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Sample records for asme omc code-1994

  1. Significant issues and changes for ANSI/ASME OM-1 1981, part 1, ASME OMc code-1994, and ASME OM Code-1995, Appendix I, inservice testing of pressure relief devices in light water reactor power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Seniuk, P.J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper identifies significant changes to the ANSI/ASME OM-1 1981, Part 1, and ASME Omc Code-1994 and ASME OM Code-1995, Appendix I, {open_quotes}Inservice Testing of Pressure Relief Devices in Light-Water Reactor Power Plants{close_quotes}. The paper describes changes to different Code editions and presents insights into the direction of the code committee and selected topics to be considered by the ASME O&M Working Group on pressure relief devices. These topics include scope issues, thermal relief valve issues, as-found and as-left set-pressure determinations, exclusions from testing, and cold setpoint bench testing. The purpose of this paper is to describe some significant issues being addressed by the O&M Working Group on Pressure Relief Devices (OM-1). The writer is currently the chair of OM-1 and the statements expressed herein represents his personal opinion.

  2. Far infrared maps of the ridge between OMC-1 and OMC-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keene, J.; Smith, J.; Harper, D. A.; Hildebrand, R. H.; Whitcomb, S. E.

    1979-01-01

    Dust continuum emission from a 6 ft x 20 ft region surrounding OMC-1 and OMC-2 were mapped at 55 and 125 microns with 4 ft resolution. The dominant features of the maps are a strong peak at OMC-1 and a ridge of lower surface brightness between OMC-1 and OMC-2. Along the ridge the infrared flux densities and the color temperature decreases smoothly from OMC-1 to OMC-2. OMC-1 is heated primarily by several optical and infrared stars situated within or just at the boundary of the cloud. At the region of minimum column density between OMC-1 and OMC-2 the nearby B0.5 V star NU Ori may contribute significantly to the dust heating. Near OMC-2 dust column densities are large enough so that, in addition to the OMC-2 infrared cluster, the nonlocal infrared sources associated with OMC-1 and NU Ori can contribute to the heating.

  3. OMC Compressor Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, W. Donald

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes efforts expended in the development of an all-composite compressor case. Two pre-production units have been built, one utilizing V-CAP and one utilizing AFR-700B resin systems. Both units have been rig tested at elevated temperatures well above design limit loads. This report discusses the manufacturing processes, test results, and Finite Element Analysis performed. The V-CAP unit was funded by NASA-Lewis Research Center in 1994 under contract number NAS3- 27442 for Development of an All-Composite OMC Compressor Case. This contract was followed by an Air Force study in 1996 to build and identical unit using the AFR-700B resin system in place of the V-CAP system. The second compressor case was funded under U.S. Air Force contract F33615-93-D-5326, Advanced Materials for Aerospace Structures Special Studies (AMAS3), Delivery Order 0021 entitled "Advanced Polymeric Composite Materials and Structures Technology for Advanced High Temperature Gas Turbine Engines.' Initial studies using the V-CAP resin system were undertaken in 1993 under a NASA Lewis contract (NAS3-26829). A first prototype unit was developed in a joint program between Textron-Lycoming (now Allied Signal) and Brunswick (now Lincoln Composites). This unit included composite end closures using low density, high temperature molded end closures. The units was similar in size and shape to a titanium case currently used on the PT-21 0 engine and was funded as part of the integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (EHPTET) initiative of DOD and NASA.

  4. Review and Application of ASME NOG-1 and ASME NUM-1-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, Bradford P.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The intent of the workshop is to review the application of the ASME Nuclear Crane Standards ASME NOG-1 and ASME NUM-1-2000. The ASME Nuclear Crane standards provide a basis for purchasing overhead handling equipment with enhanced safety features, based upon accepted engineering principles, and including performance and environmental parameters specific to nuclear facilities.

  5. Gravitational collapse of the OMC-1 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacar, A.; Alves, J.; Tafalla, M.; Goicoechea, J. R.

    2017-06-01

    We have investigated the global dynamical state of the integral shaped filament in the Orion A cloud using new N2H+ (1-0) large-scale, IRAM 30 m observations. Our analysis of its internal gas dynamics reveals the presence of accelerated motions towards the Orion Nebula Cluster, showing a characteristic blue-shifted profile centred at the position of the OMC-1 South region. The properties of these observed gas motions (profile, extension, and magnitude) are consistent with the expected accelerations for the gravitational collapse of the OMC-1 region and explain both the physical and kinematic structure of this cloud. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).

  6. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  7. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2010-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  8. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  9. AIS ASM Operational Integration Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    River , WA; and the future Vessel Traffic Service systems being developed under PAWSS. Interfacing the AIS Transmit architecture with agencies that...provides accurate real-time information such as water levels, currents, and other oceanographic and meteorological data. The USACE provide river lock...information and river level and current data on the Inland Waterways. AIS ASM Operational Integration Plan viii UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 R&DC

  10. Risk based ASME Code requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.; Balkey, K.R.

    1992-09-01

    The objective of this ASME Research Task Force is to develop and to apply a methodology for incorporating quantitative risk analysis techniques into the definition of in-service inspection (ISI) programs for a wide range of industrial applications. An additional objective, directed towards the field of nuclear power generation, is ultimately to develop a recommendation for comprehensive revisions to the ISI requirements of Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This will require development of a firm technical basis for such requirements, which does not presently exist. Several years of additional research will be required before this can be accomplished. A general methodology suitable for application to any industry has been defined and published. It has recently been refined and further developed during application to the field of nuclear power generation. In the nuclear application probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques and information have been incorporated. With additional analysis, PRA information is used to determine the consequence of a component rupture (increased reactor core damage probability). A procedure has also been recommended for using the resulting quantified risk estimates to determine target component rupture probability values to be maintained by inspection activities. Structural risk and reliability analysis (SRRA) calculations are then used to determine characteristics which an inspection strategy must posess in order to maintain component rupture probabilities below target values. The methodology, results of example applications, and plans for future work are discussed.

  11. A Novel Method for Synthesis of OMC and M-OMC for PEM Fuel Cell Pt-electrocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worku, Dereje G.

    Abstract Commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has become an important challenge since platinum (Pt), which is being used as the primary catalyst is highly expensive and susceptible to CO poisoning. Thus improving the catalytic efficiency and increase CO tolerance of the electrocatalyst is vital for commercialization of PEMFC. The aim of this research is to synthesize ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) and modified ordered mesoporous carbon (mOMC) supports with high surface area that will allow low platinum loading minimizing the cost. OMC is synthesized using house made SBA-15 as a template whereas the mOMC is synthesized using 10%M/SBA-15 (M: Ni, Co, Fe, W) as templates and sugar as a carbon source prepared via impregnation method that is optimized through different techniques such as selection of precursor, precursor solvent, and its pH medium. The mOMCs with high surface area and improved electrical conductivity, and durability are obtained by optimizing the parameters employed in the synthesis processes of mOMC such as carbonization temperature. The objective of using mOMC as catalyst support is but not limited to enhance the transport of reactant gases by providing uniform interconnected pores and higher uniform Pt dispersion. The catalysts were tested for performance and polarization on 5 cm 2 membrane electrode assembly (MEAs) for 20 wt% Pt loading under controlled experimental conditions using well equipped Fuel Cell Testing Station (Model 850, Scribner Associates Inc.). The synthesized OMC and mOMC were also characterized by nitrogen adsorption desorption analysis (BET), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the pore size, specific surface area, and the ordered structure. BET analysis of the OMC and mOMC synthesized shows a specific surface area and pore size of 1239 m2/g (3.73 nm), 1228 m2/g (3.67nm) ,1321 m2/g (3.73 nm) and 1367 m2/g (3.59 nm) for Co, Ni, Fe, and W respectively with OMC being the highest with specific

  12. ASM Conference on Prokaryotic Development

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, H. B.

    2005-07-13

    Support was provided by DOE for the 2nd ASM Conference on Prokaryotic Development. The final conference program and abstracts book is attached. The conference presentations are organized around topics that are central to the current research areas in prokaryotic development. The program starts with topics that involve relatively simple models systems and ends with systems that are more complex. The topics are: i) the cell cycle, ii) the cytoskeleton, iii) morphogenesis, iv) developmental transcription, v) signaling, vi) multicellularity, and vii) developmental diversity and symbiosis. The best-studied prokaryotic development model systems will be highlighted at the conference through research presentations by leaders in the field. Many of these systems are also model systems of relevance to the DOE mission including carbon sequestration (Bradyrizobium, Synechococcus), energy production (Anabaena, Rhodobacter) and bioremediation (Caulobacter, Mesorhizobium). In addition, many of the highlighted organisms have important practical applications; the actinomycetes and myxobacteria produce antimicrobials that are of commercial interest. It is certain that the cutting-edge science presented at the conference will be applicable to the large group of bacteria relevant to the DOE mission.

  13. Globalization of ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Swayne, Rick; Erler, Bryan A.

    2006-07-01

    With the globalization of the nuclear industry, it is clear that the reactor suppliers are based in many countries around the world (such as United States, France, Japan, Canada, South Korea, South Africa) and they will be marketing their reactors to many countries around the world (such as US, China, South Korea, France, Canada, Finland, Taiwan). They will also be fabricating their components in many different countries around the world. With this situation, it is clear that the requirements of ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards need to be adjusted to accommodate the regulations, fabricating processes, and technology of various countries around the world. It is also very important for the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) to be able to assure that products meeting the applicable ASME Code requirements will provide the same level of safety and quality assurance as those products currently fabricated under the ASME accreditation process. To do this, many countries are in the process of establishing or changing their regulations, and it is important for ASME to interface with the appropriate organizations in those countries, in order to ensure there is effective use of ASME Codes and standards around the world. (authors)

  14. 77 FR 3073 - American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and New and Revised ASME Code Cases...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ...-AI35 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and New and Revised ASME Code Cases... addenda to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code, and the ASME Code for Operation and Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants (OM Code). The final rule also incorporated by reference (with...

  15. ASME Material Challenges for Advanced Reactor Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Ali Siahpush

    2013-07-01

    This study presents the material Challenges associated with Advanced Reactor Concept (ARC) such as the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR). ACR are the next generation concepts focusing on power production and providing thermal energy for industrial applications. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate cost-effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and industrial process heat transport system. The heat exchanger required for AHTR is subjected to a unique set of conditions that bring with them several design challenges not encountered in standard heat exchangers. The corrosive molten salts, especially at higher temperatures, require materials throughout the system to avoid corrosion, and adverse high-temperature effects such as creep. Given the very high steam generator pressure of the supercritical steam cycle, it is anticipated that water tube and molten salt shell steam generators heat exchanger will be used. In this paper, the ASME Section III and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section VIII requirements (acceptance criteria) are discussed. Also, the ASME material acceptance criteria (ASME Section II, Part D) for high temperature environment are presented. Finally, lack of ASME acceptance criteria for thermal design and analysis are discussed.

  16. Observations of the H2S toward OMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Irvine, W. M.; Mcgonagle, D.; Ziurys, L. M.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of the 1(10) - 1(01) transition of interstellar H2S and its isotopes toward OMC-1 are reported. The fractional abundance of H2S in the quiescent regions of OMC-1 seems difficult to explain by currently known ion-molecular reactions. The fractional abundance of H2S relative to H2 is enhanced by a factor of 1000 in the hot core and the plateau relative to the quiescent clouds. The (HDS)/(H2S) abundance ratio in the hot core is estimated at 0.02 or less.

  17. Observations of the H2S toward OMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Irvine, W. M.; Mcgonagle, D.; Ziurys, L. M.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of the 1(10) - 1(01) transition of interstellar H2S and its isotopes toward OMC-1 are reported. The fractional abundance of H2S in the quiescent regions of OMC-1 seems difficult to explain by currently known ion-molecular reactions. The fractional abundance of H2S relative to H2 is enhanced by a factor of 1000 in the hot core and the plateau relative to the quiescent clouds. The (HDS)/(H2S) abundance ratio in the hot core is estimated at 0.02 or less.

  18. Improvement of ASME NH for Grade 91

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard Riou

    2007-10-09

    This report has been prepared in the context of Task 3 of the ASME/DOE Gen IV material project. It has been identified that creep-fatigue evaluation procedures presently available in ASME (1) and RCC-MR (2) have been mainly developed for austenitic stainless steels and may not be suitable for cyclic softening materials such as mod 9 Cr 1 Mo steel (grade 91). The aim of this document is, starting from experimental test results, to perform a review of the procedures and, if necessary, provide recommendations for their improvements.

  19. NICMOS CAPTURES THE HEART OF OMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The infrared vision of the Hubble Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) is providing a dramatic new look at the beautiful Orion Nebula which contains the nearest nursery for massive stars. For comparison, Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) image on the left shows a large part of the nebula as it appears in visible light. The heart of the giant Orion molecular cloud, OMC-1, is included in the relatively dim and featureless area inside the blue outline near the top of the image. Light from a few foreground stars seen in the WFPC2 image provides only a hint of the many other stars embedded in this dense cloud. NICMOS's infrared vision reveals a chaotic, active star birth region (as seen in the right-hand image). Here, stars and glowing interstellar dust, heated by and scattering the intense starlight, appear yellow-orange. Emission by excited hydrogen molecules appears blue. The image is oriented with north up and east to the left. The diagonal extent of the image is about 0.4 light-years. Some details are as small as the size of our solar system. The brightest object in the image is a massive young star called BN (Becklin-Neugebauer). Blue 'fingers' of molecular hydrogen emission indicate the presence of violent outflows, probably produced by a young star or stars still embedded in dust (located to the lower left, southeast, of BN). The outflowing material may also produce the crescent-shaped 'bow shock' on the edge of a dark feature north of BN and the two bright 'arcs' south of BN. The detection of several sets of closely spaced double stars in these observations further demonstrates NICMOS's ability to see fine details not possible from ground-based telescopes. Credits: NICMOS image -- Rodger Thompson, Marcia Rieke, Glenn Schneider, Susan Stolovy (University of Arizona); Edwin Erickson (SETI Institute/Ames Research Center); David Axon (STScI); and NASA WFPC2 image -- C. Robert O'Dell, Shui Kwan Wong (Rice

  20. Proceedings: 1985 ASME-EPRI Radwaste Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1985-07-01

    This year's ASME-EPRI workshop targeted three main topics: meeting federal requirements, using mobile services, and cutting costs. A highlight of the workshop was a detailed report on the mobile services for radwaste management that are now available to utilities from outside contractors.

  1. 78 FR 37848 - ASME Code Cases Not Approved for Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... COMMISSION ASME Code Cases Not Approved for Use AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft... public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1233, ``ASME Code Cases not Approved for Use.'' This regulatory guide lists the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code Cases that the NRC has...

  2. Current Activities of the ASME Subgroup NUPACK

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald M. Foster; D. Keith Morton; Paul McConnell

    2007-10-01

    Current activities of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Section III Subgroup on Containment Systems for Spent Fuel High-Level Waste Transport Packagings (also known as Subgroup NUPACK) are reviewed with emphasis on the recent revision of Subsection WB. Also, brief insightson new proposals for the development of rules for internal support structures and for a strain-based acceptance criteria are provided.

  3. An infrared study of Orion Molecular Cloud-2 (OMC-2)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.J.; Gehrz, R.D.; Jones, T.J.; Hackwell, J.A.; Grasdalen, G.L. The Aerospace Corp., Space Sciences Laboratory, Los Angeles, CA Wyoming Infrared Observatory, Laramie )

    1990-08-01

    This paper reports 1.2-23 micron photometry for 11 discrete sources in Orion Molecular Cloud-2 (OMC-2). These data, combined with H and K photometric and K polarimetric images, are used to model the cluster sources. Most appear to be young stars of roughly solar mass. Some have circumstellar dust reradiation or reflection nebulosity. A model based on single scattering of light from an exciting star explains some features of the IRS 1 nebula, the largest reflection nebula in OMC-2. However, the red colors and high surface brightness of the IRS 1 nebula require a cool excitation source that is more luminous than far-infrared observations would indicate. 34 refs.

  4. Role for Outer Membrane Cytochromes OmcA and OmcB of Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1 in Reduction of Manganese Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Judith M.; Myers, Charles R.

    2001-01-01

    Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1 can use a wide variety of terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration, including certain insoluble manganese and iron oxides. To examine whether the outer membrane (OM) cytochromes of MR-1 play a role in Mn(IV) and Fe(III) reduction, mutants lacking the OM cytochrome OmcA or OmcB were isolated by gene replacement. Southern blotting and PCR confirmed replacement of the omcA and omcB genes, respectively, and reverse transcription-PCR analysis demonstrated loss of the respective mRNAs, whereas mRNAs for upstream and downstream genes were retained. The omcA mutant (OMCA1) resembled MR-1 in its growth on trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), dimethyl sulfoxide, nitrate, fumarate, thiosulfate, and tetrathionate and its reduction of nitrate, nitrite, ferric citrate, FeOOH, and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid. Similarly, the omcB mutant (OMCB1) grew on fumarate, nitrate, TMAO, and thiosulfate and reduced ferric citrate and FeOOH. However, OMCA1 and OMCB1 were 45 and 75% slower than MR-1, respectively, at reducing MnO2. OMCA1 lacked only OmcA. While OMCB1 lacked OmcB, other OM cytochromes were also missing or markedly depressed. The total cytochrome content of the OM of OMCB1 was less than 15% of that of MR-1. Western blots demonstrated that OMCB1 still synthesized OmcA, but most of it was localized in the cytoplasmic membrane and soluble fractions rather than in the OM. OMCB1 had therefore lost the ability to properly localize multiple OM cytochromes to the OM. Together, the results suggest that the OM cytochromes of MR-1 participate in the reduction of Mn(IV) but are not required for the reduction of Fe(III) or other electron acceptors. PMID:11133454

  5. Balancing Performance and Sustainability in Next-Generation PMR Technologies for OMC Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    has persisted within the aerospace industry as a mid-tier performance matrix resin for organic matrix composite (OMC) structures, its continued legacy...spiral development of novel aniline monomers through a harmonization of chemical structure design, synthesis, resin screening, composite fabrication...performance matrix resin for organic matrix composite (OMC) structures, its continued legacy is being challenged domestically. Methylene dianiline

  6. On OMC-1 temperatures determined from methyl cyanide observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis is performed on the J(k) = 12(k)-11(k) and 13(k)-12(k) transitions of methyl cyanide detected by other investigators in the direction of OMC-1. The original interpretation of those observations argues for the presence of two distinct temperature regions or possibly a temperature gradient within the cloud. The analysis presented here demonstrates that the observations of these particular molecular transitions are consistent with a single methyl cyanide emission region with a source kinetic temperature of 121.2 + or - 8.2 K and a molecular rotational temperature of 16.6 + or - 1.8 K.

  7. Spectropolarimetry of the molecular hydrogen line emission from OMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Michael G.; Hough, J. H.; Axon, David J.; Hasegawa, T.; Tamura, M.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of the H2 v = 1-0 S(1) line at 35 km/s velocity resolution were obtained at several locations within OMC-1, including the molecular hydrogen reflection nebula. All line profiles are smooth and show no evidence for being composed of discrete components. The data are discussed with respect to a model for the H2 line formation in which the emission originates in discrete clumps moving at different velocities. It is suggested that the extended blue wing may come from fast-moving clumps embedded in a wind.

  8. FY16 ASME High Temperature Code Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Swindeman, M. J.; Jetter, R. I.; Sham, T. -L.

    2016-09-01

    One of the objectives of the ASME high temperature Code activities is to develop and validate both improvements and the basic features of Section III, Division 5, Subsection HB, Subpart B (HBB). The overall scope of this task is to develop a computer program to be used to assess whether or not a specific component under specified loading conditions will satisfy the elevated temperature design requirements for Class A components in Section III, Division 5, Subsection HB, Subpart B (HBB). There are many features and alternative paths of varying complexity in HBB. The initial focus of this task is a basic path through the various options for a single reference material, 316H stainless steel. However, the program will be structured for eventual incorporation all the features and permitted materials of HBB. Since this task has recently been initiated, this report focuses on the description of the initial path forward and an overall description of the approach to computer program development.

  9. Accelerator System Model (ASM) user manual with physics and engineering model documentation. ASM version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    The Accelerator System Model (ASM) is a computer program developed to model proton radiofrequency accelerators and to carry out system level trade studies. The ASM FORTRAN subroutines are incorporated into an intuitive graphical user interface which provides for the {open_quotes}construction{close_quotes} of the accelerator in a window on the computer screen. The interface is based on the Shell for Particle Accelerator Related Codes (SPARC) software technology written for the Macintosh operating system in the C programming language. This User Manual describes the operation and use of the ASM application within the SPARC interface. The Appendix provides a detailed description of the physics and engineering models used in ASM. ASM Version 1.0 is joint project of G. H. Gillespie Associates, Inc. and the Accelerator Technology (AT) Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Neither the ASM Version 1.0 software nor this ASM Documentation may be reproduced without the expressed written consent of both the Los Alamos National Laboratory and G. H. Gillespie Associates, Inc.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Polarization Measurements of OMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Janet P.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Erickson, Edwin F.; Burton, Michael G.; Schultz, A. S. B.

    2006-01-01

    We present 2 micrometer polarization measurements of positions in the BN region of the Orion Molecular Cloud (OMC-1) made with NICMOS Camera 2 (0.2" resolution) on Hubble Space Telescope. Our goals are to seek the sources of heating for IRc2, 3, 4, and 7, identify possible young stellar objects (YSOs), and characterize the grain alignment in the dust clouds along the lines-of-sight to the stars. Our results are as follows: BN is approximately 29% polarized by dichroic absorption and appears to be the illuminating source for most of the nebulosity to its north and up to approximately 5" to its south. Although the stars are probably all polarized by dichroic absorption, there are a number of compact, but non-point-source, objects that could be polarized by a combination of both dichroic absorption and local scattering of star light. We identify several candidate YSOs, including an approximately edge-on bipolar YSO 8.7" east of BN, and a deeply-embedded IRc7, all of which are obviously self-luminous at mid-infrared wavelengths and may be YSOs. None of these is a reflection nebula illuminated by a star located near radio source I, as was previously suggested. Other IRc sources are clearly reflection nebulae: IRc3 appears to be illuminated by IRc2-B or a combination of the IRc2 sources, and IRc4 and IRc5 appear to be illuminated by an unseen star in the vicinity of radio source I, or by Star n or IRc2-A. Trends in the magnetic field direction are inferred from the polarization of the 26 stars that are bright enough to be seen as NICMOS point sources. Their polarization ranges from N less than or equal to 1% (all stars with this low polarization are optically visible) to greater than 40%. The most polarized star has a polarization position angle different from its neighbors by approximately 40 degrees, but in agreement with the grain alignment inferred from millimeter polarization measurements of the cold dust cloud in the southern part of OMC-1. The polarization

  11. An example of a component replacement when applying ASME N509 and ASME N510 to older ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Arndt, T.E.

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents an example of a component replacement (electric heater) when installed in an older ventilation system that was constructed before the issuance of ASME N509{sup 1} and N510{sup 2}. Many of the existing ventilation systems at the Hanford Site were designed, fabricated, and installed before the issuance of ASME N509{sup 1} and N510{sup 2}. Requiring the application of these codes to existing ventilation systems presents challenges to the engineer when design changes are needed. Although it may seem that the application of ASME N509{sup 1} or N510{sup 2} may be a hindrance at times, this does not need to occur. Proper preparation at the start of project or design modifications can minimize frustration to the engineer when it is judged that portions of ASME N509{sup 1} and N510{sup 2} do not apply in a particular application.

  12. Outer-membrane cytochrome-c, OmcF, from Geobacter sulfurreducens : high structural similarity to an algal cytochrone c{sub 6}.

    SciTech Connect

    Pokkuluri, P. R.; Londer, Y. Y.; Wood, S. J.; Duke, N. E. C.; Morgado, L.; Salgueiro, C. A.; Schiffer, M.; Biosciences Division; Univ. Nova de Lisboa, Campus Caparica

    2009-01-01

    Putative outer membrane c-type cytochromes have been implicated in metal ion reducing properties of Geobacter sulfurreducens. OmcF (GSU2432), OmcB (GSU2731), and OmcC are three such proteins that have predicted lipid anchors. MmcF is a monoheme cytochrome, whereas OmcB and OmcC are multiheme cytochromes. Deletion of OmcF was reported to affect the expression of OmcB and OmcC in G. sulfurreducens. The OmcF deficient strain was impaired in its ability to both reduce and grow on Fe(III) citrate probably because the expression fo OmcB, which is crucial for iron reduction, is low in this strain. U(VI) reduction activity of this bacterium is also lower on deletion of OmcB or OmcF. The U(VI) reduction activity is affected more by the deletion of OmcF than by the deletion of OmcB.

  13. Comparison between ASME and ISO standards on surface texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kai; Jiang, Xiangqian; Liu, Xiaojun; Xu, Zhengao

    2006-11-01

    Surface texture is generally a significant technique requirement of high-tech products. Surface quality information can usually play an increasing role in achieving interoperability among existing products, create order in markets, simplify production and ensure safety. As the most authoritative standard organizations, ASME and ISO services are used throughout the world, their codes and standards influence global manufacturers and consumers. ASME B46.1 is one of many vital tools to promote surface measurement techniques, while ISO has a set standard system for surface measurement, analysis and evaluation. This paper compares the ASME B46.1 (2002) standard (Surface texture: surface roughness, waviness, and lay) with ISO 3274 (1997) standard on methods of surface profiles filtering. It preformed the present research in order to show the latest developments of the ASME B46.1 (2002) in the regime of contact profiling techniques where the degree of measurement control is highly advanced, and a large range of other techniques that present valid and useful descriptions of surface texture. Also, this paper shows the differences of terms, definitions and surface texture parameters between ASME B46.1 (2002) and ISO 4287 (1998). The different evaluation results have been calculated based on above two standards for the same surface data. Obviously, it is necessary to consider the divergence above to develop China's standards (GB) on surface texture.

  14. A Geobacter sulfurreducens Strain Expressing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type IV Pili Localizes OmcS on Pili but Is Deficient in Fe(III) Oxide Reduction and Current Production

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Vargas, Madeline

    2014-01-01

    The conductive pili of Geobacter species play an important role in electron transfer to Fe(III) oxides, in long-range electron transport through current-producing biofilms, and in direct interspecies electron transfer. Although multiple lines of evidence have indicated that the pili of Geobacter sulfurreducens have a metal-like conductivity, independent of the presence of c-type cytochromes, this claim is still controversial. In order to further investigate this phenomenon, a strain of G. sulfurreducens, designated strain PA, was constructed in which the gene for the native PilA, the structural pilin protein, was replaced with the PilA gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Strain PA expressed and properly assembled P. aeruginosa PilA subunits into pili and exhibited a profile of outer surface c-type cytochromes similar to that of a control strain expressing the G. sulfurreducens PilA. Surprisingly, the strain PA pili were decorated with the c-type cytochrome OmcS in a manner similar to the control strain. However, the strain PA pili were 14-fold less conductive than the pili of the control strain, and strain PA was severely impaired in Fe(III) oxide reduction and current production. These results demonstrate that the presence of OmcS on pili is not sufficient to confer conductivity to pili and suggest that there are unique structural features of the G. sulfurreducens PilA that are necessary for conductivity. PMID:24296506

  15. A Geobacter sulfurreducens strain expressing pseudomonas aeruginosa type IV pili localizes OmcS on pili but is deficient in Fe(III) oxide reduction and current production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Malvankar, Nikhil S; Nevin, Kelly P; Lovley, Derek R; Vargas, Madeline

    2014-02-01

    The conductive pili of Geobacter species play an important role in electron transfer to Fe(III) oxides, in long-range electron transport through current-producing biofilms, and in direct interspecies electron transfer. Although multiple lines of evidence have indicated that the pili of Geobacter sulfurreducens have a metal-like conductivity, independent of the presence of c-type cytochromes, this claim is still controversial. In order to further investigate this phenomenon, a strain of G. sulfurreducens, designated strain PA, was constructed in which the gene for the native PilA, the structural pilin protein, was replaced with the PilA gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Strain PA expressed and properly assembled P. aeruginosa PilA subunits into pili and exhibited a profile of outer surface c-type cytochromes similar to that of a control strain expressing the G. sulfurreducens PilA. Surprisingly, the strain PA pili were decorated with the c-type cytochrome OmcS in a manner similar to the control strain. However, the strain PA pili were 14-fold less conductive than the pili of the control strain, and strain PA was severely impaired in Fe(III) oxide reduction and current production. These results demonstrate that the presence of OmcS on pili is not sufficient to confer conductivity to pili and suggest that there are unique structural features of the G. sulfurreducens PilA that are necessary for conductivity.

  16. Backbone, side chain and heme resonance assignments of cytochrome OmcF from Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Joana M; Silva E Sousa, Marta; Salgueiro, Carlos A; Bruix, Marta

    2015-10-01

    Gene knockout studies on Geobacter sulfurreducens (Gs) cells showed that the outer membrane cytochrome OmcF is involved in respiratory pathways leading to the extracellular reduction of Fe(III) citrate and U(VI) oxide. In addition, microarray analysis of OmcF-deficient mutant versus the wild-type strain revealed that many of the genes with decreased transcript level were those whose expression is upregulated in cells grown with a graphite electrode as electron acceptor. This suggests that OmcF also regulates the electron transfer to electrode surfaces and the concomitant electrical current production by Gs in microbial fuel cells. Extracellular electron transfer processes (EET) constitute nowadays the foundations to develop biotechnological applications in biofuel production, bioremediation and bioenergy. Therefore, the structural characterization of OmcF is a fundamental step to understand the mechanisms underlying EET. Here, we report the complete assignment of the heme proton signals together with (1)H, (13)C and (15)N backbone and side chain assignments of the OmcF, excluding the hydrophobic residues of the N-terminal predicted lipid anchor.

  17. Solution structure and dynamics of the outer membrane cytochrome OmcF from Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Joana M; Silva, Marta A; Pantoja-Uceda, David; Turner, David L; Bruix, Marta; Salgueiro, Carlos A

    2017-09-01

    Gene knock-out studies on Geobacter sulfurreducens cells showed that the outer membrane-associated monoheme cytochrome OmcF is involved in respiratory pathways leading to the extracellular reduction of Fe(III) and U(VI). In addition, microarray analysis of an OmcF-deficient mutant revealed that many of the genes with decreased transcript level were those whose expression is up-regulated in cells grown with a graphite electrode as electron acceptor, suggesting that OmcF also regulates the electron transfer to electrode surfaces and the concomitant electricity production by G. sulfurreducens in microbial fuel cells. (15)N,(13)C-labeled OmcF was produced and NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the solution structure of the protein in the fully reduced state and the pH-dependent conformational changes. In addition, (15)N relaxation NMR experiments were used to characterize the overall and internal backbone dynamics of OmcF. The structure obtained is well-defined, with an average pairwise root mean square deviation of 0.37Å for the backbone atoms and 0.98Å for all heavy atoms. For the first time a solution structure and the protein motions were determined for an outer membrane cytochrome from G. sulfurreducens, which constitutes an important step to understand the extracellular electron transfer mechanism in Geobacter cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. NICMOS Narrow-band Images of OMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Angela S. B.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Erickson, E. F.; Kaufman, M. J.; Hollenbach, D. J.; O'Dell, C. R.; Young, E. T.; Chen, H.

    1998-01-01

    We present images of a 90in. x 90in. field centered on BN in OMC-1, taken with the Near-Infrared Camera and MultiObject Spectrograph (NICMOS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. The observed lines are H2 1-0 S(l), Pa, [FeII] 1.64 pm, and the adjacent continua. The region is rich in interesting structures. The most remarkable are the streamers or "fingers" of H2 emission which extend from 15in. to 50in. from IRc2, seen here in unprecedented detail. Unlike the northern H2 fingers, the inner fingers do not exhibit significant [FeII] emission at theirdips, which we suggest is due to lower excitation. These observations also show that the general morphology of the Pa and [FeII] emission (both imaged for the first time in this region) bears a striking resemblance to that of the Ha and [SII] emission previously observed with WFPC2. This implies that these IR and optical lines are produced by radiative excitation on the surface of the molecular cloud. The Pa morphology of HH 202 is also very similar to its H a and [OIII] emission, again suggesting that the Pa in this object is photo-excited by the Trapezium, as has been suggested for the optical emission. We find evidence of shock-excited [FeII] in HH 208, where it again closely follows the morphology of [SII]. There is also H2 coincident with the [SII] and [FeII] emission, which may be associated with HH 208. Finally, we note some interesting continuum features: diffuse "tails" trailing from IRc3 and IRc4, more extensive observations of the "crescent" found by Stolovy, et al. (1998), and new observations of a similar oval object nearby. We also find a "V"-shaped region which may be the boundary of a cavity being cleared by IRc2.

  19. Regulatory Endorsement Activities for ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    West, Raymond A.

    2006-07-01

    The ASME Board on Nuclear Codes and Standards (BNCS) has formed a Task Group on Regulatory Endorsement (TG-RE) that is currently in discussions with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to look at suggestions and recommendations that can be used to help with the endorsement of new and revised ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards (NC and S). With the coming of new reactors in the USA in the very near future we need to look at both the regulations and all the ASME NC and S to determine where we need to make changes to support these new plants. At the same time it is important that we maintain our operating plants while addressing ageing management needs of our existing reactors. This is going to take new thinking, time, resources, and money. For all this to take place the regulations and requirements that we use must be clear concise and necessary for safety and to that end both the NRC and ASME are working together to make this happen. Because of the influence that the USA has in the world in dealing with these issues, this paper is written to inform the international nuclear engineering community about the issues and what actions are being addressed under this effort. (author)

  20. After-School Math PLUS (ASM+) Final Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from the Academy for Educational Development's (AED's) evaluation of After-School Math PLUS (ASM+). This program was designed to help students find the math in everyday experiences and create awareness about the importance of math skills for future career options. The evaluation was conducted by AED's Center for…

  1. The Chlamydia outer membrane protein OmcB is required for adhesion and exhibits biovar-specific differences in glycosaminoglycan binding

    PubMed Central

    Moelleken, Katja; Hegemann, Johannes H

    2008-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae, an obligate intracellular human pathogen, causes a number of respiratory diseases. We explored the role of the conserved OmcB protein in C. pneumoniae infections, using yeast display technology. (i) Yeast cells presenting OmcB were found to adhere to human epithelial cells. (ii) Pre-incubation of OmcB yeast cells with heparin, but not other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), abrogated adhesion. (iii) Pre-treatment of the target cells with heparinase inhibited adherence, and GAG-deficient CHO cell lines failed to bind OmcB yeast. (iv) A heparin-binding motif present near the N-terminus of OmcB is required for host cell binding. (v) Pre-treatment of chlamydial elementary bodies (EBs) with anti-OmcB antibody or pre-incubation of target cells with recombinant OmcB protein reduced infectivity upon challenge with C. pneumoniae. (vi) Adhesion of fluorescently labelled EBs to epithelial or endothelial cells was abrogated by prior addition of heparin or OmcB protein. Thus, C. pneumoniae OmcB is an adhesin that binds heparan sulphate-like GAGs. OmcB from Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L1 also adheres to human cells in a heparin-dependent way, unlike its counterpart from serovar E. We show that a single position in the OmcB sequence determines heparin dependence/independence, and variations there may reflect differences between the two serovars in cell tropism and disease pattern. PMID:18086188

  2. Outer-membrane cytochrome-c, OmcF from Geobacter sulfurreducens: high structural similarity to an algal cytochrome c6.

    SciTech Connect

    Pokkuluri, P. R.; Londer, Y. Y.; Wood, S. J.; Duke, N. E. C.; Morgado, L.; Salgueiro, C. A.; Schiffer, M.; Biosciences Division; Univ. Nova de Lisboa

    2009-01-01

    Putative outer membrane c-type cytochromes have been implicated in metal ion reducing properties of Geobacter sulfurreducens. OmcF (GSU2432), OmcB (GSU2731), and OmcC (GSU2737) are three such proteins that have predicted lipid anchors. OmcF is a monoheme cytochrome, whereas OmcB and OmcC are multiheme cytochromes. Deletion of OmcF was reported to affect the expression of OmcB and OmcC in G. sulfurreducens. The OmcF deficient strain was impaired in its ability to both reduce and grow on Fe(III) citrate probably because the expression of OmcB, which is crucial for iron reduction, is low in this strain. U(VI) reduction activity of this bacterium is also lower on deletion of OmcB or OmcF. The U(VI) reduction activity is affected more by the deletion of OmcF than by the deletion of OmcB. The soluble part of OmcF (residues 20-104, referred to as OmcF{sub S} hereafter) has sequence similarity to soluble cytochromes c{sub 6} of photosynthetic algae and cyanobacteria. The cytochrome c{sub 6} proteins in algae and cyanobacteria are electron transport proteins that mediate the transfer of electrons from cytochrome b{sub 6}f to photosystem I and have high reduction potentials of about +350 mV and low pI. The structures of seven cytochromes c{sub 6} have been previously determined. Further, a c{sub 6}-like cytochrome (PetJ2) of unknown function was recently identified in Synechoccus sp. PCC 7002 with a reduction potential of +148 mV and high pI. Here, we report the structure of OmcF{sub S} and its remarkable structural similarity to that of cytochrome c{sub 6} from the green alga, Monoraphidium braunii. To our knowledge, OmcF{sub S} is the first example of a cytochrome c{sub 6}-like structure from a nonphotosynthetic organism.

  3. Recent changes to ASME B31.3

    SciTech Connect

    Becht, C. IV; Frikken, D.R.; Bane, E.J.

    1996-07-01

    The code for process piping, ASME B31.3 Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping, has undergone significant changes and additions in recent years. This includes many aspects of design, materials, and fabrication. Included are substantial changes to material impact testing requirements, qualification procedures for unlisted components, coverage of bellows expansion joints, and safety relief set pressure requirements. This paper provides an update on some of these recent changes to the Code together with some background on reasons for the changes.

  4. A Sensitive VLA Search for Small-Scale Glycine Emission Toward OMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Pedelty, J. A.; Snyder, L. E.; Jewell, P. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Palmer, Patrick; Liu, S.-Y.

    2002-01-01

    We have conducted a deep Q-band (lambda-7 mm) search with the Very Large Array (VLA) toward OMC-1 for the lowest energy conformation (conformer I) of glycine (NH2CH2COOH) in four rotational transitions: the 6(sub 15)- 5(sub 14), 6(sub 24)-5(sub 23), 7(sub 17- 6(sub 16), and 7(sub 07)-6(sub 06). Our VLA observations sample the smallest-scale structures to date in the search for glycine toward OMC-1. No glycine emission features were detected. Thus if glycine exists in OMC-1, either it is below our detection limit, or it is more spatially extended than other large molecules in this source, or it is primarily in its high energy form (conformer II). Our VLA glycine fractional abundance limits in OMC-1 are comparable to those determined from previous IRAM 30m measurements -- somewhat better or worse depending on the specific source model -- and the entire approximately 1 foot primary beam of the VLA was searched while sensitive to an areal spatial scale approximately 150 times smaller than the 24 inch beam of the IRAM single-element telescope. In the course of this work, we detected and imaged the 4(sub 14)-3(sub 13) A and E transitions of methyl formate (HCOOCH3) and also the 2(sub 02) - 1(sub 01) transition of formic acid (HCOOH). Since formic acid is a possible precursor to glycine, our glycine limits and formic acid results provide a constraint on this potential formation chemistry route for glycine in OMC-1.

  5. Characterization of the Decaheme c-type Cytochrome OmcA in Solution and on Hematite Surfaces by Small Angle X-ray Scattering and Neutron Reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Johs, Alexander; Shi, Liang; Droubay, Timothy; Ankner, John Francis; Liang, Liyuan

    2010-01-01

    The outer membrane protein OmcA is an 85 kDa decaheme c-type cytochrome located on the surface of the dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. It is assumed to mediate electron shuttling, generated by the bacteria s metabolism, to extracellular acceptors that include solid metal oxides such as hematite ( -Fe2O3). To investigate the mechanism by which OmcA interacts with hematite, we purified OmcA and characterized its solution structure by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and its interaction with hematite by neutron reflectometry (NR). SAXS results showed that OmcA is a monomer that adopts a flat ellipsoidal shape with a dimension of 3.4 9.0 6.5 nm3. Changes in redox state affect OmcA conformation. In addition, OmcA interacts with small organic ligands known to act as electron shuttle molecules, such as flavin mononucleotide (FMN), resulting in the formation of high molecular weight assemblies. A model system, developed using NR to study the interaction of OmcA with hematite, shows that OmcA forms a well-defined monomolecular layer on hematite surfaces. This allows OmcA to preferentially interact with hematite in a conformation that maximizes its contact area with the mineral surface. Overall, these results provide experimental and quantitative evidence for OmcA reduction of solid metal oxides involving both direct and indirect mechanisms.

  6. The Orion Molecular Clouds OMC-1 and OMC-2 Mapped in the Far-Infrared Fine-Structure Line Emission of C+ and O0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, F.; Madden, S. C.; Nikola, T.; Poglitsch, A.; Timmermann, R.; Geis, N.; Townes, C. H.; Stacey, G. J.

    1997-05-01

    We have mapped the Orion Molecular Ridge (OMC-1 and OMC-2) in the fine-structure lines [C II] 158 μm and [O I] 63 and 146 μm. The maps cover a region of 7' × 18' (Δα × Δδ) and are fully sampled toward the Orion A H II region/molecular cloud interface. The emission maximum near the molecular region S6/FIR4 arises most probably from a photodissociation region (PDR) on the surface of that molecular condensation. The PDR has column densities that are most likely explained by an edge-on geometry. For the emitting material, we find a temperature between 300 and 500 K, a number density of 3 × 105 cm-3, and O0 and C+ column densities of 1 × 1019 and 4 × 1018 cm-2, respectively. In the Orion Bar region, the northern edge of the Orion interface region, and M43 west we find somewhat lower values for the temperature, number density, and column densities. Furthermore, the ratio of the oxygen to carbon column density is lower in this region and approaches a value of 1.7. The lower ratio could be due to the edge-on geometry and the lower temperature of these regions. In the Dark Lane region we find evidence for cooler oxygen partly absorbing the oxygen line emission from the warmer background material. For the cooler molecular material covering the warm medium in the Dark Lane, we estimate an atomic oxygen abundance [O]/[H] on the order of a few 10-4. In the northern part of OMC-1 the morphology of the [O I] 63 μm emission is consistent with moderately warm oxygen associated with the dense molecular ridge. From the oxygen emission arising from the ridge, we derive an atomic oxygen abundance [O]/[H] > 10-5. The [O I] line emission in OMC-2 may arise partly from the inner parts of the molecular cloud, but emission arising exclusively from PDRs cannot be excluded.

  7. Aggregation Kinetics of Hematite Particles in the Presence of Outer Membrane Cytochrome OmcA of Shewanella oneidenesis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Anxu; Liu, Feng; Shi, Liang; Liu, Juan

    2016-10-06

    The aggregation behavior of 9, 36, and 112 nm hematite particles was studied in the presence of OmcA, a bacterial extracellular protein, in aqueous dispersions at pH 5.7 through time-resolved dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic mobility, and circular dichroism spectra, respectively. At low salt concentration, the attachment efficiencies of hematite particles in all sizes first increased, then decreased, and finally remained stable with the increase of OmcA concentration, indicating the dominant interparticle interaction changed along with the increase in the protein-to-particle ratio. Nevertheless, at high salt concentration, the attachment efficiencies of all hematite samples gradually decreased with increasing OmcA concentration, which can be attributed to increasing steric force. Additionally, the aggregation behavior of OmcA-hematite conjugates was more correlated to total particle-surface area than primary particle size. It was further established that OmcA could stabilize hematite nanoparticles more efficiently than bovine serum albumin (BSA), a model plasma protein, due to the higher affinity of OmcA to hematite surface. This study highlighted the effects of particle properties, solution conditions, and protein properties on the complicated aggregation behavior of protein-nanoparticle conjugates in aqueous environments.

  8. Loss of CO/+/ ions by reaction with H2 in OMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntress, W. T., Jr.; Prasad, S. S.; Kemper, P. R.; Cates, R. D.; Bowers, M. T.

    1982-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the rate constant for the reaction CO(+)+H2 yields HCO(+) has been measured in the temperature range 100-390 K. The rate constant has no dependence on temperature in this range, indicating that at the temperatures prevalent in OMC-1, the rate of loss of CO(+) by reaction with H2 is much too large to allow for the observed column abundance under steady-state conditions.

  9. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies for adsorption of BTEX onto Ordered Mesoporous Carbon (OMC).

    PubMed

    Konggidinata, Mas Iwan; Chao, Bing; Lian, Qiyu; Subramaniam, Ramalingam; Zappi, Mark; Gang, Daniel Dianchen

    2017-08-15

    Chemical and petrochemical industries produce substantial amounts of wastewater everyday. This wastewater contains organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) that are toxic to human and aquatic life. Ordered Mesoporous Carbon (OMC), the adsorbent that possesses the characteristics of an ideal adsorbent was investigated to understand its properties and suitability for BTEX removal. Adsorption isotherms, adsorption kinetics, the effects of initial BTEX concentrations and temperatures on the adsorption process were studied. The OMCs were characterized using surface area and pore size analyzer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results suggested that the Langmuir Isotherm and Pseudo-Second-Order Models described the experimental data well. The thermodynamic parameters, Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), the enthalpy change (ΔH°) and the entropy change (ΔS°) of adsorption indicated that the adsorption processes were physical, endothermic, and spontaneous. In addition, OMC had 27% higher overall adsorption capacities compared to granular activated carbon (GAC). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. OMC camera experiment for INTEGRAL and search for Compton GRO BATSE LOCBURST optical transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezek, Tomáš; Hudec, René; Hroch, Filip; Soldán, Jan; Mas-Hesse, Miguel; Giménez, Alvaro

    1998-05-01

    The test camera of the Optical Monitoring Camera (OMC) experiment for INTEGRAL spacecraft achieving an angular pixel size of 18 arcsec and a field of view 7.5°×5.1° has been successfully developed and tested at the Astronomical Institute Ondřejov. The test camera is able to provide imaging down to 15 mag over the whole field of view within one exposure of 300 seconds. Although developed primarily to test the OMC performance and help with software development, this device is ideally suited for use as a ground-based camera for sites where Compton Gamma Ray Observatory BATSE Locburst triggers are followed-up in the optical waveband and also for wide-field sky monitoring in general. The low cost of this camera makes it possible to duplicate the system at a number of observing sites. A chart and a corresponding CCD-image for the BACODINE Locburst Position 6368 taken with the OMC test camera at Ondřejov observatory are also presented. The image taken 18 hours after the trigger was computer-blinked with the frame taken 30 days later. No optical activity has been found down to 13.5 mag.

  11. Optical follow-up observations of Locburst GRB locations with OMC test camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezek, Tomás

    1999-01-01

    The test camera of the Optical Monitoring Camera (OMC) experiment for INTEGRAL spacecraft achieving the angular pixel size of 18 arcsec and the field of view 7.5 degx5.1 deg has been succesfully developed and tested at the Astronomical Institute Ondrejov. The test camera is able to provide imaging down to 15 mag over the whole field of view within one exposure of 300 seconds. Although developed primarily to test the OMC performance and help with software development, this device is ideally suitable for the use as ground-based camera for the sites where Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory BATSE Locburst triggers are followed-up in optical waveband and also for widefield sky monitoring in general. The low cost of this camera makes it possible to duplicate the system to a number of observing sites. A chart and a corresponding CCD-image for the BACODINE Locburst Position 6368 taken with OMC test camera at Ondrejov observatory are also presented. The image taken 18 hours after the trigger was computer-blinked with the frame taken 30 days later. No optical activity has been found down to 13.5 mag.

  12. Purification and Characterization of OmcZ, an Outer-Surface, Octaheme c-Type Cytochrome Essential for Optimal Current Production by Geobacter sulfurreducens▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kengo; Qian, Xinlei; Morgado, Leonor; Kim, Byoung-Chan; Mester, Tünde; Izallalen, Mounir; Salgueiro, Carlos A.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Geobacter sulfurreducens requires the c-type cytochrome OmcZ, which is present in large (OmcZL; 50-kDa) and small (OmcZS; 30-kDa) forms, for optimal current production in microbial fuel cells. This protein was further characterized to aid in understanding its role in current production. Subcellular-localization studies suggested that OmcZS was the predominant extracellular form of OmcZ. N- and C-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of purified OmcZS and molecular weight measurements indicated that OmcZS is a cleaved product of OmcZL retaining all 8 hemes, including 1 heme with the unusual c-type heme-binding motif CX14CH. The purified OmcZS was remarkably thermally stable (thermal-denaturing temperature, 94.2°C). Redox titration analysis revealed that the midpoint reduction potential of OmcZS is approximately −220 mV (versus the standard hydrogen electrode [SHE]) with nonequivalent heme groups that cover a large reduction potential range (−420 to −60 mV). OmcZS transferred electrons in vitro to a diversity of potential extracellular electron acceptors, such as Fe(III) citrate, U(VI), Cr(VI), Au(III), Mn(IV) oxide, and the humic substance analogue anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate, but not Fe(III) oxide. The biochemical properties and extracellular localization of OmcZ suggest that it is well suited for promoting electron transfer in current-producing biofilms of G. sulfurreducens. PMID:20400562

  13. Characterization of the Decaheme c-Type Cytochrome OmcA in Solution and on Hematite Surfaces by Small Angle X-Ray Scattering and Neutron Reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Johs, A.; Shi, L.; Droubay, T.; Ankner, J. F.; Liang, L.

    2010-06-15

    The outer membrane protein OmcA is an 85 kDa decaheme c-type cytochrome located on the surface of the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. It is assumed to mediate shuttling of electrons to extracellular acceptors that include solid metal oxides such as hematite (α-Fe2O3). No information is yet available concerning OmcA structure in physiologically relevant conditions such as aqueous environments. We purified OmcA and characterized its solution structure by small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), and its interaction at the hematite-water interface by neutron reflectometry. SAXS showed that OmcA is a monomer that adopts a flat ellipsoidal shape with an overall dimension of 34 × 90 × 65 Å3. To our knowledge, we obtained the first direct evidence that OmcA undergoes a redox state-dependent conformational change in solution whereby reduction decreases the overall length of OmcA by ~7 Å (the maximum dimension was 96 Å for oxidized OmcA, and 89 Å for NADH and dithionite-reduced OmcA). OmcA was also found to physically interact with electron shuttle molecules such as flavin mononucleotide, resulting in the formation of high-molecular-weight assemblies. Neutron reflectometry showed that OmcA forms a well-defined monomolecular layer on hematite surfaces, where it assumes an orientation that maximizes its contact area with the mineral surface. Finally, these novel insights into the molecular structure of OmcA in solution, and its interaction with insoluble hematite and small organic ligands, demonstrate the fundamental structural bases underlying OmcA's role in mediating redox processes.

  14. Characterization of the decaheme c-type cytochrome OmcA in solution and on hematite surfaces by small angle x-ray scattering and neutron reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Johs, A; Shi, L; Droubay, T; Ankner, J F; Liang, L

    2010-06-16

    The outer membrane protein OmcA is an 85 kDa decaheme c-type cytochrome located on the surface of the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. It is assumed to mediate shuttling of electrons to extracellular acceptors that include solid metal oxides such as hematite (alpha-Fe(2)O(3)). No information is yet available concerning OmcA structure in physiologically relevant conditions such as aqueous environments. We purified OmcA and characterized its solution structure by small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), and its interaction at the hematite-water interface by neutron reflectometry. SAXS showed that OmcA is a monomer that adopts a flat ellipsoidal shape with an overall dimension of 34 x 90 x 65 A(3). To our knowledge, we obtained the first direct evidence that OmcA undergoes a redox state-dependent conformational change in solution whereby reduction decreases the overall length of OmcA by approximately 7 A (the maximum dimension was 96 A for oxidized OmcA, and 89 A for NADH and dithionite-reduced OmcA). OmcA was also found to physically interact with electron shuttle molecules such as flavin mononucleotide, resulting in the formation of high-molecular-weight assemblies. Neutron reflectometry showed that OmcA forms a well-defined monomolecular layer on hematite surfaces, where it assumes an orientation that maximizes its contact area with the mineral surface. These novel insights into the molecular structure of OmcA in solution, and its interaction with insoluble hematite and small organic ligands, demonstrate the fundamental structural bases underlying OmcA's role in mediating redox processes. (c) 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of the Decaheme c-Type Cytochrome OmcA in Solution and on Hematite Surfaces by Small Angle X-Ray Scattering and Neutron Reflectometry

    PubMed Central

    Johs, A.; Shi, L.; Droubay, T.; Ankner, J.F.; Liang, L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The outer membrane protein OmcA is an 85 kDa decaheme c-type cytochrome located on the surface of the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. It is assumed to mediate shuttling of electrons to extracellular acceptors that include solid metal oxides such as hematite (α-Fe2O3). No information is yet available concerning OmcA structure in physiologically relevant conditions such as aqueous environments. We purified OmcA and characterized its solution structure by small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), and its interaction at the hematite-water interface by neutron reflectometry. SAXS showed that OmcA is a monomer that adopts a flat ellipsoidal shape with an overall dimension of 34 × 90 × 65 Å3. To our knowledge, we obtained the first direct evidence that OmcA undergoes a redox state-dependent conformational change in solution whereby reduction decreases the overall length of OmcA by ∼7 Å (the maximum dimension was 96 Å for oxidized OmcA, and 89 Å for NADH and dithionite-reduced OmcA). OmcA was also found to physically interact with electron shuttle molecules such as flavin mononucleotide, resulting in the formation of high-molecular-weight assemblies. Neutron reflectometry showed that OmcA forms a well-defined monomolecular layer on hematite surfaces, where it assumes an orientation that maximizes its contact area with the mineral surface. These novel insights into the molecular structure of OmcA in solution, and its interaction with insoluble hematite and small organic ligands, demonstrate the fundamental structural bases underlying OmcA's role in mediating redox processes. PMID:20550916

  16. ASM Based Synthesis of Handwritten Arabic Text Pages

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Elzobi, Moftah; El-etriby, Sherif; Ghoneim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Document analysis tasks, as text recognition, word spotting, or segmentation, are highly dependent on comprehensive and suitable databases for training and validation. However their generation is expensive in sense of labor and time. As a matter of fact, there is a lack of such databases, which complicates research and development. This is especially true for the case of Arabic handwriting recognition, that involves different preprocessing, segmentation, and recognition methods, which have individual demands on samples and ground truth. To bypass this problem, we present an efficient system that automatically turns Arabic Unicode text into synthetic images of handwritten documents and detailed ground truth. Active Shape Models (ASMs) based on 28046 online samples were used for character synthesis and statistical properties were extracted from the IESK-arDB database to simulate baselines and word slant or skew. In the synthesis step ASM based representations are composed to words and text pages, smoothed by B-Spline interpolation and rendered considering writing speed and pen characteristics. Finally, we use the synthetic data to validate a segmentation method. An experimental comparison with the IESK-arDB database encourages to train and test document analysis related methods on synthetic samples, whenever no sufficient natural ground truthed data is available. PMID:26295059

  17. The X-ray crystal structure of Shewanella oneidensis OmcA reveals new insight at the microbe-mineral interface

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Marcus; Baiden, Nanakow; Johs, Alexander; Tomanicek, Stephen J.; Liang, Liyuan; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Gates, Andrew J.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David; Clarke, Thomas A.

    2014-05-21

    The x-ray crystal structure of Shewanella oneidensis OmcA, an extracellular decaheme cytochrome involved in mineral reduction, was solved to a resolution of 2.7 Å. The four OmcA molecules in the asymmetric unit were arranged so the distance between heme-5 on adjacent OmcA monomers was less than 1 nm, indicative of a transient OmcA dimer capable of intermolecular electron transfer. A previously identified hematite binding motif was identified near heme 10, forming a hydroxylated surface that would bring a heme-10 electron egress site to ~ 1 nm of mineral surface.

  18. ASME Code requirements for multi-canister overpack design and fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    SMITH, K.E.

    1998-11-03

    The baseline requirements for the design and fabrication of the MCO include the application of the technical requirements of the ASME Code, Section III, Subsection NB for containment and Section III, Subsection NG for criticality control. ASME Code administrative requirements, which have not historically been applied at the Hanford site and which have not been required by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for licensed spent fuel casks/canisters, were not invoked for the MCO. As a result of recommendations made from an ASME Code consultant in response to DNFSB staff concerns regarding ASME Code application, the SNF Project will be making the following modifications: issue an ASME Code Design Specification and Design Report, certified by a Registered Professional Engineer; Require the MCO fabricator to hold ASME Section III or Section VIII, Division 2 accreditation; and Use ASME Authorized Inspectors for MCO fabrication. Incorporation of these modifications will ensure that the MCO is designed and fabricated in accordance with the ASME Code. Code Stamping has not been a requirement at the Hanford site, nor for NRC licensed spent fuel casks/canisters, but will be considered if determined to be economically justified.

  19. ASME Nuclear Crane Standards for Enhanced Crane Safety and Increased Profit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkhurst, Stephen N.

    2000-01-01

    The ASME NOG-1 standard, 'Rules for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes', covers top running cranes for nuclear facilities; with the ASME NUM-1 standard, 'Rules for Construction of Cranes, Monorails, and Hoists', covering the single girder, underhung, wall and jib cranes, as well as the monorails and hoists. These two ASME nuclear crane standards provide criteria for designing, inspecting and testing overhead handling equipment with enhanced safety to meet the 'defense-in-depth' approach of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) documents NUREG 0554 and NUREG 0612. In addition to providing designs for enhanced safety, the ASME nuclear crane standards provide a basis for purchasing overhead handling equipment with standard safety features, based upon accepted engineering principles, and including performance and environmental parameters specific to nuclear facilities. The ASME NOG-1 and ASME NUM-1 standards not only provide enhanced safety for handling a critical load, but also increase profit by minimizing the possibility of load drops, by reducing cumbersome operating restrictions, and by providing the foundation for a sound licensing position. The ASME nuclear crane standards can also increase profit by providing the designs and information to help ensure that the right standard equipment is purchased. Additionally, the ASME nuclear crane standards can increase profit by providing designs and information to help address current issues, such as the qualification of nuclear plant cranes for making 'planned engineered lifts' for steam generator replacement and decommissioning.

  20. A Review & Assessment of Current Operating Conditions Allowable Stresses in ASME Section III Subsection NH

    SciTech Connect

    R. W. Swindeman

    2009-12-14

    The current operating condition allowable stresses provided in ASME Section III, Subsection NH were reviewed for consistency with the criteria used to establish the stress allowables and with the allowable stresses provided in ASME Section II, Part D. It was found that the S{sub o} values in ASME III-NH were consistent with the S values in ASME IID for the five materials of interest. However, it was found that 0.80 S{sub r} was less than S{sub o} for some temperatures for four of the materials. Only values for alloy 800H appeared to be consistent with the criteria on which S{sub o} values are established. With the intent of undertaking a more detailed evaluation of issues related to the allowable stresses in ASME III-NH, the availabilities of databases for the five materials were reviewed and augmented databases were assembled.

