout Asia for up to 5,000 years, including migrations through Southern China and/or Southeast Asia. There have been continuous migrations southward from China into Thailand for approximately the past thousand years and the present geographic range of any given tribe straddles multiple political borders. As none of these populations have autochthonous scripts, written histories have until recently, been externally produced. Northern Asian, Tibetan, and Siberian origins of Hill Tribes have been proposed. All purport endogamy and have nonmutually intelligible languages. To test hypotheses regarding the geographic origins of these populations, relatedness and migrations among them and neighboring populations, and whether their genetic relationships correspond with their linguistic relationships, we analyzed 2,445 genome-wide SNP markers in 118 individuals from five Thai Hill Tribe populations (Akha, Hmong, Karen, Lahu, and Lisu), 90 individuals from majority Thai populations, and 826 individuals from Asian and Oceanean HGDP and HapMap populations using a Bayesian clustering method. Considering these results within the context of results ofrecent large-scale studies of Asian geographic genetic variation allows us to infer a shared Southeast Asian origin of these five Hill Tribe populations as well ancestry components that distinguish among them seen in successive levels of clustering. In addition, the inferred level of shared ancestry among the Hill Tribes corresponds well to relationships among their languages.
Listman, JB; Malison, RT; Sanichwankul, K; Ittiwut, C; Mutirangura, A; Gelernter, J
In Thailand, the term Hill Tribe is used to describe populations whose members traditionally practice slash and burn agriculture and reside in the mountains. These tribes are thought to have migrated throughout Asia for up to 5,000 years, including migrations through Southern China and/or Southeast Asia. There have been continuous migrations southward from China into Thailand for approximately the past thousand years and the present geographic range of any given tribe straddles multiple political borders. As none of these populations have autochthonous scripts, written histories have until recently, been externally produced. Northern Asian, Tibetan, and Siberian origins of Hill Tribes have been proposed. All purport endogamy and have non-mutually intelligible languages. In order to test hypotheses regarding the geographic origins of these populations, relatedness and migrations among them and neighboring populations, and whether their genetic relationships correspond with their linguistic relationships, we analyzed 2445 genome-wide SNP markers in 118 individuals from five Thai Hill Tribe populations (Akha, Hmong, Karen, Lahu, and Lisu), 90 individuals from majority Thai populations, and 826 individuals from Asian and Oceanean HGDP and HapMap populations using a Bayesian clustering method. Considering these results within the context of results of recent large-scale studies of Asian geographic genetic variation allows us to infer a shared Southeast Asian origin of these five Hill Tribe populations as well ancestry components that distinguish among them seen in successive levels of clustering. In addition, the inferred level of shared ancestry among the Hill Tribes corresponds well to relationships among their languages. PMID:20979205
Mumby, Hannah S; Courtiol, Alexandre; Mar, Khyne U; Lummaa, Virpi
In seasonal environments, many species concentrate their reproduction in the time of year most likely to maximize offspring survival. Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) inhabit regions with seasonal climate, but females can still experience 16-week reproductive cycles throughout the year. Whether female elephants nevertheless concentrate births on periods with maximum offspring survival prospects remains unknown. We investigated the seasonal timing of births, and effects of birth month on short- and long-term mortality of Asian elephants, using a unique demographic data set of 2350 semicaptive, longitudinally monitored logging elephants from Myanmar experiencing seasonal variation in both workload and environmental conditions. Our results show variation in birth rate across the year, with 41% of births occurring between December and March. This corresponds to the cool, dry period and the beginning of the hot season, and to conceptions occurring during the resting, nonlogging period between February and June. Giving birth during the peak December to March period improves offspring survival, as the odds for survival between age 1 and 5 years are 44% higher for individuals born during the high birth rate period than those conceived during working months. Our results suggest that seasonal conditions, most likely maternal workload and/or climate, limit conception rate and calf survival in this population through effects on maternal stress, estrus cycles, or access to mates. This has implications for improving the birth rate and infant survival in captive populations by limiting workload of females of reproductive age. As working populations are currently unsustainable and supplemented through the capture of wild elephants, it is imperative to the conservation of Asian elephants to understand and alleviate the effects of seasonal conditions on vital rates in the working population in order to reduce the pressure for further capture from the wild. PMID:24198940
Mitchell, R J; Earl, L; Fricke, B
Variation on the Y chromosome may permit our understanding the evolution of the human paternal lineage and male gene flow. This study reports upon the distribution and non random association of alleles at four Y-chromosome specific loci in four populations, three Caucasoid (Italian, Greek and Slav) and one Asian. The markers include insertion/deletion (p12f), point mutation (92R7 and pY alpha I), and repeat sequence (p21A1) polymorphisms. Our data confirm that the p12f/TaqI 8 kb allele is a Caucasoid marker and that Asians are monomorphic at three of the loci (p12f, 92R7, and pY alpha I). The alleles at 92R7 and pY alpha I were found to be in complete disequilibrium in Europeans. Y-haplotype diversity was highly significant between Asians and all three European groups (P < 0.001), but the Greeks and Italians were also significantly different with respect to some alleles and haplotypes (P < 0.02). We find strong evidence that the p12f/TaqI 8 kb allele may have arisen only once, as a deletion event, and, additionally, that the present-day frequency distribution of Y chromosomes carrying the p12f/8 kb allele suggests that it may have been spread by colonising sea-faring peoples from the Near East, possibly the Phoenicians, rather than by expansion of Neolithic farmers into continental Europe. The p12f deletion is the key marker of a unique Y chromosome, found only in Caucasians to date, labelled 'Mediterranean' and this further increases the level of Y-chromosome diversity seen among Caucasoids when compared to the other major population groups.
Sohani, Zahra N; Deng, Wei Q; Pare, Guillaume; Meyre, David; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Anand, Sonia S
South Asians are up to four times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than white Europeans. It is postulated that the higher prevalence results from greater genetic risk. To evaluate this hypothesis, we: (1) systematically reviewed the literature for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) predisposing to type 2 diabetes in South Asians; (2) compared risk estimates, risk alleles and risk allele frequencies of predisposing SNPs between South Asians and white Europeans; and (3) tested the association of novel SNPs discovered from South Asians in white Europeans. MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and the Cochrane registry were searched for studies of genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes in South Asians. Meta-analysis estimates for common and novel bi-allelic SNPs in South Asians were compared with white Europeans from the DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) consortium. The population burden from predisposing SNPs was assessed using a genotype score. Twenty-four SNPs from 21 loci were associated with type 2 diabetes in South Asians after meta-analysis. The majority of SNPs increase odds of the disorder by 15-35% per risk allele. No substantial differences appear to exist in risk estimates between South Asians and white Europeans from SNPs common to both groups, and the population burden also does not differ. Eight of the 24 are novel SNPs discovered from South Asian genome-wide association studies, some of which show nominal associations with type 2 diabetes in white Europeans. Based on current literature there is no strong evidence to indicate that South Asians possess a greater genetic risk of type 2 diabetes than white Europeans.
Yanai, Hidekatsu; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Abe, Shinichi; Tada, Norio; Sako, Akahito
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a lipoprotein which has anti-atherogenic property by reverse cholesterol transport from the peripheral tissues to liver. Low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are associated with the development of coronary artery diseases (CADs). Various epidemiological studies have suggested that the development of CAD increase in individuals with less than 40 mg/dL of HDL-C. In spite of accumulation of evidences which suggest a significant association between low HDL-C and cardiovascular diseases, effects of dietary factors on HDL metabolism remained largely unknown. There may be interracial differences in effects of dietary factors on HDL metabolism. Here we reviewed published articles about effects of carbohydrate and dietary fiber intake, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), on HDL-C metabolism, regarding meta-analyses and clinical studies performed in Asian population as important articles. Low carbohydrate intake, GI and GL may be beneficially associated with HDL metabolism. Dietary fiber intake may be favorably associated with HDL metabolism in Asian populations.
Agyemang, Charles; Kunst, Anton; Bhopal, Raj; Zaninotto, Paola; Unwin, Nigel; Nazroo, James; Nicolaou, Mary; Redekop, William Ken; Stronks, Karien
We compare patterns of blood pressure (BP) and prevalence of hypertension between white-Dutch and their South-Asian and African minority groups with their corresponding white-English and their South-Asian and African ethnic minority groups; and the contribution of physical activity, body sizes, and socioeconomic position (SEP); and the quality of BP treatment that may underlie differences in mean BP. Secondary analyses of population-based studies of 13,999 participants from the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. Compared with Dutch South-Asians, all English South-Asian men and women had lower BP and prevalence of hypertension except for systolic BP in English-Indian men. Among Africans, the systolic BP did not differ, but the diastolic BP levels were lower in English-Caribbean and English- (sub-Sahara) African men and women than in their Dutch-African counterparts. English-Caribbeans had a lower prevalence of hypertension than Dutch-Africans. Compared with white-Dutch, white-English men and women had higher systolic BP levels, but lower diastolic BP levels. There were no differences in the prevalence of hypertension between the white groups. Most differences remained unchanged after adjustment for SEP, lifestyle, and body sizes in all ethnic groups. BP control rates were substantially lower among Dutch-African and Dutch South-Asian hypertensives than among their English counterparts (except Indians). We found marked variations in BP and hypertension prevalence between comparable ethnic groups in England and the Netherlands. Poor BP control among Dutch South-Asians and Africans contributed to their disadvantage of the relatively high BP levels.
Edwards, Melissa; Cha, David; Krithika, S; Johnson, Monique; Cook, Gillian; Parra, Esteban J
In this study, we present a new quantitative method to measure iris colour based on high-resolution photographs. We applied this method to analyse iris colour variation in a sample of individuals of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. We show that measuring iris colour using the coordinates of the CIELAB colour space uncovers a significant amount of variation that is not captured using conventional categorical classifications, such as 'brown', 'blue' or 'green'. We tested the association of a selected panel of polymorphisms with iris colour in each population group. Six markers showed significant associations with iris colour in the European sample, three in the South Asian sample and two in the East Asian sample. We also observed that the marker HERC2 rs12913832, which is the main determinant of 'blue' versus 'brown' iris colour in European populations, is also significantly associated with central heterochromia in the European sample. © 2015 The Authors. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Feng, Yuqian; Xu, Lili; Tian, Bing; Tao, Jing; Wang, Jinlin; Zong, Shixiang
The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is distributed widely in China, where it causes severe damage to forests, and is a quarantine pest in Europe, the United States, and Canada. A. glabripennis overwinters as dormant larvae to avoid adverse environmental conditions. To elucidate the cold hardiness of A. glabripennis larvae, the supercooling point (SCP), freezing point (FP), and cold hardiness-related compounds were examined in overwintering larva from five populations in China (Yili, Yanchi, Wulateqianqi, Beijing, and Dezhou). The results showed that the SCP and FP differed significantly among populations, where the SCP of larvae in the Wulateqianqi population was the lowest and highest in the Beijing population. The water, fat, and glycogen contents also differed significantly among the five populations. The SCPs of larvae from all five populations were proportional to glycogen contents, but had no association with water contents and fat contents. The total contents of seven low-molecular weight compounds (glycerol, galactose, glucose, mannose, sorbitol, inositol, and trehalose) differed significantly among populations. Thus, A. glabripennis larvae from different geographical populations contained different sugars or sugar alcohols (especially glycerol, glucose, sorbitol, and trehalose), which helped them to resist cold temperatures. This study provides basic information about that may facilitate the prediction of distribution range expansions and ensure proper implementation of the integrated management of A. glabripennis populations.
Becerra, Monideepa B; Herring, Patti; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Banta, Jim E
The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between generational status and fast food consumption among South-Asian Americans. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the California Health Interview Survey for 2007, 2009, and 2011. After adjusting for control variables, South-Asian Americans of the third generation or more had a fast food intake rate per week 2.22 times greater than first generation South-Asian Americans. Public health practitioners must focus on ways to improve dietary outcomes among this fast-growing ethnic population in the United States.
Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Brucato, Nicolas; Cox, Murray P.; Pierron, Denis; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Adelaar, Alexander; Sudoyo, Herawati; Letellier, Thierry; Ricaut, François-Xavier
The Austronesian expansion, one of the last major human migrations, influenced regions as distant as tropical Asia, Remote Oceania and Madagascar, off the east coast of Africa. The identity of the Asian groups that settled Madagascar is particularly mysterious. While language connects Madagascar to the Ma’anyan of southern Borneo, haploid genetic data are more ambiguous. Here, we screened genome-wide diversity in 211 individuals from the Ma’anyan and surrounding groups in southern Borneo. Surprisingly, the Ma’anyan are characterized by a distinct, high frequency genomic component that is not found in Malagasy. This novel genetic layer occurs at low levels across Island Southeast Asia and hints at a more complex model for the Austronesian expansion in this region. In contrast, Malagasy show genomic links to a range of Island Southeast Asian groups, particularly from southern Borneo, but do not have a clear genetic connection with the Ma’anyan despite the obvious linguistic association. PMID:27188237
Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Brucato, Nicolas; Cox, Murray P; Pierron, Denis; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Adelaar, Alexander; Sudoyo, Herawati; Letellier, Thierry; Ricaut, François-Xavier
The Austronesian expansion, one of the last major human migrations, influenced regions as distant as tropical Asia, Remote Oceania and Madagascar, off the east coast of Africa. The identity of the Asian groups that settled Madagascar is particularly mysterious. While language connects Madagascar to the Ma'anyan of southern Borneo, haploid genetic data are more ambiguous. Here, we screened genome-wide diversity in 211 individuals from the Ma'anyan and surrounding groups in southern Borneo. Surprisingly, the Ma'anyan are characterized by a distinct, high frequency genomic component that is not found in Malagasy. This novel genetic layer occurs at low levels across Island Southeast Asia and hints at a more complex model for the Austronesian expansion in this region. In contrast, Malagasy show genomic links to a range of Island Southeast Asian groups, particularly from southern Borneo, but do not have a clear genetic connection with the Ma'anyan despite the obvious linguistic association.
Islam, Nadia Shilpi; Khan, Suhaila; Kwon, Simona; Jang, Deeana; Ro, Marguerite; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau
There are close to 15 million Asian Americans living in the United States, and they represent the fastest growing populations in the country. By the year 2050, there will be an estimated 33.4 million Asian Americans living in the country. However, their health needs remain poorly understood and there is a critical lack of data disaggregated by Asian American ethnic subgroups, primary language, and geography. This paper examines methodological issues, challenges, and potential solutions to addressing the collection, analysis, and reporting of disaggregated (or, granular) data on Asian Americans. The article explores emerging efforts to increase granular data through the use of innovative study design and analysis techniques. Concerted efforts to implement these techniques will be critical to the future development of sound research, health programs, and policy efforts targeting this and other minority populations. PMID:21099084
Foster, Alice; Jacobson, Kevan
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract associated with significant morbidity. While IBD occurs in genetically susceptible individuals, the etiology is multifactorial, involving environmental influences, intestinal dysbiosis, and altered immune responses. The rising incidence of IBD in industrialized countries and the emergence of IBD in countries with traditionally low prevalence underscore the importance of environmental influences in the pathobiology of the disease. Moreover the high incidence of IBD observed in the South Asian immigrant population in the United Kingdom and Canada further supports the influence of environmental factors. PMID:24400280
The American Cancer Society (ACS) Nationwide Asian-American/Pacific Islander (AAPI) Initiative is a continuing collaboration between the ACS and other organizations and community groups. With a view to incorporating access to quality treatment as an over-arching principal, the objectives of the AAPI Initiative are to provide strategic oversight to the ACS for outreach to AAPI populations and to develop a nationwide plan for the purpose of making ACS programs and services available to these populations. After a series of meetings in 2002, including a joint meeting between the Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training (AANCART) and the ACS, the first ACS Nationwide AAPI Council meeting was held in early 2003. The goals and objectives of this initiative are 1) to develop a plan for delivery of ACS programs and services to the AAPI population, 2) to develop a program for collaboration with organizations that can help the ACS reach its objectives, 3) to develop an advocacy program that enables the ACS to reach its objectives, and 4) to develop an income-development program to both reach and maintain these objectives. The ACS-AANCART collaboration is a great example of the type of collaboration that will make not only the ACS but also the cancer community as a whole successful in eradicating cancer as a major public health problem.
Wilder, Jason A; Stone, Jonathan A; Preston, Elizabeth G; Finn, Lauren E; Ratcliffe, Hannah L; Sudoyo, Herawati
Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO) is an erythrocyte abnormality that protects affected individuals from cerebral malaria. This trait is caused by a 27-bp deletion in the SLC4A1 gene, which is lethal when homozygous. We reseqeunced approximately 5 kb of SLC4A1 in an Indonesian population where SAO is prevalent to better understand the evolution of this clinically important trait. The four SAO chromosomes we resequenced share a single haplotype that differs from a sampled non-SAO haplotype only by the 27-bp deletion. Comparison of Indonesian sequence data to that from two other Asian populations (aboriginal Taiwanese and Japanese) shows Indonesian SLC4A1 to be strongly differentiated from the Taiwanese, but not the Japanese. Indeed, the Taiwanese sample contains only chromosomes that are highly divergent from all sampled SAO chromosomes. Because earlier studies have found an association between Austronesian-speakers (who most likely originated in Taiwan) and SAO, our failure to find SAO-like chromosomes in Taiwan is unexpected. Finally, our data find a strong excess of high-frequency derived alleles in all three populations. These alleles include the non-synonymous 'Memphis' variant, which is known to affect anion transport across the erythrocyte membrane. Our data suggest a role for recent natural selection acting on Memphis or a linked variant.
Han, Siyu; Chen, Peng; Fan, Qiao; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Sim, Xueling; Tay, Wan-Ting; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Suo, Chen; Goh, Liang-Kee; Lavanya, Raghavan; Zheng, Yingfeng; Wu, Renyi; Seielstad, Mark; Vithana, Eranga; Liu, Jianjun; Chia, Kee-Seng; Lee, Jeannette Jen-Mai; Tai, E-Shyong; Wong, Tien-Yin; Aung, Tin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Saw, Seang-Mei
Corneal curvature (CC) is a key determinant of major eye diseases, such as keratoconus, myopia and corneal astigmatism. No prior studies have discovered the genes for CC. Here we report the findings from four genome-wide association studies of CC in 10 008 samples from three population groups in Singapore. Our discovery phase surveyed 2867 Chinese and 3072 Malays, allowing us to identify two loci that were associated with CC variation: FRAP1 on chromosome 1p36.2 and PDGFRA on chromosome 4q12. These findings were subsequently replicated in a validation study involving an additional 2953 Asian Indians and a further collection of 1116 Chinese children. The effect sizes of the identified variants were consistent across all four cohorts, with seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FRAP1 (lead SNP: rs17036350, meta P-value = 4.06 × 10(-13)) and six SNPs in PDGFRA (lead SNP: rs2114039, meta P-value = 1.33 × 10(-9)) attaining genome-wide significance in the SNP-based meta-analysis of the four studies. This is the first genome-wide survey of CC variation and we have identified two implicated loci in three genetically diverse Asian populations, suggesting the presence of common genetic etiology across multiple populations.
Carrington, C V F; Norman, P J; Vaughan, R W; Kondeatis, E; Ramdath, D D; Hameed, K; Stephens, H A F
Analysis of FcgammaRIIA alleles in Pakistanis and in Trinidadians of South Asian, African and mixed ancestry revealed no significant differences between Trinidadian South Asians and Pakistanis. H131 homozygotes were more common among Trinidadian South Asians than among Africans and those of mixed ancestry. Comparison with other populations revealed east-west geographic gradients of allele frequencies.
Jomoui, Wittaya; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Nguyen, Van Hoa; Fucharoen, Supan
Background Hemoglobin Constant Spring (Hb CS) is an abnormal Hb caused by a mutation at the termination codon of α2-globin gene found commonly among Southeast Asian and Chinese people. Association of Hb CS with α°-thalassemia leads to a thalassemia intermedia syndrome commonly encountered in the region. We report chromosome background and addressed genetic origins of Hb CS observed in a large cohort of Hb CS among Southeast Asian populations. Materials and Methods A study was done on 102 Vietnamese (aged 15–49 year-old) and 40 Laotian (aged 18–39 year-old) subjects with Hb CS and results compared with 120 Hb CS genes in Thailand. Hematological parameters were recorded and Hb analysis was performed using capillary electrophoresis. Hb CS mutation and thalassemia genotypes were defined by DNA analysis. Six DNA polymorphisms within α-globin gene cluster including 5’Xba I, Bgl I, Inter-zeta HVR, AccI, RsaI and αPstI 3’, were determined using PCR-RFLP assay. Results Nine different genotypes of Hb CS were observed. In contrast to the Thai Hb CS alleles which are mostly linked to haplotype (+—S + + -), most of the Vietnamese and the Laotian Hb CS genes were associated with haplotype (+—M + + -), both of which are different from that of the European Hb CS. Conclusions Hb CS is commonly found in combination with other thalassemias among Southeast Asian populations. Accurate genotyping of the cases requires both hematologic and DNA analyses. At least two independent origins are associated with the Hb CS gene which could indirectly explain the high prevalence of this Hb variant in the region. PMID:26683994
Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Chan, Wah-Kheong; Mohazmi, Mohammed; Sujarita, Ramanujam; Goh, Khean-Lee
Outcome measures for clinical trials in dyspepsia require an assessment of symptom response. There is a lack of validated instruments assessing dyspepsia symptoms in the Asian region. We aimed to translate and validate the Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire (LDQ) in a multi-ethnic Asian population. A Malay and culturally adapted English version of the LDQ were developed according to established protocols. Psychometric evaluation was performed by assessing the validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the instruments in both primary and secondary care patients. Between April and September 2010, both Malay (n=166) and Malaysian English (n=154) versions were assessed in primary and secondary care patients. Both language versions were found to be reliable (internal consistency was 0.80 and 0.74 (Cronbach's α) for Malay and English, respectively; spearman's correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.98 for both versions), valid (area under receiver operating curve for accuracy of diagnosing dyspepsia was 0.71 and 0.77 for Malay and English versions, respectively), discriminative (median LDQ score discriminated between primary and secondary care patients in Malay (11.0 vs 20.0, P<0.0001) and English (10.0 vs 14.0, P=0.001), and responsive (median LDQ score reduced after treatment in Malay (17.0 to 14.0, P=0.08) and English (18.0 to 11.0, P=0.008) to dyspepsia. The Malaysian versions of the LDQ are valid, reliable and responsive instruments for assessing symptoms in a multi-ethnic Asian population with dyspepsia. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Rai, Vandana; Kumar, Pradeep
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a critical enzyme of folate pathway and required for DNA synthesis and methylation. MTHFE C677T polymorphisms is reported as risk factors for various diseases and disorders like birth defects, metabolic, neurological, psychiatric disorders, and cancers. Several studies have investigated association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and male infertility. To assess the risk associated with MTHFR C677T polymorphism in Asian population, a meta-analysis was performed. Included articles were collected from the following electronic databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science direct up to March 2015. Risk was estimated as pooled odds ratios (ORs) with confidence intervals (CIs) for assessment. Seventeen case-control studies involving 4392 breast infertile males and 3667 fertile males were found suitable for the inclusion in the present meta-analysis. Results showed that the C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with male infertility in Asian population using all the five genetic models (ORT vs. C (allele contrast model) = 1.86, 95% CI 1.7-2.0; ORTT vs. CC (homozygote model) = 1.96, 95% CI 1.67-2.30; ORCT vs. CC (co-dominant model) = 1.40, 95% CI 1.18-1.62; ORTT+CT vs. CC (dominant model) = 1.53, 95% CI 1.30-1.77; ORTT vs. CT+CC (recessive model) = 1.67, 95% CI 1.44-1.92). In conclusion, results of present meta-analysis strongly supported an association between C677T polymorphism and male infertility in Asians.
Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Halldorsson, Bjarni V; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Tang, Nelson L S; Koh, Jung-Min; Xiao, Su-mei; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Kim, Ghi Su; Chan, Juliana C N; Cherny, Stacey; Lee, Seung Hun; Kwok, Anthony; Ho, Suzanne; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Kostic, Jelena Pop; Palsson, Stefan Th; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Sham, Pak C; Kim, Beom-Jun; Kung, Annie W C; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Woo, Jean; Leung, Ping-C; Kong, Augustine; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari
Most genome-wide association (GWA) studies have focused on populations of European ancestry with limited assessment of the influence of the sequence variants on populations of other ethnicities. To determine whether markers that we have recently shown to associate with Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in Europeans also associate with BMD in East-Asians we analysed 50 markers from 23 genomic loci in samples from Korea (n = 1,397) and two Chinese Hong Kong sample sets (n = 3,869 and n = 785). Through this effort we identified fourteen loci that associated with BMD in East-Asian samples using a false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.05; 1p36 (ZBTB40, P = 4.3×10(-9)), 1p31 (GPR177, P = 0.00012), 3p22 (CTNNB1, P = 0.00013), 4q22 (MEPE, P = 0.0026), 5q14 (MEF2C, P = 1.3×10(-5)), 6q25 (ESR1, P = 0.0011), 7p14 (STARD3NL, P = 0.00025), 7q21 (FLJ42280, P = 0.00017), 8q24 (TNFRSF11B, P = 3.4×10(-5)), 11p15 (SOX6, P = 0.00033), 11q13 (LRP5, P = 0.0033), 13q14 (TNFSF11, P = 7.5×10(-5)), 16q24 (FOXL1, P = 0.0010) and 17q21 (SOST, P = 0.015). Our study marks an early effort towards the challenge of cataloguing bone density variants shared by many ethnicities by testing BMD variants that have been established in Europeans, in East-Asians.
Shivane, Vyankatesh K; Sarathi, Vijaya; Lila, Anurag R; Bandgar, Tushar; Joshi, Shashank R; Menon, Padmavathy S; Shah, Nalini S
Data on peak bone mineral density (BMD) and its determinants in Asian Indians are limited. We studied the peak BMD and its determinants in Asian Indians. A total of 1137 young (age: 25--35yr) healthy volunteers of either sex (558 men and 579 women) were recruited for dietary evaluation, analyses of serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels, and measurement of BMD with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In men and women, peak bone mass (PBM) at the femoral neck, femoral trochanter, total femur, and lumbar spine was achieved between 25 and 30yr of age, whereas PBM at the femoral intertrochanter occurred between 30 and 35yr of age. Peak BMD was lower than that of Caucasians by 15.2--21.1% in men and 14.4--20.6% in women. On stepwise multiple regression, height and weight were the most consistent predictors of BMD at all sites in both groups. In men, 25(OH)D positively predicted BMD at the hip, whereas in women, serum iPTH negatively predicted BMD at the femoral trochanter and total femur. The study concluded that Asian Indians have significantly lower peak BMD than Caucasians and that weight and height are the most consistent predictors of BMD at all sites in both men and women. Copyright © 2012 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cicero, David C
The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ; Raine, 1991) is one of the most commonly used self-report measures of schizotypal personality traits. Previous work has found that the SPQ has a 3- or 4-factor structure, but most of this work was with White participants. Little is known about the psychometric properties of the scale in Pacific Islander populations, and some evidence suggests scores may differ between White and Asian participants. The current study included 398 Asian, 293 White, 159 Pacific Islander, and 308 multiethnic nonclinical participants. A 4-factor model fit the data well, and this factor structure displayed configural and metric invariance, suggesting that the factor structure is the same across these diverse groups. However, results provided mixed evidence for scalar invariance, suggesting the scale may lack scalar invariance in these populations. Follow-up analyses revealed that the questionable scalar invariance was related to the intercepts of the Ideas of Reference and Suspiciousness subscales in the White sample. This suggests that mean comparisons among ethnic groups involving the Ideas of Reference and Suspiciousness subscales are not appropriate.
Eastwood, Sophie V; Rait, Greta; Bhattacharyya, Mimi; Nair, Devaki R; Walters, Kate
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of mortality, and South Asian groups experience worse outcomes than the general population in the UK. Regular screening for CVD risk factors is recommended, but we do not know the best settings in which to deliver this for ethnically diverse populations. Health promotion in religious and community settings may reduce inequalities in access to cardiovascular preventative health care. To use stakeholders' and attendees' experiences to explore the feasibility and potential impact of cardiovascular risk assessment targeting South Asian groups at religious and community venues and how health checks in these settings might compare with general practice assessments. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were used. The settings were two Hindu temples, one mosque and one Bangladeshi community centre in central and north-west London. Twenty-four participants (12 stakeholders and 12 attendees) were purposively selected for interview. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Themes from the data were generated using thematic framework analysis. All attendees reported positive experiences of the assessments. All reported making lifestyle changes after the check, particularly to diet and exercise. Barriers to lifestyle change, e.g. resistance to change from family members, were identified. Advantages of implementing assessments in religious and community settings compared with general practice included accessibility and community encouragement. Disadvantages included reduced privacy, organizational difficulties and lack of follow-up care. Cardiovascular risk assessment in religious and community settings has the potential to trigger lifestyle change in younger participants. These venues should be considered for future health promotional activities.
Rivino, Laura; Tan, Anthony T; Chia, Adeline; Kumaran, Emmanuelle A P; Grotenbreg, Gijsbert M; MacAry, Paul A; Bertoletti, Antonio
The identification of virus-specific CD8(+) T cell determinants is a fundamental requirement for our understanding of viral disease pathogenesis. T cell epitope mapping strategies increasingly rely on algorithms that predict the binding of peptides to MHC molecules. There is, however, little information on the reliability of predictive algorithms in the context of human populations, in particular, for those expressing HLA class I molecules for which there are limited experimental data available. In this study, we evaluate the ability of NetMHCpan to predict antiviral CD8(+) T cell epitopes that we identified with a traditional approach in patients of Asian ethnicity infected with Dengue virus, hepatitis B virus, or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. We experimentally demonstrate that the predictive power of algorithms defining peptide-MHC interaction directly correlates with the amount of training data on which the predictive algorithm has been constructed. These results highlight the limited applicability of the NetMHCpan algorithm for populations expressing HLA molecules for which there are little or no experimental binding data, such as those of Asian ethnicity.
Williams, Larissa M.
Hemigrapsus sanguineus, the Asian shore crab, has rapidly replaced Carcinus maenas, the green crab, as the most abundant crab on rocky shores in the northwest Atlantic since its introduction to the United States (USA) in 1988. The northern edge of this progressing invasion is the Gulf of Maine, where Asian shore crabs are only abundant in the south. We compared H. sanguineus population densities to those from published 2005 surveys and quantified genetic variation using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. We found that the range of H. sanguineus had extended northward since 2005, that population density had increased substantially (at least 10-fold at all sites), and that Asian shore crabs had become the dominant intertidal crab species in New Hampshire and southern Maine. Despite the significant increase in population density of H. sanguineus, populations only increased by a factor of 14 in Maine compared to 70 in southern New England, possibly due to cooler temperatures in the Gulf of Maine. Genetically, populations were predominantly composed of a single haplotype of Japanese, Korean, or Taiwanese origin, although an additional seven haplotypes were found. Six of these haplotypes were of Asian origin, while two are newly described. Large increases in population sizes of genetically diverse individuals in Maine will likely have a large ecological impact, causing a reduction in populations of mussels, barnacles, snails, and other crabs, similar to what has occurred at southern sites with large populations of this invasive crab species. PMID:28919836
Lord, Joshua P; Williams, Larissa M
Hemigrapsus sanguineus, the Asian shore crab, has rapidly replaced Carcinus maenas, the green crab, as the most abundant crab on rocky shores in the northwest Atlantic since its introduction to the United States (USA) in 1988. The northern edge of this progressing invasion is the Gulf of Maine, where Asian shore crabs are only abundant in the south. We compared H. sanguineus population densities to those from published 2005 surveys and quantified genetic variation using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. We found that the range of H. sanguineus had extended northward since 2005, that population density had increased substantially (at least 10-fold at all sites), and that Asian shore crabs had become the dominant intertidal crab species in New Hampshire and southern Maine. Despite the significant increase in population density of H. sanguineus, populations only increased by a factor of 14 in Maine compared to 70 in southern New England, possibly due to cooler temperatures in the Gulf of Maine. Genetically, populations were predominantly composed of a single haplotype of Japanese, Korean, or Taiwanese origin, although an additional seven haplotypes were found. Six of these haplotypes were of Asian origin, while two are newly described. Large increases in population sizes of genetically diverse individuals in Maine will likely have a large ecological impact, causing a reduction in populations of mussels, barnacles, snails, and other crabs, similar to what has occurred at southern sites with large populations of this invasive crab species.
Haq, Ihsan ul; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Schutze, Mark; Hendrichs, Jorge; Shelly, Todd
Males of some species included in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl) benzene), a natural compound occurring in a variety of plant species. ME feeding of males of the B. dorsalis complex is known to enhance their mating competitiveness. Within B. dorsalis, recent studies show that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible, while populations of B. dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae are relatively incompatible. The objectives of this study were to examine whether ME feeding by males affects mating compatibility between Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis and ME feeding reduces male mating incompatibility between B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae. The data confirmed that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible for mating and showed that ME feeding only increased the number of matings. Though ME feeding also increased the number of matings of B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae males but the sexual incompatibility between both species was not reduced by treatment with ME. These results conform to the efforts resolving the biological species limits among B. dorsalis complex and have implications for fruit fly control programs in fields and horticultural trade. PMID:26362991
Haq, Ihsan Ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Schutze, Mark; Hendrichs, Jorge; Shelly, Todd
Males of some species included in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl) benzene), a natural compound occurring in a variety of plant species. ME feeding of males of the B. dorsalis complex is known to enhance their mating competitiveness. Within B. dorsalis, recent studies show that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible, while populations of B. dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae are relatively incompatible. The objectives of this study were to examine whether ME feeding by males affects mating compatibility between Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis and ME feeding reduces male mating incompatibility between B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae. The data confirmed that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible for mating and showed that ME feeding only increased the number of matings. Though ME feeding also increased the number of matings of B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae males but the sexual incompatibility between both species was not reduced by treatment with ME. These results conform to the efforts resolving the biological species limits among B. dorsalis complex and have implications for fruit fly control programs in fields and horticultural trade. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.
Okada, Yukinori; Sim, Xueling; Go, Min Jin; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Gu, Dongfeng; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Maeda, Shiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Chen, Peng; Lim, Su-Chi; Wong, Tien-Yin; Liu, Jianjun; Young, Terri L; Aung, Tin; Seielstad, Mark; Teo, Yik-Ying; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Jong-Young; Han, Bok-Ghee; Kang, Daehee; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chang, Li-Ching; Fann, S-J Cathy; Mei, Hao; Rao, Dabeeru C; Hixson, James E; Chen, Shufeng; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Isono, Masato; Ogihara, Toshio; Chambers, John C; Zhang, Weihua; Kooner, Jaspal S; Albrecht, Eva; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Kato, Norihiro; He, Jiang; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Cho, Yoon Shin; Tai, E-Shyong; Tanaka, Toshihiro
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), impairment of kidney function, is a serious public health problem, and the assessment of genetic factors influencing kidney function has substantial clinical relevance. Here, we report a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for kidney function-related traits, including 71,149 east Asian individuals from 18 studies in 11 population-, hospital- or family-based cohorts, conducted as part of the Asian Genetic Epidemiology Network (AGEN). Our meta-analysis identified 17 loci newly associated with kidney function-related traits, including the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate based on serum creatinine levels (eGFRcrea) (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)). We further examined these loci with in silico replication in individuals of European ancestry from the KidneyGen, CKDGen and GUGC consortia, including a combined total of ∼110,347 individuals. We identify pleiotropic associations among these loci with kidney function-related traits and risk of CKD. These findings provide new insights into the genetics of kidney function.
Zou, Wen-Bin; Boulling, Arnaud; Masamune, Atsushi; Issarapu, Prachand; Masson, Emmanuelle; Wu, Hao; Sun, Xiao-Tian; Hu, Liang-Hao; Zhou, Dai-Zhan; He, Lin; Fichou, Yann; Nakano, Eriko; Hamada, Shin; Kakuta, Yoichi; Kume, Kiyoshi; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Paliwal, Sumit; Mani, K Radha; Bhaskar, Seema; Cooper, David N; Férec, Claude; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Chandak, Giriraj R; Chen, Jian-Min; Li, Zhao-Shen; Liao, Zhuan
A hybrid allele between the carboxyl ester lipase gene (CEL) and its pseudogene, CELP (called CEL-HYB), generated by nonallelic homologous recombination between CEL intron 10 and CELP intron 10', was found to increase susceptibility to chronic pancreatitis in a case-control study of patients of European ancestry. We attempted to replicate this finding in 3 independent cohorts from China, Japan, and India, but failed to detect the CEL-HYB allele in any of these populations. The CEL-HYB allele might therefore be an ethnic-specific risk factor for chronic pancreatitis. An alternative hybrid allele (CEL-HYB2) was identified in all 3 Asian populations (1.7% combined carrier frequency), but was not associated with chronic pancreatitis.
Ivey, Susan L; Mehta, Kala M; Fyr, Christina L Wassel; Kanaya, Alka M
Few population-based studies report cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor prevalence for South Asians in the United States. We examined CVD risk for South Asians in California. We used data from two population-based surveys with South Asian participants in California, the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) and the Cardiovascular Health among Asian Indian (CHAI) survey. The CHIS 2001 was conducted in English; 769 South Asians aged 25-83 years participated as one of many ethnic groups. The CHAI survey was population-based but focused on ethnicity-specific characteristics in 304 South Asians aged 25-80 years in English and Punjabi in 2001-2002. A CVD risk score included smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and angina. Separate logistic regression models examined the association of sociodemographics, lifestyle, medical risk, acculturation, and "any CVD risk." In CHAI, hypertension (20%), hypercholesterolemia (24%), and diabetes (10%) were high; smoking was low (12%). In CHIS, prevalence of these conditions was lower, except smoking (21%). Approximately 35% of participants in each survey had any CVD risk. Male sex, age, higher body mass index, education less than a bachelor's degree, and alcohol use were associated with CVD risk in both studies. The CHAI subjects interviewed in English had higher odds of any CVD risk than those interviewed in Punjabi (odds ratio 10.3, 95% confidence interval 2.9-36.7). Data from multiple sources add crucial information about heterogeneity of risk within ethnic populations. South Asians in the CHIS had higher rates of smoking, but lower CVD risk scores than participants in the CHAI study. In CHAI, English language use was associated with increased CVD risk score. Additional research should examine if acculturation increases CVD risk.