  1. Direct involvement of ombB, omaB, and omcB genes in extracellular reduction of Fe(III) by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yimo; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Shi, Liang

    2015-10-01

    The tandem gene clusters orfR-ombB-omaB-omcB and orfS-ombC-omaC-omcC of the metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA are responsible for trans-outer membrane electron transfer during extracellular reduction of Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite [a poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxide]. Each gene cluster encodes a putative transcriptional factor (OrfR/OrfS), a porin-like outer-membrane protein (OmbB/OmbC), a periplasmic c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt, OmaB/OmaC) and an outer-membrane c-Cyt (OmcB/OmcC). The individual roles of OmbB, OmaB and OmcB in extracellular reduction of Fe(III), however, have remained either uninvestigated or controversial. Here, we showed that replacements of ombB, omaB, omcB and ombB-omaB with an antibiotic gene in the presence of ombC-omaC-omcC had no impact on reduction of Fe(III)-citrate by G. sulfurreducens PCA. Disruption of ombB, omaB, omcB and ombB-omaB in the absence of ombC-omaC-omcC, however, severely impaired the bacterial ability to reduce Fe(III)-citrate as well as ferrihydrite. These results unequivocally demonstrate an overlapping role of ombB-omaB-omcB and ombC-omaC-omcC in extracellular Fe(III) reduction by G. sulfurreducens PCA. Involvement of both ombB-omaB-omcB and ombC-omaC-omcC in extracellular Fe(III) reduction reflects the importance of these trans-outer membrane protein complexes in the physiology of this bacterium. Moreover, the kinetics of Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite reduction by these mutants in the absence of ombC-omaC-omcC were nearly identical, which clearly show that OmbB, OmaB and OmcB contribute equally to extracellular Fe(III) reduction. Finally, orfS was found to have a negative impact on the extracellular reduction of Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite in G. sulfurreducens PCA probably by serving as a transcriptional repressor.

  2. Direct involvement of ombB, omaB, and omcB genes in extracellular reduction of Fe(III) by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yimo; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; ...

    2015-10-01

    The tandem gene clusters orfR-ombB-omaB-omcB and orfS-ombC-omaC-omcC of the metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA are responsible for trans-outer membrane electron transfer during extracellular reduction of Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite [a poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxide]. Each gene cluster encodes a putative transcriptional factor (OrfR/OrfS), a porin-like outer-membrane protein (OmbB/OmbC), a periplasmic c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt, OmaB/OmaC) and an outer-membrane c-Cyt (OmcB/OmcC). The individual roles of OmbB, OmaB and OmcB in extracellular reduction of Fe(III), however, have remained either uninvestigated or controversial. Here, we showed that replacements of ombB, omaB, omcB and ombB-omaB with an antibiotic gene in the presence of ombC-omaC-omcC had nomore » impact on reduction of Fe(III)-citrate by G. sulfurreducens PCA. Disruption of ombB, omaB, omcB and ombB-omaB in the absence of ombC-omaC-omcC, however, severely impaired the bacterial ability to reduce Fe(III)-citrate as well as ferrihydrite. These results unequivocally demonstrate an overlapping role of ombB-omaB-omcB and ombC-omaC-omcC in extracellular Fe(III) reduction by G. sulfurreducens PCA. Involvement of both ombB-omaB-omcB and ombC-omaC-omcC in extracellular Fe(III) reduction reflects the importance of these trans-outer membrane protein complexes in the physiology of this bacterium. Moreover, the kinetics of Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite reduction by these mutants in the absence of ombC-omaC-omcC were nearly identical, which clearly show that OmbB, OmaB and OmcB contribute equally to extracellular Fe(III) reduction. Finally, orfS was found to have a negative impact on the extracellular reduction of Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite in G. sulfurreducens PCA probably by serving as a transcriptional repressor.« less

  3. Constitutive overexpression of asm18 increases the production and diversity of maytansinoids in Actinosynnema pretiosum.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanren; Lu, Chunhua; Chang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yuemao

    2016-03-01

    Ansamitocins isolated from Actinosynnema pretiosum, potent antitumor compounds, belong to the family of maytansinoids, and the antibody-maytansinoid conjugates are currently under different phases of clinical trials. The clinical applications of ansamitocins have stimulated extensive studies to improve their production yields. In this study, we investigated the function of a pathway-specific S treptomyces antibiotic regulatory protein (SARP) family regulator, Asm18, and observed that ectopic overexpression of the asm18 gene increased the production of N-demethyl-4,5-desepoxy-maytansinol (2) to 50 mg/L in the HGF052 + pJTU824-asm18 strain, an increase by 4.7-fold compared to that of the control strain HGF052 + pJTU824. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the overexpression of the asm18 gene selectively increased the transcription levels of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the starter unit (asm43), polyketide assembly (asmA), post-PKS modification (asm21), as well as the transcription levels of the regulatory gene (asm8), which is a specific LAL-type activator in ansamitocin biosynthesis. With the increase of fermentation titre, seven ansamitocin analogs (1-7) including three new ones (1, 5, and 6) and maytansinol (7) were isolated from the HGF052 + pJTU824-asm18 strain. Our results not only pave the way for further improving the production of ansamitocin analogs but also indicate that the post-PKS modifications of ansamitocin biosynthesis are flexible, which brings a potential of producing maytansinol, the most fascinating intermediate for the synthesis of antibody-maytansinoid conjugates, by optimizing the HGF052 and/or HGF052 + pJTU824-asm18 strains.

  4. Amperometric catechol biosensor based on laccase immobilized on nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC)/PVA matrix

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Meiqing; Wang, Hefeng; Huang, Di; Han, Zhijun; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaojun; Chen, Jing

    2014-01-01

    A functionalized nitrogen-containing ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC), which shows good electrical properties, was synthesized by the carbonization of polyaniline inside a SBA-15 mesoporous silica template. Based on this, through entrapping laccase onto the N-OMC/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film a facilely fabricated amperometric biosensor was developed. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was assembled on a composite film of a N-OMC/PVA modified Au electrode and the electrochemical behavior was investigated. The results indicated that the N-OMC modified electrode exhibits electrical properties towards catechol. The optimum experimental conditions of a biosensor for the detection of catechol were studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the sensitivity of the biosensor was 0.29 A*M−1 with a detection limit of 0.31 μM and a linear detection range from 0.39 μM to 8.98 μM for catechol. The calibration curve followed the Michaelis–Menten kinetics and the apparent Michaelis–Menten was 6.28 μM. This work demonstrated that the N-OMC/PVA composite provides a suitable support for laccase immobilization and the construction of a biosensor. PMID:27877681

  5. Amperometric catechol biosensor based on laccase immobilized on nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC)/PVA matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Meiqing; Wang, Hefeng; Huang, Di; Han, Zhijun; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaojun; Chen, Jing

    2014-06-01

    A functionalized nitrogen-containing ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC), which shows good electrical properties, was synthesized by the carbonization of polyaniline inside a SBA-15 mesoporous silica template. Based on this, through entrapping laccase onto the N-OMC/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film a facilely fabricated amperometric biosensor was developed. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was assembled on a composite film of a N-OMC/PVA modified Au electrode and the electrochemical behavior was investigated. The results indicated that the N-OMC modified electrode exhibits electrical properties towards catechol. The optimum experimental conditions of a biosensor for the detection of catechol were studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the sensitivity of the biosensor was 0.29 A*M-1 with a detection limit of 0.31 μM and a linear detection range from 0.39 μM to 8.98 μM for catechol. The calibration curve followed the Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the apparent Michaelis-Menten \\left( K_{M}^{app} \\right) was 6.28 μM. This work demonstrated that the N-OMC/PVA composite provides a suitable support for laccase immobilization and the construction of a biosensor.

  6. Amperometric catechol biosensor based on laccase immobilized on nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC)/PVA matrix.

    PubMed

    Guo, Meiqing; Wang, Hefeng; Huang, Di; Han, Zhijun; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaojun; Chen, Jing

    2014-06-01

    A functionalized nitrogen-containing ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC), which shows good electrical properties, was synthesized by the carbonization of polyaniline inside a SBA-15 mesoporous silica template. Based on this, through entrapping laccase onto the N-OMC/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film a facilely fabricated amperometric biosensor was developed. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was assembled on a composite film of a N-OMC/PVA modified Au electrode and the electrochemical behavior was investigated. The results indicated that the N-OMC modified electrode exhibits electrical properties towards catechol. The optimum experimental conditions of a biosensor for the detection of catechol were studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the sensitivity of the biosensor was 0.29 A*M(-1) with a detection limit of 0.31 μM and a linear detection range from 0.39 μM to 8.98 μM for catechol. The calibration curve followed the Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the apparent Michaelis-Menten [Formula: see text] was 6.28 μM. This work demonstrated that the N-OMC/PVA composite provides a suitable support for laccase immobilization and the construction of a biosensor.

  7. ASME code and ratcheting in piping components. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, T.; Matzen, V.C.

    1999-05-14

    The main objective of this research is to develop an analysis program which can accurately simulate ratcheting in piping components subjected to seismic or other cyclic loads. Ratcheting is defined as the accumulation of deformation in structures and materials with cycles. This phenomenon has been demonstrated to cause failure to piping components (known as ratcheting-fatigue failure) and is yet to be understood clearly. The design and analysis methods in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for ratcheting of piping components are not well accepted by the practicing engineering community. This research project attempts to understand the ratcheting-fatigue failure mechanisms and improve analysis methods for ratcheting predictions. In the first step a state-of-the-art testing facility is developed for quasi-static cyclic and seismic testing of straight and elbow piping components. A systematic testing program to study ratcheting is developed. Some tests have already been performed an d the rest will be completed by summer'99. Significant progress has been made in the area of constitutive modeling. A number of sophisticated constitutive models have been evaluated in terms of their simulations for a broad class of ratcheting responses. From the knowledge gained from this evaluation study two improved models are developed. These models are demonstrated to have promise in simulating ratcheting responses in piping components. Hence, implementation of these improved models in widely used finite element programs, ANSYS and/or ABAQUS, is in progress. Upon achieving improved finite element programs for simulation of ratcheting, the ASME Code provisions for ratcheting of piping components will be reviewed and more rational methods will be suggested. Also, simplified analysis methods will be developed for operability studies of piping components and systems. Some of the future works will be performed under the auspices of the Center for Nuclear Power Plant Structures

  8. Bare carbon steel electrodes and fluxes for submerged arc welding (ASME SFA-5. 17 with additional requirements)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    This standard covers bare carbon steel electrodes and fluxes for submerged arc welding in nuclear and associated applications. Material shall conform to the requirements of ASME SFA-5.17; to the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME Code), Section III, Article NB-2000; and to the additional requirements of this standard.

  9. Predictive factors of Osaka Medical College (OMC) brace treatment in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Kuroki, Hiroshi; Inomata, Naoki; Hamanaka, Hideaki; Higa, Kiyoshi; Chosa, Etsuo; Tajima, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    Factors influencing clinical course of brace treatment apply to adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients remain unclear. By making clear them, we may select suitable patients for brace treatment and alleviate overtreatment. The purpose of this study was to explore predictive factors of Osaka Medical College (OMC) brace treatment for AIS patients in accordance with the modified standardized criteria proposed by the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) committee on bracing and non-operative management. From 1999 through 2010, 31 consecutive patients with AIS who were newly prescribed the OMC brace and met the modified SRS criteria were studied. The study included 2 boys and 29 girls with a mean age of 12 years and 0 month. We investigated the clinical course and evaluated the impacts of compliance, initial brace correction rate, curve flexibility, curve pattern, Cobb angle, chronological age, and Risser stage to clinical outcomes. The clinical course of the brace treatment was considered progression if ≥6° curvature increase occurred and improvement if ≥6° curvature decrease occurred according to SRS judgment criteria. The curve progressed in 10 cases, the curve improved in 6 cases, and the curve remained unchanged in 15 cases (success rate: 67.7%). The success rate was statistically higher in the patient group whose instruction adherence rate was greater than 50% as compared with in those 50% or less. Initial brace correction rate, curve flexibility, curve pattern, the magnitude of Cobb angle, chronological age, and Risser stage did not have any significant effect for clinical courses. However, success rate was insignificantly higher in the cases whose Cobb angle in brace was smaller than that in hanging position. OMC brace treatment could alter the natural history of AIS, however, that was significantly affected by compliance of brace wear.

  10. 115-year-old society knows how to reach young scientists: ASM Young Ambassador Program.

    PubMed

    Karczewska-Golec, Joanna

    2015-12-25

    With around 40,000 members in more than 150 countries, American Society for Microbiology (ASM) faces the challenge of meeting very diverse needs of its increasingly international members base. The newly launched ASM Young Ambassador Program seeks to aid the Society in this effort. Equipped with ASM conceptual support and financing, Young Ambassadors (YAs) design and pursue country-tailored approaches to strengthen the Society's ties with local microbiological communities. In a trans-national setting, the active presence of YAs at important scientific events, such as 16th European Congress on Biotechnology, forges new interactions between ASM and sister societies. The paper presents an overview of the Young Ambassadors-driven initiatives at both global and country levels, and explores the topic of how early-career scientists can contribute to science diplomacy and international relations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Design Release Reliability Prediciton Test Set, Weapon Control, Aircraft, AN/ASM-184A(V).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This report presents a design release reliability prediction for the Test Set, Weapon Control , Aircraft , AN/ASM-184A(V). The data and methods used to arrive at this prediction are included. (Author)

  12. Amide N-glycosylation by Asm25, an N-glycosyltransferase of ansamitocins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peiji; Bai, Linquan; Ma, Juan; Zeng, Ying; Li, Lei; Zhang, Yirong; Lu, Chunhua; Dai, Huanqin; Wu, Zhaoxian; Li, Yaoyao; Wu, Xuan; Chen, Gang; Hao, Xiaojiang; Shen, Yuemao; Deng, Zixin; Floss, Heinz G

    2008-08-25

    Ansamitocins are potent antitumor maytansinoids produced by Actinosynnema pretiosum. Their biosynthesis involves the initial assembly of a macrolactam polyketide, followed by a series of postpolyketide synthase (PKS) modifications. Three ansamitocin glycosides were isolated from A. pretiosum and fully characterized structurally as novel ansamitocin derivatives, carrying a beta-D-glucosyl group attached to the macrolactam amide nitrogen in place of the N-methyl group. By gene inactivation and complementation, asm25 was identified as the N-glycosyltransferase gene responsible for the macrolactam amide N-glycosylation of ansamitocins. Soluble, enzymatically active Asm25 protein was obtained from asm25-expressing E. coli by solubilization from inclusion bodies. Its optimal reaction conditions, including temperature, pH, metal ion requirement, and Km/Kcat, were determined. Asm25 also showed broad substrate specificity toward other ansamycins and synthetic indolin-2-ones. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first in vitro characterization of a purified antibiotic N-glycosyltransferase.

  13. The First ASME Code Stamped Cryomodule at SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, M P; Crofford, M T; Douglas, D L; Kim, S -H; Steward, S T; Strong, W H; Afanador, R; Hannah, B S; Saunders, J; Mammosser, J D

    2012-07-01

    The first spare cryomodule for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has been designed, fabricated, and tested by SNS personnel. The approach to design for this cryomodule was to hold critical design features identical to the original design such as bayonet positions, coupler positions, cold mass assembly, and overall footprint. However, this is the first SNS cryomodule that meets the pressure requirements put forth in the 10 CFR 851: Worker Safety and Health Program. The most significant difference is that Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code was applied to the vacuum vessel of this cryomodule. Applying the pressure code to the helium vessels within the cryomodule was considered. However, it was determined to be schedule prohibitive because it required a code case for materials that are not currently covered by the code. Good engineering practice was applied to the internal components to verify the quality and integrity of the entire cryomodule. The design of the cryomodule, fabrication effort, and cryogenic test results will be reported in this paper.

  14. 46 CFR 57.02-2 - Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. 57.02-2 Section... AND BRAZING General Requirements § 57.02-2 Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. (a) The... in this part. Table 57.02-1(a)—Limitations and Modifications to the Adoption of section IX of...

  15. 46 CFR 57.02-2 - Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. 57.02-2 Section... AND BRAZING General Requirements § 57.02-2 Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. (a) The... in this part. Table 57.02-1(a)—Limitations and Modifications to the Adoption of section IX of...

  16. New infrared observations of IRS1, IRS3 and the adjacent nebula in the OMC-2 cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Y.; Werner, M.; Capps, R.; Dinerstein, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    Near infrared reflection nebulae are often observed around embedded protostellar objects. New observations of the infrared cluster of low luminosity protostars in Orion Molecular Cloud 2 (OMC2) are reported. The asymmetric distribution of the extended emission seen about IRS1 is in fact another infrared reflection nebulae. Observations of near infrared polarimetry, photometry, and spectrophotometry were carried out.

  17. Salivary Tick Cystatin OmC2 Targets Lysosomal Cathepsins S and C in Human Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Zavašnik-Bergant, Tina; Vidmar, Robert; Sekirnik, Andreja; Fonović, Marko; Salát, Jiří; Grunclová, Lenka; Kopáček, Petr; Turk, Boris

    2017-01-01

    To ensure successful feeding tick saliva contains a number of inhibitory proteins that interfere with the host immune response and help to create a permissive environment for pathogen transmission. Among the potential targets of the salivary cystatins are two host cysteine proteases, cathepsin S, which is essential for antigen- and invariant chain-processing, and cathepsin C (dipeptidyl peptidase 1, DPP1), which plays a critical role in processing and activation of the granule serine proteases. Here, the effect of salivary cystatin OmC2 from Ornithodoros moubata was studied using differentiated MUTZ-3 cells as a model of immature dendritic cells of the host skin. Following internalization, cystatin OmC2 was initially found to inhibit the activity of several cysteine cathepsins, as indicated by the decreased rates of degradation of fluorogenic peptide substrates. To identify targets, affinity chromatography was used to isolate His-tagged cystatin OmC2 together with the bound proteins from MUTZ-3 cells. Cathepsins S and C were identified in these complexes by mass spectrometry and confirmed by immunoblotting. Furthermore, reduced increase in the surface expression of MHC II and CD86, which are associated with the maturation of dendritic cells, was observed. In contrast, human inhibitor cystatin C, which is normally expressed and secreted by dendritic cells, did not affect the expression of CD86. It is proposed that internalization of salivary cystatin OmC2 by the host dendritic cells targets cathepsins S and C, thereby affecting their maturation.

  18. A minimal path searching approach for active shape model (ASM)-based segmentation of the lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shengwen; Fei, Baowei

    2009-02-01

    We are developing a minimal path searching method for active shape model (ASM)-based segmentation for detection of lung boundaries on digital radiographs. With the conventional ASM method, the position and shape parameters of the model points are iteratively refined and the target points are updated by the least Mahalanobis distance criterion. We propose an improved searching strategy that extends the searching points in a fan-shape region instead of along the normal direction. A minimal path (MP) deformable model is applied to drive the searching procedure. A statistical shape prior model is incorporated into the segmentation. In order to keep the smoothness of the shape, a smooth constraint is employed to the deformable model. To quantitatively assess the ASM-MP segmentation, we compare the automatic segmentation with manual segmentation for 72 lung digitized radiographs. The distance error between the ASM-MP and manual segmentation is 1.75 +/- 0.33 pixels, while the error is 1.99 +/- 0.45 pixels for the ASM. Our results demonstrate that our ASM-MP method can accurately segment the lung on digital radiographs.

  19. N-methylation of the amide bond by methyltransferase asm10 in ansamitocin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingying; Kang, Qianjin; Shang, Guangdong; Spiteller, Peter; Carroll, Brian; Yu, Tin-Wein; Su, Wenjin; Bai, Linquan; Floss, Heinz G

    2011-07-25

    Ansamitocins are potent antitumor agents produced by Actinosynnema pretiosum. As deduced from their structures, an N-methylation on the amide bond is required among the various modifications. The protein encoded by asm10 belongs to the SAM-dependent methyltransferase family. Through gene inactivation and complementation, asm10 was proved to be responsible for the N-methylation of ansamitocins. Asm10 is a 33.0 kDa monomer, as determined by gel filtration. By using N-desmethyl-ansamitocin P-3 as substrate, the optimal temperature and pH for Asm10 catalysis were determined to be 32 °C and 10.0, respectively. Asm10 also showed broad substrate flexibility toward other N-desmethyl-ansamycins and synthetic indolin-2-ones. Through site-directed mutagenesis, Asp154 and Leu155 of Asm10 were confirmed to be essential for its catalysis, possibly through the binding of SAM. The characterization of this unique N-methyltransferase has enriched the toolbox for engineering N-methylated derivatives from both natural and synthetic compounds; this will allow known potential drugs to be modified. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. On the nature of the deeply embedded protostar OMC-2 FIR 4

    SciTech Connect

    Furlan, E.; Megeath, S. T.; Fischer, W. J.; Osorio, M.; Stutz, A. M.; Ali, B.; Manoj, P.; Adams, J. D.; Tobin, J. J.

    2014-05-01

    We use mid-infrared to submillimeter data from the Spitzer, Herschel, and Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescopes to study the bright submillimeter source OMC-2 FIR 4. We find a point source at 8, 24, and 70 μm, and a compact, but extended source at 160, 350, and 870 μm. The peak of the emission from 8 to 70 μm, attributed to the protostar associated with FIR 4, is displaced relative to the peak of the extended emission; the latter represents the large molecular core the protostar is embedded within. We determine that the protostar has a bolometric luminosity of 37 L {sub ☉}, although including more extended emission surrounding the point source raises this value to 86 L {sub ☉}. Radiative transfer models of the protostellar system fit the observed spectral energy distribution well and yield a total luminosity of most likely less than 100 L {sub ☉}. Our models suggest that the bolometric luminosity of the protostar could be as low as 12-14 L {sub ☉}, while the luminosity of the colder (∼20 K) extended core could be around 100 L {sub ☉}, with a mass of about 27 M {sub ☉}. Our derived luminosities for the protostar OMC-2 FIR 4 are in direct contradiction with previous claims of a total luminosity of 1000 L {sub ☉}. Furthermore, we find evidence from far-infrared molecular spectra and 3.6 cm emission that FIR 4 drives an outflow. The final stellar mass the protostar will ultimately achieve is uncertain due to its association with the large reservoir of mass found in the cold core.

  1. 46 CFR 56.01-5 - Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and other standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and other... ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES General § 56.01-5 Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and... accordance with ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2), as limited, modified, or...

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the outer membrane cytochrome OmcA from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Tomanicek, S.J.; Johs, A.; Sawhney, M.S.; Shi, L.; Liang, L.

    2012-05-24

    The outer membrane cytochrome OmcA functions as a terminal metal reductase in the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. The ten-heme centers shuttle electrons from the transmembrane donor complex to extracellular electron acceptors. Here, the crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of OmcA are reported. Crystals of OmcA were grown by the sitting-drop vapor-diffusion method using PEG 20 000 as a precipitant. The OmcA crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 93.0, b = 246.0, c = 136.6 {angstrom}, = 90, {beta} = 97.8, {gamma} = 90{sup o}. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 3.25 {angstrom}.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the outer membrane cytochrome OmcA from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Tomanicek, S. J.; Johs, Alexander; Sawhney, M. S.; Shi, Liang; Liang, L.

    2012-01-01

    The outer membrane cytochrome OmcA functions as a terminal metal reductase in the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. The ten-heme centers shuttle electrons from the transmembrane donor complex to extracellular electron acceptors. Here, the crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of OmcA are reported. Crystals of OmcA were grown by the sitting-drop vapor-diffusion method using PEG 20 000 as a precipitant. The OmcA crystals belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 93.0, b = 246.0, c = 136.6 A ° , * = 90, * = 97.8, * = 90*. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 3.25 A ° .

  4. Examination of AsmA and its effect on the assembly of Escherichia coli outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Deng, M; Misra, R

    1996-08-01

    asmA mutations were isolated as extragenic suppressors of an OmpF assembly mutant, OmpF315. This suppressor locus produced a protein that was present in extremely low levels and could only be visualized by Western blotting in cells where AsmA expression was induced from a plasmid. Detailed fractionation analyses showed that AsmA localized with the inner membrane. Curiously, however, the mutant OmpF assembly step influenced by AsmA occurred in the outer membrane, perhaps indicating an indirect involvement of AsmA in the assembly of outer membrane proteins. Biochemical examination of the outer membrane showed that asmA null mutations reduce lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels, thereby lowering the ratios of glycerolphospholipids to LPS and envelope proteins to LPS in the outer membrane. Despite these quantitative alterations, no apparent structural changes in LPS or major phospholipids were noted. Reduced LPS levels in asmA mutants indicate a possible role of AsmA in LPS biogenesis. Data presented in this study suggest that asmA-mediated OmpF assembly suppression may have been achieved by altering the outer membrane fluidity, thus making it more amenable for the assembly of mutant proteins.

  5. ASME code considerations for the compact heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Nestell, James; Sham, Sam

    2015-08-31

    . Classic shell and tube designs will be large and costly, and may only be appropriate in steam generator service in the SHX where boiling inside the tubes occurs. For other energy conversion systems, all of these features can be met in a compact heat exchanger design. This report will examine some of the ASME Code issues that will need to be addressed to allow use of a Code-qualified compact heat exchanger in IHX or SHX nuclear service. Most effort will focus on the IHX, since the safety-related (Class A) design rules are more extensive than those for important-to-safety (Class B) or commercial rules that are relevant to the SHX.

  6. Antibody Recognition Force Microscopy Shows that Outer Membrane Cytochromes OmcA and MtrC Are Expressed on the Exterior Surface of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1▿

    PubMed Central

    Lower, Brian H.; Yongsunthon, Ruchirej; Shi, Liang; Wildling, Linda; Gruber, Hermann J.; Wigginton, Nicholas S.; Reardon, Catherine L.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Boily, Jean-François; Lower, Steven K.

    2009-01-01

    Antibody recognition force microscopy showed that OmcA and MtrC are expressed on the exterior surface of living Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cells when Fe(III), including solid-phase hematite (Fe2O3), was the terminal electron acceptor. OmcA was localized to the interface between the cell and mineral. MtrC displayed a more uniform distribution across the cell surface. Both cytochromes were associated with an extracellular polymeric substance. PMID:19286784

  7. Direct Involvement of Type II Secretion System in Extracellular Translocation of Shewanella Oneidensis Outer Membrane Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Liang; Deng, Shuang; Marshall, Matthew J.; Wang, Zheming; Kennedy, David W.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mottaz, Heather M.; Hill, Eric A.; Gorby, Yuri A.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Richardson, David J.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2008-08-01

    Outer membrane decaheme c-type cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 are extracellular lipoproteins important for dissimilatory reduction of solid metal (hydr)oxides during anaerobic respiration. To investigate the roles of type II secretion system (T2S) in translocation of MtrC and OmcA across outer membrane, we measured the effects of deleting two T2S genes, gspD and gspG, on the secretion of MtrC and OmcA when cells were grown under anaerobic conditions. Deletion of gspD or gspG resulted in slightly yellowish supernatants, different from the pink supernatant of wild type (wt). Comparative proteomic analyses revealed that, although MtrC, OmcA and NrfA, a periplasmic nitrite reductase, were present the supernatants of wt and ΔgspD mutant, their peptides counts were much lower in ΔgspD than in wt. Subsequent analyses with heme-staining and Western blot not only confirmed that deletion of gspD or gspG reduced the abundances of MtrC and OmcA in the supernatants, but also revealed that the deletions consequently increased their abundances inside the cells. Complementation of ΔgspG mutant with functional GspG could reverse the effects of deleting gspG on the colors of the supernatants and the abundances of MtrC and OmcA. In contrast, Western results showed that the abundance of NrfA was reduced in the supernatant and the cells of ΔgspD mutant, suggesting that reduced NrfA in the periplasm, where MtrC and OmcA were accumulated, contributed to its reduction in the supernatant. Thus, our results demonstrate at the first time that T2S facilitates translocation of MtrC and OmcA across outer membrane.

  8. Antibody recognition force microscopy shows that outer membrane cytochromes OmcA and MtrC are expressed on the exterior surface of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Lower, Brian H.; Yongsunthon, Ruchirej; Shi, Liang; Wildling, Linda; Gruber, Hermann J.; Wigginton, Nicholas S.; Reardon, Catherine L.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Boily, Jean F.; Lower, Steven

    2009-05-01

    Antibody-recognition force microscopy showed that OmcA and MtrC are expressed on the exterior surface of living Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cells during anaerobic growth, when Fe(III) served as the terminal electron acceptor. OmcA was localized to the interface with hematite, while MtrC was more uniformly displayed on the bacterium’s exterior cell surface. Both cytochromes were also found associated with extracellular material.

  9. Antibody recognition force microscopy shows that outer membrane cytochromes OmcA and MtrC are expressed on the exterior surface of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Lower, Brian H; Yongsunthon, Ruchirej; Shi, Liang; Wildling, Linda; Gruber, Hermann J; Wigginton, Nicholas S; Reardon, Catherine L; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E; Droubay, Timothy C; Boily, Jean-François; Lower, Steven K

    2009-05-01

    Antibody recognition force microscopy showed that OmcA and MtrC are expressed on the exterior surface of living Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cells when Fe(III), including solid-phase hematite (Fe(2)O(3)), was the terminal electron acceptor. OmcA was localized to the interface between the cell and mineral. MtrC displayed a more uniform distribution across the cell surface. Both cytochromes were associated with an extracellular polymeric substance.

  10. Aggregation Kinetics of Hematite Particles in the Presence of Outer Membrane Cytochrome OmcA of Shewanella oneidenesis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Anxu; Liu, Feng; Shi, Liang; Liu, Juan

    2016-09-20

    The aggregation behavior of 9, 36, and 112 nm hematite particles was studied in the presence of OmcA, a bacterial extracellular protein, in aqueous dispersions at pH 5.7 through time-resolved dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic mobility, and circular dichroism spectra, respectively. At low salt concentration, the attachment efficiencies of hematite particles in all sizes first increased, then decreased, and finally remained stable with the increase of OmcA concentration, indicating the dominant interparticle interaction changed along with the increase in the protein-to-particle ratio. Nevertheless, at high salt concentration, the attachment efficiencies of all hematite samples gradually decreased with increasing OmcA concentration, which can be attributed to increasing steric force. Additionally, the aggregation behavior of OmcA-hematite conjugates was more correlated to total particle-surface area than primary particle size. It was further established that OmcA could stabilize hematite nanoparticles more efficiently than bovine serum albumin (BSA), a model plasma protein, due to the higher affinity of OmcA to hematite surface. This study highlighted the effects of particle properties, solution conditions, and protein properties on the complicated aggregation behavior of protein-nanoparticle conjugates in aqueous environments.

  11. Science of Casting and Solidification: ASM Handbook Contributions — Honoring Professor Doru Michael Stefanescu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupulescu, Afina; Henry, Scott; Marken, Karen; Lampman, Steven

    Many of the metal casting processes are still empirical in nature. Many others are deeply rooted in mathematics and therefore, suitable for modeling. Science of casting and solidification is a major technical asset for foundry operations and of extreme importance in understanding different length scales microstructural changes and evolution as well as developing new processes and materials. In his attempt to describe combinations of solidification theory, research results and industrial practice, Professor Doru Michael Stefanescu (ASM Fellow, 1997) has made tremendous contributions to the field. Many of his views on casting and solidification are valued as important impacts within professional environments such as TMS and ASM International. He has written many articles for the ASM Handbook series on subjects including basic metallurgy of cast iron, compacted graphite irons, solidification, thermodynamic properties of iron-base alloys, and computational modeling. He was also Volume Chair for Volume 15: Casting, of the 9th Edition Metals Handbook.

  12. Quality assurance program requirements (Supplement to ANSI/ASME NQA-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, W.L. Jr.

    1985-08-22

    ANSI/ASME NOA-1 is the preferred genetic quality assurance program standard for all new licensed, licensable, and unlicensed nuclear facilities and associated development and data acquistion activites under the cognizance of the Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy (NE). This standard, NE F 2-10, has been developed to amplify or modify the requirements of ANSI/ASME NQA-1, and is intended to be used in conjunction with that standard for programs under NE cognizance. Sandard NE F 2-10 incorporates those requirements of RDT F 2-2 that are not covered by ANSI/ASME NQA-1, as well as new or modified requirements, which are considered appropriate and necessary for NE nuclear facilities and associated development and data acquisition activities.

  13. Swarm's Absolute Magnetometer (ASM) Experimental Vector Mode, a Unique Capability With Considerable Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulot, G.; Vigneron, P.; Leger, J. M.; Fratter, I.; Olsen, N.; Jager, T.; Bertrand, F.; Brocco, L.; Sirol, O.; Lalanne, X.; Boness, A.; Cattin, V.

    2014-12-01

    In addition to providing the reference absolute scalar measurements on the three Alpha, Bravo and Charlie satellites of the Swarm mission, each Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) can also, and simultaneously, provide independent experimental vector field measurements. These experimental data appear to be of the expected quality (though somewhat less so on Charlie). In addition, comparisons of these measurements with readings from the Vector Field Magnetometer (VFM, located some distance away along the boom and used to produce the nominal Swarm Level1b vector data) show that the mechanical link between both instruments is very stable on all three satellites. These remarkable circumstances make it possible not only to compare the output of the VFM and ASM instruments for cross-validation purposes, but also to compute geomagnetic field models using only ASM scalar and vector mode data, without resorting to VFM data. Such models can then be compared to models computed in exactly the same way from VFM data (using exactly the same data distribution in time and space for both models, which thus only differ by the fact that the data are provided by either the ASM experimental vector mode, or the nominal L1b calibrated VFM data). As we shall illustrate in this presentation, such comparisons provide extremely valuable information. Not only do they show that ASM experimental vector mode data can indeed be used to produce high-degree geomagnetic field models, but they also provide a very interesting perspective on what may be the cause of undesired perturbations on either of the ASM and VFM instruments.

  14. ASM LabCap's contributions to disease surveillance and the International Health Regulations (2005).

    PubMed

    Specter, Steven; Schuermann, Lily; Hakiruwizera, Celestin; Sow, Mah-Séré Keita

    2010-12-03

    The revised International Health Regulations [IHR(2005)], which requires the Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop core capacities to detect, assess, report, and respond to public health threats, is bringing new challenges for national and international surveillance systems. As more countries move toward implementation and/or strengthening of their infectious disease surveillance programs, the strengthening of clinical microbiology laboratories becomes increasingly important because they serve as the first line responders to detect new and emerging microbial threats, re-emerging infectious diseases, the spread of antibiotic resistance, and the possibility of bioterrorism. In fact, IHR(2005) Core Capacity #8, "Laboratory", requires that laboratory services be a part of every phase of alert and response.Public health laboratories in many resource-constrained countries require financial and technical assistance to build their capacity. In recognition of this, in 2006, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) established an International Laboratory Capacity Building Program, LabCap, housed under the ASM International Board. ASM LabCap utilizes ASM's vast resources and its membership's expertise-40,000 microbiologists worldwide-to strengthen clinical and public health laboratory systems in low and low-middle income countries. ASM LabCap's program activities align with HR(2005) by building the capability of resource-constrained countries to develop quality-assured, laboratory-based information which is critical to disease surveillance and the rapid detection of disease outbreaks, whether they stem from natural, deliberate or accidental causes.ASM LabCap helps build laboratory capacity under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and under a sub-contract with the Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID

  15. ISO-SWS observations of OMC-1: H_2 and fine structure lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, D.; Bertoldi, F.; Drapatz, S.

    2000-04-01

    Using the Short-Wavelength-Spectrometer on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), we obtained near- and mid-infrared spectra toward the brightest H_2 emission peak of the Orion OMC-1 outflow. A wealth of emission and absorption features were detected, dominated by 56 H_2 ro-vibrational and pure rotational lines reaching from H_2 0-0 S(1) to 0-0 S(25). The spectra also show a number of H i recombination lines, atomic and ionic fine structure lines, and molecular lines of CO and H_2O. Between 6 and 12 μm the emission is dominated by PAH features. The extinction toward the molecular and atomic line emitting regions is estimated from relative line intensities, and it is found that the H_2 emission arises from within the OMC-1 cloud at an average K-band extinction of 1.0 mag, whereas the atomic hydrogen emission and much of the fine structure emission comes from the foreground H ii region and its bounding photodissociation front. H_2 1-0 S(1) emission of the OMC-1 outflow as seen with the NICMOS camera aboard the HST (Schultz et al. 1999). Overlaid are the various apertures of our ISO-SWS observations, which were centered on alpha_2000 . = 5h 35m 13.s 67, delta_2000 . = -5 degr 22 arcmin 8. arcsec 5, with an aperture of 14 arcsec x 20 arcsec for lambda < 12 μm, 14 arcsec x 27 arcsec at 12 to 27.5μm, 20 arcsec x 27 arcsec at 27.5 to 29μm, and 20 arcsec x 33 arcsec at 29 to 45.2μm. The total H_2 luminosity in the ISO-SWS aperture is estimated at (17 +/- 5) Lsun , and extrapolated to the entire outflow, (120 +/- 60) Lsun . The H_2 level column density distribution shows no signs of fluorescent excitation or a deviation from an ortho-to-para ratio of three. It shows an excitation temperature which increases from about 600 K for the lowest rotational and vibrational levels to about 3200 K at level energies E(v,J)/k > 14 000 K. No single steady state shock model can reproduce the observed H_2 excitation. The higher energy H_2 levels may be excited either thermally in non

  16. Electrochemical interaction of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and its outer membrane cytochromes OmcA and MtrC with hematite electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Meitl, Leisa A.; Eggleston, Carrick M.; Colberg, Patricia J.; Khare, Nidhi; Reardon, Catherine L.; Shi, Liang

    2009-09-15

    Bacterial metal reduction is an important biogeochemical process in anaerobic environments. An understanding of electron transfer pathways from dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (DMRB) to solid phase metal (hydr)oxides is important for understanding metal redox cycling in soils and sediments, for utilizing DMRB in bioremedation, and for developing technologies such as microbial fuel cells. Here we hypothesize that the outer membrane cytochromes OmcA and MtrC from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 are the only terminal reductases capable of direct electron transfer to a hematite working electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to study electron transfer between hematite electrodes and protein films, S. oneidensis MR-1 wild-type cell suspensions, and cytochrome deletion mutants. After controlling for hematite electrode dissolution at negative potential, the midpoint potentials of adsorbed OmcA and MtrC were measured (-201 mV and -163 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively). Cell suspensions of wild-type MR-1, deletion mutants deficient in OmcA (ΔomcA), MtrC (ΔmtrC), and both OmcA and MtrC (ΔmtrC-ΔomcA) were also studied; voltammograms for ΔmtrC-ΔomcA were indistinguishable from the control. When the control was subtracted from the single deletion mutant voltammograms, redox peaks were consistent with the present cytochrome (i.e., ΔomcA consistent with MtrC and ΔmtrC consistent with OmcA). The results indicate that OmcA and MtrC are capable of direct electron exchange with hematite electrodes, consistent with a role as terminal reductases in the S. oneidensis MR-1 anaerobic respiratory pathway involving ferric minerals. There was no evidence for other terminal reductases operating under the conditions investigated. A Marcus-based approach to electron transfer kinetics indicated that the rate constant for electron transfer ket varies from 0.025 s-1 in the absence of a barrier to 63.5 s-1 with a 0.2 eV barrier.

  17. Electrochemical interaction of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and its outer membrane cytochromes OmcA and MtrC with hematite electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meitl, Leisa A.; Eggleston, Carrick M.; Colberg, Patricia J. S.; Khare, Nidhi; Reardon, Catherine L.; Shi, Liang

    2009-09-01

    Bacterial metal reduction is an important biogeochemical process in anaerobic environments. An understanding of electron transfer pathways from dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria (DMRB) to solid phase metal (hydr)oxides is important for understanding metal redox cycling in soils and sediments, for utilizing DMRB in bioremedation, and for developing technologies such as microbial fuel cells. Here we hypothesize that the outer membrane cytochromes OmcA and MtrC from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 are the only terminal reductases capable of direct electron transfer to a hematite working electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to study electron transfer between hematite electrodes and protein films, S. oneidensis MR-1 wild-type cell suspensions, and cytochrome deletion mutants. After controlling for hematite electrode dissolution at negative potential, the midpoint potentials of adsorbed OmcA and MtrC were measured (-201 mV and -163 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively). Cell suspensions of wild-type MR-1, deletion mutants deficient in OmcA (Δ omcA), MtrC (Δ mtrC), and both OmcA and MtrC (Δ mtrC-Δ omcA) were also studied; voltammograms for Δ mtrC-Δ omcA were indistinguishable from the control. When the control was subtracted from the single deletion mutant voltammograms, redox peaks were consistent with the present cytochrome (i.e., Δ omcA consistent with MtrC and Δ mtrC consistent with OmcA). The results indicate that OmcA and MtrC are capable of direct electron exchange with hematite electrodes, consistent with a role as terminal reductases in the S. oneidensis MR-1 anaerobic respiratory pathway involving ferric minerals. There was no evidence for other terminal reductases operating under the conditions investigated. A Marcus-based approach to electron transfer kinetics indicated that the rate constant for electron transfer ket varies from 0.025 s -1 in the absence of a barrier to 63.5 s -1 with a 0.2 eV barrier.

  18. 46 CFR 52.01-2 - Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-2 Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Main power boilers and auxiliary boilers shall be designed,...

  19. 46 CFR 52.01-2 - Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-2 Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Main power boilers and auxiliary boilers shall be designed,...

  20. 46 CFR 52.01-2 - Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-2 Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Main power boilers and auxiliary boilers shall be designed,...

  1. 46 CFR 52.01-2 - Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-2 Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Main power boilers and auxiliary boilers shall be designed,...

  2. 46 CFR 53.01-3 - Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS General Requirements § 53.01-3 Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Heating boilers shall be designed, constructed, inspected,...

  3. 46 CFR 53.01-3 - Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS General Requirements § 53.01-3 Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Heating boilers shall be designed, constructed, inspected,...

  4. 46 CFR 53.01-3 - Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS General Requirements § 53.01-3 Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Heating boilers shall be designed, constructed, inspected,...

  5. 46 CFR 53.01-3 - Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS General Requirements § 53.01-3 Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Heating boilers shall be designed, constructed, inspected,...

  6. 46 CFR 53.01-3 - Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS General Requirements § 53.01-3 Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Heating boilers shall be designed, constructed, inspected,...

  7. 46 CFR 52.01-2 - Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-2 Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Main power boilers and auxiliary boilers shall be designed,...

  8. Structural and functional analysis of the ASM p.Ala359Asp mutant that causes acid sphingomyelinase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Acuña, Mariana; Castro-Fernández, Víctor; Latorre, Mauricio; Castro, Juan; Schuchman, Edward H; Guixé, Victoria; González, Mauricio; Zanlungo, Silvana

    2016-10-21

    Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A and B are recessive hereditary disorders caused by deficiency in acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). The p.Ala359Asp mutation has been described in several patients but its functional and structural effects in the protein are unknown. In order to characterize this mutation, we modeled the three-dimensional ASM structure using the recent available crystal of the mammalian ASM as a template. We found that the p.Ala359Asp mutation is localized in the hydrophobic core and far from the sphingomyelin binding site. However, energy function calculations using statistical potentials indicate that the mutation causes a decrease in ASM stability. Therefore, we investigated the functional effect of the p.Ala359Asp mutation in ASM expression, secretion, localization and activity in human fibroblasts. We found a 3.8% residual ASM activity compared to the wild-type enzyme, without changes in the other parameters evaluated. These results support the hypothesis that the p.Ala359Asp mutation causes structural alterations in the hydrophobic environment where ASM is located, decreasing its enzymatic activity. A similar effect was observed in other previously described NPDB mutations located outside the active site of the enzyme. This work shows the first full size ASM mutant model describe at date, providing a complete analysis of the structural and functional effects of the p.Ala359Asp mutation over the stability and activity of the enzyme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Roles of the Outer Membrane Protein AsmA of Salmonella enterica in the Control of marRAB Expression and Invasion of Epithelial Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Ana I.; Hernández, Sara B.; Cota, Ignacio; Pucciarelli, M. Graciela; Orlov, Yuri; Ramos-Morales, Francisco; García-del Portillo, Francisco; Casadesús, Josep

    2009-01-01

    A genetic screen for suppressors of bile sensitivity in DNA adenine methylase (dam) mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium yielded insertions in an uncharacterized locus homologous to the Escherichia coli asmA gene. Disruption of asmA suppressed bile sensitivity also in phoP and wec mutants of S. enterica and increased the MIC of sodium deoxycholate for the parental strain ATCC 14028. Increased levels of marA mRNA were found in asmA, asmA dam, asmA phoP, and asmA wec strains of S. enterica, suggesting that lack of AsmA activates expression of the marRAB operon. Hence, asmA mutations may enhance bile resistance by inducing gene expression changes in the marRAB-controlled Mar regulon. In silico analysis of AsmA structure predicted the existence of one transmembrane domain. Biochemical analysis of subcellular fractions revealed that the asmA gene of S. enterica encodes a protein of ∼70 kDa located in the outer membrane. Because AsmA is unrelated to known transport and/or efflux systems, we propose that activation of marRAB in asmA mutants may be a consequence of envelope reorganization. Competitive infection of BALB/c mice with asmA+ and asmA isogenic strains indicated that lack of AsmA attenuates Salmonella virulence by the oral route but not by the intraperitoneal route. Furthermore, asmA mutants showed a reduced ability to invade epithelial cells in vitro. PMID:19346309

  10. Roles of the outer membrane protein AsmA of Salmonella enterica in the control of marRAB expression and invasion of epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Ana I; Hernández, Sara B; Cota, Ignacio; Pucciarelli, M Graciela; Orlov, Yuri; Ramos-Morales, Francisco; García-del Portillo, Francisco; Casadesús, Josep

    2009-06-01

    A genetic screen for suppressors of bile sensitivity in DNA adenine methylase (dam) mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium yielded insertions in an uncharacterized locus homologous to the Escherichia coli asmA gene. Disruption of asmA suppressed bile sensitivity also in phoP and wec mutants of S. enterica and increased the MIC of sodium deoxycholate for the parental strain ATCC 14028. Increased levels of marA mRNA were found in asmA, asmA dam, asmA phoP, and asmA wec strains of S. enterica, suggesting that lack of AsmA activates expression of the marRAB operon. Hence, asmA mutations may enhance bile resistance by inducing gene expression changes in the marRAB-controlled Mar regulon. In silico analysis of AsmA structure predicted the existence of one transmembrane domain. Biochemical analysis of subcellular fractions revealed that the asmA gene of S. enterica encodes a protein of approximately 70 kDa located in the outer membrane. Because AsmA is unrelated to known transport and/or efflux systems, we propose that activation of marRAB in asmA mutants may be a consequence of envelope reorganization. Competitive infection of BALB/c mice with asmA(+) and asmA isogenic strains indicated that lack of AsmA attenuates Salmonella virulence by the oral route but not by the intraperitoneal route. Furthermore, asmA mutants showed a reduced ability to invade epithelial cells in vitro.

  11. Cysteine Inhibits Mercury Methylation by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA Mutant Δ omcBESTZ

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Hui; Lu, Xia; Liang, Liyuan; ...

    2015-04-21

    For cysteine enhances Hg uptake and methylation by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA wild type (WT) strain in short-term assays. The prevalence of this enhancement in other strains remains poorly understood. We examined the influence of cysteine concentration on time-dependent Hg(II) reduction, sorption and methylation by PCA-WT and its c-type cytochrome-deficient mutant ( omcBESTZ) in phosphate buffered saline. Without cysteine, the mutant methylated twice as much Hg(II) as the PCA-WT, whereas addition of cysteine inhibited Hg methylation, regardless of the reaction time. PCA-WT, but, exhibited both time-dependent and cysteine concentration-dependent methylation. In 144 hour assay, nearly complete sorption of the Hg(II) bymore » PCA-WT occurred in the presence of 1 mM cysteine, resulting in our highest observed methylmercury production. Moreover, the chemical speciation modeling and experimental data suggest that uncharged Hg(II) species are more readily taken up, and that this uptake is kinetic limiting, thereby affecting Hg methylation by both mutant and WT.« less

  12. Status of ASME Section III Task Group on Graphite Support Core Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Robert L. Bratton; Tim D. Burchell

    2005-08-01

    This report outlines the roadmap that the ASME Project Team on Graphite Core Supports is pursuing to establish design codes for unirradiated and irradiated graphite core components during its first year of operation. It discusses the deficiencies in the proposed Section III, Division 2, Subsection CE graphite design code and the different approaches the Project Team has taken to address those deficiencies.

  13. Simulation and optimization of a coking wastewater biological treatment process by activated sludge models (ASM).

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaohui; Yang, Yang; Wu, Gaoming; Mao, Juan; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Applications of activated sludge models (ASM) in simulating industrial biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are still difficult due to refractory and complex components in influents as well as diversity in activated sludges. In this study, an ASM3 modeling study was conducted to simulate and optimize a practical coking wastewater treatment plant (CWTP). First, respirometric characterizations of the coking wastewater and CWTP biomasses were conducted to determine the specific kinetic and stoichiometric model parameters for the consecutive aeration-anoxic-aeration (O-A/O) biological process. All ASM3 parameters have been further estimated and calibrated, through cross validation by the model dynamic simulation procedure. Consequently, an ASM3 model was successfully established to accurately simulate the CWTP performances in removing COD and NH4-N. An optimized CWTP operation condition could be proposed reducing the operation cost from 6.2 to 5.5 €/m(3) wastewater. This study is expected to provide a useful reference for mathematic simulations of practical industrial WWTPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term X-ray Variability and the Importance of the ASM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtilek, S. D.

    2004-07-01

    From determining the log(N)-log(S) distribution of XRBs in the Milky Way, to testing radio/X-ray correlations of microquasars and BHCs, studying long term variability, and acting as a trigger for observations of transient sources, the ASM on RXTE has proved an invaluable resource. I will briefly discuss some highlights of the many results that have been possible only because of the ASM. The fact that the number of papers per year (over 100) that have relied on ASM data has remained steady over the 8-year lifetime of the RXTE is an indication of the enduring usefulness of all-sky X-ray monitoring. I argue that the permanent presence in space of an ASM-like instrument is a major benefit to numerous active branches of astrophysics, that there is no substitute (ground-based or in other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum) for this capability, and that the planning process for future missions ought to take into account the ongoing scientific need for all-sky X-ray monitoring.

  15. PHASE I MATERIALS PROPERTY DATABASE DEVELOPMENT FOR ASME CODES AND STANDARDS

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Weiju; Lin, Lianshan

    2013-01-01

    To support the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes and Standard (BPVC) in modern information era, development of a web-based materials property database is initiated under the supervision of ASME Committee on Materials. To achieve efficiency, the project heavily draws upon experience from development of the Gen IV Materials Handbook and the Nuclear System Materials Handbook. The effort is divided into two phases. Phase I is planned to deliver a materials data file warehouse that offers a depository for various files containing raw data and background information, and Phase II will provide a relational digital database that provides advanced features facilitating digital data processing and management. Population of the database will start with materials property data for nuclear applications and expand to data covering the entire ASME Code and Standards including the piping codes as the database structure is continuously optimized. The ultimate goal of the effort is to establish a sound cyber infrastructure that support ASME Codes and Standards development and maintenance.

  16. ASM LabCap’s contributions to disease surveillance and the International Health Regulations (2005)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The revised International Health Regulations [IHR(2005)], which requires the Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop core capacities to detect, assess, report, and respond to public health threats, is bringing new challenges for national and international surveillance systems. As more countries move toward implementation and/or strengthening of their infectious disease surveillance programs, the strengthening of clinical microbiology laboratories becomes increasingly important because they serve as the first line responders to detect new and emerging microbial threats, re-emerging infectious diseases, the spread of antibiotic resistance, and the possibility of bioterrorism. In fact, IHR(2005) Core Capacity #8, “Laboratory”, requires that laboratory services be a part of every phase of alert and response. Public health laboratories in many resource-constrained countries require financial and technical assistance to build their capacity. In recognition of this, in 2006, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) established an International Laboratory Capacity Building Program, LabCap, housed under the ASM International Board. ASM LabCap utilizes ASM’s vast resources and its membership’s expertise—40,000 microbiologists worldwide—to strengthen clinical and public health laboratory systems in low and low-middle income countries. ASM LabCap’s program activities align with HR(2005) by building the capability of resource-constrained countries to develop quality-assured, laboratory-based information which is critical to disease surveillance and the rapid detection of disease outbreaks, whether they stem from natural, deliberate or accidental causes. ASM LabCap helps build laboratory capacity under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and under a sub-contract with the Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) funded by the United States Agency for International Development

  17. 46 CFR 56.60-1 - Acceptable materials and specifications (replaces 123 and Table 126.1 in ASME B31.1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... acceptability of plate, forgings, bolting, nuts, and castings may be made by reference to the ASME Boiler and... Low temperature steel pipe Sec. VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (5). Pipe, welded: A... only, fusion welded steel pipe ASME B31.1 (8). A 358 Electric fusion welded pipe, high...

  18. 46 CFR 56.60-1 - Acceptable materials and specifications (replaces 123 and Table 126.1 in ASME B31.1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... acceptability of plate, forgings, bolting, nuts, and castings may be made by reference to the ASME Boiler and... Low temperature steel pipe Sec. VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (5). Pipe, welded: A... only, fusion welded steel pipe ASME B31.1 (8). A 358 Electric fusion welded pipe, high...

  19. 46 CFR 56.60-1 - Acceptable materials and specifications (replaces 123 and Table 126.1 in ASME B31.1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... acceptability of plate, forgings, bolting, nuts, and castings may be made by reference to the ASME Boiler and... Low temperature steel pipe Sec. VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (5). Pipe, welded: A... only, fusion welded steel pipe ASME B31.1 (8). A 358 Electric fusion welded pipe, high...

  20. Statistical analysis of geomagnetic field intensity differences between ASM and VFM instruments onboard Swarm constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Michelis, Paola; Tozzi, Roberta; Consolini, Giuseppe

    2017-02-01

    From the very first measurements made by the magnetometers onboard Swarm satellites launched by European Space Agency (ESA) in late 2013, it emerged a discrepancy between scalar and vector measurements. An accurate analysis of this phenomenon brought to build an empirical model of the disturbance, highly correlated with the Sun incidence angle, and to correct vector data accordingly. The empirical model adopted by ESA results in a significant decrease in the amplitude of the disturbance affecting VFM measurements so greatly improving the vector magnetic data quality. This study is focused on the characterization of the difference between magnetic field intensity measured by the absolute scalar magnetometer (ASM) and that reconstructed using the vector field magnetometer (VFM) installed on Swarm constellation. Applying empirical mode decomposition method, we find the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) associated with ASM-VFM total intensity differences obtained with data both uncorrected and corrected for the disturbance correlated with the Sun incidence angle. Surprisingly, no differences are found in the nature of the IMFs embedded in the analyzed signals, being these IMFs characterized by the same dominant periodicities before and after correction. The effect of correction manifests in the decrease in the energy associated with some IMFs contributing to corrected data. Some IMFs identified by analyzing the ASM-VFM intensity discrepancy are characterized by the same dominant periodicities of those obtained by analyzing the temperature fluctuations of the VFM electronic unit. Thus, the disturbance correlated with the Sun incidence angle could be still present in the corrected magnetic data. Furthermore, the ASM-VFM total intensity difference and the VFM electronic unit temperature display a maximal shared information with a time delay that depends on local time. Taken together, these findings may help to relate the features of the observed VFM-ASM total intensity

  1. Late Cenozoic genus Fupingopollenites development and its implications for the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Y.; Song, C.; Fang, X.; Meng, Q.; Zhang, P.; Wu, F.; Yan, X.

    2015-12-01

    An extinct palynomorph, Fupingopollenites, was used as the basis for a discussion of the late Cenozoic Asian summer monsoon (ASM) evolution and its possible driving forces. Based on the spatial and temporal variations in its percentages across Inner and East Asia, we found that Fupingopollenites mainly occurred in East Asia, with boundaries to the NE of ca. 42°N, 135°E and NW of ca. 36°N, 103°E during the Early Miocene (ca. 23-17 Ma). This region enlarged westwards, reaching the eastern Qaidam Basin (ca. 36°N, 97.5°E) during the Middle Miocene (ca. 17-11 Ma), before noticeably retreating to a region bounded to the NW at ca. 33°N, 105°E during ca. 11-5.3 Ma. The region then shrank further in the Pliocene, with the NE boundary shrinking southwards to about 35°N, 120°E; the area then almost disappeared during the Pleistocene (2.6-0 Ma). The flourishing and subsequent extinction of Fupingopollenites is indicative of a narrow ecological amplitude with a critical dependence on habitat humidity and temperature (most likely mean annual precipitation (MAP) >1000 mm and mean annual temperature (MAT) >10°C). Therefore, the Fupingopollenites geographic distribution can indicate the humid ASM evolution during the late Cenozoic, revealing that the strongest ASM period occurred during the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum (MMCO, ~17-14 Ma), after which the ASM weakened coincident with global cooling. We argue that the global cooling played a critical role in the ASM evolution, while the Tibetan Plateau uplifts made a relatively small contribution. This result was supported by a Miocene pollen record at the Qaidam Basin, inner Asia and the contemporaneously compiled pollen records across the Eurasia.

  2. In Vivo Identification of the Outer Membrane Protein OmcA-MtrC Interaction Network in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Cells Using Novel Hydrophobic Chemical Cross-Linkers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haizhen; Tang, Xiaoting; Munske, Gerhard R.; Zakharova, Natalia L.; Yang, Li; Zheng, Chunxiang; Wolff, Meagan A.; Tolic, Nikola; Anderson, Gordon A.; Shi, Liang; Marshall, Matthew J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Bruce, James E.

    2008-04-01

    Outer membrane (OM) cytochromes OmcA (SO1779) and MtrC (SO1778) are the integral components of electron transfer used by Shewanella oneidensis for anaerobic respiration of metal (hydr)oxides. Here the OmcA-MtrC interaction was identified in vivo using a novel hydrophobic chemical cross-linker (MRN) combined with immunoprecipitation techniques. In addition, identification of other OM proteins from the cross-linked complexes allows first visualization of the OmcA-MtrC interaction network. Further experiments on omcA and mtrC mutant cells showed OmcA plays a central role in the network interaction. For comparison, two commercial cross-linkers were also used in parallel and both resulted in fewer OM protein identifications, indicating the superior properties of MRN for identification of membrane protein interactions. Finally, comparison experiments of in vivo cross-linking and cell lysate cross-linking resulted in significantly different protein interaction data, demonstrating the importance of in vivo cross-linking for study of protein-protein interactions in cells.

  3. Molecular analysis of asmA, a locus identified as the suppressor of OmpF assembly mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Misra, R; Miao, Y

    1995-05-01

    We present the molecular characterization of the asmA gene, whose product is involved in the assembly of outer membrane proteins in Escherichia coli K-12. The asmA locus was initially identified as a site for suppressor mutations of an assembly defective OmpF315. Our data suggest that these suppressor mutations either completely abolish or reduce asmA expression and can be complemented in trans by plasmid clones carrying asmA sequences. The recessive nature of asmA suppressor mutations suggests that the functional AsmA protein participates in inhibiting the assembly of OmpF315 and other mutant OmpFs. As the assembly of wild-type and parental OmpF proteins was not affected by asmA mutations, AsmA must provide an environment refractory only to the assembly of mutant OmpF proteins. However, we cannot completely rule out the possibility that AsmA plays a minor role in the assembly of wild-type and parental OmpF in wild-type cells. The presence of a putative signal sequence within the amino-terminal sequence of AsmA suggests that it is either a periplasmic or an outer membrane protein. This predicted location of AsmA is compatible with its role in the assembly of outer membrane proteins.

  4. Role of Outer-Membrane Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA in the Biomineralization of Ferrihydrite by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, Catherine L.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Kennedy, David W.; Saffarini, Daad; Arey, Bruce W.; Shi, Liang; Wang, Zheming; Moore, Dean A.; Mclean, Jeffrey S.; Moyles, Dianne M.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to improve the understanding of electron transfer mechanisms at the microbe-mineral interface, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 mutants with in-frame deletions of outer membrane cytochrome genes mtrC, omcA, or both, were characterized for the ability to reduce metal oxides using a suite of microscopic, spectroscopic, and biochemicalr techniques. The results indicate that neither MtrC nor OmcA are essential for the reduction of soluble, complexed Fe(III)-citrate or Fe(III)-NTA; however, at least one of these outer membrane cytochromes is required for the reduction of Fe(III)- and Mn(III/IV)- oxides. In vitro analysis of purified, recombinant protein demonstrated that both cytochromes transfer electrons directly to metal-oxides; however, MtrC transfers electrons at a faster rate than OmcA. Immunolocalization of MtrC and OmcA reveal that both cytochromes are surface-exposed on the cell outer-membrane and co-localize with insoluble iron precipitates when respiring ferrihydrite or cultured aerobically with Fe(III)-citrate. Additionally, during prolonged incubation, wild-type cells promoted biotransformation of ferrihydrite to vivianite [Fe3(PO4)2•8H2O] while the double cytochrome mutant was unable to form any secondary mineral phases. Collectively, our results support a role for direct electron transfer from OMCs to metal oxides by establishing their in vitro electron transfer activities, confirming the requirement of either MtrC or OmcA for in vivo reductive biomineralization of ferrihydrite, and localizing the cytochromes to the cell exterior where they can directly contact mineral substrates.