Lee, Gary Jek Chong; Lim, Ming Yann; Kuan, Angeline Yi Wei; Teo, Joshua Han Wei; Tan, Hui Guang; Low, Wong Kein
This study compared the otoacoustic emissions amplitudes of Asian youths at risk of leisure noise exposure through the use of portable music players with their less exposed counterparts. A listening habit survey was conducted. Subjects were divided into two groups for analysis. A subject was placed within the high risk group if he/she reported listening to music at near maximum volume and had a physical measurement of his/her preferred listening level recorded at > 85 dBA. DPOAE and TEOAE levels were measured and compared between the two groups. A total of 1928 students from a tertiary educational institution in Singapore. TEOAE levels were found to be significantly lower in the high risk group at 4 kHz. DPOAE levels were also found to be significantly depressed in the high risk group at 1, 2, 3, and 4 kHz with the largest mean difference at 4 kHz. A four-way ANOVA carried out for OAE amplitudes using gender, ear laterality, risk profile, and years of usage as independent factors also showed that risk profile was a significant factor in determining the OAE amplitude at 4 kHz. We have demonstrated that both DPAOE and TEOAE values are diminished in the Asian subjects at high risk for noise exposure.
De Silva, Daswin; De Silva, M.V.C.; Ranasinghe, Tamra I J; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Bolton, Damien; Persad, Raj
Purpose To investigate the incidence of bladder cancer (BC) in Sri Lanka and to compare risk factors and outcomes with those of other South Asian nations and South Asian migrants to the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US). Materials and Methods The incidence of BC in Sri Lanka was examined by using two separate cancer registry databases over a 5-year period. Smoking rates were compiled by using a population-based survey from 2001 to 2009 and the relative risk was calculated by using published data. Results A total of 637 new cases of BC were diagnosed over the 5-year period. Sri Lankan BC incidence increased from 1985 but remained low (1.36 and 0.3 per 100,000 in males and females) and was similar to the incidence in other South Asian countries. The incidence was lower, however, than in migrant populations in the US and the UK. In densely populated districts of Sri Lanka, these rates almost doubled. Urothelial carcinoma accounted for 72%. The prevalence of male smokers in Sri Lanka was 39%, whereas Pakistan had higher smoking rates with a 6-fold increase in BC. Conclusions Sri Lankan BC incidence was low, similar to other South Asian countries (apart from Pakistan), but the actual incidence is likely higher than the cancer registry rates. Smoking is likely to be the main risk factor for BC. Possible under-reporting in rural areas could account for the low rates of BC in Sri Lanka. Any genetic or environmental protective effects of BC in South Asians seem to be lost on migration to the UK or the US and with higher levels of smoking, as seen in Pakistan. PMID:22670188
Wilkinson, Emma; Randhawa, Gurch; Roderick, Paul; Rehman, Tariq; Abubacker, Talib
This study evaluated the impact of national policy for kidney disease in primary care comparing South Asian (SA) and white European (WE) population groups. Retrospective audits of primary care records of SA and WE adults diagnosed with diabetes in 2004 and 2007 were carried out in a total sample of 707 patients across 18 general practices within Luton, Leicester and West London. Four hundred patients (SA: n=241, and WE: n=159) were diagnosed as diabetic in 2004, and 307 (SA: n=178, and WE: n=129) in 2007. South Asian patients were 9-10 years younger, had lower systolic blood pressure than white Europeans at diagnosis in both years (136.1 vs. 141.4 mm Hg, p=0.01, in 2004; and 134 vs. 142.3 mm Hg, p=0.000, in 2007) and significantly higher HbA1c (8.6%, 63 mmol/L vs. 7.9%, 71 mmol/L) at diagnosis in 2004 than in 2007 (8.3%, 67 mmol/L vs. 8.2%, 66 mmol/L). Recording of the majority of variables associated with diabetic kidney disease increased across both patient groups between 2004 and 2007: albumin to creatinine ratio (up 13.0% in SA to 37.9%, and 15.1% in WE to 40.3%), estimated glomerular filtration rate (up 61.7% in SA to 70.8% and 75.6% in WE to 80.6%) and proteinuria (up 19.3% in SA to 46.3% and 26.1% in WE to 51.9%). Recording of indicators for diabetic kidney disease at diagnosis increased in both South Asians and white Europeans following introduction of national guidance to improve early detection and quality of care in the diabetic kidney disease care pathway.
Yonesaka, Riku; Sasazaki, Shinji; Yasue, Hiroshi; Niwata, Satoru; Inayoshi, Yousuke; Mukai, Fumio; Mannen, Hideyuki
In this study, we genotyped 117 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms using a DigiTag2 assay to assess the genetic diversity, structure and relationships of 16 Eurasian cattle populations, including nine cattle breeds and seven native cattle. Phylogenetic and principal component analyses showed that Bos taurus and Bos indicus populations were clearly distinguished, whereas Japanese Shorthorn and Japanese Polled clustered with European populations. Furthermore, STRUCTURE analysis demonstrated the distinct separation between Bos taurus and Bos indicus (K=2), and between European and Asian populations (K=3). In addition, Japanese Holstein exhibited an admixture pattern with Asian and European cattle (K=3-5). Mongolian (K=13-16) and Japanese Black (K=14-16) populations exhibited admixture patterns with different ancestries. Bos indicus populations exhibited a uniform genetic structure at K=2-11, thereby suggesting that there are close genetic relationships among Bos indicus populations. However, the Bhutan and Bangladesh populations formed a cluster distinct from the other Bos indicus populations at K=12-16. In conclusion, our study could sufficiently explain the genetic construction of Asian cattle populations, including: (i) the close genetic relationships among Bos indicus populations; (ii) the genetic influences of European breeds on Japanese breeds; (iii) the genetic admixture in Japanese Holstein, Mongolian and Japanese Black cattle; and (iv) the genetic subpopulations in Southeast Asia. © 2015 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Yonesaka, Riku; Sasazaki, Shinji; Yasue, Hiroshi; Niwata, Satoru; Inayoshi, Yousuke; Mukai, Fumio
Abstract In this study, we genotyped 117 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms using a DigiTag2 assay to assess the genetic diversity, structure and relationships of 16 Eurasian cattle populations, including nine cattle breeds and seven native cattle. Phylogenetic and principal component analyses showed that Bos taurus and Bos indicus populations were clearly distinguished, whereas Japanese Shorthorn and Japanese Polled clustered with European populations. Furthermore, STRUCTURE analysis demonstrated the distinct separation between Bos taurus and Bos indicus (K=2), and between European and Asian populations (K=3). In addition, Japanese Holstein exhibited an admixture pattern with Asian and European cattle (K=3‐5). Mongolian (K=13‐16) and Japanese Black (K=14‐16) populations exhibited admixture patterns with different ancestries. Bos indicus populations exhibited a uniform genetic structure at K=2‐11, thereby suggesting that there are close genetic relationships among Bos indicus populations. However, the Bhutan and Bangladesh populations formed a cluster distinct from the other Bos indicus populations at K=12‐16. In conclusion, our study could sufficiently explain the genetic construction of Asian cattle populations, including: (i) the close genetic relationships among Bos indicus populations; (ii) the genetic influences of European breeds on Japanese breeds; (iii) the genetic admixture in Japanese Holstein, Mongolian and Japanese Black cattle; and (iv) the genetic subpopulations in Southeast Asia. PMID:26260416
Minard, G.; Tran, F. H.; Van, Van Tran; Goubert, C.; Bellet, C.; Lambert, G.; Kim, Khanh Ly Huynh; Thuy, Trang Huynh Thi; Mavingui, P.; Valiente Moro, C.
The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is one of the most significant pathogen vectors of the twenty-first century. Originating from Asia, it has invaded a wide range of eco-climatic regions worldwide. The insect-associated microbiota is now recognized to play a significant role in host biology. While genetic diversity bottlenecks are known to result from biological invasions, the resulting shifts in host-associated microbiota diversity has not been thoroughly investigated. To address this subject, we compared four autochthonous Ae. albopictus populations in Vietnam, the native area of Ae. albopictus, and three populations recently introduced to Metropolitan France, with the aim of documenting whether these populations display differences in host genotype and bacterial microbiota. Population-level genetic diversity (microsatellite markers and COI haplotype) and bacterial diversity (16S rDNA metabarcoding) were compared between field-caught mosquitoes. Bacterial microbiota from the whole insect bodies were largely dominated by Wolbachia pipientis. Targeted analysis of the gut microbiota revealed a greater bacterial diversity in which a fraction was common between French and Vietnamese populations. The genus Dysgonomonas was the most prevalent and abundant across all studied populations. Overall genetic diversities of both hosts and bacterial microbiota were significantly reduced in recently established populations of France compared to the autochthonous populations of Vietnam. These results open up many important avenues of investigation in order to link the process of geographical invasion to shifts in commensal and symbiotic microbiome communities, as such shifts may have dramatic impacts on the biology and/or vector competence of invading hematophagous insects. PMID:26441903
Mohamed Ali, Safiyya; Chia, Sin Eng
Organophosphate (OP) poisoning is a progressively worrying phenomenon as worldwide pesticide production and consumption has doubled. On average, WHO estimates that 3% of agricultural workers in developing Asian countries suffer an episode of pesticide poisoning every year. Furthermore, the threat of OP usage in terrorism is existent, as seen by the subway tragedy in Tokyo in 1995 where sarin was used. Despite these alarming facts, there is currently no global system to track poisonings related to pesticide use. Human serum paraoxonase (PON1) is the enzyme that hydrolyses OP compounds. Serum PON1 levels and activity vary widely among different ethnic populations. Two commonly studied polymorphisms of PON1 are PON1Q192R and PON1L55M. PON1R192 hydrolyses paraoxon faster than PON1Q192 but hydrolyses diazoxon, sarin and soman eight times slower, and vice versa. PON1M55 has lower plasma levels of PON1 than PON1L55. As the prevalence of the different alleles and genotypic distribution vary between the Asian populations we studied, we propose the necessity to study PON1 polymorphisms and its role in OP toxicity in Asian populations. This would help safeguard the proper care of agricultural workers who might be affected by OP poisoning, and alert relevant anti biological terrorism agencies on possible risks involved in the event of an OP attack and provide effective counter measures.
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand).
There has long been a need for a systematic set of instructions for the projection of populations for such subnational areas as states, provinces, districts, or statistical planning areas; and for specific groups of population which may overlap different areas within a country, such as the labor force, various occupation groups, the school age…
Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann
Studies examining mental health treatment dropout have primarily focused on Western populations and less so on Asian samples. The current study explored the prevalence and correlates of mental health treatment dropout across the various healthcare sectors in Singapore. Data was utilised from the Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS), a cross-sectional epidemiological survey conducted among an adult population (n = 6616) aged 18 years and above. Statistical analyses were done on a subsample of respondents (n = 55) who had sought treatment from the various treatment providers (i.e. mental health, medical, social services and religious healers) in the past 12 months. The World Mental Health (WMH) Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) was used to determine diagnoses of mental disorders, chronic medical disorders and service utilisation. Of those who had received treatment, 37.6% had ended treatment prematurely, 23.2% had completed treatment and 39.2% were still in treatment. The religious and spiritual sector (83.1%) had the highest dropout, followed by the general medical sector (34.6%), mental health services sector (33.9%) and the social services sector (30%). Marital status emerged as the only sociodemographic factor that significantly predicted treatment dropout-with those who were married being significantly less likely to drop out than those who were single. The overall dropout rate across the various healthcare sectors was comparable to past studies. While the small sample size limits the generalisability of findings, the current study provides useful insight into treatment dropout in an Asian population.
Lu, X X; Zhu, L Q; Pang, F; Sun, W; Ou, C; Li, Y; Cao, J; Hu, Y L
Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) is a potential tumor suppressor that is frequently hypermethylated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present meta-analysis of case-control studies was carried out to determine whether RUNX3 hypermethylation is associated with HCC. The PubMed, Embase, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for all relevant studies published between May 2000 and May 2012. A total of 11 studies were identified, and 8 studies involving 491 patients with HCC and 409 patients without tumors were found to satisfy the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. All tissue samples were from Asian populations. There was significant heterogeneity between the studies. Over the entire sample, the odds ratio (OR) of RUNX3 promoter methylation was 18.5 [95% confidence interval (CI), 11.6-29.6] for HCC tissues relative to control tissues. The ORs of RUNX3 methylation were 16.6 (95%CI = 6.5-42.4) for tumor tissues relative to tumor-adjacent tissues in patients with HCC, 67.3 (95%CI = 13.0-348.5) for tumor tissues from patients with HCC relative to liver tissues from patients with non-neoplastic liver diseases, and 3.26 (95%CI = 1.54-6.90) for tissues from patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)- related HCC relative to liver tissues from patients with HCC unrelated to HCV. There was no association between RUNX3 methylation and age, gender, pathological stage, or hepatitis B virus infection in HCC tissues. Methylation of the RUNX3 promoter strongly correlated with HCC in Asian populations, especially in individuals with HCV-related HCC, and may be a useful marker for HCC diagnosis in these populations.
Yu, Wei; Lin, Zhi; Qu, Baolin
Inconsistent association of microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) polymorphisms (Tyr113His, His139Arg) and lung cancer susceptibility have been reported in earlier studies. This study was undertaken to assess if mEH Tyr113His and His139Arg represent risk factors for lung cancer in Asian population. We exhaustively searched multiple databases to identify all eligible studies. Odds ratios were calculated to estimate the strength of genetic associations. This meta-analysis finally combined 2,522 subjects for Tyr113His and 2,725 subjects for His139Arg. In the analysis of Tyr113His, the His/His genotype carriers were found to have 29 % higher risk of lung cancer compared to the Tyr/Tyr carriers (His/His vs. Tyr/Tyr, odds ratio, 1.29, 95 % confidence interval, 1.06-1.58). A significantly increased risk was also seen in His/His versus His/Tyr + Tyr/Tyr (odds ratio, 1.29, 95 % confidence interval, 1.07-1.55). Likewise, His139Arg demonstrated a significant association with lung cancer (Arg/His vs. His/His, odds ratio, 1.2 6, 95 % confidence interval, 1.06-1.49; odds ratio, 1.24, 95 % confidence interval, 1.05-1.46). Stratified analysis by ethnicity showed both of the polymorphisms were associated with lung cancer in Chinese populations. These results suggest that the genetic associations exist between mEH polymorphisms and lung cancer susceptibility in Asian populations.
Powell, J. E.; Kelly, A. M.; Parkes, S. E.; Cole, T. R.; Mann, J. R.
Cancer and associated congenital abnormalities were investigated in Muslim and non-Muslim Asian children from the West Midlands. Cancer incidence rates were calculated for Indian (non-Muslim), Pakistani/Bangladeshi (Muslim) and white children diagnosed from 1978 to 1992. Incidence was significantly higher in the Pakistanis, with an age-standardised rate (ASR) of 163 cases per million per year, compared with 115 for Indian and 125 for white children. Among Asian cancer patients, congenital malformations were significantly more common in Muslim (21%) compared with non-Muslim (7%). In Muslims the malformation excess was caused by autosomal recessive and dominant disorders (in 8% and 5% of cases respectively). Cancer malformation/predisposition syndromes were found in 10% of Muslims, compared with 2% of non-Muslims. In 33% of the Muslims with malformations, childhood cancer and a malformation were also present in a close relative. None of the non-Muslims with malformations had a relative with childhood cancer. The cancer excess in Muslims may be partly related to inherited genes causing both malformations and cancer. The prevalence of autosomal recessive disorders may be related to consanguinity, which is common in the Pakistani Muslim population. The high incidence of autosomal dominant disorders may be related to older paternal age at conception, giving rise to spontaneous mutations. PMID:8519679
Mishra, Mahendra Narin; Bharucha, Khurshed Minoo
Uveitis refers to diseases characterized by intraocular inflammation of the uveal tract. Anterior uveitis is a common ocular disease characterized by inflammation of the iris and the ciliary body. To establish the frequency of HLA-B27-positive uveitis in Asian Indian population, study their clinical profile and compare it with other reports in literature. We retrospectively reviewed medical data of 89 patients of uveitis referred for HLA B27 typing with predominantly ocular symptoms during the period from April 2006-October 2010. All patients were tested for complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, infectious diseases serology, HLA-B27 typing, and prepared radiographs of the sacroiliac joints and lumbar spine if required. The HLA-B27 positive rate was 56.2% among patients and 3% for control samples. Most of the patients were in the age group of 41-50 years with a male predominance. HLA-B27 was seen to be associated with acute anterior uveitis in Asian Indian males and the test is important for confirmation of diagnosis, prognostication and also for planning the treatment.
Fathi, Manal; Cheah, Pike-See; Ahmad, Umar; Nasir, M Nizlan; San, Aye Aye; Abdul Rahim, Ezamin; Hussin, Paisal; Mahmud, Rozi; Othman, Fauziah
Ethnic origin plays an important role in bone morphometry. Studies examining the influence of coracoid process have focused primarily on adults and have not included people from diverse Asian ethnic backgrounds. Our goal was to explore ethnic differences in morphometry of coracoid among Asian population. We performed morphometric measurements of coracoid process on cadaveric shoulders and shoulder CT scans from 118 specimens. The cadaveric sample included Indian (46%), Chinese (27%), and Myanmarese (27%) subjects, while the CT scans sample included Chinese (67%) and Malay (33%) subjects. The morphometric measurements were performed using digital caliper and software developed at Golden Horses Health Sanctuary (GHHS). In the Indian cadaveric shoulders, the coracoid process is better developed than the other groups with the exception of the tip width of coracoid process. There are significant differences in almost all measurements (P < 0.05) between the ethnic groups. On the other hand, the morphometry of coracoid process from CT scans data is bigger in Chinese than Malay subjects when stratified by sex (P < 0.05). Moreover, in all morphometric measurements, the females had smaller measurements than males (P < 0.05). Understanding such differences is important in anatomy, forensic and biological identity, and orthopaedic and shoulder surgeries.
Hilal, Saima; Xin, Xu; Ang, Seow Li; Tan, Chuen Seng; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Niessen, Wiro J; Vrooman, Henri; Wong, Tien Yin; Chen, Christopher; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran
Cortical thickness has been suggested to be one of the most important markers of cortical atrophy. In this study, we examined potential risk factors of cortical thickness and its association with cognition in an elderly Asian population from Singapore. This is a cross-sectional study among 572 Chinese and Malay patients from the ongoing Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore (EDIS) Study, who underwent comprehensive examinations including neuropsychological testing and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cortical thickness (in micrometers) was measured using a model-based automated procedure. Cognitive function was expressed as composite and domain-specific Z-scores. Cognitive impairment was categorized into cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND)-mild, CIND-moderate, and dementia in accordance with accepted criteria. Linear regression models were used to examine the association between various risk factors and cortical thickness. With respect to cognition as outcome, both linear (for Z-scores) and logistic (for CIND/dementia) regression models were constructed. Initial adjustments were made for age, sex, and education, and subsequently for other cardiovascular risk factors and MRI markers. Out of 572 included patients, 171 (29.9%) were diagnosed with CIND-mild, 197 (34.4%) with CIND-moderate, and 28 (4.9%) with dementia. Risk factors related to a smaller cortical thickness were increased age, male sex, Malay ethnicity, higher blood glucose, and body mass index levels and presence of lacunar infarcts on MRI. Smaller cortical thickness was associated with CIND moderate/dementia [odds ratio (OR) per standard deviation (SD) decrease: 1.70; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-2.44, P = 0.004] and with composite Z-score reflecting global cognitive functioning [mean difference per SD decrease: -0.094; 95% CI: -0.159; -0.030, P = 0.004]. In particular, smaller cortical thicknesses in the occipital and temporal lobes were related to cognitive impairment. Finally
Chu, Chia-Ching; Gill, Torrence A; Hoffmann, Mark; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten S
The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) is an insect pest capable of transmitting Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of citrus greening in North America. D. citri also harbors three endosymbionts, Wolbachia, Candidatus Carsonella ruddii, and Candidatus Profftella armatura, which may influence D. citri physiology and fitness. Although genomic researches on these bacteria have been conducted, much remains unclear regarding their ecology and inter-population variability in D. citri. The present work examined the densities of each endosymbiont in adult D. citri sampled from different populations using quantitative PCR. Under field conditions, the densities of all three endosymbionts positively correlated with each other, and they are associated with D. citri gender and locality. In addition, the infection density of CLas also varied across populations. Although an analysis pooling D. citri from different populations showed that CLas-infected individuals tended to have lower endosymbiont densities compared to uninfected individuals, the difference was not significant when the population was included as a factor in the analysis, suggesting that other population-specific factors may have stronger effects on endosymbiont densities. To determine whether there is a genetic basis to the density differences, endosymbiont densities between aged CLas-negative females of two D. citri populations reared under standardized laboratory conditions were compared. Results suggested that inter-population variability in Wolbachia infection density is associated with the genotypes of the endosymbiont or the host. Findings from this work could facilitate understanding of D. citri-bacterial associations that may benefit the development of approaches for managing citrus greening, such as prevention of CLas transmission.
Okada, Yukinori; Kim, Kwangwoo; Han, Buhm; Pillai, Nisha E; Ong, Rick T-H; Saw, Woei-Yuh; Luo, Ma; Jiang, Lei; Yin, Jian; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Brown, Matthew A; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Xu, Huji; Teo, Yik-Ying; de Bakker, Paul I W; Raychaudhuri, Soumya
Previous studies have emphasized ethnically heterogeneous human leukocyte antigen (HLA) classical allele associations to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk. We fine-mapped RA risk alleles within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in 2782 seropositive RA cases and 4315 controls of Asian descent. We applied imputation to determine genotypes for eight class I and II HLA genes to Asian populations for the first time using a newly constructed pan-Asian reference panel. First, we empirically measured high imputation accuracy in Asian samples. Then we observed the most significant association in HLA-DRβ1 at amino acid position 13, located outside the classical shared epitope (Pomnibus = 6.9 × 10(-135)). The individual residues at position 13 have relative effects that are consistent with published effects in European populations (His > Phe > Arg > Tyr ≅ Gly > Ser)--but the observed effects in Asians are generally smaller. Applying stepwise conditional analysis, we identified additional independent associations at positions 57 (conditional Pomnibus = 2.2 × 10(-33)) and 74 (conditional Pomnibus = 1.1 × 10(-8)). Outside of HLA-DRβ1, we observed independent effects for amino acid polymorphisms within HLA-B (Asp9, conditional P = 3.8 × 10(-6)) and HLA-DPβ1 (Phe9, conditional P = 3.0 × 10(-5)) concordant with European populations. Our trans-ethnic HLA fine-mapping study reveals that (i) a common set of amino acid residues confer shared effects in European and Asian populations and (ii) these same effects can explain ethnically heterogeneous classical allelic associations (e.g. HLA-DRB1*09:01) due to allele frequency differences between populations. Our study illustrates the value of high-resolution imputation for fine-mapping causal variants in the MHC.
Saville, Amanda; Charles, Melodi; Chavan, Suchitra; Munoz, Miguel; Gomez-Alpizar, Luis; Ristaino, Jean B
Pseudocercospora fijiensis Deighton is the causal pathogen of black Sigatoka, a devastating disease of banana that can cause 20-80% yield loss in the absence of fungicides in bananas. The genetic structure of populations of P. fijiensis in Costa Rica was examined and compared to Honduran and global populations to better understand migration patterns and inform management strategies. One hundred and eighteen isolates of P. fijiensis collected from Costa Rica and Honduras from 2010 to 2014 were analyzed using multilocus genotyping of six loci and compared to a previously published global dataset of populations of P. fijiensis. The Costa Rican and Honduran populations shared haplotype diversity with haplotypes from Southeast Asia, Oceania, and the Americas but not Africa for all but one of the six loci studied. Gene flow and shared haplotype diversity was found in Honduran and Costa Rican populations of the pathogen. The data indicate that the haplotypic diversity observed in Costa Rican populations of P. fijiensis is derived from dispersal from initial outbreak sources in Honduras and admixtures between genetically differentiated sources from Southeast Asia, Oceania, and the Americas.
Huang, Ya-Qing; Lu, Xin; Min, Han; Wu, Qian-Qian; Shi, Xiao-Ting; Bian, Kang-Qi; Zou, Xiao-Ping
The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate whether an association existed between green tea consumption and the risk for liver cancer in prospective cohort studies in Asian populations. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, and the Chinese Bio-medicine Database published before April 2015. Study-specific risk estimates for the highest versus non- or lowest and increment of daily cup of green tea consumption levels were combined based on fixed- or random-effects models. STATA 11.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA) software was used for statistical analysis. Nine prospective cohort articles involving 465,274 participants and 3694 cases of liver cancer from China, Japan, and Singapore were included. The summary relative risk (RR) indicated a significant association between the highest green tea consumption and reduced risk for liver cancer (summary RR, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81-0.97). However, no statistically significant association was observed when analyzing daily consumption of one cup (summary RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-1.00). When stratified by sex, the protective effect of green tea consumption on risk for liver cancer was observed only in the group of women (summary RR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64-0.96), but not in men (summary RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.79-1.00). The present analysis indicated the preventive effects of green tea intake on the risk for liver cancer in female Asian populations. However, additional studies are needed to make a convincing case for this association. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Amerasinghe, Nishani; Aung, Tin; Cheung, Ning; Fong, Chee Weng; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Saw, Seang-Mei; Wong, Tien Yin
To examine the relationship between retinal vascular caliber and glaucoma in an Asian population. A population-based, cross-sectional study of 3019 persons of Asian Malay ethnicity aged 40 to 80 years residing in Singapore. All participants had dilated digital retinal photographs taken of both eyes. From these, retinal vascular caliber was measured with a computer-based technique according to a standardized protocol. Glaucoma was diagnosed based on the International Society of Geographic and Epidemiologic Ophthalmology classification and included people with glaucomatous optic neuropathy and compatible visual field loss. There were 127 (4.2%) participants with glaucoma. Mean retinal arteriolar and venular calibers were significantly narrower in persons with than in those without glaucoma (136.4 microm vs. 139.7 microm, P = 0.02 and 209.2 microm vs. 219.7 microm, P < 0.001, respectively). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, IOP, and other vascular risk factors, persons with narrower retinal arteriolar and venular caliber were more likely to have glaucoma (odds ratio [OR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.56 and OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.24-1.79, for each SD reduction in arteriolar and venular caliber, respectively) and a vertical cup-to-disc ratio >or= 0.7 (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.12-1.63 and OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.38-1.98, respectively). Retinal vascular caliber was not associated with intraocular pressure. These findings support an association of narrower retinal arteriolar and venular caliber changes with glaucomatous optic neuropathy, independent of intraocular pressure.
Huang, Yilun; Lee, Merrill; Chong, Hwei Chi; Ning, Yilin; Lo, Ngai Nung; Yeo, Seng Jin
Up to 20% of patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) reported dissatisfaction with surgical outcome. Despite the multiple studies looking into the factors contributing to patients' dissatisfaction, little research has been done to examine the subjective reasons and complaints patients have post-arthroplasty. This study aimed to look at an Asian patient population which underwent TKA and examine the factors contributing to patient dissatisfaction and the reasons they were dissatisfied with their surgery. A total of 3069 TKAs were performed between January 2011 to April 2013 in a single institution. Preoperative and postoperative variables were prospectively captured, such as standardised knee scores, knee range of motion and patient satisfaction scores. These variables were then analysed with a multiple logistic regression model to determine the statistically significant factors that contribute to patients' satisfaction. Dissatisfied patients were individually interviewed to find the reasons for their unhappiness. Preoperative variables were then analysed to identify the statistically significant factors associated with these subjective complaints. Minimum duration of follow-up was 2 years, with an overall patient satisfaction rate of 91.3%. Preoperative variables contributing to patient dissatisfaction included female gender and better knee flexion. Postoperative variables included lesser improvement in knee flexion at 6 months postoperatively, as well as poorer scores in various validated knee scores at both 6 months and 2 years postoperatively. The top reason for dissatisfaction was pain. Weakness, another reason for patient dissatisfaction, had statistically significant preoperative predictors of increased age and poorer Short-Form 36 Physical Component Score. Although TKA has an impressive patient satisfaction rate in this Asian population, factors contributing to postoperative dissatisfaction suggest a targeted group of patients would benefit from
Yap, Lok Bin; Eng, Daniel Theng Sheng; Sivalingam, Lingghesh; Rusani, Beni Isman; Umadevan, Dhanan; Muhammad, Zulkeflee; Koh, Kok Wei; Aisha, Barveen; Hashim, Mohd Irwan; Rebo, Rosila; Hussin, Azlan; Kaur, Surinder; Shanmugam, Rajasingam; Omar, Razali
The Asian population with atrial fibrillation (AF) have a higher risk of stroke than the caucasian population and a higher risk of intracranial bleeding when anticoagulated with warfarin. There are few real-world studies comparing the efficacy of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and warfarin among Asian patients to assess its outcomes of ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. A retrospective cohort study of 1000 patients on dabigatran and warfarin from 2009 to 2013. Data were available for 500 patients on dabigatran and 500 patients on warfarin. The average follow-up duration was 315 ± 280 days in the dabigatran group and 355 ± 232 in the warfarin group. The time in therapeutic range (TTR) was 53.2% in the warfarin-treated group, with 32.8% of patients in the subtherapeutic international normalized ratio range of <2. None of the patients in the dabigatran group had ischemic cerebrovascular accident (CVA) compared to 4 (0.8%) patients in the warfarin group, hazard ratio (HR) 0.13, P = .3. There was 1 (0.2%) patient in both dabigatran and warfarin groups with hemorrhagic CVA (HR 1.16, P = .92). There were 3 (0.6%) patients with major bleeding in the dabigatran group compared to 2 (0.4%) patients in the warfarin group (HR 1.57, P = .59). There were similar rates of efficacy for outcomes of ischemic CVA, hemorrhagic CVA, and bleeding when comparing dabigatran with warfarin. Our study shows that despite similar efficacy, suboptimal TTR rates and inconveniences with warfarin demonstrate that NOACs are preferred for stroke prevention in AF. © The Author(s) 2015.
Teo, Boon Wee; Toh, Qi Chun; Xu, Hui; Yang, Adonsia Y T; Lin, Tingxuan; Li, Jialiang; Lee, Evan J C
Clinical practice guidelines recommend different levels of dietary protein intake in predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. It is unknown how effectively these recommendations perform in a multi-ethnic Asian population, with varied cultural beliefs and diets. We assess the profi le of protein intake in a multi-ethnic Asian population, comparing healthy participants and CKD patients. We analysed the 24-hour urine collections of the Asian Kidney Disease Study (AKDS) and the Singapore Kidney Function Study (SKFS) to estimate total protein intake (TPI; g/day). We calculated ideal body weight (IDW; kg): 22.99 × height2 (m). Standard statistical tests were applied where appropriate, and linear regression was used to assess associations of continuous variables with protein intake. There were 232 CKD patients and 103 healthy participants with 35.5% diabetics. The mean TPI in healthy participants was 58.89 ± 18.42 and the mean TPI in CKD patients was 53.64 ± 19.39. By US National Kidney Foundation (NKF) guidelines, 29/232 (12.5%) of CKD patients with measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <25 (in mL/min/1.73 m2) had a TPI-IDW of <0.6 g/kg/day. By Caring for Australasians with Renal Impairment (CARI) guidelines, 76.3% (177/232) of CKD patients had TPI-IDW >0.75g/kg/ day. By American Dietetic Association (ADA) guidelines, 34.7% (44/127) of CKD patients with GFR <50 had TPI-IDW between 0.6 to 0.8 g/kg/day. Only 1/6 non-diabetic CKD patients with GFR <20 had a protein intake of between 0.3 to 0.5 g/kg/day. A total of 21.9% (25/114) of diabetic CKD patients had protein intake between 0.8 to 0.9 g/kg/day. On average, the protein intake of most CKD patients exceeds the recommendations of guidelines. Diabetic CKD patients should aim to have higher protein intakes.
Liu, Guiyou; Wang, Haiyang; Liu, Jiafeng; Li, Jingbo; Li, Hali; Ma, Guoda; Jiang, Yongshuai; Chen, Zugen; Zhao, Bin; Li, Keshen
Large-scale genomewide association studies have reported that the CLU rs11136000 polymorphism is significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in people of Caucasian ancestry. Recently, this association was investigated in Asian populations (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean). However, these studies reported either a weak association or no association between the rs11136000 polymorphism and AD. We believe that this discrepancy may be caused by the relatively small sample size of the previous studies and the genetic heterogeneity of the rs11136000 polymorphism in AD among different populations. For this study, we searched the PubMed and AlzGene databases. We selected 18 independent studies (6 studies of Asian populations and 12 of populations of Caucasian ancestry) that evaluated the association between the rs11136000 polymorphism and AD using a case-control experimental design. We evaluated the genetic heterogeneity of the rs11136000 polymorphism in Caucasian and Asian populations. We then investigated the rs11136000 polymorphism by a meta-analysis in Asian populations using allele, dominant, and recessive models. We identified a significant association between rs11136000 and AD with the allele model (P = 2.00 × 10(-4)) and the dominant model (P = 5.00 × 10(-3)). Meanwhile, a similar genetic risk of the rs11136000 polymorphism in AD was observed in Asian and Caucasian populations. Further meta-analysis in pooled Asian and Caucasian populations indicated a more significant association with the allele (P = 8.30 × 10(-24)), dominant (P = 4.46 × 10(-17)), and recessive (P = 3.92 × 10(-12)) models. Collectively, our findings from this meta-analysis indicate that the effect of the CLU rs11136000 polymorphism on AD risk in Asian cohorts (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean) is consistent with the protective effect observed in Caucasian AD cohorts.
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand).
A group of experts on population projections was convened in Thailand in late 1975. It was organized by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. This report is the result of background papers used at the conference, reactions to the papers, and further writing. Chapter headings are: (1) Introduction; (2) The Role…
Marchi, Nina; Hegay, Tatyana; Mennecier, Philippe; Georges, Myriam; Laurent, Romain; Whitten, Mark; Endicott, Philipp; Aldashev, Almaz; Dorzhu, Choduraa; Nasyrova, Firuza; Chichlo, Boris; Ségurel, Laure; Heyer, Evelyne
Sex-specific genetic structures have been previously documented worldwide in humans, even though causal factors have not always clearly been identified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ethnicity, geography and social organization on the sex-specific genetic structure in Inner Asia. Furthermore, we explored the process of ethnogenesis in multiple ethnic groups. We sampled DNA in Central and Northern Asia from 39 populations of Indo-Iranian and Turkic-Mongolic native speakers. We focused on genetic data of the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. First, we compared the frequencies of haplogroups to South European and East Asian populations. Then, we investigated the genetic differentiation for eight Y-STRs and the HVS1 region, and tested for the effect of geography and ethnicity on such patterns. Finally, we reconstructed the male demographic history, inferred split times and effective population sizes of different ethnic groups. Based on the haplogroup data, we observed that the Indo-Iranian- and Turkic-Mongolic-speaking populations have distinct genetic backgrounds. However, each population showed consistent mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroups patterns. As expected in patrilocal populations, we found that the Y-STRs were more structured than the HVS1. While ethnicity strongly influenced the genetic diversity on the Y chromosome, geography better explained that of the mtDNA. Furthermore, when looking at various ethnic groups, we systematically found a genetic split time older than historical records, suggesting a cultural rather than biological process of ethnogenesis. This study highlights that, in Inner Asia, specific cultural behaviors, especially patrilineality and patrilocality, leave a detectable signature on the sex-specific genetic structure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pillai, Nisha Esakimuthu; Okada, Yukinori; Saw, Woei-Yuh; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Wang, Xu; Tantoso, Erwin; Xu, Wenting; Peterson, Trevor A; Bielawny, Thomas; Ali, Mohammad; Tay, Koon-Yong; Poh, Wan-Ting; Tan, Linda Wei-Lin; Koo, Seok-Hwee; Lim, Wei-Yen; Soong, Richie; Wenk, Markus; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Little, Peter; Plummer, Francis A; Lee, Edmund J D; Chia, Kee-Seng; Luo, Ma; De Bakker, Paul I W; Teo, Yik-Ying
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) containing the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Class I and Class II genes is among the most polymorphic and diverse regions in the human genome. Despite the clinical importance of identifying the HLA types, very few databases jointly characterize densely genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and HLA alleles in the same samples. To date, the HapMap presents the only public resource that provides a SNP reference panel for predicting HLA alleles, constructed with four collections of individuals of north-western European, northern Han Chinese, cosmopolitan Japanese and Yoruba Nigerian ancestry. Owing to complex patterns of linkage disequilibrium in this region, it is unclear whether the HapMap reference panels can be appropriately utilized for other populations. Here, we describe a public resource for the Singapore Genome Variation Project with: (i) dense genotyping across ∼ 9000 SNPs in the MHC; (ii) four-digit HLA typing for eight Class I and Class II loci, in 96 southern Han Chinese, 89 Southeast Asian Malays and 83 Tamil Indians. This resource provides population estimates of the frequencies of HLA alleles at these eight loci in the three population groups, particularly for HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DPB1 that were not assayed in HapMap. Comparing between population-specific reference panels and a cosmopolitan panel created from all four HapMap populations, we demonstrate that more accurate imputation is obtained with population-specific panels than with the cosmopolitan panel, especially for the Malays and Indians but even when imputing between northern and southern Han Chinese. As with SNP imputation, common HLA alleles were imputed with greater accuracy than low-frequency variants.
Data from long term monitoring programs in two Florida citrus groves were used to assess Asian citrus psyllid demography and population ecology, which is needed to implement more effective management strategies for huanglongbing. We describe and interpret seasonal patterns and correlations between A...
Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury; Shahana, Nahid; Wangchuk, Lungten Z; Specogna, Adrian V; Al Mamun, Mohammad; Khan, Mudassir Azeez; Choudhury, Sohel Reza; Zaman, M Mostafa; Rumana, Nahid
Similar to most populations, South Asian countries are also witnessing the dramatic transitions in health during the last few decades with the major causes of adverse health shifting from a predominance of nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases to chronic diseases such as cardio and cerebrovascular disease (CVD). We summarized the available information of the burden of CVD and risk factors in the South Asian populations. The prevalence of conventional cardiovascular has been increasing among all South Asian populations. Extensive urbanization, shift in dietary pattern and sedentary daily life style is contributing towards the worsening of the CVD risk factor scenario. The burdens of the chronic cardiovascular risk factors are much prevalent in the South Asian populations. These are also rising alarmingly which ought to influence the already existed heavy CVD burden. Similar to the rest of the world, management for the conventional cardiovascular risk factors is very important for the prevention of CVD in South Asia. Copyright © 2013 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pardo, Saúl; Martínez, Ana M; Figueroa, José I; Chavarrieta, Juan M; Viñuela, Elisa; Rebollar-Alviter, Ángel; Miranda, Mario A; Valle, Javier; Pineda, Samuel
Control of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the most important pest of citrus worldwide, is based on the use of insecticides, though unsatisfactory results have recently been reported. In this study, insecticide resistance of D. citri to three insecticides (bifenthrin, malathion, and chlorpyrifos) was examined. Three populations (designated Dci-CParácuaro, Dci-El Junco, and Dci-Antúnez) of both adults and fourth-instar D. citri individuals were collected in 2014 at two different times and on one occasion, respectively, from three locations (Crucero de Parácuaro, El Junco, and Antúnez). These locations represent the major commercial Mexican lemon production areas in the Apatzingán Valley in the state of Michoacán, Mexico. The three populations of D. citri adults and fourth-instar nymphs at the different collection times showed low levels of resistance (≤7-fold) to bifenthrin, but were very resistant to malathion (≤345- and ≤432-fold for adults and fourth instars, respectively) and chlorpyrifos (≤2435- and ≤1424-fold for adults and fourth instars, respectively). Resistance levels to the tested insecticides were highly variable but homogeneous among seasons and localities. Resistance management programmes that include crop sanitation, use of biological and cultural control practices, and rotation of insecticide classes should be established, particularly in areas where D. citri has developed resistance to malathion and chlorpyrifos. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Broekman, B F P; Nyunt, S Z; Niti, M; Jin, A Z; Ko, S M; Kumar, R; Fones, C S L; Ng, T P
The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is widely used for screening and assessment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Screening scales are often culture-specific and should be evaluated for item response bias (synonymously differential item functioning, DIF) before use in clinical practice and research in a different population. In this study, we examined DIF associated with age, gender, ethnicity and chronic illness in a heterogeneous Asian population in Singapore. The GDS-15 and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnosis of MDD were independently administered by interviewers on 4253 non-institutionalized community living elderly subjects aged 60 years and above who were users of social service agencies. Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause latent variable modelling was used to identify DIF. We found evidence of significant DIF associated with age, gender, ethnicity and chronic illness for 8 items: dropped many activities and interests, afraid something bad is going to happen, prefer staying home to going out, more problems with memory than most, think it is (not) wonderful to be alive, feel pretty worthless, feel (not) full of energy, feel that situation is hopeless. The smaller number of minority Indian and Malay subjects and the self-report of chronic medical illnesses. In a heterogeneous mix of respondents in Singapore, eight items of the GDS-15 showed DIF for age, gender, ethnicity and chronic illness. The awareness and identification of DIF in the GDS-15 provides a rational basis for its use in diverse population groups and guiding the derivation of abbreviated scales.
Melton, T; Peterson, R; Redd, A J; Saha, N; Sofro, A S; Martinson, J; Stoneking, M
Polynesian genetic affinities to populations of Asia were studied using mtDNA markers. A total of 1,037 individuals from 12 populations were screened for a 9-bp deletion in the intergenic region between the COII and tRNA(Lys) genes that approaches fixation in Polynesians. Sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes that identify specific mtDNA control region nucleotide substitutions were used to describe variation in individuals with the 9-bp deletion. The 9-bp deletion was not observed in northern Indians, Bangladeshis, or Pakistanis but was seen at low to moderate frequencies in the nine other Southeast Asian populations. Three substitutions in the control region at positions 16217, 16247, and 16261 have previously been observed at high frequency in Polynesian mtDNAs; this "Polynesian motif" was observed in 20% of east Indonesians with the 9-bp deletion but was observed in only one additional individual. mtDNA types related to the Polynesian motif are highest in frequency in the corridor from Taiwan south through the Philippines and east Indonesia, and the highest diversity for these types is in Taiwan. These results are consistent with linguistic evidence of a Taiwanese origin for the proto-Polynesian expansion, which spread throughout Oceania by way of Indonesia. PMID:7668267
Sano, K; Shiina, T; Kohara, S; Yanagiya, K; Hosomichi, K; Shimizu, S; Anzai, T; Watanabe, A; Ogasawara, K; Torii, R; Kulski, J K; Inoko, H
Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis, Mafa), alias the crab-eating monkeys or long-tailed macaques, live across a vast range of South-East Asia. These non-human primates have emerged as important animal models in infectious and chronic diseases and transplantation studies, necessitating a more extensive characterization of their major histocompatibility complex polymorphic regions. The current information on the polymorphic variation or diversity of the Mafa-DPB1 locus is largely limited in comparison with the more commonly studied rhesus macaque DPB1 locus. In this article, to better elucidate the degree and types of polymorphisms and genetic differences of Mafa-DPB1 locus among three South-East Asian populations and to investigate how the allele differences between macaques and humans might affect their respective immune responses, we identified 40 alleles within exon 2 of the Mafa-DPB1 locus by DNA sequencing using 217 individuals. We also performed evolutionary and population analyses using these sequences to reveal some population-specific alleles and trans-species allelic conservation between the cynomolgus macaques and the rhesus macaques. Of the 40 new alleles, eight belong to a newly identified lineage group not previously found in the rhesus macaque species. This allele information will be useful for medical researchers using the cynomolgus macaques in disease and immunological studies.
Monsalve, M V; Helgason, A; Devine, D V
A number of studies based on linguistic, dental and genetic data have proposed that the colonization of the New World took place in three separate waves of migration from North-East Asia. Recently, other studies have suggested that only one major migration occurred. It is the aim of this study to assess these opposing migration hypotheses using molecular-typed HLA class II alleles to compare the relationships between linguistic and genetic data in contemporary Native American populations. Our results suggest that gene flow and genetic drift have been important factors in shaping the genetic landscape of Native American populations. We report significant correlations between genetic and geographical distances in Native American and East Asian populations. In contrast, a less clear-cut relationship seems to exist between genetic distances and linguistic affiliation. In particular, the close genetic relationship of the neighbouring Na-Dene Athabaskans and Amerindian Salishans suggests that geography is the more important factor. Overall, our results are most congruent with the single migration model. PMID:10649635
Wang, Elsie J.; Wong, Eric C.; Dixit, Anjali A.; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Linde, Randolph B.; Palaniappan, Latha P.
Aims We compared the prevalence and treatment of type 2 diabetes across Asian American subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese) and Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) in a Northern California healthcare system. Methods A three-year, cross-sectional sample of patient electronic health records was accessed to compare diabetes prevalence in 21,816 Asian and 73,728 NHWs aged 35+ years. Diabetes was classified through ICD-9 codes, abnormal laboratory values, or use of oral anti-diabetic medication. Multivariate adjusted prevalence rates for each Asian subgroup, and adjusted odds ratios (OR) relative to NHWs, were compared. Results Age-adjusted prevalence ranged from 5.8%-18.2% (women) and 8.1%-25.3% (men). Age-adjusted ORs of Asian subgroups ranged 1.11-3.94 (women) and 1.14-4.56 (men). The odds of diabetes were significantly higher in Asian Indians (women OR 3.44, men OR 3.54) and Filipinos (women OR 3.94, men OR 4.56), compared to NHWs. Results for Asian Indians and Filipinos were similar with age-and-BMI adjustment. Treatment rates across subgroups were 59.7-82.0% (women) and 62.9-79.4% (men). Conclusions Heterogeneity exists in the prevalence of diabetes across Asian subgroups, independent of obesity prevalence. Asian Indian and Filipino subgroups had particularly high prevalence of diabetes when compared to NHWs. Future studies should explore these clinically important differences among Asian subgroups. PMID:21665315
Lertrit, Patcharee; Poolsuwan, Samerchai; Thosarat, Rachanie; Sanpachudayan, Thitima; Boonyarit, Hathaichanoke; Chinpaisal, Chatchai; Suktitipat, Bhoom
The 360 base-pair fragment in HVS-1 of the mitochondrial genome were determined from ancient human remains excavated at Noen U-loke and Ban Lum-Khao, two Bronze and Iron Age archaeological sites in Northeastern Thailand, radio-carbon dated to circa 3,500-1,500 years BP and 3,200-2,400 years BP, respectively. These two neighboring populations were parts of early agricultural communities prevailing in northeastern Thailand from the fourth millennium BP onwards. The nucleotide sequences of these ancient samples were compared with the sequences of modern samples from various ethnic populations of East and Southeast Asia, encompassing four major linguistic affiliations (Altaic, Sino-Tibetan, Tai-Kadai, and Austroasiatic), to investigate the genetic relationships and history among them. The two ancient samples were most closely related to each other, and next most closely related to the Chao-Bon, an Austroasiatic-speaking group living near the archaeological sites, suggesting that the genetic continuum may have persisted since prehistoric times in situ among the native, perhaps Austroasiatic-speaking population. Tai-Kadai groups formed close affinities among themselves, with a tendency to be more closely related to other Southeast Asian populations than to populations from further north. The Tai-Kadai groups were relatively distant from all groups that have presumably been in Southeast Asia for longer-that is, the two ancient groups and the Austroasiatic-speaking groups, with the exception of the Khmer group. This finding is compatible with the known history of the Thais: their late arrival in Southeast Asia from southern China after the 10th-11th century AD, followed by a period of subjugation under the Khmers.
Anderson, Timothy J.C.; Nair, Shalini; McDew-White, Marina; Cheeseman, Ian H.; Nkhoma, Standwell; Bilgic, Fatma; McGready, Rose; Ashley, Elizabeth; Pyae Phyo, Aung; White, Nicholas J.; Nosten, François
Multiple kelch13 alleles conferring artemisinin resistance (ART-R) are currently spreading through Southeast Asian malaria parasite populations, providing a unique opportunity to observe an ongoing soft selective sweep, investigate why resistance alleles have evolved multiple times and determine fundamental population genetic parameters for Plasmodium. We sequenced kelch13 (n = 1,876), genotyped 75 flanking SNPs, and measured clearance rate (n = 3,552) in parasite infections from Western Thailand (2001–2014). We describe 32 independent coding mutations including common mutations outside the kelch13 propeller associated with significant reductions in clearance rate. Mutations were first observed in 2003 and rose to 90% by 2014, consistent with a selection coefficient of ∼0.079. ART-R allele diversity rose until 2012 and then dropped as one allele (C580Y) spread to high frequency. The frequency with which adaptive alleles arise is determined by the rate of mutation and the population size. Two factors drive this soft sweep: (1) multiple kelch13 amino-acid mutations confer resistance providing a large mutational target—we estimate the target is 87–163 bp. (2) The population mutation parameter (Θ = 2Neμ) can be estimated from the frequency distribution of ART-R alleles and is ∼5.69, suggesting that short term effective population size is 88 thousand to 1.2 million. This is 52–705 times greater than Ne estimated from fluctuation in allele frequencies, suggesting that we have previously underestimated the capacity for adaptive evolution in Plasmodium. Our central conclusions are that retrospective studies may underestimate the complexity of selective events and the Ne relevant for adaptation for malaria is considerably higher than previously estimated. PMID:28025270
Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Yan, Shi; Qin, Zhen-Dong; Wang, Yi; Tan, Jing-Ze; Li, Hui; Jin, Li
It is a major question in archaeology and anthropology whether human populations started to grow primarily after the advent of agriculture, i.e., the Neolithic time, especially in East Asia, which was one of the centers of ancient agricultural civilization. To answer this question requires an accurate estimation of the time of lineage expansion as well as that of population expansion in a population sample without ascertainment bias. In this study, we analyzed all available mtDNA genomes of East Asians ascertained by random sampling, a total of 367 complete mtDNA sequences generated by the 1000 Genome Project, including 249 Chinese (CHB, CHD, and CHS) and 118 Japanese (JPT). We found that major mtDNA lineages underwent expansions, all of which, except for two JPT-specific lineages, including D4, D4b2b, D4a, D4j, D5a2a, A, N9a, F1a1'4, F2, B4, B4a, G2a1 and M7b1'2'4, occurred before 10 kya, i.e., before the Neolithic time (symbolized by Dadiwan Culture at 7.9 kya) in East Asia. Consistent to this observation, the further analysis showed that the population expansion in East Asia started at 13 kya and lasted until 4 kya. The results suggest that the population growth in East Asia constituted a need for the introduction of agriculture and might be one of the driving forces that led to the further development of agriculture.
Lao, Xianjun; Chen, Zhiping; Qin, Aiping
Findings from studies on the association between the p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism and endometriosis susceptibility have so far been inconsistent. Therefore, we undertook a meta-analysis to clarify the association of p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism with the risk of endometriosis. Relevant studies were chosen by searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library databases, CNKI, Wanfang database, and CBM for articles published before and up to April 30, 2015. Two independent reviewers performed the eligibility evaluation and data extraction. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for the overall risk estimate. Eleven case-control studies involving 1834 endometriosis cases and 2331 controls were included. Pooled data analysis suggested that the p53 72Pro variant is a significant endometriosis risk factors in comparison to the 72Arg variant (Pro vs. Arg: OR = 1.298, 95 % CI 1.082-1.558; Pro/Pro vs. Arg/Arg: OR = 1.751, 95 % CI 1.130-2.711; Pro/Arg vs. Arg/Arg: OR = 1.530, 95 % CI 1.174-1.994), which was strengthened in the dominant model (Pro/Pro + Arg/Pro vs. Arg/Arg: OR = 1.570, 95 % CI = 1.181-2.087). In the stratified analysis by ethnicity and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) in the controls, we found strong associations in Asians and in studies that were consistent with HWE. However, the analyses of the revised American Fertility Society (rAFS) stage and the menopausal status subgroup did not reveal any significant associations. In conclusion, the p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism was closely related to the risk of endometriosis, especially in Asian populations.
Khor, Wei-Boon; Wei, Rui H; Lim, Li; Chan, Choi M; Tan, Donald Th
To describe the demographics, clinical characteristics and visual function of Asian patients with keratoconus managed in a tertiary eye centre. Prospective cross-sectional study. 116 patients with clinically evident or suspected keratoconus (on videokeratography) recruited over 11 months. A standardised interview, full ophthalmic examination, refraction and corneal topography were performed. Visual function was assessed with the VF-14 questionnaire. Demographics, clinical characteristics and visual function. Mean age of our patients was 29.5 ± 9.40 years on enrolment, 62.9% were male, and the ethnic distribution was 60.3% Chinese, 13.8% Malays and 9.5% Indians. Clinically evident keratoconus was present bilaterally in 65 patients (56.0%) and unilateral keratoconus in five patients (4.3%). Five patients (4.3%) had a family history of keratoconus. The majority of patients were managed with contact lenses (60.8%) or glasses (24.5%). Eye rubbing was common (68%) as were asthma (26.3%) and eczema (18.4%). Conical protrusion was the commonest sign (75.3%). The mean cylinder was higher in keratoconus eyes compared with keratoconus suspect eyes (-4.01 vs. -1.27, P < 0.001), and best-corrected visual acuity was poorer (0.19 vs. 0.05, P < 0.001). Unaided visual acuity was significantly worse with increasing age (P = 0.016). On the VF-14, 32% scored 90 or less (out of 100), reflecting difficulties with vision-related daily activities. Our Asian patients with keratoconus had similar demographic and clinical characteristics to patients in Western populations. Even with apparently good visual acuity, some patients still experience substantial impairment in vision-related activities. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
Chia, Yook Chin; Lim, Hooi Min; Ching, Siew Mooi
The Pooled Cohort Risk Equation was introduced by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) 2013 in their Blood Cholesterol Guideline to estimate the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. However, absence of Asian ethnicity in the contemporary cohorts and limited studies to examine the use of the risk score limit the applicability of the equation in an Asian population. This study examines the validity of the pooled cohort risk score in a primary care setting and compares the cardiovascular risk using both the pooled cohort risk score and the Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk score. This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study of randomly selected patients aged 40-79 years. Baseline demographic data, co-morbidities and cardiovascular (CV) risk parameters were captured from patient records in 1998. Pooled cohort risk score and Framingham General CVD risk score for each patient were computed. All ASCVD events (nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease (CHD) death, fatal and nonfatal stroke) occurring from 1998-2007 were recorded. A total of 922 patients were studied. In 1998, mean age was 57.5 ± 8.8 years with 66.7% female. There were 47% diabetic patients and 59.9% patients receiving anti-hypertensive treatment. More than 98% of patients with pooled cohort risk score ≥7.5% had FRS >10%. A total of 45 CVD events occurred, 22 (7.2%) in males and 23 (3.7%) in females. The median pooled cohort risk score for the population was 10.1 (IQR 4.7-20.6) while the actual ASCVD events that occurred was 4.9% (45/922). Our study showed moderate discrimination with AUC of 0.63. There was good calibration with Hosmer-Lemeshow test χ2 = 12.6, P = 0.12. The pooled cohort risk score appears to overestimate CV risk but this apparent over-prediction could be a result of treatment. In the absence of a validated score in an untreated population, the pooled cohort risk score appears to be
Teo, Boon Wee; Chua, Horng Ruey; Wong, Weng Kin; Haroon, Sabrina; Subramanian, Srinivas; Loh, Ping Tyug; Sethi, Sunil; Lau, Titus
Clinical practice guidelines recommend different blood pressure (BP) goals for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Usage of antihypertensive medication and attainment of BP targets in Asian CKD patients remain unclear. This study describes the profile of antihypertensive agents used and BP components in a multiethnic Asian population with stable CKD. Stable CKD outpatients with variability of serum creatinine levels < 20%, taken > 3 months apart, were recruited. Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured using automated manometers, according to practice guidelines. Serum creatinine was assayed and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) calculated using the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration equation. BP and antihypertensive medication profile was examined using univariate analyses. 613 patients (55.1% male; 74.7% Chinese, 6.4% Indian, 11.4% Malay; 35.7% diabetes mellitus) with a mean age of 57.8 ± 14.5 years were recruited. Mean SBP was 139 ± 20 mmHg, DBP was 74 ± 11 mmHg, serum creatinine was 166 ± 115 µmol/L and GFR was 53 ± 32 mL/min/1.73 m(2). At a lower GFR, SBP increased (p < 0.001), whereas DBP decreased (p = 0.0052). Mean SBP increased in tandem with the number of antihypertensive agents used (p < 0.001), while mean DBP decreased when ≥ 3 antihypertensive agents were used (p = 0.0020). Different targets are recommended for each BP component in CKD patients. A majority of patients cannot attain SBP targets and/or exceed DBP targets. Research into monitoring and treatment methods is required to better define BP targets in CKD patients. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.
Wang, Pei-Wen; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Weng, Shao-Wen; Liou, Chia-Wei
Mitochondrial dysfunction involves defective insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells, and insulin resistance in insulin-sensitive tissues such as muscle and adipose tissue. Mitochondria are recognized as the most important cellular source of energy, and the major generator of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Intracellular antioxidative systems have been developed to cope with increased oxidative damage. In case of minor oxidative stress, the cells may increase the number of mitochondria to produce more energy. A mechanism called mitochondrial biogenesis, involving several transcription factors and regulators, controls the quantity of mitochondria. When oxidative damage is advanced beyond the repair capacity of antioxidative systems, then oxidative stress can lead to cell death. Therefore, this organelle is central to cell life or death. Available evidence increasingly shows genetic linkage between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) alterations and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Based on previous studies, the mtDNA 16189 variant is associated with metabolic syndrome, higher fasting insulin concentration, insulin resistance index and lacunar cerebral infarction. These data support the involvement of mitochondrial genetic variation in the pathogenesis of T2D. Importantly, phylogeographic studies of the human mtDNAs have revealed that the human mtDNA tree is rooted in Africa and radiates into different geographic regions and can be grouped as haplogroups. The Asian populations carry very different mtDNA haplogroups as compared to European populations. Therefore, it is critically important to determine the role of mtDNA polymorphisms in T2D. PMID:20043036
Lee, Hye-Soon; Bae, Sang Cheol
Recent advances in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) genetics in Asian populations have been achieved by genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and following replication studies, which expanded the genetic information about shared or population-specific risk genes between ethnic groups. Meta-analyses and multi-ethnic replication studies may be possible approaches that could demonstrate stronger or more suggestive evidence for multiple variants for SLE. In addition to the susceptibility of SLE itself, several genotype-phenotype analyses have shown that the specific phenotypes of SLE can also be influenced by genetic factors. Almost all SLE genetic loci are involved in the potential pathways of SLE pathogenesis, such as Toll-like receptor/type I interferon signaling, nuclear factor κB signaling, immune complex clearing mechanism, immune cell (B, T cell, neutrophil and monocyte) function and signaling, cell-cycle regulation, DNA methylation and autophagy. Further studies, including the next generation sequencing technology and the systematic strategy using bioinformatics, in addition to international collaboration among SLE genetic researchers, will give us better understanding of the genetic basis of SLE. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Ricaut, François-X; Bellatti, M; Lahr, Marta Mirazon
The late Pleistocene and early Holocene population history of Southeast Asia is not well-known. Our study provides new data on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages of the aboriginal inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula, and through an extensive comparison to the known mtDNA diversity in Southeast and East Asia, provides some new insights into the origins and historical geography of certain mtDNA lineages in the region. We extracted DNA from hair samples (dating back 100 years) preserved in the Duckworth Collection and belonging to two Peninsular Malaysian individuals identified as "Negrito." Ancient DNA was analyzed by sequencing hypervariable region I (HVS-I) of the mtDNA control region and the mtDNA region V length polymorphism. The results show that the maternal lineages of these individuals belong to a recently defined haplogroup B sub-branch called B4c2. A comparison of mitochondrial haplotypes and haplogroups with those of 10,349 East Asian individuals indicates their very restricted geographical distribution (southwestern China, Southeast Asia Peninsula, and Indonesia). Recalculation of the B4c2 age across all of East Asia ( approximately 13,000 years) and in different subregions/populations suggests its rapid diffusion in Southeast Asia between the end of the Last Glacial Maximum and the Neolithic expansion of the Holocene.
Goubert, C; Minard, G; Vieira, C; Boulesteix, M
The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is currently one of the most threatening invasive species in the world. Native to Southeast Asia, the species has spread throughout the world in the past 30 years and is now present in every continent but Antarctica. Because it was the main vector of recent Dengue and Chikungunya outbreaks, and because of its competency for numerous other viruses and pathogens such as the Zika virus, A. albopictus stands out as a model species for invasive diseases vector studies. A synthesis of the current knowledge about the genetic diversity of A. albopictus is needed, knowing the interplays between the vector, the pathogens, the environment and their epidemiological consequences. Such resources are also valuable for assessing the role of genetic diversity in the invasive success. We review here the large but sometimes dispersed literature about the population genetics of A. albopictus. We first debate about the experimental design of these studies and present an up-to-date assessment of the available molecular markers. We then summarize the main genetic characteristics of natural populations and synthesize the available data regarding the worldwide structuring of the vector. Finally, we pinpoint the gaps that remain to be addressed and suggest possible research directions.
Goubert, C; Minard, G; Vieira, C; Boulesteix, M
The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is currently one of the most threatening invasive species in the world. Native to Southeast Asia, the species has spread throughout the world in the past 30 years and is now present in every continent but Antarctica. Because it was the main vector of recent Dengue and Chikungunya outbreaks, and because of its competency for numerous other viruses and pathogens such as the Zika virus, A. albopictus stands out as a model species for invasive diseases vector studies. A synthesis of the current knowledge about the genetic diversity of A. albopictus is needed, knowing the interplays between the vector, the pathogens, the environment and their epidemiological consequences. Such resources are also valuable for assessing the role of genetic diversity in the invasive success. We review here the large but sometimes dispersed literature about the population genetics of A. albopictus. We first debate about the experimental design of these studies and present an up-to-date assessment of the available molecular markers. We then summarize the main genetic characteristics of natural populations and synthesize the available data regarding the worldwide structuring of the vector. Finally, we pinpoint the gaps that remain to be addressed and suggest possible research directions. PMID:27273325
Lum, J K; Cann, R L; Martinson, J J; Jorde, L B
Mitochondrial and autosomal short tandem-repeat (STR) genetic distances among 28 Pacific Island and Asian populations are significantly correlated (r=.25, P<.01) but describe distinct patterns of relationships. Maternally inherited-mtDNA data suggest that Remote Oceanic Islanders originated in island Southeast Asia. In contrast, biparental STR data reveal substantial genetic affinities between Remote Oceanic Islanders and Near Oceanic populations from highland Papua New Guinea and Australia. The low correlation between maternal and biparental genetic markers from the same individuals may reflect differences in genome-effective population sizes or in sex-biased gene flow. To explore these possibilities, we have examined genetic diversity, gene flow, and correlations among genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances within four sets of populations representing potential geographic and cultural spheres of interaction. GST estimates (a measure of genetic differentiation inversely proportional to gene flow) from mtDNA sequences vary between 0.13 and 0.39 and are typically five times greater than GST estimates from STR loci (0.05-0.08). Significant correlations (r>.5, P<.05) between maternal genetic and linguistic distances are coincident with high mtDNA GST estimates (>0.38). Thus, genetic and linguistic distances may coevolve, and their correspondence may be preserved under conditions of genetic isolation. A significant correlation (r=.65, P<.01) between biparental genetic and geographic distances is coincident with a low STR GST estimate (0.05), indicating that isolation by distance is observed under conditions of high nuclear-gene flow. These results are consistent with an initial settlement of Remote Oceania from island Southeast Asia and with extensive postcolonization male-biased gene flow with Near Oceania. PMID:9683581
Lee, Chien-Hung; Min-Shan Ko, Albert; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Ling, Tian-You; Sunarjo; Rajapakse, Palandage Sunethra; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Wu, Han-Jiang; Liu, Lin; Kuntoro; Utomo, Budi; Warusavithana, Supun Amila; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Abdullah, Norlida; Shrestha, Prashanta; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang
Objectives. We investigated the population burden of betel quid abuse and its related impact on oral premalignant disorders (OPDs) in South, Southeast, and East Asia. Methods. The Asian Betel-Quid Consortium conducted a multistage sampling of 8922 representative participants from Taiwan, Mainland China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Participants received an interviewer-administered survey and were examined for oral mucosal disorders. Results. The prevalence of betel quid abuse was 0.8% to 46.3% across 6 Asian populations. The abuse frequency was over 40.5% for current chewers, with the highest proportion in Nepalese and Southeast Asian chewers (76.9%−99.6%). Tobacco-added betel quid conferred higher abuse rates (74.4%−99.6%) among Malaysian, Indonesian, and Sri Lankan men than did tobacco-free betel quid (21.8%−89.1%). Gender, lower education level, younger age at chewing initiation, and clustering of familial betel quid use significantly contributed to higher abuse rates. Indonesian betel quid abusers showed the highest prevalence of OPDs and had a greater risk of OPDs than did nonabusers. Conclusions. Betel quid abuse is high in regions of Asia where it is customarily practiced, and such abuse correlates highly with OPDs. By recognizing abuse-associated factors, health policies and preventive frameworks can be effectively constructed to combat these oral preneoplasms. PMID:22390524
Yanagihara, Richard; Nerurkar, Vivek R; Scheirich, Iris; Agostini, Hansjürgen T; Mgone, Charles S; Cui, Xiaohong; Jobes, David V; Cubitt, Christopher L; Ryschkewitsch, Caroline F; Hrdy, Daniel B; Friedlaender, Jonathan S; Stoner, Gerald L
Distinct genotypes of human polyomavirus JC (JCV) have remained population associated possibly from the time of dispersal of modern humans from Africa. Seven major genotypes with additional subtypes serve as plausible markers for following early and more recent human migrations in all parts of the world. Phylogenetic trees of JCV sequences from the major continental population groups show a trifurcation at the base indicating early division into European, African, and Asian branches. Here, we have explored JCV relationships in the island populations of the western Pacific. Since these islands were settled from the Asian mainland and islands of Southeast Asia, we expected that their virus genotypes might show an Asian connection. We found that Type 2E (Austronesian) and Type 8 (non-Austronesian) are widely distributed in western Pacific populations. A few south China strains were found (Type 7A). A subtype of Type 8, Type 8A, was confined to Papua New Guinea. In keeping with these assignments we find that phylogenetic analysis by neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods places Type 2E in a closer relationship to east Asian mainland strains such as Type 2A and Type 7. Our findings support the Asian origins of the western Pacific JCV strains, and suggest three broad movements: an ancient one characterized by Type 8A, and then Type 8B, followed much later by migrations carrying Type 2E, which may correlate with the arrival of Austronesian-language speakers, the bearers of the "Lapita" cultural complex (approximately 3,500 to 5,000 years ago), and relatively recent movements carrying largely Type 7A (south China) strains directly from the West.
Keerthipriya, P; Tewari, Rachna; Vidya, T N C
We examined side preferences in trunk and forefoot movement during feeding in a wild population of Asian elephants. Trunk sweeping movements to pluck/uproot/gather vegetation and forefoot scuffing movements to uproot vegetation were scored in 206 individuals. We found a much stronger side preference in trunk use than in forefoot use, supporting a modified task complexity hypothesis. The forefoot and trunk appeared to be coordinated while feeding and, among individuals that had significant forefoot preferences, the proportion of right forefoot use was higher among right trunkers than left trunkers. Trunk and forefoot preferences were not dependent on individuals' social associates, and trunk preferences were also not dependent on feeding associates. There was a significant effect of individual identity on forefoot preference strength but no population-level side preference in trunk or forefoot movement, suggesting no dominant eye control over the task, which might be true of feeding-related foot movement in other herbivores also. There was no effect of age or sex on trunk or forefoot side preference or strength. The onset of trunk side preference, however, was very early compared with that observed in other species studied and calls for a comparison of the ontogeny of side preferences in precocial and altricial species. Based on 57 mother-offspring pairs, we found that offspring trunk side preferences were independent of their mothers' preferences, suggesting that these preferences are not maternally inherited. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Zheng, Yingfeng; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Chiang, Peggy P C; Rahman Anuar, Ainur; Wong, Tien Y
To examine whether marital status is a significant determinant of visual impairment (VI) in urban multi-ethnic Asian population. We conducted a population-based study of Singapore-resident ethnic Malays, Indians and Chinese aged ≥40 years. Ophthalmic examination included the assessment of presenting and best-corrected visual acuity (PVA and BCVA) using standardized procedures. Information regarding marital status and socioeconomic status were obtained from an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Among the 10 033 participants, 7756 (77.3%) were married; 589 (5.9%) were single; 407 (4.1%) were separated and 1265 (12.6%) were widowed. Being single (never married) or widowed were significantly associated with best-corrected VI (BCVA < 20/40) and presenting VI (PVA < 20/40) (odds ratios: 1.37-1.59) compared with married people even after adjustment for age, sex and socioeconomic status. A marginal prediction model showed that the negative effect of unmarried status on VI increased with age and was stronger among Malays and Indians, but the influence did not vary with gender, educational level and diabetic status. Unmarried status is associated with VI, particularly among elderly Malays and Indians. Our findings suggest that single and widowed adults may benefit from specific social support and eye care programmes.
Lu, Xiaoxiao; Juon, Hee-Soon; Lee, Sunmin
Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection disproportionately affects Asian Americans but HBV screening rates among Asian American are substantially low. This study examines the impact of multiple recommendations and self-efficacy on HBV screening uptake among Asian Americans. Methods: Data for this study were from 872 Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese recruited for a liver cancer prevention program in the Washington D.C – Baltimore metropolitan area. Results: 410 (47%) respondents reported previous HBV screening. Only 19.8% recalled a physician recommendation. Higher level of HBV screening was reported among people who had physician recommendation, family member recommendation or friend recommendation. Perceived self-efficacy was also an important predictor to HBV screening. The effect of self-efficacy was significant in subgroup analyses among Chinese and Korean, but not for Vietnamese. Conclusion and Global Health Implications: The disproportional prevalence of HBV infection among Asian Americans is considered to be one of the most important health disparities for Asian population. Understanding the condition and screening behavior in this population is especially important. Our findings suggest that recommendation from physician and social networks should be encouraged for HBV screening among Asian Americans. Both recommendation and self-efficacy of HBV screening are important psychosocial constructs to be targeted in liver cancer prevention interventions. PMID:28058203
Sy, A A; Kim, W S; Chen, J; Shen, Y; Tao, C; Lee, J S
This study was performed to investigate whether the level of acculturation among Asians living in the USA plays a significant role in their opinion of facial profiles. One hundred and ninety-eight Asian American subjects were asked to complete a pre-validated survey to measure their level of acculturation and to evaluate four sets of pictures that displayed a class II male, class II female, class III male, and class III female. Each set consisted of three lateral profile pictures: an initial unaltered photo, a picture simulating a flatter profile (orthodontic camouflage in class II; mandibular setback in class III), and a picture simulating a fuller profile (mandibular advancement in class II; maxillary advancement in class III). For the class II male, subjects who were more acculturated indicated that a flatter profile (orthodontic camouflage) was less attractive. For the class II female, higher acculturated subjects chose expansive treatment (mandibular advancement) as more aesthetic compared to the less acculturated subjects. Each of these scenarios had statistically significant odds ratios. In general, highly acculturated subjects preferred a fuller facial profile, while low acculturated subjects preferred a flatter facial profile appearance, except for the class III female profile, which did not follow this trend. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reeves, Terrance J.; Bennett, Claudette E.
This report provides a portrait of the Asian population in the United States and discusses the eleven largest detailed Asian groups at the national level. It is part of the Census 2000 Special Reports series that presents several demographic, social, and economic characteristics collected from Census 2000. The Asian population is not homogeneous.…
Goh, Lucky Poh Wah; Chong, Eric Tzyy Jiann; Chua, Kek Heng; Chuah, Jitt Aun; Lee, Ping-Chin
CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C (rs3813867) genotype distributions vary significantly among different populations and are associated with both diseases, like cancer, and adverse drug effects. To date, there have been limited genotype distributions and allele frequencies of this polymorphism reported in the three major indigenous ethnic groups (KadazanDusun, Bajau, and Rungus) in Sabah, also known as North Borneo. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C in these three major indigenous peoples in Sabah. A total of 640 healthy individuals from the three dominant indigenous groups were recruited for this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) at G-1259C polymorphic site of CYP2E1 gene was performed using the Pst I restriction enzyme. Fragments were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed by direct sequencing. Overall, the allele frequencies were 90.3% for c1 allele and 9.7% for c2 allele. The genotype frequencies for c1/c1, c1/c2 and c2/c2 were observed as 80.9%, 18.8%, and 0.3%, respectively. A highly statistical significant difference (p<0.001) was observed in the genotype distributions between indigenous groups in Sabah with all Asian and non-Asian populations. However, among these three indigenous groups, there was no statistical significant difference (p>0.001) in their genotype distributions. The three major indigenous ethnic groups in Sabah show unique genotype distributions when compared with other populations. This finding indicates the importance of establishing the genotype distributions of CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism in the indigenous populations.
Iyengar, G V; Kawamura, H; Dang, H S; Parr, R M; Wang, J W; Akhter, Perveen; Cho, S Y; Natera, E; Miah, F K; Nguyen, M S
Daily dietary intakes of two naturally occurring long-lived radionuclides, 232Th and 238U, were estimated for the adult population living in a number of Asian countries, using highly sensitive analytical methods such as instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (INAA and RNAA), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The Asian countries that participated in the study were Bangladesh (BGD), China (CPR), India (IND), Japan (JPN), Pakistan (PAK), Philippines (PHI), Republic of Korea (ROK) and Vietnam (VIE). Altogether, these countries represent more than 50% of the world population. The median daily intakes of 232Th ranged between 0.6 and 14.4 mBq, the lowest being for Philippines and the highest for Bangladesh, and daily intakes of 238U ranged between 6.7 and 62.5 mBq, lowest and the highest being for India and China, respectively. The Asian median intakes were obtained as 4.2 mBq for 232Th and 12.7 mBq for 238U. Although the Asian intakes were lower than intakes of 12.3 mBq (3.0 ug) 232Th and 23.6 mBq (1.9 ug) 238U proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the ICRP Reference Man, they were comparable to the global intake values of 4.6 mBq 232Th and 15.6 mBq 238U proposed by the United Nation Scientific Commission on Effects of Radiation (UNSCEAR). The annual committed effective doses to Asian population from the dietary intake of 232Th and 238U were calculated to be 0.34 and 0.20 microSv, respectively, which are three orders of magnitude lower than the global average annual radiation dose of 2400 microSv to man from the natural radiation sources as proposed by UNSCEAR.
Shah, Baiju R; Victor, J Charles; Chiu, Maria; Tu, Jack V; Anand, Sonia S; Austin, Peter C; Manuel, Douglas G; Hux, Janet E
Many non-European ethnic groups have an increased risk for diabetes; however, the published literature demonstrates considerable uncertainty about the rates of diabetes complications among minority populations. The objective of this study was to determine the risks of cardiovascular complications and of mortality after diabetes diagnosis for South Asian and Chinese patients, compared with European patients. A population-based cohort study identified all 491,243 adults with newly diagnosed diabetes in Ontario, Canada, between April 2002 and March 2009. Subjects were followed until March 2011 for the first occurrence of any cardiovascular complication of diabetes (coronary artery disease, stroke, or lower-extremity amputation) and for all-cause mortality. Median follow-up was 4.7 years. The crude incidence of cardiovascular complications after diabetes diagnosis was 17.9 per 1,000 patient-years among European patients, 12.0 among South Asian patients, and 7.7 among Chinese patients. After adjusting for baseline characteristics, the cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for cardiovascular complications relative to European patients were 0.95 (95% CI 0.90-1.00; P = 0.056) and 0.50 (0.46-0.53; P < 0.001) for South Asian and Chinese patients, respectively. Mortality was lower for both minority groups (adjusted HR for South Asian patients 0.56 [95% CI 0.52-0.60]; P < 0.001; for Chinese patients 0.58 [0.55-0.62]; P < 0.001). Chinese patients were at substantially lower risk than European patients for cardiovascular complications after diabetes diagnosis, whereas South Asian patients were at comparable risk. Mortality after diabetes diagnosis was markedly lower for both minority populations.