  5. Role of outer-membrane cytochromes MtrC and OmcA in the biomineralization of ferrihydrite by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Reardon, C L; Dohnalkova, A C; Nachimuthu, P; Kennedy, D W; Saffarini, D A; Arey, B W; Shi, L; Wang, Z; Moore, D; McLean, J S; Moyles, D; Marshall, M J; Zachara, J M; Fredrickson, J K; Beliaev, A S

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to improve the understanding of electron transfer mechanisms at the microbe-mineral interface, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 mutants with in-frame deletions of outer-membrane cytochromes (OMCs), MtrC and OmcA, were characterized for the ability to reduce ferrihydrite (FH) using a suite of microscopic, spectroscopic, and biochemical techniques. Analysis of purified recombinant proteins demonstrated that both cytochromes undergo rapid electron exchange with FH in vitro with MtrC displaying faster transfer rates than OmcA. Immunomicroscopy with cytochrome-specific antibodies revealed that MtrC co-localizes with iron solids on the cell surface while OmcA exhibits a more diffuse distribution over the cell surface. After 3-day incubation of MR-1 with FH, pronounced reductive transformation mineral products were visible by electron microscopy. Upon further incubation, the predominant phases identified were ferrous phosphates including vivianite [Fe(3)(PO(4))(2)x8H(2)O] and a switzerite-like phase [Mn(3),Fe(3)(PO(4))(2)x7H(2)O] that were heavily colonized by MR-1 cells with surface-exposed outer-membrane cytochromes. In the absence of both MtrC and OmcA, the cells ability to reduce FH was significantly hindered and no mineral transformation products were detected. Collectively, these results highlight the importance of the outer-membrane cytochromes in the reductive transformation of FH and support a role for direct electron transfer from the OMCs at the cell surface to the mineral.

  6. Materials Reliability Program: Recommended Improvements to ASME Section XI Appendix L (MRP-82)

    SciTech Connect

    S. Gosselin, F. Simonen, P. Heasler, A. Deardorff, F.L. Becker

    2002-12-15

    DOE B139 A techniexecy robust approach for evaluation fatigue-sensitive locations is essential to justify extended operation for many nuclear plant components. The initial version of ASME Appendix L formed the foundation for assessing a component when the CUF exceeded 1.0. The recommended changes to Appendix L identified in this report will enhance the effectiveness of the methodology and provide for more realistic inspection intervals to monitor the potential for fatigue damage.

  7. ASME AG-1 Section FC Qualified HEPA Filters; a Particle Loading Comparison - 13435

    SciTech Connect

    Stillo, Andrew; Ricketts, Craig I.

    2013-07-01

    High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters used to protect personnel, the public and the environment from airborne radioactive materials are designed, manufactured and qualified in accordance with ASME AG-1 Code section FC (HEPA Filters) [1]. The qualification process requires that filters manufactured in accordance with this ASME AG-1 code section must meet several performance requirements. These requirements include performance specifications for resistance to airflow, aerosol penetration, resistance to rough handling, resistance to pressure (includes high humidity and water droplet exposure), resistance to heated air, spot flame resistance and a visual/dimensional inspection. None of these requirements evaluate the particle loading capacity of a HEPA filter design. Concerns, over the particle loading capacity, of the different designs included within the ASME AG-1 section FC code[1], have been voiced in the recent past. Additionally, the ability of a filter to maintain its integrity, if subjected to severe operating conditions such as elevated relative humidity, fog conditions or elevated temperature, after loading in use over long service intervals is also a major concern. Although currently qualified HEPA filter media are likely to have similar loading characteristics when evaluated independently, filter pleat geometry can have a significant impact on the in-situ particle loading capacity of filter packs. Aerosol particle characteristics, such as size and composition, may also have a significant impact on filter loading capacity. Test results comparing filter loading capacities for three different aerosol particles and three different filter pack configurations are reviewed. The information presented represents an empirical performance comparison among the filter designs tested. The results may serve as a basis for further discussion toward the possible development of a particle loading test to be included in the qualification requirements of ASME AG-1

  8. A method for certification of FRP piping fabricators for ASME B31.3 systems

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, K.D.

    1996-07-01

    Cost-effective FRP piping is often the material of choice for transport of corrosive chemicals. Plant Managers and Engineers have great concern about the integrity of FRP piping joints and the safety of these systems. A specification requirement, in the bid documents, that all fabricators be Certified by the FRP piping manufacturer is a method to promote successful fabrication. A method is proposed, which is in accordance with ASME B31.3 Piping Code, to train and certify fabricators.

  9. A 2015 Igrf Candidate Model Based on Swarm's Experimental ASM Vector Mode Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneron, P.; Hulot, G.; Olsen, N.; Leger, J. M.; Jager, T.; Brocco, L.; Sirol, O.; Coisson, P.; Lalanne, X.; Chulliat, A.; Bertrand, F.; Boness, A.; Fratter, I.

    2014-12-01

    Each of the three Alpha, Bravo and Charlie satellites of the ESA Swarm mission carries an Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (CNES customer furnished ASM instrument designed by CEA-Léti) that provides the nominal 1 Hz scalar data of the mission, but also delivers 1 Hz experimental vector data. Tests during the commissioning and calibration/validation phase have shown that these data and the rigidity of the boom mechanically linking the ASM to the star imager (STR) on Alpha and Bravo were of such good quality that an IGRF candidate geomagnetic field model could possibly be produced from such ASM-only data (without having to resort to any of the nominal vector field magnetometer (VFM) data of the mission). In this presentation, we will report on our efforts to build such an IGRF candidate, which intends to provide an image of the January 1, 2015 Geomagnetic Field, alternative to the images provided by IGRF candidate models based on Swarm nominal L1b data, or other data.

  10. 46 CFR 56.01-5 - Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and other standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and other standards. 56.01-5 Section 56.01-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES General § 56.01-5 Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and...

  11. 46 CFR 56.01-5 - Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and other standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and other standards. 56.01-5 Section 56.01-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES General § 56.01-5 Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and...

  12. 46 CFR 56.01-5 - Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and other standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and other standards. 56.01-5 Section 56.01-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES General § 56.01-5 Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and...

  13. FIRST SCIENCE OBSERVATIONS WITH SOFIA/FORCAST: PROPERTIES OF INTERMEDIATE-LUMINOSITY PROTOSTARS AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS IN OMC-2

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Joseph D.; Herter, Terry L.; Gull, George E.; Henderson, Charles P.; Schoenwald, Justin; Stacey, Gordon; Osorio, Mayra; Macias, Enrique; Thomas Megeath, S.; Fischer, William J.; Ali, Babar; D'Alessio, Paola; De Buizer, James M.; Shuping, Ralph Y.; Keller, Luke D.; Morris, Mark R.; Remming, Ian S.; Stanke, Thomas; Stutz, Amelia; and others

    2012-04-20

    We examine eight young stellar objects in the OMC-2 star-forming region based on observations from the SOFIA/FORCAST early science phase, the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Herschel Space Observatory, Two Micron All Sky Survey, Atacama Pathfinder Experiment, and other results in the literature. We show the spectral energy distributions (SED) of these objects from near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths, and compare the SEDs with those of sheet collapse models of protostars and circumstellar disks. Four of the objects can be modeled as protostars with infalling envelopes, two as young stars surrounded by disks, and the remaining two objects have double-peaked SEDs. We model the double-peaked sources as binaries containing a young star with a disk and a protostar. The six most luminous sources are found in a dense group within a 0.15 Multiplication-Sign 0.25 pc region; these sources have luminosities ranging from 300 L{sub Sun} to 20 L{sub Sun }. The most embedded source (OMC-2 FIR 4) can be fit by a class 0 protostar model having a luminosity of {approx}50 L{sub Sun} and mass infall rate of {approx}10{sup -4} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}.

  14. Understanding the Long-Term Spectral Variability of Cygnus X-1 from BATSE and ASM Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Poutanen, Juri; Paciesas, William S.; Wen, Linqing; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present a spectral analysis of observations of Cygnus X-1 by the RXTE/ASM (1.5-12 keV) and CGRO/BATSE (20-300 keV), including about 1200 days of simultaneous data. We find a number of correlations between intensities and hardnesses in different energy bands from 1.5 keV to 300 keV. In the hard (low) spectral state, there is a negative correlation between the ASM 1.5-12 keV flux and the hardness at any energy. In the soft (high) spectral state, the ASM flux is positively correlated with the ASM hardness (as previously reported) but uncorrelated with the BATSE hardness. In both spectral states, the BATSE hardness correlates with the flux above 100 keV, while it shows no correlation with the flux in the 20-100 keV range. At the same time, there is clear correlation between the BATSE fluxes below and above 100 keV. In the hard state, most of the variability can be explained by softening the overall spectrum with a pivot at approximately 50 keV. The observations show that there has to be another, independent variability pattern of lower amplitude where the spectral shape does not change when the luminosity changes. In the soft state, the variability is mostly caused by a variable hard (Comptonized) spectral component of a constant shape superimposed on a constant soft blackbody component. These variability patterns are in agreement with the dependence of the rms variability on the photon energy in the two states. We interpret the observed correlations in terms of theoretical Comptonization models. In the hard state, the variability appears to be driven mostly by changing flux in seed photons Comptonized in a hot thermal plasma cloud with an approximately constant power supply. In the soft state, the variability is consistent with flares of hybrid, thermal/nonthermal, plasma with variable power above a stable cold disk. Also, based on broadband pointed observations simultaneous with those of the ASM and BATSE, we find the intrinsic bolometric luminosity increases by a

  15. Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to the UV-filter Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) on the reproductive, auditory and neurological development of rat offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Hougaard, Karin Sorig; Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Nellemann, Christine; Lund, Soren Peter; Hass, Ulla

    2011-02-01

    Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) is a frequently used UV-filter in sunscreens and other cosmetics. The aim of the present study was to address the potential endocrine disrupting properties of OMC, and to investigate how OMC induced changes in thyroid hormone levels would be related to the neurological development of treated offspring. Groups of 14-18 pregnant Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 500, 750 or 1000 mg OMC/kg bw/day during gestation and lactation. Serum thyroxine (T{sub 4}), testosterone, estradiol and progesterone levels were measured in dams and offspring. Anogenital distance, nipple retention, postnatal growth and timing of sexual maturation were assessed. On postnatal day 16, gene expression in prostate and testes, and weight and histopathology of the thyroid gland, liver, adrenals, prostate, testes, epididymis and ovaries were measured. After weaning, offspring were evaluated in a battery of behavioral and neurophysiological tests, including tests of activity, startle response, cognitive and auditory function. In adult animals, reproductive organ weights and semen quality were investigated. Thyroxine (T{sub 4}) levels showed a very marked decrease during the dosing period in all dosed dams, but were less severely affected in the offspring. On postnatal day 16, high dose male offspring showed reduced relative prostate and testis weights, and a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels. In OMC exposed female offspring, motor activity levels were decreased, while low and high dose males showed improved spatial learning abilities. The observed behavioral changes were probably not mediated solely by early T{sub 4} deficiencies, as the observed effects differed from those seen in other studies of developmental hypothyroxinemia. At eight months of age, sperm counts were reduced in all three OMC-dosed groups, and prostate weights were reduced in the highest dose group. Taken together, these results indicate that perinatal OMC-exposure can affect both the

  16. Bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory effects of ASM-024, a nicotinic receptor ligand, developed for the treatment of asthma.

    PubMed

    Assayag, Evelyne Israël; Beaulieu, Marie-Josée; Cormier, Yvon

    2014-01-01

    Conventional asthma and COPD treatments include the use of bronchodilators, mainly β2-adrenergic agonists, muscarinic receptor antagonists and corticosteroids or leukotriene antagonists as anti-inflammatory agents. These active drugs are administered either separately or given as a fixed-dose combination medication into a single inhaler. ASM-024, a homopiperazinium compound, derived from the structural modification of diphenylmethylpiperazinium (DMPP), has been developed to offer an alternative mechanism of action that could provide symptomatic control through combined anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator properties in a single entity. A dose-dependent inhibition of cellular inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was observed in ovalbumin-sensitized mice, subsequently treated for 3 days by nose-only exposure with aerosolized ASM-024 at doses up to 3.8 mg/kg (ED50 = 0.03 mg/kg). The methacholine ED250 values indicated that airway hyperresponsivenness (AHR) to methacholine decreased following ASM-024 administration by inhalation at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg, with a value of 0.145 ± 0.032 mg/kg for ASM 024-treated group as compared to 0.088 ± 0.023 mg/kg for untreated mice. In in vitro isometric studies, ASM-024 elicited dose-dependent relaxation of isolated mouse tracheal, human, and dog bronchial preparations contracted with methacholine and guinea pig tracheas contracted with histamine. ASM-024 showed also a dose and time dependant protective effect on methacholine-induced contraction. Overall, with its combined anti-inflammatory, bronchodilating and bronchoprotective properties, ASM-024 may represent a new class of drugs with a novel pharmacological approach that could prove useful for the chronic maintenance treatment of asthma and, possibly, COPD.

  17. Particle size effect and the mechanism of hematite reduction by the outer membrane cytochrome OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Juan; Pearce, Carolyn I.; Shi, Liang; Wang, Zheming; Shi, Zhi; Arenholz, Elke; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2016-11-01

    The cycling of iron at the Earth's near surface is profoundly influenced by dissimilatory metal reducing microorganisms, and many studies have focused on unraveling electron transfer mechanisms between these bacteria and Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides. However, these efforts have been complicated by the fact that these minerals often occur in the micro- to nanosize regime, and in relevant natural environments as well as in the laboratory are subject to aggregation. The nature of the physical interface between the cellular envelope, the outer-membrane cytochromes responsible for facilitating the interfacial electron transfer step, and these complex mineral particulates is thus difficult to probe. Previous studies using whole cells have reported reduction rates that do not correlate with particle size. In the present study we isolate the interaction between the decaheme outer-membrane cytochrome OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis and nanoparticulate hematite, examining the reduction rate as a function of particle size and reaction products through detailed characterization of the electron balance and the structure and valence of iron at particle surfaces. By comparison with abiotic reduction via the smaller molecule ascorbic acid, we show that the reduction rate is systematically controlled by the sterically accessible interfacial contact area between OmcA and hematite in particle aggregates; rates increase once pore throat sizes in aggregates become as large as OmcA. Simultaneous measure of OmcA oxidation against Fe(II) release shows a ratio of 1:10, consistent with a cascade OmcA oxidation mechanism heme by heme. X-ray absorption spectroscopies reveal incipient magnetite on the reacted surfaces of the hematite nanoparticles after reaction. The collective findings establish the importance of accessibility of physical contact between the terminal reductases and iron oxide surfaces, and through apparent consistency of observations help reconcile behavior reported at the larger

  18. Particle size effect and the mechanism of hematite reduction by the outer membrane cytochrome OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Juan; Pearce, Carolyn I.; Shi, Liang; Wang, Zheming; Shi, Zhi; Arenholz, Elke; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2016-11-01

    The cycling of iron at the Earth’s near surface is profoundly influenced by dissimilatory metal reducing microorganisms, and many studies have focused on unraveling electron transfer mechanisms between these bacteria and Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides. However, these efforts have been complicated by the fact that these minerals often occur in the micro- to nanosize regime, and in relevant natural environments as well as in the laboratory are subject to aggregation. The nature of the physical interface between the cellular envelope, the outer-membrane cytochromes responsible for facilitating the interfacial electron transfer step, and these complex mineral particulates is thus difficult to probe. Previous studies using whole cells have reported reduction rates that do not correlate with particle size. In the present study we isolate the interaction between the decaheme outer-membrane cytochrome OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis and nanoparticulate hematite, examining the reduction rate as a function of particle size and reaction products through detailed characterization of the electron balance and the structure and valence of iron at particle surfaces. By comparison with abiotic reduction via the smaller molecule ascorbic acid, we show that the reduction rate is systematically controlled by the sterically accessible interfacial contact area between OmcA and hematite in particle aggregates; rates increase once pore throat sizes in aggregates become as large as OmcA. Simultaneous measure of OmcA oxidation against Fe(II) release shows a ratio of 1:10, consistent with a cascade OmcA oxidation mechanism heme by heme. X-ray absorption spectroscopies reveal incipient magnetite on the reacted surfaces of the hematite nanoparticles after reaction. The collective findings establish the importance of accessibility of physical contact between the terminal reductases and iron oxide surfaces, and through apparent consistency of observations help reconcile behavior reported at the larger

  19. Binding and Direct Electrochemistry of OmcA, an Outer-Membrane Cytochrome from an Iron Reducing Bacterium, with Oxide Electrodes: A Candidate Biofuel Cell System

    SciTech Connect

    Eggleston, Carrick M.; Voros, Janos; Shi, Liang; Lower, Brian H.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Colberg, Patricia J.

    2008-02-15

    Dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria transfer electrons to solid ferric respiratory electron acceptors. Outer-membrane cytochromes expressed by these organisms are of interest in both microbial fuel cells and biofuel cells. We use optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) to show that OmcA, an 85 kDa decaheme outer-membrane c-type cytochrome from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, adsorbs to isostructural Al2O3 and Fe2O3 in similar amounts. Adsorption is ionic-strength and pH dependent (peak adsorption at pH 6.5–7.0). The thickness of the OmcA layer on Al2O3 at pH 7.0 [5.8 ± 1.1 (2r) nm] from OWLS is similar, within error, to that observed using atomic force microscopy (4.8 ± 2 nm). The highest adsorption density observed was 334 ng cm 2 (2.4 · 1012 molecules cm 2), corresponding to a monolayer or 9.9 nm diameter spheres or submonolayer coverage by smaller molecules. Direct electrochemistry of OmcA on Fe2O3 electrodes was observed using cyclic voltammetry, with cathodic peak potentials of 380 to 320 mV versus Ag/AgCl. Variations in the cathodic peak positions are speculatively attributed to redox-linked conformation change or changes in molecular orientation. OmcA can exchange electrons with ITO electrodes at higher current densities than with Fe2O3. Overall, OmcA can bind to and exchange electrons with several oxides, and thus its utility in fuel cells is not restricted to Fe2O3.

  20. The ASM-NSF Biology Scholars Program: An Evidence-Based Model for Faculty Development.

    PubMed

    Chang, Amy L; Pribbenow, Christine M

    2016-05-01

    The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) established its ASM-NSF (National Science Foundation) Biology Scholars Program (BSP) to promote undergraduate education reform by 1) supporting biologists to implement evidence-based teaching practices, 2) engaging life science professional societies to facilitate biologists' leadership in scholarly teaching within the discipline, and 3) participating in a teaching community that fosters disciplinary-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) reform. Since 2005, the program has utilized year-long residency training to provide a continuum of learning and practice centered on principles from the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) to more than 270 participants ("scholars") from biology and multiple other disciplines. Additionally, the program has recruited 11 life science professional societies to support faculty development in SoTL and discipline-based education research (DBER). To identify the BSP's long-term outcomes and impacts, ASM engaged an external evaluator to conduct a study of the program's 2010-2014 scholars (n = 127) and society partners. The study methods included online surveys, focus groups, participant observation, and analysis of various documents. Study participants indicate that the program achieved its proposed goals relative to scholarship, professional society impact, leadership, community, and faculty professional development. Although participants also identified barriers that hindered elements of their BSP participation, findings suggest that the program was essential to their development as faculty and provides evidence of the BSP as a model for other societies seeking to advance undergraduate science education reform. The BSP is the longest-standing faculty development program sponsored by a collective group of life science societies. This collaboration promotes success across a fragmented system of more than 80 societies representing the life sciences and helps

  1. The ASM-NSF Biology Scholars Program: An Evidence-Based Model for Faculty Development

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Amy L.; Pribbenow, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) established its ASM-NSF (National Science Foundation) Biology Scholars Program (BSP) to promote undergraduate education reform by 1) supporting biologists to implement evidence-based teaching practices, 2) engaging life science professional societies to facilitate biologists’ leadership in scholarly teaching within the discipline, and 3) participating in a teaching community that fosters disciplinary-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) reform. Since 2005, the program has utilized year-long residency training to provide a continuum of learning and practice centered on principles from the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) to more than 270 participants (“scholars”) from biology and multiple other disciplines. Additionally, the program has recruited 11 life science professional societies to support faculty development in SoTL and discipline-based education research (DBER). To identify the BSP’s long-term outcomes and impacts, ASM engaged an external evaluator to conduct a study of the program’s 2010–2014 scholars (n = 127) and society partners. The study methods included online surveys, focus groups, participant observation, and analysis of various documents. Study participants indicate that the program achieved its proposed goals relative to scholarship, professional society impact, leadership, community, and faculty professional development. Although participants also identified barriers that hindered elements of their BSP participation, findings suggest that the program was essential to their development as faculty and provides evidence of the BSP as a model for other societies seeking to advance undergraduate science education reform. The BSP is the longest-standing faculty development program sponsored by a collective group of life science societies. This collaboration promotes success across a fragmented system of more than 80 societies representing the life sciences and

  2. Assessment of ASME code examinations on regenerative, letdown and residual heat removal heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Gosselin, Stephen R.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Anderson, Michael T.; Simonen, Fredric A.; Tinsley, G. A.; Lydell, B.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2005-07-01

    Inservice inspection requirements for pressure retaining welds in the regenerative, letdown, and residual heat removal heat exchangers are prescribed in Section XI Articles IWB and IWC of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Accordingly, volumetric and/or surface examinations are performed on heat exchanger shell, head, nozzle-to-head, and nozzle-to-shell welds. Inspection difficulties associated with the implementation of these Code-required examinations have forced operating nuclear power plants to seek relief from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The nature of these relief requests are generally concerned with metallurgical, geometry, accessibility, and radiation burden. Over 60% of licensee requests to the NRC identify significant radiation exposure burden as the principle reason for relief from the ASME Code examinations on regenerative heat exchangers. For the residual heat removal heat exchangers, 90% of the relief requests are associated with geometry and accessibility concerns. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was funded by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research to review current practice with regard to volumetric and/or surface examinations of shell welds of letdown heat exchangers regenerative heat exchangers and residual (decay) heat removal heat exchangers Design, operating, common preventative maintenance practices, and potential degradation mechanisms are reviewed. A detailed survey of domestic and international PWR-specific operating experience was performed to identify pressure boundary failures (or lack of failures) in each heat exchanger type and NSSS design. The service data survey was based on the PIPExp® database and covers PWR plants worldwide for the period 1970-2004. Finally a risk assessment of the current ASME Code inspection requirements for residual heat removal, letdown, and regenerative heat exchangers is performed. The results are then reviewed to discuss the examinations relative to plant safety and

  3. Materials and design bases issues in ASME Code Case N-47

    SciTech Connect

    Huddleston, R.L.; Swindeman, R.W.

    1993-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the design bases (principally ASME Code Case N-47) was conducted for design and operation of reactors at elevated temperatures where the time-dependent effects of creep, creep-fatigue, and creep ratcheting are significant. Areas where Code rules or regulatory guides may be lacking or inadequate to ensure the operation over the expected life cycles for the next-generation advanced high-temperature reactor systems, with designs to be certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have been identified as unresolved issues. Twenty-two unresolved issues were identified and brief scoping plans developed for resolving these issues.

  4. ASME N510 test results for Savannah River Site AACS filter compartments

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, J.D.; Punch, T.M.

    1995-02-01

    The K-Reactor at the Savannah River Site recently implemented design improvements for the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) by procuring, installing, and testing new Air Cleaning Units, or filter compartments, to ASME AG-11, N509, and N510 requirements. Specifically, these new units provide documentable seismic resistance to a Design Basis Accident earthquake, provide 2 inch adsorber beds with 0.25 second residence time, and meet all AG-1, N509, and N510 requirements for testability and maintainability. This paper presents the results of the Site acceptance testing and discusses an issue associated with sample manifold qualification testing.

  5. Materials and design bases issues in ASME Code Case N-47

    SciTech Connect

    Huddleston, R.L.; Swindeman, R.W. )

    1993-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the design bases (principally ASME Code Case N-47) was conducted for design and operation of reactors at elevated temperatures where the time-dependent effects of creep, creep-fatigue, and creep ratcheting are significant. Areas where Code rules or regulatory guides may be lacking or inadequate to ensure the operation over the expected life cycles for the next-generation advanced high-temperature reactor systems, with designs to be certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have been identified as unresolved issues. Twenty-two unresolved issues were identified and brief scoping plans developed for resolving these issues.

  6. ASTM and ASME-BPE Standards--Complying with the Needs of the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    PubMed

    Huitt, William M

    2011-01-01

    Designing and building a pharmaceutical facility requires the owner, engineer of record, and constructor to be knowledgeable with regard to the industry codes and standards that apply to this effort. Up until 1997 there were no industry standards directed at the needs and requirements of the pharmaceutical industry. Prior to that time it was a patchwork effort at resourcing and adopting nonpharmaceutical-related codes and standards and then modifying them in order to meet the more stringent requirements of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In 1997 the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) published the first Bioprocessing Equipment (BPE) Standard. Through harmonization efforts this relatively new standard has brought together, scrutinized, and refined industry accepted methodologies together with FDA compliance requirements, and has established an American National Standard that provides a comprehensive set of standards that are integral to the pharmaceutical industry. This article describes various American National Standards, including those developed and published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), and how they apply to the pharmaceutical industry. It goes on to discuss the harmonization effort that takes place between the various standards developers in an attempt to prevent conflicts and omissions between the many standards. Also included are examples of tables and figures taken from the ASME-BPE Standard. These examples provide the reader with insight to the relevant content of the ASME-BPE Standard. Designing and building a pharmaceutical facility requires the owner, engineer of record, and constructor to be knowledgeable with regard to the industry codes and standards that apply to this effort. Up until 1997 there were no industry standards directed at the needs and requirements of the pharmaceutical industry. Prior to that time it was a patchwork effort at resourcing and adopting nonpharmaceutical-related codes and

  7. Overview of the new ASME Performance Test Code for wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, David A.

    1986-01-01

    The principal technical features of the ASME Performance Test Code for wind turbines are presented and such issues as what sizes and types of wind turbines should be included, what the principal measure of performance should be, and how wind speed should be measured are discussed. It is concluded that the present test code is applicable to wind turbine systems of all sizes. The principal measure of performance as defined by this code is net energy output and the primary performance parameter is the 'test energy ratio' which is based on a comparison between the measured and predicted energy output for the test period.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SOLIS. II. OMC2-FIR4 HC3N and HC5N images (

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontani, F.; Ceccarelli, C.; Favre, C.; Caselli, P.; Neri, R.; Sims, I. R.; Kahane, C.; Alves, F.; Balucani, N.; Bianchi, E.; Caux, E.; Jaber Al-Edhari, A.; Lopez-Sepulcre, A.; Pineda, J.; Bachiller, R.; Bizzocchi, L.; Bottinelli, S.; Chacon-Tanarro, A.; Choudhury, R.; Codella, C.; Coutens, A.; Dulieu, F.; Feng, S.; Rimola, A.; Hily-Blant, P.; Holdship, J.; Jimenez-Serra, I.; Laas, J.; Lefloch, B.; Oya, Y.; Podio, L.; Pon, A.; Punanova, A.; Quenard, D.; Sakai, N.; Spezzano, S.; Taquet, V.; Testi, L.; Theule, P.; Ugliengo, P.; Vastel, C.

    2017-08-01

    IRAM-NOEMA Interferometer, 3mm receiver, Widex and Narrow-band correlators. Observations with the IRAM NOEMA Interferometer of HC3N (9-8) and HC5N (31-30), at rest frequencies 81.881468GHz and 82.539039GHz , respectively, towards OMC-2 FIR4 have been carried out over 5 days between the 5th and the 19th of August, 2015. The HC3N line was observed in the Widex band correlator, providing a resolution in velocity of ~7.15km/s, while the HC5N line was observed also in the Narrow band correlator with a resolution in velocity of ~0.57km/s. (2 data files).

  9. Biological phosphorus removal in an extended ASM2 model: Roles of extracellular polymeric substances and kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shan-Shan; Pang, Ji-Wei; Guo, Wan-Qian; Yang, Xiao-Yin; Wu, Zhong-Yang; Ren, Nan-Qi; Zhao, Zhi-Qing

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an extended ASM2 model for the modeling and calibration of the role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in phosphorus (P) removal in an anaerobic-aerobic process. In this extended ASM2 model, two new components, the bound EPS (XEPS) and the soluble EPS (SEPS), are introduced. Compared with the ASM2, 7.71, 8.53, and 9.28% decreases in polyphosphate (polyP) were observed in the extended ASM2 in three sequencing batch reactors feeding with different COD/P ratios, indicating that 7.71-9.28% of P in the liquid was adsorbed by EPS. Sensitive analysis indicated that, five parameters were the significant influential parameters and had been chosen for further model calibration by using the least square method to simulate by MATLAB. This extended ASM2 has been successfully established to simulate the output variables and provides a useful reference for the mathematic simulations of the role of EPS in biological phosphorus removal process. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Results from Evaluation of Proposed ASME AG-1 Section FI Metal Media Filters - 13063

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, John A.; Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2013-07-01

    High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration technology is commonly used in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities that require control of radioactive particulate matter (PM) emissions due to treatment or management of radioactive materials. Although HEPA technology typically makes use of glass fiber media, metal and ceramic media filters are also capable of filtering efficiencies beyond the required 99.97%. Sintered metal fiber filters are good candidates for use in DOE facilities due to their resistance to corrosive environments and resilience at high temperature and elevated levels of relative humidity. Their strength can protect them from high differential pressure or pressure spikes and allow for back pulse cleaning, extending filter lifetime. Use of these filters has the potential to reduce the cost of filtration in DOE facilities due to life cycle cost savings. ASME AG-1 section FI has not been approved due to a lack of protocols and performance criteria for qualifying section FI filters. The Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) with the aid of the FI project team has developed a Section FI test stand and test plan capable of assisting in the qualification ASME AG-1 section FI filters. Testing done at ICET using the FI test stand evaluates resistance to rated air flow, test aerosol penetration and resistance to heated air of the section FI filters. Data collected during this testing consists of temperature, relative humidity, differential pressure, flow rate, upstream particle concentration, and downstream particle concentration. (authors)

  11. Calibration of denitrifying activity of polyphosphate accumulating organisms in an extended ASM2d model.

    PubMed

    García-Usach, F; Ribes, J; Ferrer, J; Seco, A

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study for the modelling and calibration of denitrifying activity of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in full-scale WWTPs that incorporate simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The convenience of using different yields under aerobic and anoxic conditions for modelling biological phosphorus removal processes with the ASM2d has been demonstrated. Thus, parameter η(PAO) in the model is given a physical meaning and represents the fraction of PAOs that are able to follow the DPAO metabolism. Using stoichiometric relationships, which are based on assumed biochemical pathways, the anoxic yields considered in the extended ASM2d can be obtained as a function of their respective aerobic yields. Thus, this modification does not mean an extra calibration effort to obtain the new parameters. In this work, an off-line calibration methodology has been applied to validate the model, where general relationships among stoichiometric parameters are proposed to avoid increasing the number of parameters to calibrate. The results have been validated through a UCT scheme pilot plant that is fed with municipal wastewater. The good concordance obtained between experimental and simulated values validates the use of anoxic yields as well as the calibration methodology. Deterministic modelling approaches, together with off-line calibration methodologies, are proposed to assist in decision-making about further process optimization in biological phosphate removal, since parameter values obtained by off-line calibration give valuable information about the activated sludge process such as the amount of DPAOs in the system.

  12. Simulating a cyclic activated sludge system by employing a modified ASM3 model for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Nan, Jun; Zhang, Xinhui

    2017-03-13

    To interpret the biological nutrient removal in a cyclic activated sludge system (CAS), a modified model was developed by combining the process of simultaneous storage and growth, and the kinetics of soluble microbial product (S SMP) and extracellular polymeric substance (X EPS) with activated sludge model no. 3 (ASM3). These most sensitive parameters were initially selected whilst parameters with low sensitivity were given values from literature. The selected parameters were then calibrated on an oxygen uptake rate test and a batch CAS reactor on an operational cycle. The calibrated model was validated using a combination of the measurements from a batch CAS reactor operated for 1 month and the average deviation method. The simulations demonstrated that the modified model was capable of predicting higher effluent concentrations compared to outputs of the ASM3 model. Additionally, it was also shown that the average deviation of effluent S COD, S NH, S SMP and X EPS simulated with the modified model was all less than 1 mg L(-1). In summary, the model could effectively describe biological processes in a CAS reactor and provide a wonderful tool for operation.

  13. Radiation-induced temperature shift of thhe ASME K/sub Ic/ curve

    SciTech Connect

    Nanstad, R.K.; Haggag, F.M.; Iskander, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of neutron irradiation on the temperature shift and shape of the K/sub Ic/ curve described in Sect. XI of the ASME Boiler and pressure Vessel Code. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31 wt % were commercially fabricated in 215-mm-thick plate. Charpy impact, tensile, dropweight, and compact specimens up to 203.2 mm thick were fabricated and tested to provide a large data for unirradiated material. Similar specimens with compacts up to 101.6 mm thick, irradiated at about 288/degree/C to a mean fluence of about 1.6 /times/ 10/sup 19/ neutrons/cm/sup 2/ in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor, were tested to provide a similarly large data base with which to evaluate the temperature shift and shape of the ASME K/sub Ic/ curves. Testing was performed by both Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Materials Engineering Associates. Both linear-elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics techniques were used to analyze test results. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Code cases for implementing risk-based inservice testing in the ASME OM code

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, C.W.

    1996-12-01

    Historically inservice testing has been reasonably effective, but quite costly. Recent applications of plant PRAs to the scope of the IST program have demonstrated that of the 30 pumps and 500 valves in the typical plant IST program, less than half of the pumps and ten percent of the valves are risk significant. The way the ASME plans to tackle this overly-conservative scope for IST components is to use the PRA and plant expert panels to create a two tier IST component categorization scheme. The PRA provides the quantitative risk information and the plant expert panel blends the quantitative and deterministic information to place the IST component into one of two categories: More Safety Significant Component (MSSC) or Less Safety Significant Component (LSSC). With all the pumps and valves in the IST program placed in MSSC or LSSC categories, two different testing strategies will be applied. The testing strategies will be unique for the type of component, such as centrifugal pump, positive displacement pump, MOV, AOV, SOV, SRV, PORV, HOV, CV, and MV. A series of OM Code Cases are being developed to capture this process for a plant to use. One Code Case will be for Component Importance Ranking. The remaining Code Cases will develop the MSSC and LSSC testing strategy for type of component. These Code Cases are planned for publication in early 1997. Later, after some industry application of the Code Cases, the alternative Code Case requirements will gravitate to the ASME OM Code as appendices.

  15. 3D automatic anatomy segmentation based on iterative graph-cut-ASM

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xinjian; Bagci, Ulas

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: This paper studies the feasibility of developing an automatic anatomy segmentation (AAS) system in clinical radiology and demonstrates its operation on clinical 3D images. Methods: The AAS system, the authors are developing consists of two main parts: object recognition and object delineation. As for recognition, a hierarchical 3D scale-based multiobject method is used for the multiobject recognition task, which incorporates intensity weighted ball-scale (b-scale) information into the active shape model (ASM). For object delineation, an iterative graph-cut-ASM (IGCASM) algorithm is proposed, which effectively combines the rich statistical shape information embodied in ASM with the globally optimal delineation capability of the GC method. The presented IGCASM algorithm is a 3D generalization of the 2D GC-ASM method that they proposed previously in Chen et al.[Proc. SPIE, 7259, 72590C1-72590C-8 (2009)]. The proposed methods are tested on two datasets comprised of images obtained from 20 patients (10 male and 10 female) of clinical abdominal CT scans, and 11 foot magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. The test is for four organs (liver, left and right kidneys, and spleen) segmentation, five foot bones (calcaneus, tibia, cuboid, talus, and navicular). The recognition and delineation accuracies were evaluated separately. The recognition accuracy was evaluated in terms of translation, rotation, and scale (size) error. The delineation accuracy was evaluated in terms of true and false positive volume fractions (TPVF, FPVF). The efficiency of the delineation method was also evaluated on an Intel Pentium IV PC with a 3.4 GHZ CPU machine. Results: The recognition accuracies in terms of translation, rotation, and scale error over all organs are about 8 mm, 10 deg. and 0.03, and over all foot bones are about 3.5709 mm, 0.35 deg. and 0.025, respectively. The accuracy of delineation over all organs for all subjects as expressed in TPVF and FPVF is 93.01% and 0.22%, and

  16. RXTE/ASM observations of an intermediate-duration burst from SAX J1712.6-3739

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuulkers, Erik

    2009-07-01

    As a side result of the search for superbursts in the RXTE/ASM archive up to June 2009 of all type I X-ray bursters known to date (ATel #2140), four high, subsequent, ASM dwells in a time span of about 6 min were found near UT 1999 August 17 04:20 of the source SAX J1712.6-3739. During that time the 1.5-12 keV source flux decayed from 0.67+/-0.3 to 0.61+/-0.3 Crab.

  17. 46 CFR 54.01-2 - Adoption of division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 54.01-2 Section 54.01-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Pressure vessels shall be designed, constructed, and inspected in accordance with section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...

  18. 46 CFR 54.01-2 - Adoption of division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 54.01-2 Section 54.01-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Pressure vessels shall be designed, constructed, and inspected in accordance with section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...

  19. 46 CFR 54.01-2 - Adoption of division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 54.01-2 Section 54.01-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Pressure vessels shall be designed, constructed, and inspected in accordance with section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...

  20. 46 CFR 54.01-2 - Adoption of division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 54.01-2 Section 54.01-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Pressure vessels shall be designed, constructed, and inspected in accordance with section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...

  1. 46 CFR 54.01-2 - Adoption of division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 54.01-2 Section 54.01-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Pressure vessels shall be designed, constructed, and inspected in accordance with section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...

  2. Interaction between endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress (ER/SR stress), mitochondrial signaling and Ca(2+) regulation in airway smooth muscle (ASM).

    PubMed

    Delmotte, Philippe; Sieck, Gary C

    2015-02-01

    Airway inflammation is a key aspect of diseases such as asthma. Several inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNFα and IL-13) increase cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]cyt) responses to agonist stimulation and Ca(2+) sensitivity of force generation, thereby enhancing airway smooth muscle (ASM) contractility (hyper-reactive state). Inflammation also induces ASM proliferation and remodeling (synthetic state). In normal ASM, the transient elevation of [Ca(2+)]cyt induced by agonists leads to a transient increase in mitochondrial Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]mito) that may be important in matching ATP production with ATP consumption. In human ASM (hASM) exposed to TNFα and IL-13, the transient increase in [Ca(2+)]mito is blunted despite enhanced [Ca(2+)]cyt responses. We also found that TNFα and IL-13 induce reactive oxidant species (ROS) formation and endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) stress (unfolded protein response) in hASM. ER/SR stress in hASM is associated with disruption of mitochondrial coupling with the ER/SR membrane, which relates to reduced mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) expression. Thus, in hASM it appears that TNFα and IL-13 result in ROS formation leading to ER/SR stress, reduced Mfn2 expression, disruption of mitochondrion-ER/SR coupling, decreased mitochondrial Ca(2+) buffering, mitochondrial fragmentation, and increased cell proliferation.

  3. Interaction between endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress (ER/SR stress), mitochondrial signaling and Ca2+ regulation in airway smooth muscle (ASM)1

    PubMed Central

    Delmotte, Philippe; Sieck, Gary C.

    2015-01-01

    Airway inflammation is a key aspect of diseases such as asthma. Several inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNFα and IL-13) increase cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt) responses to agonist stimulation and Ca2+ sensitivity of force generation, thereby enhancing airway smooth muscle (ASM) contractility (hyper-reactive state). Inflammation also induces ASM proliferation and remodeling (synthetic state). In normal ASM, the transient elevation of [Ca2+]cyt induced by agonists leads to a transient increase in mitochondrial Ca2+ ([Ca2+]mito) that may be important in matching ATP production with ATP consumption. In human ASM (hASM) exposed to TNFα and IL-13, the transient increase in [Ca2+]mito is blunted despite enhanced [Ca2+]cyt responses. We also found that TNFα and IL-13 induce reactive oxidant species (ROS) formation and endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) stress (unfolded protein response) in hASM. ER/SR stress in hASM is associated with disruption of mitochondrial coupling with the ER/SR membrane, which relates to reduced mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) expression. Thus, in hASM it appears that TNFα and IL-13 result in ROS formation leading to ER/SR stress, reduced Mfn2 expression, disruption of mitochondrion–ER/SR coupling, decreased mitochondrial Ca2+ buffering, mitochondrial fragmentation, and increased cell proliferation. PMID:25506723

  4. REVIEW OF PROPOSED METHODOLOGY FOR A RISK- INFORMED RELAXATION TO ASME SECTION XI APPENDIX G

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, Terry L; Kirk, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The current regulations, as set forth by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), to insure that light-water nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) maintain their structural integrity when subjected to planned normal reactor startup (heat-up) and shut-down (cool-down) transients are specified in Appendix G to 10 CFR Part 50, which incorporates by reference Appendix G to Section XI of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code. The technical basis for these regulations are now recognized by the technical community as being conservative and some plants are finding it increasingly difficult to comply with the current regulations. Consequently, the nuclear industry has developed, and submitted to the ASME Code for approval, an alternative risk-informed methodology that reduces the conservatism and is consistent with the methods previously used to develop a risk-informed revision to the regulations for accidental transients such as pressurized thermal shock (PTS). The objective of the alternative methodology is to provide a relaxation to the current regulations which will provide more operational flexibility, particularly for reactor pressure vessels with relatively high irradiation levels and radiation sensitive materials, while continuing to provide reasonable assurance of adequate protection to public health and safety. The NRC and its contractor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have recently performed an independent review of the industry proposed methodology. The NRC / ORNL review consisted of performing probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analyses for a matrix of cool-down and heat-up rates, permutated over various reactor geometries and characteristics, each at multiple levels of embrittlement, including 60 effective full power years (EFPY) and beyond, for various postulated flaw characterizations. The objective of this review is to quantify the risk of a reactor vessel experiencing non-ductile fracture, and possible

  5. Specific Bonds between an Iron Oxide Surface and Outer Membrane Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Lower, Brian H.; Shi, Liang; Yongsunthon, Ruchirej; Droubay, Timothy C.; Mccready, David E.; Lower, Steven

    2007-07-31

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is purported to express outer membrane cytochromes (e.g., MtrC and OmcA) that transfer electrons directly to Fe(III) in a mineral during anaerobic respiration.  A prerequisite for this type of reaction would be the formation of a stable bond between a cytochrome and an iron oxide surface.  Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to detect whether a specific bond forms between a hematite (Fe2O3) thin film, created with oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and recombinant MtrC or OmcA molecules coupled to gold substrates.  Force spectra displayed a unique force signature indicative of a specific bond between each cytochrome and the hematite surface.  The strength of the OmcA-hematite bond was approximately twice as strong as the MtrC-hematite bond, but direct binding to hematite was twice as favorable for MtrC.  Reversible folding/unfolding reactions were observed for mechanically denatured MtrC molecules bound to hematite.  The force measurements for the hematite-cytochrome pairs were compared to spectra collected between an iron oxide and S. oneidensis under anaerobic conditions.  There is a strong correlation between the whole cell and pure protein force spectra suggesting that the unique binding attributes of each cytochrome complement one another and allow both MtrC and OmcA to play a prominent role in the transfer of electrons to Fe(III) in minerals.  Finally, by comparing the magnitude of binding force for the whole cell vs. pure protein data, we were able to estimate that a single bacterium of S. oneidensis (2 x 0.5 μm) expresses ~104 cytochromes on its outer surface. 

  6. Comparative proteomics reveal the impact of OmcA/MtrC deletion on Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in response to hexavalent chromium exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Juan; Hu, Wen-Jun; Liu, Ji-Yun; Zheng, Hai-Lei; Zhao, Feng

    2014-12-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a priority pollutant causing serious environmental issues. Microbial reduction provides an alternative strategy for Cr(VI) remediation. The dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, was employed to study Cr(VI) reduction and toxicity in this work. To understand the effect of membrane cytochromes on Cr(VI) response, a comparative protein profile analysis from S. oneidensis MR-1 wild type and its mutant of deleting OmcA and MtrC (△omcA/mtrC) was conducted using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) technology. The 2-DE patterns were compared, and the proteins with abundant changes of up to twofold in the Cr(VI) treatment were detected. Using mass spectrometry, 38 and 45 differentially abundant proteins were identified in the wild type and the mutant, respectively. Among them, 25 proteins were shared by the two strains. The biological functions of these identified proteins were analyzed. Results showed that Cr(VI) exposure decreased the abundance of proteins involved in transcription, translation, pyruvate metabolism, energy production, and function of cellular membrane in both strains. There were also significant differences in protein expressions between the two strains under Cr(VI) treatment. Our results suggest that OmcA/MtrC deletion might result in the Cr(VI) toxicity to outer membrane and decrease assimilation of lactate, vitamin B12, and cystine. When carbohydrate metabolism was inhibited by Cr(VI), leucine and sulfur metabolism may act as the important compensatory mechanisms in the mutant. Furthermore, the mutant may regulate electron transfer in the inner membrane and periplasm to compensate for the deletion of OmcA and MtrC in Cr(VI) reduction.

  7. Specific Bonds between an Iron Oxide Surface and Outer Membrane Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1▿

    PubMed Central

    Lower, Brian H.; Shi, Liang; Yongsunthon, Ruchirej; Droubay, Timothy C.; McCready, David E.; Lower, Steven K.

    2007-01-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is purported to express outer membrane cytochromes (e.g., MtrC and OmcA) that transfer electrons directly to Fe(III) in a mineral during anaerobic respiration. A prerequisite for this type of reaction would be the formation of a stable bond between a cytochrome and an iron oxide surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to detect whether a specific bond forms between a hematite (Fe2O3) thin film, created with oxygen plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, and recombinant MtrC or OmcA molecules coupled to gold substrates. Force spectra displayed a unique force signature indicative of a specific bond between each cytochrome and the hematite surface. The strength of the OmcA-hematite bond was approximately twice that of the MtrC-hematite bond, but direct binding to hematite was twice as favorable for MtrC. Reversible folding/unfolding reactions were observed for mechanically denatured MtrC molecules bound to hematite. The force measurements for the hematite-cytochrome pairs were compared to spectra collected for an iron oxide and S. oneidensis under anaerobic conditions. There is a strong correlation between the whole-cell and pure-protein force spectra, suggesting that the unique binding attributes of each cytochrome complement one another and allow both MtrC and OmcA to play a prominent role in the transfer of electrons to Fe(III) in minerals. Finally, by comparing the magnitudes of binding force for the whole-cell versus pure-protein data, we were able to estimate that a single bacterium of S. oneidensis (2 by 0.5 μm) expresses ∼104 cytochromes on its outer surface. PMID:17468239

  8. Kinetics of reduction of Fe(III) complexes by outer membrane cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheming; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Xuelin; Marshall, Matthew J; Zachara, John M; Rosso, Kevin M; Dupuis, Michel; Fredrickson, James K; Heald, Steve; Shi, Liang

    2008-11-01

    Because of their cell surface locations, the outer membrane c-type cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 have been suggested to be the terminal reductases for a range of redox-reactive metals that form poorly soluble solids or that do not readily cross the outer membrane. In this work, we determined the kinetics of reduction of a series of Fe(III) complexes with citrate, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and EDTA by MtrC and OmcA using a stopped-flow technique in combination with theoretical computation methods. Stopped-flow kinetic data showed that the reaction proceeded in two stages, a fast stage that was completed in less than 1 s, followed by a second, relatively slower stage. For a given complex, electron transfer by MtrC was faster than that by OmcA. For a given cytochrome, the reaction was completed in the order Fe-EDTA > Fe-NTA > Fe-citrate. The kinetic data could be modeled by two parallel second-order bimolecular redox reactions with second-order rate constants ranging from 0.872 microM(-1) s(-1) for the reaction between MtrC and the Fe-EDTA complex to 0.012 microM(-1) s(-1) for the reaction between OmcA and Fe-citrate. The biphasic reaction kinetics was attributed to redox potential differences among the heme groups or redox site heterogeneity within the cytochromes. The results of redox potential and reorganization energy calculations showed that the reaction rate was influenced mostly by the relatively large reorganization energy. The results demonstrate that ligand complexation plays an important role in microbial dissimilatory reduction and mineral transformation of iron, as well as other redox-sensitive metal species in nature.

  9. Kinetics of Reduction of Fe(III) Complexes by Outer Membrane Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1▿

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheming; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Xuelin; Marshall, Matthew J.; Zachara, John M.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Dupuis, Michel; Fredrickson, James K.; Heald, Steve; Shi, Liang

    2008-01-01

    Because of their cell surface locations, the outer membrane c-type cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 have been suggested to be the terminal reductases for a range of redox-reactive metals that form poorly soluble solids or that do not readily cross the outer membrane. In this work, we determined the kinetics of reduction of a series of Fe(III) complexes with citrate, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and EDTA by MtrC and OmcA using a stopped-flow technique in combination with theoretical computation methods. Stopped-flow kinetic data showed that the reaction proceeded in two stages, a fast stage that was completed in less than 1 s, followed by a second, relatively slower stage. For a given complex, electron transfer by MtrC was faster than that by OmcA. For a given cytochrome, the reaction was completed in the order Fe-EDTA > Fe-NTA > Fe-citrate. The kinetic data could be modeled by two parallel second-order bimolecular redox reactions with second-order rate constants ranging from 0.872 μM−1 s−1 for the reaction between MtrC and the Fe-EDTA complex to 0.012 μM−1 s−1 for the reaction between OmcA and Fe-citrate. The biphasic reaction kinetics was attributed to redox potential differences among the heme groups or redox site heterogeneity within the cytochromes. The results of redox potential and reorganization energy calculations showed that the reaction rate was influenced mostly by the relatively large reorganization energy. The results demonstrate that ligand complexation plays an important role in microbial dissimilatory reduction and mineral transformation of iron, as well as other redox-sensitive metal species in nature. PMID:18791025

  10. Kinetic Characterization of OmcA and MtrC, Terminal Reductases Involved in Respiratory Electron Transfer for Dissimilatory Iron Reduction in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1▿

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Daniel E.; Brantley, Susan L.; Tien, Ming

    2009-01-01

    We have used scaling kinetics and the concept of kinetic competence to elucidate the role of hemeproteins OmcA and MtrC in iron reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Second-order rate constants for OmcA and MtrC were determined by single-turnover experiments. For soluble iron species, a stopped-flow apparatus was used, and for the less reactive iron oxide goethite, a conventional spectrophotometer was used to measure rates. Steady-state experiments were performed to obtain molecular rate constants by quantifying the OmcA and MtrC contents of membrane fractions and whole cells by Western blot analysis. For reduction of soluble iron, rates determined from transient-state experiments were able to account for rates obtained from steady-state experiments. However, this was not true with goethite; rate constants determined from transient-state experiments were 100 to 1,000 times slower than those calculated from steady-state experiments with membrane fractions and whole cells. In contrast, addition of flavins to the goethite experiments resulted in rates that were consistent with both transient- and steady-state experiments. Kinetic simulations of steady-state results with kinetic constants obtained from transient-state experiments supported flavin involvement. Therefore, we show for the first time that OmcA and MtrC are kinetically competent to account for catalysis of soluble iron reduction in whole Shewanella cells but are not responsible for electron transfer via direct contact alone with insoluble iron-containing minerals. This work supports the hypothesis that electron shuttles are important participants in the reduction of solid Fe phases by this organism. PMID:19542342

  11. Abundance of the Multiheme c-Type Cytochrome OmcB Increases in Outer Biofilm Layers of Electrode-Grown Geobacter sulfurreducens

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Camille S.; LaBelle, Edward V.; Brantley, Susan L.; Bond, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    When Geobacter sulfurreducens utilizes an electrode as its electron acceptor, cells embed themselves in a conductive biofilm tens of microns thick. While environmental conditions such as pH or redox potential have been shown to change close to the electrode, less is known about the response of G. sulfurreducens to growth in this biofilm environment. To investigate whether respiratory protein abundance varies with distance from the electrode, antibodies against an outer membrane multiheme cytochrome (OmcB) and cytoplasmic acetate kinase (AckA) were used to determine protein localization in slices spanning ∼25 µm-thick G. sulfurreducens biofilms growing on polished electrodes poised at +0.24 V (vs. Standard Hydrogen Electrode). Slices were immunogold labeled post-fixing, imaged via transmission electron microscopy, and digitally reassembled to create continuous images allowing subcellular location and abundance per cell to be quantified across an entire biofilm. OmcB was predominantly localized on cell membranes, and 3.6-fold more OmcB was detected on cells 10–20 µm distant from the electrode surface compared to inner layers (0–10 µm). In contrast, acetate kinase remained constant throughout the biofilm, and was always associated with the cell interior. This method for detecting proteins in intact conductive biofilms supports a model where the utilization of redox proteins changes with depth. PMID:25090411

  12. Review of the margins for ASME code fatigue design curve - effects of surface roughness and material variability.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2003-10-03

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. The Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Existing fatigue strain-vs.-life ({var_epsilon}-N) data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of pressure vessel and piping steels. This report provides an overview of the existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data for carbon and low-alloy steels and wrought and cast austenitic SSs to define the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of the steels. Experimental data are presented on the effects of surface roughness on the fatigue life of these steels in air and LWR environments. Statistical models are presented for estimating the fatigue {var_epsilon}-N curves as a function of the material, loading, and environmental parameters. Two methods for incorporating environmental effects into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations are discussed. Data available in the literature have been reviewed to evaluate the conservatism in the existing ASME Code fatigue evaluations. A critical review of the margins for ASME Code fatigue design curves is presented.

  13. 78 FR 79363 - Hazardous Materials: Adoption of ASME Code Section XII and the National Board Inspection Code

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ....asme.org/PublicReview/ . To access the National Board Inspection Code (NBIC), Part 2, Supplement 6: Continued Service and Inspection of DOT Transport Tanks, and Part 3, Supplement 6: Repair, Alteration, and..._supplements.pdf . Privacy Act: Anyone is able to search the electronic form of any written communications...

  14. Materials Reliability Program: Risk-Informed Revision of ASME Section XI Appendix G - Proof of Concept (MRP-143)

    SciTech Connect

    B. Bishop; et al

    2005-03-30

    This study indicates that risk-informed methods can be used to significantly relax the current ASME and NRC Appendix G requirements while still maintaining satisfactory levels of reactor vessel structural integrity. This relaxation in Appendix G requirements directly translates into significant improvements in operational flexibility.

  15. Impact of the A18.1 ASME Standard on Platform Lifts and Stairway Chairlifts on Accessibility and Usability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balmer, David C.

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the effect of the ASME A18.1 Standard concerning accessibility and usability of Platform Lifts and their remaining technological challenges. While elevators are currently the most effective means of vertical transportation related to speed, capacity, rise and usability, their major drawbacks for accessibility are cost and…

  16. 46 CFR 56.01-5 - Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and other standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES General § 56.01-5 Adoption of ASME B31.1 for power piping, and other standards. (a) Piping systems for ships and barges must be designed, constructed, and inspected in... subchapter. See 46 CFR 56.60-1(b) for the other adopted commercial standards applicable to piping systems...

  17. 76 FR 11191 - Hazardous Materials: Adoption of ASME Code Section XII and the National Board Inspection Code

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 171, 173, 178, and 180 RIN 2137-AE58 Hazardous Materials: Adoption of ASME Code Section XII and the National Board Inspection Code AGENCY...

  18. Impact of the A18.1 ASME Standard on Platform Lifts and Stairway Chairlifts on Accessibility and Usability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balmer, David C.

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the effect of the ASME A18.1 Standard concerning accessibility and usability of Platform Lifts and their remaining technological challenges. While elevators are currently the most effective means of vertical transportation related to speed, capacity, rise and usability, their major drawbacks for accessibility are cost and…

  19. ASME B89.4.19 Performance Evaluation Tests and Geometric Misalignments in Laser Trackers.

    PubMed

    Muralikrishnan, B; Sawyer, D; Blackburn, C; Phillips, S; Borchardt, B; Estler, W T

    2009-01-01

    Small and unintended offsets, tilts, and eccentricity of the mechanical and optical components in laser trackers introduce systematic errors in the measured spherical coordinates (angles and range readings) and possibly in the calculated lengths of reference artifacts. It is desirable that the tests described in the ASME B89.4.19 Standard [1] be sensitive to these geometric misalignments so that any resulting systematic errors are identified during performance evaluation. In this paper, we present some analysis, using error models and numerical simulation, of the sensitivity of the length measurement system tests and two-face system tests in the B89.4.19 Standard to misalignments in laser trackers. We highlight key attributes of the testing strategy adopted in the Standard and propose new length measurement system tests that demonstrate improved sensitivity to some misalignments. Experimental results with a tracker that is not properly error corrected for the effects of the misalignments validate claims regarding the proposed new length tests.

  20. Change of nonlinear acoustics in ASME grade 122 steel welded joint during creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, Toshihiro; Honma, Takumi; Ishii, Yutaka; Tabuchi, Masaaki; Hongo, Hiromichi; Hirao, Masahiko

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we described the changes of two nonlinear acoustic characterizations; resonant frequency shift and three-wave interaction, with electromagnetic acoustic resonance (EMAR) throughout the creep life in the welded joints of ASME Grade 122, one of high Cr ferritic heat resisting steels. EMAR was a combination of the resonant acoustic technique with a non-contact electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). These nonlinear acoustic parameters decreased from the start to 50% of creep life. After slightly increased, they rapidly increased from 80% of creep life to rupture. We interpreted these phenomena in terms of dislocation recovery, recrystallization, and restructuring related to the initiation and growth of creep void, with support from the SEM and TEM observation.

  1. Crack growth in ASME SA-105 grade 2 steel in hydrogen at ambient temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    Cyclic-load crack growth measurements were performed on ASME SA-105 Grade 2 steel specimens exposed to 10,000- and 15,000-psi hydrogen and to 5000-psi helium, all at ambient temperatures. The cyclic-load crack growth rate was found to be faster in high-pressure hydrogen than in helium. Cyclic-load crack growth rates in this steel were not reduced by preloading in air to a stress intensity of 1.5 times the cyclic K sub max in hydrogen. There are indications that holding under load in hydrogen, and loading and unloading in helium retards hydrogen-accelerated cyclic-load crack growth. Cyclic frequency and R (ratio of K sub min/k sub max) were important variables determining crack growth rate. The crack growth rate increased as a logarithm of the cycle duration and decreased with increasing R.