Wang, Elsie J; Wong, Eric C; Dixit, Anjali A; Fortmann, Stephen P; Linde, Randolph B; Palaniappan, Latha P
We compared the prevalence and treatment of type 2 diabetes across Asian American subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese) and Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) in a Northern California healthcare system. A three-year, cross-sectional sample of patient electronic health records was accessed to compare diabetes prevalence in 21,816 Asian and 73,728 NHWs aged 35+ years. Diabetes was classified through ICD-9 codes, abnormal laboratory values, or use of oral anti-diabetic medication. Multivariate adjusted prevalence rates for each Asian subgroup, and adjusted odds ratios (OR) relative to NHWs, were compared. Age-adjusted prevalence ranged from 5.8% to 18.2% (women) and 8.1 to 25.3% (men). Age-adjusted ORs of Asian subgroups ranged 1.11-3.94 (women) and 1.14-4.56 (men). The odds of diabetes were significantly higher in Asian Indians (women OR 3.44, men OR 3.54) and Filipinos (women OR 3.94, men OR 4.56), compared to NHWs. Results for Asian Indians and Filipinos were similar with age-and-BMI adjustment. Treatment rates across subgroups were 59.7-82.0% (women) and 62.9-79.4% (men). Heterogeneity exists in the prevalence of diabetes across Asian subgroups, independent of obesity prevalence. Asian Indian and Filipino subgroups had particularly high prevalence of diabetes when compared to NHWs. Future studies should explore these clinically important differences among Asian subgroups. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park, Taeseo; Kim, Won
An Asian species of Perinereis, which has been regarded as a local population of a cosmopolitan species P. cultrifera ( Grube, 1840 ) (type locality: Italy), is described as a new species, P. euiini., based on Korean specimens. This new species is distinguishable from P. cultrifera and other similar species such as P. floridana ( Ehlers, 1868 ) (type locality: USA), P. anderssoni Kinberg, 1866 (type locality: Brazil), and P. helleri ( Grube, 1878 ) (type locality: Philippines) by the character combination of the absence of lateral group of paragnaths in area III on the proboscis, the presence of small notopodial prechaetal lobe in anterior parapodia, and the greatly expanded dorsal ligule in posterior parapodia. All previous records of "P. cultrifera" from eastern Asia (Taiwan, China, Japan, and Korea) are judged to belong to P. euiini sp. nov., leading to the conclusion that P. cultrifera is not a cosmopolitan species. Specimens previously identified as P. cultrifera var. floridana (or P. cultrifera floridana) in eastern Asia are also judged to belong to P. euiini sp. nov., although they have different paragnath number in area V (one instead of three). Their aberrant paragnath number was regarded as an intraspecific variation of P. euiini sp. nov. The comparison of DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) between P. euiini sp. nov. and "P. cultrifera" from China and Portugal also supports the erection of the new species.
This study examines tibiofemoral joint moments and forces when performing a squat. The relevance of studying such an activity is to understand better the mechanical factors involved in the higher incidence of tibiofemoral osteoarthritis in Asian populations where squatting is a common daily activity. In this study, motion analysis data of walking versus squatting were compared, specifically looking at net external knee flexion moments, ground reaction forces and tibiofemoral contact forces. It was found that while squatting resulted in more than 2.5 times larger peak external moments compared with walking, tibiofemoral contact forces were not significantly different. This was due to reduced ground reaction forces recorded for the squatting phase compared to the larger dynamic effects of deceleration at heel strike during walking. The most significant finding of this study was that in squatting, there was a reversal in the tibiofemoral shear reaction force from posterior-directed to anterior-directed, occurring under full compressive load and within a fraction of a second. It is believed that repeated squatting results in many such reversals in shear reactions that may ultimately have significant implications to the long term mechanical function and structural integrity of the joint cartilage.
Chandriah, Haarathi; Kumolosasi, Endang; Islahudin, Farida; Makmor-Bakry, Mohd
Anticoagulant responses to warfarin vary among patients, based on genetic factors, diet, concomitant medications, and disease state. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of a 10mg warfarin initiation nomogram in an Asian population. Retrospective cross-sectional audit studies were conducted from March 2009 to March 2010. The use of a 10mg-loading dose to initiate warfarin treatment resulted in 33(84.6%) patients attaining a therapeutic INR within four days (mean time, 2.6 days). There was no significant correlation between age, gender, race, and serum albumin for the time to reach a therapeutic INR. A significant correlation was noted for patient's baseline INR and time to reach a therapeutic INR (P<0.05). No significant differences were observed in time to reach a therapeutic INR in patients treated with specific class of concomitant drugs or patients with specific disease states. The overall incidence of over-anticoagulation was 35.9%; however, no bleeding episodes were encountered. In conclusion, the use of a 10mg warfarin nomogram was effective in rapidly achieving a therapeutic INR. However, the nomogram's safety is debatable owing to the high over-anticoagulation rate warfarin-administered patients. Caution is recommended in the initiation of warfarin treatment using the 10mg nomogram.
The association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and susceptibility to Alzheimers disease (AD) was controversial in previous studies. The present meta-analysis was designed to investigate the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism with AD. Nine studies were identified by search of PubMed, Google Scholar, Elsevier, Springer Link databases, up to January 2013. Odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed effects model or random effects model. All statistical analysis was done by Mix version 1.7. MTHFR C677T polymorphism had a significant association with susceptibility to AD in all genetic models (for T vs C: OR 1.29, 95 % CI 1.15-1.44, p < 0.0001; for TT + CT vs CC: OR 1.38, 95 % CI 1.16-1.364, p = 0.0002; for TT vs CC: OR 1.60, 95 % CI 1.25-2.04, p = 0.0001; for CT vs CC: OR 1.28, 95 % CI 1.1-1.53, p < 0.008; for TT vs CT + CC: OR 1.37, 95 % CI 1.12-1.67, p = 0.002). Results from present meta-analysis supported that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of AD in Asian population.
Wang, Ling; Zhao, Chi; Xia, Qing-Xin; Qiao, Si-Jie
A GWAS found that the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs11833579 near the NINJ2 gene on chromosome 12p13 was associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke in Caucasians in 2009. Several studies have been carried out to explore the association between this SNP and ischemic stroke in Asians, but published results were contradictory. In the present study, we performed a meta-analysis to further evaluate this association in the Asian population. All relevant articles were retrieved from the databases of PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, CNKI, CQVIP, and WANFANG Database from the establishment date to February 2014. Statistical analyses were performed by using Stata 11. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to assess the strength of the association. Possible publication bias was checked by funnel plots, Begg's test and Egger's test. Eleven studies were eligible for meta-analysis including 9358 cases and 8936 controls. Overall, there were no significant associations between rs11833579 and ischemic stroke under the allelic (OR=0.963, 95% CI: 0.850-1.092, p=0.559), dominant (OR=0.946, 95% CI: 0.778-1.150, p=0.580), recessive (OR=0.993, 95% CI: 0.914-1.078, p=0.868), and homozygote (OR=0.968, 95% CI: 0.796-1.177, p=0.744) genetic models in the Asian population. Further, we found no evidence of association of rs11833579 with large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) or small-artery occlusion (SAO) stroke in all genetic models. The results of the subgroup analysis for Chinese population and Japanese population were consistent with that of the overall study. Our meta-analysis shows that SNP rs11833579 is not related to ischemic stroke in the Asian population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hung, D-Z; Tien, N; Lin, C-L; Lee, Y-R; Wang, C C N; Chen, J-J; Lim, Y-P
The correlation between hip replacement (Hip-Repl) and chronic osteomyelitis (COM) has not been studied in Asian populations. Thus, we assessed Hip-Repl-related risk of developing COM via a population-based, nationwide, retrospective cohort study. The Hip-Repl cohort was obtained from Taiwan's Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, and included patients who underwent Hip-Repl between 2000 and 2010; the control cohort was also selected from this database. Patients with a history of COM were excluded in both cohorts. We used univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) by age, sex, and comorbidities for developing COM. A total of 5349 patients who received a Hip-Repl and 10,372 matched controls were enrolled. In the Hip-Repl group, the risk for COM was 4.18-fold [95 % confidence interval (CI) = 2.24-7.80] higher than that in the control group after adjustment. For patients aged ≤65 years, the risk was 10.0-fold higher (95 % CI = 2.89-34.6). Furthermore, the risk was higher in the Hip-Repl cohort than in the non-Hip-Repl cohort, for both patients without comorbidity (aHR = 16.5, 95 % CI = 2.07-132.3) and those with comorbidity (aHR = 3.49, 95 % CI = 1.78-6.83). The impact of Hip-Repl on the risk for COM was greater among patients not using immunosuppressive drugs, and occurred during the first postoperative year. Patients who received Hip-Repl have an increased risk of developing COM. This risk was higher among males and patients aged 65 years or younger, and during the first postoperative year.
Zhang, Wei; McCubbin, Hamilton; McCubbin, Laurie; Chen, Qi; Foley, Shirley; Strom, Ida; Kehl, Lisa
Focusing on Asian Americans, Hawaiians, and Caucasians in Hawaii, this study contributes to the literature by examining (1) the geographical distributions of education in relation to self-rated general health at neighborhood levels, and (2) the individual variations in self-rated health by ethnicity and education at both individual and neighborhood levels. Using the 2007 Hawaii Health Survey with linked zip-code information, and applying GIS (Geographic Information System) and binary logistic regression models, this study found that (1) there are significant between ethnic differences in self-rated health in Hawaii, with Hawaiians being the most disadvantaged population compared to Japanese, Chinese, and Caucasians; (2) individual socioeconomic characteristics are all related to self-rated health, and education (in particular) mediates the Japanese vs. Hawaiian and Chinese vs. Hawaiian health differences; (3) the neighborhood level of education has an independent effect on self-rated health over and above individual characteristics for the whole sample and it partially mediates the between ethnic health differences; and (4) the relative importance of education to self-rated health is more significant and salient for Caucasians and Japanese/Chinese than for Filipinos and Hawaiians. In sum, this study not only demonstrates a geographical profile of health and education distributions in Hawaii, but also reveals significant mediating effects of education, at both individual and neighborhood levels, in explaining the between and within ethnic differentials in self-rated health.
Ang, Marcus; Chong, Wesley; Huang, Huiqi; Wong, Tien Yin; He, Ming-Guang; Aung, Tin; Mehta, Jodhbir S
To describe the corneal and anterior segment determinants of posterior corneal arc length (PCAL) and posterior corneal curvature (PCC). Cross-sectional, population-based study of 1069 subjects (1069 eyes) aged 40-80 years, from three major Asian ethnic groups. All underwent anterior segment optical coherence tomography imaging and analysis with Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program. Our main outcome measures were determinants of PCAL and PCC using adjusted, multivariate linear regression analysis, adjusted for confounders to obtain the estimated marginal means (EMM) with standard error (SE). The overall mean (± SD) of PCC was: 6.51±0.39 mm; and PCAL was: 12.52±0.59 mm. Malays had a relatively longer PCAL (EMM = 12.74 mm, SE = 0.04 mm) than Chinese (EMM = 12.48 mm, SE = 0.03 mm, P<0.001), and Indians (EMM = 12.42 mm, SE = 0.03 mm, P<0.001). Anterior segment parameters had weak-moderate correlations with PCAL, which included: anterior chamber depth (ACD) (r = 0.55, P<0.001), PCC (r = 0.27, P<0.001), anterior corneal curvature (ACC) (r = 0.14, P<0.001) and central corneal thickness (CCT) (r = -0.07, P = 0.023). In multivariate analysis, anterior segment parameters explained only 37.6% of the variance of PCAL, with ACD being the most important determinant (partial R2 = 0.300; P<0.001). The determinants of PCC included ACC, PCAL and CCT (explaining 72.1% variation of PCC), with ACC being the most important determinant (partial R2 = 0.683; P<0.001). There was moderate correlation of PCAL with ACD, but anterior segment parameters accounted for only a small proportion of the variation in PCAL. The significant differences in PCAL and PCC amongst different Asian ethnic groups suggests that there is a need to consider this factor when planning for anterior segment surgeries such as endothelial keratoplasty.
Jeganathan, V Swetha E; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Tai, E Shyong; Lee, Jeannette; Sun, Cong; Kawasaki, Ryo; Nagarajan, Sangeetha; Huey-Shi, Maisie Ho; Sandar, Mya; Wong, Tien Yin
Blood pressure has a significant effect on retinal arterioles. There are few data on whether this effect varies by race/ethnicity. We examined the relationship of blood pressure and retinal vascular caliber in a multi-ethnic Asian population. The study is population-based and cross sectional in design. A total of 3749 Chinese, Malay and Indian participants aged > or =24 years residing in Singapore were included in the study. Retinal vascular caliber was measured using a computer program from digital retinal photographs. The associations of retinal vascular caliber with blood pressure and hypertension in each racial/ethnic group were analyzed. The main outcome measures are retinal arteriolar caliber and venular caliber. The results show that retinal arterioles were narrower in persons with uncontrolled/untreated hypertension (140.0 microm) as compared with persons with controlled hypertension (142.1 microm, P=0.0001) and those with no hypertension (146.0 microm, P<0.0001). On controlling for age, gender, body mass index, lipids and smoking, each 10 mm Hg increase in mean arterial blood pressure was associated with a 3.1 microm decrease in arteriolar caliber (P<0.0001), with a similar magnitude seen in all three racial/ethnic groups: 3.1 microm in Chinese, 2.8 microm in Malays and 3.2 microm in Indians (P<0.0001 for all). Each 10 mm Hg increase in mean arterial blood pressure was associated with a 1.8 microm increase in venular caliber (P<0.0001); furthermore, the magnitude of this effect was similar across the three racial/ethnic groups. The effect of blood pressure on the retinal vasculature was similar across three major racial/ethnic groups in Asia.
Han, Dong-Hun; Khang, Young-Ho; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Lim, Sinye
The association of shift work with periodontal disease is not well known. We studied the relationship between shift work and periodontitis in a representative sample of an Asian population. Participants were 4597 full-time employees from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV). Shifting patterns were categorized into five shifts: daytime (N=3768), evening (N=121), night (N=59), rotating (N=206), and irregular (N=443). Periodontitis was measured with the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Confounders included age, gender, income, and education. Mediators were frequency of daily tooth brushing, regular dental check-up, smoking, alcohol consumption, diabetes, obesity, and white blood cell count. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship. The prevalence of periodontitis in the study population was 32.3%. Shift workers had an elevated odds ratio (OR) of periodontitis [OR 1.22, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.01-1.48] after controlling for confounders. The magnitude of the association between shift work and periodontitis attenuated with adjustment of mediators (smoking and a marker of inflammation). In subgroup analyses, the association was significant (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.03-1.95) among those ≥45 years. Irregular shift among those ≥45 years showed a significant association (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.15-2.78). Findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that shift work may be associated with periodontitis. Shift workers aged ≥45 years and irregular shift workers aged ≥45 years were risk groups for periodontitis.
Liu, Xiaoxi; Shimada, Takafumi; Otowa, Takeshi; Wu, Yu-Yu; Kawamura, Yoshiya; Tochigi, Mamoru; Iwata, Yasuhide; Umekage, Tadashi; Toyota, Tomoko; Maekawa, Motoko; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Kakiuchi, Chihiro; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Kano, Yukiko; Nishida, Hisami; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Kato, Nobumasa; Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Mori, Norio; Yamada, Kazuo; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Kasai, Kiyoto; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
Autism spectrum disorder is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder with strong genetic basis. To identify common genetic variations conferring the risk of ASD, we performed a two-stage genome-wide association study using ASD family and healthy control samples obtained from East Asian populations. A total of 166 ASD families (n = 500) and 642 healthy controls from the Japanese population were used as the discovery cohort. Approximately 900,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP array 6.0 chips. In the replication stage, 205 Japanese ASD cases and 184 healthy controls, as well as 418 Chinese Han trios (n = 1,254), were genotyped by TaqMan platform. Case-control analysis, family based association test, and transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) were then conducted to test the association. In the discovery stage, significant associations were suggested for 14 loci, including 5 known ASD candidate genes: GPC6, JARID2, YTHDC2, CNTN4, and CSMD1. In addition, significant associations were identified for several novel genes with intriguing functions, such as JPH3, PTPRD, CUX1, and RIT2. After a meta-analysis combining the Japanese replication samples, the strongest signal was found at rs16976358 (P = 6.04 × 10(-7)), which is located near the RIT2 gene. In summary, our results provide independent support to known ASD candidate genes and highlight a number of novel genes warranted to be further investigated in a larger sample set in an effort to improve our understanding of the genetic basis of ASD.
Radha, V; Vimaleswaran, K S; Babu, S; Deepa, R; Anjana, M; Ghosh, S; Majumder, P P; Rao, M R S; Mohan, V
The aim of the study was to investigate the association of serum adiponectin levels with the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARG) gene in Asian Indians. We selected 400 diabetic subjects, 200 with the Pro12Pro genotype (100 male and 100 female) and 200 with the Pro12Ala genotype (100 male and 100 female) and 400 age- and sex-matched normal glucose tolerance subjects with similar genotype profiles from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Fasting serum adiponection levels were measured using radioimmunoassay. The Pro12Ala polymorphism was genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism using BstUI. All clinical and biochemical parameters were similar in the subjects with the Pro12Pro and Pro12Ala genotypes. There was no significant difference in serum adiponectin values between subjects with the Pro12Pro and Pro12Ala genotypes (males 5.4 vs. 5.8 microg/ml, P = 0.546; females 6.9 vs. 7.2 microg/ml, P = 0.748). Adiponectin values did not differ among these two genotypes even when categorized based on their diabetes status (normal glucose tolerance Pro12Pro 7.9 vs. Pro12Ala 7.7 microg/ml, P = 0.994; diabetes Pro12Pro 4.7 vs. Pro12Ala 5.4 microg/ml, P = 0.622). The Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPARG gene is not associated with serum adiponectin levels in Asian Indians.
Xie, Haicui; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Qunfang; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai
Understanding direct response of insects to elevated CO2 should help to elucidate the mechanistic bases of the effects of elevated CO2 on interactions of insects with plants. This should improve our ability to predict shifts in insect population dynamics and community interactions under the conditions of climate change. Effects of elevated CO2 levels on the fitness-related parameters were examined for multigenerations in the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée). The larvae were allowed to feed on artificial diet, and reared in the closed-dynamic environment chambers with three CO2 levels (ambient, 550 μl/liter, and 750 μl/liter) for six generations. In comparison with the ambient CO2 level, mean larval survival rate decreased 9.9% in 750 μl/liter CO2 level, across O. furnacalis generations, and larval and pupal development times increased 7.5-16.4% and 4.5-13.4%, respectively, in two elevated CO2 levels. Pupal weight was reduced more than 12.2% in 750 μl/liter CO2 level. Across O. furnacalis generations, mean food consumption per larva increased 2.7, 7.0% and frass excretion per larva increased 14.4, 22.5% in the two elevated CO2 levels, respectively, compared with ambient CO2 level. Elevated CO2 levels resulted in the decline mean across O. furnacalis generations in mean relative growth rate, but increased in relative consumption rate. These results suggested that elevated CO2 would reduce the fitness-related parameters such as higher mortality, lower pupal weight, and longer development times in long term. It also reduced the larval food digestibility and utilizing efficiency; in turn, this would result in increase of food consumption. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Takeuchi, Masakazu; Okamoto, Kousuke; Takagi, Tatsuya; Ishii, Hitoshi
To investigate ethnic difference by focusing on fasting serum insulin (FSI) in inter-East Asian patients with type 2 diabetes. Data sources included MEDLINE and EMBASE between 2001 and 2006. We conducted a search for articles containing mean or geometric mean values of FSI in East Asian patients with type 2 diabetes. The Monte Carlo method was used for simulation of the mean and standard deviation of individual measures in each ethnic group; calculation of the median ratio and 95% confidence interval of individual measures between ethnic groups. The initial search identified a total of 996 journal articles. After reviewing the titles and abstracts of these articles, 201 studies were selected for further screening and the complete papers on these studies were then reviewed in detail. Of these, seven articles fully met our pre-determined criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Results of the meta-analysis revealed that FSI level is significantly lower in Japanese patients than in Korean and Chinese patients. Results from our review of ethnic differences in dietary habit in the inter-East Asian population suggested that difference in dietary component was one of the most influential factors for the ethnic difference.
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand).
This publication has been prepared for government personnel, research workers, librarians/documentalists, teachers, and students. Contained within the directory are materials published in the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region on population-related topics. The publication is arranged in four sections. The user's…
Murakami, Michio; Adachi, Nozomi; Saha, Mahua; Morita, Chiaki; Takada, Hideshige
Perfluorinated surfactants (PFSs) in Asian freshwater fish species were analyzed to investigate tissue distribution, temporal trends, extent of pollution, and level of PFS exposure through food intake. Freshwater fish species, namely carp, snakehead, and catfish, were collected in Japan, Vietnam, India, Malaysia, and Thailand, and 10 PFSs, including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate, were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. PFSs in carp in Tokyo were more concentrated in kidneys (Σ10 PFSs = 257 ± 95 ng/g wet weight [ww]) and livers (119 ± 36 ng/g ww) than in ovaries (43 ± 2 ng/g ww) and muscles (24 ± 17 ng/g ww). Concentrations of PFOS and its precursor, perfluorooctane sulfonamide, in livers of carp and in waters in Tokyo showed a dramatic decrease during the last decade, probably because of 3 M's phasing-out of the manufacture of perfluorooctanesulfonyl-fluoride-based products in 2000. In contrast, continuing contamination by long-chain perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) with ≥ 9 fluorinated carbons was seen in multiple media, suggesting that these compounds continue to be emitted. PFS concentrations in freshwater fish species in tropical Asian countries were generally lower than those in developed countries, such as Japan, e.g., for PFOS in muscle, Vietnam < 0.05-0.3 ng/g ww; India < 0.05-0.2 ng/g ww; Malaysia < 0.05-0.2 ng/g ww; Thailand < 0.05 ng/g ww; and Japan (Tokyo) = 5.1-22 ng/g ww. Daily intake of short-chain PFCAs with ≤ 8 fluorinated carbons from freshwater fish species in Japan was approximately one order of magnitude lower than that from drinking water, whereas daily intake of PFOS and long-chain PFCAs with ≥ 9 fluorinated carbons from freshwater fish species was comparable with or greater than that from drinking water. Because the risk posed by exposure to these compounds through intake of fish species is a matter of concern, we recommend the continued monitoring of PFS levels in Asian developing
Bastani, Roshan; Glenn, Beth A.; Taylor, Victoria M.; Nguyen, Tung T.; Stewart, Susan L.; Burke, Nancy J.; Chen, Moon S.
Introduction Hepatitis B infection is 5 to 12 times more common among Asian Americans than in the general US population and is the leading cause of liver disease and liver cancer among Asians. The purpose of this article is to describe the step-by-step approach that we followed in community-based participatory research projects in 4 Asian American groups, conducted from 2006 through 2011 in California and Washington state to develop theoretically based and culturally appropriate interventions to promote hepatitis B testing. We provide examples to illustrate how intervention messages addressing identical theoretical constructs of the Health Behavior Framework were modified to be culturally appropriate for each community. Methods Intervention approaches included mass media in the Vietnamese community, small-group educational sessions at churches in the Korean community, and home visits by lay health workers in the Hmong and Cambodian communities. Results Use of the Health Behavior Framework allowed a systematic approach to intervention development across populations, resulting in 4 different culturally appropriate interventions that addressed the same set of theoretical constructs. Conclusions The development of theory-based health promotion interventions for different populations will advance our understanding of which constructs are critical to modify specific health behaviors. PMID:24784908
Vernier, J-P; Fairlie, T D; Natarajan, M; Wienhold, F G; Bian, J; Martinsson, B G; Crumeyrolle, S; Thomason, L W; Bedka, K M
Satellite observations have shown that the Asian Summer Monsoon strongly influences the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) aerosol morphology through its role in the formation of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL). Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II solar occultation and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) lidar observations show that summertime UTLS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) between 13 and 18 km over Asia has increased by three times since the late 1990s. Here we present the first in situ balloon measurements of aerosol backscatter in the UTLS from Western China, which confirm high aerosol levels observed by CALIPSO since 2006. Aircraft in situ measurements suggest that aerosols at lower altitudes of the ATAL are largely composed of carbonaceous and sulfate materials (carbon/sulfur elemental ratio ranging from 2 to 10). Back trajectory analysis from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization observations indicates that deep convection over the Indian subcontinent supplies the ATAL through the transport of pollution into the UTLS. Time series of deep convection occurrence, carbon monoxide, aerosol, temperature, and relative humidity suggest that secondary aerosol formation and growth in a cold, moist convective environment could play an important role in the formation of ATAL. Finally, radiative calculations show that the ATAL layer has exerted a short-term regional forcing at the top of the atmosphere of −0.1 W/m2 in the past 18 years. Key Points Increase of summertime upper tropospheric aerosol levels over Asia since the 1990s Upper tropospheric enhancement also observed by in situ backscatter measurements Significant regional radiative forcing of −0.1 W/m2 PMID:26691186
Amano, Yuji; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu
Barrett esophageal cancer has the fastest growing incidence of any cancer in Western countries. In Asian countries, most cases of esophageal cancer consist of squamous cell carcinomas, not adenocarcinomas. Recently, however, the increase in the number of Barrett esophagus cases with subsequent Barrett cancer has become worrisome in Asian countries, as the number of patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease has been increasing in these countries. In this review, recent reports regarding Barrett esophagus in Asian countries have been collected and this problem is discussed from various perspectives. In Asia, long-segment Barrett esophagus is much less prevalent than in Western countries, whereas short-segment Barrett esophagus is frequently found. In epidemiologic studies, evaluation of the prevalence of Barrett esophagus is limited by poor interob-server diagnostic agreement. Standard criteria for the endoscopic diagnosis of Barrett esophagus in Asian patients, especially of the short-segment type, should be established as soon as possible. A high prevalence of hiatal hernia and a decreasing prevalence of Helico-bacter pylori infection may increase the number of Barrett esophagus cases and subsequent Barrett cancer in Asian countries in the near future. Therefore, a strategy for the clinical management of Barrett esophagus in Asian countries should be devised.
Hider, Jessica L; Gittelman, Rachel M; Shah, Tapan; Edwards, Melissa; Rosenbloom, Arnold; Akey, Joshua M; Parra, Esteban J
Currently, there is very limited knowledge about the genes involved in normal pigmentation variation in East Asian populations. We carried out a genome-wide scan of signatures of positive selection using the 1000 Genomes Phase I dataset, in order to identify pigmentation genes showing putative signatures of selective sweeps in East Asia. We applied a broad range of methods to detect signatures of selection including: 1) Tests designed to identify deviations of the Site Frequency Spectrum (SFS) from neutral expectations (Tajima's D, Fay and Wu's H and Fu and Li's D* and F*), 2) Tests focused on the identification of high-frequency haplotypes with extended linkage disequilibrium (iHS and Rsb) and 3) Tests based on genetic differentiation between populations (LSBL). Based on the results obtained from a genome wide analysis of 25 kb windows, we constructed an empirical distribution for each statistic across all windows, and identified pigmentation genes that are outliers in the distribution. Our tests identified twenty genes that are relevant for pigmentation biology. Of these, eight genes (ATRN, EDAR, KLHL7, MITF, OCA2, TH, TMEM33 and TRPM1,) were extreme outliers (top 0.1% of the empirical distribution) for at least one statistic, and twelve genes (ADAM17, BNC2, CTSD, DCT, EGFR, LYST, MC1R, MLPH, OPRM1, PDIA6, PMEL (SILV) and TYRP1) were in the top 1% of the empirical distribution for at least one statistic. Additionally, eight of these genes (BNC2, EGFR, LYST, MC1R, OCA2, OPRM1, PMEL (SILV) and TYRP1) have been associated with pigmentary traits in association studies. We identified a number of putative pigmentation genes showing extremely unusual patterns of genetic variation in East Asia. Most of these genes are outliers for different tests and/or different populations, and have already been described in previous scans for positive selection, providing strong support to the hypothesis that recent selective sweeps left a signature in these regions. However, it will
Background Currently, there is very limited knowledge about the genes involved in normal pigmentation variation in East Asian populations. We carried out a genome-wide scan of signatures of positive selection using the 1000 Genomes Phase I dataset, in order to identify pigmentation genes showing putative signatures of selective sweeps in East Asia. We applied a broad range of methods to detect signatures of selection including: 1) Tests designed to identify deviations of the Site Frequency Spectrum (SFS) from neutral expectations (Tajima’s D, Fay and Wu’s H and Fu and Li’s D* and F*), 2) Tests focused on the identification of high-frequency haplotypes with extended linkage disequilibrium (iHS and Rsb) and 3) Tests based on genetic differentiation between populations (LSBL). Based on the results obtained from a genome wide analysis of 25 kb windows, we constructed an empirical distribution for each statistic across all windows, and identified pigmentation genes that are outliers in the distribution. Results Our tests identified twenty genes that are relevant for pigmentation biology. Of these, eight genes (ATRN, EDAR, KLHL7, MITF, OCA2, TH, TMEM33 and TRPM1,) were extreme outliers (top 0.1% of the empirical distribution) for at least one statistic, and twelve genes (ADAM17, BNC2, CTSD, DCT, EGFR, LYST, MC1R, MLPH, OPRM1, PDIA6, PMEL (SILV) and TYRP1) were in the top 1% of the empirical distribution for at least one statistic. Additionally, eight of these genes (BNC2, EGFR, LYST, MC1R, OCA2, OPRM1, PMEL (SILV) and TYRP1) have been associated with pigmentary traits in association studies. Conclusions We identified a number of putative pigmentation genes showing extremely unusual patterns of genetic variation in East Asia. Most of these genes are outliers for different tests and/or different populations, and have already been described in previous scans for positive selection, providing strong support to the hypothesis that recent selective sweeps left a
Mok, M Y; Li, W L
The predisposition to and clinical phenotype of systemic lupus erythematosus, an autoimmune disease that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, are affected by genetic and environmental factors. This article aims to examine whether Asians have worse lupus by reviewing the literature on genetic predisposition and clinical outcomes, including major organ involvement, damage score and mortality in Asian populations compared with other ethnicities. A number of lupus nephritis susceptibility genes have been identified in Asians and White patients, with further variations among different Asian populations. Meta-analysis studies on various Fcγ receptor subtypes revealed that FcγRIIIA-F158 allele, which is associated with low binding affinity to IgG1 and IgG3, predisposed to lupus nephritis in Asian patients. Asian patients were reported to have higher rates of lupus nephritis-associated autoantibodies, lupus nephritis and more active glomerulonephritis compared with White patients. Renal outcome and the level of immunosuppressant use in Asians were comparable to Afro-American Blacks in some studies. Asians were also found to have higher overall damage scores compared with Whites. The difference in mortality between Asian patients and other ethnicities in different geographical regions was found to vary depending on socioeconomic factors such as access to health care. Poverty, education level, cultural and behavioural factors are confounders to ethnicity in determining clinical outcome of systemic lupus erythematosus.
Liu, Chin-Yu; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chao, Jane C. -J.; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Cha, Tai-Lung; Tsao, Chih-Wei
Objective To explore the associations between different dietary patterns and semen quality in a general Asian male population. Methods Cross-sectional study. Healthy Taiwanese men aged 18 years or older who participated in a standard medical screening program from 2008-2013 run by a private firm were included in this study. Semen parameters including sperm concentration (SC), total sperm motility (TSM), progressive motility (PRM) and normal sperm morphology (NSM) were recorded. A dietary questionnaire was used to categorize the participants into 5 groups: “Healthy diet”, “Western diet”, “High-carbohydrate diet”, “High sweet snacks & sugar-sweetened drinks” and “High-sodium diet”. Results A total of 7282 men completed the questionnaire regarding dietary pattern, and examination of anthropometric indexes was performed and laboratory data were obtained. A high intake of a “Western diet” resulted in statistically linear declines of SC and NSM (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001). Similarly, a greater intake of “High sweet snacks & sugar-sweetened drinks” was associated with a lower SC (P = 0.001). Increased intake of a “High-carbohydrate diet” was related to higher prevalences of abnormal TSM and PRM (P = 0.012 and P = 0.025). Similarly, a greater intake of a “High-sodium diet” was correlated with an elevated prevalence of abnormal NSM (P = 0.035). Conclusions This study showed that a greater intake of a “Western diet” is associated with poorer SC and NSM, a “High sweet snacks and sugar-sweetened drinks” intake is correlated with a lower SC, and high-carbohydrate food is related to elevated prevalences of abnormal TSM and PRM. PMID:26218796
O'Donnell, A.; Premawardhena, A.; Arambepola, M.; Samaranayake, R.; Allen, S. J.; Peto, T. E. A.; Fisher, C. A.; Cook, J.; Corran, P. H.; Olivieri, Nancy F.; Weatherall, D. J.
In many Asian populations, the commonest form of severe thalassemia results from the coinheritance of HbE and β thalassemia. The management of this disease is particularly difficult because of its extreme clinical diversity; although some genetic and adaptive factors have been identified as phenotypic modifiers, the reasons remain unclear. Because the role of the environment in the course of severe thalassemia has been neglected completely and because malaria due to both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax has been prevalent in Sri Lanka, we carried out a pilot study of patients with HbE β thalassemia that showed high frequencies of antibodies to both parasite species and that 28.6% of the children had DNA-based evidence of current infection with P. vivax. Malarial antibodies then were assessed in patients with HbE β thalassemia compared with those in age-matched controls. There was a significant increase in the frequency of antibodies in the thalassemic patients, particularly against P. vivax and in young children. There was also a higher frequency in those who had been splenectomized compared with those with intact spleens, although in the latter it was still higher than that in the controls. The thalassemic patients showed significant correlations between malaria antibody status and phenotype. Patients with HbE β thalassemia may be more prone to malaria, particularly P. vivax, which is reflected in their clinical severity. Because P. vivax malaria is widespread in Asia, further studies of its interaction with HbE β thalassemia and related diseases are required urgently as a part of ongoing thalassemia control programs. PMID:19841268
Goh, Khean-Lee; Razlan, Hamizah; Hartono, Juanda Leo; Qua, Choon-Seng; Yoong, Boon-Koon; Koh, Peng-Soon; Abdullah, Basri Johan Jeet
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important cancer in Malaysia. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological characteristics and clinical presentations of patients in a multiracial population consisting of three major Asian races: Malays, Chinese and Indians. Consecutive patients with HCC were prospectively studied from 2006 to 2009. HCC was diagnosed principally on multiphasic computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans of the liver. The tumor was staged according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification. Altogether, 348 patients were diagnosed with HCC. There were 239 (68.7%) Chinese patients, 71 (20.4%) Malays and 38 (10.9%) Indians, with the median age of 62.5 years and the male to female ratio of 3.4:1. The predominant etiology in Malay and Chinese patients was hepatitis B virus infection (>60%) and in Indian patients was alcohol intake (26.3%) and cryptogenic cause (29.0%). Hepatitis C was seen in 18.3% of Malays, but less than 10% in Chinese and Indians. BCLC staging was: Stage A, 120 (34.5%); Stage B, 75 (21.6%); Stage C, 84 (24.1%); and Stage D, 69 (19.8%). A larger proportion of Indian than Chinese and Malays patients (44.7%) presented with stage D disease. Portal vein invasion was noted in 124 patients (35.6%) and extrahepatic metastases in 68 (19.5%). Surgical resection and radiofrequency ablation with curative intent was carried out in >90% of stage A patients and transarterial chemoembolization in 49.3% and 21.4% of stages B and C patients, respectively. HCC is most common among Chinese, followed by Malays and Indians in Malaysia. The etiology of HCC shows a peculiar racial pattern. © 2014 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Chua, Mui Teng; Bhandari, Keshav; Ong, Victor Yk; Kuan, Win Sen
Age-related physiological changes predispose older road users to higher mortality from traffic crashes. We aimed to describe the injury epidemiology of these patients, and explore the association between the comorbidity polypharmacy score (CPS) and outcomes. This retrospective study utilised data from the Trauma Registry in the National University Hospital, Singapore, between January 2011 and December 2014. Patients involved in traffic crashes aged 45 years and above with injury severity scores (ISS) of 9 and higher were included. There were 432 patients; median age was 58 (interquartile range, 51 to 65.5) years with predominance of male patients (82.2%) and Chinese ethnicity (66%). Overall mortality was 9.95%, with lower odds associated with higher Glasgow Coma Scale (odds ratio [OR] 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.81, P <0.001), higher diastolic blood pressure (OR 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.00, P = 0.031), and lower ISS of 9 to 15 (OR 0.10; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.43, P = 0.002). The need for blood products was associated with higher mortality (OR 7.62; 95% CI, 2.67 to 21.7, P <0.001). CPS did not predict mortality. Independent predictors of discharge venue included length of stay, tier of injury and CPS group. Moderate CPS was statistically significant for nursing home placement (OR 10.7; 95% CI, 2.33 to 49.6, P = 0.002) but not for rehabilitation facility. CPS score is useful in predicting discharge to a nursing home facility for older patients with traffic crashes. Further larger studies involving other trauma types in the Asian population are needed to evaluate its utility.
Pushpakumara, P G A; Rajapakse, R C; Perera, B M A O; Brown, J L
The Pinnawela Elephant Orphanage (PEO) in Sri Lanka maintains one of the largest captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus maximus) populations in the world, with a total of 79 animals (45 females and 34 males) at present. It was established in 1975 as an orphanage for rescued wild calves, and commenced natural breeding under controlled conditions when they reached breeding age. This study summarizes reproductive data of 65 live births from 38 years of records at PEO. The age at first calving (n=31) was 14.6±0.7years, and the numbers of females giving birth two, three, four and five times were 21, 8, 4 and 2, with corresponding inter-birth intervals (IBI) of 4.9±0.3, 4.8±0.5, 7.9±1.9 and 5.7±0.5years, respectively. Females giving birth to males (5.7±2.2years) had longer IBIs compared to birthing female calves (4.7±1.1years). The average gestation for 18 pregnancies with known conception dates was 667±11days. The average birth weight was similar for male (83.1±4.6kg; n=14) and female (82.8±8.4kg; n=6) calves. Sex ratio for live births was 36 male:29 female and not different from 1:1; however, more males (10/14) were born after a second parity. Calf mortality and stillbirth rates were low: 7.6% and 4.4%, respectively. This study highlights the successful breeding program at the PEO, providing baseline reproductive data that can aid in improving breeding of other elephants managed under captive conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pang, Wei Wei; Aris, Izzuddin M; Fok, Doris; Soh, Shu-E; Chua, Mei Chien; Lim, Sok Bee; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; van Dam, Rob M; Kramer, Michael S; Chong, Yap-Seng
Many countries in Asia report low breastfeeding rates and the risk factors for early weaning are not well studied. We assessed the prevalence, duration, and mode of breastfeeding (direct or expressed) among mothers of three Asian ethnic groups. Participants were 1,030 Singaporean women recruited during early pregnancy. Data collected included early breastfeeding experiences, breastfeeding duration, and mode of breastfeeding. Full breastfeeding was defined as the intake of breast milk, with or without water. Cox regression models were used to identify factors associated with discontinuation of any and full breastfeeding. Logistic regression analyses assessed the association of ethnicity with mode of breastfeeding. At 6 months postpartum, the prevalence of any breastfeeding was 46 percent for Chinese mothers, 22 percent for Malay mothers, and 41 percent for Indian mothers; prevalence of full breastfeeding was 11, 2, and 5 percent, respectively. More Chinese mothers fed their infants expressed breast milk, instead of directly breastfeeding them, compared with the other two ethnic groups. Duration of any and full breastfeeding were positively associated with breastfeeding a few hours after birth, higher maternal age and education, and negatively associated with irregular breastfeeding frequency and being shown how to breastfeed. Adjusting for maternal education, breastfeeding duration was similar in the three ethnic groups, but ethnicity remained a significant predictor of mode of breastfeeding. The low rates and duration of breastfeeding in this population may be improved with breastfeeding education and support, especially in mothers with lower education. Further work is needed to understand the cultural differences in mode of feeding and its implications for maternal and infant health. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zou, Yan-Feng; Feng, Xiao-Liang; Tao, Jin-Hui; Su, Hong; Pan, Fan-Ming; Liao, Fang-Fang; Fan, Ye; Ye, Dong-Qing
The aim of this study was to summarize results on the association of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) promoter -308A/G polymorphism with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility in Asian populations by using the meta-analysis. We searched all the publications about the association between TNF-α promoter -308A/G polymorphism and SLE in Asian populations from PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang (Chinese). Meta-analysis was performed for genotypes AA versus GG, GA versus GG, AA versus GG + GA, GA + AA versus GG, and A allele versus G allele in a fixed/random effect model. A total of 12 studies (1017 cases and 1086 controls) were included in the current meta-analysis (Chinese, Japanese, and Thai). When all groups were pooled, a significant association of A allele and increased SLE risk was found (OR = 1.44, 95%CI = 1.04-2.01, P = 0.03). When analyses were restricted to more ethnically homogeneous populations, similar result was found in Chinese population (OR = 1.59, 95%CI = 1.12-2.26, P = 0.009). But the association between TNF-α promoter -308 polymorphism and SLE was not observed when examining the contrast of G/A + A/A versus G/G, A/A versus A/G + G/G, A/A versus G/G, and G/A versus G/G. This meta-analysis demonstrates the association between TNF-α promoter -308A/G polymorphism and SLE in Asian populations, especially in Chinese population.
Fujimura, Naoki; Obara, Hideaki; Matsubara, Kentaro; Watada, Susumu; Shibutani, Shintaro; Akiyoshi, Takurin; Harada, Hirohisa; Kitagawa, Yuko
Clinically distinct differences exist between East Asian and Caucasian subjects, but data for type 2 endoleak (T2EL) are limited in the East Asian population. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of East Asian T2EL using a Japanese multicenter database. Retrospective analysis of 832 endovascular aneurysm repairs performed from 2008 to 2014 were conducted. T2EL was observed in 234 cases (28.1%), and in 32 cases (3.8%) it led to sac expansion >5 mm caused by isolated T2EL (median follow-up, 35.6 months). On univariate and multivariate analysis, non-smoker status (odds ratio [OR], 2.216; P<0.001), Excluder stent graft (OR, 2.027; P<0.001), and T2EL at final angiogram (OR, 2.080; P<0.001) were risk factors for T2EL. On multivariate analysis for isolated T2EL with sac expansion, only non-smoker status remained (OR, 2.671; P<0.001). Other than T1EL, isolated T2EL was the most significant risk factor for sac expansion (OR, 18.486; P<0.001). Furthermore, out of 11 transarterial embolization procedures initiated, 4 led to rupture during follow-up. East Asian T2EL had a strong relationship with non-smoker status. Also, T2EL was a significant risk factor for sac expansion, which sometimes led to rupture even after intervention. Along with the high prevalence of T2EL observed, East Asian T2EL may not always be benign.
Jada, Srinivasa Rao; Xiaochen, Shu; Yan, Liu Yan; Xiaoqiang, Xiang; Lal, Suman; Zhou, Shu Feng; Ooi, London Lucien; Chowbay, Balram
The aim of this study was to characterize the population frequency of SLCO1B1 polymorphic variants in three distinct healthy Asian populations, namely Chinese (n = 100), Malay (n = 100) and Indian (n = 100), and to explore the association between haplotype-tagged single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) on hepatic SLCO1B1 mRNA expression. The distribution of polymorphic variants in the SLCO1B1 gene at eight loci that spanned approximately 48 kb was investigated in the three different Asian ethnic groups and in 32 non-cancerous liver tissues from Chinese patients. Of the 26 polymorphisms screened, we found eight polymorphic variants that differed in genotypic and allelic frequencies between the Chinese, Malay and Indian populations. Significant interethnic differences were observed in the genotype frequency distributions across the promoter SNP [g.-11187G>A (P = 0.030)] as well as three coding region SNPs [c.388G>A (P < 0.001); c.571T>C (P < 0.001); c.597C>T (P < 0.001)] in the healthy subjects. Haplotype analysis revealed 12 different haplotypes in both the Chinese and Malay populations and 18 haplotypes in the Indian population. In both the Malay and Indian populations, the htSNPs were c.388A>G, c.571T>C and c.597C>T, whereas in the Chinese population they were g.-11187G>A, c.388A>G and c.597C>T. The c.388A>G and c.597C>T htSNPs accounted for more than 70% of the variations between the three major haplotypes in each Asian ethnic group. In terms of the c.388A>G htSNPs, genotypic-phenotypic association analyses revealed that there was no effect on SLCO1B1 expression in hepatic tissues; in addition, no genotypic-phenotypic associations were evident with regards to the c.597C>T htSNP. Future studies should investigate the phenotypic effects of the c.388A>G htSNP on the disposition of OATP1B1 substrates in Asian populations.
Madrigal, Lorena; Brady, Jeffrey; Raxter, Michelle; Ruiz, Ernesto; Otarola, Flory; Blell, Mwenza
The effects of migration on human health have been a topic of interest for demographers and human biologists. Even if migrants to a new region achieve a higher standard of living in their new place of residence, their improved living conditions may not be associated with better health. Part of the difficulty of understanding the health consequences of migration is the complications in trying to control for variables that may affect health, such as gender, age, and urban or rural environment of migrants and nonmigrants. In this paper we report results of a meta-analysis of the body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) of people of South Asian descent, by comparing nonmigrants who inhabit the subcontinent, with migrants who moved to various places around the globe. Our results indicate that BMI almost always increases to a significant level upon migration and that an increase in BMI is most pronounced in female migrants. Our results also show that BP does not always increase in migrant communities and that it is actually lower in some migrant samples than it is in comparable nonmigrant groups. Therefore, our results show that BP and the BMI do not behave in the same manner following a migration event. We propose that the BMI changes experienced by migrants are likely to reflect different activity levels and diet in the new homeland. However, the BP changes experienced by migrants are likely to reflect stress broadly defined. Such stress may be increased or decreased, depending on the specific migration experience. We propose that the BMI and BP measure two different dimensions of the migration experience.
Kaul, Upendra; Patel, Tejas M; Zambahari, Robaayah; Mullasari, Ajit S; Bahl, Vinay K; Stuteville, Marrianne; Dorange, Cécile; Veldhof, Susan; Grube, Eberhard
Asian patients have a uniquely high risk for heart disease compared to other ethnicities. Past drug eluting stent trials have examined mainly populations of European heritage. As a significant proportion of the real world population in the SPIRIT V single arm study is Asian, the study provides insight into how this population responds to stenting with the XIENCE V Everolimus Eluting Coronary Stent (EES). 2,700 patients were enrolled at 93 sites in Europe, Asia Pacific and Canada between November 2006 and November 2007. 698 (26%) patients were recruited from Asian sites in India, China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. De novo coronary artery lesions of all patients were to be treated with up to 4 planned EES. Up to 2 year follow-up, major adverse cardiac events, myocardial infarction and target lesion revascularization rates were lower in the Asian subgroup than in the non-Asian subgroup. These results were mainly driven by better clinical outcomes in the Indian population. All populations showed similar low stent thrombosis rates. These findings demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the EES when used in a real-world Asian population, known to be at higher risk for heart disease.
Meta-analyses of European populations has successfully identified genetic variants in over 100 loci associated with lipid levels, but our knowledge in other ethnicities remains limited. To address this, we performed dense genotyping of circa 2,000 candidate genes in 7,657 African Americans, 1,315 Hi...
Dubut, Vincent; Cartault, François; Payet, Christine; Thionville, Marie-Dominique; Murail, Pascal
Through the sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genome of three individuals of Malagasy ancestry, we completed the characterization of the island southeastern Asian specific M46 haplogroup. We assumed that the association of the np 3588 and np 16278 polymorphisms were M46 specific. In addition, we characterized a novel basal M subhaplogroup: M23. This clade can be defined by one coding region transition at np 10295 and one control region transition at np 16263. Our data suggest the arrival of South Asian migrants before the start of the 15th century and highlights the fact that future studies dealing with the settlement of Madagascar should consider at least three potential source populations (Africa, Indonesia, and India).
Gardner, R W; Robey, B; Smith, P C
The 1980 US census counted 3.5 million Asian Americans, up from 1.4 million in 1970. Asian Americans made up just 1.5% of the total US population of 226.5 million as of April 1, 1980, but this was the 3rd largest racial or ethnic minority after blacks and Hispanics. Asians increased far more during the 1970s (141%) than blacks (17%) or Hispanics (39%). This Bulletin examines the characteristics of Asian Americans, how their numbers have grown, where they live, how different groups vary in age structure, childbearing, health, and longevity. It reports on the kinds of households Asian Americans form and how they fare with regard to education, occupation, and income. Asian Americans are now often perceived as the model minority. As a whole, they are better educated, occupy higher rungs on the occupational ladder, and earn more than the general US population and even white Americans. This Bulletin presents the 1st comprehensive look at many important facts about Asian Americans and how the groups differ. Special tabulations of data collected in the 1980 census are provided. The 1980 census data are the latest available to give a true picture at the national level of Asian Americans and the various groups among them. The Bulletin examines the current numbers of Asian Americans and how this population is defined. The major Asian American groups are Chinese (21%), Filipinos (20%), Japanese (15%), Vietnamese (21%), Koreans (11%), and Asian Indians (10%). Except for the latest-arrived Vietnamese, the fertility of the 6 groups is lower than the white average. The following areas are also discussed: mortality and health; families and households; education; Asian youth; employment; income and poverty; and future prospects.
Yin, Hengxia; Yan, Xia; Shi, Yong; Qian, Chaoju; Li, Zhonghu; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Lirong; Li, Yi; Li, Xiaoze; Chen, Guoxiong; Li, Xinrong; Nevo, Eviatar; Ma, Xiao-Fei
Both of the uplift of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) and the development of East Asian monsoon system (EAMS) could have comprehensively impacted the formation and evolution of Arid Central Asia (ACA). To understand how desert plants endemic to ACA responded to these two factors, we profiled the historical population dynamics and distribution range shift of a constructive desert shrub Reaumuria soongarica (Tamaricaceae) based on species wide investigation of sequence variation of chloroplast DNA and nuclear ribosomal ITS. Phylogenetic analysis uncovered a deep divergence occurring at ca. 2.96 Mya between the western and eastern lineages of R. soongarica, and ecological niche modeling analysis strongly supported that the monsoonal climate could have fragmented its habitats in both glacial and interglacial periods and impelled its intraspecific divergence. Additionally, the population from the east monsoonal zone expanded rapidly, suggesting that the local monsoonal climate significantly impacted its population dynamics. The isolation by distance tests supported strong maternal gene flow along the direction of the East Asian winter monsoon, whose intensification induced the genetic admixture along the latitudinal populations of R. soongarica. Our results presented a new case that the development of EAMS had prominently impacted the intraspecific divergence and population dynamics of this desert plant.
Yin, Hengxia; Yan, Xia; Shi, Yong; Qian, Chaoju; Li, Zhonghu; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Lirong; Li, Yi; Li, Xiaoze; Chen, Guoxiong; Li, Xinrong; Nevo, Eviatar; Ma, Xiao-Fei
Both of the uplift of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) and the development of East Asian monsoon system (EAMS) could have comprehensively impacted the formation and evolution of Arid Central Asia (ACA). To understand how desert plants endemic to ACA responded to these two factors, we profiled the historical population dynamics and distribution range shift of a constructive desert shrub Reaumuria soongarica (Tamaricaceae) based on species wide investigation of sequence variation of chloroplast DNA and nuclear ribosomal ITS. Phylogenetic analysis uncovered a deep divergence occurring at ca. 2.96 Mya between the western and eastern lineages of R. soongarica, and ecological niche modeling analysis strongly supported that the monsoonal climate could have fragmented its habitats in both glacial and interglacial periods and impelled its intraspecific divergence. Additionally, the population from the east monsoonal zone expanded rapidly, suggesting that the local monsoonal climate significantly impacted its population dynamics. The isolation by distance tests supported strong maternal gene flow along the direction of the East Asian winter monsoon, whose intensification induced the genetic admixture along the latitudinal populations of R. soongarica. Our results presented a new case that the development of EAMS had prominently impacted the intraspecific divergence and population dynamics of this desert plant. PMID:26510579
Jones, Charlotte A; Mawani, Shefina; King, Kathryn M; Allu, Selina Omar; Smith, Megan; Mohan, Sailesh; Campbell, Norman R C
Indo-Asians in Canada are at increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. There is a need for cultural and language specific educational materials relating to this risk. During this project we developed and field tested the acceptability of a hypertension public education pamphlet tailored to fit the needs of an at risk local Indo-Asian population, in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. A community health board representing Calgary's Indo-Asian communities identified the culturally specific educational needs and language preferences of the local population. An adaptation of an existing English language Canadian Public Hypertension Recommendations pamphlet was created considering the literacy and translation challenges. The adapted pamphlet was translated into four Indo-Asian languages. The adapted pamphlets were disseminated as part of the initial educational component of a community-based culturally and language-sensitive cardiovascular risk factor screening and management program. Field testing of the materials was undertaken when participants returned for program follow-up seven to 12 months later. Fifty-nine English-speaking participants evaluated and confirmed the concept validity of the English adapted version. 28 non-English speaking participants evaluated the Gujarati (N = 13) and Punjabi (N = 15) translated versions of the adapted pamphlets. All participants found the pamphlets acceptable and felt they had improved their understanding of hypertension. Involving the target community to identify health issues as well as help to create culturally, language and literacy sensitive health education materials ensures resources are highly acceptable to that community. Minor changes to the materials will be needed prior to formal testing of hypertension knowledge and health decision-making on a larger scale within this at risk community.
Majid, Sanaa; Douglas, Rachel; Lee, Victoria; Stacy, Elizabeth; Garg, Arun K; Ho, Kendall
British Columbia falls short in uptake of recommended clinical prevention services, with even lower rates among immigrant populations. This study explored facilitators of and barriers to uptake of clinical prevention services among people from South Asia, who represent 31% of the population in Surrey, British Columbia. We used a qualitative descriptive approach and employed vignettes in a focus group setting to elicit perspectives of South Asian people on accessing clinical prevention services. Participants aged 40 years or more were recruited between October 2014 and February 2015 from health care and community settings such as older-adult housing, day programs and health education events. Letters of introduction to the study were provided in English or Punjabi or both to all potential participants. We conducted qualitative content analysis of the results. Sixty-two South Asian adults (36 women and 26 men) aged 40-87 years participated in 1 of 8 focus groups in health care or community settings. Facilitators of and barriers to accessing clinical prevention services were noted at the patient, primary care provider and health care system levels. Facilitators at the patient level included taking ownership over one's health, health literacy and respecting the provider's advice; barriers included fear of the diagnosis, death and/or procedures, perceived low risk of disease or utility of the intervention, and side effects of procedures. Provider factors centred on a trust-based patient-provider relationship, strong communication and adequate time during visits. Health care system factors included such facilitators as processes to routinely offer prevention services as part of other health care or social services, systems that encourage prevention-oriented family practice and services at low or no cost to the patient. Our findings validate previously identified facilitators of and barriers to accessing preventive care for immigrant populations. However, the results
Background As part of a situational analysis for a research programme on the integration of mental health care into primary care (Programme for Improving Mental Health Care-PRIME), we conducted a baseline study aimed at determining the broad indicators of the population level of psychosocial distress in a predominantly rural community in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a population-based cross-sectional survey of 1497 adults selected through a multi-stage random sampling process. Population level psychosocial distress was evaluated by estimating the magnitude of common mental disorder symptoms (CMD; depressive, anxiety and somatic symptoms reaching the level of probable clinical significance), harmful use of alcohol, suicidality and psychosocial stressors experienced by the population. Results The one-month prevalence of CMD at the mild, moderate and severe threshold levels was 13.8%, 9.0% and 5.1% respectively. The respective one-month prevalence of any suicidal ideation, persistent suicidal ideation and suicide attempt was 13.5%, 3.8% and 1.8%. Hazardous use of alcohol was identified in 22.4%, significantly higher among men (33.4%) compared to women (11.3%). Stressful life events were widespread, with 41.4% reporting at least one threatening life event in the preceding six months. A similar proportion reported poor social support (40.8%). Stressful life events, increasing age, marital loss and hazardous use of alcohol were associated with CMD while stressful life events, marital loss and lower educational status, and CMD were associated with suicidality. CMD was the strongest factor associated with suicidality [e.g., OR (95% CI) for severe CMD = 60.91 (28.01, 132.48)] and the strength of association increased with increase in the severity of the CMD. Conclusion Indicators of psychosocial distress are prevalent in this rural community. Contrary to former assumptions in the literature, social support systems seem relatively weak and stressful life events common
Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin; King, Lawrence
Several microlevel studies have pinpointed prisons as an important site for tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant TB in European and central Asian countries. To date, no comparative analyses have examined whether rises in incarceration rates can account for puzzling differences in TB trends among overall populations. Using longitudinal TB and cross-sectional multidrug-resistant TB data for 26 eastern European and central Asian countries, we examined whether and to what degree increases in incarceration account for differences in population TB and multidrug-resistant TB burdens. We find that each percentage point increase in incarceration rates relates to an increased TB incidence of 0.34% (population attributable risk, 95% C.I.: 0.10–0.58%, P < 0.01), after controlling for TB infrastructure; HIV prevalence; and several surveillance, economic, demographic, and political indicators. Net increases in incarceration account for a 20.5% increase in TB incidence or nearly three-fifths of the average total increase in TB incidence in the countries studied from 1991 to 2002. Although the number of prisoners is a significant determinant of differences in TB incidence and multidrug-resistant TB prevalence among countries, the rate of prison growth is a larger determinant of these outcomes, and its effect is exacerbated but not confounded by HIV. Differences in incarceration rates are a major determinant of differences in population TB outcomes among eastern European and central Asian countries, and treatment expansion alone does not appear to resolve the effect of mass incarceration on TB incidence. PMID:18728189
Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin; King, Lawrence
Several microlevel studies have pinpointed prisons as an important site for tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant TB in European and central Asian countries. To date, no comparative analyses have examined whether rises in incarceration rates can account for puzzling differences in TB trends among overall populations. Using longitudinal TB and cross-sectional multidrug-resistant TB data for 26 eastern European and central Asian countries, we examined whether and to what degree increases in incarceration account for differences in population TB and multidrug-resistant TB burdens. We find that each percentage point increase in incarceration rates relates to an increased TB incidence of 0.34% (population attributable risk, 95% C.I.: 0.10-0.58%, P < 0.01), after controlling for TB infrastructure; HIV prevalence; and several surveillance, economic, demographic, and political indicators. Net increases in incarceration account for a 20.5% increase in TB incidence or nearly three-fifths of the average total increase in TB incidence in the countries studied from 1991 to 2002. Although the number of prisoners is a significant determinant of differences in TB incidence and multidrug-resistant TB prevalence among countries, the rate of prison growth is a larger determinant of these outcomes, and its effect is exacerbated but not confounded by HIV. Differences in incarceration rates are a major determinant of differences in population TB outcomes among eastern European and central Asian countries, and treatment expansion alone does not appear to resolve the effect of mass incarceration on TB incidence.
Ahmed, Emad; El-Menyar, Ayman
The South Asian (SA) population constitutes one of the largest ethnic groups in the world. Several studies that compared host and migrant populations around the world indicate that SAs have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) than their native-born counterparts. Herein, we review the literature to address the role of the screening tools, scoring systems, and guidelines for primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention in these populations. Management based on screening for the CVD risk factors in a high-risk population such as SAs can improve health care outcomes. There are many scoring tools for calculating 10-year CVD risk; however, each scoring system has its limitations in this particular ethnicity. Further work is needed to establish a unique scoring and guidelines in SAs.
2,000 kcal/day diet for adults. Ensure is available in several flavors (vanilla, chocolate, strawberry, and butter pecan), is gluten and lactose...cell function ( sensitivity to glucose stimulation) was calculated using the early incremental insulin response and the change in the ratio of insulin...pancreatic sensitivity to glucose in East Asians compared to Caucasians. High levels of cortisol have been associated with central obesity and
Furniss, M. J.; Saah, D. S.; Hines, S. J.; Radel, C. A.; McGroddy, M. E.; Ganz, D. J.
A university-level curriculum has been developed for the SE Asia and Asia Pacific region and is currently being implemented by 12+ universities; in Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea. The curriculum is supported by USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development) through the LEAF program (Lowering Emissions in Asian Forests), under the technical leadership of the U.S. Forest Service. Four modules have been developed: Basic Climate Change, Low-Emissions Land Use Planning, Social and Environmental Soundness, and Carbon Measurement and Monitoring. This presentation will focus on the Basic Climate Change module. This is a survey course that covers a wide range of climate change topics, including causes, effects, and responses. The level of detail in each of the covered topics is calibrated to current issues in the region. The module is elaborated in English and will be translated into the national language of the participating countries. The module is designed to be flexible and can be tailored to both degree and non-degree programs; as well as for trainings for natural resources professionals and policy-makers. Important training topics can be selected as short course trainings for practitioners and leaders working on climate change.
Rayan, D Mark; Mohamad, Shariff Wan; Dorward, Leejiah; Aziz, Sheema Abdul; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Christopher, Wong Chai Thiam; Traeholt, Carl; Magintan, David
The endangered Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) is threatened by large-scale habitat loss, forest fragmentation and increased hunting pressure. Conservation planning for this species, however, is hampered by a severe paucity of information on its ecology and population status. We present the first Asian tapir population density estimate from a camera trapping study targeting tigers in a selectively logged forest within Peninsular Malaysia using a spatially explicit capture-recapture maximum likelihood based framework. With a trap effort of 2496 nights, 17 individuals were identified corresponding to a density (standard error) estimate of 9.49 (2.55) adult tapirs/100 km(2) . Although our results include several caveats, we believe that our density estimate still serves as an important baseline to facilitate the monitoring of tapir population trends in Peninsular Malaysia. Our study also highlights the potential of extracting vital ecological and population information for other cryptic individually identifiable animals from tiger-centric studies, especially with the use of a spatially explicit capture-recapture maximum likelihood based framework.
Pomortsev, A A; Martynov, S P; Kovaleva, O N; Lialina, E V
Starch gel electrophoresis was performed to study polymorphism of hordeins encoded by the Hrd A, Hrd B, and Hrd Floci in 366 local old barley accessions from Iran and Central Asian countries, including Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan (Mountain Badahsan), and Kirgizia. In total, 60 alleles with frequencies of 0.0003-0.2818 were observed for the Hrd A locus, 106 alleles with frequencies of 0.0003-0.1603 were observed for the Hrd B locus, and five alleles with frequencies of 0.0164-0.4131 were observed for the Hrd Flocus. The alleles and allele frequencies displayed irregular distributions in barley populations of the above countries. Cluster analysis of the matrix of allele frequencies in populations from known collection sites revealed a cluster structure of local barley populations within each country. Local populations formed five differently sized clusters in Iran, six in Turkmenistan, three in Uzbekistan, and three in Kirgizia. The variation and allele frequency distribution of the hordein-coding loci in Iran and Central Asian countries were assumed to result from the introduction and spreading of barley forms via migrations of husbandmen.
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand).
A working meeting in Bangkok, Thailand, September 13-15, 1973, was called to consider three main topics: (1) the current status of exchange of information on population and family planning; (2) the feasibility of establishing national and regional networks for collection and dissemination of information on population and family planning; and (3)…
Law, Robin J; Herzke, Dorte; Harrad, Stuart; Morris, Steven; Bersuder, Philippe; Allchin, Colin R
In this paper, we review recent data for brominated flame retardants (particularly BDEs, HBCD and TBBP-A) in samples from the European and Asian environments, including recent temporal trend studies. Research is active and we cite over 100 studies published during 2005-2007. Environmental compartments studied comprise the atmosphere, indoor and outdoor air, sewage sludges, soils and sediments and a variety of biological samples and food chains. Findings include that the lack of reference materials for use in analytical quality control and method validation identified earlier has been addressed, and certified concentrations are now available for a number of BDE congeners in six pre-existing and one new reference materials. BDE209 was certified in three samples of indoor dust. The analysis of BDE209 remains problematic, but suitable methods for its determination are available and need to be applied. The contamination of indoor environments with BFRs has been recognised as representing a significant uptake pathway, particularly via dust. Additional data for TBBP-A are needed from areas, where it is produced and used, primarily Asia, as the worst-case scenario. As a reactive flame retardant it is less likely to leach from finished products. Also, issues regarding the importance of e-waste recycling as a source of BFRs to the local populations and the local environment require urgent study, certainly in China and possibly elsewhere. Generally, trends show a levelling in concentrations of BDEs and increases in concentrations of HBCD wherever determined and BDE209 in Asia.
Heald, A H; Patel, J; Anderson, S G; Vyas, A; Rudenski, A; Hughes, E; Panja, N C; Ullah, A; Prabhakaran, D; Reddy, S; Durrington, P; Gibson, J M; Laing, I; Bhatnagar, D; Cruickshank, J K
Serum testosterone measurement is an integral part of the endocrine assessment of men. Little is known about its variation in relation to migration. We examined within a South Asian group the effect of migration to the UK on androgen levels. Circulating testosterone and SHBG concentrations were measured in 97 Gujarati men resident in India and in 79 men from the same villages of origin living in Birmingham, UK. Free testosterone was calculated by Vermeulen's method. Insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S) was determined from paired fasting plasma intact insulin and glucose values. Circulating testosterone was significantly lower in UK Gujarati men (17.2 nmol/l [15.7-18.7]) vs. Indian Gujarati men (21.7 [20.0-23.5]) (P = 0.0002) (age-adjusted median [95% CI]). There was no difference by migration status in circulating free testosterone. Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were lower in UK migrants (16.8 nmol/l [15.5-18.1]) than in nonmigrants (21.9 nmol/l [20.5-23.3]) (P < 0.0001). Testosterone level correlated positively with insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S) (rho 0.16, P = 0.04). In multivariate analysis, total testosterone was independently and positively associated with logSHBG (normalized beta (beta) = 0.29, P = 0.002) and independently and negatively with waist circumference (beta = -0.19, P = 0.04), in a model also including height, age, migration status, leptin and fasting insulin. Lower circulating testosterone in UK Gujarati men and its association with markers of insulin sensitivity suggest a profound influence of body composition change with migration on testosterone levels. The lower SHBG in this group restores parity in free testosterone. Account should be taken of SHBG in interpreting testosterone levels in men, as well as in women.
Hilmi, Ida; Tan, YM; Goh, KL
AIM: To determine the demography and clinical presentation of CD and secondly to determine any differences in the prevalence between the different ethnic groups in a multiracial Asian population. METHODS: Patients with CD who were seen in 2001–2003 in the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) were enrolled in this study. Prevalence of disease was calculated for the group as a whole and by race with hospital admissions per ethnic group as the denominator. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients were diagnosed to have CD. Basic demographic data of patients; male:female 17:17; mean age 29.1 years (±13.5 years); ethnic group: Malays 5 (14.7%), Chinese 12 (35.3%) and Indians 17 (50%). Twenty-six (76.5%) were diagnosed under the age of 40 and 8 (23.5%) were diagnosed over the age of 40. Location of the disease was as follows: ileocolonic 13 (38.2%), terminal ileum only 9 (26.5%), colon only 8 (23.5%), and upper gastrointestinal 4 (11.8%). Sixteen (47.1%) had penetrating disease, 9 (26.5%) had stricturing disease and 9 (26.5%) had non-penetrating and non-stricturing disease. The hospital admission prevalence of CD was 26.0 overall, Indians 52.6, Chinese 6.9, and Malays 9.3 per 105 admissions per ethnic group. The difference between Indians and Malays: [OR 5.67 (1.97, 17.53) P < 0.001] was statistically significant but not between the Indians and the Chinese [OR 1.95 (0.89, 4.35) P = 0.700]. The difference between the Chinese and the Malays was also not statistically significant. [OR 2.90 (0.95, 9.42) P = 0.063]. CONCLUSION: The clinical presentation of CD is similar to the Western experience. Although the overall prevalence is low, there appears to be a clear racial predominance among the Indians. PMID:16552816
Wen, Wanqing; Zheng, Wei; Okada, Yukinori; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Tabara, Yasuharu; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Li, Huaixing; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Yang, Xiaobo; He, Jiang; Wu, Ying; He, Meian; Zhang, Yi; Liang, Jun; Guo, Xiuqing; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng; Delahanty, Ryan; Guo, Xingyi; Kubo, Michiaki; Yamamoto, Ken; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Go, Min Jin; Liu, Jian Jun; Gan, Wei; Chen, Ching-Chu; Gao, Yong; Li, Shengxu; Lee, Nanette R.; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Xueya; Song, Huaidong; Yao, Jie; Lee, I-Te; Long, Jirong; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Akiyama, Koichi; Takashima, Naoyuki; Cho, Yoon Shin; Ong, Rick TH; Lu, Ling; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Tan, Aihua; Rice, Treva K; Adair, Linda S.; Gui, Lixuan; Allison, Matthew; Lee, Wen-Jane; Cai, Qiuyin; Isomura, Minoru; Umemura, Satoshi; Kim, Young Jin; Seielstad, Mark; Hixson, James; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Isono, Masato; Kim, Bong-Jo; Sim, Xueling; Lu, Wei; Nabika, Toru; Lee, Juyoung; Lim, Wei-Yen; Gao, Yu-Tang; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Kang, Dae-Hee; Wong, Tien Yin; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Wu, I-Chien; Juang, Jyh-Ming Jimmy; Shi, Jiajun; Choi, Bo Youl; Aung, Tin; Hu, Frank; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lim, Wei Yen; Wang, Tzung-Dao; Shin, Min-Ho; Lee, Jeannette; Ji, Bu-Tian; Lee, Young-Hoon; Young, Terri L.; Shin, Dong Hoon; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Cho, Myeong-Chan; Han, Bok-Ghee; Hwu, Chii-Min; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Absher, Devin; Yan, Xiaofei; Kim, Eric; Kuo, Jane Z.; Kwon, Soonil; Taylor, Kent D.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Qi, Lu; Zhu, Dingliang; Wu, Tangchun; Mohlke, Karen L.; Gu, Dongfeng; Mo, Zengnan; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Lin, Xu; Miki, Tetsuro; Tai, E. Shyong; Lee, Jong-Young; Kato, Norihiro; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Tanaka, Toshihiro
Recent genetic association studies have identified 55 genetic loci associated with obesity or body mass index (BMI). The vast majority, 51 loci, however, were identified in European-ancestry populations. We conducted a meta-analysis of associations between BMI and ∼2.5 million genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms among 86 757 individuals of Asian ancestry, followed by in silico and de novo replication among 7488–47 352 additional Asian-ancestry individuals. We identified four novel BMI-associated loci near the KCNQ1 (rs2237892, P = 9.29 × 10−13), ALDH2/MYL2 (rs671, P = 3.40 × 10−11; rs12229654, P = 4.56 × 10−9), ITIH4 (rs2535633, P = 1.77 × 10−10) and NT5C2 (rs11191580, P = 3.83 × 10−8) genes. The association of BMI with rs2237892, rs671 and rs12229654 was significantly stronger among men than among women. Of the 51 BMI-associated loci initially identified in European-ancestry populations, we confirmed eight loci at the genome-wide significance level (P < 5.0 × 10−8) and an additional 14 at P < 1.0 × 10−3 with the same direction of effect as reported previously. Findings from this analysis expand our knowledge of the genetic basis of obesity. PMID:24861553
Abe-Kim, Jennifer; Okazaki, Sumie; Goto, Sharon G.
Examines approaches to assessing acculturation among Asian Americans college students in relation to the cultural indicators of individualism-collectivism, self-construal, impression management, and loss of face. An uneven nature of these relationships was found which is significant in light of the fact that acculturation differences are often…
Tay, Kenneth Kim; Hill, Joseph A.; Ward, Connie M.
A study examined the utility of Holland's hexagonal model as a culturally appropriate theoretical framework for U.S. career psychologists working with Asian international students. Chinese-descent international students enrolled in three Southeastern universities (n=170) completed three instruments: Holland's Self-Directed Search (SDS), an…
Nang, Ei Ei Khaing; Salim, Agus; Wu, Yi; Tai, E Shyong; Lee, Jeannette; Van Dam, Rob M
Recent evidence shows that sedentary behaviour may be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers and all-cause mortality. However, results are not consistent and different types of sedentary behaviour might have different effects on health. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between television screen time, computer/reading time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers in a multiethnic urban Asian population. We also sought to understand the potential mediators of this association. The Singapore Prospective Study Program (2004-2007), was a cross-sectional population-based study in a multiethnic population in Singapore. We studied 3305 Singaporean adults of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity who did not have pre-existing diseases and conditions that could affect their physical activity. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of television screen time and computer/reading time with cardio-metabolic biomarkers [blood pressure, lipids, glucose, adiponectin, C reactive protein and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)]. Path analysis was used to examine the role of mediators of the observed association. Longer television screen time was significantly associated with higher systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, C reactive protein, HOMA-IR, and lower adiponectin after adjustment for potential socio-demographic and lifestyle confounders. Dietary factors and body mass index, but not physical activity, were potential mediators that explained most of these associations between television screen time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers. The associations of television screen time with triglycerides and HOMA-IR were only partly explained by dietary factors and body mass index. No association was observed between computer/ reading time and worse levels of cardio-metabolic biomarkers. In this urban Asian population, television screen time was associated with worse
Kim, Jong-Won; Kim, Tae-Young; Ha, Yong-Chan; Lee, Young-Kyun; Koo, Kyung-Hoi
Background: The incidence of intertrochanteric fracture has increased during recent years as life expectancy has also increased. Currently, orthopedic surgeons use various fixation methods for intertrochanteric fractures like, intramedullary (IM) nailing or dynamic hip screws and plates. The intramedullary (IM) nail with two integrated lag screws has been used recently in intertrochanteric fractures to overcome Z-affect phenomenon. However, no study is available in an Asian population. This prospective study was undertaken to document the clinical and radiologic outcomes of the IM nail with two integrated lag screws and its limitations in Asian patients. Materials and Methods: Osteosynthesis was performed using InterTAN nail in 100 patients with an intertrochanteric fractures followed up for at least 1 year after surgery. We evaluated the recovery rates to prefracture status, time to bony union and the incidence of complications. Results: Seventy four patients were available for at least 1 year followup examinations. Forty-five patients (60.8%) recovered prefracture status. Mean time to bony union was 18.3 ± 8.6 weeks. Intraoperative technical problems related to an unavoidable superior positioning of the lag screw occurred in five cases. Postoperative complications requiring reoperation occurred in three patients; two cases of varus collapse with cut out and one case of periprosthetic fracture. Conclusions: The IM nail with two integrated lag screws showed favorable outcomes in Asian patients with an intertrochanteric fracture even though several complications that were not previously reported with this nail were found. The proper selection of patients and careful insertion of two lag screws should be mandatory in Asian patients. PMID:26229165
Cuttilan, Amit Nirmal; Pearce, Christopher J.