  2. Verification of Allowable Stresses In ASME Section III Subsection NH For Grade 91 Steel & Alloy 800H

    SciTech Connect

    R. W. Swindeman; M. J. Swindeman; B. W. Roberts; B. E. Thurgood; D. L. Marriott

    2007-11-30

    The database for the creep-rupture of 9Cr-1Mo-V (Grade 91) steel was collected and reviewed to determine if it met the needs for recommending time-dependent strength values, S{sub t}, for coverage in ASME Section III Subsection NH (ASME III-NH) to 650 C (1200 F) and 600,000 hours. The accumulated database included over 300 tests for 1% total strain, nearly 400 tests for tertiary creep, and nearly 1700 tests to rupture. Procedures for analyzing creep and rupture data for ASME III-NH were reviewed and compared to the procedures used to develop the current allowable stress values for Gr 91 for ASME II-D. The criteria in ASME III-NH for estimating S{sub t} included the average strength for 1% total strain for times to 600,000 hours, 80% of the minimum strength for tertiary creep for times to 600,000 hours, and 67% of the minimum rupture strength values for times to 600,000 hours. Time-temperature-stress parametric formulations were selected to correlate the data and make predictions of the long-time strength. It was found that the stress corresponding to 1% total strain and the initiation of tertiary creep were not the controlling criteria over the temperature-time range of concern. It was found that small adjustments to the current values in III-NH could be introduced but that the existing values were conservative and could be retained. The existing database was found to be adequate to extend the coverage to 600,000 hours for temperatures below 650 C (1200 F).

  3. Molecular abundances in OMC-1 - The chemical composition of interstellar molecular clouds and the influence of massive star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Geoffrey A.; Sutton, E. C.; Masson, C. R.; Phillips, T. G.

    1987-04-01

    The chemical composition of the various regions in the core of OMC-1 is investigated based on millimeter-wave spectral line survey results. The cool and extended quiescent ridge gas is characterized by fairly simple carbon-rich species whose abundances are similar to those found in other well-studied objects like TMC-1 and Sgr B2. Its chemical composition is reasonably well predicted by purely gas phase ion-molecule reaction networks. Abundances in the high-velocity plateau are dominated by outflow from IRc 2. The hot core is interpreted as a particularly large and dense clump or clumps of gas left over from the formation of IRc 2. The production of complex oxygen-rich species such as CH3OH in the compact ridge is accomplished by radiation association reactions between smaller molecular ions in the quiescent cloud material and highly abundant neutral species such as HCN and H2O supplied by the outflow from IRc 2.

  4. The methanol lines and hot core of OMC2-FIR4, an intermediate-mass protostar, with Herschel/HIFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kama, M.; Dominik, C.; Maret, S.; van der Tak, F.; Caux, E.; Ceccarelli, C.; Fuente, A.; Crimier, N.; Lord, S.; Bacmann, A.; Baudry, A.; Bell, T.; Benedettini, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Blake, G. A.; Boogert, A.; Bottinelli, S.; Cabrit, S.; Caselli, P.; Castets, A.; Cernicharo, J.; Codella, C.; Comito, C.; Coutens, A.; Demyk, K.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Gerin, M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Helmich, F.; Hennebelle, P.; Henning, T.; Herbst, E.; Hily-Blant, P.; Jacq, T.; Kahane, C.; Klotz, A.; Langer, W.; Lefloch, B.; Lis, D.; Lorenzani, A.; Melnick, G.; Nisini, B.; Pacheco, S.; Pagani, L.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J.; Phillips, T.; Salez, M.; Saraceno, P.; Schilke, P.; Schuster, K.; Tielens, X.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Vastel, C.; Viti, S.; Wakelam, V.; Walters, A.; Wyrowski, F.; Yorke, H.; Cais, P.; Güsten, R.; Philipp, S.; Klein, T.; Helmich, F.

    2010-10-01

    In contrast with numerous studies on the physical and chemical structure of low- and high-mass protostars, much less is known about their intermediate-mass counterparts, a class of objects that could help to elucidate the mechanisms of star formation on both ends of the mass range. We present the first results from a rich HIFI spectral dataset on an intermediate-mass protostar, OMC2-FIR4, obtained in the CHESS (Chemical HErschel Survey of Star forming regions) key programme. The more than 100 methanol lines detected between 554 and 961 GHz cover a range in upper level energy of 40 to 540 K. Our physical interpretation focusses on the hot core, but likely the cold envelope and shocked regions also play a role in reality, because an analysis of the line profiles suggests the presence of multiple emission components. An upper limit of 10-6 is placed on the methanol abundance in the hot core, using a population diagram, large-scale source model and other considerations. This value is consistent with abundances previously seen in low-mass hot cores. Furthermore, the highest energy lines at the highest frequencies display asymmetric profiles, which may arise from infall around the hot core. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  5. Investigations to determine whether Section XI of the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code should include PLEX (plant life extension) baseline inspection guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    A plant life extension (PLEX) issue repeatedly mentioned is whether special PLEX supplemental inspection requirements should be added to Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. To assist the ASME answer this question, the DOE Technology Management Center performed an industry survey to assess whether there was a technical consensus regarding the desirability and scope of a supplemental PLEX baseline inspection. This survey demonstrated the lack of an initial industry consensus. In response to the survey results, ASME has formed a task group to investigate various PLEX supplemental inspection strategies and to assess their value and liabilities. The results of the survey and initial task group activities are reviewed.

  6. Isolation of a high-affinity functional protein complex between OmcA and MtrC: Two outer membrane decaheme c-type cytochromes of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liang; Chen, Baowei; Wang, Zheming; Elias, Dwayne A; Mayer, M Uljana; Gorby, Yuri A; Ni, Shuison; Lower, Brian H; Kennedy, David W; Wunschel, David S; Mottaz, Heather M; Marshall, Matthew J; Hill, Eric A; Beliaev, Alexander S; Zachara, John M; Fredrickson, James K; Squier, Thomas C

    2006-07-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultatively anaerobic bacterium capable of using soluble and insoluble forms of manganese [Mn(III/IV)] and iron [Fe(III)] as terminal electron acceptors during anaerobic respiration. To assess the structural association of two outer membrane-associated c-type decaheme cytochromes (i.e., OmcA [SO1779] and MtrC [SO1778]) and their ability to reduce soluble Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), we expressed these proteins with a C-terminal tag in wild-type S. oneidensis and a mutant deficient in these genes (i.e., Delta omcA mtrC). Endogenous MtrC copurified with tagged OmcA in wild-type Shewanella, suggesting a direct association. To further evaluate their possible interaction, both proteins were purified to near homogeneity following the independent expression of OmcA and MtrC in the Delta omcA mtrC mutant. Each purified cytochrome was confirmed to contain 10 hemes and exhibited Fe(III)-NTA reductase activity. To measure binding, MtrC was labeled with the multiuse affinity probe 4',5'-bis(1,3,2-dithioarsolan-2-yl)fluorescein (1,2-ethanedithiol)2, which specifically associates with a tetracysteine motif engineered at the C terminus of MtrC. Upon titration with OmcA, there was a marked increase in fluorescence polarization indicating the formation of a high-affinity protein complex (Kd < 500 nM) between MtrC and OmcA whose binding was sensitive to changes in ionic strength. Following association, the OmcA-MtrC complex was observed to have enhanced Fe(III)-NTA reductase specific activity relative to either protein alone, demonstrating that OmcA and MtrC can interact directly with each other to form a stable complex that is consistent with their role in the electron transport pathway of S. oneidensis MR-1.

  7. Isolation of a High-Affinity Functional Protein Complex between OmcA and MtrC: Two Outer Membrane Decaheme c-Type Cytochromes of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Liang; Chen, Baowei; Wang, Zheming; Elias, Dwayne A.; Mayer, M. Uljana; Gorby, Yuri A.; Ni, Shuison; Lower, Brian H.; Kennedy, David W.; Wunschel, David S.; Mottaz, Heather M.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Hill, Eric A.; Beliaev, Alexander S.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, James K.; Squier, Thomas C.

    2006-01-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultatively anaerobic bacterium capable of using soluble and insoluble forms of manganese [Mn(III/IV)] and iron [Fe(III)] as terminal electron acceptors during anaerobic respiration. To assess the structural association of two outer membrane-associated c-type decaheme cytochromes (i.e., OmcA [SO1779] and MtrC [SO1778]) and their ability to reduce soluble Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), we expressed these proteins with a C-terminal tag in wild-type S. oneidensis and a mutant deficient in these genes (i.e., ΔomcA mtrC). Endogenous MtrC copurified with tagged OmcA in wild-type Shewanella, suggesting a direct association. To further evaluate their possible interaction, both proteins were purified to near homogeneity following the independent expression of OmcA and MtrC in the ΔomcA mtrC mutant. Each purified cytochrome was confirmed to contain 10 hemes and exhibited Fe(III)-NTA reductase activity. To measure binding, MtrC was labeled with the multiuse affinity probe 4′,5′-bis(1,3,2-dithioarsolan-2-yl)fluorescein (1,2-ethanedithiol)2, which specifically associates with a tetracysteine motif engineered at the C terminus of MtrC. Upon titration with OmcA, there was a marked increase in fluorescence polarization indicating the formation of a high-affinity protein complex (Kd < 500 nM) between MtrC and OmcA whose binding was sensitive to changes in ionic strength. Following association, the OmcA-MtrC complex was observed to have enhanced Fe(III)-NTA reductase specific activity relative to either protein alone, demonstrating that OmcA and MtrC can interact directly with each other to form a stable complex that is consistent with their role in the electron transport pathway of S. oneidensis MR-1. PMID:16788180

  8. Cyclic-load crack growth in ASME SA-105 grade II steel in high-pressure hydrogen at ambient temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, R. J.; Chandler, W. T.

    1976-01-01

    ASME SA-105 Grade II steel, which is used in high-pressure hydrogen compressor systems, is similar to steels used or considered for use in high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels and pipelines. This paper summarizes the results of a program conducted to provide cyclic-load crack growth rate (da/dN) data for a fracture mechanics analysis of a 15,000 psi hydrogen compressor facility which contains pulse quieter and after-cooler separator vessels constructed of the ASME SA-105 Grade II steel. Included in the program were tests performed to assist in establishing operating procedures that could minimize the effect of hydrogen on crack growth rates during operation.

  9. High Level Analysis, Design and Validation of Distributed Mobile Systems with CoreASM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahbod, R.; Glässer, U.; Jackson, P. J.; Vajihollahi, M.

    System design is a creative activity calling for abstract models that facilitate reasoning about the key system attributes (desired requirements and resulting properties) so as to ensure these attributes are properly established prior to actually building a system. We explore here the practical side of using the abstract state machine (ASM) formalism in combination with the CoreASM open source tool environment for high-level design and experimental validation of complex distributed systems. Emphasizing the early phases of the design process, a guiding principle is to support freedom of experimentation by minimizing the need for encoding. CoreASM has been developed and tested building on a broad scope of applications, spanning computational criminology, maritime surveillance and situation analysis. We critically reexamine here the CoreASM project in light of three different application scenarios.

  10. Activated sludge model (ASM) based modelling of membrane bioreactor (MBR) processes: a critical review with special regard to MBR specificities.

    PubMed

    Fenu, A; Guglielmi, G; Jimenez, J; Spèrandio, M; Saroj, D; Lesjean, B; Brepols, C; Thoeye, C; Nopens, I

    2010-08-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have been increasingly employed for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment in the last decade. The efforts for modelling of such wastewater treatment systems have always targeted either the biological processes (treatment quality target) as well as the various aspects of engineering (cost effective design and operation). The development of Activated Sludge Models (ASM) was an important evolution in the modelling of Conventional Activated Sludge (CAS) processes and their use is now very well established. However, although they were initially developed to describe CAS processes, they have simply been transferred and applied to MBR processes. Recent studies on MBR biological processes have reported several crucial specificities: medium to very high sludge retention times, high mixed liquor concentration, accumulation of soluble microbial products (SMP) rejected by the membrane filtration step, and high aeration rates for scouring purposes. These aspects raise the question as to what extent the ASM framework is applicable to MBR processes. Several studies highlighting some of the aforementioned issues are scattered through the literature. Hence, through a concise and structured overview of the past developments and current state-of-the-art in biological modelling of MBR, this review explores ASM-based modelling applied to MBR processes. The work aims to synthesize previous studies and differentiates between unmodified and modified applications of ASM to MBR. Particular emphasis is placed on influent fractionation, biokinetics, and soluble microbial products (SMPs)/exo-polymeric substances (EPS) modelling, and suggestions are put forward as to good modelling practice with regard to MBR modelling both for end-users and academia. A last section highlights shortcomings and future needs for improved biological modelling of MBR processes. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Unsteady Simulation of an ASME Venturi Flow in a Cross Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, Jeremy; Rahai, Hamid

    2010-11-01

    Unsteady numerical simulations of an ASME venturi flow into a cross flow were performed. The velocity ratios between the venturi flow and the free stream were 25, 50, and 75%. Two cases of the venturi with and without a tube extension have been investigated. The tube extension length was approximately 4D (here D is the inner diameter of the venturi's outlet), connecting the venturi to the bottom surface of the numerical wind tunnel. A finite volume approach with the Wilcox K-φ turbulence model were used. Results that include contours of the mean velocity, velocity vector, turbulent kinetic energy, pressure and vortices within the venturi as well as downstream in the interaction region indicate that when the venturi is flushed with the surface, there is evidence of flow separation within the venturi, near the outlet. However, when the tube extension was added, the pressure recovery was sustained and flow separation within the venturi was not present and the characteristics of the flow in the interaction region were similar to the corresponding characteristics of a pipe jet in a cross flow.

  12. 2004 ASM Conference on the New Phage Biology: the 'Phage Summit'.

    PubMed

    Adhya, Sankar; Black, Lindsay; Friedman, David; Hatfull, Graham; Kreuzer, Kenneth; Merril, Carl; Oppenheim, Amos; Rohwer, Forest; Young, Ry

    2005-03-01

    In August, more than 350 conferees from 24 countries attended the ASM Conference on the New Phage Biology, in Key Biscayne, Florida. This meeting, also called the Phage Summit, was the first major international gathering in decades devoted exclusively to phage biology. What emerged from the 5 days of the Summit was a clear perspective on the explosive resurgence of interest in all aspects of bacteriophage biology. The classic phage systems like lambda and T4, reinvigorated by structural biology, bioinformatics and new molecular and cell biology tools, remain model systems of unequalled power and facility for studying fundamental biological issues. In addition, the New Phage Biology is also populated by basic and applied scientists focused on ecology, evolution, nanotechnology, bacterial pathogenesis and phage-based immunologics, therapeutics and diagnostics, resulting in a heightened interest in bacteriophages per se, rather than as a model system. Besides constituting another landmark in the long history of a field begun by d'Herelle and Twort during the early 20th century, the Summit provided a unique venue for establishment of new interactive networks for collaborative efforts between scientists of many different backgrounds, interests and expertise.

  13. Development of the present reference fracture toughness curves in the ASME nuclear code

    SciTech Connect

    Yukawa, S.; Merkle, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    Since the early 1970's, the Sections of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code concerned with nuclear power plant components have included fracture mechanics procedures to analyze the effects of postulated or detected flaws. These procedures are contained in Appendix G of Section III and in Appendix A of Section XI of the Code. Specifically, Appendix G procedures are concerned with designing for protection against nonductile failures while Appendix A procedures are for evaluating the disposition of flaws detected during in-service inspection. An important element of the procedures is the inclusion of recommended material fracture toughness values. This paper describes the origin and development of these recommended fracture toughness values. Since these values appear in the Code in a graphical format, the values are often referred to as reference toughness curves. In the context of Code terminology, reference toughness means the allowable values of fracture toughness for the materials of concern that can be used in conjunction with the analytical procedures of Appendices G and A. The paper discusses the basis and rationale underlying the original formulation of these reference toughness curves and the modifications incorporated into them in the course of their adoption into the Code.

  14. Modelling waste stabilisation ponds with an extended version of ASM3.

    PubMed

    Gehring, T; Silva, J D; Kehl, O; Castilhos, A B; Costa, R H R; Uhlenhut, F; Alex, J; Horn, H; Wichern, M

    2010-01-01

    In this paper an extended version of IWA's Activated Sludge Model No 3 (ASM3) was developed to simulate processes in waste stabilisation ponds (WSP). The model modifications included the integration of algae biomass and gas transfer processes for oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia depending on wind velocity and a simple ionic equilibrium. The model was applied to a pilot-scale WSP system operated in the city of Florianópolis (Brazil). The system was used to treat leachate from a municipal waste landfill. Mean influent concentrations to the facultative pond of 1,456 g(COD)/m(3) and 505 g(NH4-N)/m(3) were measured. Experimental results indicated an ammonia nitrogen removal of 89.5% with negligible rates of nitrification but intensive ammonia stripping to the atmosphere. Measured data was used in the simulations to consider the impact of wind velocity on oxygen input of 11.1 to 14.4 g(O2)/(m(2) d) and sun radiation on photosynthesis. Good results for pH and ammonia removal were achieved with mean stripping rates of 18.2 and 4.5 g(N)/(m(2) d) for the facultative and maturation pond respectively. Based on measured chlorophyll a concentrations and depending on light intensity and TSS concentration it was possible to model algae concentrations.

  15. ASM-Triggered Too Observations of Kilohertz Oscillations in Three Atoll Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, P.; Swank, Jean (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Three Rossi Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations were carried out for this proposal based on target of opportunity triggers derived from the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) on RXTE. We obtained short observations of 4U1636-536 (15ks) and 4U1735-44 (23ks) and a longer observation of 4U0614+091 (117ks). Our analysis of our observations of the atoll neutron star x-ray binary 4U1735-44 lead to the discovery of a second high frequency quasiperiodic oscillation (QPO) in this source. These results were published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. The data obtained on the source 4U0614+091 were used in a comprehensive study of this source, which will be published in the Astrophysical Journal. The data from this proposal were particularly critical for that study as they lead to the detection of the highest QPO frequency every found in the x-ray emission from an x-ray binary which will be important in placing limits on the equation of state of nuclear matter.

  16. Creep Effects on Design below the Temperature Limits of ASME Section III Subsection NB

    SciTech Connect

    Sham, Sam; Jetter, Robert I; Eno, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Some recent studies of material response have identified an issue that crosses over and blurs the boundary between ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III Subsection NB and Subsection NH. For very long design lives, the effects of creep show up at lower and lower temperature as the design life increases. Although true for the temperature at which the allowable stress is governed by creep properties, the effect is more apparent, e.g. creep effects show up sooner, at local structural discontinuities and peak thermal stress locations. This is because creep is a function of time, temperature and stress and the higher the localized stress, the lower in temperature creep begins to cause damage. If the threshold is below the Subsection NB to NH temperature boundary, 700 F for ferritic steels and 800 F for austenitic materials, then this potential failure mode will not be considered. Unfortunately, there is no experience base with very long lives at temperatures close to but under the Subsection NB to NH boundary to draw upon. This issue is of particular interest in the application of Subsection NB rules of construction to some High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) concepts. The purpose of this paper is, thus, twofold; one part is about statistical treatment and extrapolation of sparse data for a specific material of interest, A533B; the other part is about how these results could impact current design procedures in Subsection NB.

  17. Creep Effects on Design below the Temperature Limits of ASME Section III Subsection NB

    SciTech Connect

    Sham, Sam; Jetter, Robert I; Eno, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    Some recent studies of material response have identified an issue that crosses over and blurs the boundary between ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III Subsection NB and Subsection NH. For very long design lives, the effects of creep show up at lower and lower temperature as the design life increases. Although true for the temperature at which the allowable stress is governed by creep properties, the effect is more apparent, e.g. creep effects show up sooner, at local structural discontinuities and peak thermal stress locations. This is because creep is a function of time, temperature and stress and the higher the localized stress, the lower in temperature creep begins to cause damage. If the threshold is below the Subsection NB to NH temperature boundary, 700 F for ferritic steels and 800 F for austenitic materials, then this potential failure mode will not be considered. Unfortunately, there is no experience base with very long lives at temperatures close to but under the Subsection NB to NH boundary to draw upon. This issue is of particular interest in the application of Subsection NB rules of construction to some High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) concepts. The purpose of this paper is, thus, twofold; one part is about statistical treatment and extrapolation of sparse data for a specific material of interest, A533B; the other part is about how these results could impact current design procedures in Subsection NB.

  18. D0 Silicon Upgrade: ASME Code and Pressure Calculations for Liquid Nitrogen Subcooler

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwazaki, Andrew; Leicht, Todd; /Fermilab

    1995-10-04

    Included in this engineering note are three separate calculation divisions. The first calculations are the determination of the required thickness of the LN{sub 2} subcooler flat head according to ASME code. This section includes Appendix A-C. The minimum plate thickness determined was 0.563 in. The actual thickness chosen in fabrication was a 3/4-inch plate milled to 0.594-inch at the bolt circle. Along with the plate thickness, this section calculates the required reinforcement area at the top plate penetrations. It was found that a 1/4-inch fillet weld at each penetration was adequate. The next set of calculations were done to prove that the subcooler internal pressure will always be less than 15 psig and therefore will not be classified as a pressure vessel. The subcooler is always open to a vent pipe. Appendix D calculations show that the vent pipe has a capacity of 1042 lbs/hr if 15 psig is present at the subcooler. It goes on to show that the inlet piping would at that flow rate, see a pressure drop of 104 psig. The maximum supply pressure of the LN{sub 2} storage dewar is 50 psig. Appendix E addresses required flow rates for steady state, loss of vacuum, or fire conditions. Page E9 shows a summary which states the maximum pressure would be 1.50 psig at fire conditions and internal pressure.

  19. Pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981)--preclinical pharmacologic profile and skin selectivity.

    PubMed

    Stuetz, A; Grassberger, M; Meingassner, J G

    2001-12-01

    The ascomycin macrolactam derivative pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981; Novartis Pharma AG, Basel Switzerland) is a cell-selective inhibitor of inflammatory cytokines specifically developed for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, and plaque-type psoriasis. It inhibits the production of inflammatory cytokines in T cells and mast cells and prevents the release of preformed inflammatory mediators from mast cells. Topically administered pimecrolimus is as effective as the high-potency corticosteroid clobetasol-17-propionate in a pig model of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Unlike clobetasol, however, it does not cause skin atrophy. Given orally, pimecrolimus is as potent or superior to tacrolimus (FK 506) in treating ACD in mice and rats. Pimecrolimus also effectively reduces skin inflammation and pruritus in hypomagnesemic hairless rats, a model that mimics acute signs of atopic dermatitis. Pimecrolimus shows only a low potential to impair systemic immune responses when compared with tacrolimus as shown in rats in (1) the localized graft-versus-host reaction, (2) the antibody formation to sheep red blood cells, and (3) kidney transplantation. Pimecrolimus permeates through pig skin in vitro at a 10-times lower rate than tacrolimus, indicating a lower potential for percutaneous absorption in vivo. The data suggest that pimecrolimus combines high anti-inflammatory activity in the skin with a low potential to impair systemic immune reactions.

  20. Mutational and gene expression analysis of mtrDEF, omcA and mtrCAB during arsenate and iron reduction in Shewanella sp. ANA-3.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Carolina; Murphy, Julie N; Saltikov, Chad W

    2010-07-01

    Arsenate respiration and Fe(III) reduction are important processes that influence the fate and transport of arsenic in the environment. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of arsenate on Fe(III) reduction using arsenate and Fe(III) reduction deficient mutants of Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3. Ferrihydrite reduction in the absence of arsenate was similar for an arsenate reduction mutant (arrA and arsC deletion strain of ANA-3) compared with wild-type ANA-3. However, the presence of arsenate adsorbed onto ferrihydrite impeded Fe(III) reduction for the arsenate reduction mutant but not in the wild-type. In an Fe(III) reduction mutant (mtrDEF, omcA, mtrCAB null mutant of ANA-3), arsenate was reduced similarly to wild-type ANA-3 indicating the Fe(III) reduction pathway is not required for ferrihydrite-associated arsenate reduction. Expression analysis of the mtr/omc gene cluster of ANA-3 showed that omcA and mtrCAB were expressed under soluble Fe(III), ferrihydrite and arsenate growth conditions and not in aerobically grown cells. Expression of arrA was greater with ferrihydrite pre-adsorbed with arsenate relative to ferrihydrite only. Lastly, arrA and mtrA were simultaneously induced in cells shifted to anaerobic conditions and exposed to soluble Fe(III) and arsenate. These observations suggest that, unlike Fe(III), arsenate can co-induce operons (arr and mtr) implicated in arsenic mobilization.

  1. Effects of in vivo exposure to UV filters (4-MBC, OMC, BP-3, 4-HB, OC, OD-PABA) on endocrine signaling genes in the insect Chironomus riparius.

    PubMed

    Ozáez, Irene; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2013-07-01

    There is increasing evidence indicating that several UV filters might have endocrine disruptive effects. Numerous studies have evaluated hormonal effects in vertebrates, mainly reporting estrogenic and androgenic activities in mammals and fishes. There is only limited knowledge about potential endocrine activity in invertebrate hormonal systems. In this work, the effects on endocrine signaling genes of six frequently used UV filters were investigated in Chironomus riparius, a reference organism in aquatic toxicology. The UV filters studied were: octyl-p-methoxycinnamate (OMC) also called 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC); 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC); benzophenone-3 (BP-3); 4-hidroxybenzophenone (4-HB); octocrylene (OC); and octyldimethyl-p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA). After in vivo exposure at different dosages, expression levels of the genes coding for the ecdysone receptor (EcR), the ultraspiracle (usp, ortholog of the RXR) and the estrogen-related receptor (ERR) were quantified by Real Time PCR. The EcR gene was significantly upregulated by 4-MBC, OMC/EHMC and OD-PABA, with a dose-related response following 24h exposure. In contrast, the benzophenones, BP-3 and 4-HB, as well as OC did not alter this gene at the same exposure conditions. The transcription profiles of the usp and ERR genes were not significantly affected, except for BP-3 that inhibited the usp gene at the highest concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence in invertebrates of a direct effect of UV filters on endocrine-related genes, and is consistent with the known effects on vertebrate hormonal receptor genes. The capability of 4-MBC, OMC/EHMC and OD-PABA to stimulate the expression of the ecdysone receptor, a key transcription factor for the ecdysone-genomic response in arthropods, suggests the possibility of a broad and long-term effect on this hormonal pathway. These findings strengthen the need for further research about the ecotoxicological implications

  2. Denitrification activity of the bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ASM-2-3 isolated from the Ariake Sea tideland.

    PubMed

    Kariminiaae-Hamedaani, Hamid-Reza; Kanda, Kohzo; Kato, Fumio

    2004-01-01

    A new denitrifying bacterium strain ASM-2-3 was isolated from the Ariake Sea tideland, Japan. The isolate had the capability to fully remove as high as 225.8 mg nitrate-nitrogen.l(-1) under stationary culture conditions without accumulation of nitrite as an intermediate. From biochemical tests and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis, the genus of the bacterium was identified as Pseudomonas and close to stutzeri species. The nitrate removal efficiency of the isolate was faster than that of the control strain Pseudomonas stutzeri NBRC 14165, using succinate as the sole carbon source. The isolate could grow in up to 10% (w/v) of NaCl containing medium. The enzymatic tests showed that the activity of enzymes responsible for the reduction of nitrate and nitrite in strain ASM-2-3 was 1.4 and 2.3 times higher than that of the control strain. The feasibility of application of the isolate strain ASM-2-3 in a packed bed bioreactor was investigated for 40 d.

  3. Modeling a bench-scale alternating aerobic/anoxic activated sludge system for nitrogen removal using a modified ASM1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunook; Noh, Soohong; Colosimo, Mark

    2009-07-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1), developed by The International Association of Water Pollution Research and Control, was applied to model dynamics of NH4+, and NO3- in a bench scale alternating aerobic-anoxic (AAA) activated sludge system for nitrogen removal. The model was modified by eliminating inert soluble COD (S(I)) and inert particulate COD (X(I)) from the model's state variables as these two variables are not involved in any biological reaction and are not readily measurable with conventional routine COD analysis. It was assumed that the soluble COD and particulate COD of wastewater represent readily biodegradable COD (S(S)) and slowly biodegradable (X(S)) in the model, respectively. In addition, alkalinity was also removed from the model, since alkalinity of an AAA system remains stable due to the cyclic modes of the system. Even with the elimination of the three state variables and the assumption made, the model could reasonably predict the NH4+ and NO3- dynamics of the AAA system, and effluent NH4+ and NO3- concentrations with adjustment of only a few kinetic parameters. Compared to the original ASM1, it is expected that the modified ASM1 presented in this study can be more easily utilized by engineers in designing or operating an AAA system in practice, since it requires simple characterization of wastewater COD.

  4. Comparison of effects of estradiol (E2) with those of octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC) and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) - 2 filters of UV light - on several uterine, vaginal and bone parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Seidlova-Wuttke, D.; Jarry, H.; Christoffel, J.; Rimoldi, G.; Wuttke, W. . E-mail: ufkendo@med.uni-goettingen.de

    2006-02-01

    OMC and 4MBC are 2 absorbers of ultraviolet light which are used in unknown quantities in sunscreens, cosmetics and plastic products to protect against UV light-induced damage of the skin or of fragrances or plastic material. From there, they were shown to reach surface water and/or by direct contamination or ingestion the human. Under various conditions in mice and rats, both substances were shown to be estrogenic. Therefore, we compared in vitro and in vivo the effects of chronic application of these compounds at 2 doses with those of E2, all administered via food. No signs of toxicity were observed under application of 0.6 mg E2, 57.5 or 275 mg of OMC, 57.5 or 250 mg of 4MBC; these amounts were ingested with 21 g of control food, 17.8 g E2 food, 20.6 g or 22.3 g OMC food and 23.7 or 22.8 g 4MBC food. In the uterus, vagina and bone, E2 exerted the expected stimulatory effects which were minimally shared by OMC and 4MBC in the uterus and vagina as assessed by histology and determination of a variety of estrogen-regulated genes such as insulin-like growth factor-1, progesterone receptor and estrogen receptor {beta}. In the bone, OMC had no effect, while 4MBC shared the antiosteoporotic effects of E2 as measured by quantitative computer tomography in the metaphysis of the tibia. The mechanism of action of 4MBC, however, appears to be different as E2 reduced serum osteocalcin and the C-terminal breakdown products of collagen-1{alpha}1 which were both increased by 4MBC. Taken together, these data indicate a very weak estrogenic effect of OMC and 4MBC in the uterus and in the vagina but not in the bone where 4MBC exerted antiosteoporotic effects by a different mechanism than E2.

  5. Role of outer membrane c-type cytochromes MtrC and OmcA in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cell production, accumulation, and detachment during respiration on hematite.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, A C; Peterson, L; Reardon, C L; Reed, S B; Culley, D E; Romine, M R; Geesey, G G

    2012-07-01

    The iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 has the capacity to contribute to iron cycling over the long term by respiring on crystalline iron oxides such as hematite when poorly crystalline phases are depleted. The ability of outer membrane cytochromes OmcA and MtrC of MR-1 to bind to and transfer electrons to hematite has led to the suggestion that they function as terminal reductases when this mineral is used as a respiratory substrate. Differences in their redox behavior and hematite-binding properties, however, indicate that they play different roles in the electron transfer reaction. Here, we investigated how these differences in cytochrome behavior with respect to hematite affected biofilm development when the mineral served as terminal electron acceptor (TEA). Upon attachment to hematite, cells of the wild-type (WT) strain as well as those of a ΔomcA mutant but not those of a ΔmtrC mutant replicated and accumulated on the mineral surface. The results indicate that MtrC but not OmcA is required for growth when this mineral serves as TEA. While an OmcA deficiency did not impede cell replication and accumulation on hematite prior to achievement of a maximum surface cell density comparable to that established by WT cells, OmcA was required for efficient electron transfer and cell attachment to hematite once maximum surface cell density was achieved. OmcA may therefore play a role in overcoming barriers to electron transfer and cell attachment to hematite imposed by reductive dissolution of the mineral surface from cell respiration associated with achievement of high surface cell densities.

  6. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials starting from the novel nanoscaled bismuth oxido methacrylate cluster [Bi38O45(OMc)24(DMSO)9]·2DMSO·7H2O.

    PubMed

    Miersch, Linda; Rüffer, Tobias; Mehring, Michael

    2011-06-14

    The reaction of the basic bismuth nitrate [Bi(6)O(4)(OH)(4)](NO(3))(6)·H(2)O with sodium methacrylate in DMSO gave [Bi(38)O(45)(OMc)(24)(DMSO)(9)]·2DMSO·7H(2)O (OMc = O(2)CC(3)H(5)), which is highly soluble in organic solvents. By copolymerization of the bismuth oxido cluster with methyl methacrylate transparent, radiopaque organic-inorganic hybrid materials were obtained. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  7. Isolation and characterization of plantaricin ASM1: a new bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum A-1.

    PubMed

    Hata, Tomomi; Tanaka, Rie; Ohmomo, Sadahiro

    2010-01-31

    Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria showing stability even in neutral and weak alkaline pH were screened, and a new bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum A-1, plantaricin ASM1 (PASM1) was purified and characterized. This bacteriocin which is heat-stable but digested by trypsin inhibits the growth of lactic acid bacterial species, such as Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, and Enterococcus. PASM1 showed stability in a wide pH range compared to nisin A. The bacteriocin was purified using cation exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The activity of the purified bacteriocin was obtained as one fraction. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of the fraction showed a mass of 5045.7Da. Combining the data obtained from amino acid and DNA sequencing, the primary sequence of PASM1 was determined. The sequence of the corresponding gene revealed that the peptide is ribosomally synthesized as a 64 amino acid precursor containing a 21 amino acid N-terminal extension of the double-glycine type. The mature peptide consists of 43 amino acids, which could contain two intramolecular disulfide bonds in the structure. Three putative open reading frames were located upstream of the PLNA1 gene. These genes may encode the thioredoxin family proteins and a response regulator both of which have been suggested to regulate expression of the PASM1 gene and the processing of its leader peptide. PASM1 has no reported homologue bacteriocins. Stability in a wide pH range and heat indicates its potential for application in food preservation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Observations of SiO toward OMC-1 - A new outflow source 1.5 arcmin south of Orion-KL?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziurys, L. M.; Friberg, P.

    1987-01-01

    Observations of the J = 2-1 transition of thermal SiO have been carried out toward OMC-1. Approximately 1.5 arcmin south of the KL nebula and IRc2, a new moderately strong source of SiO emission with T(a)-asterisk of about 1 K has been detected. The emission appears to be confined to a region 30 arcsec or less in size and shows evidence of high-velocity wings extending + or - 12-15 km/s from line center, which may indicate the presence of an embedded star in its early stages. The SiO J - 2-1 line was sought at other positions in OMC-1 but was not detected except at (3N, 1E), where a weak narrow line was observed. Derived column densities and abundances at the 1.5-arcmin S, (3N, 1E), and KL positions suggest that SiO formation is favored in regions where outflows and high temperatures are present.

  9. Role of outer membrane c-type cytochromes MtrC and OmcA in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cell production, accumulation and detachment during respiration on hematite

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 has the capacity to contribute to iron cycling over the long term by respiring on crystalline iron oxides such as hematite when poorly crystalline phases are depleted. The ability of outer membrane cytochromes OmcA and MtrC of MR-1 to bind to an...

  10. Assays for in vitro monitoring of human airway smooth muscle (ASM) and human pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cell migration.

    PubMed

    Goncharova, Elena A; Goncharov, Dmitry A; Krymskaya, Vera P

    2006-01-01

    Migration of human pulmonary vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells contributes to vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis. Evidence also indicates that, in part, migration of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells may contribute to airway remodeling associated with asthma. Here we describe migration of VSM and ASM cells in vitro using Transwell or Boyden chamber assays. Because dissecting signaling mechanisms regulating cell migration requires molecular approaches, our protocol also describes how to assess migration of transfected VSM and ASM cells. Transwell or Boyden chamber assays can be completed in approximately 8 h and include plating of serum-deprived VSM or ASM cell suspension on membrane precoated with collagen, migration of cells toward chemotactic gradient and visual (Transwell) or digital (Boyden chamber) analysis of membrane. Although the Transwell assay is easy, the Boyden chamber assay requires hands-on experience; however, both assays are reliable cell-based approaches providing valuable information on how chemotactic and inflammatory factors modulate VSM and ASM migration.

  11. Efficacy of the Osaka Medical College (OMC) brace in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis following Scoliosis Research Society brace studies criteria.

    PubMed

    Kuroki, Hiroshi; Inomata, Naoki; Hamanaka, Hideaki; Higa, Kiyoshi; Chosa, Etsuo; Tajima, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of brace treatment for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) remains controversial. To make comparisons among studies more valid and reliable, the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) has standardized criteria for brace studies in patients with AIS. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Osaka Medical College (OMC) brace for AIS in accordance with the modified standardized criteria proposed by the SRS committee on bracing and non-operative management. From 1999 through 2010, 31 consecutive patients with AIS who were newly prescribed the OMC brace and met the modified SRS criteria were studied. The study included 2 boys and 29 girls with a mean age of 12 years and 0 month. Patients were instructed to wear the brace for a minimum of 20 hours per day at the beginning of brace treatment. The mean duration of brace treatment was 4 years and 8 months. We examined the initial brace correction rate and the clinical outcomes of main curves evaluated by curve progression and surgical rate, and the compliance evaluated by the instruction adherence rate for all cases. The clinical course of the brace treatment was considered progression if ≥6° curvature increase occurred and improvement if ≥6° curvature decrease occurred according to SRS judgment criteria. The average initial brace correction rate was 46.8%. In 10 cases the curve progressed, 6 cases the curve improved, and 15 cases the curve remained unchanged (success rate: 67.7%). The mean instruction adherence rate, that was defined the percentage of the visits that patients declared they mostly followed our instruction to total visits, was 53.7%. The success rate was statistically higher in the patient group whose instruction adherence rate was greater than 50% (88.2%) as compared with in those 50% or less (42.8%). OMC brace treatment for AIS patients could alter the natural history and significantly decreased the progression of curves to the threshold for surgical

  12. Impact of the A18.1 ASME Standard on platform lifts and stairway chairlifts on accessibility and usability.

    PubMed

    Balmer, David C

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article summarizes the effect of the ASME A18.1 Standard concerning accessibility and usability of Platform Lifts and their remaining technological challenges. While elevators are currently the most effective means of vertical transportation related to speed, capacity, rise and usability, their major drawbacks for accessibility are cost and space. Platform lifts and stairway chairlifts remain the "devices of choice" for small elevation changes in existing buildings. ADAAG limits them to very specific circumstances in new construction. The ASME A18.1 Standard addresses the safety requirements of inclined stairway chairlifts (which are not ADA compliant) and inclined and vertical platform lifts (which are ADA Compliant). Chairlifts do not provide access for wheeled mobility devices. Restricting access by means of keys is eliminated, inclined platform lift designs that do not interfere with stairway traffic, promoting new ideas for the design of vertical lifts, increasing the allowable vertical travel of a lift and strengthening lift ramps to improve their safety. Despite design advances inherent in the A18.1, significant platform lift usability issues continue to exist. Increased sizes and weights of powered mobility devices indicate that the permitted lift platform area be modified and that permitted weight capacities be codified as minimums instead of maximums.

  13. Effects of Bio-Au Nanoparticles on Electrochemical Activity of Shewanella oneidensis Wild Type and ΔomcA/mtrC Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ranran; Cui, Li; Chen, Lixiang; Wang, Chao; Cao, Changli; Sheng, Guoping; Yu, Hanqing; Zhao, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Both Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 wild type and its mutant ΔomcA/mtrC are capable of transforming AuIII into Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). Cyclic voltammetry reveals a decrease in redox current after the wild type is exposed to AuIII but an increase in oxidation current for the mutant. The peak current of the wild type is much higher than that of the mutant before the exposure of AuIII, but lower than that of the mutant after the formation of AuNPs. This suggests that damage to the electron transfer chain in the mutant could be repaired by AuNPs to a certain extent. Spectroscopy and SDS-PAGE analysis indicate a decrease in cell protein content after the formation of AuNPs, which provides a convenient way to detect intracellular information on cells. PMID:24264440

  14. Kinetics of Reduction of Fe(III) Complexes by Outer Membrane Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zheming; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Xuelin; Marshall, Matthew J.; Zachara, John M.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Dupuis, Michel; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Heald, Steve M.; Shi, Liang

    2008-09-12

    Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1 possesses up to 42 c-type cytochromes with heme content varying between 1 to as many as 37. Among them, the outer-membrane cytochromes, particularly MtrC and OmcA, are suspected to function as terminal reductases and are responsible for its enzymatic catalysis capability. So far, the mechanisms of metal reduction by these outer-membrane cytochromes are unknown. In this work, we report the study of reduction kinetics of a series of Fe(III) complexes with citrate, NTA and EDTA by abiotically reduced MtrC and OmcA using a stopped-flow technique in combination with theoretical computation methods within the framework of the electron transfer theory of Marcus and speciation calculations based on the current thermodynamic database. Stopped-flow kinetic data showed that the reaction was very fast and appeared to proceed in two stages, a fast stage that completes in much less than a second and a slower stage afterwards. For a given complex, the reaction is faster by reduction with MtrC than OmcA, while for a given protein, the reaction completes in the decreasing order of Fe-EDTA > Fe-NTA > Fe-citrate. All the stopped-flow kinetic curves could be modeled by two parallel second-order bimolecular redox reactions with second-order rate constants ranging from 0.872 µM-1s-1 for the fast reaction between MtrC with Fe-EDTA complex to 0.012 µM-1s-1 for the slow reaction between OmcA and Fe-citrate complex. Speciation calculations indicated that at both metal:ligand ratios, 1:1.5 and 1:10, a single dominant ferric complex was responsible for the observed reaction for each ligand and, therefore, the observed dual-reaction pathways was attributed to the differences in the reduction behavior among various heme groups within each protein. The results of redox potential calculations with known thermodynamic data show only small differences on the scale of a few millivolts among the three complexes, suggested that

  15. TECHNICAL BASIS AND APPLICATION OF NEW RULES ON FRACTURE CONTROL OF HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN VESSEL IN ASME SECTION VIII, DIVISION 3 CODE

    SciTech Connect

    Rawls, G

    2007-04-30

    As a part of an ongoing activity to develop ASME Code rules for the hydrogen infrastructure, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Committee approved new fracture control rules for Section VIII, Division 3 vessels in 2006. These rules have been incorporated into new Article KD-10 in Division 3. The new rules require determining fatigue crack growth rate and fracture resistance properties of materials in high pressure hydrogen gas. Test methods have been specified to measure these fracture properties, which are required to be used in establishing the vessel fatigue life. An example has been given to demonstrate the application of these new rules.

  16. Structural diversity in gallium(III) complexes of the tripodal triarsine MeC(CH2AsMe2)3.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fei; Hector, Andrew L; Levason, William; Reid, Gillian; Webster, Michael; Zhang, Wenjian

    2007-06-07

    The preparation and crystal structures of the first examples of gallium halide complexes with the tripodal arsine, MeC(CH(2)AsMe(2))3, reveal three distinctly different coordination modes for the ligand; the neutral [{micro(3)-MeC(CH(2)AsMe(2))3-kappaAs:kappaAs':kappaAs''}(GaI(3))3] with the triarsine coordinating to three GaI(3) units, [{Me(2)AsCH(2)C(Me)(CH(2)AsMe(2))2-kappa(2)AsAs'}GaCl(2)][GaCl(4)] involving bidentate chelation to a GaCl2+ cationic unit with the third As donor atom uncoordinated, and [{MeC(CH(2)AsMe(2))3-kappaAs:kappa(2)As'As''}(GaCl3)(GaCl2)][GaCl4] in which the triarsine forms a bidentate chelate to the GaCl2+ unit and the third As donor atom binds to a further GaCl3 unit.

  17. A guide for the ASME code for austenitic stainless steel containment vessels for high-level radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.

    1995-06-01

    The design and fabrication criteria recommended by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for high-level radioactive materials containment vessels used in packaging is found in Section III, Division 1, Subsection NB of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This Code provides material, design, fabrication, examination, and testing specifications for nuclear power plant components. However, many of the requirements listed in the Code are not applicable to containment vessels made from austenitic stainless steel with austenitic or ferritic steel bolting. Most packaging designers, engineers, and fabricators are intimidated by the sheer volume of requirements contained in the Code; consequently, the Code is not always followed and many requirements that do apply are often overlooked during preparation of the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) that constitutes the basis to evaluate the packaging for certification.

  18. Comparisons of ANS, ASME, AWS, and NFPA standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800, and related documents

    SciTech Connect

    Ankrum, A.R.; Bohlander, K.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Spiesman, J.B.

    1995-11-01

    This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ANS, ASME, AWS and NFPA standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC`s Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review.

  19. Systolic and diastolic assessment by 3D-ASM segmentation of gated-SPECT Studies: a comparison with MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobon-Gomez, C.; Bijnens, B. H.; Huguet, M.; Sukno, F.; Moragas, G.; Frangi, A. F.

    2009-02-01

    Gated single photon emission tomography (gSPECT) is a well-established technique used routinely in clinical practice. It can be employed to evaluate global left ventricular (LV) function of a patient. The purpose of this study is to assess LV systolic and diastolic function from gSPECT datasets in comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) measurements. This is achieved by applying our recently implemented 3D active shape model (3D-ASM) segmentation approach for gSPECT studies. This methodology allows for generation of 3D LV meshes for all cardiac phases, providing volume time curves and filling rate curves. Both systolic and diastolic functional parameters can be derived from these curves for an assessment of patient condition even at early stages of LV dysfunction. Agreement of functional parameters, with respect to CMR measurements, were analyzed by means of Bland-Altman plots. The analysis included subjects presenting either LV hypertrophy, dilation or myocardial infarction.

  20. Regulatory Safety Issues in the Structural Design Criteria of ASME Section III Subsection NH and for Very High Temperatures for VHTR & GEN IV

    SciTech Connect

    William J. O’Donnell; Donald S. Griffin

    2007-05-07

    The objective of this task is to identify issues relevant to ASME Section III, Subsection NH [1], and related Code Cases that must be resolved for licensing purposes for VHTGRs (Very High Temperature Gas Reactor concepts such as those of PBMR, Areva, and GA); and to identify the material models, design criteria, and analysis methods that need to be added to the ASME Code to cover the unresolved safety issues. Subsection NH was originally developed to provide structural design criteria and limits for elevated-temperature design of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems and some gas-cooled systems. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its Advisory Committee for Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) reviewed the design limits and procedures in the process of reviewing the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) for a construction permit in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and identified issues that needed resolution. In the years since then, the NRC and various contractors have evaluated the applicability of the ASME Code and Code Cases to high-temperature reactor designs such as the VHTGRs, and identified issues that need to be resolved to provide a regulatory basis for licensing. This Report describes: (1) NRC and ACRS safety concerns raised during the licensing process of CRBR , (2) how some of these issues are addressed by the current Subsection NH of the ASME Code; and (3) the material models, design criteria, and analysis methods that need to be added to the ASME Code and Code Cases to cover unresolved regulatory issues for very high temperature service.

  1. Seeds of Life in Space (SOLIS). I. Carbon-chain growth in the Solar-type protocluster OMC2-FIR4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontani, F.; Ceccarelli, C.; Favre, C.; Caselli, P.; Neri, R.; Sims, I. R.; Kahane, C.; Alves, F. O.; Balucani, N.; Bianchi, E.; Caux, E.; Jaber Al-Edhari, A.; Lopez-Sepulcre, A.; Pineda, J. E.; Bachiller, R.; Bizzocchi, L.; Bottinelli, S.; Chacon-Tanarro, A.; Choudhury, R.; Codella, C.; Coutens, A.; Dulieu, F.; Feng, S.; Rimola, A.; Hily-Blant, P.; Holdship, J.; Jimenez-Serra, I.; Laas, J.; Lefloch, B.; Oya, Y.; Podio, L.; Pon, A.; Punanova, A.; Quenard, D.; Sakai, N.; Spezzano, S.; Taquet, V.; Testi, L.; Theulé, P.; Ugliengo, P.; Vastel, C.; Vasyunin, A. I.; Viti, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Wiesenfeld, L.

    2017-09-01

    The interstellar delivery of carbon atoms locked into molecules might be one of the key ingredients for the emergence of life. Cyanopolyynes are carbon chains delimited at their two extremities by an atom ofhydrogen and a cyano group, meaning that they could be excellent reservoirs of carbon. The simplest member, HC3N, is ubiquitous in the galactic interstellar medium and found also in external galaxies. Thus, understanding the growth of cyanopolyynes in regions forming stars similar to our Sun, and what affects them, is particularly relevant. In the framework of the IRAM/NOEMA Large Program SOLIS (Seeds Of Life In Space), we have obtained a map of two cyanopolyynes, HC3N and HC5N, in the protocluster OMC-2 FIR4. Because our Sun is thought to be born in a rich cluster, OMC-2 FIR4 is one of the closest and best known representatives of the environment in which the Sun may have been born. We find a HC3N/HC5N abundance ratio across the source in the range 1-30, with the smallest values (≤10) in FIR5 and in the eastern region of FIR4. The ratios ≤10 can be reproduced by chemical models only if: (1) the cosmic-ray ionisation rate ζ is 4 × 10-14 s-1; (2) the gaseous elemental ratio C/O is close to unity; and (3) oxygen and carbon are largely depleted. The large ζ is comparable to that measured in FIR4 by previous works and was interpreted as due to a flux of energetic (≥10 MeV) particles from embedded sources. We suggest that these sources could lie east of FIR4 and FIR5. A temperature gradient across FIR4, with T decreasing from east to west by about 10 K, could also explain the observed change in the HC3N/HC5N line ratio, without the need of a cosmic ray ionisation rate gradient. However, even in this case, a high constant cosmic-ray ionisation rate (of the order of 10-14 s-1) is necessary to reproduce the observations. Based on observations carried out under project number L15AA with the IRAM NOEMA Interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG

  2. An activated sludge modeling framework for xenobiotic trace chemicals (ASM-X): assessment of diclofenac and carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Plósz, Benedek Gy; Langford, Katherine H; Thomas, Kevin V

    2012-11-01

    Conventional models for predicting the fate of xenobiotic organic trace chemicals, identified, and calibrated using data obtained in batch experiments spiked with reference substances, can be limited in predicting xenobiotic removal in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). At stake is the level of model complexity required to adequately describe a general theory of xenobiotic removal in WWTPs. In this article, we assess the factors that influence the removal of diclofenac and carbamazepine in activated sludge, and evaluate the complexity required for the model to effectively predict their removal. The results are generalized to previously published cases. Batch experimental results, obtained under anoxic and aerobic conditions, were used to identify extensions to, and to estimate parameter values of the activated sludge modeling framework for Xenobiotic trace chemicals (ASM-X). Measurement and simulation results obtained in the batch experiments, spiked with the diclofenac and carbamazepine content of preclarified municipal wastewater shows comparably high biotransformation rates in the presence of growth substrates. Forward dynamic simulations were performed using full-scale data obtained from Bekkelaget WWTP (Oslo, Norway) to evaluate the model and to estimate the level of re-transformable xenobiotics present in the influent. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that xenobiotic loading conditions can significantly influence the removal capacity of WWTPs. We show that the trace chemical retransformation in upstream sewer pipes can introduce considerable error in assessing the removal efficiency of a WWTP, based only on parent compound concentration measurements. The combination of our data with those from the literature shows that solids retention time (SRT) can enhance the biotransformation of diclofenac, which was not the case for carbamazepine. Model approximation of the xenobiotic concentration, detected in the solid phase, suggest that between

  3. Assays for in vitro monitoring of proliferation of human airway smooth muscle (ASM) and human pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells.

    PubMed

    Goncharova, Elena A; Lim, Poay; Goncharov, Dmitry A; Eszterhas, Andrew; Panettieri, Reynold A; Krymskaya, Vera P

    2006-01-01

    Vascular and airway remodeling, which are characterized by airway smooth muscle (ASM) and pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle (VSM) proliferation, contribute to the pathology of asthma, pulmonary hypertension, restenosis and atherosclerosis. To evaluate the proliferation of VSM and ASM cells in response to mitogens, we perform a [3H]thymidine incorporation assay. The proliferation protocol takes approximately 48 h and includes stimulating cells synchronized in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with agonists, labeling cells with [3H]thymidine and examining levels of [3H]thymidine incorporation by scintillation counting. Although using radiolabeled [3H]thymidine incorporation is a limitation, the greatest benefit of the assay is providing reliable and statistically significant data.

  4. Modeling nitrous oxide production during biological nitrogen removal via nitrification and denitrification: extensions to the general ASM models.

    PubMed

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Ruscalleda, Maël; Pellicer-Nàcher, Carles; Smets, Barth F

    2011-09-15

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) can be formed during biological nitrogen (N) removal processes. In this work, a mathematical model is developed that describes N(2)O production and consumption during activated sludge nitrification and denitrification. The well-known ASM process models are extended to capture N(2)O dynamics during both nitrification and denitrification in biological N removal. Six additional processes and three additional reactants, all involved in known biochemical reactions, have been added. The validity and applicability of the model is demonstrated by comparing simulations with experimental data on N(2)O production from four different mixed culture nitrification and denitrification reactor study reports. Modeling results confirm that hydroxylamine oxidation by ammonium oxidizers (AOB) occurs 10 times slower when NO(2)(-) participates as final electron acceptor compared to the oxic pathway. Among the four denitrification steps, the last one (N(2)O reduction to N(2)) seems to be inhibited first when O(2) is present. Overall, N(2)O production can account for 0.1-25% of the consumed N in different nitrification and denitrification systems, which can be well simulated by the proposed model. In conclusion, we provide a modeling structure, which adequately captures N(2)O dynamics in autotrophic nitrification and heterotrophic denitrification driven biological N removal processes and which can form the basis for ongoing refinements.

  5. Report on the FY17 Development of Computer Program for ASME Section III, Division 5, Subsection HB, Subpart B Rules

    SciTech Connect

    Swindeman, M. J.; Jetter, R. I.; Sham, T. -L.

    2017-01-01

    One of the objectives of the high temperature design methodology activities is to develop and validate both improvements and the basic features of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components, Division 5, High Temperature Reactors, Subsection HB, Subpart B (HBB). The overall scope of this task is to develop a computer program to aid assessment procedures of components under specified loading conditions in accordance with the elevated temperature design requirements for Division 5 Class A components. There are many features and alternative paths of varying complexity in HBB. The initial focus of this computer program is a basic path through the various options for a single reference material, 316H stainless steel. However, the computer program is being structured for eventual incorporation all of the features and permitted materials of HBB. This report will first provide a description of the overall computer program, particular challenges in developing numerical procedures for the assessment, and an overall approach to computer program development. This is followed by a more comprehensive appendix, which is the draft computer program manual for the program development. The strain limits rules have been implemented in the computer program. The evaluation of creep-fatigue damage will be implemented in future work scope.

  6. Elastic-plastic analysis of the PVRC burst disk tests with comparison to the ASME code -- Primary stress limits

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.P.; Holliday, J.E.

    1999-02-01

    This paper provides a comparison between finite element analysis results and test data from the Pressure Vessel Research Council (PVRC) burst disk program. Testing sponsored by the PVRC over 20 years ago was done by pressurizing circular flat disks made from three different materials until failure by bursting. The purpose of this re-analysis is to investigate the use of finite element analysis (FEA) to assess the primary stress limits of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (1998) and to qualify the use of elastic-plastic (EP-FEA) for limit load calculations. The three materials tested represent the range of strength and ductility found in modern pressure vessel construction and include a low strength high ductility material, a medium strength medium ductility material, and a high strength low ductility low alloy material. Results of elastic and EP-FEA are compared to test data. Stresses from the elastic analyses are linearized for comparison of Code primary stress limits to test results. Elastic-plastic analyses are done using both best-estimate and elastic-perfectly plastic (EPP) stress-strain curves. Both large strain-large displacement (LSLD) and small strain-small displacement (SSSD) assumptions are used with the EP-FEA. Analysis results are compared to test results to evaluate the various analysis methods, models, and assumptions as applied to the bursting of thin disks.

  7. Analysis of systematic errors of the ASM/RXTE monitor and GT-48 γ-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidelis, V. V.

    2011-06-01

    The observational data concerning variations of light curves of supernovae remnants—the Crab Nebula, Cassiopeia A, Tycho Brahe, and pulsar Vela—over 14 days scale that may be attributed to systematic errors of the ASM/RXTE monitor are presented. The experimental systematic errors of the GT-48 γ-ray telescope in the mono mode of operation were also determined. For this the observational data of TeV J2032 + 4130 (Cyg γ-2, according to the Crimean version) were used and the stationary nature of its γ-ray emission was confirmed by long-term observations performed with HEGRA and MAGIC. The results of research allow us to draw the following conclusions: (1) light curves of supernovae remnants averaged for long observing periods have false statistically significant flux variations, (2) the level of systematic errors is proportional to the registered flux and decreases with increasing temporal scale of averaging, (3) the light curves of sources may be modulated by the year period, and (4) the systematic errors of the GT-48 γ-ray telescope, in the amount caused by observations in the mono mode and data processing with the stereo-algorithm come to 0.12 min-1.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF ASME SECTION X CODE RULES FOR HIGH PRESSURE COMPOSITE HYDROGEN PRESSURE VESSELS WITH NON-LOAD SHARING LINERS

    SciTech Connect

    Rawls, G.; Newhouse, N.; Rana, M.; Shelley, B.; Gorman, M.

    2010-04-13

    The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Project Team on Hydrogen Tanks was formed in 2004 to develop Code rules to address the various needs that had been identified for the design and construction of up to 15000 psi hydrogen storage vessel. One of these needs was the development of Code rules for high pressure composite vessels with non-load sharing liners for stationary applications. In 2009, ASME approved new Appendix 8, for Section X Code which contains the rules for these vessels. These vessels are designated as Class III vessels with design pressure ranging from 20.7 MPa (3,000 ps)i to 103.4 MPa (15,000 psi) and maximum allowable outside liner diameter of 2.54 m (100 inches). The maximum design life of these vessels is limited to 20 years. Design, fabrication, and examination requirements have been specified, included Acoustic Emission testing at time of manufacture. The Code rules include the design qualification testing of prototype vessels. Qualification includes proof, expansion, burst, cyclic fatigue, creep, flaw, permeability, torque, penetration, and environmental testing.

  9. Implementation of ANSI/ASME NQA-1 for development of GA-4 and GA-9 spent fuel casks

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlap, M.G.

    1989-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) has awarded General Atomics (GA) a contract to develop a legal weight truck (LWT) transportation system to transport boiling-water-reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuels. DOE's contract requires GA to establish, maintain, and implement an NRC-approved Quality Assurance Program in accordance with ANSI/ASME NQA-1, ''Quality Assurance Program Requirements'' 1986 Edition (basic requirements and supplements), and the 1986 la Addenda. GA's Quality Assurance Program is a company-wide system described in GA's Quality Assurance Manual (QAM). General Atomics' Quality Assurance Program is implemented for a specific project by means of a Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD). The QAPD is the document used by GA to invoke and document selected quality and project-applicable requirements. The QAPD is a tailored technical quality plan for a specific contract which can add to, revise, or delete certain portions of the basic GA QA Manual. The QAPD then becomes the controlling QA document for a specific project, and the provisions of the QAPD are followed by all project team members as though it were the QA Manual. For the legal weight truck (LWT) transportation project, GA has developed a QAPD that invokes the NRC-approved QA Program and also addresses the additional requirements that are included in the NQA-1 1986 Edition and la Addenda and the additional DOE/ID imposed requirements. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Evaluating the structural identifiability of the parameters of the EBPR sub-model in ASM2d by the differential algebra method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian; Zhang, Daijun; Li, Zhenliang; Cai, Qing

    2010-05-01

    The calibration of ASMs is a prerequisite for their application to simulation of a wastewater treatment plant. This work should be made based on the evaluation of structural identifiability of model parameters. An EBPR sub-model including denitrification phosphorus removal has been incorporated in ASM2d. Yet no report is presented on the structural identifiability of the parameters in the EBPR sub-model. In this paper, the differential algebra approach was used to address this issue. The results showed that the structural identifiability of parameters in the EBPR sub-model could be improved by increasing the measured variables. The reduction factor eta(NO)(3) was identifiable when combined data of aerobic process and anoxic process were assumed. For K(PP), X(PAO) and q(PHA) of the anaerobic process to be uniquely identifiable, one of them is needed to be determined by other ways. Likewise, if prior information on one of the parameters, K(PHA), X(PAO) and q(PP) of the aerobic process, is known, all the parameters are identifiable. The above results could be of interest to the parameter estimation of the EBPR sub-model. The algorithm proposed in the paper is also suitable for other sub-models of ASMs.