Background Diabetic foot complications are common within Asian populations. They arise due to poor diabetic control and foot care. In this study, we aimed to identify the causes for proper and improper diabetic foot care. Methods A qualitative study consisting of key informant interviews with 17 healthcare professionals, including doctors and various allied health workers, was conducted. Participants included had at least five years of caring for diabetic foot patients either in public institutions or private clinics. Data collected was analyzed via thematic analysis. Results Diabetic patients were generally observed to have a mixture of proper and improper information and beliefs which eventually resulted in the extent of proper foot care. Factors which influenced the extent of proper and improper state of information and beliefs were classified into predisposing and precipitating factors. Predisposing factors were further categorised into modifiable factors (e.g., education level, socioeconomic status, social support) and non-modifiable factors (e.g., age, presence and severity of co-morbidities restricting ability to selfcare, past experiences). Precipitating factors were categorized into patient factors (e.g., degree of reception of information, presence of psychological barriers), provider factors (presence and degree of multi-disciplinary approach to care, presence of administrative inconveniences) and disease factors (presence of diabetic sensory neuropathy, complexity of disease process). Conclusions The extent of proper foot care amongst diabetic patients is influenced by numerous predisposing and precipitating factors. Further studies can look at further development of the described structure as well as quantitatively defining the various components and factors which make up the described system. PMID:28706922
Koh, Hiromi W L; Lim, Raymond Boon Tar; Chia, Kee Seng; Lim, Wei Yen
The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is a widely used measure for assessing sleep impairment. Although it was developed as a unidimensional instrument, there is much debate that it contains multidimensional latent constructs. We examined the dimensionality of the underlying factor structure of PSQI in Singapore, a rapidly industrialising Asian country with multi-ethnicities representing the Chinese, Malays and Indians. The PSQI was administered through an interviewer-based questionnaire in two separate population-based cross-sectional surveys. An explanatory factor analysis (EFA) was first used to explore the underlying construct of the PSQI in both studies. Then, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to evaluate an optimal factor model by comparing against other possible models identified in EFA. There are three correlated yet distinguishable factors that account for an individual's sleep experience from the same best-fit model obtained in both studies: perceived sleep quality, daily disturbances and sleep efficiency. Our three-factor structure of PSQI is superior to the originally intended unidimensional model. Our model also shows the best-fit indices when compared to the previously reported single-factor, two-factor and three-factor (by Cole et al.) models in a multi-ethnic Asian population. There is strong evidence that the PSQI contains a three-factor rather than a unidimensional structure in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Scoring the PSQI along their multidimensional perspectives may provide a more accurate understanding of the relationship between sleep impairment and health conditions rather than using a single global score.
The C677T polymorphism of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene was implicated to be associated with thrombophilia due to its role in catalyzing the formation of 5-methylenetetrahydrofolate, a co-substrate for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Several case-control studies were investigated MTHFR C677T polymorphism as risk for recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). These studies rendered contradictory results, some indicating that the polymorphism is associated with the risk of RPL whereas others concluded there is no association. To shed light on these inconclusive findings, a meta-analysis of all available studies published from Asian population relating the C677T polymorphism to the risk of RPL was conducted. The following electronic databases were searched without language restrictions: PubMed, Google Scholars, Elsevier and Springer Link up to December, 2015. Meta-analysis was performed using MetaAnalyst and Mix version 1.7. Meta-analysis results suggested that MTHFR C677T polymorphism contributed to the increased RPL risk in Asian population using all five genetic models (for T vs. C: OR 1.35, 95 % CI 1.09-1.68, p = 0.009; for TT + CT vs. CC: OR 1.44, 95 % CI 1.14-1.82, p = 0.006; for CT vs. CC: OR 1.39, 95 % CI 1.07-1.8, p = 0.01; for TT vs. CC: OR 1.79, 95 % CI 22.214.171.124, p = 0.007; for TT vs. CT + CC: OR 1.61, 95 % CI 1.02-2.56, p = 0.04). In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrates a strong association between the MTHFR C677T variant and RPL in Asian population and raising the importance of the use of folate in its treatment and prevention.
Corella, D; Tai, E S; Sorlí, J V; Chew, S K; Coltell, O; Sotos-Prieto, M; García-Rios, A; Estruch, R; Ordovas, J M
The APOA2 gene has been associated with obesity and insulin resistance (IR) in animal and human studies with controversial results. We have reported an APOA2-saturated fat interaction determining body mass index (BMI) and obesity in American populations. This work aims to extend our findings to European and Asian populations. Cross-sectional study in 4602 subjects from two independent populations: a high-cardiovascular risk Mediterranean population (n = 907 men and women; aged 67 ± 6 years) and a multiethnic Asian population (n = 2506 Chinese, n = 605 Malays and n = 494 Asian Indians; aged 39 ± 12 years) participating in a Singapore National Health Survey. Anthropometric, clinical, biochemical, lifestyle and dietary variables were determined. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was used in Asians. We analyzed gene-diet interactions between the APOA2 -265T>C polymorphism and saturated fat intake (
Corella, Dolores; Tai, E Shyong; Sorlí, Jose V; Kai Chew, Suok; Coltell, Oscar; Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; García-Rios, Antonio; Estruch, Ramón; Ordovas, Jose M.
Objective The APOA2 gene has been associated with obesity and insulin resistance (IR) in animal and human studies with controversial results. We have reported an APOA2-saturated fat interaction determining body mass index (BMI) and obesity in American populations. This work aims to extend our findings to European and Asian populations. Methods Cross-sectional study in 4602 subjects from 2 independent populations: A high cardiovascular risk Mediterranean population (n=907 men and women; aged 67+/−6 years) and a multiethnic Asian population (n=2506 Chinese, n=605 Malays and n=494 Asian Indians; aged 39+/−12 years), participating in a Singapore National Health Survey. Anthropometric, clinical, biochemical, lifestyle and dietary variables were determined. Homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) was used in Asians. We analyzed gene-diet interactions between the APOA2 −265T>C polymorphism and saturated fat intake (
Ng, Edwin; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo
Recent scholarship offers different theories on how macrosocial determinants affect the population health of East and Southeast Asian nations. Dominant theories emphasize the effects of welfare regimes, welfare generosity, and labor market institutions. In this article, we conduct exploratory time-series cross-sectional analyses to generate new evidence on these theories while advancing a political explanation. Using unbalanced data of 7 East Asian countries and 11 Southeast Asian nations from 1960 to 2012, primary findings are 3-fold. First, welfare generosity measured as education and health spending has a positive impact on life expectancy, net of GDP. Second, life expectancy varies significantly by labor markets; however, these differences are explained by differences in welfare generosity. Third, as East and Southeast Asian countries become more democratic, welfare generosity increases, and population health improves. This study provides new evidence on the value of considering politics, welfare states, and labor markets within the same conceptual framework. © 2016 APJPH.
Lim, Cynthia C; Teo, Boon Wee; Ong, Peng Guan; Cheung, Carol Y; Lim, Su Chi; Chow, Khuan Yew; Meng, Chan Choon; Lee, Jeannette; Tai, E Shyong; Wong, Tien Y; Sabanayagam, Charumathi
Few studies have examined the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on adverse cardiovascular outcomes and deaths in Asian populations. We evaluated the associations of CKD with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Prospective cohort study of 7098 individuals who participated in two independent population-based studies involving Malay adults (n = 3148) and a multi-ethnic cohort of Chinese, Malay and Indian adults (n = 3950). CKD was assessed from CKD-EPI estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). Incident CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke and CVD mortality) and all-cause mortality were identified by linkage with national disease/death registries. Over a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 4.6% developed CVD and 6.1% died. Risks of both CVD and all-cause mortality increased with decreasing eGFR and increasing albuminuria (all p-trend <0.05). Adjusted hazard ratios (HR (95% confidence interval)) of CVD and all-cause mortality were: 1.54 (1.05-2.27) and 2.21 (1.67-2.92) comparing eGFR <45 vs ≥60; 2.81 (1.49-5.29) and 2.34 (1.28-4.28) comparing UACR ≥300 vs <30. The association between eGFR <60 and all-cause mortality was stronger among those with diabetes (p-interaction = 0.02). PAR of incident CVD was greater among those with UACR ≥300 (12.9%) and that of all-cause mortality greater among those with eGFR <45 (16.5%). In multi-ethnic Asian adults, lower eGFR and higher albuminuria were independently associated with incident CVD and all-cause mortality. These findings extend previously reported similar associations in Western populations to Asians and emphasize the need for early detection of CKD and intervention to prevent adverse outcomes. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.
Chuwa, Esther W L; Tan, Vincent H S; Tan, Puay-Hoon; Yong, Wei-Sean; Ho, Guy-Hui; Wong, Chow-Yin
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Singapore women and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is believed to be the precursor of most invasive breast cancers. The incidence of DCIS has increased dramatically with mammographic screening, but its treatment remains controversial. Further, results of treatment for DCIS in Asians, and in particular Singapore women, are lacking. We review our institution's results treating a predominantly Chinese population with DCIS of the breast before the introduction of mammographic screening and aim to determine treatment outcomes and identify prognostic factors for disease recurrence. Between January 1994 and December 2000, 170 consecutive patients with DCIS were treated at our institution. One hundred and three (60.5%) were managed with breast conservation (17 with local wide excision alone and 86 with adjuvant irradiation following wide excision) whereas 67 (39.4%) underwent mastectomy. Of those who underwent wide local excision, 56 (54.3%) underwent re-excision for margin clearance. Overall, the axilla was surgically staged in 47 (27.6%) and no nodal involvement was found in all cases. Pathological specimens were reviewed by one of the authors. Median follow up was 86 months (range 4-151 months). Sixty-two patients (36%) were asymptomatic at presentation whereas most (64%) presented with clinical symptoms; out of these more than half (54%) presented with a palpable lump. The median size of tumours was 13 mm (range 1.5-90 mm). Patients who underwent breast conservation surgery had oncologically more favourable lesions - with a significantly higher incidence of smaller and non-palpable lesions and lesions of lower nuclear grade. However, there was also a significantly higher incidence of local recurrence in this group. At the end of follow up, there were 12 patients (7.1%) who developed local recurrence and 8 patients (4.7%) developed contralateral disease. The crude incidence of all breast events (including both local failure
Lu, Yanjun; Liu, Wei; Tan, Kun; Peng, Jing; Zhu, Yaowu; Wang, Xiong
Recent studies investigating the association of the Ras-like without CAAX 2 (RIT2) polymorphism, rs12456492, with Parkinson's disease (PD) are controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to study the association between rs12456492 and PD susceptibility in Asian populations. Literature searches of PubMed and Embase were performed up to June 3, 2015, and the strength of the association between rs12456492 and PD was evaluated by odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Four studies conducted between 2013 and 2015, comprising 2017 PD cases and 2010 controls, were included in the meta-analysis. Significant association of rs12456492 with PD was found in the dominant (GG + AG vs. AA: OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.20-1.44, P = 0.00) and additive models (GG vs. AA: OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.03-1.83, P = 0.030). Although sensitivity analysis found that the overall result was stable only in the dominant genetic model, a publication bias was also detected. Therefore, the results should be treated with caution. The current meta-analysis suggested that rs12456492 might be associated with increased PD risk in Asian populations, but studies using larger sample sizes and different ethnic populations will be needed to further confirm this association.
Kleinherenbrink, M.; Riva, R.; Frederikse, T.
Direct observations of Ocean Bottom Pressure (OBP) in the Tropical Asian Seas (TAS) are normally avoided due to a cut-off of typically 300 km in GRACE gravity fields from the coast to limit hydrological leakage.The limited number of temperature and salinity observations lead to interpolation problems and make it difficult to infer steric changes in the region.To close the sea level budget in the tropical ocean using Argo, GRACE and altimetry, the TAS area is therefore omitted (Von Schuckmann et al., 2014).However, due to its large sea level trends, the omission of the TAS in global sea level budgets leads to an underestimation of 0.5 mm/yr between 2005-2011 (Von Schuckmann et al., 2014).Furthermore, no studies exist to date that separate total sea level into the steric and OBP components, which in combination with large bathymetry fluctuations, hampers the understanding of the dynamics causing interannual variability in sea level in the area. We separate the steric and OBP components in the TAS, using altimetry, optimally filtered ITSG-Grace2016 gravity fields and temperature and salinity grids from various ocean reanalyses.By combining the observations from the three sources in a statistically optimal way, we aim to get the best separation of OBP and steric sea level.The sum of the OBP and steric sea level trends is statistically equal to trend differences caused by omitting the TAS, which makes it possible to correct global sea level budgets.Secondly, the interannual variability is mostly captured by regression with the El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) 3.4 index.In the deeper regions of the TAS this is primarily a steric signal, however in the shallow areas the interannual signal is of OBP origin.Finally, a large fraction of the OBP trends in the TAS region is explained by trends derived from fingerprints of Greenland, Anarctic, and glacier melt as well as dam retention and land hydrology plus a contribution of the nodal cycle.However, especially in the
Maxwell, Annette E; Crespi, Catherine M; Antonio, Cynthia M; Lu, Peiyun
Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) indicate that levels and temporal trends in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening prevalence vary among Asian American groups; however, the reasons for these differences have not been fully investigated. Using CHIS 2001, 2003 and 2005 data, we conducted hierarchical regression analyses progressively controlling for demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care in an attempt to identify factors explaining differences in screening prevalence and trends among Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Japanese Americans (N = 4,188). After controlling for differences in gender and age, all Asian subgroups had significantly lower odds of having ever received screening in 2001 than the reference group of Japanese Americans. In addition, Korean Americans were the only subgroup that had a statistically significant decline in screening prevalence from 2001 to 2005 compared to the trend among Japanese Americans. After controlling for differences in education, marital status, employment status and federal poverty level, Korean Americans were the only group that had significantly lower screening prevalence than Japanese Americans in 2001, and their trend to 2005 remained significantly depressed. After controlling for differences in English proficiency and access to care, screening prevalences in 2001 were no longer significantly different among the Asian subgroups, but the trend among Korean Americans from 2001 to 2005 remained significantly depressed. Korean and Vietnamese Americans were less likely than other groups to report a recent doctor recommendation for screening and more likely to cite a lack of health problems as a reason for not obtaining screening. Differences in CRC screening trends among Asian ethnic groups are not entirely explained by differences in demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care. A better understanding of mutable factors such as rates of doctor
Yao, Yao; Wen, Yueqiang; Du, Tingfu; Sun, Ning; Deng, Hong; Ryan, Joanne; Rao, Shuquan
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric illnesses with heritability of up to 38%. The fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene, in particular the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609, has been identified as a genetic risk loci associated with MDD. However, most prior studies have involved European and American populations. Whether rs9939609 is an true risk SNP for MDD in Asian populations remains inconclusive. In the present study, we conducted a meta-analysis of the association between rs9939609 and MDD in Asian populations by combining 5 available case-control samples totaling 6531 cases and 12,359 controls. Our meta-analysis suggests that rs9939609 is not a risk SNP for MDD in Asian populations by fixed effect model (Z=1.04, P=0.30, OR=0.96, 95% CI=0.90-1.03). The age distribution and gender ratios were not matched well in the combined samples of cases and controls. Publication bias might be also considered with only a relatively small number of association studies of FTO rs9939609 with MDD in Asian populations. The absence of association of rs9939609 with MDD in our Asian populations suggests a potential genetic heterogeneity in the susceptibility of MDD on this locus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wide variation in approaches to teaching about Asia in the schools suggests a need for categorizing those approaches so that a teacher might see his approach in some relationship with others of differing persuasions. The following evolutionary levels of conceptualization are suggested; Asia as (1) a setting for Western history, where Western…
Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Pesudovs, Konrad; Thumboo, Julian; Saw, Seang-Mei; Wong, Tien Y
To determine whether the VF-11 is a valid scale to measure visual functioning in an Asian population with vision impairment. Participants from the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES) took part. Visual functioning was assessed by using the VF-11 (a modified version of VF-14 for an Asian population). Rasch analysis was performed on 618 participants with presenting visual acuity < 6/12 in the better eye. Disordered thresholds were initially evident, indicating that the categories were difficult to discriminate and required category collapsing (from 5 to 4) for nine items. The removal of two misfit items related to driving resulted in a fit of the VF-9 data to the Rasch model (chi(2) = 50.5, df = 27, P = 0.005). There were no more misfit items. The person separation reliability value was 0.82 which demonstrates that the VF-9 has sufficient ability to discriminate between at least two groups of participants with different levels of visual functioning. The VF-9 significantly differentiated patients stratified by visual acuity demonstrating adequate criterion validity. All items were free of differential item functioning, and there was no evidence of multidimensionality. Targeting of person ability and item difficulty was suboptimal, although this is inevitable in a population-based survey where most people would not be disabled. Although the Rasch-modified VF-9 scale achieved fit to the Rasch model, its suboptimal targeting suggests that the instrument does not have the range of items to assess the impact of vision impairment across the severity spectrum of vision loss in this population.
Griffen, Blaine D
The impact of human-induced stressors, such as invasive species, is often measured at the organismal level, but is much less commonly scaled up to the population level. Interactions with invasive species represent an increasingly common source of stressor in many habitats. However, due to the increasing abundance of invasive species around the globe, invasive species now commonly cause stresses not only for native species in invaded areas, but also for other invasive species. I examine the European green crab Carcinus maenas, an invasive species along the northeast coast of North America, which is known to be negatively impacted in this invaded region by interactions with the invasive Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus. Asian shore crabs are known to negatively impact green crabs via two mechanisms: by directly preying on green crab juveniles and by indirectly reducing green crab fecundity via interference (and potentially exploitative) competition that alters green crab diets. I used life-table analyses to scale these two mechanistic stressors up to the population level in order to examine their relative impacts on green crab populations. I demonstrate that lost fecundity has larger impacts on per capita population growth rates, but that both predation and lost fecundity are capable of reducing population growth sufficiently to produce the declines in green crab populations that have been observed in areas where these two species overlap. By scaling up the impacts of one invader on a second invader, I have demonstrated that multiple documented interactions between these species are capable of having population-level impacts and that both may be contributing to the decline of European green crabs in their invaded range on the east coast of North America.
Hwang, Sung Wook; Seo, Hyungil; Kim, Gwang-Un; Song, Eun Mi; Seo, Myeongsook; Park, Sang Hyoung; Kwon, Eunja; Lee, Ho-Su; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Ye, Byong Duk; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Myung, Seung-Jae; Kim, Jin-Ho; Yang, Suk-Kyun
The reported rates of current smoking at the time of Crohn's disease (CD) diagnosis tend to be low in East Asian studies. However, we hypothesized that East Asian patients may be reluctant to disclose their smoking history, likely because of the influence of the Confucian culture. We prospectively re-evaluated the smoking status at diagnosis in 1,437 Korean CD patients whose smoking status had been reported in our previous study. After re-evaluation, the current smokers at diagnosis increased from 388 patients (27.0%) to 445 patients (31.0%), indicating that 12.8% (57 of 445 patients) of the current smokers at diagnosis did not disclose their smoking status at their initial evaluation. The proportion of current smokers at diagnosis who had initially concealed their smoking status was significantly higher among the female patients (29.7%, 11/37) compared with the male patients (11.3%, 46/408) (p<0.005) and among the patients who were ≤18 years old at diagnosis (56.4%, 22/39) compared with the patients >18 years old at diagnosis (8.6%, 35/406) (p<0.001). Subgroups of Korean CD patients, particularly young patients and female patients, are reluctant to disclose their smoking history. Therefore, the suggestion that smoking is not a risk factor for the development of CD in East Asians should be made with caution.
Hwang, Sung Wook; Seo, Hyungil; Kim, Gwang-Un; Song, Eun Mi; Seo, Myeongsook; Park, Sang Hyoung; Kwon, Eunja; Lee, Ho-Su; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Ye, Byong Duk; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Myung, Seung-Jae; Kim, Jin-Ho; Yang, Suk-Kyun
Background/Aims The reported rates of current smoking at the time of Crohn’s disease (CD) diagnosis tend to be low in East Asian studies. However, we hypothesized that East Asian patients may be reluctant to disclose their smoking history, likely because of the influence of the Confucian culture. Methods We prospectively re-evaluated the smoking status at diagnosis in 1,437 Korean CD patients whose smoking status had been reported in our previous study. Results After re-evaluation, the current smokers at diagnosis increased from 388 patients (27.0%) to 445 patients (31.0%), indicating that 12.8% (57 of 445 patients) of the current smokers at diagnosis did not disclose their smoking status at their initial evaluation. The proportion of current smokers at diagnosis who had initially concealed their smoking status was significantly higher among the female patients (29.7%, 11/37) compared with the male patients (11.3%, 46/408) (p<0.005) and among the patients who were ≤18 years old at diagnosis (56.4%, 22/39) compared with the patients >18 years old at diagnosis (8.6%, 35/406) (p<0.001). Conclusions Subgroups of Korean CD patients, particularly young patients and female patients, are reluctant to disclose their smoking history. Therefore, the suggestion that smoking is not a risk factor for the development of CD in East Asians should be made with caution. PMID:27728967
Du, Jin; Han, Ji-Chang; Zhang, Ya-Jun; Qi, Guan-Bin; Li, Hong-Bing; Zhang, Yi-Jie; Cai, Shao
Background The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of interleukin-17 (IL-17), including rs763780 (7488A/G), rs2275913 (–197G/A), and rs8193036 (–737C/T), and asthma susceptibility in an Asian population. Material/Methods From Oct 2013 to Dec 2014, 125 asthma patients enrolled in our hospital were selected as the case group. Another 132 healthy controls undergoing physical examinations in our hospital were enrolled as the control group. The genotype frequencies of IL-17 rs763780, rs2275913 and rs8193036 SNPs were detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0) software was applied for meta-analysis. Results Our results demonstrated that asthma patients presented with higher frequencies of GA genotype in rs2275913 and TT genotype in rs8193036 of IL-17 than healthy controls (both P<0.001). The genotype frequencies of IL-17 rs763780 between the asthma patients and healthy controls exhibited no significant differences (P>0.05). The comparisons on the rs2275913 and rs8193036 frequencies between the asthma patients and healthy controls were statistically significant in both allele and addictive models (all P<0.05). The frequency of IL-17 rs763780 between the asthma patients and healthy controls were statistically different in allele models (P<0.05), but not in addictive models (P>0.05). The overall results of our case-control study were further confirmed by meta-analysis. Conclusions Our results revealed that, in an Asian population, IL-17 rs763780, rs2275913, and rs8193036 SNPs may be associated with asthma susceptibility, and GA genotype in rs2275913 and TT genotype in rs8193036 of IL-17 may contribute to increased risk of asthma in Asians. PMID:26954344
Ceriello, Antonio; Inagaki, Nobuya
Our aims were to summarize the clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitor, linagliptin, and to consider how these characteristics influence its clinical utility. Differences between linagliptin and other dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitors were also considered, in addition to the influence of Asian race on the pharmacology of linagliptin. Linagliptin has a xanthine-based structure, a difference that might account for some of the pharmacological differences observed with linagliptin versus other dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitors. The long terminal half-life of linagliptin results from its strong binding to dipeptidyl-peptidase-4. Despite this, linagliptin shows a short accumulation half-life, as a result of saturable, high-affinity binding to dipeptidyl-peptidase-4. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of linagliptin make it suitable for once-daily dosing in a broad range of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Unlike most other dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitors, linagliptin has a largely non-renal excretion route, and dose adjustment is not required in patients with renal impairment. Furthermore, linagliptin exposure is not substantially altered in patients with hepatic impairment, and dose adjustment is not necessary for these patients. The 5-mg dose is also suitable for patients of Asian ethnicity. Linagliptin shows unique pharmacological features within the dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitor class. Although most clinical trials of linagliptin have involved largely Caucasian populations, data on the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties of linagliptin show that these features are not substantially altered in Asian populations. The 5-mg dose of linagliptin is suitable for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus irrespective of their ethnicity or the presence of renal or hepatic impairment.
Luo, Yingying; Wang, Hongyuan; Han, Xueyao; Ren, Qian; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Xiuying; Sun, Xiuqin; Zhou, Xianghai; Ji, Linong
To evaluate the effect of TCF7L2 on genetic susceptibility of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in East Asian population by using the meta-analysis. Search all the publications about the association between TCF7L2 and T2DM in East Asian population from PubMed, CNKI and abstracts of major diabetes conferences. Perform the meta-analysis of all the validated studies and evaluate the association between rs7903146 T allele, rs12255372 T allele, rs11196205 C allele, rs290487 C allele and rs11196218 G allele of TCF7L2 and the risk of T2DM. Eleven studies from nine eligible papers and one unpublished study of ours were included in the meta-analysis. Ten eligible studies were analyzed for rs7903146, five were analyzed for rs12255372 and rs11196205, and three were analyzed for rs290487 and rs11196218. We found that four SNPs (rs7903146, rs12255372, rs11196205, rs290487) in TCF7L2 were significantly associated with T2DM in East Asian populations. The rs11196218 also showed a marginal association. The estimated population-attributable risk (PAR) associated with analyzed SNPs ranged from 2% to 7%. SNPs in TCF7L2 were strongly associated with the risk of T2DM in East Asian population. But the contribution of its genetic variants to the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in East Asian was relatively low.
Watanabe, T.; Cha, C.W.; Song, D.B.; Ikeda, M.
World-wide monitoring has been conducted on the exposure of humans to heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). The background exposure to Cd appears to be higher among Japanese than among Americans and Europeans, while the exposure of Japanese to Pb appears to be lower than that of Americans and Europeans. Reports are, however, rather scarce on the people in other Asian countries. Surveys of the background exposure to Pb and Cd were conducted in the urban and rural areas in Korea as a joint study of two institutions, one each in Korea and Japan, in a manner so that the data should be comparable to that of a nation-wide survey in Japan. The results are described in the present report.
Martinez-Laso, J; Montoya, F; Areces, C; Moscoso, J; Silvera, C; Rey, D; Parga-Lozano, C; Gomez-Prieto, P; Enriquez de Salamanca, M; Arnaiz-Villena, A
America first inhabitants and peopling are still debated. In order to increase knowledge about these questions, we have aimed to detect HLA genes of an Amerindian secluded community: Jaidukama, who lives in North Colombia Equatorial forest. HLA genotyping and extended haplotype calculations were carried out in 39 healthy individuals belonging to 13 families. HLA frequencies were compared to other Amerindians and worldwide populations by calculating genetic distances, relatedness dendrograms and correspondence analyses. Only four DRB1 alleles were found (*0404, *0407, *1402 and *1602); however a total of 17 Amerindian different extended class I-class II HLA haplotypes were directly counted from the family studies, nine of them were specific of Jaidukamas. Some of the alleles or group of alleles within an extended haplotype (i.e. DQB1-DRB1) were also found in Asians and Pacific Islanders, further supporting existence of Asian and Pacific gene flow with Amerindians or a common founder effect. It is further supported that HLA extended haplotypes vary faster than alleles in populations. It is concluded that this unique model of Amerindian secluded families study suggests that rapid HLA haplotype variation may be more important than allele variation for survival (starting immune responses). This work may also be useful for future transplant programs in the area.
Liu, Weiqing; Liu, Fang; Xu, Xiufeng; Bai, Yan
Schizophrenia is one of the most severe mental disorders with significant heritability. Recent genetic association studies including genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple common variants conferring risk of schizophrenia. An intronic SNP within CSMD1, rs10503253, is one of the top risk SNPs for schizophrenia in Europeans discovered through large GWAS. However, whether rs10503253 is also a risk SNP for schizophrenia in other populations, such as Asians, is still unknown. To answer this question, we examined the association of rs10503253 with schizophrenia in a total of 7514 schizophrenia patients, 9058 healthy controls and 1115 nuclear families originated from Asia using a meta-analytic approach. In the meta-analysis of all the samples, we confirmed the association of rs10503253 A-allele with schizophrenia in Asian population (P-value=0.0093, odds ratio=1.062, 95% confidence interval=1.015-1.111), and no genetic heterogeneity between individual samples (P=0.810) was observed. Using the "Leave-one-out" sensitivity analysis, we further confirmed the association between rs10503253 and schizophrenia. These data show that rs10503253 is likely a common schizophrenia risk variant in multiple ethnic groups, and further studies regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tan, Wan C; Tan, Justina W L; Wee, Eric W L; Niti, Matthew; Ng, Tze P
The purpose of study was to assess the validity, reliability and acceptability of the English version of the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire in a multi-ethnic Asian population. The English version of the Standardized Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ-S) and the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) were self-completed by 119 English-speaking Chinese, Malay and Indian asthmatic subjects, aged 17-78. Spirometric measurements, peak expiratory flow rate, current clinical symptoms and treatment requirements were documented. Reliability and responsiveness were analyzed in a subgroup of 57 patients who were reassessed 6 weeks later. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient for internal consistency of the AQLQ-S was 0.97 (0.96-0.98) for the overall score. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) overall score was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94-0.99) while the responsiveness index was 1.29 with strong longitudinal validity for clinical and spirometric measures of asthma severity and asthma control score (p < 0.001). The results of this study showed that the English version of the AQLQ-S is a sensitive and valid instrument for measuring health-related quality of life in asthmatic subjects from a multi-ethnic Asian population.
Balaresque, Patricia; Poulet, Nicolas; Cussat-Blanc, Sylvain; Gerard, Patrice; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Heyer, Evelyne; Jobling, Mark A
High-frequency microsatellite haplotypes of the male-specific Y-chromosome can signal past episodes of high reproductive success of particular men and their patrilineal descendants. Previously, two examples of such successful Y-lineages have been described in Asia, both associated with Altaic-speaking pastoral nomadic societies, and putatively linked to dynasties descending, respectively, from Genghis Khan and Giocangga. Here we surveyed a total of 5321 Y-chromosomes from 127 Asian populations, including novel Y-SNP and microsatellite data on 461 Central Asian males, to ask whether additional lineage expansions could be identified. Based on the most frequent eight-microsatellite haplotypes, we objectively defined 11 descent clusters (DCs), each within a specific haplogroup, that represent likely past instances of high male reproductive success, including the two previously identified cases. Analysis of the geographical patterns and ages of these DCs and their associated cultural characteristics showed that the most successful lineages are found both among sedentary agriculturalists and pastoral nomads, and expanded between 2100 BCE and 1100 CE. However, those with recent origins in the historical period are almost exclusively found in Altaic-speaking pastoral nomadic populations, which may reflect a shift in political organisation in pastoralist economies and a greater ease of transmission of Y-chromosomes through time and space facilitated by the use of horses. PMID:25585703
Chang, Ellen T.; Shema, Sarah J.; Wakelee, Heather A.; Clarke, Christina A.; Gomez, Scarlett Lin
Asians may have better survival after non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) than non-Asians. However, it is unknown whether survival varies among the heterogeneous U.S. Asian/Pacific Islander (API) populations. Therefore, this study aimed to quantify survival differences among APIs with NSCLC. Differences in overall and disease-specific survival were analyzed in the California Cancer Registry among 16,577 API patients diagnosed with incident NSCLC between 1988 and 2007. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models with separate baseline hazards by disease stage. Despite better overall and disease-specific survival among APIs compared with non-Hispanic Whites, differences were evident across API populations. Among women, Japanese (overall survival HR=1.16, 95% CI=1.06–1.27) and APIs other than those in the six largest ethnic groups (“other APIs”; HR=1.19, 95% CI=1.07–1.33) had significantly poorer overall and disease-specific survival than Chinese. By contrast, South Asian women had significantly better survival than Chinese (HR=0.79, 95% CI=0.63–0.97). Among men, Japanese (HR=1.15, 95% CI=1.07–1.24), Vietnamese (HR=1.07, 95% CI=1.00–1.16), and other APIs (HR=1.18, 95% CI=1.08–1.28) had significantly poorer overall and disease-specific survival than Chinese. Other factors independently associated with poorer survival were lower neighborhood SES, involvement with a non-university-teaching hospital, unmarried status, older age, and earlier year of diagnosis. APIs have significant ethnic differences in NSCLC survival that may be related to disparate lifestyles, biology, and especially health care access or use. To reduce the nationwide burden of lung cancer mortality, it is critical to identify and ameliorate hidden survival disparities such as those among APIs. PMID:19622719
Cummins, Lillian Huang; Simmons, Angela M; Zane, Nolan W S
There is increasing evidence that eating disorders are present among ethnically diverse populations, and researchers have suggested that investigations in this area may inform the field's understanding of how sociocultural factors are related to the development of eating disorders. Although it is generally accepted that sociocultural factors are key in eating disorder etiology, knowledge on how best to study these influences in diverse groups is still limited. In this article, the authors review how the research literature has explored relationships among culture, ethnicity, and eating disorders in Asian populations and critically examine strategies that have been used to investigate these issues across 1 ethnic/racial group. The methodological challenges encountered in these approaches are identified and considered in the provision of recommendations for future endeavors to improve the field's understanding of how culture is related to eating disorders.
Wong, Li Ping; Sam, I-Ching
The study aimed to determine factors influencing the uptake of 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine in a multiethnic Asian population. Population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted between October and December 2009. Approximately 70% of overall participants indicated willingness to be vaccinated against the 2009 H1N1 influenza. Participants who indicated positive intention to vaccinate against 2009 H1N1 influenza were more likely to have favorable attitudes toward the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. A halal (acceptable to Muslims) vaccine was the main factor that determined Malay participants' decision to accept vaccination, whereas safety of the vaccine was the main factor that influenced vaccination decision for Chinese and Indian participants. The study highlights the challenges in promoting the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. Ethnic-sensitive efforts are needed to maximize acceptance of H1N1 vaccines in countries with diverse ethnic communities and religious practices. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background National cancer incidence trends are presented for eight Asian American groups: Asian Indians/Pakistanis, Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, Kampucheans, Koreans, Laotians, and Vietnamese. Methods Cancer incidence data from 1990 through 2008 were obtained from 13 Surveillance, Epidemiology, End Results (SEER) registries. Incidence rates from 1990 through 2008 and average percentage change were computed using SEER*Stat and Joinpoint software. The annual percentage change (APC) in incidence rates was estimated with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) calculated for both the rate and APC estimates. Rates for non-Hispanic whites are presented for comparison. Results Prostate cancer was the most common malignancy among most groups, followed by lung, colorectal, liver, and stomach cancers. Breast cancer was generally the most common cancer in women, followed by colorectal and lung cancers; liver, cervix, thyroid, and stomach cancers also ranked highly. Among men, increasing trends were observed for prostate (Asian Indians and Pakistanis: APC 1990–2003 = 2.2, 95% CI = 0.3 to 4.1; Filipinos: APC 1990–1994 = 19.0, 95% CI = 4.5 to 35.4; Koreans: APC 1990–2008 = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.8 to 4.0), colorectal (Koreans: APC 1990–2008 = 2.2, 95% CI = 0.9 to 3.5), and liver cancers (Filipinos: APC 1990–2008 = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.4 to 2.7; Koreans: APC 1990–2006 = 2.1, 95% CI = 0.4 to 3.7; Vietnamese: APC 1990–2008 = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.3 to 2.8), whereas lung and stomach cancers generally remained stable or decreased. Among women, increases were observed for uterine cancer (Asian Indians: APC 1990–2008 = 3.0, 95% CI = 0.3 to 5.8; Chinese: APC 2004–2008 = 7.0, 95% CI = 1.4 to 12.9; Filipina: APC 1990–2008 = 3.0, 95% CI = 2.4 to 3.7; Japanese: APC 1990–2008 = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.1 to 2.0), colorectal cancer (Koreans: APC 1990–2008 = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.7 to 3.9; Laotians: APC: 1990–2008 = 5.9, 95% CI = 4.0 to 7.7), lung cancer (Filipinas: APC 1990–2008 = 2.1, 95% CI = 1
Koh, Victor; Cheung, Carol Y; Li, Xiang; Tian, Dechao; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien Y
To describe the prevalence of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and its risk factors in a multi-ethnic Asian population. This population-based study of 10,033 participants (75.7% response rate) included Chinese, Indian and Malay persons aged 40 years and older. A comprehensive ophthalmic examination, standardized interviews and laboratory blood tests were performed. Digital fundus photographs were assessed for presence of RVO following the definitions used in the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Regression analysis models were constructed to study the relationship between ocular and systemic factors and RVO. Age-specific prevalence rates of RVO were applied to project the number of people affected in Asia from 2013 to 2040. The overall crude prevalence of RVO was 0.72% (n = 71; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.54-0.87%). The crude prevalence of RVO was similar in Chinese, Indian and Malay participants (p = 0.865). In multivariable regression models, significant risk factors of RVO included increased age (odds ratio, OR, 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.06), hypertension (OR 3.65, 95% CI 1.61-8.31), increased serum creatinine (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.06, per 10 mmol/L increase), history of heart attack (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.11-4.54) and increased total cholesterol (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07-1.59, per 1 mmol/L increase). None of the ocular parameters were associated with RVO. RVO is estimated to affect up to 16 and 21 million people in Asia by 2020 and 2040, respectively. RVO was detected in 0.72% of a multi-ethnic Asian population aged 40-80 years in Singapore. The significant systemic risk factors of RVO are consistent with studies in white populations.
Yap, Theresa Wan-Chen; Chan, Weng-Kai; Leow, Alex Hwong-Ruey; Azmi, Ahmad Najib; Loke, Mun-Fai; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Goh, Khean-Lee
Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disorder induced by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible persons. The prevalence of CD in Malaysia is unknown. We aim to determine the seroprevalence of CD antibodies and also investigate the correlation between H. pylori infection and CD in the young and healthy multiracial Malaysian population. Healthy young adult volunteers between the ages of 18-30 years were consecutively recruited from June 2012 to May 2014 at the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur. Serum samples from all the participants were tested for anti-gliadin antibody immunoglobulin A/immunoglobulin G (IgA/IgG) and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG) IgA/IgG. Samples positive for both anti-gliadin and anti-tTG were further validated for anti-human endomysial IgA antibodies (EmA). Serological diagnosis of CD was made when anti-gliadin, anti-tTG and anti-EmA were positive. 562 qualified participants with mean age 24 ± 2.4 years old were recruited into our study. CD was found in 7 participants where most of them were asymptomatic and unaware of their CD status. The median of anti-gliadin and anti-tTG IgA/IgG value was 38.2 U/ml (interquartile range, 28.3-60.4 U/ml) and 49.2 U/ml (interquartile range, 41.1-65.9 U/ml), respectively. Seroprevalence of CD antibodies was 1.9% (6 out of 324) in female while only 0.4% (1 out of 238) in male. Seroprevalence among Malay was 0.8% (2 of 236), Chinese was 1.7% (3 of 177) and Indian was 1.3% (2 of 149). Overall, seroprevalence of CD antibodies in healthy asymptomatic adults in the Malaysian population was 1.25% (95% CI, 0.78%-1.72%). No significant relationship was discovered between CD and H. pylori infection. The seroprevalence of CD antibodies in healthy young adults in the Malaysian population was 1.25% (1 in 100). CD is underdiagnosed and it could be a much greater problem in Malaysia than previously thought.