  11. Implementation of ASME Code, Section XI, Code Case N-770, on Alternative Examination Requirements for Class 1 Butt Welds Fabricated with Alloy 82/182

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Edmund J.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-09-17

    In May 2010, the NRC issued a proposed notice of rulemaking that includes a provision to add a new section to its rules to require licensees to implement ASME Code Case N-770, ‘‘Alternative Examination Requirements and Acceptance Standards for Class 1 PWR Piping and Vessel Nozzle Butt Welds Fabricated with UNS N06082 or UNS W86182 Weld Filler Material With or Without the Application of Listed Mitigation Activities, Section XI, Division 1,’’ with 15 conditions. Code Case N-770 contains baseline and inservice inspection (ISI) requirements for unmitigated butt welds fabricated with Alloy 82/182 material and preservice and ISI requirements for mitigated butt welds. The NRC stated that application of ASME Code Case N-770 is necessary because the inspections currently required by the ASME Code, Section XI, were not written to address stress corrosion cracking Alloy 82/182 butt welds, and the safety consequences of inadequate inspections can be significant. The NRC expects to issue the final rule incorporating this code case into its regulations in the spring 2011 time frame. This paper discusses the new examination requirements, the conditions that NRC is imposing , and the major concerns with implementation of the new Code Case.

  12. Case study of the propagation of a small flaw under PWR loading conditions and comparison with the ASME code design life. Comparison of ASME Code Sections III and XI

    SciTech Connect

    Yahr, G.T.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Richardson, A.K.; Server, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    A cooperative study was performed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate the degree of conservatism and consistency in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III fatigue evaluation procedure and Section XI flaw acceptance standards. A single, realistic, sample problem was analyzed to determine the significance of certain points of criticism made of an earlier parametric study by staff members of the Division of Engineering Standards of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The problem was based on a semielliptical flaw located on the inside surface of the hot-leg piping at the reactor vessel safe-end weld for the Zion 1 pressurized-water reactor (PWR). Two main criteria were used in selecting the problem; first, it should be a straight pipe to minimize the computational expense; second, it should exhibit as high a cumulative usage factor as possible. Although the problem selected has one of the highest cumulative usage factors of any straight pipe in the primary system of PWRs, it is still very low. The Code Section III fatigue usage factor was only 0.00046, assuming it was in the as-welded condition, and fatigue crack-growth analyses predicted negligible crack growth during the 40-year design life. When the analyses were extended past the design life, the usage factor was less than 1.0 when the flaw had propagated to failure. The current study shows that the criticism of the earlier report should not detract from the conclusion that if a component experiences a high level of cyclic stress corresponding to a fatigue usage factor near 1.0, very small cracks can propagate to unacceptable sizes.

  13. Star Formation Under the Outflow: The Discovery of a Non-thermal Jet from OMC-2 FIR 3 and Its Relationship to the Deeply Embedded FIR 4 Protostar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, Mayra; Díaz-Rodríguez, Ana K.; Anglada, Guillem; Megeath, S. Thomas; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Tobin, John J.; Stutz, Amelia M.; Furlan, Elise; Fischer, William J.; Manoj, P.; Gómez, José F.; González-García, Beatriz; Stanke, Thomas; Watson, Dan M.; Loinard, Laurent; Vavrek, Roland; Carrasco-González, Carlos

    2017-05-01

    We carried out multiwavelength (0.7-5 cm), multi-epoch (1994-2015) Very Large Array (VLA) observations toward the region enclosing the bright far-IR sources FIR 3 (HOPS 370) and FIR 4 (HOPS 108) in OMC-2. We report the detection of 10 radio sources, 7 of them identified as young stellar objects. We image a well-collimated radio jet with a thermal free-free core (VLA 11) associated with the Class I intermediate-mass protostar HOPS 370. The jet features several knots (VLA 12N, 12C, 12S) of non-thermal radio emission (likely synchrotron from shock-accelerated relativistic electrons) at distances of ˜7500-12,500 au from the protostar, in a region where other shock tracers have been previously identified. These knots are moving away from the HOPS 370 protostar at ˜100 km s-1. The Class 0 protostar HOPS 108, which itself is detected as an independent, kinematically decoupled radio source, falls in the path of these non-thermal radio knots. These results favor the previously proposed scenario in which the formation of HOPS 108 is triggered by the impact of the HOPS 370 outflow with a dense clump. However, HOPS 108 has a large proper motion velocity of ˜30 km s-1, similar to that of other runaway stars in Orion, whose origin would be puzzling within this scenario. Alternatively, an apparent proper motion could result because of changes in the position of the centroid of the source due to blending with nearby extended emission, variations in the source shape, and/or opacity effects.

  14. Results from Evaluation of Representative ASME AG-1 Section FK Radial Flow Dimple Pleated HEPA Filters Under Elevated Conditions - 12002

    SciTech Connect

    Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Rickert, Jaime G.; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2012-07-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) has recently added Section FK establishing requirements for radial flow HEPA filters to the Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (AG-1). Section FK filters are expected to be a major element in the HEPA filtration systems across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Radial flow filters have been used in Europe for some time, however a limited amount of performance evaluation data exists with respect to these new AG-1 Section FK units. In consultation with a technical working group, the Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) at Mississippi State University (MSU)has evaluated a series of representative AG-1 Section FK dimple pleated radial flow HEPA filters. The effects of elevated relative humidity and temperature conditions on these filters are particularly concerning. Results from the evaluation of Section FK filters under ambient conditions have been presented at the 2011 waste management conference. Additions to the previous test stand to enable high temperature and high humidity testing, a review of the equipment used, the steps taken to characterize the new additions, and the filter test results are presented in this study. Test filters were evaluated at a volumetric flow rate of 56.6 m{sup 3}/min (2000 cfm) and were challenged under ambient conditions with Alumina, Al(OH){sub 3}, until reaching a differential pressure of 1 kPa (4 in. w.c.), at which time the filters were tested, unchallenged with aerosol, at 54 deg. C (130 deg. F) for approximately 1 hour. At the end of that hour water was sprayed near the heat source to maximize vaporization exposing the filter to an elevated relative humidity up to 95%. Collected data include differential pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and volumetric flow rate versus time. (authors)

  15. The benefit of pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981) on parents' quality of life in the treatment of pediatric atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Whalley, Diane; Huels, Jasper; McKenna, Stephen P; Van Assche, Daniel

    2002-12-01

    Two 26-week US clinical trials of identical design were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981) cream 1% in pediatric atopic dermatitis (AD). A secondary aim of both trials, and the focus of this article, was to evaluate the quality-of-life (QoL) impact of pimecrolimus compared with its vehicle. A 6-week randomized, double-blind treatment phase was followed by a 20-week open-label phase during which all patients received pimecrolimus (403 patients 2 to 17 years old with mild to moderate AD; 267 randomized to pimecrolimus and 136 to vehicle). QoL analyses were conducted on the intention-to-treat data and included patients 8 years old or younger. QoL was evaluated with the Parent's Index of Quality of Life in Atopic Dermatitis (PIQoL-AD) at baseline, 6 weeks, and 6 months. The PIQoL-AD is a 28-item measure completed by the parents of children with AD (0 to 8 years old). PIQoL-AD scores were available for 241 cases at baseline (158 pimecrolimus, 83 vehicle), 193 at 6 weeks (132 pimecrolimus, 61 vehicle), and 161 at 6 months (113 pimecrolimus, 48 vehicle). Improvement in parents' QoL was seen for both groups between baseline and 6 weeks and 6 months. Analysis of covariance on PIQoL-AD scores at 6 weeks showed statistically significant superiority of pimecrolimus compared with vehicle. After all patients were switched to receive pimecrolimus at week 6, mean PIQoL-AD scores were the same across both groups at 6 months. Positive but low levels of association were observed between changes in PIQoL-AD scores and changes in severity of AD (Investigator's Global Assessment and parent-perceived severity of pruritus). The results showed that pimecrolimus had a beneficial effect on parents' QoL in pediatric AD.

  16. Millimeter- and Submillimeter-Wave Observations of the OMC-2/3 Region. I. Dispersing and Rotating Core around the Intermediate-Mass Protostar MMS 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Satoko; Saito, Masao; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Kawabe, Ryohei

    2006-11-01

    We report the results of H13CO+ (1-0), CO (1-0), and 3.3 mm dust continuum observations toward MMS 7, one of the strongest millimeter-wave sources in OMC-3, with the Nobeyama Millimeter Array (NMA) and the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. With the NMA, we detected centrally condensed 3.3 mm dust continuum emission, which coincides with the mid-infrared (MIR) source and the free-free jet. Our H13CO+ observations revealed a disklike envelope around MMS 7, whose size and mass are 0.15×0.11 pc and 5.1 Msolar, respectively. The outer portion of the disklike envelope has a fan-shaped structure, which delineates the rim of the observed CO outflow. The position-velocity diagrams in the H13CO+ (1-0) emission show that the velocity field in the disklike envelope is composed of a dispersing gas motion and a possible rigid-like rotation. The mass-dispersing rate is estimated to be 3.4×10-5 Msolar yr-1, which implies that MMS 7 has an ability to disperse ~10 Msolar during the protostellar evolutional time. The specific angular momentum in the disklike envelope is nearly 2 orders of magnitude larger than that in low-mass cores. The turnover point of the power law of the angular momentum distribution in the disklike envelope (<=0.007 pc), which is likely to be related to the outer radius of the central mass accretion, is similar in size to the 3.3 mm dust condensation. We propose that MMS 7 is in the last stage of the main accretion phase and that a substantial portion of the outer gas has already been dispersed, while mass accretion may still be ongoing at the innermost region, traced by the dusty condensation. Based on the observations made at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory, which is a branch of the National Astronomical Observatory, an interuniversity research institute operated by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan.

  17. Herschel/PACS far-IR spectral imaging of a jet from an intermediate mass protostar in the OMC-2 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, B.; Manoj, P.; Watson, D. M.; Vavrek, R.; Megeath, S. T.; Stutz, A. M.; Osorio, M.; Wyrowski, F.; Fischer, W.; Tobin, J. J.; Sánchez-Portal, M.; Diaz Rodriguez, A. K.; Wilson, T. L.

    2016-11-01

    We present the first detection of a jet in the far-IR [O I] lines from an intermediate mass protostar. This jet was detected in a Herschel/PACS spectral mapping study in the [O I] lines of OMC-2 FIR 3 and FIR 4, two of the most luminous protostars in Orion outside of the Orion Nebula. The spatial morphology of the fine structure line emission reveals the presence of an extended photodissociation region (PDR) and a narrow, but intense jet connecting the two protostars. The jet seen in [O I] emission is spatially aligned with the Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 μm jet and the CO (6-5) molecular outflow centered on FIR 3. The mass-loss rate derived from the total [O I] 63 μm line luminosity of the jet is 7.7 × 10-6M⊙ yr-1, more than an order of magnitude higher than that measured for typical low-mass class 0 protostars. The implied accretion luminosity is significantly higher than the observed bolometric luminosity of FIR 4, indicating that the [O I] jet is unlikely to be associated with FIR 4. We argue that the peak line emission seen toward FIR 4 originates in the terminal shock produced by the jet driven by FIR 3. The higher mass-loss rate that we find for FIR 3 is consistent with the idea that intermediate-mass protostars drive more powerful jets than their low-mass counterparts. Our results also call into question the nature of FIR 4. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.The final reduced Herschel data used in this paper (FITS) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/596/A26

  18. Report on the activities of the ASME-NQA Committee Working Group on Quality Assurance Requirements for Research and Development, April 1990 to August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Dronkers, J.J.

    1991-09-01

    This report transmits to the public eye the activities of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers-Nuclear Quality Assurance (ASME-NQA) Committee Working Group on Quality Assurance Requirements for Research and Development. The appendix lists the members of this group as of August 1991. The report covers a period of 17 months. The working group met eight times in this period, and much intellectual ground was traversed. There was seldom agreement on the nature of the task, but there was no doubt as to its urgency. The task was how to adapt the nuclear quality assurance standard, the NQA-1, to research and development work. 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  19. The effectiveness of fish oil supplementation in asthmatic rats is limited by an inefficient action on ASM function.

    PubMed

    Miranda, D T S Z; Zanatta, A L; Dias, B C L; Fogaça, R T H; Maurer, J B B; Donatti, L; Calder, P C; Nishiyama, A

    2013-09-01

    Episodes of acute exacerbation are the major clinical feature of asthma and therefore represent an important focus for developing novel therapies for this disease. There are many reports that the n-3 fatty acids found in fish oil exert anti-inflammatory effects, but there are few studies of the action of fish oil on airway smooth muscle (ASM) function. In the present investigation, we evaluated the effect of fish oil supplementation on smooth muscle force of contraction in ovalbumin-induced asthmatic Wistar rats, and its consequences on static lung compliance, mucus production, leukocyte chemotaxis and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Fish oil supplementation suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lung in asthmatic animals (2.04 ± 0.19 × 10(6) cells vs. 3.33 ± 0.43 × 10(6) cells in the control asthmatic group; P < 0.05). Static lung compliance increased with fish oil supplementation in asthmatic rats (0.640 ± 0.053 mL/cm H2O vs. 0.399 ± 0.043 mL/cm H2O; P < 0.05). However, fish oil did not prevent asthma-associated lung eosinophilia and did not affect the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in lung tissue or the proportion of the airways obliterated with mucus. Fish oil had no effect on the force of contraction in asthmatic rats in response to acetylcholine (3.026 ± 0.274 mN vs. 2.813 ± 0.364 mN in the control asthmatic group). In conclusion, although fish oil exerts some benefits in this model of asthma, its effectiveness appears to be limited by an inefficient action on airway smooth muscle function.

  20. Corrosion: ASM metals handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The handbook covers forms of corrosion, testing and evaluation, corrosion-resistant design, and various protection methods. 20 sections covering specific metals and alloys, heat treatments, protective coatings, anodic and cathodic protection, and design considerations. A final section discusses corrosion problems in 20 major industries, as well as the prevention and protection methods used.

  1. A study of outburst ephemeris and burst properties of blackhole candidate 4U 1630-47 with ASM, MAXI and Suzaku data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Lalitha; Agrawal, V. K.

    4U 1630-47 is a soft X-ray transient which is thought to be a blackhole candidate. This source exhibits quasi-periodic outbursts on time scales of 500-700 days. In addition to the normal outbursts which usually last for a few months, the source displays superoutbursts, lasting for one to two years, seen to recur in every 10-12 years. The outburst ephemeris has been studied previously upto 1996 outbursts. In this work we present the updated ephemeris using 16 years data obtained from All Sky Monitor (ASM) onboard RXTE and one years data from MAXI satellite. The data covers 7 outbursts seen from ASM and one outburst seen by MAXI. We study morphology of each of these outbursts. We find that most of the bursts can be classified in basic three categories: flat top, FRED (Fast Rise Exponential Decay) and triangular. We also investigate relation between burst properties with quiescent flux level using Suzaku data, a study which has not been done previously.

  2. ITER's Tokamak Cooling Water System and the the Use of ASME Codes to Comply with French Regulations of Nuclear Pressure Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jan; Ferrada, Juan J; Curd, Warren; Dell Orco, Dr. Giovanni; Barabash, Vladimir; Kim, Seokho H

    2011-01-01

    During inductive plasma operation of ITER, fusion power will reach 500 MW with an energy multiplication factor of 10. The heat will be transferred by the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) to the environment using the secondary cooling system. Plasma operations are inherently safe even under the most severe postulated accident condition a large, in-vessel break that results in a loss-of-coolant accident. A functioning cooling water system is not required to ensure safe shutdown. Even though ITER is inherently safe, TCWS equipment (e.g., heat exchangers, piping, pressurizers) are classified as safety important components. This is because the water is predicted to contain low-levels of radionuclides (e.g., activated corrosion products, tritium) with activity levels high enough to require the design of components to be in accordance with French regulations for nuclear pressure equipment, i.e., the French Order dated 12 December 2005 (ESPN). ESPN has extended the practical application of the methodology established by the Pressure Equipment Directive (97/23/EC) to nuclear pressure equipment, under French Decree 99-1046 dated 13 December 1999, and Order dated 21 December 1999 (ESP). ASME codes and supplementary analyses (e.g., Failure Modes and Effects Analysis) will be used to demonstrate that the TCWS equipment meets these essential safety requirements. TCWS is being designed to provide not only cooling, with a capacity of approximately 1 GW energy removal, but also elevated temperature baking of first-wall/blanket, vacuum vessel, and divertor. Additional TCWS functions include chemical control of water, draining and drying for maintenance, and facilitation of leak detection/localization. The TCWS interfaces with the majority of ITER systems, including the secondary cooling system. U.S. ITER is responsible for design, engineering, and procurement of the TCWS with industry support from an Engineering Services Organization (ESO) (AREVA Federal Services, with support

  3. Role of Outer Membrane C-Type Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA in Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1 Cell Production, Accumulation, and Detachment During Respiration on Hematite

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Andrew C.; Peterson, L.; Reardon, Catherine L.; Reed, Samantha B.; Culley, David E.; Romine, Margaret F.; Geesey, Gill G.

    2012-07-01

    Solid phase iron oxides are considered to be important terminal electron acceptors for microbial respiration in many anoxic environments. Besides the knowledge that cells attach to and reduce these substrates, other aspects of surface-associated cell behavior and the related cell surface components that influence cell-mineral interactions are not well understood. In the present study, wild-type cells of the dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 formed thin biofilms one-to-two cell layers in thickness when respiring on natural specular hematite under flow conditions similar to those which exist in aquatic sediments and subsurface environments. The distribution of cells within the biofilm indicated that direct contact was not required for electron transfer from cells to the mineral surface. Detached biomass in the form of single cells represented >99% of the surface-associated wild-type cell production from respiration on hematite over the biofilm life cycle. A mutant deficient in the outer membrane c35 type cytochrome OmcA, while still able to respire and replicate on hematite, established a lower steady-state cell density on the mineral surface than that of the wild-type strain. A mutant deficient in MtrC, another outer membrane c-type cytochrome, and a mutant deficient in both cytochromes were unable to reduce sufficient amounts of hematite to support detectable growth on the mineral surface. When considered in the context of previous work, the results support a growing body of evidence that the relative importance of OmcA and MtrC to cell respiration and replication depends on the form of iron oxide available as terminal electron acceptor.

  4. Nonclinical safety assessment of recombinant human acid sphingomyelinase (rhASM) for the treatment of acid sphingomyelinase deficiency:the utility of animal models of disease in the toxicological evaluation of potential therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Murray, James M; Thompson, Anne Marie; Vitsky, Allison; Hawes, Michael; Chuang, Wei-Lien; Pacheco, Joshua; Wilson, Stephen; McPherson, John M; Thurberg, Beth L; Karey, Kenneth P; Andrews, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Recombinant human acid sphingomyelinase (rhASM) is being developed as an enzyme replacement therapy for patients with acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (Niemann-Pick disease types A and B), which causes sphingomyelin to accumulate in lysosomes. In the acid sphingomyelinase knock-out (ASMKO) mouse, intravenously administered rhASM reduced tissue sphingomyelin levels in a dose-dependent manner. When rhASM was administered to normal rats, mice, and dogs, no toxicity was observed up to a dose of 30mg/kg. However, high doses of rhASM≥10mg/kg administered to ASMKO mice resulted in unexpected toxicity characterized by cardiovascular shock, hepatic inflammation, adrenal hemorrhage, elevations in ceramide and cytokines (especially IL-6, G-CSF, and keratinocyte chemoattractant [KC]), and death. The toxicity could be completely prevented by the administration of several low doses (3mg/kg) of rhASM prior to single or repeated high doses (≥20mg/kg). These results suggest that the observed toxicity involves the rapid breakdown of large amounts of sphingomyelin into ceramide and/or other toxic downstream metabolites, which are known signaling molecules with cardiovascular and pro-inflammatory effects. Our results suggest that the nonclinical safety assessment of novel therapeutics should include the use of specific animal models of disease whenever feasible.

  5. Critical Appraisal of Microbiology Guidelines Endorsed by two Professional Organisations: Société Française De Microbiologie (SFM) and American Society of Microbiology (ASM).

    PubMed

    Fonfrède, Michèle; Couaillac, Jean Paul; Augereau, Christine; Lepargneur, Jean Pierre; Watine, Joseph

    2012-07-01

    Medical practice guidelines (GLs) being tools that are mainly designed to evaluate medical professionals, it sounds logical, and fair, that professionals should in turn evaluate GLs. Microbiology being a medical discipline, we used the AGREE instrument, i.e. an established evaluation tool for GLs, in order to evaluate the quality of two major microbiology guidelines, i.e. the SFM GLs and the ASM GLs). Both guidelines remain sub-optimal in their levels of quality, and obtain scores that are not very different from the average scores obtained by many other guidelines in various medical disciplines. We therefore believe that both guidelines need to be modified before they can be recommended without provisos. A higher degree of multi-disciplinary work, including a more formal implication of methodologists, as well as of infectious disease clinicians, and of economists, might perhaps enable future editions of these guidelines to reach higher levels of quality.

  6. Review of ASME code criteria for control of primary loads on nuclear piping system branch connections and recommendations for additional development work

    SciTech Connect

    Rodabaugh, E.C.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Moore, S.E.

    1993-11-01

    This report collects and uses available data to reexamine the criteria for controlling primary loads in nuclear piping branch connections as expressed in Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. In particular, the primary load stress indices given in NB-3650 and NB-3683 are reexamined. The report concludes that the present usage of the stress indices in the criteria equations should be continued. However, the complex treatment of combined branch and run moments is not supported by available information. Therefore, it is recommended that this combined loading evaluation procedure be replaced for primary loads by the separate leg evaluation procedure specified in NC/ND-3653.3(c) and NC/ND-3653.3(d). No recommendation is made for fatigue or secondary load evaluations for Class 1 piping. Further work should be done on the development of better criteria for treatment of combined branch and run moment effects.

  7. Sensitivity analyses and simulations of a full-scale experimental membrane bioreactor system using the activated sludge model No. 3 (ASM3).

    PubMed

    Ruiz, L M; Rodelas, P; Pérez, J I; Gómez, M A

    2015-01-01

    An ASM3-based model was implemented in the numerical software MATHEMATICA where sensitivity analyses and simulations of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) system were carried out. These results were compared with those obtained using the commercial simulator WEST. Predicted values did not show significant variations between both software and simulations showed that the most influential operational conditions were influent flow rate and concentrations and bioreactor volumes. On the other hand, sensitivity analyses were carried out with both software programs for the same five outputs: COD, ammonium and nitrate concentrations in the effluent, total suspended solids concentration and oxygen uptake rate in the aerobic bioreactor. Similar results were in general obtained in both cases and according to these analyses, the most significant inputs over the model predictions were growth and storage heterotrophic biomass yields and decay coefficient. Other parameters related to the hydrolysis process or to the autotrophic biomass also significantly influenced model outputs.

  8. Optimized periodic verification testing blended risk and performance-based MOV inservice test program an application of ASME code case OMN-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, C.; Fleming, K.; Bidwell, D.; Forbes, P.

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents an application of ASME Code Case OMN-1 to the GL 89-10 Program at the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS). Code Case OMN-1 provides guidance for a performance-based MOV inservice test program that can be used for periodic verification testing and allows consideration of risk insights. Blended probabilistic and deterministic evaluation techniques were used to establish inservice test strategies including both test methods and test frequency. Described in the paper are the methods and criteria for establishing MOV safety significance based on the STPEGS probabilistic safety assessment, deterministic considerations of MOV performance characteristics and performance margins, the expert panel evaluation process, and the development of inservice test strategies. Test strategies include a mix of dynamic and static testing as well as MOV exercising.

  9. Probing the Mysteries of the X-Ray Binary 4U 1210-64 with ASM, PCA, MAXI, BAT, and Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coley, Joel B.; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Mukai, Koji; Pottschmidt, Katja

    2014-10-01

    4U 1210-64 has been postulated to be a high-mass X-ray binary powered by the Be mechanism. X-ray observations with Suzaku, the ISS Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI), and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array (PCA) and All Sky Monitor (ASM) provide detailed temporal and spectral information on this poorly understood source. Long-term ASM and MAXI observations show distinct high and low states and the presence of a 6.7101 ± 0.0005 day modulation, interpreted as the orbital period. Folded light curves reveal a sharp dip, interpreted as an eclipse. To determine the nature of the mass donor, the predicted eclipse half-angle was calculated as a function of inclination angle for several stellar spectral types. The eclipse half-angle is not consistent with a mass donor of spectral type B5 V however, stars with spectral types B0 V or B0-5 III are possible. The best-fit spectral model consists of a power law with index Γ = 1.85^{+0.04}_{-0.05} and a high-energy cutoff at 5.5 ± 0.2 keV modified by an absorber that fully covers the source as well as partially covering absorption. Emission lines from S XVI Kα, Fe Kα, Fe XXV Kα, and Fe XXVI Kα were observed in the Suzaku spectra. Out of eclipse, the Fe Kα line flux was strongly correlated with unabsorbed continuum flux, indicating that the Fe I emission is the result of fluorescence of cold dense material near the compact object. The Fe I feature is not detected during eclipse, further supporting an origin close to the compact object.

  10. RXTE/ASM and Swift/BAT observations of spectral transitions in bright X-ray binaries in 2005-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jing; Yu, Wen-Fei; Yan, Zhen

    2011-04-01

    We have studied X-ray spectral state transitions that can be seen in the long-term monitoring light curves of bright X-ray binaries from the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) onboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) onboard Swift during a period of five years from 2005 to 2010. We have applied a program to automatically identify the hard-to-soft (H-S) spectral state transitions in the bright X-ray binaries monitored by the ASM and the BAT. In total, we identified 128 hard-to-soft transitions, of which 59 occurred after 2008. We also determined the transition fluxes and the peak fluxes of the following soft states, updated the measurements of the luminosity corresponding to the H-S transition and the peak luminosity of the following soft state in about 30 bright persistent and transient black hole and neutron star binaries following Yu & Yan, and found the luminosity correlation and the luminosity range of spectral transitions in data between 2008-2010 are about the same as those derived from data before 2008. This further strengthens the idea that the luminosity at which the H-S spectral transition occurs in the Galactic X-ray binaries is determined by non-stationary accretion parameters such as the rate-of-change of the mass accretion rate rather than the mass accretion rate itself. The correlation is also found to hold in data of individual sources 4U 1608-52 and 4U 1636-53.

  11. Probing the mysteries of the X-ray binary 4U 1210-64 with ASM, PCA, MAXI, BAT, and Suzaku

    SciTech Connect

    Coley, Joel B.; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Mukai, Koji; Pottschmidt, Katja

    2014-10-01

    4U 1210-64 has been postulated to be a high-mass X-ray binary powered by the Be mechanism. X-ray observations with Suzaku, the ISS Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI), and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array (PCA) and All Sky Monitor (ASM) provide detailed temporal and spectral information on this poorly understood source. Long-term ASM and MAXI observations show distinct high and low states and the presence of a 6.7101 ± 0.0005 day modulation, interpreted as the orbital period. Folded light curves reveal a sharp dip, interpreted as an eclipse. To determine the nature of the mass donor, the predicted eclipse half-angle was calculated as a function of inclination angle for several stellar spectral types. The eclipse half-angle is not consistent with a mass donor of spectral type B5 V; however, stars with spectral types B0 V or B0-5 III are possible. The best-fit spectral model consists of a power law with index Γ = 1.85{sub −0.05}{sup +0.04} and a high-energy cutoff at 5.5 ± 0.2 keV modified by an absorber that fully covers the source as well as partially covering absorption. Emission lines from S XVI Kα, Fe Kα, Fe XXV Kα, and Fe XXVI Kα were observed in the Suzaku spectra. Out of eclipse, the Fe Kα line flux was strongly correlated with unabsorbed continuum flux, indicating that the Fe I emission is the result of fluorescence of cold dense material near the compact object. The Fe I feature is not detected during eclipse, further supporting an origin close to the compact object.

  12. Updating of ASME Nuclear Code Case N-201 to Accommodate the Needs of Metallic Core Support Structures for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors Currently in Development

    SciTech Connect

    Mit Basol; John F. Kielb; John F. MuHooly; Kobus Smit

    2007-05-02

    On September 29, 2005, ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) executed a multi-year, cooperative agreement with the United States DOE for the Generation IV Reactor Materials project. The project's objective is to update and expand appropriate materials, construction, and design codes for application in future Generation IV nuclear reactor systems that operate at elevated temperatures. Task 4 was embarked upon in recognition of the large quantity of ongoing reactor designs utilizing high temperature technology. Since Code Case N-201 had not seen a significant revision (except for a minor revision in September, 2006 to change the SA-336 forging reference for 304SS and 316SS to SA-965 in Tables 1.2(a) and 1.2(b), and some minor editorial changes) since December 1994, identifying recommended updates to support the current high temperature Core Support Structure (CSS) designs and potential new designs was important. As anticipated, the Task 4 effort identified a number of Code Case N-201 issues. Items requiring further consideration range from addressing apparent inconsistencies in definitions and certain material properties between CC-N-201 and Subsection NH, to inclusion of additional materials to provide the designer more flexibility of design. Task 4 developed a design parameter survey that requested input from the CSS designers of ongoing high temperature gas cooled reactor metallic core support designs. The responses to the survey provided Task 4 valuable input to identify the design operating parameters and future needs of the CSS designers. Types of materials, metal temperature, time of exposure, design pressure, design life, and fluence levels were included in the Task 4 survey responses. The results of the survey are included in this report. This research proves that additional work must be done to update Code Case N-201. Task 4 activities provide the framework for the Code Case N-201 update and future work to provide input on materials. Candidate

  13. Simultaneous in-situ sludge reduction and nutrient removal in an A(2)MO-M system: Performances, mechanisms, and modeling with an extended ASM2d model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shanshan; Guo, Wanqian; Chen, Yidi; Peng, Simai; Du, Juanshan; Zheng, Heshan; Feng, Xiaochi; Ren, Nanqi

    2016-01-01

    Among the existing in-situ sludge reduction processes, the oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA) process is of particular interest because it has shown significant sludge reduction with several advantages. However, an ideal process for practical application must simultaneously incorporate effluent quality with sludge reduction. In this study, an improved OSA system, the stage-aerated anaerobic, anoxic, micro-aerobic, and oxic system combining a micro-aerobic starvation tank (abbreviated as A(2)MO-M system) was developed. Compared with OSA3# (hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12 h), the A(2)MO-M2# system with optimized HRT of 9 h yielded almost 16.3% less sludge. The average total nitrogen (87.3%) and total phosphorus (91.9%) removal efficiencies in A(2)MO-M2# were 20.6 and 42.2% higher than those in OSA3#. Investigation of the mechanisms of sludge reduction revealed that, except for the main factors of energy uncoupling metabolism (16.7%) and sludge decay (21.2%), enrichment of slow-growing bacteria and lysis-cryptic growth metabolism analyzed by high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing were shown to contribute to sludge reduction in the A(2)MO-M system. On the basis of effluent organic matters (EfOM) measurements, soluble microbial products (SMP) were the major components in EfOM; and different reduction-oxidation (redox) potentials controlled in the OSA and A(2)MO-M systems led to different SMP formation mechanisms. To explore the mechanism and kinetics of SMP formation under different redox potentials, three new components (SUAP, SBAP, and XEPS) were integrated in an extended ASM2d model. Experimental and modeling results revealed that biomass-associated products (BAP) supported a substantial population of SMP that were quite sensitive to different redox potentials. The extended ASM2d model further illustrated that more BAP produced in the alternating anaerobic and aerobic conditions in the OSA system adversely affected its effluent quality.

  14. Biological activity of palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes of the acetone Schiff bases of S-methyl- and S-benzyldithiocarbazate and the X-ray crystal structure of the [Pd(asme)2] (asme=anionic form of the acetone Schiff base of S-methyldithiocarbazate) complex.

    PubMed

    Akbar Ali, Mohammad; Mirza, Aminul Huq; Butcher, Raymond J; Tarafder, M T H; Keat, Tan Boon; Ali, A Manaf

    2002-11-25

    Palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes of general empirical formula, [M(NS)(2)] (NS=uninegatively charged acetone Schiff bases of S-methyl- and S-benzyldithiocarbazate; M=Pt(II) and Pd(II)) have been prepared and characterized by a variety of physicochemical techniques. Based on conductance, IR and electronic spectral evidence, a square-planar structure is assigned to these complexes. The crystal and molecular structure of the [Pd(asme)(2)] complex (asme=anionic form of the acetone Schiff base of S-methyldithiocarbazate) has been determined by X-ray diffraction. The complex has a distorted cis-square planar structure with the ligands coordinated to the palladium(II) ions as uninegatively charged bidentate NS chelating agents via the azomethine nitrogen and the mercaptide sulfur atoms. The distortion from a regular square-planar geometry is attributed to the restricted bite angles of the ligands. Antimicrobial tests indicate that the Schiff bases exhibit strong activities against the pathogenic bacteria, Bacillus subtilis (mutant defective DNA repair), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, B. subtilis (wild type) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the fungi, Candida albicans (CA), Candida lypotica (2075), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (20341) and Aspergillus ochraceous (398)-the activities exhibited by these compounds being greater than that of the standard antibacterial and antifungal drugs, streptomycin and nystatin, respectively. The palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes are inactive against most of these organisms but, the microbe, Pseudomonas aeruginosa shows strong sensitivity to the platinum(II) complexes. Screening of the compounds for their cytotoxicities against T-lymphoblastic leukemia cancer cells has shown that the acetone Schiff base of S-methyldithiocarbazate (Hasme) exhibits a very weak activity, whereas the S-benzyl derivative (Hasbz) is inactive. However, the palladium(II) complexes exhibit strong cytotoxicities against this cancer; their

  15. ASME Section VIII Recertification of a 33,000 Gallon Vacuum-jacketed LH2 Storage Vessel for Densified Hydrogen Testing at NASA Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanger, Adam M.; Notardonato, William U.; Jumper, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    The Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) has been developed at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. GODU-LH2 has three main objectives: zero-loss storage and transfer, liquefaction, and densification of liquid hydrogen. A cryogenic refrigerator has been integrated into an existing, previously certified, 33,000 gallon vacuum-jacketed storage vessel built by Minnesota Valley Engineering in 1991 for the Titan program. The dewar has an inner diameter of 9.5 and a length of 71.5; original design temperature and pressure ranges are -423 F to 100 F and 0 to 95 psig respectively. During densification operations the liquid temperature will be decreased below the normal boiling point by the refrigerator, and consequently the pressure inside the inner vessel will be sub-atmospheric. These new operational conditions rendered the original certification invalid, so an effort was undertaken to recertify the tank to the new pressure and temperature requirements (-12.7 to 95 psig and -433 F to 100 F respectively) per ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1. This paper will discuss the unique design, analysis and implementation issues encountered during the vessel recertification process.

  16. Periodic X-ray Modulation and its Possible Relation with Eccentricity in Black Hole Binaries : Long-Term Swift/BAT and RXTE/ASM Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Arindam; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    X-ray binary orbits are expected to have some eccentricity, albeit small. Stellar companion of a black hole orbiting in an eccentric orbit will experience modulating tidal force with a periodicity same as that of the orbital period which will result in a modulation of accretion rates, seed photon flux, and flux of inverse Comptonized harder X-rays as well. Timing analysis of long-term X-ray data (1.5-12 keV) of RXTE/ASM and all sky survey data (15-50 keV) of Swift/BAT satellites reveal this periodicity in several black hole candidates. If this modulation is assumed to be solely due to tidal effects (without taking other effects, such as eclipses, reflection from winds, super-hump phenomena etc. into account), the RMS-value of the peak in power density spectrum allows us to estimate eccentricities of these orbits. We present these very interesting results. We show that our results generally agree with independent studies of these parameters.

  17. Removal of Antibiotics in Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems-A Critical Assessment Using the Activated Sludge Modeling Framework for Xenobiotics (ASM-X).

    PubMed

    Polesel, Fabio; Andersen, Henrik R; Trapp, Stefan; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2016-10-04

    Many scientific studies present removal efficiencies for pharmaceuticals in laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale wastewater treatment plants, based on observations that may be impacted by theoretical and methodological approaches used. In this Critical Review, we evaluated factors influencing observed removal efficiencies of three antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline) in pilot- and full-scale biological treatment systems. Factors assessed include (i) retransformation to parent pharmaceuticals from e.g., conjugated metabolites and analogues, (ii) solid retention time (SRT), (iii) fractions sorbed onto solids, and (iv) dynamics in influent and effluent loading. A recently developed methodology was used, relying on the comparison of removal efficiency predictions (obtained with the Activated Sludge Model for Xenobiotics (ASM-X)) with representative measured data from literature. By applying this methodology, we demonstrated that (a) the elimination of sulfamethoxazole may be significantly underestimated when not considering retransformation from conjugated metabolites, depending on the type (urban or hospital) and size of upstream catchments; (b) operation at extended SRT may enhance antibiotic removal, as shown for sulfamethoxazole; (c) not accounting for fractions sorbed in influent and effluent solids may cause slight underestimation of ciprofloxacin removal efficiency. Using tetracycline as example substance, we ultimately evaluated implications of effluent dynamics and retransformation on environmental exposure and risk prediction.

  18. A Comparison of the Variability of the Symbiotic X-ray Binaries GX 1+4, 4U 1954+31, and 4U 1700+24 from Swift/BAT and RXTE/ASM Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbet, R. H. D.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Mukai, K.; Markwardt, C. B.; Tueller, J.

    2007-01-01

    We present an analysis of the X-ray variability of three symbiotic X-ray binaries, GX 1+4, 4U 1700+24, and 4U 1954+31, using observations made with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) All-Sky Monitor (ASM). Observations of 4U 1954+31 with the Swift BAT show modulation at a period near 5 hours. Models to explain this modulation are discussed including the presence of an exceptionally slow X-ray pulsar in the system and accretion instabilities. We conclude that the most likely interpretation is that 4U 1954+31 contains one of the slowest known X-ray pulsars. Unlike 4U 1954+31, neither GX 1+4 nor 4U 1700+24 show any evidence for modulation on a timescale of hours. An analysis of the RXTE ASM light curves of GX l+4, 4U 1700+24, and 4U 1954+31 does not show the presence of periodic modulation in any source, although there is considerable variability on long timescales for all three sources. There is no modulation in GX 1+4 on either the optical 1161 day orbital period or a previously reported 304 day X-ray period. For 4U 1700+24 we do not confirm the 404 day period previously proposed for this source from a shorter duration ASM light curve.

  19. Treatment of paediatric atopic dermatitis with pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981): impact on quality of life and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    McKenna, S P; Whalley, D; de Prost, Y; Staab, D; Huels, J; Paul, C F; van Assche, D

    2006-03-01

    To report on quality of life (QoL) and health-related quality of life (HRQL) impacts of pimecrolimus (Elidel, Novartis A.G., Basel, Switzerland, SDZ ASM 981) 1% cream in the long-term treatment of paediatric atopic dermatitis. QoL and HRQL data are presented from two 12-month international clinical trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of pimecrolimus 1% cream. Both trials were randomized and double blinded and compared two treatment strategies, one involving the use of emollients, pimecrolimus and topical corticosteroids, the other is 'usual care' (emollients plus topical corticosteroids) with a vehicle cream to maintain study blinding. The first trial (the infant trial) involved patients between ages 3 months and 2 years, whereas the children trial included patients aged 2-17 years. In both trials, QoL of the affected child's parent was evaluated with the parent's index of quality of life in atopic dermatitis (PIQoL-AD). HRQL was assessed in the children trial only with the children's dermatology life quality index (CDLQI). QoL and HRQL assessments were conducted at baseline, 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months. Generalized linear modelling of PIQoL-AD scores at each post-baseline visit showed a greater impact on parent's QoL for pimecrolimus compared with control at all time-points in both trials. HRQL scores showed a greater improvement from baseline for children in the pimecrolimus group compared with those in the control group at all time-points. The results show a beneficial impact of pimecrolimus on parents' QoL in paediatric atopic dermatitis, confirming findings from earlier shorter term trials. There was also a clear benefit to the HRQL of the children treated.

  20. The ascomycin macrolactam pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981) is a potent inhibitor of mediator release from human dermal mast cells and peripheral blood basophils.

    PubMed

    Zuberbier, T; Chong, S U; Grunow, K; Guhl, S; Welker, P; Grassberger, M; Henz, B M

    2001-08-01

    The ascomycin macrolactam pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981) has recently been developed as a novel and cell-selective inhibitor of inflammatory cytokine secretion; it has fewer adverse effects than currently available drugs. In this study, we investigated the capacity of pimecrolimus to directly inhibit in vitro mediator release from human skin mast cells and basophils. Purified cutaneous mast cells or basophil-containing peripheral blood leukocytes were obtained from healthy human donors and preincubated with pimecrolimus (0.1 nmol/L to 1 micromol/L) in the absence or presence of its specific antagonist (rapamycin), cyclosporin A (100 nmol/L to 1 micromol/L), or dexamethasone (1 micromol/L) and then stimulated with anti-IgE or with calcium ionophore A23187 plus phorbol myristate acetate. Cell supernatants were kept for analysis of histamine, tryptase, LTC4, and TNF-alpha. Pimecrolimus caused a strong and dose-dependent inhibition of anti-IgE--induced release of histamine from mast cells and basophils (maximally 73% and 82%, respectively, at 500 nmol/L pimecrolimus) and of mast cell tryptase (maximally 75%) and a less pronounced inhibition of LTC4 (maximally 32%) and of calcium ionophore plus phorbol myristate acetate--induced mast cell TNF-alpha release (90% maximum at 100 nmol/L pimecrolimus). In contrast, inhibition achieved during mast cell histamine release was maximally 60% with cyclosporin A and only 28% with dexamethasone. These data demonstrate a marked inhibitory capacity of pimecrolimus on mediator release from human mast cells and basophils with a potency exceeding that of cyclosporin A and dexamethasone. Pimecrolimus might thus be expected to be effective in the treatment of mast cell-- and basophil-dependent diseases.

  1. ASME proceedings of the 32nd national heat transfer conference (HTD-Vol. 349). Volume 11: Interfacial thermal phenomena in thin films; Heat pipes and thermosyphons; Heat and mass transfer in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Goodson, K.; Chang, W.S.; Charmchi, M.; Hadim, H.

    1997-07-01

    This volume contains a portion of the over 240 ASME papers which were presented at the conference. For over 40 years, the National Heat Transfer Conference has been the premiere forum for the presentation and dissemination of the latest advances in heat transfer. The work contained in these volumes range from studies of fundamental phenomena to applications in the latest heat transfer equipment. This volume covers the following topics: Interfacial thermal phenomena in thin films; heat pipes and thermosyphons; and heat and mass transfer in porous media. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume.

  2. Report on task assignment No. 3 for the Waste Package Project; Parts A & B, ASME pressure vessel codes review for waste package application; Part C, Library search for reliability/failure rates data on low temperature low pressure piping, containers, and casks with long design lives

    SciTech Connect

    Trabia, M.B.; Kiley, M.; Cardle, J.; Joseph, M.

    1991-07-01

    The Waste Package Project Research Team, at UNLV, has four general required tasks. Task one is the management, quality assurance, and overview of the research that is performed under the cooperative agreement. Task two is the structural analysis of spent fuel and high level waste. Task three is an American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Pressure Vessel Code review for waste package application. Finally, task four is waste package labeling. This report includes preliminary information about task three (ASME Pressure Vessel Code review for Waste package Application). The first objective is to compile a list of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code that can be applied to waste package containers design and manufacturing processes. The second objective is to explore the use of these applicable codes to the preliminary waste package container designs. The final objective is to perform a library search for reliability and/or failure rates data on low pressure, low temperature, containers and casks with long design lives.

  3. EDITORIAL: Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2011 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 11) (Scottsdale, AZ, USA, 18-21 September 2011) Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2011 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 11) (Scottsdale, AZ, USA, 18-21 September 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brei, Diann

    2012-09-01

    The fourth annual meeting of the ASME/AIAA Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) took place in sunny Scottsdale, Arizona. Each year we strive to grow and offer new experiences. This year we held a special Guest Symposium on Sustainability along with two focused topic tracks on energy harvesting and active composites to encourage cross-fertilization between these important fields and our community. This cross-disciplinary emphasis was reflected in keynote talks by Dr Wayne Brown, President and founder of Dynalloy, Inc., 'Cross-Discipline Sharing'; Dr Brad Allenby, Arizona State University, 'You Want the Future? You can't Handle the Future!'; and Professor Aditi Chattopadhyay, Arizona State University, 'A Multidisciplinary Approach to Structural Health Monitoring and Prognosis'. SMASIS continues to grow our community through both social and technical interchange. The conference location, the exotic Firesky Resort and Spa, exemplified the theme of our Guest Symposium on Sustainability, being the only Green Seal certified resort in Arizona, and highlighting four elements thought to represent all that exist: fire, water, earth and air. Several special events were held around this theme including the night at the oasis reception sponsored by General Motors, sustainability bingo, smart trivia and student networking lunches, and an Arizona pow-wow with a spectacular Indian hoop dance. Our student and young professional development continues to grow strong with best paper and hardware competitions, scavenger student outing and games night. We are very proud that our students and young professionals are always seeking out ways to give back to the community, including organizing outreach to local high school talent. We thank all of our sponsors who made these special events possible. We hope that these social events provided participants with the opportunity to expand their own personal community and broaden their horizons. Our

  4. Synthesis, structure and properties of the oxychalcogenide series A{sub 4}O{sub 4}TiSe{sub 4} (A=Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Y)

    SciTech Connect

    Tuxworth, A.J.; Evans, J.S.O.

    2014-02-15

    Seven oxyselenide materials have been synthesised with composition A{sub 4}O{sub 4}TiSe{sub 4} (A=Sm, Gd–Er, Y) via solid state reactions of A{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiSe{sub 2} and Se at 900 °C. They are all isostructural with Gd{sub 4}O{sub 4}TiSe{sub 4}. Structures have been refined from powder X-ray diffraction data and have monoclinic C2/m symmetry with unit cell parameters of a≈15.7 Å, b≈3.75 Å, c≈9.65 Å and β≈117.5°. They contain infinite ribbons of edge-sharing A{sub 4}O and A{sub 3}TiO tetrahedra 4 units wide, which are linked by chains of TiSe{sub 4}O{sub 2} edge-sharing octahedra. Compositions A=Gd–Ho, Y are semiconductors with conductivities 1–3 Sm{sup −1} at 300 K, with electronic band gaps of between 0.25 and 0.37 eV. Magnetic susceptibility is reported from 1.8 K to 300 K for compositions A=Gd–Ho. Rare earth moments appear to order antiferromagnetically at low temperatures with Gd and Tb showing evidence of ferromagnetism due to spin canting over a narrow temperature range close to T{sub N}. - Graphical abstract: Illustration of the A{sub 4}O{sub 4}TiSe{sub 4} crystal structure (C2/m symmetry), A{sub 4}O and A{sub 3}TiO edge sharing tetrahedral ribbons in red, chains of edge-sharing TiSe{sub 4}O{sub 2} in blue. Rare earth=green, titanium=blue, selenium=yellow, and oxygen=red. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Seven materials with A{sub 4}O{sub 4}TiSe{sub 4} (A=Sm, Gd–Er, Y) have been synthesised as bulk phases for the first time. • Materials are semiconductors and order antiferromagnetically at ∼4 K. • Structure contains M{sub 4}O tetrahedral ribbons and TiSe{sub 4}O{sub 2} 1D octahedral chains.

  5. Adaptive and active materials: selected papers from the ASME 2013 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 13) (Snowbird, UT, USA, 16-18 September 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Nancy; Naguib, Hani; Turner, Travis; Anderson, Iain; Bassiri-Gharb, Nazanin; Daqaq, Mohammed; Baba Sundaresan, Vishnu; Sarles, Andy

    2014-10-01

    The sixth annual meeting of the ASME Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) was held in the beautiful mountain encircled Snowbird Resort and Conference Center in Little Cottonwood Canyon near Salt Lake City, Utah. It is the conference's objective to provide an up-to-date overview of research trends in the entire field of smart materials systems in a friendly casual forum conducive to the exchange of ideas and latest results. As each year we strive to grow and offer new experiences, this year we included special focused topic tracks on nanoscale multiferroic materials and origami engineering. The cross-disciplinary emphasis was reflected in keynote speeches by Professor Kaushik Bhattacharya (California Institute of Technology) on 'Cyclic Deformation and the Interplay between Phase Transformation and Plasticity in Shape Memory Alloys', by Professor Alison Flatau (University of Maryland at College Park) on 'Structural Magnetostrictive Alloys: The Other Smart Material', and by Dr Leslie Momoda (Director of the Sensors and Materials Laboratories, HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA) on 'Architecturing New Functional Materials: An Industrial Perspective'. SMASIS 2013 was divided into seven symposia which span basic research, applied technological design and development, and industrial and governmental integrated system and application demonstrations. SYMP 1. Development and Characterization of Multifunctional Materials. SYMP 2. Mechanics and Behavior of Active Materials. SYMP 3. Modeling, Simulation and Control of Adaptive Systems. SYMP 4. Integrated System Design and Implementation. SYMP 5. Structural Health Monitoring. SYMP 6. Bioinspired Smart Materials and Systems. SYMP 7. Energy Harvesting. Authors of selected papers in the materials areas (symposia 1, 2, and 6) as well as energy harvesting (symposium 7) were invited to write a full journal article on their presentation topic for publication in this special issue of Smart

  6. Adaptive and active materials: selected papers from the ASME 2012 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 12) (Stone Mountain, GA, USA, 19-21 September 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelecke, Stefan; Erturk, Alper; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Naguib, Hani; Huber, John; Turner, Travis; Anderson, Iain; Philen, Michael; Baba Sundaresan, Vishnu

    2013-09-01

    The fifth annual meeting of the ASME/AIAA Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) was held in beautiful Stone Mountain near Atlanta, GA. It is the conference's objective to provide an up-to-date overview of research trends in the entire field of smart materials systems. This was reflected in keynote speeches by Professor Eduard Arzt (Institute of New Materials and Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany) on 'Micro-patterned artificial 'Gecko' surfaces: a path to switchable adhesive function', by Professor Ray H Baughman (The Alan G MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas) on 'The diverse and growing family of carbon nanotube and related artificial muscles', and by Professor Richard James (University of Minnesota) on 'The direct conversion of heat to electricity using multiferroic materials with phase transformations'. SMASIS 2012 was divided into eight symposia which span basic research, applied technological design and development, and industrial and governmental integrated system and application demonstrations. • SYMP 1. Development and characterization of multifunctional materials. • SYMP 2. Mechanics and behavior of active materials. • SYMP 3. Modeling, simulation and control of adaptive systems. • SYMP 4. Integrated system design and implementation. • SYMP 5. Structural health monitoring/NDE. • SYMP 6. Bio-inspired materials and systems. • SYMP 7. Energy harvesting. • SYMP 8. Structural and materials logic. This year we were particularly excited to introduce a new symposium on energy harvesting, which has quickly matured from a special track in previous years to an independent symposium for the first time. The subject cuts across fields by studying different materials, ranging from piezoelectrics to electroactive polymers, as well as by emphasizing different energy sources from wind to waves and ambient vibrations. Modeling, experimental studies, and technology applications all

  7. ASM News Volume 71 Number 9, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Tamar Barkay and Barth F. Smets

    2005-01-01

    Genetic exchanges among prokaryotes, formerly considered only a marginal phenomenon, increasingly are being viewed as profoundly affecting evolution. Indeed, some researchers argue for utterly revamping our concept of microbial speciation and phylogeny by replacing the traditional ''tree'' with a newer ''net'' to account for these horizontal transfers of genes. This conceptual ferment is occurring while molecular biologists reveal how horizontal gene transfers occur even as microbes protect the integrity of their genomes. Other studies reveal the number and diversity and abundance of genetic elements that mediate horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) or facilitate genome rearrangements, deletions, and insertions. Taken together, this information suggests that microbial communities collectively possess a dynamic gene pool, where novel genetic combinations act as a driving force in genomic innovation, compensating individual microbial species for their inability to reproduce sexually. These microbial genomic dynamics can present both environmental threats and promise to humans. One major threat, for example, comes from the spread of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes among pathogenic microbes. Another less-documented issue involves transgenic plants and animals, whose uses are being restricted because of concerns that genes may be transferred to untargeted organisms where they might cause harm. A possible benefit from HGT comes from its potential to enhance the functional diversity of microbial communities and to improve their performance in changing or extreme environments. Such changes might be exploited, for example, as part of efforts to manage environmental pollution and might be achieved by spreading genes into resident microbes to confer specific biochemical activities.

  8. ASM Student Technology and Career Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation presents a general overview of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for students who are perspective MSFC employees. The presentation includes an organizational chart and a summary of MSFC activities, as well as photographs and descriptions of some of the center's test facilities.

  9. Chemical and physical gradients along the OMC-1 ridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungerechts, H.; Bergin, E. A.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Irvine, W. M.; Schloerb, F. P.; Snell, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    We present a survey of the distribution of 20 chemical and isotopic molecular species along the central ridge of the Orion molecular cloud from 6' north to 6' south of BN-KL observed with the QUARRY focal plane array on the FCRAO 14 m telescope, which provides an angular resolution of approximately 50" in the 3 mm wavelength region. We use standard tools of multivariate analysis for a systematic investigation of the similarities and differences among the maps of integrated intensities of the 32 lines observed. The maps fall in three broad classes: first, those strongly peaked toward BN-KL; second, those having rather flat distributions along the ridge; and third, those with a clear north-south gradient or contrast. We identify six positions or regions where we calculate relative abundances. Line velocities and line widths indicate that the optically thin lines generally trace the same volume of dense gas, except in the molecular bar, where C18O, C34S, H13CO+, CN, C2H, SO, and C3H2 have velocities characteristic of the bar itself, whereas the emission from other detected species is dominated by the background cloud. The strongest abundance variations in our data are the well-known enhancements seen in HCN, CH3OH, HC3N, and SO toward BN-KL and, less strongly, toward the Orion-South outflow 1'.3S. The principal result of this study is that along the extended quiescent ridge the chemical abundances, within factors of 3-4, exhibit an impressive degree of uniformity. The northern part of the ridge has a chemistry closest to that found in quiescent dense clouds. While temperature and density are similar around the northern radical-ion peak near 3'.5N and in the southern core near 4'.2S, some abundances, in particular, those of the ions HCO+ and N2H+, are significantly lower toward 4'.2S. The areas near 4.'2S and the molecular bar itself around (1'.7E, 2'.4S) stand out with peculiar and similar properties probably caused by stronger UV fields penetrating deeper into the clumpy molecular gas. This leads to higher electron abundances and thereby reduced abundances of the ions, as well as a lack of complex molecules.

  10. The ALMA View of the OMC1 Explosion in Orion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, John; Ginsburg, Adam; Arce, Hector; Eisner, Josh; Youngblood, Allison; Zapata, Luis; Zinnecker, Hans

    2017-03-01

    Most massive stars form in dense clusters where gravitational interactions with other stars may be common. The two nearest forming massive stars, the BN object and Source I, located behind the Orion Nebula, were ejected with velocities of ∼29 and ∼13 km s‑1 about 500 years ago by such interactions. This event generated an explosion in the gas. New ALMA observations show in unprecedented detail, a roughly spherically symmetric distribution of over a hundred 12CO J = 2‑1 streamers with velocities extending from V LSR = ‑150 to +145 km s‑1. The streamer radial velocities increase (or decrease) linearly with projected distance from the explosion center, forming a “Hubble Flow” confined to within 50″ of the explosion center. They point toward the high proper-motion, shock-excited H2 and [Fe ii] “fingertips” and lower-velocity CO in the H2 wakes comprising Orion's “fingers.” In some directions, the H2 “fingers” extend more than a factor of two farther from the ejection center than the CO streamers. Such deviations from spherical symmetry may be caused by ejecta running into dense gas or the dynamics of the N-body interaction that ejected the stars and produced the explosion. This ∼1048 erg event may have been powered by the release of gravitational potential energy associated with the formation of a compact binary or a protostellar merger. Orion may be the prototype for a new class of stellar explosiozn responsible for luminous infrared transients in nearby galaxies.

  11. Chemical and physical gradients along the OMC-1 ridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungerechts, H.; Bergin, E. A.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Irvine, W. M.; Schloerb, F. P.; Snell, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    We present a survey of the distribution of 20 chemical and isotopic molecular species along the central ridge of the Orion molecular cloud from 6' north to 6' south of BN-KL observed with the QUARRY focal plane array on the FCRAO 14 m telescope, which provides an angular resolution of approximately 50" in the 3 mm wavelength region. We use standard tools of multivariate analysis for a systematic investigation of the similarities and differences among the maps of integrated intensities of the 32 lines observed. The maps fall in three broad classes: first, those strongly peaked toward BN-KL; second, those having rather flat distributions along the ridge; and third, those with a clear north-south gradient or contrast. We identify six positions or regions where we calculate relative abundances. Line velocities and line widths indicate that the optically thin lines generally trace the same volume of dense gas, except in the molecular bar, where C18O, C34S, H13CO+, CN, C2H, SO, and C3H2 have velocities characteristic of the bar itself, whereas the emission from other detected species is dominated by the background cloud. The strongest abundance variations in our data are the well-known enhancements seen in HCN, CH3OH, HC3N, and SO toward BN-KL and, less strongly, toward the Orion-South outflow 1'.3S. The principal result of this study is that along the extended quiescent ridge the chemical abundances, within factors of 3-4, exhibit an impressive degree of uniformity. The northern part of the ridge has a chemistry closest to that found in quiescent dense clouds. While temperature and density are similar around the northern radical-ion peak near 3'.5N and in the southern core near 4'.2S, some abundances, in particular, those of the ions HCO+ and N2H+, are significantly lower toward 4'.2S. The areas near 4.'2S and the molecular bar itself around (1'.7E, 2'.4S) stand out with peculiar and similar properties probably caused by stronger UV fields penetrating deeper into the clumpy molecular gas. This leads to higher electron abundances and thereby reduced abundances of the ions, as well as a lack of complex molecules.

  12. ASM specialty handbook{reg_sign}: Heat-resistant materials

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.R.

    1997-12-31

    This latest handbook brings together in one volume a comprehensive reference source of information on engineering metallic and nonmetallic heat-resistant materials. The volume covers the complete spectrum of technology dealing with heat-resistant materials, including high-temperature characteristics, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, materials-selection guidelines for industrial applications and life-assessment methods. Materials covered include carbon, alloy and stainless steels; alloy cast irons; high-alloy cast steels; superalloys; titanium and titanium alloys; refractory metals and alloys; nickel-chromium and nickel-thoria alloys; structural intermetallics; structural ceramics, cermets, and cemented carbides; and carbon-carbon composites. Also included is information on property comparisons that allows ranking of alloy performance, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, high-temperature oxidation and corrosion resistant coatings for superalloys, life-assessment methodology and design guidelines for applications involving creep and/or oxidation.

  13. ASM Specialty Handbook{reg_sign}: Carbon and alloy steels

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Carbon and alloy steels are the workhorse of structural materials in modern engineering because of their very reasonable costs coupled with their many and varied properties that allow their use in such a large array of applications. it`s very easy to take steel for granted and forget how much it`s relied upon in critical uses such as cars, bridges, buildings, landing gear assemblies, and more. There are in-depth reviews on formability weldability, machineability, and hardenability of the various steel grades. One can also discover how adding certain alloys can significantly improve steel processing. The strength and toughness section has been greatly expanded with more coverage than ever before of corrosion fatigue. One has access to extensive reports detailing which steels are more susceptible to environmental damage such as stress-corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. Temperature effects relating to mechanical properties and corrosion are also discussed.