Yap, Theresa Wan-Chen; Chan, Weng-Kai; Leow, Alex Hwong-Ruey; Azmi, Ahmad Najib; Loke, Mun-Fai; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Goh, Khean-Lee
Background Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disorder induced by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible persons. The prevalence of CD in Malaysia is unknown. We aim to determine the seroprevalence of CD antibodies and also investigate the correlation between H. pylori infection and CD in the young and healthy multiracial Malaysian population. Methods Healthy young adult volunteers between the ages of 18–30 years were consecutively recruited from June 2012 to May 2014 at the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur. Serum samples from all the participants were tested for anti-gliadin antibody immunoglobulin A/immunoglobulin G (IgA/IgG) and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG) IgA/IgG. Samples positive for both anti-gliadin and anti-tTG were further validated for anti-human endomysial IgA antibodies (EmA). Serological diagnosis of CD was made when anti-gliadin, anti-tTG and anti-EmA were positive. Results 562 qualified participants with mean age 24 ± 2.4 years old were recruited into our study. CD was found in 7 participants where most of them were asymptomatic and unaware of their CD status. The median of anti-gliadin and anti-tTG IgA/IgG value was 38.2 U/ml (interquartile range, 28.3–60.4 U/ml) and 49.2 U/ml (interquartile range, 41.1–65.9 U/ml), respectively. Seroprevalence of CD antibodies was 1.9% (6 out of 324) in female while only 0.4% (1 out of 238) in male. Seroprevalence among Malay was 0.8% (2 of 236), Chinese was 1.7% (3 of 177) and Indian was 1.3% (2 of 149). Overall, seroprevalence of CD antibodies in healthy asymptomatic adults in the Malaysian population was 1.25% (95% CI, 0.78%-1.72%). No significant relationship was discovered between CD and H. pylori infection. Conclusions The seroprevalence of CD antibodies in healthy young adults in the Malaysian population was 1.25% (1 in 100). CD is underdiagnosed and it could be a much greater problem in Malaysia than previously thought. PMID:25799401
"Urban concentration (or primacy) and inequality (in size distribution of income) are expected to follow bell shaped curves through the development process. Spatial convergence (through investments in transportation etc.) is expected to precede income convergence. Using longitudinal data from six Asian countries (Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and India) this paper shows that (i) the bell shapes for urban concentration and income inequality generally hold, and (ii) the temporal relationship between the curve peaks is determined by geographical factors (for urban concentration); income inequality is seen to be more policy amenable." excerpt
Tan, Ru Yu; Allen, John C; Kee, Terence; Jafar, Tazeen H
Post-donation kidney function has not been well characterized in the Southeast Asian population. We studied a retrospective cohort of 174 living kidney donors at Singapore General Hospital between 1976 and 2012, evaluated patterns of change in kidney function using quantile regression analysis and investigated for predictors of low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/min per 1.73m(2) . Median follow-up time (range) was 7.8 (0.1-33.8) years following donor nephrectomy. Of the donors, 43.1% regained 75% or more of pre-nephrectomy eGFR after 5 years post-donation; 9.8% exhibited 100% recovery to pre-nephrectomy eGFR. High pre-nephrectomy eGFR was protective for risk of low post-donation eGFR, with a 6% risk reduction for each unit increase in pre-nephrectomy eGFR (odds ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-0.97; P = 0.002). This relationship was stronger in the short term (>6 months to < 5 years) than medium to long term (5 years or longer) (interaction P = 0.052). In general, kidney function is well preserved following kidney donation in Southeast Asian donors. Pre-nephrectomy eGFR is a good predictor of post-donation eGFR, especially in the short-term. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.
Peng, Jing; Li, Jing-Jin; Li, Jiang; Li, He-Wen; Xu, Guo-Ping; Jia, Rong-Rong; Zhang, Xue-Ning; Zhao, Yang
Abstract Background: Liver cancer exhibits geographic and ethnic differences in its prevalence and biology, which implies that it is impractical to develop universal guidelines for all patients. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted to identify the accuracy of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) for discriminating malignant from benign liver lesions in Asians. Methods: Eligible studies published in PubMed, Ovid, and Embase/Medline were updated onto October 2014. STATA 12.0 and Meta-Disc 1.4 were used to perform this meta-analysis. Results: Eight studies comprising 661 benign liver lesions and 598 malignant liver lesions fulfilled all the inclusion criteria. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio were 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75–0.95), 0.93 (95% CI 0.86–0.97), 12.42 (95% CI 6.09–25.31), 0.13 (95% CI 0.06–0.29), and 95.58 (95% CI 35.29–258.89), respectively. Overall, the area under the summary receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.96 (95% CI 0.94–0.98). Heterogeneity was found to originate potentially from the type of benign lesion. A subgroup analysis showed that differentiating between hemangiomas, cysts, and malignant liver lesions produced a significantly higher diagnostic accuracy than that of solid liver lesions. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis indicated that ADC could be promising for characterizing liver lesions among Asians, indicating that the ADC value is a promising diagnostic criterion candidate. Meanwhile, the use of dual b values could be sufficient for liver lesion characterization. However, large-scale, high-quality trials should be conducted to identify specific standards, including cut-off values for further development of diffusion-weighted imaging as a routine clinical application among Asian populations. PMID:27902599
Monzo, Cesar; Stansly, Philip A
The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the key pest of citrus wherever it occurs due to its role as vector of huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening disease. Insecticidal vector control is considered to be the primary strategy for HLB management and is typically intense owing to the severity of this disease. While this approach slows spread and also decreases severity of HLB once the disease is established, economic viability of increasingly frequent sprays is uncertain. Lacking until now were studies evaluating the optimum frequency of insecticide applications to mature trees during the growing season under conditions of high HLB incidence. We related different degrees of insecticide control with ACP abundance and ultimately, with HLB-associated yield losses in two four-year replicated experiments conducted in commercial groves of mature orange trees under high HLB incidence. Decisions on insecticide applications directed at ACP were made by project managers and confined to designated plots according to experimental design. All operational costs as well as production benefits were taken into account for economic analysis. The relationship between management costs, ACP abundance and HLB-associated economic losses based on current prices for process oranges was used to determine the optimum frequency and timing for insecticide applications during the growing season. Trees under the most intensive insecticidal control harbored fewest ACP resulting in greatest yields. The relationship between vector densities and yield loss was significant but differed between the two test orchards, possibly due to varying initial HLB infection levels, ACP populations or cultivar response. Based on these relationships, treatment thresholds during the growing season were obtained as a function of application costs, juice market prices and ACP densities. A conservative threshold for mature trees with high incidence of HLB would help maintain economic
Li, Wen-Long; Ma, Wan-Li; Jia, Hong-Liang; Hong, Wen-Jun; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Nakata, Haruhiko; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Sinha, Ravindra Kumar; Chi, Kai Hsien; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Sverko, Ed; Li, Yi-Fan
A total of 23 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were measured in soil samples collected in areas with no known point source [urban/rural/background (U/R/B) sites] and in areas with known point source [brominated flame retardant (BFR)-related industrial sites (F sites) and e-waste recycling sites (E sites)] across five Asian countries. The highest PBDE concentrations were found in BFR-related industrial and e-waste recycling sites. The concentrations of PBDEs in U/R/B sites decreased in the following order: urban > rural > background sites. Total PBDE concentrations were dominated by BDE-209, while BDE-17, -85, -138, -191, -204, and -205 were the least abundant compounds. In both urban sites and rural sites, the mean concentrations of total PBDEs (∑23BDEs) in soils decreased in the following order: Japan > China > South Korea > India > Vietnam. The concentrations of PBDEs in soils were comparable with those reported in other studies. Among the three commercial PBDE mixtures, relatively large contributions of commercial penta-BDE were observed in Vietnam, whereas deca-BDE was the dominant form in mixtures contributing from 55.8 ± 2.5 to 100.0 ± 1.2% of the total PBDEs in soils collected from other four countries. Regression analysis suggested that local population density (PD) is a good indicator of PBDEs in soils of each country. Significant and positive correlation between soil organic content and PBDE level was observed in Chinese soil for most nondeca-BDE homologues with their usage stopped 10 years ago, indicating its important role in controlling the revolatilization of PBDEs from soil and changing the spatial trend of PBDE in soil from the primary distribution pattern to the secondary distribution pattern, especially when primary emission is ceased.
Monzo, Cesar; Stansly, Philip A.
The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the key pest of citrus wherever it occurs due to its role as vector of huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening disease. Insecticidal vector control is considered to be the primary strategy for HLB management and is typically intense owing to the severity of this disease. While this approach slows spread and also decreases severity of HLB once the disease is established, economic viability of increasingly frequent sprays is uncertain. Lacking until now were studies evaluating the optimum frequency of insecticide applications to mature trees during the growing season under conditions of high HLB incidence. We related different degrees of insecticide control with ACP abundance and ultimately, with HLB-associated yield losses in two four-year replicated experiments conducted in commercial groves of mature orange trees under high HLB incidence. Decisions on insecticide applications directed at ACP were made by project managers and confined to designated plots according to experimental design. All operational costs as well as production benefits were taken into account for economic analysis. The relationship between management costs, ACP abundance and HLB-associated economic losses based on current prices for process oranges was used to determine the optimum frequency and timing for insecticide applications during the growing season. Trees under the most intensive insecticidal control harbored fewest ACP resulting in greatest yields. The relationship between vector densities and yield loss was significant but differed between the two test orchards, possibly due to varying initial HLB infection levels, ACP populations or cultivar response. Based on these relationships, treatment thresholds during the growing season were obtained as a function of application costs, juice market prices and ACP densities. A conservative threshold for mature trees with high incidence of HLB would help maintain economic
Khan, Khurshid A.; Vickery, D. J.
The utilization of workshop accomodations in the countries of the Asian Region are examined and the study concludes that, in most schools, a single multipurpose workshop is more economical than the separate workshops for separate crafts that are in common use at present. Design criteria are developed for multipurpose "industrial arts"…
Khan, Khurshid A.; Vickery, D. J.
The utilization of workshop accomodations in the countries of the Asian Region are examined and the study concludes that, in most schools, a single multipurpose workshop is more economical than the separate workshops for separate crafts that are in common use at present. Design criteria are developed for multipurpose "industrial arts"…
Wang, Guofeng; Zhang, Qingqing; Xu, Ning; Xu, Kuanfeng; Wang, Jian; He, Wei; Yang, Tao
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms are possibly involved in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, the results to date have been inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis to examine the association between 2 polymorphisms (FokI and BsmI) of the VDR gene and T1DM in the Asian population. Literature was retrieved from PubMed, Web of Science, CBM, Embase and Chinese databases. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random or fixed effect model. In total, 20 papers (BsmI: 13 studies; FokI: 13 studies) were included. In contrast to the FokI polymorphism, the BsmI polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of T1DM in the Asian population (OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.13-1.91, P = 0.004 for B vs. b). Upon stratification by regional geography, an increased risk of T1DM in association with the BsmI polymorphism was observed in the East Asian population (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.38-2.83, P<0.001 for B vs. b), whereas the FokI polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of T1DM in the West Asian population (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.12-1.88, P = 0.004 for F vs. f). Our meta-analysis suggests that the BsmI polymorphism may be a risk factor for susceptibility to T1DM in the East Asian population, and the FokI polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of T1DM in the West Asian population. However, because the study size was limited, further studies are essential to confirm our results.
Mahmut, Halik; Masuda, Ryuichi; Onuma, Manabu; Takahashi, Manami; Nagata, Junko; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Ohtaishi, Noriyuki
To illustrate phylogeography of red deer (Cervus elaphus) populations of Xinjiang, we determined their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences, and then investigated geographic variations and phylogenetic relationships between Xinjiang populations and other populations from Asia, Europe, and North America. The C. elaphus mtDNA control region shared different copy numbers of tandem repeats of 38 to 43-bp motifs which clearly distinguished the Western lineage from the Eastern lineage of this species in Eurasia. The western lineage comprised the Tarim populations from southern Xinjiang and the European populations, all of which had four copies of the motifs. By contrast, the Eastern lineage consisted of populations from northern Xinjiang (Tianshan and Altai Mountains), other Asian areas (Alashan, Gansu, Tibet, Mongolia, and northeastern China), and North America, all of which shared six copies of the motifs. MtDNA phylogenetic trees showed that there are two major clusters of haplotypes which referred to the Western and Eastern lineages, and that subgroupings of haplotypes in each cluster were congruent with their geographic distributions. The present study revealed that a boundary separating the Western lineage from the Eastern lineage occurs between Tarim Basin and Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang. Meanwhile, North American populations were genetically closer to those of northern Xinjiang, northeastern China, and Mongolia, supporting that C. elaphus immigrated from northeastern Eurasia to North America through the glacier-induced land-bridge (Beringia) which had formed between the two continents after Late Pleistocene.
Chew, Ming Tak
The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate the spectrum and management of dentofacial deformities in a multiethnic Asian community. Over a period of 3 years (2001 to 2003), 212 patients with dentofacial deformities who had undergone orthognathic surgery in a national tertiary specialist center in Singapore were reviewed. Patients with cleft lip and palate or syndromes were excluded. The mean age (range: 16 to 58 years) of the patients was 24.0 years (SD 6.4) and the ratio of female to male was 1.3:1. The predominant ethnic group was Chinese (91.5%). The majority of the patients had skeletal Class III pattern (68%). Asymmetry was diagnosed in 36% of all cases and in 48% of skeletal Class III cases. Vertical maxillary excess was diagnosed in 21% of all cases and in 47% of skeletal Class II cases. Bimaxillary surgery involving LeFort and bilateral sagittal split osteotomies was performed in 84% of skeletal Class III cases and in 73% of all cases. Segmental osteotomy and genioplasty were performed in 41% of the cases. The findings suggest that the majority of the patients were young Chinese adults with two-jaw deformities requiring bimaxillary surgeries with genioplasty or segmental osteotomy. This finding may reflect the greater severity of dentofacial deformities in patients in the Asian community.
Long, Bill; McNally, John
To evaluate slitlamp findings, frequency and severity of symptoms, and wearing time with a silicone hydrogel contact lens when used for daily wear by patients of Asian ethnicity. This was a five-site, 88-patient, prospective, open-label study involving 1 month of daily wear of lotrafilcon A lenses (Focus NIGHT & DAY, CIBA Vision, Duluth, GA) among adapted soft lens wearers previously wearing etafilcon A (ACUVUE 2, Johnson & Johnson Vision Care, Jacksonville, FL) or polymacon (Optima FW, Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY) lenses. Statistically significant improvements in conjunctival redness, limbal redness, and corneal neovascularization were reported after 1 week and 1 month of wear. Patients reported statistically significant improvements in subjective symptoms of redness, dryness during the day, and dryness at the end of the day. More patients reported increased than reduced average daily wear time and average daily comfortable wear time with the silicone hydrogel lens. Significant improvements in clinical signs and subjective symptoms may occur when some patients of Asian ethnicity wearing conventional hydrogel lenses for daily wear are refitted with silicone hydrogel lenses for daily wear.
Siddiqi, A; Hertzman, C
The "Tiger" economies of Southeast Asia provide examples of developing nations where economic growth and increasing income equality are compatible and, when occurring together, are associated with superior health trends over time. The degree of income inequality in the Asian Tigers declined during the period of rapid economic growth. Traditionally, economists have viewed economic growth and relative parity in income distribution as incompatible, or trade-offs. This poses a public policy dilemma, since a reasonable propensity to increase a nation's overall economic well-being would mean forsaking measures that increase income parity. The Asian Tigers, however, have shown that this need not be viewed as a trade-off. Economic growth and a simultaneous increase in income equality are possible and, with respect to health outcomes, desirable. The authors propose a variety of mechanisms through which income inequality can enhance economic growth, and discuss policies in education, agricultural land reform, and housing that influence the simultaneous attainment of income equality and economic growth.
Individuals of Asian descent have been found to be at greater risk of developing conditions associated with obesity at lower BMI levels compared to other ethnic groups. As a result, new criteria have been developed to identify overweight and obesity in Asian populations. The purpose of the current s...
The protection of populations is at the heart of ecological risk assessment, yet most studies measure effects on individuals. In this chapter, we outline the need to enhance our ability to project and interpret the effect of stressors on natural populations and to manage risk mor...
The protection of populations is at the heart of ecological risk assessment, yet most studies measure effects on individuals. In this chapter, we outline the need to enhance our ability to project and interpret the effect of stressors on natural populations and to manage risk mor...
Li, Gang; Liu, Yili; Yin, Huming; Zhang, Xuefeng; Mo, Xiaodong; Tang, Jing; Chen, Weiguo
There are increasing scientific evidences suggesting that E-cadherin gene promoter hypermethylation may contribute to the development and progression of bladder cancer, but existing studies have yielded inconclusive results. This meta-analysis aims to assess the role of E-cadherin promoter hypermethylation in bladder carcinogenesis. We conducted an extensive literature search for relevant studies on PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases from their inception through May 1st, 2013. This meta-analysis was performed using the STATA 12.0 software. Crude risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Ten clinical studies were included in this meta-analysis with a total of 620 bladder cancer samples,199 normal adjacent samples and 131 normal urothelium tissue. Our meta-analysis revealed that the methylation frequencies in bladder cancer tissues were obviously higher than those in normal control tissues (RR = 2.02, 95%CI: 1.00–4.12, P = 0.050). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity indicated that higher methylation frequencies were observed in bladder cancer tissues among Asian populations (RR = 2.35, 95%CI: 1.11–4.95, P = 0.025), but not among Caucasian populations (RR = 1.62, 95%CI: 0.48–5.53, P = 0.439). Univariate and multivariate meta-regression analyses showed that ethnicity may be the major source of heterogeneity (Pb0.05).No publication bias was detected in this meta-analysis (P=0.358). The present meta-analysis indicates that E-cadherin gene promoter hypermethylation may contribute to increased risk of bladder cancer among Asian populations.
Park, Joonhong; Jekarl, Dong Wook; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Myungshin; Park, Young Min
Filaggrin is essential for the development of the skin barrier. Mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin have been identified as major predisposing factors for atopic disorders. Molecular analysis of the FLG gene in this study showed nine null and one unclassified mutation in 13 of 81 Korean patients with atopic dermatitis (AD): five novel null mutations (i.e. p.S1405*, c.5671_5672delinsTA, p.W1947*, p.G2025* and p.E3070*); four reported null mutations (i.e. c.3321delA, p.S1515*, p.S3296* and p.K4022*); and one unclassified mutation (i.e. c.306delAAAGCACAG). These variants are nonsense, premature termination codon or in-frame deletion expected to cause loss-of-function of FLG. Genotype-phenotype correlation is not obvious in Korean AD patients with FLG null mutations. According to a review of the mutational spectra of the FLG gene in the Asian populations, FLG null mutations appeared to be unique in each population but some mutations such as p.R501*, c.3321delA, p.S1515*, p.S3296* and p.K4022* were commonly found in at least two of the selected Asian populations including Korean, Japanese, Chinese, Singaporean Chinese or Taiwanese. Further investigations on a larger group of Korean AD would be necessary to elucidate its clinical pathogenesis and mutational spectrum related to specific FLG null mutations for AD.
Chen, Chien-Chung; Cho, Shu-ling; Horszowska, Katarzyna; Chen, Mei-Yen; Wu, Chia-Ching; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Yeh, Yi-Yu; Cheng, Chao-Min
We collected 6604 images of 30 models in eight types of facial expression: happiness, anger, sadness, disgust, fear, surprise, contempt and neutral. Among them, 406 most representative images from 12 models were rated by more than 200 human raters for perceived emotion category and intensity. Such large number of emotion categories, models and raters is sufficient for most serious expression recognition research both in psychology and in computer science. All the models and raters are of Asian background. Hence, this database can also be used when the culture background is a concern. In addition, 43 landmarks each of the 291 rated frontal view images were identified and recorded. This information should facilitate feature based research of facial expression. Overall, the diversity in images and richness in information should make our database and norm useful for a wide range of research.
San Francisco Unified School District, CA.
This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered of particular interest in the study of Asians and Asian-Americans. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically within the following subject…
Majid, Sanaa; Douglas, Rachel; Lee, Victoria; Stacy, Elizabeth; Garg, Arun K.; Ho, Kendall
Background: British Columbia falls short in uptake of recommended clinical prevention services, with even lower rates among immigrant populations. This study explored facilitators of and barriers to uptake of clinical prevention services among people from South Asia, who represent 31% of the population in Surrey, British Columbia. Methods: We used a qualitative descriptive approach and employed vignettes in a focus group setting to elicit perspectives of South Asian people on accessing clinical prevention services. Participants aged 40 years or more were recruited between October 2014 and February 2015 from health care and community settings such as older-adult housing, day programs and health education events. Letters of introduction to the study were provided in English or Punjabi or both to all potential participants. We conducted qualitative content analysis of the results. Results: Sixty-two South Asian adults (36 women and 26 men) aged 40-87 years participated in 1 of 8 focus groups in health care or community settings. Facilitators of and barriers to accessing clinical prevention services were noted at the patient, primary care provider and health care system levels. Facilitators at the patient level included taking ownership over one's health, health literacy and respecting the provider's advice; barriers included fear of the diagnosis, death and/or procedures, perceived low risk of disease or utility of the intervention, and side effects of procedures. Provider factors centred on a trust-based patient-provider relationship, strong communication and adequate time during visits. Health care system factors included such facilitators as processes to routinely offer prevention services as part of other health care or social services, systems that encourage prevention-oriented family practice and services at low or no cost to the patient. Interpretation: Our findings validate previously identified facilitators of and barriers to accessing preventive care for
Tan, Verena Ming Hui; Ooi, Delicia Shu Qin; Kapur, Jeevesh; Wu, Ting; Chan, Yiong Huak; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Lee, Yung Seng
There are wide inter-individual differences in glycemic response (GR). We aimed to examine key digestive parameters that influence inter-individual and ethnic differences in GR in healthy Asian individuals. Seventy-five healthy male subjects (25 Chinese, 25 Malays, and 25 Asian-Indians) were served equivalent available carbohydrate amounts (50 g) of jasmine rice (JR) and basmati rice (BR) on separate occasions. Postprandial blood glucose concentrations were measured at fasting (-5 and 0 min) and at 15- to 30-min interval over 180 min. Mastication parameters (number of chews per mouth and chewing time per mouthful), saliva α-amylase activity, AMY1 gene copy numbers and gastric emptying rate were measured to investigate their relationships with GR. The GR for jasmine rice was significantly higher than for basmati rice (P < 0.001). The median number of AMY1 gene copies was 6, with a range of 2-15. There was a significant positive relationship between AMY1 copy number and α-amylase activity (P = 0.002). There were no significant ethnic differences in GR. For both rice varieties, the number of chews per mouthful was positively associated with the GR (JR, P = 0.011; BR, P = 0.005), while chewing time per mouthful showed a negative association (JR, P = 0.039; BR, P = 0.016). Ethnicity, salivary α-amylase activity, particle size distribution, gastric emptying rate and AMY1 gene copy numbers were not significant contributors to GR (P > 0.05). Mastication parameters contribute significantly to GR. Eating slowly and having larger food boluses before swallowing (less chewing), both potentially modifiable, may be beneficial in glycemic control.
López-Collado, José; Isabel López-Arroyo, J.; Robles-García, Pedro L.; Márquez-Santos, Magdalena
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an introduced pest in Mexico and a vector of huanglongbing, a lethal citrus disease. Estimations of the habitat distribution and population growth rates of D. citri are required to establish regional and areawide management strategies and can be used as a pest risk analysis tools. In this study, the habitat distribution of D. citri in Mexico was computed with MaxEnt, an inductive, machine-learning program that uses bioclimatic layers and point location data. Geographic distributions of development and population growth rates were determined by fitting a temperature-dependent, nonlinear model and projecting the rates over the target area, using the annual mean temperature as the predictor variable. The results showed that the most suitable regions for habitat of D. citri comprise the Gulf of Mexico states, Yucatán Peninsula, and areas scattered throughout the Pacific coastal states. Less suitable areas occurred in northern and central states. The most important predictor variables were related to temperature. Development and growth rates had a distribution wider than habitat, reaching some of the northern states of México. Habitat, development, and population growth rates were correlated to each other and with the citrus producing area. These relationships indicated that citrus producing states are within the most suitable regions for the occurrence, development, and population growth of D. citri, therefore increasing the risk of huanglongbing dispersion. PMID:24735280
López-Collado, José; Isabel López-Arroyo, J; Robles-García, Pedro L; Márquez-Santos, Magdalena
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an introduced pest in Mexico and a vector of huanglongbing, a lethal citrus disease. Estimations of the habitat distribution and population growth rates of D. citri are required to establish regional and areawide management strategies and can be used as a pest risk analysis tools. In this study, the habitat distribution of D. citri in Mexico was computed with MaxEnt, an inductive, machine-learning program that uses bioclimatic layers and point location data. Geographic distributions of development and population growth rates were determined by fitting a temperature-dependent, nonlinear model and projecting the rates over the target area, using the annual mean temperature as the predictor variable. The results showed that the most suitable regions for habitat of D. citri comprise the Gulf of Mexico states, Yucatán Peninsula, and areas scattered throughout the Pacific coastal states. Less suitable areas occurred in northern and central states. The most important predictor variables were related to temperature. Development and growth rates had a distribution wider than habitat, reaching some of the northern states of México. Habitat, development, and population growth rates were correlated to each other and with the citrus producing area. These relationships indicated that citrus producing states are within the most suitable regions for the occurrence, development, and population growth of D. citri, therefore increasing the risk of huanglongbing dispersion.
Wen, Wanqing; Zheng, Wei; Okada, Yukinori; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Tabara, Yasuharu; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Li, Huaixing; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Yang, Xiaobo; He, Jiang; Wu, Ying; He, Meian; Zhang, Yi; Liang, Jun; Guo, Xiuqing; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng; Delahanty, Ryan; Guo, Xingyi; Kubo, Michiaki; Yamamoto, Ken; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Go, Min Jin; Liu, Jian Jun; Gan, Wei; Chen, Ching-Chu; Gao, Yong; Li, Shengxu; Lee, Nanette R; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Xueya; Song, Huaidong; Yao, Jie; Lee, I-Te; Long, Jirong; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Akiyama, Koichi; Takashima, Naoyuki; Cho, Yoon Shin; Ong, Rick Th; Lu, Ling; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Tan, Aihua; Rice, Treva K; Adair, Linda S; Gui, Lixuan; Allison, Matthew; Lee, Wen-Jane; Cai, Qiuyin; Isomura, Minoru; Umemura, Satoshi; Kim, Young Jin; Seielstad, Mark; Hixson, James; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Isono, Masato; Kim, Bong-Jo; Sim, Xueling; Lu, Wei; Nabika, Toru; Lee, Juyoung; Lim, Wei-Yen; Gao, Yu-Tang; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Kang, Dae-Hee; Wong, Tien Yin; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Wu, I-Chien; Juang, Jyh-Ming Jimmy; Shi, Jiajun; Choi, Bo Youl; Aung, Tin; Hu, Frank; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lim, Wei Yen; Wang, Tzung-Dao; Shin, Min-Ho; Lee, Jeannette; Ji, Bu-Tian; Lee, Young-Hoon; Young, Terri L; Shin, Dong Hoon; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Cho, Myeong-Chan; Han, Bok-Ghee; Hwu, Chii-Min; Assimes, Themistocles L; Absher, Devin; Yan, Xiaofei; Kim, Eric; Kuo, Jane Z; Kwon, Soonil; Taylor, Kent D; Chen, Yii-Der I; Rotter, Jerome I; Qi, Lu; Zhu, Dingliang; Wu, Tangchun; Mohlke, Karen L; Gu, Dongfeng; Mo, Zengnan; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Lin, Xu; Miki, Tetsuro; Tai, E Shyong; Lee, Jong-Young; Kato, Norihiro; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Tanaka, Toshihiro
Recent genetic association studies have identified 55 genetic loci associated with obesity or body mass index (BMI). The vast majority, 51 loci, however, were identified in European-ancestry populations. We conducted a meta-analysis of associations between BMI and ∼2.5 million genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms among 86 757 individuals of Asian ancestry, followed by in silico and de novo replication among 7488-47 352 additional Asian-ancestry individuals. We identified four novel BMI-associated loci near the KCNQ1 (rs2237892, P = 9.29 × 10(-13)), ALDH2/MYL2 (rs671, P = 3.40 × 10(-11); rs12229654, P = 4.56 × 10(-9)), ITIH4 (rs2535633, P = 1.77 × 10(-10)) and NT5C2 (rs11191580, P = 3.83 × 10(-8)) genes. The association of BMI with rs2237892, rs671 and rs12229654 was significantly stronger among men than among women. Of the 51 BMI-associated loci initially identified in European-ancestry populations, we confirmed eight loci at the genome-wide significance level (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)) and an additional 14 at P < 1.0 × 10(-3) with the same direction of effect as reported previously. Findings from this analysis expand our knowledge of the genetic basis of obesity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Wang, Y-C; Chung, C-H; Chen, J-H; Chiang, M-H; Ti-Yin; Tsao, C-H; Lin, F-H; Chien, W-C; Shang, S-T; Chang, F-Y
This nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study evaluated the risk of developing prostate cancer among patients with gonorrhea. We identified cases of newly diagnosed gonorrhea in men between 2000 and 2010 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Each patient with gonorrhea was matched to four controls, based on age and index year. All subjects were followed up from the index date to December 31, 2010. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to assess the risk of prostate cancer. A total of 355 men were included in the study group, and 1,420 age-matched subjects without gonorrhea were included in the control group. After adjusting for age, comorbidities, urbanization level, hospital level, and monthly income, gonorrhea was significantly associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (adjusted hazard ratio = 5.66, 95% confidence interval = 1.36-23.52). Men aged 45-70 years and those with lower monthly income were more strongly associated with prostate cancer in the study group than the control group. The higher risk for developing prostate cancer were also found in those without syphilis, without genital warts, without diabetes mellitus, without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, without benign prostatic hypertrophy, without chronic prostatitis, and without alcoholism. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed the risk of prostate cancer was significantly higher in the study group than in the control group. Gonorrhea may be involved in the development of prostate cancer. More intensive screening and prevention interventions for prostate cancer should be recommended in men with gonorrhea.
A phylogeographic analysis inferred from the partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) (433-bp) was performed with 22 populations (n=121) of Diaphorina citri collected in the Americas. Eight populations (n=46) from four countries in South America and 14 populations (n=75) from f...
Okobiah, Omamurhomu Solomon
A content analysis of two selected population education curriculum materials, one representative of advanced nations, the other of developing nations: "Population, Environmental-Ecological Education Project" (Missouri State Department of Education, 1973) and "Population and Family Education" (Unesco Regional Office for Asia,…
Wong, Celeste K; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Gee, Gilbert C; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Quach, Thu; Allen, Laura; Bautista, Roxanna; La Chica, Patricia Quema; Tseng, Winston; Chang, Pancho; Clarke, Christina A; Yang, Juan; Le, Gem M; Canchola, Alison; Irwin, Melinda L; Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin; Gomez, Scarlett Lin
Data are limited on effective methods for recruiting persons, especially from ethnically diverse populations, into population-based studies. The goal of this study was to evaluate the variation among and representativeness of controls identified using multiple methods for a population-based case-control study of breast cancer among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs) in the San Francisco Bay Area. We used a unique combination of targeted recruitment strategies, including address-based sampling, community-based methods, and internet-based and media-based approaches for recruiting controls, frequency matched on age and ethnicity to a population-based sample of cases. To characterise the participating controls, we compared the distribution of sociodemographic characteristics and cancer risk factors between recruitment sources using χ(2) tests. To ensure that the controls we recruited were representative of the underlying at-risk population, we compared characteristics of the controls, by ethnicity and in aggregate, to data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), and adjusted the relative mix of recruitment strategies throughout the study as needed to achieve representativeness. As expected, controls (n=483) recruited by any single method were not representative. However, when aggregated across methods, controls were largely representative of the underlying source population, as characterised by CHIS, with regard to the characteristics under study, including nativity, education, marital status and body mass index. A multimode approach using targeted recruitment strategies is an effective and feasible alternative to using a single recruitment method in identifying a representative, diverse control sample for population-based studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Ke, Y; Su, B; Xiao, J; Chen, H; Huang, W; Chen, Z; Chu, J; Tan, J; Jin, L; Lu, D
We investigated the distribution of Y-chromosome haplotype using 19 Y-SNPs in Han Chinese populations from 22 provinces of China. Our data indicate distinctive patterns of Y chromosome between southern and northern Han Chinese populations. The southern populations are much more polymorphic than northern populations. The latter has only a subset of the southern haplotypes. This result confirms the genetic difference observed between southern and northern ethnic populations in East Asia. It supports the hypothesis that the first settlement of modern humans of African origin occurred in the southern part of East Asia during the last Ice Age, and a northward migration led to the peopling of northern China.
Nouri, Shahideh; Salem, Nidá; Nigg, Jared C.
ABSTRACT The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, is the natural vector of the causal agent of Huanglongbing (HLB), or citrus greening disease. Together; HLB and D. citri represent a major threat to world citrus production. As there is no cure for HLB, insect vector management is considered one strategy to help control the disease, and D. citri viruses might be useful. In this study, we used a metagenomic approach to analyze viral sequences associated with the global population of D. citri. By sequencing small RNAs and the transcriptome coupled with bioinformatics analysis, we showed that the virus-like sequences of D. citri are diverse. We identified novel viral sequences belonging to the picornavirus superfamily, the Reoviridae, Parvoviridae, and Bunyaviridae families, and an unclassified positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus. Moreover, a Wolbachia prophage-related sequence was identified. This is the first comprehensive survey to assess the viral community from worldwide populations of an agricultural insect pest. Our results provide valuable information on new putative viruses, some of which may have the potential to be used as biocontrol agents. IMPORTANCE Insects have the most species of all animals, and are hosts to, and vectors of, a great variety of known and unknown viruses. Some of these most likely have the potential to be important fundamental and/or practical resources. In this study, we used high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and bioinformatics analysis to identify putative viruses associated with Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid. D. citri is the vector of the bacterium causing Huanglongbing (HLB), currently the most serious threat to citrus worldwide. Here, we report several novel viral sequences associated with D. citri. PMID:26676774
Akeroyd, Julia M; Chan, Winston J; Kamal, Ayeesha K; Palaniappan, Latha; Virani, Salim S
AIM: To review methods of assessing adherence and strategies to improve adherence to cardiovascular disease (CVD) medications, among South Asian CVD patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of English language studies that examined CVD medication adherence in South Asian populations from 1966 to April 1, 2015 in SCOPUS and PubMed. Working in duplicate, we identified 61 studies. After exclusions, 26 studies were selected for full text review. Of these, 17 studies were included in the final review. We abstracted data on several factors including study design, study population, method of assessing adherence and adherence rate. RESULTS: These studies were conducted in India (n = 11), Pakistan (n = 3), Bangladesh (n = 1), Nepal (n = 1) and Sri Lanka (n = 1). Adherence rates ranged from 32%-95% across studies. Of the 17 total publications included, 10 focused on assessing adherence to CVD medications and 7 focused on assessing the impact of interventions on medication adherence. The validated Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) was used as the primary method of assessing adherence in five studies. Three studies used validated questionnaires similar to the MMAS, and one study utilized Medication Event Monitoring System caps, with the remainder of the studies utilizing pill count and self-report measures. As expected, studies using non-validated self-report measures described higher rates of adherence than studies using validated scale measurements and pill count. The included intervention studies examined the use of polypill therapy, provider education and patient counseling to improve medication adherence. CONCLUSION: The overall medication adherence rates were low in the region, which suggest a growing need for future interventions to improve adherence. PMID:26730300
Nouri, Shahideh; Salem, Nidá; Nigg, Jared C; Falk, Bryce W
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, is the natural vector of the causal agent of Huanglongbing (HLB), or citrus greening disease. Together; HLB and D. citri represent a major threat to world citrus production. As there is no cure for HLB, insect vector management is considered one strategy to help control the disease, and D. citri viruses might be useful. In this study, we used a metagenomic approach to analyze viral sequences associated with the global population of D. citri. By sequencing small RNAs and the transcriptome coupled with bioinformatics analysis, we showed that the virus-like sequences of D. citri are diverse. We identified novel viral sequences belonging to the picornavirus superfamily, the Reoviridae, Parvoviridae, and Bunyaviridae families, and an unclassified positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus. Moreover, a Wolbachia prophage-related sequence was identified. This is the first comprehensive survey to assess the viral community from worldwide populations of an agricultural insect pest. Our results provide valuable information on new putative viruses, some of which may have the potential to be used as biocontrol agents. Insects have the most species of all animals, and are hosts to, and vectors of, a great variety of known and unknown viruses. Some of these most likely have the potential to be important fundamental and/or practical resources. In this study, we used high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and bioinformatics analysis to identify putative viruses associated with Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid. D. citri is the vector of the bacterium causing Huanglongbing (HLB), currently the most serious threat to citrus worldwide. Here, we report several novel viral sequences associated with D. citri. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Wang, Yi Shi; Tay, Yong Kwang; Kwok, Colin; Tan, Eileen
Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the principle of targeted tissue destruction using selective photosensitization via a topical porphyrin precursor, followed by light exposure. It is well established for the treatment of actinic keratoses and superficial nonmelanoma skin cancers. Some studies have reported good efficacy when using PDT to treat viral warts in the Western population. We carried out a prospective, single-arm, phase II study of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-PDT in the treatment of recalcitrant viral warts in an Asian population. Recalcitrant viral warts were surgically pared, and then treated with 20% 5-ALA cream (Medac, Hamburg, Germany) under occlusion for 4 hours before irradiation with a red light source (Waldmann PDT1200; wavelength, 590-700 nm) at an irradiance of 50 mW/cm(2) and a total dose of 50 J/cm(2). PDT was repeated fortnightly for a maximum of four times. Twelve adult Asian patients were enrolled into the study (10 males, two females). The mean age of the patients was 32.8 years (range, 18-70 years). They had skin phototypes III-IV. Nine patients had plantar warts and three patients had hand warts (two had warts on the fingers, one had a wart on the palm). Five patients (42%) showed complete disappearance of their warts, one patient (8%) showed partial clearance (greater than 50% decrease in the wart area), five patients (42%) had stable disease (less than 50% decrease in the wart area), and one (8%) showed progressive disease (increase in the wart area). Adverse effects included mild to moderate pain and erythema, which lasted no longer than 48 hours and was well tolerated by all patients. None of the patients withdrew from the study because of side-effects. 5-ALA-PDT, given its noninvasiveness, minimal adverse effects, and good cosmetic results, is a promising alternative treatment for recalcitrant viral warts. Further studies with a larger cohort of patients would be of value.
Li, Zhen; Ge, Hongzhou; Xie, Yong-Gang; Xie, Guang-Ying; Lv, Chao
Data on the association between -1607 1G > 2G polymorphism in the promoter region of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are conflicting. The aim of this study was to confirm whether this polymorphism was a causative factor of NPC. We searched PubMed, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for studies on the present topic. A total of four publications (1,044 NPC patients and 1,284 healthy control subjects) were included and meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between -1607 1G > 2G polymorphism and NPC risk. Odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) was calculated for 1G1G versus 2G2G, 1G1G + 1G2G versus 2G2G, 1G1G versus 1G2G + 2G2G, 1G versus 2G, and 1G2G versus 2G2G contrast models. Meta-analysis results showed significantly reduced risk of NPC associated with the 1G1G versus 2G2G, 1G versus 2G and 1G2G versus 2G2G contrast models (OR = 0.61, 95 % CI 0.49-0.77; OR = 0.78, 95 % CI 0.65-0.92; OR = 0.86, 95 % CI 0.74-0.99, respectively). When we continued to perform subgroup analysis by ethnicity, the significant association persisted in Asian population and was most pronounced under the 1G2G versus 2G2G model (OR = 0.85, 95 % CI 0.73-0.99). These data suggested that MMP1 -1607 1G > 2G polymorphism was associated with reduced risk of NPC, particularly in the population of Asian descent.
Wong, Edward S. Y.; Shekar, Sandhya; Chan, Claire H. T.; Hong, Lewis Z.; Poon, Suk-Yean; Silla, Toomas; Lin, Clarabelle; Kumar, Vikrant; Davila, Sonia; Voorhoeve, Mathijs; Thike, Aye Aye; Ho, Gay Hui; Yap, Yoon Sim; Tan, Puay Hoon; Tan, Min-Han; Ang, Peter; Lee, Ann S. G.
Purpose The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) has proposed guidelines for the genetic testing of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, based on studies in western populations. This current study assessed potential predictive factors for BRCA mutation probability, in an Asian population. Methods A total of 359 breast cancer patients, who presented with either a family history (FH) of breast and/or ovarian cancer or early onset breast cancer, were accrued at the National Cancer Center Singapore (NCCS). The relationships between clinico-pathological features and mutational status were calculated using the Chi-squared test and binary logistic regression analysis. Results Of 359 patients, 45 (12.5%) had deleterious or damaging missense mutations in BRCA1 and/or BRCA2. BRCA1 mutations were more likely to be found in ER-negative than ER-positive breast cancer patients (P=0.01). Moreover, ER-negative patients with BRCA mutations were diagnosed at an earlier age (40 vs. 48 years, P=0.008). Similarly, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients were more likely to have BRCA1 mutations (P=0.001) and that these patients were diagnosed at a relatively younger age than non-TNBC patients (38 vs. 46 years, P=0.028). Our analysis has confirmed that ER-negative status, TNBC status and a FH of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) are strong factors predicting the likelihood of having BRCA mutations. Conclusions Our study provides evidence that TNBC or ER-negative patients may benefit from BRCA genetic testing, particularly younger patients (<40 years) or those with a strong FH of HBOC, in Asian patients. PMID:26221963
Nadasi, Edit; Gyurus, P; Czakó, Márta; Bene, Judit; Kosztolányi, Sz; Fazekas, Sz; Dömösi, P; Melegh, B
Hungarians are unique among the other European populations because according to history, the ancient Magyars had come from the eastern side of the Ural Mountains and settled down in the Carpathian basin in the 9th century AD. Since variations in the human mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) are routinely used to infer the histories of different populations, we examined the distribution of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) sites of the mtDNA in apparently healthy, unrelated Hungarian subjects in order to collect data on the genetic origin of the Hungarian population. Among the 55 samples analyzed, the large majority belonged to haplogroups common in other European populations, however, three samples fulfilled the requirements of haplogroup M. Since haplogroup M is classified as a haplogroup characteristic mainly for Asian populations, the presence of haplogroup M found in approximately 5% of the total suggests that an Asian matrilineal ancestry, even if in a small incidence, can be detected among modern Hungarians.
Hughes, K; Choo, M; Kuperan, P; Ong, C N; Aw, T C
Cardiovascular risk factors were compared between 126 people with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and 530 non-diabetics (controls), in a random sample of people (Chinese, Malays, and Asian Indians) aged 40-69 years from the general population of Singapore. Data were adjusted for age and ethnicity. For both genders, people with NIDDM had higher mean body mass indices, waist-hip ratios and abdominal diameters. They also had a higher prevalence of hypertension, higher mean levels of fasting serum triglyceride, slightly lower mean levels of serum high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, and higher mean levels of plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator (antigen). These factors are components of syndrome X (metabolic syndrome) and increase the risk of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. In contrast, there were no important differences for cigarette smoking, serum total and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, serum apolipoproteins A1 and B, plasma factor VIIc and plasma prothrombin fragment 1 + 2. Females with NIDDM, but not males, had a higher mean serum fibrinogen level than non-diabetics, which could explain why NIDDM has a greater cardiovascular effect in females than males. Serum lipoprotein(a) concentrations were lower in people with NIDDM. Mean levels of serum ferritin, a pro-oxidant, were higher in people with NIDDM than controls, but there were no important differences for plasma vitamins A, C and E, and serum selenium, which are anti-oxidants.
Choudhary, Jaipal S; Naaz, Naiyar; Prabhakar, Chandra S; Lemtur, Moanaro
The study examined the genetic diversity and demographic history of Bactrocera dorsalis, a destructive and polyphagous insect pest of fruit crops in diverse geographic regions of India. 19 widely dispersed populations of the fly from India and other Asian countries were analysed using partial sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1) genes to investigate genetic diversity, genetic structure, and demographic history in the region. Genetic diversity indices [number of haplotypes (H), haloptype diversity (Hd), nucleotide diversity (π) and average number of nucleotide difference (k)] of populations revealed that B. dorsalis maintains fairly high level of genetic diversity without isolation by distance among the geographic regions. Demographic analysis showed significant (negative) Tajimas' D and Fu's F S with non significant sum of squared deviations (SSD) values, which indicate the possibility of recent sudden expansion of species and is further supported through distinctively star-like distribution structure of haplotypes among populations. Thus, the results indicate that both ongoing and historical factors have played important role in determining the genetic structure and diversity of the species in India. Consequently, sterile insect technique (SIT) could be a possible management strategy of species in the regions.
Wu, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Ping
During the colonization of the world, after dispersal out of African, modern humans encountered changeable environments and substantial phenotypic variations that involve diverse behaviors, lifestyles and cultures, were generated among the different modern human populations. Here, we study the level of population differentiation among different populations of human genes. Intriguingly, genes involved in osteoblast development were identified as being enriched with higher FST SNPs, a result consistent with the proposed role of the skeletal system in accounting for variation among human populations. Genes involved in the development of hair follicles, where hair is produced, were also found to have higher levels of population differentiation, consistent with hair morphology being a distinctive trait among human populations. Other genes that showed higher levels of population differentiation include those involved in pigmentation, spermatid, nervous system and organ development, and some metabolic pathways, but few involved with the immune system. Disease-related genes demonstrate excessive SNPs with lower levels of population differentiation, probably due to purifying selection. Surprisingly, we find that Mendelian-disease genes appear to have a significant excessive of SNPs with high levels of population differentiation, possibly because the incidence and susceptibility of these diseases show differences among populations. As expected, microRNA regulated genes show lower levels of population differentiation due to purifying selection. Our analysis demonstrates different level of population differentiation among human populations for different gene groups.
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand).
This report, the third in a series of five reports of the Comparative Study of Population Growth and Agricultural Change, describes a study of the two states of India (Punjaband and Orissa) which attempted to clarify the relationship between population pressure and agricultural change through a time series analysis. This study: (1) outlines trends…
Endicott, Phillip; Metspalu, Mait; Stringer, Chris; Macaulay, Vincent; Cooper, Alan; Sanchez, Juan J
The issue of errors in genetic data sets is of growing concern, particularly in population genetics where whole genome mtDNA sequence data is coming under increased scrutiny. Multiplexed PCR reactions, combined with SNP typing, are currently under-exploited in this context, but have the potential to genotype whole populations rapidly and accurately, significantly reducing the amount of errors appearing in published data sets. To show the sensitivity of this technique for screening mtDNA genomic sequence data, 20 historic samples of the enigmatic Andaman Islanders and 12 modern samples from three Indian tribal populations (Chenchu, Lambadi and Lodha) were genotyped for 20 coding region sites after provisional haplogroup assignment with control region sequences. The genotype data from the historic samples significantly revise the topologies for the Andaman M31 and M32 mtDNA lineages by rectifying conflicts in published data sets. The new Indian data extend the distribution of the M31a lineage to South Asia, challenging previous interpretations of mtDNA phylogeography. This genetic connection between the ancestors of the Andamanese and South Asian tribal groups approximately 30 kya has important implications for the debate concerning migration routes and settlement patterns of humans leaving Africa during the late Pleistocene, and indicates the need for more detailed genotyping strategies. The methodology serves as a low-cost, high-throughput model for the production and authentication of data from modern or ancient DNA, and demonstrates the value of museum collections as important records of human genetic diversity.
Wan, Jin-Yi; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhang, Qi-Hui; Liu, Zhi; Musch, Mark W; Bissonnette, Marc; Chang, Eugene B; Li, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen; Yuan, Chun-Su
After ingestion of ginseng, the bioavailability of its parent compounds is low and enteric microbiota plays an important role in parent compound biotransformation to their metabolites. Diet type can influence the enteric microbiota profile. When human subjects on different diets ingest ginseng, their different gut microbiota profiles may influence the metabolism of ginseng parent compounds. In this study, the effects of different diet type on gut microbiota metabolism of American ginseng saponins were investigated. We recruited six healthy adults who regularly consumed different diet types. These subjects received 7 days' oral American ginseng, and their biological samples were collected for LC-Q-TOF-MS analysis. We observed significant ginsenoside Rb1 (a major parent compound) and compound K (a major active metabolite) level differences in the samples from the subjects consuming different diets. Subjects on an Asian diet had much higher Rb1 levels but much lower compound K levels compared with those on a Western diet. Since compound K possesses much better cancer chemoprevention potential, our data suggested that consumers on a Western diet should obtain better cancer prevention effects with American ginseng intake compared with those on an Asian diet. Ginseng compound levels could be enhanced or reduced via gut microbiota manipulation for clinical utility. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wang, Chien-Ho; Chen, Chin-Shyan; Lin, Chung-Liang
This study explores the relationship between Asian dust storms (ADSs), asthma hospital admissions and average medical cost discharge. We adopt the hospitalisation data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance research database covering the period from 2000 to 2009. The autoregressive integrated moving average with exogenous variables (ARIMAX) analyses were performed to explore the relationship between ADS and asthma hospital admissions, adjusting for temperature, air pollutants and season dummy. The results show that ADS events do generate a critical influence upon the occurrences of asthma on post-ADS events from days 1 through 3, with an average of 17-20 more hospitalised admissions, and have stronger effects on preschool children, middle-aged people and the elderly. From the perspective of medical expenses, the cost of hospitalised admissions for asthma substantially rises daily, on average, by NT$634,698 to NT$787,407 during ADS event days. This study suggests that government should establish a forecast and alert system and release warnings about dust storms, so that the individuals predisposed to asthma can take precautionary measures to reduce their outdoor exposure. Consequently, personal risk and medical expenditure could be reduced significantly, especially for preschool children, middle-aged people and the elderly with asthma.
Kendall, Rebecca; Howard, Lauren; Masters, Nic; Grant, Robyn
Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) is one of the most devastating infections and causes of mortality in captive Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus ) populations. Eight confirmed fatal EEHV cases have occurred since 1995 within the captive Asian elephant population of the United Kingdom and Ireland. This report aims to review the impact of EEHV on the captive Asian elephant population in the United Kingdom and Ireland, document and compare fatal cases, and recommend a framework of monitoring within the United Kingdom and Ireland to increase the success of treatment of EEHV hemorrhagic disease (EEHV HD) in the future. Six zoologic institutions (which include zoos, safari parks, and wildlife parks) that currently house or have previously housed a captive Asian elephant group were included in this report. Medical records and postmortem results were collected from four of these institutions for each confirmed fatal case. EEHV HD was found to be responsible for 29.6% of fatalities in Asian elephants born in captivity in the United Kingdom and Ireland between 1995 and 2013. Following a review of all the cases, it is shown that although clinical signs may be associated with specific EEHV species, the swiftness of disease progression means that most body tissues are impacted 1-6 days following the presentation of visible clinical signs and treatment is less likely to succeed. Therefore, EEHV monitoring should consist of conducting regular polymerase chain reaction analysis of whole blood samples from at-risk, young Asian elephants aged 1-8 yr in order for subclinical viremia to be identified early and treatment to be started before the appearance of visible clinical signs.
A phylogeographic analysis inferred from the partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (433 bp) was performed with 22 populations (n=132) of Diaphorina citri collected in the Americas and one in the Pacific. Eight populations (n=46) from four countries in South America, 14 (n=76) from...
Gordon, Linda W.
Presents the age-sex structures of refugee populations arriving in the United States from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam from 1975 through 1986. Differences in the composition of these young populations reflect varying flight and resettlement experiences and changing factors influencing migration. High fertility rates predict a generation of rapid…
Gordon, Linda W.
Presents the age-sex structures of refugee populations arriving in the United States from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam from 1975 through 1986. Differences in the composition of these young populations reflect varying flight and resettlement experiences and changing factors influencing migration. High fertility rates predict a generation of rapid…
Joseph, P. V.; Sijikumar, S.
The strong cross-equatorial low level jet stream (LLJ) with its core around 850 hPa of the Asian summer monsoon (June September) is found to have large intraseasonal variability. During the monsoon onset over Kerala, India, and during break monsoon periods, when the convective heating of the atmosphere is over the low latitudes of the Indian Ocean, the axis of the LLJ is oriented southeastward over the eastern Arabian Sea and it flows east between Sri Lanka and the equator and there is no LLJ through peninsular India. This affects the transport of moisture produced over the Indian Ocean to peninsular India and the Bay of Bengal. In contrast, during active monsoon periods when there is an east west band of strong convective heating in the latitudes 10° 20°N from about longitude 70° to about 120°E, the LLJ axis passes from the central Arabian Sea eastward through peninsular India and it provides moisture for the increased convection in the Bay of Bengal and for the monsoon depressions forming there. The LLJ does not show splitting into two branches over the Arabian Sea. Splitting of the jet was first suggested by Findlater and has since found wide acceptance as seen from the literature. Findlater's findings were based on analysis of monthly mean winds. Such an analysis is likely to show the LLJ of active and break monsoons as occurring simultaneously, suggesting a split.Strengths of the convective heat source (OLR) over the Bay of Bengal and the strength of the LLJ (zonal component of wind) at 850 hPa over peninsular India and also the Bay of Bengal between latitudes 10° and 20°N have the highest linear correlation coefficient at a lag of 2 3 days, with OLR leading. The LLJ crossing the equator close to the coast of East Africa will pass through India only if there is active monsoon convection in the latitude belt 10° 20°N over south Asia. The position in latitude of the LLJ axis between longitudes 70° and 100°E is decided by the south north movement of the
Li, Jing; Coates, Brad S; Kim, Kyung Seok; Bourguet, Denis; Ponsard, Sergine; He, Kanglai; Wang, Zhenying
Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), is a severe pest that infests cultivated maize in the major production regions of China. Populations show genotype-by-environment variation in voltinism, such that populations with a single generation (univoltine) are fixed in Northern China where growing seasons are short. Low genetic differentiation was found among samples from 33 collection sites across China and one site from North Korea (n=1673) using variation at 6 nuclear microsatellite loci (ENA corrected global FST=0.020; P value<0.05). Analysis of molecular variance indicated that geographic region, number of generations or voltinism accounted for <0.38% of the total genetic variation at nuclear loci and was corroborated by clustering of co-ancestries among genotypes using the program STRUCTURE. In contrast, a mitochondrial haplotype network identified 4 distinct clusters, where 70.5% of samples from univoltine populations were within a single group. Univoltine populations were also placed into a unique cluster using Population Graph and Principal component analyses, which showed significant differentiation with multivoltine populations (φST=0.400; P value<0.01). This study suggests that gene flow among O. furnacalis in China may be high among regions, with the exception of northeastern localities. Haplotype variation may be due to random genetic drift resulting from partial reproductive isolation between univoltine and multivoltine O. furnacalis populations. Such reproductive isolation might impact the potential spread of alleles that confer resistance to transgenic maize in China. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Rosella, Laura C.; Mustard, Cameron A.; Stukel, Therese A.; Corey, Paul; Hux, Jan; Roos, Les; Manuel, Douglas G.
Background. The current form of the Diabetes Population Risk Tool (DPoRT) includes a non-specific category of ethnicity in concordance with publicly data available. Given the importance of ethnicity in influencing diabetes risk and its significance in a multi-ethnic population, it is prudent to determine its influence on a population-based risk prediction tool. Objective. To apply and compare the DPoRT with a modified version that includes detailed ethnic information in Canada's largest and most ethnically diverse province. Methods. Two additional diabetes prediction models were created: a model that contained predictors specific to the following ethnic groups – White, Black, Asian, south Asian, and First Nation; and a reference model which did not include a term for ethnicity. In addition to discrimination and calibration, 10-year diabetes incidence was compared. The algorithms were developed in Ontario using the 1996–1997 National Population Health Survey (N = 19,861) and validated in the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (N = 26,465). Results. All non-white ethnicities were associated with higher risk for developing diabetes with south Asians having the highest risk. Discrimination was similar (0.75–0.77) and sufficient calibration was maintained for all models except the detailed ethnicity models for males. DPoRT produced the lowest overall ratio between observed and predicted diabetes risk. DPoRT identified more high risk cases than the other algorithms in males, whereas in females both DPoRT and the full ethnicity model identified more high risk cases. Overall DPoRT and full ethnicity algorithms were very similar in terms of predictive accuracy and population risk. Conclusion. Although from the individual risk perspective, incorporating information on ethnicity is important, when predicting new cases of diabetes at the population level and accounting for other risk factors, detailed ethnic information did not improve the discrimination and
Ho, Shiaw-Hooi; Ng, Kee-Peng; Kaur, Harvinder; Goh, Khean-Lee
Genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) are distributed differently across the world. There is a paucity of such data in a multi-ethnic Asian population like Malaysia. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution of HCV genotypes between major ethnic groups and to ascertain their association with basic demographic variables like age and gender. This was a cross-sectional prospective study conducted from September 2007 to September 2013. Consecutive patients who were detected to have anti-HCV antibodies in the University of Malaya Medical Centre were included and tested for the presence of HCV RNA using Roche Cobas Amplicor Analyzer and HCV genotype using Roche single Linear Array HCV Genotyping strip. Five hundred and ninety-six subjects were found to have positive anti-HCV antibodies during this period of time. However, only 396 (66.4%) were HCV RNA positive and included in the final analysis. Our results showed that HCV genotype 3 was the predominant genotype with overall frequency of 61.9% followed by genotypes 1 (35.9%), 2 (1.8%) and 6 (0.5%). There was a slightly higher prevalence of HCV genotype 3 among the Malays when compared to the Chinese (P=0.043). No other statistical significant differences were observed in the distribution of HCV genotypes among the major ethnic groups. There was also no association between the predominant genotypes and basic demographic variables. In a multi-ethnic Asian society in Malaysia, genotype 3 is the predominant genotype among all the major ethnic groups with genotype 1 as the second commonest genotype. Both genotypes 2 and 6 are uncommon. Neither genotype 4 nor 5 was detected. There is no identification of HCV genotype according to ethnic origin, age and gender.
Tai, Shu-Yu; Chien, Chen-Yu; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Lin, Kun-Der; Ho, Bo-Lin; Chang, Yu-Han
Introduction Concerns have been raised regarding the potential association between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use and dementia. Objective This study aimed to examine this association in an Asian population. Methods Patients initiating PPI therapy between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2003 without a prior history of dementia were identified from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. The outcome of interest was all-cause dementia. Cox regression models were applied to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of dementia. The cumulative PPI dosage stratified by quartiles of defined daily doses and adjusted for baseline disease risk score served as the primary variables compared against no PPI use. Results We analyzed the data of 15726 participants aged 40 years or older and free of dementia at baseline. PPI users (n = 7863; average follow-up 8.44 years) had a significantly increased risk of dementia over non—PPI users (n = 7863; average follow-up 9.55 years) (adjusted HR [aHR] 1.22; 95% confidence interval: 1.05–1.42). A significant association was observed between cumulative PPI use and risk of dementia (P for trend = .013). Subgroup analysis showed excess frequency of dementia in PPI users diagnosed with depression (aHR 2.73 [1.91–3.89]), hyperlipidemia (aHR 1.81 [1.38–2.38]), ischemic heart disease (aHR 1.55 [1.12–2.14]), and hypertension (aHR 1.54 [1.21–1.95]). Conclusions An increased risk for dementia was identified among the Asian PPI users. Cumulative PPI use was significantly associated with dementia. Further investigation into the possible biological mechanisms underlying the relationship between dementia and PPI use is warranted. PMID:28199356
Genetic association studies on MTHFR C677 T polymorphism and depression have been repeatedly performed over the last two decades and results are generally inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to assess the risk of MTHFR C677T polymorphism for depression in Asian population. The author performed a meta-analysis and pooled data from individual case-control studies that examined the association between C677T polymorphism and depression (meta-analysis: 13 studies, 1,120 cases and 1,688 controls).The pooled Odd Ratios (OR) were estimated by both fixed effects and random effects models. Overall, there was an association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and increased risk of depression under five genetic models (OR T vs. C=1.44, 95% CI= 1.56-1.78, P=0.001; OR TT vs. CC= 1.78, 95% CI 1.17– 2.69, P=0.006; OR CT vs CC=1.102, 95% CI=0.91-1.32,P=0.31; OR TT vs. CT+CC=1.73, 95% CI= 0.87-3.41, P=0.11; OR TT+CT vs. CC=1.26, 95% CI=0.96-1.64, P=0.08). Sensitivity analysis suggested exclusion of any single study did not alter the overall pooled Ors. In conclusion results of present meta-analysis supports that there is a significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and depression risk, and MTHFR 677T allele contributes to increased risk of depression in Asian individuals.
Woodward, Mark; Peters, Sanne A E; Batty, G David; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Woo, Jean; Giles, Graham G; Barzi, Federica; Ho, Suzanne C; Huxley, Rachel R; Arima, Hisatomi; Fang, Xianghua; Dobson, Annette; Lam, Tai Hing; Vathesatogkit, Prin
Objectives In Western countries, lower socioeconomic status is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and premature mortality. These associations may plausibly differ in Asian populations, but data are scarce and direct comparisons between the two regions are lacking. We, thus, aimed to compare such associations between Asian and Western populations in a large collaborative study, using the highest level of education attained as our measure of social status. Setting Cohort studies in general populations conducted in Asia or Australasia. Participants 303 036 people (71% from Asia) from 24 studies in the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. Studies had to have a prospective cohort study design, have accumulated at least 5000 person-years of follow-up, recorded date of birth (or age), sex and blood pressure at baseline and date of, or age at, death during follow-up. Outcome measures We used Cox regression models to estimate relationships between educational attainment and CVD (fatal or non-fatal), as well as all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality. Results During more than two million person-years of follow-up, 11 065 deaths (3655 from CVD and 4313 from cancer) and 1809 CVD non-fatal events were recorded. Adjusting for classical CVD risk factors and alcohol drinking, hazard ratios (95% CIs) for primary relative to tertiary education in Asia (Australasia) were 1.81 (1.38, 2.36) (1.10 (0.99, 1.22)) for all-cause mortality, 2.47(1.47, 4.17) (1.24 (1.02, 1.51)) for CVD mortality, 1.66 (1.00, 2.78) (1.01 (0.87, 1.17)) for cancer mortality and 2.09 (1.34, 3.26) (1.23 (1.04, 1.46)) for all CVD. Conclusions Lower educational attainment is associated with a higher risk of CVD or premature mortality in Asia, to a degree exceeding that in the Western populations of Australasia. PMID:25783421
Yeo, Kuei Siong Andy; Lim, Wen Siang Kevin; Lee, Yee Han Dave
INTRODUCTION There are currently no guidelines supporting the use of routine chemoprophylaxis to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in arthroscopic surgery. Studies and meta-analysis show opposing views on its routine use in arthroscopy. This study aimed to examine the incidence of DVT in a prospective cohort of knee arthroscopy and knee arthroplasty patients, and to analyse the risk factors contributing to DVT. METHODS All patients scheduled to undergo knee arthroscopy or arthroplasty over a two-year period were included. A standardised regimen of postoperative mechanical prophylaxis and rehabilitation was applied to all patients. Only patients who were postoperatively symptomatic were referred for ultrasonography. DVT incidence was calculated, and univariate and multivariate analyses of the risk factors were performed. RESULTS The overall incidence of DVT was 0.5% among the 1,410 arthroscopy patients and 3.1% among the 802 arthroplasty patients. The incidence of proximal DVT among the arthroscopy and arthroplasty patients was 0.4% and 1.1%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that age was the only significant predictor of DVT incidence. Using the receiver operating characteristic method, the cut-off age for the arthroscopy and arthroplasty patients was 52 years, while that for the arthroscopy patients only was 40 years (increased risk of DVT: 5.46 and 6.44 times, respectively; negative predictive value: 99.7% and 99.8%, respectively). CONCLUSION DVT incidence among Asian arthroplasty and arthroscopy patients remains low, even without chemoprophylaxis. Since age was found to be a significant risk factor for DVT, DVT prophylaxis can be considered for patients in high-risk age groups. PMID:27549352
Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Chung, Wan Ling; Mei, Jeanette Sng Ee
To compare the attitudes of the public attending at a local Emergency Department and the medical staff towards witnessed resuscitation. Over a 2-week period in April 2006, we conducted an interview survey on the relatives of patients attending at the Emergency Department of Singapore General Hospital (SGH) via a convenience sampling. We approached 156 people with a response rate of 93.5%. We compared the results with a similar study conducted on the medical staff in the Emergency Department in the same hospital. Should relatives be present during resuscitation? We found that 73.1% of the public supported witnessed resuscitation compared to only 10.6% of the medical staff (P<0.001). The most frequently deemed advantage for witnessed resuscitation cited by both groups was that relatives would then have assurance that everything possible had been done for the patient. While 68.8% of the public felt that being allowed into the resuscitation area would help in their grieving processes, only 35.6% of the medical staff shared the same point of view (P<0.001). Medical staff were less likely to agree that witnessed resuscitation would strengthen the bonds between themselves and the public (P<0.001). Medical staff were however, more inclined towards the opinion that relatives would have a traumatic experience in witnessing resuscitation of their loved ones (P<0.001) and that the presence of relatives would cause stress to the medical staff performing resuscitation (P<0.001). Locally, we find a discrepancy between healthcare workers and the public towards the concept of witnessed resuscitation. More research is needed on the attitudes of the Asian public and medical staff.
Chen, Peng; Miyake, Masahiro; Fan, Qiao; Liao, Jiemin; Yamashiro, Kenji; Ikram, Mohammad K; Chew, Merywn; Vithana, Eranga N; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Aung, Tin; Tai, E-Shyong; Wong, Tien-Yin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Saw, Seang-Mei; Cheng, Ching-Yu
Corneal curvature (CC) measures the steepness of the cornea and is an important parameter for clinically diseases such as astigmatism and myopia. Despite the high heritability of CC, only two associated genes have been discovered to date. We performed a three-stage genome-wide association study meta-analysis in 12 660 Asian individuals. Our Stage 1 was done in multiethnic cohorts comprising 7440 individuals, followed by a Stage 2 replication in 2473 Chinese and Stage 3 in 2747 Japanese. The SNP array genotype data were imputed up to the 1000 Genomes Project Phase 1 cosmopolitan panel. The SNP association with the radii of CC was investigated in the linear regression model with the adjustment of age, gender and principal components. In addition to the known genes, MTOR (also known as FRAP1) and PDGFRA, we discovered two novel genes associated with CC: CMPK1 (rs17103186, P = 3.3 × 10(-12)) and RBP3 (rs11204213 [Val884Met], P = 1.1 × 10(-13)). The missense RBP3 SNP, rs11204213, was also associated with axial length (AL) (P = 4.2 × 10(-6)) and had larger effects on both CC and AL compared with other SNPs. The index SNPs at the four indicated loci explained 1.9% of CC variance across the Stages 1 and 2 cohorts, while 33.8% of CC variance was explained by the genome-wide imputation data. We identified two novel genes influencing CC, which are related to either corneal shape or eye size. This study provides additional insights into genetic architecture of corneal shape.
Genetic and environmental factors play important roles in pathogenesis of digestive tract cancers like those in the esophagus, stomach and colorectum. Folate deficiency and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) as an important enzyme of folate and methionine metabolism are considered crucial for DNA synthesis and methylation. MTHFR variants may cause genomic hypomethylation, which may lead to the development of cancer, and MTHFR gene polymorphisms (especially C677T and A1298C) are known to influence predispositions for cancer development. Several case control association studies of MTHFR C677T polymorphisms and colorectal cancer (CRC) have been reported in different populations with contrasting results, possibly reflecting inadequate statistical power. The present meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the association between the C677T polymorphism and the risk of colorectal cancer. A literature search of the PubMed, Google Scholar, Springer link and Elsevier databases was carried out for potential relevant articles. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) was calculated to assess the association of MTHFR C677T with the susceptibility to CRC. Cochran's Q statistic and the inconsistency index (I2) were used to check study heterogeneity. Egger's test and funnel plots were applied to assess publication bias. All statistical analyses were conducted by with MetaAnalyst and MIX version 1.7. Thirty four case-control studies involving a total of 9,143 cases and 11,357 controls were retrieved according to the inclusion criteria. Overall, no significant association was found between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and colorectal cancer in Asian populations (for T vs. C: OR=1.03; 95% CI= 0.92-1.5; p= 0.64; for TT vs CC: OR=0.88; 95%CI= 0.74-1.04; p= 0.04; for CT vs. CC: OR = 1.02; 95%CI= 0.93-1.12; p=0.59; for TT+ CT vs. CC: OR=1.07; 95%CI= 0.94-1.22; p=0.87). Evidence from the current meta-analysis indicated that the C677T
Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles
In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…
Leow, A H-R; Lim, Y-Y; Liew, W-C; Goh, K-L
Marked epidemiological changes in upper gastrointestinal diseases and Helicobacter pylori infection have taken place in the Asian Pacific region. In particular, differences with respect to race in the multiracial Asian population in Malaysia have been important and interesting. A time trend study of upper gastrointestinal disease and H. pylori infection in three time periods: 1989-1990, 1999-2000 and 2009-2010 spanning a period of 20 years was carried out. Consecutive first time gastroscopies carried out on patients attending the University of Malaya Medical Center were studied. Diagnoses and H. pylori infection status were carefully recorded. A steady decline in prevalence of duodenal ulcer (DU) and gastric ulcer (GU) from 21.1% to 9.5% to 5.0% and from 11.9% to 9.4% to 9.9% while an increase in erosive oesophagitis (EO) from 2.0% to 8.4% to 9.5% (chi-square for trend; P < 0.001) for the periods 1989-1990, 1999-200 and 2009-2010 were observed. The overall prevalence of H. pylori had also decreased from 51.7% to 30.3% to 11.1% for the same periods of time. The proportion of H. pylori positive ulcers had also decreased: DU (90.1%-69.8%-28.9%) and GU (86.6-56.8%-18.9%) (P < 0.001). This was observed in Malays, Chinese and Indians but the difference over time was most marked in Malays. There was a steady decline in the proportion of patients with gastric and oesophageal cancers. Peptic ulcers have declined significantly over a 20-year period together with a decline in H. pylori infection. In contrast, a steady increase in erosive oesophagitis was observed. Gastric and oesophageal squamous cell cancers have declined to low levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sultana, H; Seo, D W; Bhuiyan, M S A; Choi, N R; Hoque, M R; Heo, K N; Lee, J H
The maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region is widely used for exploring genetic relationships and for investigating the origin of various animal species. Currently, domestic ducks play an important role in animal protein supply. In this study, partial mtDNA D-loop sequences were obtained from 145 samples belonging to six South-East Asian duck populations and commercial duck population. All these populations were closely related to the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), as indicated by their mean overall genetic distance. Sixteen nucleotide substitutions were identified in sequence analyses allowing the distinction of 28 haplotypes. Around 42.76% of the duck sequences were classified as Hap_02, which completely matched with Anas platyrhynchos duck species. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree also revealed that South-East Asian duck populations were closely related to Anas platyrhynchos. Network profiles were also traced using the 28 haplotypes. Overall, results showed that those duck populations D-loop haplotypes were shared between several duck breeds from Korea and Bangladesh sub continental regions. Therefore, these results confirmed that South-East Asian domestic duck populations have been domesticated from Anas platyrhynchos duck as the maternal origins.
Sultana, H.; Seo, D. W.; Bhuiyan, M. S. A.; Choi, N. R.; Hoque, M. R.; Heo, K. N.; Lee, J. H.
The maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D–loop region is widely used for exploring genetic relationships and for investigating the origin of various animal species. Currently, domestic ducks play an important role in animal protein supply. In this study, partial mtDNA D–loop sequences were obtained from 145 samples belonging to six South-East Asian duck populations and commercial duck population. All these populations were closely related to the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), as indicated by their mean overall genetic distance. Sixteen nucleotide substitutions were identified in sequence analyses allowing the distinction of 28 haplotypes. Around 42.76% of the duck sequences were classified as Hap_02, which completely matched with Anas platyrhynchos duck species. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree also revealed that South-East Asian duck populations were closely related to Anas platyrhynchos. Network profiles were also traced using the 28 haplotypes. Overall, results showed that those duck populations D-loop haplotypes were shared between several duck breeds from Korea and Bangladesh sub continental regions. Therefore, these results confirmed that South-East Asian domestic duck populations have been domesticated from Anas platyrhynchos duck as the maternal origins. PMID:27004808
Tay, Yu Kwang Donovan; Khoo, Joan; Chandran, Manju
Introduction: Whether parathyroidectomy is more beneficial to renal function when compared to medical therapy or observation in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is unclear. Neither has this premise been explored in non-Caucasian populations. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) threshold below which parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels rise if at all in PHPT has also not been established. We determined if surgery was superior to medical therapy and observation in a multi-ethnic Asian patient population with PHPT and whether there was an eGFR threshold below which PTH levels further increased in them. Methods: Retrospective evaluation of patients with PHPT. Results: There were 68.6% Chinese, 17.4% Malays, 10.7% Indians, and 3.3% Eurasians. The median (interquartile range) follow-up was 18.0 months (4.5–46.8). At last follow-up, eGFR in the surgical (80 ± 30 ml/min) was higher than the medical (52 ± 32 ml/min) or observation groups (48 ± 33 ml/min); P < 0.01. This difference persisted after adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, pre-intervention eGFR levels, nephrolithiasis, serum calcium, phosphate, urinary calcium, and duration of follow-up; P = 0.035. There was no definite eGFR level below which PTH values rose. Conclusion: Our study provides compelling evidence that in PHPT, surgery may be associated with a better renal outcome compared to medical management or observation. This has to be confirmed through prospective randomized controlled trials and the reasons for this finding have to be elucidated through functional and histological measures. The finding in our study of a lack of a specific eGFR threshold below which PTH levels further rose challenges the concept of a fixed renal threshold for secondary elevations of PTH in PHPT. PMID:26904469
Lee, Chih-Hong; Lu, Chin-Song; Chuang, Wen-Li; Yeh, Tu-Hsueh; Jung, Shih-Ming; Huang, Chia-Ling; Lai, Szu-Chia
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a rare disease caused by pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2, OMIM 606157) mutations. This study is aimed to investigate clinical presentations, pathologies, and genetics in patients with PKAN. Two patients with PKAN were reported. We reviewed the literature to include additional 19 patients with PKAN in Eastern Asia. These patients were divided into classic and atypical groups by the age of onset. We compared the data on PKAN patients of Asian and Caucasian populations. We found iron deposits in the globus pallidus in our Patient 1 and a heterozygous truncating mutation (c.1408insT) in Patient 2. Literature review shows that generalized dystonia and bulbar signs are more common in classic PKAN patients, whereas segmental dystonia and tremors are more specific to atypical ones. Asian patients have less complex presentations--lower prevalence of pyramidal signs, mental impairment, and parkinsonism--than Caucasians. D378G in exon 3 is the most frequent mutation (28%) in Asians. Our study demonstrates that the distribution of dystonia is the major distinction between subgroups of PKAN. Caucasian patients have more complex presentations than Asians. Exon 3 and 4 are hot spots for screening PANK2 mutations in Asian patients.
Lee, Chih-Hong; Lu, Chin-Song; Chuang, Wen-Li; Yeh, Tu-Hsueh; Jung, Shih-Ming; Huang, Chia-Ling; Lai, Szu-Chia
Objectives. Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a rare disease caused by pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2, OMIM 606157) mutations. This study is aimed to investigate clinical presentations, pathologies, and genetics in patients with PKAN. Methods. Two patients with PKAN were reported. We reviewed the literature to include additional 19 patients with PKAN in Eastern Asia. These patients were divided into classic and atypical groups by the age of onset. We compared the data on PKAN patients of Asian and Caucasian populations. Results. We found iron deposits in the globus pallidus in our Patient 1 and a heterozygous truncating mutation (c.1408insT) in Patient 2. Literature review shows that generalized dystonia and bulbar signs are more common in classic PKAN patients, whereas segmental dystonia and tremors are more specific to atypical ones. Asian patients have less complex presentations—lower prevalence of pyramidal signs, mental impairment, and parkinsonism—than Caucasians. D378G in exon 3 is the most frequent mutation (28%) in Asians. Conclusions. Our study demonstrates that the distribution of dystonia is the major distinction between subgroups of PKAN. Caucasian patients have more complex presentations than Asians. Exon 3 and 4 are hot spots for screening PANK2 mutations in Asian patients. PMID:24348190
Phuah, Sze Yee; Lee, Sheau Yee; K