  14. Canyon air flow measurement utilizing ASME standard pitot tube arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Moncrief, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Savannah River Site produces nuclear materials for national defense. In addition to nuclear reactors, the site has separation facilities for reprocessing irradiated nuclear fuel. The chemical separation of highly radioactive materials takes place by remote control in large buildings called canyons. Personnel in these buildings are shielded from radiation by thick concrete walls. Contaminated air is exhausted from the canyons and contaminants are removed by sand filters prior to release to the atmosphere through a stack. When these facilities were built on a crash basis in the early 1950's, inadequate means were provided for pressure and air flow measurement. This presentation describes the challenge we faced in retrofitting a highly radioactive, heavily shielded facility with instrumentation to provide this capability.

  15. 75 FR 24323 - American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and New and Revised ASME Code Cases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ..., installation, examination, testing, inspection and selection of materials for nuclear power plant components... components (elbows and tees) at high temperatures, thus providing better assurance of the materials..., ``Additional Examinations for PWR Pressure Retaining Welds in Class 1 Components Fabricated With Alloy 600/82...

  16. 76 FR 36231 - American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and New and Revised ASME Code Cases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... of the first unit. Use of a common Code of Record at each plant reduces administrative burden for... request relief to allow the use of a common Code of Record. NRC Response: The NRC disagrees that a 4-year... of requests for relief when licensees use a common code of record for multiple units at a site, and...

  17. Organic Matrix Composite Helicopter Internal/External Cargo Pallet System (OMC INTEX)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    was designed for automated pultrusion processing, which will offer cost effective fabrication of OiC pallets in production quantities. 14. SUBJECT TERMS...35 23 Inner core fabrication, experimental pallet ......................................... 37 24 Basic pultrusion process...38 25 Pultrusion fabrication of edge members, experimental pallet ........ 39 26 Edge member

  18. Balancing Performance and Sustainability in Next-Generation PMR Technologies for OMC Structures (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    properties oTOPKAT – human toxicity prediction oECOTOX modeling system – Environmental toxicity ●in vitro testing o Performed on bacterial cells (e.g. S...can be generated biosynthetically from sugars. ● Starting trisphenol is conducted in water with low energy demands. ● No formaldehyde or other toxic...PA# 16223 Technical Background – MDA Toxicity ● Liver uses cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme to oxidize organic chemicals in the body to enable excretion

  19. High Resolution Imaging along the OMC Ridge with the BIMA Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looney, L. W.; Mundy, L. G.; Plambeck, R. L.; Wright, M. C. H.

    1995-12-01

    Observations of the continuum emission at 86.2 GHz along the Orion Molecular Ridge centered on IRC2 were obtained in three fields. The observations were taken using the extended baseline configuration of the 6-element BIMA array. This high resolution configuration provides a synthesized beam of 1.91(''}{x}0.79({'')) enabling the separation of extended emission from point sources in the field of view. As the observations of only the IRC2 region show, the extended baselines are essential when searching at small spatial scales for sources in the extended continuum emission. At this resolution, most of the continuum flux is resolved out, indicating that only a small fraction of the mass is contained in structures less than 500 AU in diameter. We will also present the status of the new BIMA baseline extension. The new baselines will extend to 1 km in the North-South and the East-West directions.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Gould's Belt Distances Survey (GOBELINS). II. OMC (Kounkel+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounkel, M.; Hartmann, L.; Loinard, L.; Ortiz-Leon, G. N.; Mioduszewski, A. J.; Rodriguez, L. F.; Dzib, S. A.; Torres, R. M.; Pech, G.; Galli, P. A. B.; Rivera, J. L.; Boden, A. F.; Evans, N. J., II; Briceno, C.; Tobin, J. J.

    2017-07-01

    The observations presented in this paper were made with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 5GHz with a 256MHz bandwidth (spanning the range of 4.852-5.076GHz). They span a period of two years from 2014 to 2016 March. (2 data files).

  1. INTEGRAL/OMC optical photometric observations of multiple flaring from V404 Cyg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingo, A.; Alfonso-Garzon, J.; Mas-Hesse, J. M.; Rodriguez, J.; Cadolle Bel, M.

    2015-06-01

    A target of opportunity INTEGRAL observation (PI Rodriguez, ATel #7702) of the black-hole candidate V 404 Cyg, currently in outburst phase (ATel #7646) and showing large variability at different wavelengths, was executed in revolutions 1555 (20-22 June 2015) and 1556 (23-25 June 2015).

  2. Implementation, study and calibration of a modified ASM2d for the simulation of SBR processes.

    PubMed

    Marsili Libelli, S; Ratini, P; Spagni, A; Bortone, G

    2001-01-01

    An enhanced process model for SBRs has been developed. Though the basic mechanism largely draws on the Activated Sludge Model n. 2d, its new features are the splitting of the nitrification stage in a two-step process, according to the well known Nitrosomonas-Nitrobacter oxidation sequence, and an improved XPAO dynamics, involved in the anaerobic/aerobic phosphorus removal process. The model was implemented through the DLL technique allowing complied C++ modules to be linked to an ordinary Simulink block diagram. The static sensitivity study revealed that if the parameter vector is partitioned into subsets of biologically related parameters and calibrated separately, the calibration procedure does not present particularly difficult aspects. Trajectory sensitivity showed also to which extent data collection could be optimised in order to improve calibration accuracy. The study of the shape of the error functional generated by parameters couples allows a much more effective calibration strategy.

  3. Self-Instruction through Reading: The Keller Plan. ASME Medical Education Booklet No. 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoward, Peter J.

    1976-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of the Keller Plan in medical education are reviewed. The author's advice is based in part on his experience using the method in a course in histology at the University of Dundee, Scotland. (LBH)

  4. Proceedings of the 4th NRC/ASME symposium on valve and pump testing

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The 1996 Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing, jointly sponsored by the Board on Nuclear Codes and Standards of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, provides a forum for the discussion of current programs and methods for inservice testing and motor-operated valve testing at nuclear power plants. The symposium also provides an opportunity to discuss the need to improve that testing in order to help ensure the reliable performance of pumps and valves. The participation of industry representatives, regulators, and consultants results in the discussion of a broad spectrum of ideas and perspectives regarding the improvement of inservice testing of pumps and valves at nuclear power plants. Individual papers of this Proceedings have been cataloged separately.

  5. Bilayered anatomically constrained split-and-merge expectation maximisation algorithm (BiASM) for brain segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudre, Carole H.; Cardoso, M. Jorge; Ourselin, Sébastien

    2014-03-01

    Dealing with pathological tissues is a very challenging task in medical brain segmentation. The presence of pathology can indeed bias the ultimate results when the model chosen is not appropriate and lead to missegmentations and errors in the model parameters. Model fit and segmentation accuracy are impaired by the lack of flexibility of the model used to represent the data. In this work, based on a finite Gaussian mixture model, we dynamically introduce extra degrees of freedom so that each anatomical tissue considered is modelled as a mixture of Gaussian components. The choice of the appropriate number of components per tissue class relies on a model selection criterion. Its purpose is to balance the complexity of the model with the quality of the model fit in order to avoid overfitting while allowing flexibility. The parameters optimisation, constrained with the additional knowledge brought by probabilistic anatomical atlases, follows the expectation maximisation (EM) framework. Split-and-merge operations bring the new flexibility to the model along with a data-driven adaptation. The proposed methodology appears to improve the segmentation when pathological tissue are present as well as the model fit when compared to an atlas-based expectation maximisation algorithm with a unique component per tissue class. These improvements in the modelling might bring new insight in the characterisation of pathological tissues as well as in the modelling of partial volume effect.

  6. 46 CFR 57.02-2 - Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 57.02-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING... qualifications for all types of welders and brazers, the qualification of welding procedures, and the production tests for all types of manual and machine arc and gas welding and brazing processes shall be...

  7. ASME V\\&V challenge problem: Surrogate-based V&V

    DOE PAGES

    Beghini, Lauren L.; Hough, Patricia D.

    2015-12-18

    The process of verification and validation can be resource intensive. From the computational model perspective, the resource demand typically arises from long simulation run times on multiple cores coupled with the need to characterize and propagate uncertainties. In addition, predictive computations performed for safety and reliability analyses have similar resource requirements. For this reason, there is a tradeoff between the time required to complete the requisite studies and the fidelity or accuracy of the results that can be obtained. At a high level, our approach is cast within a validation hierarchy that provides a framework in which we perform sensitivitymore » analysis, model calibration, model validation, and prediction. The evidence gathered as part of these activities is mapped into the Predictive Capability Maturity Model to assess credibility of the model used for the reliability predictions. With regard to specific technical aspects of our analysis, we employ surrogate-based methods, primarily based on polynomial chaos expansions and Gaussian processes, for model calibration, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty quantification in order to reduce the number of simulations that must be done. The goal is to tip the tradeoff balance to improving accuracy without increasing the computational demands.« less

  8. ASME V\\&V challenge problem: Surrogate-based V&V

    SciTech Connect

    Beghini, Lauren L.; Hough, Patricia D.

    2015-12-18

    The process of verification and validation can be resource intensive. From the computational model perspective, the resource demand typically arises from long simulation run times on multiple cores coupled with the need to characterize and propagate uncertainties. In addition, predictive computations performed for safety and reliability analyses have similar resource requirements. For this reason, there is a tradeoff between the time required to complete the requisite studies and the fidelity or accuracy of the results that can be obtained. At a high level, our approach is cast within a validation hierarchy that provides a framework in which we perform sensitivity analysis, model calibration, model validation, and prediction. The evidence gathered as part of these activities is mapped into the Predictive Capability Maturity Model to assess credibility of the model used for the reliability predictions. With regard to specific technical aspects of our analysis, we employ surrogate-based methods, primarily based on polynomial chaos expansions and Gaussian processes, for model calibration, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty quantification in order to reduce the number of simulations that must be done. The goal is to tip the tradeoff balance to improving accuracy without increasing the computational demands.

  9. American Society for Microbiology. Microbes display their versatility at ASM meeting.

    PubMed

    Strauss, E

    2000-06-16

    About 12,000 scientists gathered here from 21 to 25 May for the 100th annual meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. This year's lineup boasted presentations on a wide array of topics--everything from the body's defenses against microbial pathogens to bacterial involvement in geological processes.

  10. Fluid mechanics phenomena in microgravity; ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA, Nov. 8-13, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siginer, Dennis A. (Editor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series of symposia presenting research activity in microgravity fluid mechanics. General topics addressed include two-phase flow and transport phenomena, thermo-capillary flow, and interfacial stability. Papers present mathmatical models of fluid dynamics in the microgravity environment. Applications suggested include space manufacturing and storage of liquids in low gravity.

  11. GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, Scott; Theiss, Timothy J; Bunce, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Pending or recently enacted greenhouse gas regulations and mandates are leading to the need for current and feasible GHG reduction solutions including combined heat and power (CHP). Distributed generation using advanced reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines and fuel cells has been shown to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) compared to the U.S. electrical generation mix due to the use of natural gas and high electrical generation efficiencies of these prime movers. Many of these prime movers are also well suited for use in CHP systems which recover heat generated during combustion or energy conversion. CHP increases the total efficiency of the prime mover by recovering waste heat for generating electricity, replacing process steam, hot water for buildings or even cooling via absorption chilling. The increased efficiency of CHP systems further reduces GHG emissions compared to systems which do not recover waste thermal energy. Current GHG mandates within the U.S Federal sector and looming GHG legislation for states puts an emphasis on understanding the GHG reduction potential of such systems. This study compares the GHG savings from various state-of-the- art prime movers. GHG reductions from commercially available prime movers in the 1-5 MW class including, various industrial fuel cells, large and small gas turbines, micro turbines and reciprocating gas engines with and without CHP are compared to centralized electricity generation including the U.S. mix and the best available technology with natural gas combined cycle power plants. The findings show significant GHG saving potential with the use of CHP. Also provided is an exploration of the accounting methodology for GHG reductions with CHP and the sensitivity of such analyses to electrical generation efficiency, emissions factors and most importantly recoverable heat and thermal recovery efficiency from the CHP system.

  12. A Social Medium: ASM's 5th Cell-Cell Communication in Bacteria Meeting in Review

    PubMed Central

    Federle, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The 5th American Society for Microbiology Conference on Cell-Cell Communication in Bacteria (CCCB-5), which convened from 18 to 21 October 2014 in San Antonio, TX, highlighted recent advances in our understanding of microbial intercellular signaling. While the CCCB meetings arose from interests in pheromone signaling and quorum sensing, it was evident at CCCB-5 that the cell-cell communication field is continuing to mature, expanding into new areas and integrating cutting-edge technologies. In this minireview, we recap some of the research discussed at CCCB-5 and the questions that have arisen from it. PMID:25917904

  13. Self-Instruction through Reading: The Keller Plan. ASME Medical Education Booklet No. 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoward, Peter J.

    1976-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of the Keller Plan in medical education are reviewed. The author's advice is based in part on his experience using the method in a course in histology at the University of Dundee, Scotland. (LBH)

  14. 46 CFR 57.02-2 - Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 57.02-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING... qualifications for all types of welders and brazers, the qualification of welding procedures, and the production tests for all types of manual and machine arc and gas welding and brazing processes shall be...

  15. 46 CFR 57.02-2 - Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 57.02-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING... qualifications for all types of welders and brazers, the qualification of welding procedures, and the production tests for all types of manual and machine arc and gas welding and brazing processes shall be...

  16. Fluid mechanics phenomena in microgravity; ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA, Nov. 8-13, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siginer, Dennis A. (Editor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series of symposia presenting research activity in microgravity fluid mechanics. General topics addressed include two-phase flow and transport phenomena, thermo-capillary flow, and interfacial stability. Papers present mathmatical models of fluid dynamics in the microgravity environment. Applications suggested include space manufacturing and storage of liquids in low gravity.

  17. The Early Triassic magmatism of the Alto Paraguay Province, Central South America: Paleomagnetic and ASM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernesto, Marcia; Comin-Chiaramonti, Piero; Gomes, Celso de Barros

    2015-10-01

    A paleomagnetic studystudywork was carried out on the Alto Paraguay Province (APP), a belt of alkaline complexes that parallel the Paraguay river for more than 40 km at the border of Brazil and Paraguay. The province is well dated by 40Ar/39Ar method giving ages in the range 240-250 Ma with a preferred age of 241 Ma. Intrusive rocks are predominant but the stocks may be topped by lava flows and ignimbrites. Paleomagnetic work on stocks, dikes and flows of the APP identified normal and reversed magnetic components which are carried mainly by titanomagnetites. The calculated paleomagnetic pole located at 319ºE 78ºS (α95 = 6º; k = 23) is in agreement with other South American poles of Permo-Triassic age. Most of the sampling sites showed large variations in rock magnetization, but similar patterns in the variation of the within-site magnetizations, mainly in dikes, suggest geomagnetic polarity transition records. The magnetization data along with the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility determinations suggested that the South and North areas of the province have different evolution characteristics.

  18. Rapid prototyping and the ASME B5.54 standard for evaluation of machine tool performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, G.K.; Rhorer, D.

    1998-03-01

    The Directed Light Fabrication (DLF) process has shown feasibility for rapid fabrication of metal to full density. Structural properties equivalent to those of conventionally processed material have been achieved. The process is performed without the use of stereolithography files using a more conventional CNC approach to developing the motion path from the CAD solid model and using multi-axis positioning to deposit material in any plane, not just the horizontal plane used in many current processes. The important criteria for evaluating a solid free-form deposit were suggested and used to evaluate a part produced by DLF example presented here.

  19. ASME XI stroke time testing of solenoid valves at Connecticut Yankee Station

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, C.W.

    1996-12-01

    Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company has developed the capability of measuring the stroke times of AC and DC solenoid valves. This allows the station to measure the stroke time of any solenoid valve in the plant, even those valves which do not have valve stem position indicators. Connecticut Yankee has adapted the ITI MOVATS Checkmate 3 system, using a signal input from a Bruel and Kjaer (B&K) Model 4382 acoustic accelerometer and the Schaumberg Campbell Associates (SCA) Model SCA-1148 dual sensor, which is a combined accelerometer and gaussmeter.

  20. Propulsion/ASME Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Activities in the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; Turner, James

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Office Of Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (OASTT) has establish three major coals. "The Three Pillars for Success". The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville,Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Advanced Reusable Technologies (ART) Project, part of ASTP, focuses on the reusable technologies beyond those being pursued by X-33. The main activity over the past two and a half years has been on advancing the rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. In June of last year, activities for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) airframe and propulsion technologies were initiated. These activities focus primarily on those technologies that support the year 2000 decision to determine the path this country will take for Space Shuttle and RLV. In February of this year, additional technology efforts in the reusable technologies were awarded. The RBCC effort that was completed early this year was the initial step leading to flight demonstrations of the technology for space launch vehicle propulsion. Aerojet, Boeing-Rocketdyne and Pratt & Whitney were selected for a two-year period to design, build and ground test their RBCC engine concepts. In addition, ASTROX, Pennsylvania State University (PSU) and University of Alabama in Huntsville also conducted supporting activities. The activity included ground testing of components (e.g., injectors, thrusters, ejectors and inlets) and integrated flowpaths. An area that has caused a large amount of difficulty in the testing efforts is the means of initiating the rocket combustion process. All three of the prime contractors above were using silane (SiH4) for ignition of the thrusters. This follows from the successful use of silane in the NASP program for scramjet ignition. However, difficulties were immediately encountered when silane (an 80/20 mixture of hydrogen/silane) was used for rocket ignition.

  1. Millimeter- and Submillimeter-Wave Observations of the OMC-2/3 Region. II. Observational Evidence for Outflow-triggered Star Formation in the OMC-2 FIR 3/4 Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimajiri, Yoshito; Takahashi, Satoko; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Saito, Masao; Kawabe, Ryohei

    2008-08-01

    We have observed the Orion Molecular Cloud-2 FIR 3/4 region in the H13CO+ (J = 1-0),12CO (J = 1-0), SiO (v = 0, J = 2-1), and CS (J = 2-1) lines and the 3.3 mm continuum emission with the Nobeyama Millimeter Array (NMA) and in the CO (J = 3-2) and CH3OH (JK = 7K-6K) lines with Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). Our NMA observations in the H13CO+ emission have revealed 0.07 pc scale dense gas associated with FIR 4 (FIR 4 clump). The 12CO (J = 3-2,1-0) emission shows high-velocity blue- and redshifted components to both the northeast and southwest of FIR 3, suggesting an outflow from FIR 3 along the plane of the sky. The SiO and CH3OH emission, known as shock tracers, are detected around the interface between the outflow and FIR 4 clump. Furthermore, the 12CO (J = 1-0) emission shows an L-shaped structure in the PV diagram. These results suggest the presence of an interaction between the outflow and FIR 4 clump. Moreover, our interferometric 3.3 mm continuum observations have first found that FIR 4 consists of 11 dusty cores at a scale of ~2000 AU. The separation among these cores (~5 × 103 AU) is on the same order of the Jeans length (~13 × 103 AU), and the estimated time scale of the fragmentation (~3.8 × 104 yr) is similar to the time scale of the outflow interaction (~1.4 × 104 yr). We suggest that the interaction triggered the fragmentation into these dusty cores, and hence the next generation of the cluster formation in FIR 4.

  2. SPATIALLY RESOLVING SUBSTRUCTURES WITHIN THE MASSIVE ENVELOPE AROUND AN INTERMEDIATE-MASS PROTOSTAR: MMS 6/OMC-3

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Satoko; Ho, Paul T. P.; Saigo, Kazuya; Tomida, Kengo

    2012-06-10

    With the Submillimeter Array, the brightest (sub)millimeter continuum source in the Orion Molecular Cloud-2/3 region, MMS 6, has been observed in the 850 {mu}m continuum emission with approximately 10 times better angular resolution than previous studies ( Almost-Equal-To 0.''3, Almost-Equal-To 120 AU at Orion). The deconvolved size, the mass, and the column density of MMS 6-main are estimated to be 0.''32 Multiplication-Sign 0.''29 (132 AU Multiplication-Sign 120 AU), 0.29 M{sub Sun }, and 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 25} cm{sup -2}, respectively. The estimated extremely high mean number density, 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}, suggests that MMS 6-main is likely optically thick at 850 {mu}m. We compare our observational data with three theoretical core models: prestellar core, protostellar core + disk-like structure, and first adiabatic core. These comparisons clearly show that the observational data cannot be modeled as a simple prestellar core with a gas temperature of 20 K. A self-luminous source is necessary to explain the observed flux density in the (sub)millimeter wavelengths. Our recent detection of a very compact and energetic outflow in the CO (3-2) and HCN (4-3) lines supports the presence of a protostar. We suggest that MMS 6 is one of the first cases of an intermediate-mass protostellar core at an extremely young stage. In addition to the MMS 6-main peak, we have also spatially resolved a number of spiky structures and sub-clumps, distributed over the central 1000 AU. The masses of these sub-clumps are estimated to be 0.066-0.073 M{sub Sun }, which are on the order of brown dwarf masses. Higher angular resolution and higher sensitivity observations with ALMA and EVLA will reveal the origin and nature of these structures such as whether they are originated from fragmentations, spiral arms, or inhomogeneity within the disk-like structures/envelope.

  3. Outer Membrane c-Type Cytochromes Required for Fe(III) and Mn(IV) Oxide Reduction in Geobacter sulfurreducens

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, T.; Coppi, M. V.; Childers, S. E.; Lovley, D. R.

    2005-01-01

    The potential role of outer membrane proteins in electron transfer to insoluble Fe(III) oxides by Geobacter sulfurreducens was investigated because this organism is closely related to the Fe(III) oxide-reducing organisms that are predominant in many Fe(III)-reducing environments. Two of the most abundant proteins that were easily sheared from the outer surfaces of intact cells were c-type cytochromes. One, designated OmcS, has a molecular mass of ca. 50 kDa and is predicted to be an outer membrane hexaheme c-type cytochrome. Transcripts for omcS could be detected during growth on Fe(III) oxide, but not on soluble Fe(III) citrate. The omcS mRNA consisted primarily of a monocistronic transcript, and to a lesser extent, a longer transcript that also contained the downstream gene omcT, which is predicted to encode a second hexaheme outer membrane cytochrome with 62.6% amino acid sequence identity to OmcS. The other abundant c-type cytochrome sheared from the outer surface of G. sulfurreducens, designated OmcE, has a molecular mass of ca. 30 kDa and is predicted to be an outer membrane tetraheme c-type cytochrome. When either omcS or omcE was deleted, G. sulfurreducens could no longer reduce Fe(III) oxide but could still reduce soluble electron acceptors, including Fe(III) citrate. The mutants could reduce Fe(III) in Fe(III) oxide medium only if the Fe(III) chelator, nitrilotriacetic acid, or the electron shuttle, anthraquinone 2,6-disulfonate, was added. Expressing omcS or omcE in trans restored the capacity for Fe(III) oxide reduction. OmcT was not detected among the sheared proteins, and genetic studies indicated that G. sulfurreducens could not reduce Fe(III) oxide when omcT was expressed but OmcS was absent. In contrast, Fe(III) oxide was reduced when omcS was expressed in the absence of OmcT. These results suggest that OmcS and OmcE are involved in electron transfer to Fe(III) oxides in G. sulfurreducens. They also emphasize the importance of evaluating mechanisms

  4. AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, 34th and AIAA/ASME Adaptive Structures Forum, La Jolla, CA, Apr. 19-22, 1993, Technical Papers. Pts. 1-6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topics addressed include the prediction of helicopter component loads using neural networks, spacecraft on-orbit coupled loads analysis, hypersonic flutter of a curved shallow panel with aerodynamic heating, thermal-acoustic fatigue of ceramic matrix composite materials, transition elements based on transfinite interpolation, damage progression in stiffened composite panels, a direct treatment of min-max dynamic response optimization problems, and sources of helicopter rotor hub inplane shears. Also discussed are dynamics of a layered elastic system, confidence bounds on structural reliability, mixed triangular space-time finite elements, advanced transparency development for USAF aircraft, a low-velocity impact on a graphite/PEEK, an automated mode-tracking strategy, transonic flutter suppression by a passive flap, a nonlinear response of composite panels to random excitation, an optimal placement of elastic supports on a simply supported plate, a probabilistic assessment of composite structures, a model for mode I failure of laminated composites, a residual flexibility approach to multibody dynamics,and multilayer piezoelectric actuators.

  5. AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, 34th and AIAA/ASME Adaptive Structures Forum, La Jolla, CA, Apr. 19-22, 1993, Technical Papers. Pts. 1-6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Topics addressed include the prediction of helicopter component loads using neural networks, spacecraft on-orbit coupled loads analysis, hypersonic flutter of a curved shallow panel with aerodynamic heating, thermal-acoustic fatigue of ceramic matrix composite materials, transition elements based on transfinite interpolation, damage progression in stiffened composite panels, a direct treatment of min-max dynamic response optimization problems, and sources of helicopter rotor hub inplane shears. Also discussed are dynamics of a layered elastic system, confidence bounds on structural reliability, mixed triangular space-time finite elements, advanced transparency development for USAF aircraft, a low-velocity impact on a graphite/PEEK, an automated mode-tracking strategy, transonic flutter suppression by a passive flap, a nonlinear response of composite panels to random excitation, an optimal placement of elastic supports on a simply supported plate, a probabilistic assessment of composite structures, a model for mode I failure of laminated composites, a residual flexibility approach to multibody dynamics,and multilayer piezoelectric actuators.

  6. AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, 34th and AIAA/ASME Adaptive Structures Forum, La Jolla, CA, Apr. 19-22, 1993, Technical Papers. Pts. 1-6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Topics addressed include the prediction of helicopter component loads using neural networks, spacecraft on-orbit coupled loads analysis, hypersonic flutter of a curved shallow panel with aerodynamic heating, thermal-acoustic fatigue of ceramic matrix composite materials, transition elements based on transfinite interpolation, damage progression in stiffened composite panels, a direct treatment of min-max dynamic response optimization problems, and sources of helicopter rotor hub inplane shears. Also discussed are dynamics of a layered elastic system, confidence bounds on structural reliability, mixed triangular space-time finite elements, advanced transparency development for USAF aircraft, a low-velocity impact on a graphite/PEEK, an automated mode-tracking strategy, transonic flutter suppression by a passive flap, a nonlinear response of composite panels to random excitation, an optimal placement of elastic supports on a simply supported plate, a probabilistic assessment of composite structures, a model for mode I failure of laminated composites, a residual flexibility approach to multibody dynamics,and multilayer piezoelectric actuators.

  7. Bite the apple, get driven out of the garden: A risky story telling at the ASME town meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, K.C.

    1994-11-01

    Risk, the all-encompassing four-letter word became a widely used household cliche and an institutional mantra in the nineties. Risk analysis models from the Garden of Eden to the Capitol Hill lawn have made a number of sharp paradigm shifts to evolve itself as a decision-making tool from individual risk perception to societal risk-based regulatory media. Risk always coexists with benefit and is arbitrated by costs. Risk-benefit analysis has been in use in business and industry in economic ventures for a long time. Only recently risk management in its current state of development, evolved as a regulatory tool for controlling large technological systems that have potential impacts on the health and safety of the public and on the sustainability of the ecology and the environment. This paper summarizes the evolution of the risk management concepts and models in industry and the regulatory agencies in the US over the last three decades. It also discusses the benefits and limitations of this evolving discipline as it is applied to high-risk technologies from the nuclear power plant and petrochemical industry, etc. to nuclear weapons technology.

  8. Computational experiments; Proceedings of the ASME/JSME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, Honolulu, HI, July 23-27, 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. K.; Smolinski, P.; Ohayon, R.; Navickas, J.; Gvildys, J.

    1989-06-01

    Papers applying FEM to engineering problems are presented, covering topics such as a numerical approach to software development for thermoforming simulations, flow three-dimensional analysis of pressure responses in an enclosed launching system, comparing flow three-dimensional calculations with very large amplitude slosh data, and the computational analysis of stress concentrations in pressure vessel cascades. Other topics include FEM studies of flow past an array of plates, stochastic finite elements for automotive impact, numerical simulation in the deployment of space structures, axial buckling of a thin cylindrical shell, applying FEM to the prediction of vibrations of liquid propelled launch vehicles, analysis of a large bore piping system supported with viscodampers, stochastic simulation of lubricant depletion on a magnetic storage disk, and two-dimensional crak inclusion interaction effects. Additional topics include analyzing damage mechanisms using the energy release rate, the suspension of solid particles in an aerospace plane's slush hydrogen tanks, modal methods for the analysis of vibrations of structures coupled with fluids, the elastic-plastic behavior of fibrous metal matrix composites, and stochastic finite element analysis of nonlinear media.

  9. ASME 1986 International Gas Turbine Conference - Transpiration cooling: Contribution of film cooling to the overall cooling effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, G. E.; Asere, A. A.; Mkpadi, M. C.; Tirmahi, A.

    1986-06-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is made of the state-of-the-art and prospective development trends in the field of film cooling techniques for gas turbine combustion chambers and blades. The full coverage discrete hole film or effusion cooling techniques encompassed by the presently assessed researches have as their goal the achievement of performance levels comparable to those of transpiration cooling. It is recommended that attempts to improve on the current cooling effectiveness of full coverage discrete hole designs should concentrate on increasing the degree of internal wall cooling, while retaining good film-cooling characteristics.

  10. 75 FR 80765 - Hazardous Materials: Adoption of ASME Code Section XII and the National Board Inspection Code

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... marking of stationary boilers and pressure vessels. Many factors exerted on stationary tanks such as... factors that influence transportation safety. The new design margins may have a significant effect on... corrosion allowance currently specified. PHMSA is soliciting comments on the safety and economic impacts...

  11. The first twenty years of the ASME Committee on nuclear air and gas treatment - a retrospective by a founding member

    SciTech Connect

    Jacox, J.

    1997-08-01

    Since the 1996 Winter Meeting of CONAGT was the twentieth anniversary of CONAGT a review of the Committee and its members seems in order. This Paper will cover the background and formation of CONAGT as well as the history to date. This history will include not only the basic accomplishments but some of the less successfully met goals and a look at some of the personalities involved in the Committee work. General future plans will be included. The intent of the Paper is less a formal history than a personal recollection of the Committee and those who worked so hard to create the best possible Codes and Standards for the industry to use. 10 refs.

  12. International Symposium on Laser Anemometry, 3rd, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Boston, MA, Dec. 13-18, 1987, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybbs, A.; Ali, F.; Morrison, G.

    The conference presents papers on instrumentation and signal processing; internal flows; turbulence; jets, boundary layers, and two-phase flows; and industrial and geological flows. Particular attention is given to the application of a two-axis Bragg cell to achieve a lower cost microcomputer controlled two-component LDA, a new signal processor for noisy LDV signals, uncertainties due to visibility and phase response functions of LDV optical single particle counters, a comparison of measured near-wall velocity profiles and flow visualization in a separated flow, and turbulence production over a rough wall at Mach 3. Other topics include two-step finite difference methods for fluid transient analysis, a three-dimensional microlaser anemometer for boundary layer studies, and LDA measurement of the passage flow field in an annular airfoil cascade.

  13. DETECTION OF PROTOZOAN PARASITES IN SOURCE AND FINISHED WATER - 3RD EDITION ASM'S METHODS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Protozoans are eukaryotic organisms which can live either a free-living or parasitic existence. Some free-living forms, under the right conditions, can become opportunistic parasites. Enteric pathogenic protozoans, like Giardia and Cryptosporidium, which are now known to be tra...

  14. Structural applications of mechanical alloying; Proceedings of the ASM International Conference, Myrtle Beach, SC, Mar. 27-29, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Froes, F.H.; Debarbadillo, J.J. Inco Alloys International, Inc., Huntington, WV )

    1990-01-01

    The present conference on mechanically alloyed (MA) products discusses their aerospace and industrial applications, the design and isothermal forging of Ni-base oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) superalloys, the microstructure and tensile properties of ODS ferritic alloys, the high temperature corrosion resistance of MA refractory products, the mechanical properties of novel MA Fe-based ODS alloys, and dispersoids in MA metals. Also discussed are MA Al-alloys for aircraft applications, the microstructure and properties of MA Al-Mn, the MA processing of the Ti-Al system, the origin of the strength of MA Al alloys, the interaction of Al with SiC during MA processing, the synthesis of chromium silicide via MA, and the MA production of 'TiC-steel'.

  15. Project Response To ASME Question for Comparison of Pure Oxy-Firing to Diluted Oxy-Firing

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Schoenfield; Tom Ochs

    2009-08-31

    High flame temperature oxy-combustion and low flame temperature oxy-combustion are the two primary types of oxy-combustion, which is the combustion of fossil fuel with oxygen instead of air. High flame temperature oxy-combustion results in increased radiant energy, but heat flux at the water walls has been demonstrated to be maintained within design parameters. Less fossil fuel is used, so less CO{sub 2} is produced. Latent and sensible heat can be partially recovered from the compressors. CO{sub 2} capture costs are decreased. Evenly distributed heat avoids creating hot spots. The NETL IPR capture system can capture 100% of the CO{sub 2} when operating at steady state. New boiler designs for high flame temperature oxy-combustion can take advantage of the higher flame temperatures. High flame temperature oxy-combustion with IPR capture can be retrofitted on existing plants. High flame temperature oxy-combustion has significantly improved radiant heat transfer compared to low flame temperature oxy-combustion, but heat flux at the water walls can be controlled. High flame temperature oxy-combustion used with the NETL's Integrated Pollutant Removal System can capture 95%-100% of the CO{sub 2} with heat recovery. These technologies create CO{sub 2} capture cost savings, and are applicable to new design and existing design boilers.

  16. Low systemic exposure after repeated topical application of Pimecrolimus (Elidel), SD Z ASM 981) in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Van Leent, Edwin J M; Ebelin, Marie Eve; Burtin, Pascale; Dorobek, Birgit; Spuls, Phyllis I; Bos, Jan D

    2002-01-01

    Pimecrolimus is a cell-selective inhibitor of inflammatory cytokine release developed specifically for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate blood concentrations and tolerability of pimecrolimus during topical treatment. Twelve adult patients with extensive atopic dermatitis were enrolled in an open-label, noncontrolled, pharmacokinetic study. The patients were treated twice daily for 3 weeks with pimecrolimus cream 1% on all lesions. Pimecrolimus blood concentrations were measured at regular time points, and the safety and tolerability were monitored throughout the study. In 78% of the 444 blood samples evaluated, pimecrolimus concentrations remained below the limit of quantitation (0.5 ng/ml). The highest concentration measured was 1.4 ng/ml. There was no indication of drug accumulation. Pimecrolimus was well tolerated locally and systemically. The 3-week twice daily treatment with pimecrolimus cream 1% results in consistently low pimecrolimus blood concentrations with no accumulation. Pimecrolimus cream appears suitable for the long-term management of atopic dermatitis. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Electronic Countermeasures (ECM) and Acoustic Countermeasures Supported Protection for Merchant Ships against SSM/ASM Missiles and Mines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    altitude at some point in the phase. In this phase the goal is to avoid any kind of electro- magnetic radiation to prevent detection. The third phase is the...nautical miles, an acoustic sensor alerts the mine. If the sound behavior is "correct," the mine activates a magnetic and/or a pressure 33 sensor. If...and light 49 The disadvantages are: * easy to saturate by other transmitters * hard to get sufficient isolation between the transmitting antenna and

  18. DETECTION OF PROTOZOAN PARASITES IN SOURCE AND FINISHED WATER - 3RD EDITION ASM'S METHODS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Protozoans are eukaryotic organisms which can live either a free-living or parasitic existence. Some free-living forms, under the right conditions, can become opportunistic parasites. Enteric pathogenic protozoans, like Giardia and Cryptosporidium, which are now known to be tra...

  19. COMPARISON OF TWO EPOCHS OF THE ZEEMAN EFFECT IN THE 44 GHz CLASS I METHANOL (CH{sub 3}OH) MASER LINE IN OMC-2

    SciTech Connect

    Momjian, E.; Sarma, A. P. E-mail: asarma@depaul.edu

    2012-12-01

    We present a second epoch of observations of the 44 GHz Class I methanol maser line toward the star-forming region Orion Molecular Cloud 2. The observations were carried out with the Very Large Array, and constitute one of the first successful Zeeman effect detections with the new Wide-band Digital Architecture correlator. Comparing to the result of our earlier epoch of data for this region, we find that the intensity of the maser increased by 50%, but the magnetic field value has stayed the same, within the errors. This suggests that the methanol maser may be tracing the large-scale magnetic field that is not affected by the bulk gas motions or turbulence on smaller scales that is causing the change in maser intensity.

  20. Proteins involved in electron transfer to Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides by Geobacter sulfurreducens and Geobacter uraniireducens.

    PubMed

    Aklujkar, M; Coppi, M V; Leang, C; Kim, B C; Chavan, M A; Perpetua, L A; Giloteaux, L; Liu, A; Holmes, D E

    2013-03-01

    Whole-genome microarray analysis of Geobacter sulfurreducens grown on insoluble Fe(III) oxide or Mn(IV) oxide versus soluble Fe(III) citrate revealed significantly different expression patterns. The most upregulated genes, omcS and omcT, encode cell-surface c-type cytochromes, OmcS being required for Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxide reduction. Other electron transport genes upregulated on both metal oxides included genes encoding putative menaquinol : ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase complexes Cbc4 and Cbc5, periplasmic c-type cytochromes Dhc2 and PccF, outer membrane c-type cytochromes OmcC, OmcG and OmcV, multicopper oxidase OmpB, the structural components of electrically conductive pili, PilA-N and PilA-C, and enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. Genes upregulated on Fe(III) oxide encode putative menaquinol : ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase complexes Cbc3 and Cbc6, periplasmic c-type cytochromes, including PccG and PccJ, and outer membrane c-type cytochromes, including OmcA, OmcE, OmcH, OmcL, OmcN, OmcO and OmcP. Electron transport genes upregulated on Mn(IV) oxide encode periplasmic c-type cytochromes PccR, PgcA, PpcA and PpcD, outer membrane c-type cytochromes OmaB/OmaC, OmcB and OmcZ, multicopper oxidase OmpC and menaquinone-reducing enzymes. Genetic studies indicated that MacA, OmcB, OmcF, OmcG, OmcH, OmcI, OmcJ, OmcM, OmcV and PccH, the putative Cbc5 complex subunit CbcC and the putative Cbc3 complex subunit CbcV are important for reduction of Fe(III) oxide but not essential for Mn(IV) oxide reduction. Gene expression patterns for Geobacter uraniireducens were similar. These results demonstrate that the physiology of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria differs significantly during growth on different insoluble and soluble electron acceptors and emphasize the importance of c-type cytochromes for extracellular electron transfer in G. sulfurreducens.

  1. Anode Biofilm Transcriptomics Reveals Outer Surface Components Essential for High Density Current Production in Geobacter sulfurreducens Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Glaven, Richard H.; Johnson, Jessica P.; Woodard, Trevor L.; Methé, Barbara A.; DiDonato, Raymond J.; Covalla, Sean F.; Franks, Ashley E.; Liu, Anna; Lovley, Derek R.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms by which Geobacter sulfurreducens transfers electrons through relatively thick (>50 µm) biofilms to electrodes acting as a sole electron acceptor were investigated. Biofilms of Geobacter sulfurreducens were grown either in flow-through systems with graphite anodes as the electron acceptor or on the same graphite surface, but with fumarate as the sole electron acceptor. Fumarate-grown biofilms were not immediately capable of significant current production, suggesting substantial physiological differences from current-producing biofilms. Microarray analysis revealed 13 genes in current-harvesting biofilms that had significantly higher transcript levels. The greatest increases were for pilA, the gene immediately downstream of pilA, and the genes for two outer c-type membrane cytochromes, OmcB and OmcZ. Down-regulated genes included the genes for the outer-membrane c-type cytochromes, OmcS and OmcT. Results of quantitative RT-PCR of gene transcript levels during biofilm growth were consistent with microarray results. OmcZ and the outer-surface c-type cytochrome, OmcE, were more abundant and OmcS was less abundant in current-harvesting cells. Strains in which pilA, the gene immediately downstream from pilA, omcB, omcS, omcE, or omcZ was deleted demonstrated that only deletion of pilA or omcZ severely inhibited current production and biofilm formation in current-harvesting mode. In contrast, these gene deletions had no impact on biofilm formation on graphite surfaces when fumarate served as the electron acceptor. These results suggest that biofilms grown harvesting current are specifically poised for electron transfer to electrodes and that, in addition to pili, OmcZ is a key component in electron transfer through differentiated G. sulfurreducens biofilms to electrodes. PMID:19461962

  2. Evaluation of octyl p-methoxycinnamate included in liposomes and cyclodextrins in anti-solar preparations: preparations, characterizations and in vitro penetration studies

    PubMed Central

    de Souza de Bustamante Monteiro, Mariana Sato; Ozzetti, Rafael Antonio; Vergnanini, André Luiz; de Brito-Gitirana, Lycia; Volpato, Nadia Maria; de Freitas, Zaida Maria Faria; Ricci-Júnior, Eduardo; dos Santos, Elisabete Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Awareness of the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation has led to the increasing use of sunscreens, thus, the development of safe and effective antisolar preparations is important. The inclusion of sunscreen molecules in different release systems, like liposomes (lipo) and cyclodextrins (CD) is therefore required. Methods The in vivo sun protection factor (SPF), water resistance, and in vitro transdermal penetration test of octyl p-methoxycinnamate (OMC) in different dispersions, such as OMC encapsulated in liposomes (lipo/OMC), OMC encapsulated in β-cyclodextrins (β-CD/OMC), OMC encapsulated in both release systems (lipo/OMC and β-CD/OMC), and an OMC-free formulation were determined. Results Although the formulation containing only the lipo/OMC system revealed high value of in vivo SPF (11.0 ± 1.3) and water resistance (SPF = 10.3 ± 2.2), the formulation containing both release systems (lipo/OMC + β-cyclodextrin/OMC) showed the best result in the in vivo SPF test (11.6 ± 1.6). In the penetration test, the formulation containing the lipo/OMC system had better performance, since a high amount of OMC in the epidermis (18.04 ± 1.17 μg) and a low amount of OMC in the dermis (9.4 ± 2.36 μg) were observed. These results suggest that liposomes interact with the cells of the stratum corneum, promoting retention of OMC in this layer. Conclusion According to our study, the lipo/OMC system is the most advantageous release system, due to its ability to both increase the amount of OMC in the epidermis and decrease the risk of percutaneous absorption. PMID:22787399

  3. Identification and Characterization of a Bovine Sperm Acrosomal Matrix Protein and its Mechanism of Interaction with Acrosomal Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Nagdas, Subir K; Smith, Linda; Mcnamara, Allen; Hernandez–Encarnacion, Luisa; Medina-Ortiz, Ilza

    2015-01-01

    Fertilization, the union of male and female gametes to create offspring, is an intricate biological process dependent upon several biochemical and physiological events. Our understanding of the functions of protein constituents of the outer acrosomal membrane-associated matrix complex (OMC) is limited. A highly purified OMC fraction isolated from bovine cauda sperm heads is comprised of 54, 50, 45, and 38–19kDa polypeptides. The objective of this study is to identify and to characterize the 45kDa (OMC45) polypeptide and to define its role in binding acrosomal hydrolases and to examine the fate of OMC45 polypeptide during the acrosome reaction. We isolated OMC45 polypeptide from the high-pH insoluble fraction of OMC. Proteomic analysis of OMC45 by MALDI–TOF–TOF yielded 8 peptides that matched the NCBI database sequence of Tektin 3 (TEKT3). Triton X–100–permeabilized cauda sperm exhibited intense staining of the acrosomal segment with anti–OMC45 and anti–TEKT3. The OMC45 polypeptide was solubilized by RIPA (radio-immunoprecipitation assay) buffer extraction. The solubilized fraction was subjected to immunoprecipitation analysis. The OMC45 polypeptide was recovered in the anti–OMC45 immunoprecipitation pellet. An identical blot stained with anti–TEKT3 exhibited the presence of TEKT3 polypeptide in the anti–OMC45 pellet. Our immunofluorescence and biochemical studies confirm the proteomics identification of OMC45 polypeptide; that it exhibits a sequence similarity to TEKT3. OMC45 glycoprotein possesses both N–linked and O–linked oligosaccharides. Deglycosylated OMC45 revealed a significant reduction in both acrosin and N–acetylglucosaminidase (NAGA) binding in comparison with acrosin and NAGA binding to a native OMC45 polypeptide, demonstrating the important role of oligosaccharides in hydrolase binding. OMC45 polypeptide is not released during the acrosome reaction but remains in the particulate cell subfraction, associated with the hybrid

  4. Skin absorption studies of octyl-methoxycinnamate loaded poly(D,L-lactide) nanoparticles: estimation of the UV filter distribution and release behaviour in skin layers.

    PubMed

    Vettor, M; Bourgeois, S; Fessi, H; Pelletier, J; Perugini, P; Pavanetto, F; Bolzinger, M A

    2010-05-01

    New formulation strategies have to be developed to limit the skin penetration of UV-filter. Nanoparticles (NP) are very suitable for that purpose. In this study, the skin distribution, at different times (1, 2 and 3 h), of octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC) from loaded PLA-nanoparticles was compared to a classical formulation containing non-encapsulated OMC, using the Franz cell method. The results showed that the OMC penetration was clearly impeded by stratum corneum and that the major part of the OMC-NP was accumulated at the skin surface (> 80%). A significant lower OMC amount was quantified in viable skin with NP compared to the OMC emulgel. To accurately determine the real OMC amount in close contact with viable skin layers two solvents were used to extract OMC from the skin compartments. Acetone (ACET) allowed quantifying both OMC in NP and OMC released from the particles, while isopropylmyristate (IPM), a non-solvent of the NP polymer (PLA), allowed quantifying only OMC released from the particles. Using IPM as an extraction solvent, it appeared that the OMC released from NP, in contact with viable skin, was 3-fold lower than free OMC diffused from the emulgel. Lastly, a sustained release was observed when nanoparticles were used.

  5. Heat transfer in space systems; Proceedings of the Symposium, AIAA/ASME Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, Seattle, WA, June 18-20, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, S. H. (Editor); Anderson, E. E. (Editor); Simoneau, R. J. (Editor); Chan, C. K. (Editor); Pepper, D. W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of heat-tranfer in a space environment are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include a small-scale two-phase thermosiphon to cool high-power electronics, a low-pressure-drop heat exchanger with integral heat pipe, an analysis of the thermal performance of heat-pipe radiators, measurements of temperature and concentration fields in a rectangular heat pipe, and a simplified aerothermal heating method for axisymmetric blunt bodies. Consideration is given to entropy production in a shock wave, bubble-slug transition in a two-phase liquid-gas flow under microgravity, plasma arc welding under normal and zero gravity, the Microgravity Thaw Experiment, the flow of a thin film on stationary and rotating disks, an advanced ceramic fabric body-mounted radiator for Space Station Freedom phase 0 design, and lunar radiators with specular reflectors.

  6. Automated synthesis of transmission lines loaded with complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs) and open complementary split ring resonators (OCSRRs) through aggressive space mapping (ASM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selga, Jordi; Rodríguez, Ana; Orellana, Marco; Boria, Vicente; Martín, Ferran

    2014-09-01

    This paper is focused on the application of space mapping optimization to the automated synthesis of transmission lines loaded with complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs) and open complementary split ring resonators (OCSRRs). These structures are of interest for the implementation of resonant-type metamaterial transmission lines and for the design of planar microwave circuits based on such complementary resonators. The paper presents a method to generate the layouts of CSRR- and OCSRR-loaded microstrip lines from the elements of their equivalent circuit models. Using the so-called aggressive space mapping, a specific implementation that uses quasi-Newton type iteration, we have developed synthesis algorithms that are able to provide the topology of these CSRR- and OCSRR-loaded lines in few steps. The most relevant aspect, however, is that this synthesis process is completely automatic, i.e., it does not require any action from the designers, other than initiating the algorithm. Moreover, this technique can be translated to other electrically small planar elements described by lumped element equivalent circuit models.

  7. Aviation Support Equipment Technician (ASE 3 & 2 and ASM 3 & 2). Volume 1, Basics. Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Jesse R.; And Others

    This Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course (RTM/NRCC) form a self-study package that will enable aviation support equipment personnel to help themselves fulfill the requirements for advancement. Designed for individual study and not formal classroom instruction, the RTM provides subject matter that relates directly to the occupational…

  8. Genome assembly of Diuraphis noxia strain: RWA2 Russian wheat aphid. Bioproject: PRJNA233413. Assembly No. ASM118638v1 (Dnoxia_1.0)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov, is among one of the most destructive species with origins in Central Asia west of the Tian Shan Mountains in northwestern China. It is a significant pest of wheat and barley, expanded its range throughout all cereal production areas of the world, ...

  9. Heat transfer in space systems; Proceedings of the Symposium, AIAA/ASME Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, Seattle, WA, June 18-20, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, S. H.; Anderson, E. E.; Simoneau, R. J.; Chan, C. K.; Pepper, D. W.

    Theoretical and experimental studies of heat-tranfer in a space environment are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include a small-scale two-phase thermosiphon to cool high-power electronics, a low-pressure-drop heat exchanger with integral heat pipe, an analysis of the thermal performance of heat-pipe radiators, measurements of temperature and concentration fields in a rectangular heat pipe, and a simplified aerothermal heating method for axisymmetric blunt bodies. Consideration is given to entropy production in a shock wave, bubble-slug transition in a two-phase liquid-gas flow under microgravity, plasma arc welding under normal and zero gravity, the Microgravity Thaw Experiment, the flow of a thin film on stationary and rotating disks, an advanced ceramic fabric body-mounted radiator for Space Station Freedom phase 0 design, and lunar radiators with specular reflectors.

  10. Processing and manufacturing of composite materials; Proceedings of the Symposium, 112th ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, Dec. 1-6, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Srivatsan, T.S.; Chandrashekhar, S.

    1991-01-01

    Papers are presented on the machining of fiber reinforced composites, the milling of continuous carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy, advances in composite machining with abrasive water jets, delamination in surface plies of graphite/epoxy caused by the edge-trimming process, and cryogenic machining of Kevlar composites. Consideration is given to a thermodynamic evaluation of ceramic-composite cutting tools for machining titanium, microstructural changes in carbon fibers during high-temperature processing, synthesis of particulate-reinforced metal matrix composites using spray techniques, and on-line monitoring of composite prepreg fabrication. Attention is also given to the effects of postannealing on fatigue behavior in PEEK and its short fiber-reinforced composites, the effect of fabrication parameters on void content for filament-wound composites, and the fabrication of a W-1 percent ThO2-reinforced Fe-25Cr-8Al-0.5Y superalloy matrix composite.

  11. AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, 33rd, Dallas, TX, Apr. 13-15, 1992, Technical Papers. Pt. 4 - Structural dynamics II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The present conference discusses composites damage tolerance, shell and cylinder buckling, computational structural mechanics, adaptive structures, structural risk and reliability, the analysis of composite structures, the thermal analysis of structures, the finite-element analysis of rotorcraft vibration, spacecraft dynamics, and rotor aeroelasticity. Also discussed are rotorcraft dynamics, structural damping, control analyses and control experiments, dynamic methods, experimental dynamics and testing, composite structural dynamics and damage, aeroelasticity, future directions in flight mechanics and structures, rotorcraft aeroelasticity, dynamics applications, unsteady aerodynamics, eigensolution methods, nonlinear dynamics, sensitivity analysis and topology optimization, shape optimization, modeling of material behavior, and ceramic-matrix composites.

  12. AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, 33rd, Dallas, TX, Apr. 13-15, 1992, Technical Papers. Pt. 3 - Structural dynamics I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The present conference on structural dynamics encompasses finite-element analyses of rotorcraft vibration, spacecraft dynamics, dynamic analyses, rotor aeroelasticity, rotorcraft dynamics, damping, control analysis and experiments, and experimental dynamics and testing. Specific issues addressed include NASA/industry design-analysis methods for vibrations, controlling a large flexible structure to mimic a rigid one, the dynamic response of rapidly heated space structures, interval prediction in structural dynamic analysis, mode localization in computer disk drives, and a discrete transfer-matrix method for rotating beams. Also addressed are the dynamics of axially moving continua on an elastic foundation, stiffness and stress in a fluid-filled circular diaphragm, linear structure control by the modal force technique, directional filters for sensing 1D structural dynamics, and an adaptive multilevel substructuring method for efficient modeling of complex structures.

  13. AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, 33rd, Dallas, TX, Apr. 13-15, 1992, Technical Papers. Pt. 2 - Structures II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to damage tolerance of composites, buckling of shells and cylinders, computational structural mechanics, buckling/postbuckling of plates and stiffened panels, adaptive structures, structural risk and reliability, analysis of composite structures, structural design and verification, finite element analysis of rotorcraft vibration, spacecraft dynamics, rotor aeroelasticity, and rotorcraft dynamics. Attention is also given to aeroelasticity, unsteady aerodynamics, eigen solution methods, design engineering, aerospace structural design optimization, modeling of material behavior, and ceramic matrix composites.

  14. Advances in dynamics and control of flexible spacecraft and space-based manipulations; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Dallas, TX, Nov. 25-30, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Suresh M. (Editor); Alberts, Thomas E. (Editor); Kakad, Yogendra P. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Consideration is given to control formulations for vibration suppression of an active structure in slewing motions, the use if distributed sensing in control of large flexible spacecraft, an improved shooting method for solving minimum-time maneuver problems, and nonlinear slew maneuver dynamics of large flexible spacecrafts. Attention is also given to initial experiments in trusterless locomotion control of a free-flying robot, dynamic analysis to evaluate viscoelastic passive damping augmentation for the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System, initial experiments in cooperative manipulation from a moving platform, and intelligent pipelined control architecture for remote robotic applications.

  15. AIAA, ASME, SIAM, and APS, National Fluid Dynamics Congress, 1st, Cincinnati, OH, July 25-28, 1988, Technical Papers. Parts 1, 2, & 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The present conference on fluid dynamics discusses the application of cellular automata to fluid dynamics problems, adaptive grid computation for inviscid compressible flows using a pressure-correction method, a stream-function formulation for the multiply-connected driven cavity Stokes flow problem, the simulation of a vortex ring, fast algorithms for vortex methods, pseudospectral solutions of separated flows, a third-order multidimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes solver, and a multigrid strategy for the investigation of highly recirculating flows. Also discussed are surface pressure fluctuations due to impinging vortical flows on an airfoil, the application of polymer drag reduction to sewer flow problems, fully developed pulsating turbulent flows, vortex-dominated slender-wing problems, a turbulence model for rotating flows, CFD on parallel processors, the order of panel methods, unsteady wing theory, radial jet reattachment flow, mode-switching in supersonic circular jets, unsteady dynamics in aeroacoustics, the gas dynamics of fission-fragment heating, Gortler vortices in supersonic boundary layers, boundary layer receptivity mechanisms, cavitation in a confined vortex, and dynamical states in thermal lensing.

  16. Heat transfer in gas turbine engines and three-dimensional flows; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, Nov. 27-Dec. 2, 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elovic, E.; O'Brien, J. E.; Pepper, D. W.

    The present conference on heat transfer characteristics of gas turbines and three-dimensional flows discusses velocity-temperature fluctuation correlations at the flow stagnation flow of a circular cylinder in turbulent flow, heat transfer across turbulent boundary layers with pressure gradients, the effect of jet grid turbulence on boundary layer heat transfer, and heat transfer characteristics predictions for discrete-hole film cooling. Also discussed are local heat transfer in internally cooled turbine airfoil leading edges, secondary flows in vane cascades and curved ducts, three-dimensional numerical modeling in gas turbine coal combustor design, numerical and experimental results for tube-fin heat exchanger airflow and heating characteristics, and the computation of external hypersonic three-dimensional flow field and heat transfer characteristics.

  17. 46 CFR 56.60-1 - Acceptable materials and specifications (replaces 123 and Table 126.1 in ASME B31.1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... factor of 0.8 may be required by § 56.07-10(c) and (e). 1 For austenitic materials where two sets of... Flanges.4 SP-45 Bypass and Drain Connection Standard. SP-51 Class 150LW Corrosion Resistant Cast...

  18. 46 CFR 56.60-1 - Acceptable materials and specifications (replaces 123 and Table 126.1 in ASME B31.1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... factor of 0.8 may be required by § 56.07-10(c) and (e). 1 For austenitic materials where two sets of... Flanges.4 SP-45 Bypass and Drain Connection Standard. SP-51 Class 150LW Corrosion Resistant Cast...

  19. AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, 33rd, Dallas, TX, Apr. 13-15, 1992, Technical Papers. Pt. 1 - Structures I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The present conference on structures encompasses damage tolerance in composites, buckling in shells and cylinders, computational structural mechanics, the analysis of composite panels with cutouts, postbuckling in plates, adaptive structures, and structural risk. Specific issues addressed include the analysis of delamination in postbuckled dropped-ply laminates, the nonlinear bending response of thin-walled laminated composite cylinders, the global/local finite-element analysis of geometrically nonlinear structures, a Rayleigh-Ritz design methodology for cutouts in composite structures, and general plate stability using high-order techniques. Also addressed are an adaptive S-method in linear elastostatics, adaptive structures programs for the Strategic Defense Initiative organization, the damping of large space structures with large-stroke adaptive stiffness cables, system reliability and risk assessment, and the application of the variational-asymptotical method to composite plates.

  20. Practical experience applied to the design of injection and sample manifolds to perform in-place surveillance tests according to ANSI/ASME N-510

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, E.M.; Wikoff, W.O.; Shaffer, L.L.

    1997-08-01

    At the current level of maturity and experience in the nuclear industry, regarding testing of air treatment systems, it is now possible to design and qualify injection and sample manifolds for most applications. While the qualification of sample manifolds is still in its infancy, injection manifolds have reached a mature stage that helps to eliminate the {open_quotes}hit or miss{close_quotes} type of design. During the design phase, manifolds can be adjusted to compensate for poor airflow distribution, laminar flow conditions, and to take advantage of any system attributes. Experience has shown that knowing the system attributes before the design phase begins is an essential element to a successful manifold design. The use of a spreadsheet type program commonly found on most personal computers can afford a greater flexibility and a reduction in time spent in the design phase. The experience gained from several generations of manifold design has culminated in a set of general design guidelines. Use of these guidelines, along with a good understanding of the type of testing (theoretical and practical), can result in a good manifold design requiring little or no field modification. The requirements for manifolds came about because of the use of multiple banks of components and unconventional housing inlet configurations. Multiple banks of adsorbers and pre and post HEPA`s required that each bank be tested to insure that each one does not exceed a specific allowable leakage criterion. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. ASME N511-19XX, Standard for periodic in-service testing of nuclear air treatment, heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    A draft version of the Standard is presented in this document. The Standard covers the requirements for periodic in-service testing of nuclear safety-related air treatment, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems in nuclear facilities. The Standard provides a basis for the development of test programs and does not include acceptance criteria, except in cases where the results of one test influence the performance of other tests. The Standard covers general inspection and test requirements, reference values, inspection and test requirements, generic tests, acceptance criteria, in-service test requirements, testing following an abnormal incident, corrective action requirements, and quality assurance. Mandatory appendices provide a visual inspection checklist and four test procedures. Non-mandatory appendices provide additional information and guidance on mounting frame pressure leak test procedure, corrective action, challenge gas substitute selection criteria, and test program development. 8 refs., 10 tabs.

  2. Long-term studies with the Ariel-5 asm. 1: Her X-1, Vela X-1 and Cen X-3. [periodic variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Kaluzienski, L. J.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1978-01-01

    Twelve hundred days of 3-6 keV X-ray data from Her X-1, Vela X-1 and Cen X-3 accumulated with the Ariel-5 all-sky monitor are interrogated. The binary periodicities of all three can be clearly observed, as can the approximately 35-d variation of Her X-1, for which we can refine the period to 34.875 plus or minus .030-d. No such longer-term periodicity less than 200-d is observed from Vela X-1. The 26.6-d low-state recurrence period for Cen X-3 previously suggested is not observed, but a 43.0-d candidate periodicity is found which may be consistent with the precession of an accretion disk in that system. The present results are illustrative of the long-term studies which can be performed on approximately 50 sources over a temporal base which will ultimately extend to at least 1800 days.

  3. Draft ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III, Division 5, Section HB, Subsection B, Code Case for Alloy 617 and Background Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Julie Knibloe

    2015-08-01

    Alloy 617 is the leading candidate material for an intermediate heat exchanger for the very high temperature reactor. To evaluate the behavior of this material in the expected service conditions, strain controlled cyclic tests that include long hold times up to 240 minutes at maximum tensile strain were conducted at 850°C. In terms of the total number of cycles to failure, the fatigue resistance decreased when a hold time was added at peak tensile strain. Increases in the tensile hold duration degraded the creep fatigue resistance, at least to the investigated strain controlled hold time of up to 60 minutes at the 0.3% strain range and 240 minutes at the 1.0% strain range. The creep fatigue deformation mode is considered relative to the lack of saturation, or continually decreasing number of cycles to failure with increasing hold times. Additionally, preliminary values from the 850°C creep fatigue data are calculated for the creep fatigue damage diagram and have higher values of creep damage than those from tests at 950°C.

  4. Variability of computational fluid dynamics solutions for pressure and flow in a giant aneurysm: the ASME 2012 Summer Bioengineering Conference CFD Challenge.

    PubMed

    Steinman, David A; Hoi, Yiemeng; Fahy, Paul; Morris, Liam; Walsh, Michael T; Aristokleous, Nicolas; Anayiotos, Andreas S; Papaharilaou, Yannis; Arzani, Amirhossein; Shadden, Shawn C; Berg, Philipp; Janiga, Gábor; Bols, Joris; Segers, Patrick; Bressloff, Neil W; Cibis, Merih; Gijsen, Frank H; Cito, Salvatore; Pallarés, Jordi; Browne, Leonard D; Costelloe, Jennifer A; Lynch, Adrian G; Degroote, Joris; Vierendeels, Jan; Fu, Wenyu; Qiao, Aike; Hodis, Simona; Kallmes, David F; Kalsi, Hardeep; Long, Quan; Kheyfets, Vitaly O; Finol, Ender A; Kono, Kenichi; Malek, Adel M; Lauric, Alexandra; Menon, Prahlad G; Pekkan, Kerem; Esmaily Moghadam, Mahdi; Marsden, Alison L; Oshima, Marie; Katagiri, Kengo; Peiffer, Véronique; Mohamied, Yumnah; Sherwin, Spencer J; Schaller, Jens; Goubergrits, Leonid; Usera, Gabriel; Mendina, Mariana; Valen-Sendstad, Kristian; Habets, Damiaan F; Xiang, Jianping; Meng, Hui; Yu, Yue; Karniadakis, George E; Shaffer, Nicholas; Loth, Francis

    2013-02-01

    Stimulated by a recent controversy regarding pressure drops predicted in a giant aneurysm with a proximal stenosis, the present study sought to assess variability in the prediction of pressures and flow by a wide variety of research groups. In phase I, lumen geometry, flow rates, and fluid properties were specified, leaving each research group to choose their solver, discretization, and solution strategies. Variability was assessed by having each group interpolate their results onto a standardized mesh and centerline. For phase II, a physical model of the geometry was constructed, from which pressure and flow rates were measured. Groups repeated their simulations using a geometry reconstructed from a micro-computed tomography (CT) scan of the physical model with the measured flow rates and fluid properties. Phase I results from 25 groups demonstrated remarkable consistency in the pressure patterns, with the majority predicting peak systolic pressure drops within 8% of each other. Aneurysm sac flow patterns were more variable with only a few groups reporting peak systolic flow instabilities owing to their use of high temporal resolutions. Variability for phase II was comparable, and the median predicted pressure drops were within a few millimeters of mercury of the measured values but only after accounting for submillimeter errors in the reconstruction of the life-sized flow model from micro-CT. In summary, pressure can be predicted with consistency by CFD across a wide range of solvers and solution strategies, but this may not hold true for specific flow patterns or derived quantities. Future challenges are needed and should focus on hemodynamic quantities thought to be of clinical interest.

  5. Proceedings of the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing. Volume 2, Session 3A--Session 4B

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing, jointly sponsored by the Board of Nuclear Codes and Standards of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, provides a forum for the discussion of current programs and methods for inservice testing and motor-operated valve testing at nuclear power plants. The symposium also provides an opportunity to discuss the need to improve that testing in order to help ensure the reliable performance of pumps and valves. The participation of industry representatives, regulators, and consultants results in the discussion of a broad spectrum of ideas and perspectives regarding the improvement of inservice testing of pumps and valves at nuclear power plants. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  6. Processing and manufacturing of composite materials; Proceedings of the Symposium, 112th ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, Dec. 1-6, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivatsan, T. S.; Chandrashekhar, S.

    Papers are presented on the machining of fiber reinforced composites, the milling of continuous carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy, advances in composite machining with abrasive water jets, delamination in surface plies of graphite/epoxy caused by the edge-trimming process, and cryogenic machining of Kevlar composites. Consideration is given to a thermodynamic evaluation of ceramic-composite cutting tools for machining titanium, microstructural changes in carbon fibers during high-temperature processing, synthesis of particulate-reinforced metal matrix composites using spray techniques, and on-line monitoring of composite prepreg fabrication. Attention is also given to the effects of postannealing on fatigue behavior in PEEK and its short fiber-reinforced composites, the effect of fabrication parameters on void content for filament-wound composites, and the fabrication of a W-1 percent ThO2-reinforced Fe-25Cr-8Al-0.5Y superalloy matrix composite.

  7. Heat transfer in space systems; Proceedings of the Symposium, AIAA/ASME Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, Seattle, WA, June 18-20, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, S. H. (Editor); Anderson, E. E. (Editor); Simoneau, R. J. (Editor); Chan, C. K. (Editor); Pepper, D. W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of heat-tranfer in a space environment are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include a small-scale two-phase thermosiphon to cool high-power electronics, a low-pressure-drop heat exchanger with integral heat pipe, an analysis of the thermal performance of heat-pipe radiators, measurements of temperature and concentration fields in a rectangular heat pipe, and a simplified aerothermal heating method for axisymmetric blunt bodies. Consideration is given to entropy production in a shock wave, bubble-slug transition in a two-phase liquid-gas flow under microgravity, plasma arc welding under normal and zero gravity, the Microgravity Thaw Experiment, the flow of a thin film on stationary and rotating disks, an advanced ceramic fabric body-mounted radiator for Space Station Freedom phase 0 design, and lunar radiators with specular reflectors.

  8. Topics in composite materials and structures; Proceedings of the Sessions, ASME Summer Mechanics and Materials Conference, Tempe, AZ, Apr. 28-May 1, 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birman, Victor; Nagar, Arvind

    Various papers on composite materials and structures are presented. The individual topics addressed include: dynamic stress concentrations in particle- and fiber-reinforced composite materials, structural analysis of textile composites, effect of fiber microstructure on evolution of residual stresses in silicon carbide/titanium aluminide composites, fracture strength modeling and analysis of notched composites, structural similitude and scaling laws for laminated beam plates, dynamic and static pseudo-axisymemtric thermal problems of generally laminated cylindrical shells, analytical method for developing the contact law of laminated plates.

  9. Proceedings of the ADPA/AIAA/ASME/SPIE Conference on Active and Adaptive Structures Held in Alexandria, Virginia on November 4 - 8, 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-08

    constraining layers 50)1 S S Sattinger and Z N Sanjana SESSION (28) Future Directions for Smart Structures and Materials Business opportunities in smart...combination of damped struts, constrained- layer treatments, and tuned-mass dampers to meet the damping objectives. Complex eigensolutions and cross...damping design of the SPICE Testbed for control system stability. Three types of passive damping treatments, damped struts, constrained- layer damping

  10. Exposomics research using suspect screening and non-targeted analysis methods and tools at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (ASMS Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is used for suspect screening (SSA) and non-targeted analysis (NTA) in an attempt to characterize xenobiotic chemicals in various samples broadly and efficiently. These important techniques aid characterization of the exposome, the totalit...

  11. Advances in dynamics and control of flexible spacecraft and space-based manipulations; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Dallas, TX, Nov. 25-30, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Suresh M. (Editor); Alberts, Thomas E. (Editor); Kakad, Yogendra P. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Consideration is given to control formulations for vibration suppression of an active structure in slewing motions, the use if distributed sensing in control of large flexible spacecraft, an improved shooting method for solving minimum-time maneuver problems, and nonlinear slew maneuver dynamics of large flexible spacecrafts. Attention is also given to initial experiments in trusterless locomotion control of a free-flying robot, dynamic analysis to evaluate viscoelastic passive damping augmentation for the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System, initial experiments in cooperative manipulation from a moving platform, and intelligent pipelined control architecture for remote robotic applications.

  12. Microcracking-induced damage in composites; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Dallas, TX, Nov. 25-30, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, George J.; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    Consideration is given to characteristics of micro-level fracture in notched unidirectional graphite-epoxy, progressive matrix cracking of crossply composite laminates under biaxial loading, the use of microcrack analysis in performance simulation for composite material systems, modeling of the flexural behavior of the ceramic-matrix composites, the effects of microcracking on thermal expansion and cyclic stress-strain relations of composites, and analysis of damage growth in particulate composites using a work potential. Attention is also given to modeling of cracking induced damage in particulate and fiber-reinforced composites, interaction of cracks in anisotropic matrix and related problems, micromechanics of brittle composites exposed to chemically aggressive ambients, and effects of interface on tribological properties of graphite/aluminum composites.

  13. Computers in engineering 1989; Proceedings of the ASME International Computers in Engineering Conference and Exposition, Anaheim, CA, July 30-Aug. 3, 1989. Volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Donald R.; Cokonis, T. James

    1989-06-01

    Various papers on the role of computers in engineering are presented. The general topics considered include: finite elements in structural mechanics and dynamics, computational fluid dynamics, computers in education, numerical modeling and simulation, finite element mesh generation techniques, thermo-fluids-energy education, finite elements and optimization, numerical analysis, finite element applications, CAD/CAM/CAE in education, combustion and heat transfer simulation, unique applications of finite element analysis, CFD in design, and simulation of energy systems and process control.

  14. MSX Satellite: Flight Measurements of Contaminant Films. AIAA/ASME Joint Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference (7th) Held in Albuquerque, NM on June 15-18, 1998,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-08-23

    instruments are still being collected. of -400 to -50 0C was calculated to be cooler than SECOT (aPIRIT 3 End of Cryo Operations all external...contamination sources, such as the Test) multilayer insulation, electronic boxes, and other - non-cryogenically cooled surfaces of the space- SECOT 1...TQCMs at -500C represent a "worst in SECOT experiments (as seen from the case" condition for the UV-visible instruments of sun). UVISI and SBV. 5

  15. Proceedings of the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing. Session 1A--Session 2C: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing, jointly sponsored by the Board of Nuclear Codes and Standards of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, provides a forum for the discussion of current programs and methods for inservice testing and motor-operated valve testing at nuclear power plants. The symposium also provides an opportunity to discuss the need to improve that testing in order to help ensure the reliable performance of pumps and valves. The participation of industry representatives, regulators, and consultants results in the discussion of a broad spectrum of ideas and perspectives regarding the improvement of inservice testing of pumps and valves at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume 1, covers sessions 1A through session 2C. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  16. Advances in dynamics and control of flexible spacecraft and space-based manipulations; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Dallas, TX, Nov. 25-30, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Suresh M.; Alberts, Thomas E.; Kakad, Yogendra P.

    Consideration is given to control formulations for vibration suppression of an active structure in slewing motions, the use if distributed sensing in control of large flexible spacecraft, an improved shooting method for solving minimum-time maneuver problems, and nonlinear slew maneuver dynamics of large flexible spacecrafts. Attention is also given to initial experiments in trusterless locomotion control of a free-flying robot, dynamic analysis to evaluate viscoelastic passive damping augmentation for the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System, initial experiments in cooperative manipulation from a moving platform, and intelligent pipelined control architecture for remote robotic applications.

  17. Differential Decay of Cattle-associated Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Fresh and Marine Water (ASM 2017 Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) have a long history of use in the assessment of the microbial quality of recreational waters. However, quantification of FIB provides no information about the pollution source(s) and relatively little is known about their fate in the amb...

  18. The outer membrane cytochromes of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 are lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Myers, C R; Myers, J M

    2004-01-01

    To determine if the outer membrane (OM) cytochromes OmcA and OmcB of the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 are lipoproteins, and to assess cell surface exposure of the cytochromes by radioiodination. In anaerobic MR-1 cells grown with (3)H-palmitoleic acid, both OmcA and OmcB were radiolabelled. The identities of these bands were confirmed by the absence of each radiolabelled band in the respective mutants lacking individual OM cytochromes. Radioiodination of cell surface proteins in anaerobic cells resulted in (125)I-labelled OmcA. The identity of this band was confirmed by its absence in an OmcA-minus mutant. A ubiquitous radioiodinated band that migrates similarly to OmcB precluded the ability to determine the potential cell surface exposure of OmcB by this method. Both OmcA and OmcB are lipoproteins, and OmcA is cell surface exposed. The lipoprotein modification of these OM cytochromes could be important for their localization or incorporation into the OM. The cell surface exposure of OmcA could allow it to directly transfer electrons to extracellular electron acceptors (e.g. manganese oxides) and is consistent with its in vivo role.

  19. Attenuated Allergenic Activity of Ovomucoid After Electrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Kido, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Ovomucoid (OMC) is the most prominent allergen causing hen's egg allergy, containing disulfide (S-S) bonds that may be responsible for its allergic action. As S-S bonds may be reduced during electrolysis, this study was undertaken to evaluate modulation of the allergic action of OMC after electrolysis. Electrolysis was carried out for 1% OMC containing 1% sodium chloride for 30 minutes with a voltage difference of 90 V, 0.23 A (30 mA/cm2). Protein assays, amino acid measurement, and mass spectrometry in untreated OMC and OMC on both the anode and cathode sides after electrolysis were performed. Moreover, 21 patients with IgE-mediated hen's egg allergy were evaluated by using the skin prick test (SPT) for untreated OMC and OMC after electrolysis. The allergic action of OMC was reduced after electrolysis on both the anode and cathode sides when evaluated by the SPT. The modifications of OMC on electrolysis caused the loss of 2 distinct peptide fragments (57E-63K and 123H-128R) as seen on matrix-associated laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The total free SH groups in OMC were increased on the cathode side. Although the regions of S-S broken bonds were not determined in this study, the change in S-S bonds in OMC on both the anode and cathode sides may reduce the allergenic activity. PMID:26333707

  20. The Roles of Outer Membrane Cytochromes of Shewanella and Geobacter in Extracellular Electron Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Liang; Richardson, David; Wang, Zheming; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2009-08-01

    As key components of the electron transfer (ET) pathways used for dissimilatory reduction of solid iron [Fe(III)] and manganese [Mn(IV)] (hydr)oxides, outer membrane cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and OmcE and OmcS of Geobacter sulfurreducens mediate ET reactions extracellularly. Cell surface-exposed MtrC and OmcA can transfer electrons directly to the metal oxides. S. oneidensis MR-1 cells also secrete flavins that can facilitate ET to the oxides. The secreted flavins are thought to serve either as chelators that form soluble Fe(III)/Mn(IV)-flavin complexes or as electron shuttles that ferry the electrons from cell-associated ET proteins to the metal oxides. Cell-surface localization may also permit MtrC and OmcA to transfer electrons extracellularly to either flavin-chelated Fe(III)/Mn(IV) or oxidized flavins. OmcE and OmcS are proposed to be located on the Geobacter cell surface where they are believed to function as the intermediates to relay electrons to type IV pili, which are then hypothesized to transfer electrons directly to the metal oxides. Thus, cell surface-localization positions these outer membrane cytochromes to transfer electrons to Fe(III)/Mn(IV) oxides external to the bacterial cells either directly, indirectly, or both, demonstrating a common strategy shared by Shewanella and Geobacter for extracellular reduction of the oxides.

  1. EDITORIAL: Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2010 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 10) (Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28 September-1 October 2010) Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2010 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 10) (Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28 September-1 October 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brei, Diann

    2011-09-01

    The third annual meeting of the AMSE/AIAA Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) took place in the heart of historic Philadelphia's cultural district, and included a pioneer banquet in the National Constitutional Center. The applications emphasis of the 2010 conference was reflected in keynote talks by Dr Alan Taub, vice president of General Motors global research and development, 'Smart materials in the automotive industry'; Dr Charles R Farrar, engineering institute leader at Los Alamos National Laboratory, 'Future directions for structural health monitoring of civil engineering infrastructure'; and Professor Christopher S Lynch of the University of California Los Angeles, 'Ferroelectric materials and their applications'. The SMASIS conference was divided into six technical symposia each of which included basic research, applied technological design and development, and industrial and governmental integrated system and application demonstrations. The six symposia were: SYMP 1 Multifunctional Materials; SYMP 2 Active Materials, Mechanics and Behavior; SYMP 3 Modeling, Simulation and Control; SYMP 4 Enabling Technologies and Integrated System Design; SYMP 5 Structural Health Monitoring/NDE; and SYMP 6 Bio-inspired Smart Materials and Structures. In addition, the conference introduced a new student and young professional development symposium. Authors of papers in the materials areas (symposia 1, 2 and 6) were invited to write a full journal article on their presentation topic for publication in this special issue of Smart Materials and Structures. This set of papers demonstrates the exceptional quality and originality of the conference presentations. We are appreciative of their efforts in producing this collection of highly relevant articles on smart materials.

  2. 46 CFR 52.01-140 - Certification by stamping (modifies PG-104 through PG-113).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... appropriate ASME Code symbol as required by PG-104 through PG-113 of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure... and serial number; (ii) ASME Code Symbol; (iii) Coast Guard symbol, which is affixed only by marine... boilers which are built to section I of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel...

  3. 40 CFR 194.5 - Publications incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Nuclear Quality Assurance (NQA) Standard, NQA-1-1989...) ASME NQA-2a-1990 addenda, part 2.7, to ASME NQA-2-1989 edition “Quality Assurance Requirements for Nuclear Facility Applications;” IBR approved for § 194.22 and § 194.23. (4) ASME NQA-3-1989...

  4. 77 FR 54839 - Clarification of Submission of Requests for Relief or Alternatives From the Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... that compliance with ASME Code, Section III, or Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE... different approach for meeting construction \\2\\ requirements of the ASME BPV Code, Section III, or the IEEE... the ASME BPV Code for ASME Code Class 1, 2 and 3 components, or (2) the requirements of IEEE...

  5. NiCo2O4 spinel/ordered mesoporous carbons as noble-metal free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction and the influence of structure of catalyst support on the electrochemical activity of NiCo2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Xiangjie; Zhang, Yufan; Li, Mian; Nsabimana, Anaclet; Guo, Liping

    2015-08-01

    Three ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) with different structures are used as catalyst supports for growth of NiCo2O4 spinel. The high surface area of OMCs provides more active sites to adsorb metal precursors. The porous structure confines the growth of NiCo2O4 and supplies more efficient transport passage for reactant molecules to access the active sites. Due to the structural characteristics of OMCs and catalytic properties of NiCo2O4, NiCo2O4/OMCs composites are highly active, cheap, and selective noble metal-free electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline solution. The electrochemical activity of NiCo2O4 supported on three OMCs with different structures, surface areas, pore sizes, pore volumes, and defective sites is studied. NiCo2O4/OMCs composites may be further used as efficient and inexpensive noble metal-free ORR catalysts in alkaline solution.

  6. SiO2@MgO nanoparticles templated mesoporous carbon with rich electro-active oxygenic functionalities and enhanced supercapacitive performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhengfang; Duan, Shuyi; Shen, Yu; Xie, Mingjiang; Guo, Xuefeng

    2017-06-01

    As a member of carbon-based materials, ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) still suffers from poor capacity for supercapacitive applications. Functionalization the skeleton with pseudocapacitive functionalities is an efficient way to enhance the capacity of OMCs. Herein, a designed SiO2@MgO nanoparticle with uniform diameters was employed as template towards the synthesis of pseudocapacitive oxygen functionalized OMC. The obtained carbons possess ordered mesoporous structure, large surface area, and rich pseudocapacitive oxygen species. As electrode for supercapacitor in 1.0 M H2SO4, the SiO2@MgO templated OMC achieves higher capacitance (257 F/g) than pure SiO2 templated OMC (180 F/g), surfactant templated OMC (152 F/g) and commercial activated carbon (110 F/g) owing to the high pseudocapacitive oxygen functionalities, providing more capacity by reversible Faradaic reaction.

  7. Recent Trends on Electrochemical Sensors Based on Ordered Mesoporous Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Walcarius, Alain

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has seen an increasing number of extensive studies devoted to the exploitation of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) materials in electrochemistry, notably in the fields of energy and sensing. The present review summarizes the recent achievements made in field of electroanalysis using electrodes modified with such nanomaterials. On the basis of comprehensive tables, the interest in OMC for designing electrochemical sensors is illustrated through the various applications developed to date. They include voltammetric detection after preconcentration, electrocatalysis (intrinsically due to OMC or based on suitable catalysts deposited onto OMC), electrochemical biosensors, as well as electrochemiluminescence and potentiometric sensors. PMID:28800106

  8. Recent Trends on Electrochemical Sensors Based on Ordered Mesoporous Carbon.

    PubMed

    Walcarius, Alain

    2017-08-11

    The past decade has seen an increasing number of extensive studies devoted to the exploitation of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) materials in electrochemistry, notably in the fields of energy and sensing. The present review summarizes the recent achievements made in field of electroanalysis using electrodes modified with such nanomaterials. On the basis of comprehensive tables, the interest in OMC for designing electrochemical sensors is illustrated through the various applications developed to date. They include voltammetric detection after preconcentration, electrocatalysis (intrinsically due to OMC or based on suitable catalysts deposited onto OMC), electrochemical biosensors, as well as electrochemiluminescence and potentiometric sensors.

  9. Characterization and machine learning prediction of allele-specific DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    He, Jianlin; Sun, Ming-an; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Qianfei; Li, Qing; Xie, Hehuang

    2015-12-01

    A large collection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) has been identified in the human genome. Currently, the epigenetic influences of SNPs on their neighboring CpG sites remain elusive. A growing body of evidence suggests that locus-specific information, including genomic features and local epigenetic state, may play important roles in the epigenetic readout of SNPs. In this study, we made use of mouse methylomes with known SNPs to develop statistical models for the prediction of SNP associated allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM). ASM has been classified into parent-of-origin dependent ASM (P-ASM) and sequence-dependent ASM (S-ASM), which comprises scattered-S-ASM (sS-ASM) and clustered-S-ASM (cS-ASM). We found that P-ASM and cS-ASM CpG sites are both enriched in CpG rich regions, promoters and exons, while sS-ASM CpG sites are enriched in simple repeat and regions with high frequent SNP occurrence. Using Lasso-grouped Logistic Regression (LGLR), we selected 21 out of 282 genomic and methylation related features that are powerful in distinguishing cS-ASM CpG sites and trained the classifiers with machine learning techniques. Based on 5-fold cross-validation, the logistic regression classifier was found to be the best for cS-ASM prediction with an ACC of 0.77, an AUC of 0.84 and an MCC of 0.54. Lastly, we applied the logistic regression classifier on human brain methylome and predicted 608 genes associated with cS-ASM. Gene ontology term enrichment analysis indicated that these cS-ASM associated genes are significantly enriched in the category coding for transcripts with alternative splicing forms. In summary, this study provided an analytical procedure for cS-ASM prediction and shed new light on the understanding of different types of ASM events.

  10. Eosinophils induce airway smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Halwani, Rabih; Vazquez-Tello, Alejandro; Sumi, Yuki; Pureza, Mary Angeline; Bahammam, Ahmed; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan; Soussi-Gounni, Abdelillah; Mahboub, Bassam; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Hamid, Qutayba

    2013-04-01

    Asthma is characterized by eosinophilic airway inflammation and remodeling of the airway wall. Features of airway remodeling include increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. However, little is known about the interaction between inflammatory eosinophils and ASM cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of eosinophils on ASM cell proliferation. Eosinophils were isolated from peripheral blood of mild asthmatics and non-asthmatic subjects and co-cultured with human primary ASM cells. ASM proliferation was estimated using Ki-67 expression assay. The expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) mRNA in ASM cells was measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The role of eosinophil derived Cysteinyl Leukotrienes (CysLTs) in enhancing ASM proliferation was estimated by measuring the release of leukotrienes from eosinophils upon their direct contact with ASM cells using ELISA. This role was confirmed either by blocking eosinophil-ASM contact or co-culturing them in the presence of leukotrienes antagonist. ASM cells co-cultured with eosinophils, isolated from asthmatics, but not non-asthmatics, had a significantly higher rate of proliferation compared to controls. This increase in ASM proliferation was independent of their release of ECM proteins but dependent upon eosinophils release of CysLTs. Eosinophil-ASM cell to cell contact was required for CysLTs release. Preventing eosinophil contact with ASM cells using anti-adhesion molecules antibodies, or blocking the activity of eosinophil derived CysLTs using montelukast inhibited ASM proliferation. Our results indicated that eosinophils contribute to airway remodeling during asthma by enhancing ASM cell proliferation and hence increasing ASM mass. Direct contact of eosinophils with ASM cells triggers their release of CysLTs which enhance ASM proliferation. Eosinophils, and their binding to ASM cells, constitute a potential therapeutic target to interfere with the series of biological events leading to airway remodeling

  11. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of octyl methoxycinnamate liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Varjão Mota, Aline de Carvalho; Faria de Freitas, Zaida Maria; Júnior, Eduardo Ricci; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela Maria; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph; Ozzetti, Rafael Antonio; Vergnanini, André Luiz; Ribeiro, Vanessa Lira; Silva, Ronald Santos; dos Santos, Elisabete Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Solar radiation causes damage to human skin, and photoprotection is the main way to prevent these harmful effects. The development of sunscreen formulations containing nanosystems is of great interest in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries because of the many potential benefits. This study aimed to develop and evaluate an octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) liposomal nanosystem (liposome/OMC) to obtain a sunscreen formulation with improved safety and efficacy by retaining OMC for longer on the stratum corneum. Methods The liposome/OMC nanostructure obtained was tested for enzymatic hydrolysis with lipase from Rhizomucor miehei and biodistribution with liposomes labeled with technetium-99m. The liposome/OMC formulation was then incorporated in a gel formulation and tested for ocular irritation using the hen’s egg test-chorio-allantoic membrane (HET-CAM) assay, in vitro and in vivo sun protection factor, in vitro release profile, skin biometrics, and in vivo tape stripping. Results The liposome/OMC nanosystem was not hydrolyzed from R. miehei by lipase. In the biodistribution assay, the liposome/OMC formulation labeled with technetium-99m had mainly deposited in the skin, while for OMC the main organ was the liver, showing that the liposome had higher affinity for the skin than OMC. The liposome/OMC formulation was classified as nonirritating in the HET-CAM test, indicating good histocompatibility. The formulation containing liposome/OMC had a higher in vivo solar photoprotection factor, but did not show increased water resistance. Inclusion in liposomes was able to slow down the release of OMC from the formulation, with a lower steady-state flux (3.9 ± 0.33 μg/cm2/hour) compared with the conventional formulation (6.3 ± 1.21 μg/cm2/hour). The stripping method showed increased uptake of OMC in the stratum corneum, giving an amount of 22.64 ± 7.55 μg/cm2 of OMC, which was higher than the amount found for the conventional formulation (14.57 ± 2.30 μg/cm2

  12. A Guide to Utilization of the Microbiology Laboratory for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: 2013 Recommendations by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Society for Microbiology (ASM)a

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Ellen Jo; Miller, J. Michael; Weinstein, Melvin P.; Richter, Sandra S.; Gilligan, Peter H.; Thomson, Richard B.; Bourbeau, Paul; Carroll, Karen C.; Kehl, Sue C.; Dunne, W. Michael; Robinson-Dunn, Barbara; Schwartzman, Joseph D.; Chapin, Kimberle C.; Snyder, James W.; Forbes, Betty A.; Patel, Robin; Rosenblatt, Jon E.; Pritt, Bobbi S.

    2013-01-01

    The critical role of the microbiology laboratory in infectious disease diagnosis calls for a close, positive working relationship between the physician and the microbiologists who provide enormous value to the health care team. This document, developed by both laboratory and clinical experts, provides information on which tests are valuable and in which contexts, and on tests that add little or no value for diagnostic decisions. Sections are divided into anatomic systems, including Bloodstream Infections and Infections of the Cardiovascular System, Central Nervous System Infections, Ocular Infections, Soft Tissue Infections of the Head and Neck, Upper Respiratory Infections, Lower Respiratory Tract infections, Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Intraabdominal Infections, Bone and Joint Infections, Urinary Tract Infections, Genital Infections, and Skin and Soft Tissue Infections; or into etiologic agent groups, including Tickborne Infections, Viral Syndromes, and Blood and Tissue Parasite Infections. Each section contains introductory concepts, a summary of key points, and detailed tables that list suspected agents; the most reliable tests to order; the samples (and volumes) to collect in order of preference; specimen transport devices, procedures, times, and temperatures; and detailed notes on specific issues regarding the test methods, such as when tests are likely to require a specialized laboratory or have prolonged turnaround times. There is redundancy among the tables and sections, as many agents and assay choices overlap. The document is intended to serve as a reference to guide physicians in choosing tests that will aid them to diagnose infectious diseases in their patients. PMID:23845951

  13. AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, 33rd, Dallas, TX, Apr. 13-15, 1992, Technical Papers. Pt. 5 - Design engineering/design optimization, materials, work-in-progress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The conference focuses on recent advances in disciplines related to the analysis and design of aerospace structures. Topics discussed include damage tolerance of composites, computational structural mechanics, buckling/postbuckling of plates and stiffened panels, adaptive structures, spacecraft dynamics, and aeroelasticity. Other topics include unsteady aerodynamics, aerospace structural design optimization, modeling of material behavior, and ceramic matrix composites.

  14. Modeling of Multiphase Alumina-Loaded Jet Flow Fields. AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference (34th) and Exhibit Held in Cleveland, OH on July 13-15, 1998

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    turbulence, particle drag, chemistry, and particle supercooling. The particle phase change is simulated kinetically and includes two solid Al2O3 crystalline structures : meta stable gamma and stable alpha forms.

  15. ASME Heat Transfer Division: Proceedings. Volume 1: Heat transfer in microgravity systems, radiative heat transfer and radiative heat transfer in low-temperature environments, and thermal contact conductance and inverse problems in heat transfer; HTD-Volume 332

    SciTech Connect

    Gopinath, A.; Sadhal, S.S.; Jones, P.D.; Seyed-Yagoobi, J.; Woodbury, K.A.

    1996-12-31

    In the first section on heat transfer in microgravity, the papers cover phase-change phenomena and thermocapillary flows and surface effects. In the second section, several papers cover solution methods for radiative heat transfer while the rest cover heat transfer in low-temperature environments. The last section covers papers containing valuable information for thermal contact conductance of various materials plus papers on inverse problems in heat transfer. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume.

  16. Executive summary: a guide to utilization of the microbiology laboratory for diagnosis of infectious diseases: 2013 recommendations by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Society for Microbiology (ASM)(a).

    PubMed

    Baron, Ellen Jo; Miller, J Michael; Weinstein, Melvin P; Richter, Sandra S; Gilligan, Peter H; Thomson, Richard B; Bourbeau, Paul; Carroll, Karen C; Kehl, Sue C; Dunne, W Michael; Robinson-Dunn, Barbara; Schwartzman, Joseph D; Chapin, Kimberle C; Snyder, James W; Forbes, Betty A; Patel, Robin; Rosenblatt, Jon E; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2013-08-01

    The critical role of the microbiology laboratory in infectious disease diagnosis calls for a close, positive working relationship between the physician and the microbiologists who provide enormous value to the health care team. This document, developed by both laboratory and clinical experts, provides information on which tests are valuable and in which contexts, and on tests that add little or no value for diagnostic decisions. Sections are divided into anatomic systems, including Bloodstream Infections and Infections of the Cardiovascular System, Central Nervous System Infections, Ocular Infections, Soft Tissue Infections of the Head and Neck, Upper Respiratory Infections, Lower Respiratory Tract infections, Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Intraabdominal Infections, Bone and Joint Infections, Urinary Tract Infections, Genital Infections, and Skin and Soft Tissue Infections; or into etiologic agent groups, including Tickborne Infections, Viral Syndromes, and Blood and Tissue Parasite Infections. Each section contains introductory concepts, a summary of key points, and detailed tables that list suspected agents; the most reliable tests to order; the samples (and volumes) to collect in order of preference; specimen transport devices, procedures, times, and temperatures; and detailed notes on specific issues regarding the test methods, such as when tests are likely to require a specialized laboratory or have prolonged turnaround times. There is redundancy among the tables and sections, as many agents and assay choices overlap. The document is intended to serve as a reference to guide physicians in choosing tests that will aid them to diagnose infectious diseases in their patients.

  17. A guide to utilization of the microbiology laboratory for diagnosis of infectious diseases: 2013 recommendations by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Society for Microbiology (ASM)(a).

    PubMed

    Baron, Ellen Jo; Miller, J Michael; Weinstein, Melvin P; Richter, Sandra S; Gilligan, Peter H; Thomson, Richard B; Bourbeau, Paul; Carroll, Karen C; Kehl, Sue C; Dunne, W Michael; Robinson-Dunn, Barbara; Schwartzman, Joseph D; Chapin, Kimberle C; Snyder, James W; Forbes, Betty A; Patel, Robin; Rosenblatt, Jon E; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2013-08-01

    The critical role of the microbiology laboratory in infectious disease diagnosis calls for a close, positive working relationship between the physician and the microbiologists who provide enormous value to the health care team. This document, developed by both laboratory and clinical experts, provides information on which tests are valuable and in which contexts, and on tests that add little or no value for diagnostic decisions. Sections are divided into anatomic systems, including Bloodstream Infections and Infections of the Cardiovascular System, Central Nervous System Infections, Ocular Infections, Soft Tissue Infections of the Head and Neck, Upper Respiratory Infections, Lower Respiratory Tract infections, Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Intraabdominal Infections, Bone and Joint Infections, Urinary Tract Infections, Genital Infections, and Skin and Soft Tissue Infections; or into etiologic agent groups, including Tickborne Infections, Viral Syndromes, and Blood and Tissue Parasite Infections. Each section contains introductory concepts, a summary of key points, and detailed tables that list suspected agents; the most reliable tests to order; the samples (and volumes) to collect in order of preference; specimen transport devices, procedures, times, and temperatures; and detailed notes on specific issues regarding the test methods, such as when tests are likely to require a specialized laboratory or have prolonged turnaround times. There is redundancy among the tables and sections, as many agents and assay choices overlap. The document is intended to serve as a reference to guide physicians in choosing tests that will aid them to diagnose infectious diseases in their patients.

  18. Toward improved durability in advanced aircraft engine hot sections; Proceedings of the Thirty-third ASME International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, Amsterdam, Netherlands, June 5-9, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, Daniel E. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The present conference on durability improvement methods for advanced aircraft gas turbine hot-section components discusses NASA's 'HOST' project, advanced high-temperature instrumentation for hot-section research, the development and application of combustor aerothermal models, and the evaluation of a data base and numerical model for turbine heat transfer. Also discussed are structural analysis methods for gas turbine hot section components, fatigue life-prediction modeling for turbine hot section materials, and the service life modeling of thermal barrier coatings for aircraft gas turbine engines.

  19. A European Space for Education Looking for Its Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstrom, Ninni

    2010-01-01

    The open method of coordination (OMC) within the Lisbon strategy is discussed in terms of a European Space for Education and "programme ontology". The focus is on indicators and the European dimension, and how they "work" in the forming of contents and identities in this European Space for Education. The OMC is analyzed in…

  20. 77 FR 11022 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Alaska; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... visual range (or deciview), which is the greatest distance, in kilometers or miles, at which a dark... pollutants are sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and fine particulate matter. EPA has indicated that states... Denali TRCR1 site are: OMC (43%), sulfates (35%), coarse matter (7%); and at the Tuxedni site are: OMC...

  1. Education Policy Convergence through the Open Method of Coordination: Theoretical Reflections and Implementation in "Old" and "New" National Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexiadou, Nafsika; Fink-Hafner, Danica; Lange, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses two key questions about the convergence of education policies in the European Union (EU). How does the open method of coordination (OMC), a new governance instrument for the Europeanisation of education policies, change existing national education policy making and how can the OMC and national responses to it be researched?…

  2. Selective Acquiescence, Creative Commitment and Strategic Conformity: Situated National Policy Responses to Bologna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina; Saunders, Murray

    2014-01-01

    The non-binding nature of the Bologna Declaration and loose policy-making and implementation through the open method of coordination (OMC) have led to varied national responses to the Bologna Process. The OMC has allowed countries room for manoeuvre to interpret Bologna policy and attach different degrees of importance to it. Looking at the…

  3. A European Space for Education Looking for Its Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstrom, Ninni

    2010-01-01

    The open method of coordination (OMC) within the Lisbon strategy is discussed in terms of a European Space for Education and "programme ontology". The focus is on indicators and the European dimension, and how they "work" in the forming of contents and identities in this European Space for Education. The OMC is analyzed in…

  4. Preparation and evaluation of novel octylmethoxycinnamate-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, X-h; Liang, X-z; Fang, X; Zhang, W-P

    2015-08-01

    Octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared by ultrasonic emulsification method. Effects of process variables and formulation composition were investigated on particle size and polydispersity index (PI), and the UV absorbance. Effect of OMC concentration on entrapment efficiency (EE) was also studied. The optimal formulation was characterized and evaluated by environment emission scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). In addition, the degradations of OMC from SLNs and OMC conventional emulsion were compared. The composition of optimal formulation was determined as 5% (w/w) of solid lipid, 7% (w/w) of emulsifier and 9% of loaded OMC, resulting in a particle size of 392.8 nm, and EE of 88.73%, LD of 38.05% under the preparation condition of 6 min of sonication, 400 W of sonication power. ESEM study showed spherical particles with smooth surface. DSC studies indicated OMC encapsulation within the nanoparticle matrix. The characteristic peaks for OMC-SLNs stood at 1710, 1604, 1513, 1465 and 830.3 cm(-1) . The degradation rate of OMC was decreased when using SLNs formulations compared to conventional emulsion. Hence, the developed SLNs can be used as sunscreen carrier for improve the stability. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Early Survey Results from the Minnesota Medical Cannabis Program.

    PubMed

    McGriff, Deepa; Anderson, Susan; Arneson, Tom

    2016-06-01

    As part of its legislative mandate, the Minnesota Department of Health's Office of Medical Cannabis (OMC) is required to study and report on the state's medical cannabis program. This article describes preliminary findings from the OMC's research about who is using the program and whether patients and their certifying health care practitioners are noticing benefits and harms.

  6. Role of gap junctions and protein kinase A during the development of oocyte maturational competence in Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yamamoto, Y.; Yoshizaki, G.; Takeuchi, T.; Soyano, K.; Patino, R.

    2008-01-01

    Meiotic resumption in teleost oocytes is induced by a maturation-inducing hormone (MIH). The sensitivity of oocytes to MIH, also known as oocyte maturational competence (OMC), is induced by LH via mechanisms that are not fully understood. A previous study of Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) showed the presence of functional heterologous gap junctions (GJs) between oocytes and their surrounding granulosa cells. The objectives of this study were to determine the role of ovarian GJs and of protein kinase A (PKA) during the acquisition of OMC. We examined the effects of the specific GJ inhibitor carbenoxolone (CBX) and 18??-glycyrrhetinic acid (??-GA) on the LH-(hCG)-dependent acquisition of OMC and on MIH-(17,20??-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one)-dependent meiotic resumption; measured the cAMP content of ovarian follicles during the hCG-dependent acquisition of OMC; and determined the effects of PK activators and inhibitors on hCG-dependent OMC. Production of follicular cAMP increased during the hCG-dependent acquisition of OMC. Both GJ inhibitors and the PKA inhibitor H8-dihydrochloride, but not the PKC inhibitor GF109203X, suppressed the hCG-dependent acquisition of OMC in a dose-dependent manner. The PKA activator forskolin induced OMC with a similar potency to hCG. Unlike previous observations with teleosts where disruption of heterologous GJ either blocks or stimulates meiotic resumption, treatment with GJ inhibitors did not affect MIH-dependent meiotic resumption in maturationally competent follicles of Ayu. These observations suggest that ovarian GJs are essential for LH-dependent acquisition of OMC but not for MIH-dependent meiotic resumption, and that the stimulation of OMC by LH is mediated by cAMP-dependent PKA. They are also consistent with the view that a precise balance between GJ-mediated signals (positive or negative) and oocyte maturational readiness is required for hormonally regulated meiotic resumption. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Highly ordered mesoporous carbons as electrode material for the construction of electrochemical dehydrogenase- and oxidase-based biosensors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Shang, Li; Li, Bingling; Huang, Lijian; Dong, Shaojun

    2008-11-15

    In this work, the excellent catalytic activity of highly ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) to the electrooxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was described for the construction of electrochemical alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and glucose oxidase (GOD)-based biosensors. The high density of edge-plane-like defective sites and high specific surface area of OMCs could be responsible for the electrocatalytic behavior at OMCs modified glassy carbon electrode (OMCs/GE), which induced a substantial decrease in the overpotential of NADH and H(2)O(2) oxidation reaction compared to carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (CNTs/GE). Such ability of OMCs permits effective low-potential amperometric biosensing of ethanol and glucose, respectively, at Nafion/ADH-OMCs/GE and Nafion/GOD-OMCs/GE. Especially, as an amperometric glucose biosensor, Nafion/GOD-OMCs/GE showed large determination range (500-15,000 micromoll(-1)), high sensitivity (0.053 nA micromol(-1)), fast (9+/-1s) and stable response (amperometric response retained 90% of the initial activity after 10h stirring of 2 mmoll(-1) glucose solution) to glucose as well as the effective discrimination to the possible interferences, which may make it to readily satisfy the need for the routine clinical diagnosis of diabetes. By comparing the electrochemical performance of OMCs with that of CNTs as electrode material for the construction of ADH- and GOD-biosensors in this work, we reveal that OMCs could be a favorable and promising carbon electrode material for constructing other electrochemical dehydrogenase- and oxidase-based biosensors, which may have wide potential applications in biocatalysis, bioelectronics and biofuel cells.

  8. Hierarchically ordered mesoporous carbon/graphene composites as supercapacitor electrode materials.

    PubMed

    Song, Yanjie; Li, Zhu; Guo, Kunkun; Shao, Ting

    2016-08-25

    Hierarchically ordered mesoporous carbon/graphene (OMC/G) composites have been fabricated by means of a solvent-evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) method. The structures of these composites are characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption at 77 K. These results indicate that OMC/G composites possess the hierarchically ordered hexagonal p6mm mesostructure with the lattice unit parameter and pore diameter close to 10 nm and 3 nm, respectively. The specific surface area of OMC/G composites after KOH activation is high up to 2109.2 m(2) g(-1), which is significantly greater than OMC after activation (1474.6 m(2) g(-1)). Subsequently, the resulting OMC/G composites as supercapacitor electrode materials exhibit an outstanding capacitance as high as 329.5 F g(-1) in 6 M KOH electrolyte at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1), which is much higher than both OMC (234.2 F g(-1)) and a sample made by mechanical mixing of OMC with graphene (217.7 F g(-1)). In addition, the obtained OMC/G composites display good cyclic stability, and the final capacitance retention is approximately 96% after 5000 cycles. These ordered mesopores in the OMC/G composites are beneficial to the accessibility and rapid diffusion of the electrolyte, while graphene in OMC/G composites can also facilitate the transport of electrons during the processes of charging and discharging owing to its high conductivity, thereby leading to an excellent energy storage performance. The method demonstrated in this work would open up a new route to design and develop graphene-based architectures for supercapacitor applications.

  9. 49 CFR 178.255-15 - Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter) under which the tank is fabricated... are as follows: Manufacturer's name Serial number Owner's serial number DOT specification ASME...

  10. Knee cartilage segmentation using active shape models and local binary patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Germán.; Escalante-Ramírez, Boris

    2014-05-01

    Segmentation of knee cartilage has been useful for opportune diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). This paper presents a semiautomatic segmentation technique based on Active Shape Models (ASM) combined with Local Binary Patterns (LBP) and its approaches to describe the surrounding texture of femoral cartilage. The proposed technique is tested on a 16-image database of different patients and it is validated through Leave- One-Out method. We compare different segmentation techniques: ASM-LBP, ASM-medianLBP, and ASM proposed by Cootes. The ASM-LBP approaches are tested with different ratios to decide which of them describes the cartilage texture better. The results show that ASM-medianLBP has better performance than ASM-LBP and ASM. Furthermore, we add a routine which improves the robustness versus two principal problems: oversegmentation and initialization.

  11. 49 CFR 178.337-16 - Testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conform to appendix 6 in Section VIII of the ASME Code except that permanent magnets shall not be used. (2... with appendix 12 in Section VIII of the ASME Code. Permanent magnets must not be used to perform...

  12. 49 CFR 178.337-16 - Testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conform to appendix 6 in Section VIII of the ASME Code except that permanent magnets shall not be used. (2... with appendix 12 in Section VIII of the ASME Code. Permanent magnets must not be used to perform...

  13. 49 CFR 178.337-16 - Testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conform to appendix 6 in Section VIII of the ASME Code except that permanent magnets shall not be used. (2... with appendix 12 in Section VIII of the ASME Code. Permanent magnets must not be used to perform...

  14. 49 CFR 178.337-16 - Testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conform to appendix 6 in Section VIII of the ASME Code except that permanent magnets shall not be used. (2... with appendix 12 in Section VIII of the ASME Code. Permanent magnets must not be used to perform...

  15. 33 CFR 127.003 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Currents, 1991 127.1101 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990: ASME B31.3, Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping, 1993 127.1101 American Society...

  16. 40 CFR 194.5 - Publications incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Nuclear Quality Assurance (NQA) Standard, NQA-1-1989...: (1) For ASME standards, contact American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 22 Law Drive, P.O. Box...

  17. 49 CFR 178.345-3 - Structural integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Longitudinal compressive buckling stress for ASME certified vessels must be calculated using paragraph UG-23(b... ASME Code, compressive buckling stress may be calculated using alternative analysis methods which...

  18. 40 CFR 194.5 - Publications incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Nuclear Quality Assurance (NQA) Standard, NQA-1-1989...: (1) For ASME standards, contact American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 22 Law Drive, P.O. Box 2900...

  19. 46 CFR 64.2 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... incorporation by reference in this part, and the sections affected, are: American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) International Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel...

  20. 46 CFR 98.01-3 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing” 98.25-97(c)(2) American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) International Three Park Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10016-5990 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel...

  1. 46 CFR 64.2 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... incorporation by reference in this part, and the sections affected, are: American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) International Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel...

  2. 46 CFR 98.01-3 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing” 98.25-97(c)(2) American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) International Three Park Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10016-5990 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel...

  3. 46 CFR 98.01-3 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing” 98.25-97(c)(2) American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) International Three Park Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10016-5990 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel...

  4. 46 CFR 56.01-2 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... available for inspection at the Coast Guard Headquarters. Contact Commandant (CG-ENG), Attn: Office of.../ASME B1.20.1-1983 Pipe Threads, General Purpose (Inch) (1983) (“ANSI/ASME B1.20.1”), 56.60-1; (3) ANSI/ASME B1.20.3-1976 (Reaffirmed 1982) Dryseal Pipe Threads (Inch) (“ANSI/ASME B1.20.3”), 56.60-1; (4...

  5. 46 CFR 56.01-2 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... available for inspection at the Coast Guard Headquarters. Contact Commandant (CG-ENG), Attn: Office of.../ASME B1.20.1-1983 Pipe Threads, General Purpose (Inch) (1983) (“ANSI/ASME B1.20.1”), 56.60-1; (3) ANSI/ASME B1.20.3-1976 (Reaffirmed 1982) Dryseal Pipe Threads (Inch) (“ANSI/ASME B1.20.3”), 56.60-1; (4...

  6. Reusable amine-based structural motifs for green house gas (CO2) fixation.

    PubMed

    Dalapati, Sasanka; Jana, Sankar; Saha, Rajat; Alam, Md Akhtarul; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2012-07-06

    A series of compounds with an amine based structural motif (ASM) have been synthesized for efficient atmospheric CO(2) fixation. The H-bonded ASM-bicarbonate complexes were formed with an in situ generated HCO(3)(-) ion. The complexes have been characterized by IR, (13)C NMR, and X-ray single-crystal structural analysis. ASM-bicarbonate salts have been converted to pure ASMs in quantitative yield under mild conditions for recycling processes.

  7. 46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vessel. (See Appendix 3 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by... section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, together with the effect of any combination of loadings listed in UG-22 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (see 46 CFR...

  8. 46 CFR 59.01-2 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the sources listed below. (b) American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) International, Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990: (1) 2001 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section I, Rules for Construction of Power Boilers (July 1, 2001) (“Section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...

  9. 76 FR 24444 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... monitoring (DSM and ASM, respectively) coverage requirements implemented by Amendment 16, prioritization of coverage is necessary to ensure trips intending to possess or land fish receive DSM and ASM coverage. Because exempting set-only trips from VTR, DSM, and ASM requirements could create an incentive for...

  10. 46 CFR 56.01-2 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... available for inspection at the U.S. Coast Guard, Office of Design and Engineering Standards (CG-521), 2100...; (3) ANSI/ASME B1.20.3-1976 (Reaffirmed 1982) Dryseal Pipe Threads (Inch) (“ANSI/ASME B1.20.3”), 56.60...; (3) 1998 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX, Welding and Brazing Qualifications (1998...

  11. 46 CFR 56.01-2 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... available for inspection at the U.S. Coast Guard, Office of Design and Engineering Standards (CG-ENG), 2100...; (3) ANSI/ASME B1.20.3-1976 (Reaffirmed 1982) Dryseal Pipe Threads (Inch) (“ANSI/ASME B1.20.3”), 56.60...; (3) 1998 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX, Welding and Brazing Qualifications (1998...

  12. Decision Topology Assessment in Engineering Design Under Uncertainity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    ASME International Proceedings of IDETC/ CIE 2014 ASME 2014 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information...public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES For Proceedings of IDETC/ CIE 2014 ASME 2014 International Design Engineering Technical... definition . Similarly to calculating the expectation of a utility function in decision analysis, we can calculate the expectation of the score

  13. Intrinsic relationship between enhanced oxygen reduction reaction activity and nanoscale work function of doped carbons.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Jae Yeong; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jae Hyung; Goddeti, Kalyan C; Park, Jeong Young; Joo, Sang Hoon

    2014-06-25

    Nanostructured carbon materials doped with a variety of heteroatoms have shown promising electrocatalytic activity in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, understanding of the working principles that underpin the superior ORR activity observed with doped nanocarbons is still limited to predictions based on theoretical calculations. Herein, we demonstrate, for the first time, that the enhanced ORR activity in doped nanocarbons can be correlated with the variation in their nanoscale work function. A series of doped ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) were prepared using N, S, and O as dopants; the triple-doped, N,S,O-OMC displayed superior ORR activity and four-electron selectivity compared to the dual-doped (N,O-OMC and S,O-OMC) and the monodoped (O-OMC) OMCs. Significantly, the work functions of these heteroatom-doped OMCs, measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy, display a strong correlation with the activity and reaction kinetics for the ORR. This unprecedented experimental insight can be used to provide an explanation for the enhanced ORR activity of heteroatom-doped carbon materials.

  14. Wet oxidation of ordered mesoporous carbon FDU-15 by using (NH4)2S2O8 for fast adsorption of Sr(II): An investigation on surface chemistry and adsorption mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yang; Ye, Gang; Chen, Jing; Lv, Dachao; Wang, Jianchen

    2015-12-01

    Surface modification of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) by wet oxidation provides an oxygen-enriched platform for complexation of metal ions. Here, we present a comprehensive study on the surface chemistry and textual property of OMC FDU-15 modified by wet oxidation using (NH4)2S2O8 as a benign oxidant. And, for the first time, the adsorption behavior and mechanism of wet-oxidized OMC FDU-15 toward Sr(II) in aqueous solutions were investigated. The mesostructural regularity of the OMC FDU-15 was well-reserved under wet oxidation. Compared to OMC CMK-type counterparts prepared via nanocasting, the OMC FDU-15 by soft template method showed much-enhanced structural stability. Due to the introduction of abundant oxygen-containing species, the oxidized OMC FDU-15 exhibited excellent hydrophilicity and dispersibility in aqueous solutions. The adsorption behavior toward Sr(II) was fully investigated, showing a super-fast adsorption kinetics (< 5 min to reach equilibrium) and a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Moreover, an in-depth X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis through deconvolution of high resolution C1s and O1s spectra was implemented to identify the chemical species of the surface functional groups, while probing the adsorption mechanism. The results suggested that oxygen donor atoms in Csbnd O single bonds mainly contribute to the adsorption of Sr(II) via formation of metal-ligand complexation.

  15. A target field design of open multi-purpose RF coil for musculoskeletal MR imaging at 3T.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Zhang, Rui; Zhou, Diange; Wang, Xiaoying; Huang, Kefu; Zhang, Jue

    2016-10-01

    Musculoskeletal MR imaging under multi-angle situations plays an increasingly important role in assessing joint and muscle tissues system. However, there are still limitations due to the closed structures of most conventional RF coils. In this study, a time-harmonic target-field method was employed to design open multi-purpose coil (OMC) for multi-angle musculoskeletal MR imaging. The phantom imaging results suggested that the proposed OMC could achieve homogeneously distributed magnetic field and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 239.04±0.83 in the region of interest (ROI). The maximum temperature in the heating hazard test was 16°C lower than the standard regulation, which indicated the security of the designed OMC. Furthermore, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed OMC for musculoskeletal MR imaging, especially for multi-angle imaging, a healthy volunteer was examined for MR imaging of elbow, ankle and knee using OMC. The in vivo imaging results showed that the proposed OMC is effective for MR imaging of musculoskeletal tissues at different body parts, with satisfied B1 field homogeneity and SNR. Moreover, the open structure of the OMC could provide a large joint movement region. The proposed open multi-purpose coil is feasible for musculoskeletal MR imaging, and potentially, it is more suitable for the evaluation of musculoskeletal tissues under multi-angle conditions.

  16. Ordered mesoporous carbon/Nafion as a versatile and selective solid-phase microextraction coating.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jingbin; Zhao, Cuiying; Chen, Jingjing; Subhan, Fazle; Luo, Liwen; Yu, Jianfeng; Cui, Bingwen; Xing, Wei; Chen, Xi; Yan, Zifeng

    2014-10-24

    In this study, ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) with large surface area (1019m(2)g(-1)), uniform mesoporous structure (pore size distribution centering at 4.2nm) and large pore volume (1.46cm(3)g(-1)) was synthesized using 2D hexagonally mesoporous silica MSU-H as the hard template and sucrose as the carbon precursor. The as-synthesized OMC was immobilized onto a stainless steel wire using Nafion as a binder to prepare an OMC/Nafion solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coating. The extraction characteristics of the OMC/Nafion coating were extensively investigated using a wide range of analytes including non-polar (light petroleum and benzene homologues) and polar compounds (amines and phenols). The OMC/Nafion coating exhibited much better extraction efficiency towards all selected analytes than that of a multi-walled carbon nanotubes/Nafion coating with similar length and thickness, which is ascribed to its high surface area, well-ordered mesoporous structure and large pore volume. When the OMC/Nafion coating was used to extract a mixture containing various kinds of analytes, it possessed excellent extraction selectivity towards aromatic non-polar compounds. In addition, the feasibility of the OMC/Nafion coating for application in electrochemically enhanced SPME was demonstrated using protonated amines as model analytes.

  17. Magnetite compensates for the lack of a pilin-associated c-type cytochrome in extracellular electron exchange.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fanghua; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Shrestha, Pravin M; Malvankar, Nikhil S; Nevin, Kelly P; Lovley, Derek R

    2015-03-01

    Nanoscale magnetite can facilitate microbial extracellular electron transfer that plays an important role in biogeochemical cycles, bioremediation and several bioenergy strategies, but the mechanisms for the stimulation of extracellular electron transfer are poorly understood. Further investigation revealed that magnetite attached to the electrically conductive pili of Geobacter species in a manner reminiscent of the association of the multi-heme c-type cytochrome OmcS with the pili of Geobacter sulfurreducens. Magnetite conferred extracellular electron capabilities on an OmcS-deficient strain unable to participate in interspecies electron transfer or Fe(III) oxide reduction. In the presence of magnetite wild-type cells repressed expression of the OmcS gene, suggesting that cells might need to produce less OmcS when magnetite was available. The finding that magnetite can compensate for the lack of the electron transfer functions of a multi-heme c-type cytochrome has implications not only for the function of modern microbes, but also for the early evolution of microbial electron transport mechanisms. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Synthesis of graphitic ordered mesoporous carbon with cubic symmetry and its application in lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Seop; Jeong, Jinhoo; Cho, Won Il; Kim, Woong

    2016-03-01

    The lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery faces a couple of major problems in practical applications, including the low conductivity of sulfur and the dissolution of polysulfides. A cathode constructed using a composite of sulfur and ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) is a promising solution to both problems, as OMCs can have high conductivity and a complex pore structure to trap polysulfides. In this work, we demonstrate that performance of the Li-S battery can be significantly enhanced by using an OMC with a high degree of graphitization and a pore network with cubic symmetry. This graphitic OMC (GOMC) can be produced in a single step using iron phthalocyanine precursor and a silica template with cubic Ia3d symmetry. The GOMC-sulfur (GOMC/S) composite is 175% higher in electrical conductivity compared to the typical OMC-sulfur (OMC/S) composite. In addition, the three-dimensional pore network in GOMC prevents the migration of dissolved polysulfides. These characteristics of GOMC contribute to the improved rate capability and cyclability of the corresponding Li-S battery.

  19. Electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of polyoxometalate-ordered mesoporous carbon modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Guo, Li-ping; Lin, Fan-yun; Liu, Hai-xia

    2007-03-21

    In this work, we have developed a convenient and efficient method for the functionalization of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) using polyoxometalate H6P2Mo18O62 x H2O (P2Mo18). By the method, glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with P(2)Mo(18) which was immobilized on the channel surface of OMC was prepared and characterized for the first time. The large specific surface area and porous structure of the modified OMC particles result in high heteropolyacid loading, and the P(2)Mo(18) entrapped in this order matrix is stable. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to give insight into the intermolecular interaction between OMC and P(2)Mo(18). The electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode was studied in detail, including pH-dependence, stability and so on. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry studies demonstrated that P(2)Mo(18)/OMC/GC electrode has high stability, fast response and good electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of nitrite, bromate, idonate, and hydrogen peroxide. The mechanism of catalysis on P(2)Mo(18)/OMC/GC electrode was discussed. Moreover, the development of our approach for OMC functionalization suggests the potential applications in catalysis, molecular electronics and sensors.

  20. Mast cell migration to Th2 stimulated airway smooth muscle from asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, A; Kaur, D; Page, S; Woodman, L; Armour, C L; Baraket, M; Bradding, P; Hughes, J M; Brightling, C E

    2006-01-01

    Background Mast cell microlocalisation within the airway smooth muscle (ASM) bundle is an important determinant of the asthmatic phenotype. We hypothesised that mast cells migrate towards ASM in response to ASM derived chemokines. Methods Primary ASM cultures from subjects with and without asthma were stimulated with interleukin (IL)‐1β, IL‐4, and IL‐13 alone and in combination. Mast cell chemotaxis towards these ASM supernatants was investigated, and the chemotaxins mediating migration by using specific blocking antibodies for stem cell factor (SCF) and the chemokine receptors CCR3, CXCR1, 3 and 4 as well as the Gi inhibitor pertussis toxin and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein were defined. The concentrations of CCL11, CXCL8, CXCL10, TGF‐β, and SCF in the supernatants were measured and the effect of non‐asthmatic ASM supernatants on the mast cell chemotactic activity of asthmatic ASM was examined. Results Human lung mast cells and HMC‐1 cells migrated towards Th2 stimulated ASM from asthmatics but not non‐asthmatics. Mast cell migration was mediated through the combined activation of CCR3 and CXCR1. CCL11 and CXCL8 expression by ASM increased markedly after stimulation, but was similar in those with and without asthma. ASM supernatants from non‐asthmatics inhibited mast cell migration towards the asthmatic ASM supernatant. Conclusion Th2 stimulated ASM from asthmatics is chemotactic for mast cells. Non‐asthmatic ASM releases a mediator or mediators that inhibit mast cell migration towards stimulated asthmatic ASM. Specifically targeting mast cell migration into the ASM bundle may provide a novel treatment for asthma. PMID:16601090

  1. Ormdl3 Upregulates Airway Smooth Muscle Proliferation, Contraction, and Ca(2+) Oscillations in Asthma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Miller, Marina; Unno, Hirotoshi; Rosenthal, Peter; Sanderson, Michael; Broide, David H

    2017-09-07

    Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a major feature of asthma attributed predominantly to an extrinsic immune/inflammatory response increasing airway smooth muscle (ASM) contractility. We investigated whether increased ASM expression of ORMDL3, a gene on chromosome 17q21 highly linked to asthma, induced increased ASM proliferation and contractility in vitro, as well as influenced airway contractility and calcium flux in ASM in precision cut lung slices from WT and hORMDL3(Zp3-Cre) mice (which express increased levels of human ORMDL3). Levels of ASM proliferation and contraction were assessed in ASM cells transfected with ORMDL3 in vitro. In addition, airway contractility and calcium oscillations were quantitated in ASM cells in precision cut lung slices derived from naïve WT and naïve hORMDL3(Zp3-Cre) mice which do not have a blood supply. Increased ASM expression of ORMDL3 in vitro resulted in increased ASM proliferation and contractility. Precision cut lung slices derived from naïve hORMDL3(Zp3-Cre) mice which do not have airway inflammation exhibit increased airway contractility with increased calcium oscillations in ASM cells. Increased ASM ORMDL3 increases ASM sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase 2b (SERCA2b) which increases ASM proliferation and contractility. Overall, these studies provide evidence that an intrinsic increase in ORMDL3 in ASM can induce increased ASM proliferation and contractility which may contribute to increased AHR in the absence of airway inflammation in asthma. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. A trans-outer membrane porin-cytochrome protein complex for extracellular electron transfer by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yimo; Wang, Zheming; Liu, Juan; Levar, Caleb; Edwards, Marcus; Babauta, Jerome T.; Kennedy, David W.; Shi, Zhi; Beyenal, Haluk; Bond, Daniel R.; Clarke, Thomas A.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Shi, Liang

    2014-09-24

    The multiheme, outer membrane c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt) OmcB of Geobacter sulfurreducens was previously proposed to mediate electron transfer across the outer membrane. However, the underlying mechanism has remained uncharacterized. In G. sulfurreducens, the omcB gene is part of two tandem four-gene clusters, each is predicted to encode a transcriptional factor (OrfR/OrfS), a porin-like outer membrane protein (OmbB/OmbC), a periplasmic c-type cytochrome (OmaB/OmaC), and an outer membrane c-Cyt (OmcB/OmcC), respectively. Here we showed that OmbB/OmbC, OmaB/OmaC and OmcB/OmcC of G. sulfurreducens PCA formed the porin-cytochrome (Pcc) protein complexes, which were involved in transferring electrons across the outer membrane. The isolated Pcc protein complexes reconstituted in proteoliposomes transferred electrons from reduced methyl viologen across the lipid bilayer of liposomes to Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. The pcc clusters were found in all eight sequenced Geobacter and 11 other bacterial genomes from six different phyla, demonstrating a widespread distribution of Pcc protein complexes in phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Deletion of ombB-omaB-omcB-orfS-ombC-omaC-omcC gene clusters had no impact on the growth of G. sulfurreducens PCA with fumarate, but diminished the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. Finally, complementation with the ombB-omaB-omcB gene cluster restored the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite.

  3. A trans-outer membrane porin-cytochrome protein complex for extracellular electron transfer by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yimo; Wang, Zheming; Liu, Juan; ...

    2014-09-24

    The multiheme, outer membrane c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt) OmcB of Geobacter sulfurreducens was previously proposed to mediate electron transfer across the outer membrane. However, the underlying mechanism has remained uncharacterized. In G. sulfurreducens, the omcB gene is part of two tandem four-gene clusters, each is predicted to encode a transcriptional factor (OrfR/OrfS), a porin-like outer membrane protein (OmbB/OmbC), a periplasmic c-type cytochrome (OmaB/OmaC), and an outer membrane c-Cyt (OmcB/OmcC), respectively. Here we showed that OmbB/OmbC, OmaB/OmaC and OmcB/OmcC of G. sulfurreducens PCA formed the porin-cytochrome (Pcc) protein complexes, which were involved in transferring electrons across the outer membrane. The isolated Pccmore » protein complexes reconstituted in proteoliposomes transferred electrons from reduced methyl viologen across the lipid bilayer of liposomes to Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. The pcc clusters were found in all eight sequenced Geobacter and 11 other bacterial genomes from six different phyla, demonstrating a widespread distribution of Pcc protein complexes in phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Deletion of ombB-omaB-omcB-orfS-ombC-omaC-omcC gene clusters had no impact on the growth of G. sulfurreducens PCA with fumarate, but diminished the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. Finally, complementation with the ombB-omaB-omcB gene cluster restored the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite.« less

  4. High-Loading Nano-SnO2 Encapsulated in situ in Three-Dimensional Rigid Porous Carbon for Superior Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hairong; Zhao, Jianqing; Tang, Jing; Gong, Hao; He, Ping; Zhou, Haoshen; Yamauchi, Yusuke; He, Jianping

    2016-03-24

    Tin oxide nanoparticles (SnO2 NPs) have been encapsulated in situ in a three-dimensional ordered space structure. Within this composite, ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) acts as a carbon framework showing a desirable ordered mesoporous structure with an average pore size (≈6 nm) and a high surface area (470.3 m(2) g(-1)), and the SnO2 NPs (≈10 nm) are highly loaded (up to 80 wt %) and homogeneously distributed within the OMC matrix. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, a SnO2 @OMC composite material can deliver an initial charge capacity of 943 mAh g(-1) and retain 68.9 % of the initial capacity after 50 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g(-1), even exhibit a capacity of 503 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles at 160 mA g(-1). In situ encapsulation of the SnO2 NPs within an OMC framework contributes to a higher capacity and a better cycling stability and rate capability in comparison with bare OMC and OMC ex situ loaded with SnO2 particles (SnO2/OMC). The significantly improved electrochemical performance of the SnO2@OMC composite can be attributed to the multifunctional OMC matrix, which can facilitate electrolyte infiltration, accelerate charge transfer, and lithium-ion diffusion, and act as a favorable buffer to release reaction strains for lithiation/delithiation of the SnO2 NPs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A trans-outer membrane porin-cytochrome protein complex for extracellular electron transfer by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yimo; Wang, Zheming; Liu, Juan; Levar, Caleb; Edwards, Marcus J; Babauta, Jerome T; Kennedy, David W; Shi, Zhi; Beyenal, Haluk; Bond, Daniel R; Clarke, Thomas A; Butt, Julea N; Richardson, David J; Rosso, Kevin M; Zachara, John M; Fredrickson, James K; Shi, Liang

    2014-12-01

    The multi-heme, outer membrane c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt) OmcB of Geobacter sulfurreducens was previously proposed to mediate electron transfer across the outer membrane. However, the underlying mechanism has remained uncharacterized. In G. sulfurreducens, the omcB gene is part of two tandem four-gene clusters, each is predicted to encode a transcriptional factor (OrfR/OrfS), a porin-like outer membrane protein (OmbB/OmbC), a periplasmic c-type cytochrome (OmaB/OmaC) and an outer membrane c-Cyt (OmcB/OmcC) respectively. Here, we showed that OmbB/OmbC, OmaB/OmaC and OmcB/OmcC of G. sulfurreducens PCA formed the porin-cytochrome (Pcc) protein complexes, which were involved in transferring electrons across the outer membrane. The isolated Pcc protein complexes reconstituted in proteoliposomes transferred electrons from reduced methyl viologen across the lipid bilayer of liposomes to Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. The pcc clusters were found in all eight sequenced Geobacter and 11 other bacterial genomes from six different phyla, demonstrating a widespread distribution of Pcc protein complexes in phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Deletion of ombB-omaB-omcB-orfS-ombC-omaC-omcC gene clusters had no impact on the growth of G. sulfurreducens PCA with fumarate but diminished the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. Complementation with the ombB-omaB-omcB gene cluster restored the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite.

  6. On the Question of Site-Selective Ligand Exchange in Carboxylate-Substituted Metal Oxo Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Kreutzer, Johannes; Czakler, Matthias; Puchberger, Michael; Pittenauer, Ernst; Schubert, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Reaction of [Ti4Zr4O6(OBu)4(OMc)16] (OMc = methacrylate) with acetylacetone (acacH) resulted in dissection of the cluster and formation of [Ti(OBu)2(acac)2] and the smaller cluster [Ti2Zr4O4(OMc)16]. In contrast, the same reaction with [Zr6O4(OH)4(OOCR)12]2·6RCOOH (R = Et, CH2CH=CH2) led to site-selective substitution of two carboxylate ligands and formation of isostructural [Zr6O4(OH)4(OOCR)12–x(acac)x]2·6RCOOH (x ≤ 1). PMID:26300687

  7. Amphiphilic star-like macromolecules as novel carriers for topical delivery of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Jelena; Michniak, Bozena; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2003-10-16

    The objective of this study was to evaluate amphiphilic star-like macromolecules (ASMs) as a topical drug delivery system. Indomethacin, piroxicam, and ketoprofen were individually encapsulated into the ASMs using coprecipitation. The effects of the ASMs on percutaneous permeation of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) across full thickness, hairless mouse skin were evaluated in vitro using modified Franz diffusion cells. In addition, solubility and in vitro release experiments were performed to characterize ASMs behavior in aqueous media. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and Pluronic P-85 were used as polymer controls to compare the role of PEG and amphiphilic behavior in the ASMs. In vitro release experiments indicated that ASMs can delay drug release (P <.05), whereas solubility measurements showed that ASMs can increase NSAIDs aqueous solubility (P <.05). Percutaneous permeation studies revealed that ASMs decreased both flux and Q24 of drugs compared with the control (P <.10). Skin pretreatment studies with ASM-containing solution before drug application demonstrated that pretreatment similarly influenced NSAID percutaneous permeation. In conclusion, ASMs likely slow drug permeation through 2 mechanisms, delayed drug diffusion from its core and skin dehydration by its shell. Thus, ASMs may be useful for delayed dermal delivery or prevention of compound permeation through the skin (eg, sunscreens, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide [DEET]) from aqueous formulations.

  8. Mechanism of rhinovirus-induced changes in airway smooth muscle responsiveness.

    PubMed Central

    Hakonarson, H; Maskeri, N; Carter, C; Hodinka, R L; Campbell, D; Grunstein, M M

    1998-01-01

    An important interplay exists between specific viral respiratory infections and altered airway responsiveness in the development and exacerbations of asthma. However, the mechanistic basis of this interplay remains to be identified. This study addressed the hypothesis that rhinovirus (RV), the most common viral respiratory pathogen associated with acute asthma attacks, directly affects airway smooth muscle (ASM) to produce proasthmatic changes in receptor-coupled ASM responsiveness. Isolated rabbit and human ASM tissue and cultured ASM cells were inoculated with human RV (serotype 16) or adenovirus, each for 6 or 24 h. In contrast to adenovirus, which had no effect, inoculation of ASM tissue with RV induced heightened ASM tissue constrictor responsiveness to acetylcholine and attenuated the dose-dependent relaxation of ASM to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation with isoproterenol. These RV-induced changes in ASM responsiveness were largely prevented by pretreating the tissues with pertussis toxin or with a monoclonal blocking antibody to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), the principal endogenous receptor for most RVs. In extended studies, we found that the RV-induced changes in ASM responsiveness were associated with diminished cAMP accumulation in response to dose-dependent administration of isoproterenol, and this effect was accompanied by autologously upregulated expression of the Gi protein subtype, Gialpha3, in the ASM. Finally, in separate experiments, we found that the RV-induced effects on ASM responsiveness were also accompanied by autologously induced upregulated mRNA and cell surface protein expression of ICAM-1. Taken together, these findings provide new evidence that RV directly induces proasthmatic phenotypic changes in ASM responsiveness, that this effect is triggered by binding of RV to its ICAM-1 receptor in ASM, and that this binding is associated with the induced endogenously upregulated expression of ICAM-1 and enhanced expression and

  9. Composition, physicochemical properties and thermal inactivation kinetics of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase from coconut (Cocos nucifera) water obtained from immature, mature and overly-mature coconut.

    PubMed

    Tan, Thuan-Chew; Cheng, Lai-Hoong; Bhat, Rajeev; Rusul, Gulam; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2014-01-01

    Composition, physicochemical properties and enzyme inactivation kinetics of coconut water were compared between immature (IMC), mature (MC) and overly-mature coconuts (OMC). Among the samples studied, pH, turbidity and mineral contents for OMC water was the highest, whereas water volume, titratable acidity, total soluble solids and total phenolics content for OMC water were the lowest. Maturity was found to affect sugar contents. Sucrose content was found to increase with maturity, and the reverse trend was observed for fructose and glucose. Enzyme activity assessment showed that polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in all samples was more heat resistant than peroxidase (POD). Compared to IMC and MC, PPO and POD from OMC water showed the lowest thermal resistance, with D83.3°C=243.9s (z=27.9°C), and D83.3°C=129.9s (z=19.5°C), respectively.

  10. Assessment of the photo-degradation of UV-filters and radical-induced peroxidation in cosmetic sunscreen formulations.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Elisabetta; Astolfi, Paola; Giesinger, Jochen; Ehlis, Thomas; Herzog, Bernd; Greci, Lucedio; Baschong, Werner

    2010-03-01

    Photo-instability of common UV-filters is a well documented phenomenon. This study develops a method for concomitant measurement of photostability and photo-induced ROS generation in cosmetic formulations. Oil-in-water formulations containing three common UV filters (OMC, BMDBM, EHT), individually or combined, were further supplemented with phosphatidylcholine and exposed to UVA. All filters show spectral decrease after UVA exposure. OMC and EHT do not induce significant lipid-peroxidation (as measured by TBARS production) while BMDBM does. In the latter case, this is reduced when BMDBM is combined with OMC but not with EHT. Neither OMC nor EHT stabilize BMDBM with respect to loss of absorbance. ROS-generation assessed via TBARS formation was supported by EPR experiments. The UV-induced changes in UV-filter performance, as monitored in the model formulations and in commercial sunscreens, demonstrate that this is a simple and effective method for stability assessment of sunscreen filters under conditions of use.

  11. Design and application of nickel-titanium olecranon memory connector in treatment of olecranon fractures: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Liu, Peng; Zhu, Xiaofei; Cao, Liehu; Zhang, Chuncai; Su, Jiacan

    2013-06-01

    We carried out this study to test the efficacy of the olecranon memory connector (OMC) in olecranon fractures. We designed a prospective randomised controlled trial involving 40 cases of olecranon fractures. From May 2004 to December 2009, 40 patients with olecranon fractures were randomly assigned into two groups. Twenty patients were treated with OMC, while another 20 patients were fixed with locking plates in our hospital. The DASH score, MEP score, range of motion and radiographs were used to evaluate the postoperative elbow function and complications. For MEP score, OMC was better than the locking plate; for DASH score, complication rate, and range of elbow motion, the two methods presented no significant difference. The study showed that OMC could be an effective alternative to treat olecranon fractures.

  12. Sulfonation of ordered mesoporous carbon supported Pd catalysts for formic acid electrooxidation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhi-Peng; Zhang, Xiao-Gang; Tong, Hao; Liang, Yan-Yu; Li, Hu-Lin

    2009-09-15

    A novel supporting material containing benzenesulfonic acid (BSA) groups and ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) was first prepared by in situ radical polymerization of 4-styrenesulfonate and isoamyl nitrite under ambient conditions. Then, Pd nanoparticles were deposited on as-produced OMCs (f-OMCs) by the NaBH(4) reduction method. The structure and nature of the resulting composites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. The results show that BSA groups are created and the texture and surface chemistry are altered, whereas the ordered porous structure is maintained. The electrocatalytic properties of the Pd/f-OMCs catalysts for formic acid oxidation (HCOOH) have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry methods, and excellent electrocatalytic activity can be observed.

  13. A rare case of giant occipital meningocele with Dandy Walker Syndrome: Can it grow bigger than this?

    PubMed Central

    Mankotia, Dipanker Singh; Satyarthee, Guru Dutta; Singh, Bhoopendra; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2016-01-01

    Association of Dandy–Walker syndrome with occipital meningocele (OMC) is extremely rare and about thirty cases are reported till date in the Western literature. However, OMC is classified by Talamonti et al. into small, large, and giant categories with respective diameters were upto 5 cm in small, large with 5–9 cm, and giant with >9 cm. Usually the size of OMC progressively increases as raised intracranial pressure leads to compensatory cerebrospinal fluid escape into sac with the growth of children. Authors report an interesting case of an 18-month-old female child with extra-gigantic OMC, whose size was almost same since birth, representing the first case of its kind, who underwent successful surgical repair. Clinical presentation, radiological features, and surgical management options in literature are reviewed briefly for this rare disease association. PMID:28217162

  14. Design study and prototype experiment of the KAGRA output mode-cleaner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Kazushiro; Kumeta, Ayaka; Somiya, Kentaro

    2016-05-01

    The sensitivity of the Japanese gravitational-wave detector KAGRA is limited mainly by quantum noise. In order to reduce the quantum noise level, KAGRA employs an output mode-cleaner (OMC), which filters out junk light to clean up the signal and the reference light at the signal extraction port. The proper design of the OMC is a key to achieve the target sensitivity of KAGRA. In this proceeding, we present two results. One is the final result of numerical simulations, from which we determined the optical parameters of the OMC. The other is the latest results of our prototype experiment, the goal of which is to establish the control scheme of the OMC.

  15. Supervised Exercise, Stent Revascularization, or Medical Therapy for Claudication Due to Aortoiliac Peripheral Artery Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Timothy P.; Cutlip, Donald E.; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Mohler, Emile R.; Cohen, David J.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Massaro, Joseph M.; Lewis, Beth A.; Cerezo, Joselyn; Oldenburg, Niki C.; Thum, Claudia C.; Jaff, Michael R.; Comerota, Anthony J.; Steffes, Michael W.; Abrahamsen, Ingrid H.; Goldberg, Suzanne; Hirsch, Alan T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment for claudication due to aortoiliac peripheral artery disease (PAD) often relies on stent revascularization. However, supervised exercise is known to provide comparable short-term (6-month) improvements in functional status and quality of life. Longer-term outcomes are not known. Objectives The goal of this study was to report the longer-term (18-month) efficacy of supervised exercise compared with stenting and optimal medical care. Methods Of 111 patients with aortoiliac PAD randomly assigned to receive optimal medical care (OMC), OMC plus supervised exercise (SE), or OMC plus stent revascularization (ST), 79 completed the 18-month clinical and treadmill follow-up assessment. SE consisted of 6 months of supervised exercise and an additional year of telephone-based exercise counseling. Primary clinical outcomes included objective treadmill-based walking performance and subjective quality of life. Results Peak walking time improved from baseline to 18 months for both SE (5.0 ± 5.4 min) and ST (3.2 ± 4.7 min; p < 0.001) compared with OMC (0.2 ± 2.1 min, p = 0.04). The difference between SE and ST was not significant (p = 0.16). Improvement in claudication onset time (COT) was greater for SE compared with OMC, but not for ST compared with OMC. Many disease-specific quality-of-life scales demonstrated durable improvements that were greater for ST compared with SE or OMC. Conclusions Both SE and ST had better 18-month outcomes than OMC. SE and ST provided comparable durable improvement in functional status and in quality of life up to 18 months. The durability of claudication exercise interventions merits its consideration as a primary PAD claudication treatment. Claudication: Exercise Versus Endoluminal Revascularization [CLEVER]: NCT00132743 PMID:25766947

  16. Supercapacitors based on ordered mesoporous carbon derived from furfuryl alcohol: effect of the carbonized temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Xu, Jianxiong; Chen, Han; Wang, Xianyou

    2014-07-01

    Supercapacitors are successfully prepared from ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) synthesized by employing the mesoporous silica, SBA-15 as template and furfuryl alcohol as carbon source. It is found that the carbonized temperature greatly influences the physical properties of the synthesized mesoporous carbon materials. The optimal carbonized temperature is measured to be 600 degrees C under which OMC with the specific surface area of 1219 m2/g and pore volume of 1.31 cm3/g and average pore diameter of - 3 nm are synthesized. The OMC materials synthesized under different carbonized temperature are used as electrode material of supercapacitors and the electrochemical properties of the OMC materials are compared by using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, galvanostatic charge-discharge and self-discharge tests. The results show that the electrochemical properties of the OMC materials are directly related to the specific surface area and pore volume of the mesoporous carbon and the electrode prepared from the OMC synthesized under the carbonized temperature of 600 degrees C (OMC-600) exhibits the most excellent electrochemical performance with the specific capacitance of 207.08 F/g obtained from cyclic voltammetry at the scan rate of 1 mV/s, small resistance and low self-discharge rate. Moreover, the supercapacitor based on the OMC-600 material exhibits good capacitance properties and stable cycle behavior with the specific capacitance of 105 F/g at the current density of 700 mA/g, and keeps a specific capacitance of 98 F/g after 20000 consecutive charge/discharge cycles.

  17. The JCMT BISTRO Survey: The Magnetic Field Strength in the Orion A Filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattle, Kate; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Berry, David; Hatchell, Jennifer; Chen, Huei-Ru; Pon, Andy; Koch, Patrick M.; Kwon, Woojin; Kim, Jongsoo; Bastien, Pierre; Cho, Jungyeon; Coudé, Simon; Di Francesco, James; Fuller, Gary; Furuya, Ray S.; Graves, Sarah F.; Johnstone, Doug; Kirk, Jason; Kwon, Jungmi; Lee, Chang Won; Matthews, Brenda C.; Mottram, Joseph C.; Parsons, Harriet; Sadavoy, Sarah; Shinnaga, Hiroko; Soam, Archana; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Lai, Shih-Ping; Qiu, Keping; Friberg, Per

    2017-09-01

    We determine the magnetic field strength in the OMC 1 region of the Orion A filament via a new implementation of the Chandrasekhar–Fermi method using observations performed as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) B-Fields In Star-forming Region Observations (BISTRO) survey with the POL-2 instrument. We combine BISTRO data with archival SCUBA-2 and HARP observations to find a plane-of-sky magnetic field strength in OMC 1 of {B}{pos}=6.6+/- 4.7 mG, where δ {B}{pos}=4.7 mG represents a predominantly systematic uncertainty. We develop a new method for measuring angular dispersion, analogous to unsharp masking. We find a magnetic energy density of ∼ 1.7× {10}-7 J m‑3 in OMC 1, comparable both to the gravitational potential energy density of OMC 1 (∼10‑7 J m‑3) and to the energy density in the Orion BN/KL outflow (∼10‑7 J m‑3). We find that neither the Alfvén velocity in OMC 1 nor the velocity of the super-Alfvénic outflow ejecta is sufficiently large for the BN/KL outflow to have caused large-scale distortion of the local magnetic field in the ∼500 yr lifetime of the outflow. Hence, we propose that the hourglass field morphology in OMC 1 is caused by the distortion of a primordial cylindrically symmetric magnetic field by the gravitational fragmentation of the filament and/or the gravitational interaction of the BN/KL and S clumps. We find that OMC 1 is currently in or near magnetically supported equilibrium, and that the current large-scale morphology of the BN/KL outflow is regulated by the geometry of the magnetic field in OMC 1, and not vice versa.

  18. Use of the Spin-Trapping method to establish the radical steps in the reactions of organic compounds of zinc, cadmium, and mercury with various peroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Dodonov, V.A.; Grishin, D.F.

    1985-06-01

    This paper uses the spin trapping method to investigate the homolytic reactions of group II organometallic compounds (OMC) with organic and heteroorganic peroxides. The radical reactions of the OMC with peroxides was investigated and the reactivity of the spin traps was examined with respect to compounds of zinc, cadmium, and mercury. Phenyl-tert-butylnitron (I), 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane (II), and tri-bromonitrobenzene (III) were chosen as spin traps. The radicals formed are aable to initiate the polymerization of vinyl monomers.

  19. The crystal structure and functional characterization of an immunomodulatory salivary cystatin from the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata

    PubMed Central

    Salát, Jiří; Paesen, Guido C.; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Kovářová, Zuzana; Šanda, Miloslav; Majtán, Juraj; Grunclová, Lenka; Horká, Helena; Andersen, John F.; Brynda, Jiří; Horn, Martin; Nunn, Miles A.; Kopáček, Petr; Kopecký, Jan; Mareš, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis The saliva of blood-feeding parasites is a rich source of peptidase inhibitors that help overcome the host’s defense during host-parasite interactions. Using proteomic analysis, the cystatin OmC2 was demonstrated in the saliva of the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata, an important disease-vector transmitting African swine fever virus and the spirochaete Borrelia duttoni. A structural, biochemical and biological characterization of this peptidase inhibitor was undertaken. Recombinant OmC2 was screened against a panel of physiologically relevant peptidases and found to be an effective broad-specificity inhibitor of cysteine cathepsins, including endopeptidases (cathepsins L and S) and exopeptidases (cathepsins B, C and H). The crystal structure of OmC2 was determined at a resolution of 2.45 Å and used to describe the structure-inhibitory activity relationship. The biological impact of OmC2 was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. OmC2 affected the function of antigen-presenting mouse dendritic cells by reducing the production of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-12, and proliferation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. This suggests that OmC2 may suppress the host’s adaptive immune response. Immunization of mice with OmC2 significantly suppressed the survival of O. moubata in infestation experiments. We conclude that OmC2 is a promising target for the development of a novel anti-tick vaccine to control O. moubata populations and combat the spread of associated diseases. PMID:20545626

  20. Specialty competencies for residents in aerospace medicine.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara, T T; Dodge, R E; Jennings, R T; Valdez, M R

    1999-06-01

    The American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM), with sponsorship from the Health Resources Administration (HRSA), has published core competencies that are common to all preventive medicine residencies-aerospace medicine (ASM), occupational medicine (OM), and general preventive medicine/public health (GPM/PH). Further development of specialty area competencies for ASM residents was addressed by a working group comprised of representatives from each of the four ASM residency programs. Representatives from the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Wright State University, University of Texas Medical Branch-Galveston, and the Naval Operational Medicine Institute convened to develop a set of broad competency statements for ASM residents that would encompass the breadth of ASM residency training as it is currently provided in the U.S. A listing of six ASM resident competencies, with supporting skill sets, are presented. In combination with the ACPM core competencies, the ASM resident competencies represent a refocusing of educational objectives on skills attainment. The ASM resident competencies identify the capabilities of graduating ASM residents as distinct from OM and GPM/PH residents. At the same time, they are broad enough to permit specific areas of emphasis (e.g., military, civil, or space) to be pursued within the various ASM residencies. This represents the first successful attempt to draft a consolidated statement of educational objectives that has universal acceptance and applicability across all U.S. aerospace medicine residencies.

  1. Recombinant Human Acid Sphingomyelinase as an Adjuvant to Sorafenib Treatment of Experimental Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Savić, Radoslav; He, Xingxuan; Fiel, Isabel; Schuchman, Edward H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of liver cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The only approved systemic treatment for unresectable HCC is the oral kinase inhibitor, sorafenib. Recombinant human acid sphingomyelinase (rhASM), which hydrolyzes sphingomyelin to ceramide, is an orphan drug under development for the treatment of Type B Niemann-Pick disease (NPD). Due to the hepatotropic nature of rhASM and its ability to generate pro-apoptotic ceramide, this study evaluated the use of rhASM as an adjuvant treatment with sorafenib in experimental models of HCC. Methodology/Principal Findings In vitro, rhASM/sorafenib treatment reduced the viability of Huh7 liver cancer cells more than sorafenib. In vivo, using a subcutaneous Huh7 tumor model, mouse survival was increased and proliferation in the tumors decreased to a similar extent in both sorafenib and rhASM/sorafenib treatment groups. However, combined rhASM/sorafenib treatment significantly lowered tumor volume, increased tumor necrosis, and decreased tumor blood vessel density compared to sorafenib. These results were obtained despite poor delivery of rhASM to the tumors. A second (orthotopic) model of Huh7 tumors also was established, but modest ASM activity was similarly detected in these tumors compared to healthy mouse livers. Importantly, no chronic liver toxicity or weight loss was observed from rhASM therapy in either model. Conclusions/Significance The rhASM/sorafenib combination exhibited a synergistic effect on reducing the tumor volume and blood vessel density in Huh7 xenografts, despite modest activity of rhASM in these tumors. No significant increases in survival were observed from the rhASM/sorafenib treatment. The poor delivery of rhASM to Huh7 tumors may be due, at least in part, to low expression of mannose receptors. The safety and efficacy of this approach, together with the novel findings regarding enzyme targeting, merits further

  2. Respiration of metal (hydr)oxides by Shewanella and Geobacter: a key role for multihaem c-type cytochromes

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Liang; Squier, Thomas C.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2007-07-01

    Dissimilatory reduction of metal (e.g. Fe, Mn) (hydr)oxides represents a challenge for microorganisms, as their cell envelopes are impermeable to metal (hydr)oxides that are poorly soluble in water. To overcome this physical barrier, the Gram-negative bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Geobactersulfurreducens have developed electron transfer (ET) strategies that require multihaem c-type cytochromes (c-Cyts). In S. oneidensis MR-1, multihaem c-Cyts CymA and MtrA are believed to transfer electrons from the inner membrane quinone/quinol pool through the periplasm to the outer membrane. The type II secretion system of S. oneidensis MR-1 has been implicated in the reduction of metal (hydr)oxides, most likely by translocating decahaem c-Cyts MtrC and OmcA across outer membrane to the surface of bacterial cells where they form a protein complex. The extracellular MtrC and OmcA can directly reduce solid metal (hydr)oxides. Likewise, outer membrane multihaem c-Cyts OmcE and OmcS of G. sulfurreducens are suggested to transfer electrons from outer membrane to type IV pili that are hypothesized to relay the electrons to solid metal (hydr)oxides. Thus, multihaem c-Cyts play critical roles in S. oneidensis MR-1-and G. sulfurreducens-mediated dissimilatory reduction of solid metal (hydr)oxides by facilitating ET across the bacterial cell envelope.

  3. Octyl Methoxycinnamate Modulates Gene Expression and Prevents Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer Formation but not Oxidative DNA Damage in UV-Exposed Human Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Duale, Nur; Olsen, Ann-Karin; Christensen, Terje; Butt, Shamas T.; Brunborg, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    Octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) is one of the most widely used sunscreen ingredients. To analyze biological effects of OMC, an in vitro approach was used implying ultraviolet (UV) exposure of two human cell lines, a primary skin fibroblast (GM00498) and a breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines. End points include cell viability assessment, assay of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and oxidated DNA lesions using alkaline elution and lesion-specific enzymes, and gene expression analysis of a panel of 17 DNA damage–responsive genes. We observed that OMC provided protection against CPDs, and the degree of protection correlated with the OMC-mediated reduction in UV dose. No such protection was found with respect to oxidative DNA lesions. Upon UV exposure in the presence of OMC, the gene expression studies showed significant differential changes in some of the genes studied and the expression of p53 protein was also changed. For some genes, the change in expression seemed to be delayed in time by OMC. The experimental approach applied in this study, using a panel of 17 genes in an in vitro cellular system together with genotoxicity assays, may be useful in the initial screening of active ingredients in sunscreens. PMID:20071424

  4. Solid-state synthesis of ordered mesoporous carbon catalysts via a mechanochemical assembly through coordination cross-linking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Li; Yang, Shize; Schott, Jennifer A.; Liu, Xiaofei; Mahurin, Shannon M.; Huang, Caili; Zhang, Yu; Fulvio, Pasquale F.; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Dai, Sheng

    2017-04-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) have demonstrated great potential in catalysis, and as supercapacitors and adsorbents. Since the introduction of the organic-organic self-assembly approach in 2004/2005 until now, the direct synthesis of OMCs is still limited to the wet processing of phenol-formaldehyde polycondensation, which involves soluble toxic precursors, and acid or alkali catalysts, and requires multiple synthesis steps, thus restricting the widespread application of OMCs. Herein, we report a simple, general, scalable and sustainable solid-state synthesis of OMCs and nickel OMCs with uniform and tunable mesopores (~4-10 nm), large pore volumes (up to 0.96 cm3 g-1) and high-surface areas exceeding 1,000 m2 g-1, based on a mechanochemical assembly between polyphenol-metal complexes and triblock co-polymers. Nickel nanoparticles (~5.40 nm) confined in the cylindrical nanochannels show great thermal stability at 600 °C. Moreover, the nickel OMCs offer exceptional activity in the hydrogenation of bulky molecules (~2 nm).

  5. Acid-Functionalized Mesoporous Carbon: An Efficient Support for Ruthenium-Catalyzed γ-Valerolactone Production

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Alberto; Schiavoni, Marco; Chan-Thaw, Carine E.; Fulvio, Pasquale F.; Mayes, Richard T.; Dai, Sheng; More, Karren L.; Veith, Gabriel M.; Prati, Laura

    2015-06-18

    The hydrogenation of levulinic acid has been studied using Ru supported on ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) prepared by soft-templating. P- and S-containing acid groups were introduced by postsynthetic functionalization before the addition of 1% Ru by incipient wetness impregnation. These functionalities and the reaction conditions mediate the activity and selectivity of the levulinic acid hydrogenation. The presence of Scontaining groups (Ru/OMC-S and Ru/OMC-P/S) deactivates the Ru catalysts strongly, whereas the presence of P-containing groups (Ru/OMC-P) enhances the activity compared to that of pristine Ru/OMC. Under mild conditions (70 8C and 7 bar H2) the catalyst shows high selectivity to g-valerolactone (GVL; >95%) and high stability on recycling. However, under more severe conditions (200 8C and pH2=40 bar) Ru/OMC-P is particularly able to promote GVL ring-opening and the consecutive hydrogenation to pentanoic acid.

  6. Experience with "Fast track" postoperative care after deep brain stimulation surgery.

    PubMed

    Martín, Nuria; Valero, Ricard; Hurtado, Paola; Gracia, Isabel; Fernández, Carla; Rumià, Jordi; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Carrero, Enrique J; Tercero, Francisco Javier; de Riva, Nicolás; Fàbregas, Neus

    A 24-h-stay in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) is a common postoperative procedure after deep brain stimulation surgery (DBS). We evaluated the impact of a fast-track (FT) postoperative care protocol. An analysis was performed on all patients who underwent DBS in 2 periods: 2006, overnight monitored care (OMC group), and 2007-2013, FT care (FT group). The study included 19 patients in OMC and 95 patients in FT. Intraoperative complications occurred in 26.3% patients in OMC vs. 35.8% in FT. Post-operatively, one patient in OMC developed hemiparesis, and agitation in 2 patients. In FT, two patients with intraoperative hemiparesis were transferred to the ICU. While on the ward, 3 patients from the FT developed hemiparesis, two of them 48h after the procedure. Thirty eight percent of FT had an MRI scan, while the remaining 62% and all patients of OMC had a CT-scan performed on their transfer to the ward. One patient in OMC had a subthalamic hematoma. Two patients in FT had a pallidal hematoma, and 3 a bleeding along the electrode. A FT discharge protocol is a safe postoperative care after DBS. There are a small percentage of complications after DBS, which mainly occur within the first 6h. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of percutaneous absorption of the repellent diethyltoluamide and the sunscreen ethylhexyl p-methoxycinnamate-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: an in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Puglia, Carmelo; Bonina, Francesco; Castelli, Francesco; Micieli, Dorotea; Sarpietro, Maria Grazia

    2009-08-01

    Diethyltoluamide and ethylhexyl p-methoxycinnamate (OMC) are two active ingredients in insect repellent and sunscreen products, respectively. The concurrent application of these two substances often increases their systemic absorption, compromising the safety and efficiency of the cosmetic product. In this study, diethyltoluamide and OMC were incorporated into solid lipid nanoparticles, a colloidal drug delivery system, to reduce percutaneous absorption and avoid toxic effects and also maintain the efficacy of the two active compounds on the skin surface for a long duration. Solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared based on an ultrasonication technique and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. In-vitro studies determined the percutaneous absorption of diethyltoluamide and OMC. DSC data carried out on unloaded and diethyltoluamide- and/or OMC-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles highlighted that diethyltoluamide and OMC modified the temperature and the enthalpy change associated to the calorimetric peak of solid lipid nanoparticles. The concurrent presence of the two compounds in the solid lipid nanoparticles caused a synergic effect, indicating that the lipid matrix of nanoparticles guaranteed a high encapsulation of both diethyltoluamide and OMC. Results from the in-vitro study demonstrated that the particles were able to reduce the skin permeation of the two cosmetic ingredients in comparison with an oil-in-water emulsion. This study has provided supplementary evidence as to the potential of lipid nanoparticles as carriers for topical administration of cosmetic active compounds.

  8. Acid-Functionalized Mesoporous Carbon: An Efficient Support for Ruthenium-Catalyzed γ-Valerolactone Production

    DOE PAGES

    Villa, Alberto; Schiavoni, Marco; Chan-Thaw, Carine E.; ...

    2015-06-18

    The hydrogenation of levulinic acid has been studied using Ru supported on ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) prepared by soft-templating. P- and S-containing acid groups were introduced by postsynthetic functionalization before the addition of 1% Ru by incipient wetness impregnation. These functionalities and the reaction conditions mediate the activity and selectivity of the levulinic acid hydrogenation. The presence of Scontaining groups (Ru/OMC-S and Ru/OMC-P/S) deactivates the Ru catalysts strongly, whereas the presence of P-containing groups (Ru/OMC-P) enhances the activity compared to that of pristine Ru/OMC. Under mild conditions (70 8C and 7 bar H2) the catalyst shows high selectivity to g-valerolactonemore » (GVL; >95%) and high stability on recycling. However, under more severe conditions (200 8C and pH2=40 bar) Ru/OMC-P is particularly able to promote GVL ring-opening and the consecutive hydrogenation to pentanoic acid.« less

  9. Nickel Nanofoam/Different Phases of Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Composite Electrodes for Superior Capacitive Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kangsuk; Song, Haeni; Lee, Kwang Hoon; Choi, Soo Hyung; Jang, Jong Hyun; Char, Kookheon; Son, Jeong Gon

    2016-08-31

    Electrochemical energy storage devices based on electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) have received considerable attention due to their high power density and potential for obtaining improved energy density in comparison to the lithium ion battery. Ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) is a promising candidate for use as an EDLC electrode because it has a high specific surface area (SSA), providing a wider charge storage space and size-controllable mesopore structure with a long-range order, suppling high accessibility to the electrolyte ions. However, OMCs fabricated using conventional methods have several drawbacks including low electronic conductivity and long ionic diffusion paths in mesopores. We used nickel nanofoam, which has a relatively small pore (sub-100 nm to subμm) network structure, as a current collector. This provides a significantly shortened electronic/ionic current paths and plentiful surface area, enabling stable and close attachment of OMCs without the use of binders. Thus, we present hierarchical binder-free electrode structures based on OMC/Ni nanofoams. These structures give rise to enhanced specific capacitance and a superior rate capability. We also investigated the mesopore structural effect of OMCs on electrolyte transport by comparing the capacitive performances of collapsed lamellar, cylindrical, and spherical mesopore electrodes. The highly ordered and straightly aligned cylindrical OMCs exhibited the highest specific capacitance and the best rate capability.

  10. Polyphosphate kinases modulate Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane constituents and alter its capacity to invade and survive in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pina-Mimbela, Ruby; Madrid, Jesús Arcos; Kumar, Anand; Torrelles, Jordi B; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-12-30

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Polyphosphate kinases 1 and 2 (PPK1 and PPK2) regulate several cellular processes, including the biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Despite their importance, whether PPK1 and PPK2 modulate the composition of C. jejuni outer membrane constituents (OMCs) and consequently impact its interaction with host cells remains unknown. Our comparative analysis between C. jejuni wild type, Δppk1, and Δppk2 strains showed qualitative and quantitative differences in the total OMC composition among these strains. Importantly, these OMC variations observed on the C. jejuni polyphosphate kinase mutants are directly related to their capacity to invade, survive, and alter the immune response of intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Specifically, sub-fractionation of the C. jejuni OMC indicated that OMC proteins are uniquely associated with bacterial invasion, whereas C. jejuni OMC proteins, lipids, and lipoglycans are all associated with C. jejuni intracellular survival. This study provides new insights regarding the function of polyphosphate kinases and their role in C. jejuni infection.

  11. Polyphosphate kinases modulate Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane constituents and alter its capacity to invade and survive in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pina-Mimbela, Ruby; Madrid, Jesús Arcos; Kumar, Anand; Torrelles, Jordi B; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Polyphosphate kinases 1 and 2 (PPK1 and PPK2) regulate several cellular processes, including the biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Despite their importance, whether PPK1 and PPK2 modulate the composition of C. jejuni outer membrane constituents (OMCs) and consequently impact its interaction with host cells remains unknown. Our comparative analysis between C. jejuni wild type, Δppk1, and Δppk2 strains showed qualitative and quantitative differences in the total OMC composition among these strains. Importantly, these OMC variations observed on the C. jejuni polyphosphate kinase mutants are directly related to their capacity to invade, survive, and alter the immune response of intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Specifically, sub-fractionation of the C. jejuni OMC indicated that OMC proteins are uniquely associated with bacterial invasion, whereas C. jejuni OMC proteins, lipids, and lipoglycans are all associated with C. jejuni intracellular survival. This study provides new insights regarding the function of polyphosphate kinases and their role in C. jejuni infection. PMID:26714783

  12. Respiration of metal (hydr)oxides by Shewanella and Geobacter: a key role for multihaem c-type cytochromes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liang; Squier, Thomas C; Zachara, John M; Fredrickson, James K

    2007-07-01

    Dissimilatory reduction of metal (e.g. Fe, Mn) (hydr)oxides represents a challenge for microorganisms, as their cell envelopes are impermeable to metal (hydr)oxides that are poorly soluble in water. To overcome this physical barrier, the Gram-negative bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Geobacter sulfurreducens have developed electron transfer (ET) strategies that require multihaem c-type cytochromes (c-Cyts). In S. oneidensis MR-1, multihaem c-Cyts CymA and MtrA are believed to transfer electrons from the inner membrane quinone/quinol pool through the periplasm to the outer membrane. The type II secretion system of S. oneidensis MR-1 has been implicated in the reduction of metal (hydr)oxides, most likely by translocating decahaem c-Cyts MtrC and OmcA across outer membrane to the surface of bacterial cells where they form a protein complex. The extracellular MtrC and OmcA can directly reduce solid metal (hydr)oxides. Likewise, outer membrane multihaem c-Cyts OmcE and OmcS of G. sulfurreducens are suggested to transfer electrons from outer membrane to type IV pili that are hypothesized to relay the electrons to solid metal (hydr)oxides. Thus, multihaem c-Cyts play critical roles in S. oneidensis MR-1- and G. sulfurreducens-mediated dissimilatory reduction of solid metal (hydr)oxides by facilitating ET across the bacterial cell envelope.

  13. Can contrast-enhanced MRI with gadoxetic acid predict liver failure and other complications after major hepatic resection?

    PubMed

    Costa, A F; Tremblay St-Germain, A; Abdolell, M; Smoot, R L; Cleary, S; Jhaveri, K S

    2017-07-01

    To determine whether a combination of clinical factors, the future liver remnant (FLR) ratio, and hepatic uptake of gadoxetic acid can be used to predict post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) and other major complications (OMC). Sixty-five consecutive patients who underwent pre-hepatectomy gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between October 2010 and December 2013 were included. The relative liver enhancement (RLE) of gadoxetic acid was calculated from regions of interest on MRI, and FLR ratios were obtained from computed tomography (CT). PHLF and OMC were defined by the International Study Group of Liver Surgery criteria and Clavien-Dindo grade of ≥3, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression modelling was performed to identify predictors of PHLF and OMC, including RLE, FLR ratio, age, sex, chemotherapy history, intra-operative blood loss, and intra-operative transfusion. Nine patients experienced PHLF and another nine patients experienced OMC. RLE was comparable to the FLR ratio in predicting PHLF (areas under the receiver operating characteristic [AUROC] curves, 0.665 and 0.705), but performed poorly in predicting OMCs (AUROCs, 0.556 and 0.702). Combining all clinical and imaging parameters as predictors yielded the best performing predictive models (AUROCs, 0.875 and 0.742 for PHLF and OMC, respectively). A model based on clinical parameters, the FLR ratio, and RLE of gadoxetic acid may improve pre-hepatectomy risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Octyl methoxycinnamate modulates gene expression and prevents cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation but not oxidative DNA damage in UV-exposed human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Duale, Nur; Olsen, Ann-Karin; Christensen, Terje; Butt, Shamas T; Brunborg, Gunnar

    2010-04-01

    Octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) is one of the most widely used sunscreen ingredients. To analyze biological effects of OMC, an in vitro approach was used implying ultraviolet (UV) exposure of two human cell lines, a primary skin fibroblast (GM00498) and a breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines. End points include cell viability assessment, assay of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and oxidated DNA lesions using alkaline elution and lesion-specific enzymes, and gene expression analysis of a panel of 17 DNA damage-responsive genes. We observed that OMC provided protection against CPDs, and the degree of protection correlated with the OMC-mediated reduction in UV dose. No such protection was found with respect to oxidative DNA lesions. Upon UV exposure in the presence of OMC, the gene expression studies showed significant differential changes in some of the genes studied and the expression of p53 protein was also changed. For some genes, the change in expression seemed to be delayed in time by OMC. The experimental approach applied in this study, using a panel of 17 genes in an in vitro cellular system together with genotoxicity assays, may be useful in the initial screening of active ingredients in sunscreens.

  15. Optimization and Validation of RP-HPLC-UV/Vis Method for Determination Phenolic Compounds in Several Personal Care Products

    PubMed Central

    Akkbik, Mohammed; Assim, Zaini Bin; Ahmad, Fasihuddin Badruddin

    2011-01-01

    An HPLC method with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry detection has been optimized and validated for the simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as antioxidants, and octyl methyl cinnamate (OMC) as UVB-filter in several personal care products. The dynamic range was between 1 to 250 mg/L with relative standard deviation less than 0.25% (n = 4). Limits of detection for BHA, BHT, and OMC were 0.196, 0.170, and 0.478 mg/L, respectively. While limits of quantification for BHA, BHT, and OMC were 0.593, 0.515, and 1.448 mg/L, respectively. The recovery for BHA, BHT, and OMC was ranged from 92.1–105.9%, 83.2–108.9%, and 87.3–103.7%, respectively. The concentration ranges of BHA, BHT, and OMC in 12 commercial personal care samples were 0.13–4.85, 0.16–2.30, and 0.12–65.5 mg/g, respectively. The concentrations of phenolic compounds in these personal care samples were below than maximum allowable concentration in personal care formulation, that is, 0.0004–10 mg/g, 0.002–5 mg/g, and up to 100 mg/g for BHA, BHT, and OMC, respectively. PMID:21760792

  16. Highly efficient synthesis of ordered nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbons with tunable properties and its application in high performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan; Zeng, Chao; Qu, Deyu; Tang, Haolin; Li, Yu; Su, Bao-Lian; Qu, Deyang

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) have been synthesized via aqueous cooperative assembly route in the presence of basic amino acids as either polymerization catalysts or nitrogen dopants. This method allows the large-scale production of nitrogen-doped OMCs with tunable composition, structure and morphology while maintaining highly ordered mesostructures. For instances, the nitrogen content can be varied from ∼1 wt% to ∼6.3 wt% and the mesophase can be either 3-D body-centered cubic or 2-D hexagonal. The specific surface area for typical OMCs is around 600 m2 g-1, and further KOH activation can significantly enhance the surface area to 1866 m2 g-1 without destroying the ordered mesostructures. Benefiting from hierarchically ordered porous structure, nitrogen-doping effect and large-scale production availability, the synthesized OMCs show a great potential towards supercapacitor application. When measured in a symmetrical two-electrode configuration with an areal mass loading of ∼3 mg cm-2, the activated OMC exhibits high capacitance (186 F g-1 at 0.25 A g-1) and good rate capability (75% capacity retention at 20 A g-1) in ionic liquid electrolyte. Even as the mass loading is up to ∼12 mg cm-2, the OMC electrode still yields a specific capacitance of 126 F g-1 at 20 A g-1.

  17. Outer membrane cytochromes/flavin interactions in Shewanella spp.-A molecular perspective.

    PubMed

    Babanova, Sofia; Matanovic, Ivana; Cornejo, Jose; Bretschger, Orianna; Nealson, Kenneth; Atanassov, Plamen

    2017-05-31

    Extracellular electron transfer (EET) is intrinsically associated with the core phenomena of energy harvesting/energy conversion in natural ecosystems and biotechnology applications. However, the mechanisms associated with EET are complex and involve molecular interactions that take place at the "bionano interface" where biotic/abiotic interactions are usually explored. This work provides molecular perspective on the electron transfer mechanism(s) employed by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Molecular docking simulations were used to explain the interfacial relationships between two outer-membrane cytochromes (OMC) OmcA and MtrC and riboflavin (RF) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN), respectively. OMC-flavin interactions were analyzed by studying the electrostatic potential, the hydrophilic/hydrophobic surface properties, and the van der Waals surface of the OMC proteins. As a result, it was proposed that the interactions between flavins and OMCs are based on geometrical recognition event. The possible docking positions of RF and FMN to OmcA and MtrC were also shown.

  18. Evaluation of the photostability of different UV filter combinations in a sunscreen.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, L R; Maia Campos, P M B G

    2006-01-13

    Development of photostable sunscreens is extremely important to preserve the UV protective capacity and to prevent the reactive intermediates of photounstable filter substances behaving as photo-oxidants when coming into direct contact with the skin. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the photostability of four different UV filter combinations in a sunscreen by using HPLC analysis and spectrophotometry. The formulations that were investigated included four different UV filter combinations often used in SPF 15 sunscreens. The UV filter combinations were: octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC), benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and octyl salicylate (OS) (formulation 1); OMC, avobenzone (AVB) and 4-methylbenzilidene camphor (MBC) (formulation 2); OMC, BP-3 and octocrylene (OC) (formulation 3); OMC, AVB and OC (formulation 4). In the photostability studies, 40 mg of each formulation were spread onto a glass plate and left to dry before exposure to different UVA/UVB irradiation. Exposed samples were then immersed in isopropanol and the dried film dissolved ultrasonically. The filter components in the resulting solution were quantified by HPLC analysis with detection at 325 nm and by spectrophotometry. In this study, the four UV filter combinations showed different photostability profiles and the best one was formulation 3 (OMC, BP-3 and OC), followed by formulations 4, 1 and 2. In addition, OC improved the photostability of OMC, AVB and BP-3.

  19. Respiration of metal (hydr)oxides by Shewanella and Geobacter: a key role for multihaem c-type cytochromes

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Liang; Squier, Thomas C; Zachara, John M; Fredrickson, James K

    2007-01-01

    Dissimilatory reduction of metal (e.g. Fe, Mn) (hydr)oxides represents a challenge for microorganisms, as their cell envelopes are impermeable to metal (hydr)oxides that are poorly soluble in water. To overcome this physical barrier, the Gram-negative bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Geobacter sulfurreducens have developed electron transfer (ET) strategies that require multihaem c-type cytochromes (c-Cyts). In S. oneidensis MR-1, multihaem c-Cyts CymA and MtrA are believed to transfer electrons from the inner membrane quinone/quinol pool through the periplasm to the outer membrane. The type II secretion system of S. oneidensis MR-1 has been implicated in the reduction of metal (hydr)oxides, most likely by translocating decahaem c-Cyts MtrC and OmcA across outer membrane to the surface of bacterial cells where they form a protein complex. The extracellular MtrC and OmcA can directly reduce solid metal (hydr)oxides. Likewise, outer membrane multihaem c-Cyts OmcE and OmcS of G. sulfurreducens are suggested to transfer electrons from outer membrane to type IV pili that are hypothesized to relay the electrons to solid metal (hydr)oxides. Thus, multihaem c-Cyts play critical roles in S. oneidensis MR-1- and G. sulfurreducens-mediated dissimilatory reduction of solid metal (hydr)oxides by facilitating ET across the bacterial cell envelope. PMID:17581116

  20. Preferential adsorption of pentachlorophenol from chlorophenols-containing wastewater using N-doped ordered mesoporous carbon.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Liu, Yunpeng; Li, Zhongjian; Lei, Lecheng; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Xingwang

    2016-01-01

    Preferential removal of pentachlorophenol (PCP) from chlorophenols-containing wastewater has been attracted more attentions in wastewater treatment, since it is one of the most toxic pollutants. The adsorbent of N-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (M-OMC) with high BET surface area of 1901 m(2)/g, large pore volume of 1.64 cm(3)/g and uniform pore size of 3.45 nm has been successfully synthesized via evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) method. The effects of solution pH, pore structure of adsorbent and their surface chemical properties on PCP adsorption by M-OMC were investigated in comparison with ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC), and much higher PCP adsorption capacities of M-OMC were obtained. The significantly preferential adsorption of PCP was achieved in the treatment of tri-component wastewater including PCP, p-chlorophenol (CP) and 2.4.6-trichlorophenol (TCP), and its adsorption process well fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and the Langmuir isotherm. The initial sorption rate of PCP was 103.5 μmol/(g/min), which was 2.97 times of TCP. It may be attributed to the intensification of π-π interaction between PCP and M-OMC with the nitrogen functional groups. Therefore, M-OMC is promising for removal of PCP in the adsorption pretreatment of chlorophenols-containing wastewater.

  1. The JCMT Legacy Survey of the Gould Belt: mapping 13CO and C18O in Orion A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckle, J. V.; Davis, C. J.; Francesco, J. Di; Graves, S. F.; Nutter, D.; Richer, J. S.; Roberts, J. F.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G. J.; Brunt, C.; Butner, H. M.; Cavanagh, B.; Chrysostomou, A.; Curtis, E. I.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Etxaluze, M.; Fich, M.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Greaves, J. S.; Hatchell, J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Matthews, B.; Matthews, H.; Rawlings, J. M. C.; Sadavoy, S.; Simpson, R. J.; Tothill, N. F. H.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Viti, S.; Wouterloot, J. G. A.; Yates, J.

    2012-05-01

    The Gould Belt Legacy Survey will map star-forming regions within 500 pc, using Heterodyne Array Receiver Programme (HARP), Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) and Polarimeter 2 (POL-2) on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). This paper describes HARP observations of the J= 3 → 2 transitions of 13CO and C18O towards Orion A. The 15 arcsec resolution observations cover 5 pc of the Orion filament, including OMC 1 (including BN-KL and Orion bar), OMC 2/3 and OMC 4, and allow a comparative study of the molecular gas properties throughout the star-forming cloud. The filament shows a velocity gradient of ˜1 km s-1 pc-1 between OMC 1, 2 and 3, and high-velocity emission is detected in both isotopologues. The Orion Nebula and Bar have the largest masses and linewidths, and dominate the mass and energetics of the high-velocity material. Compact, spatially resolved emission from CH3CN, 13CH3OH, SO, HCOOCH3, CH3CHO and CH3OCHO is detected towards the Orion Hot Core. The cloud is warm, with a median excitation temperature of ˜24 K; the Orion Bar has the highest excitation temperature gas, at >80 K. The C18O excitation temperature correlates well with the dust temperature (to within 40 per cent). The C18O emission is optically thin, and the 13CO emission is marginally optically thick; despite its high mass, OMC 1 shows the lowest opacities. A virial analysis indicates that Orion A is too massive for thermal or turbulent support, but is consistent with a model of a filamentary cloud that is threaded by helical magnetic fields. The variation of physical conditions across the cloud is reflected in the physical characteristics of the dust cores. We find similar core properties between starless and protostellar cores, but variations in core properties with position in the filament. The OMC 1 cores have the highest velocity dispersions and masses, followed by OMC 2/3 and OMC 4. The differing fragmentation of these cores may explain why OMC 1 has formed

  2. Identification of Bovine Sperm Acrosomal Proteins that Interact with a 32kDa Acrosomal Matrix Protein

    PubMed Central

    Nagdas, Subir K; Smith, Linda; Medina-Ortiz, Ilza; Hernandez-Encarnacion, Luisa; Raychoudhury, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian fertilization is accomplished by the interaction between sperm and egg. Previous studies from this laboratory have identified a stable acrosomal matrix assembly from the bovine sperm acrosome termed the outer acrosomal membrane-matrix complex (OMC). This stable matrix assembly exhibits precise binding activity for acrosin and N-acetylglucosaminidase. A highly purified OMC fraction is comprised of three major (54, 50, and 45kDa) and several minor (38–19kDa) polypeptides. The set of minor polypeptides (38–19kDa) termed “OMCrpf polypeptides” is selectively solubilized by high-pH extraction (pH 10.5) while the three major polypeptides (55, 50 and 45kDa) remain insoluble. Proteomic identification of the OMC32 polypeptide (32kDa polypeptide isolated from high-pH soluble fraction of OMC) yielded two peptides that matched the NCBI database sequence of acrosin-binding protein. Anti-OMC32 recognized an antigenically related family of polypeptides (OMCrpf polypeptides) in the 38–19kDa range with isoelectric points ranging between 4.0 and 5.1. Other than glycohydrolases, OMC32 may also be complexed to other acrosomal proteins. The present study was undertaken to identify and localize the OMC32 binding polypeptides and to elucidate the potential role of the acrosomal protein complex in sperm function. OMC32 affinity chromatography of a detergent soluble fraction of bovine cauda sperm acrosome followed by mass spectrometry-based identification of bound proteins identified acrosin, lactadherin, SPACA3, and IZUMO1. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis also demonstrated the interaction of OMC32 with acrosin, lactadherin, SPACA3, and IZUMO1. Our immunofluorescence studies revealed the presence of SPACA3 and lactadherin over the apical segment; whereas, IZUMO1 is localized over the equatorial segment of Triton X-100 permeabilized cauda sperm. Immunoblot analysis showed that a significant portion of SPACA3 was released after the lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC

  3. Identification of bovine sperm acrosomal proteins that interact with a 32-kDa acrosomal matrix protein.

    PubMed

    Nagdas, Subir K; Smith, Linda; Medina-Ortiz, Ilza; Hernandez-Encarnacion, Luisa; Raychoudhury, Samir

    2016-03-01

    Mammalian fertilization is accomplished by the interaction between sperm and egg. Previous studies from this laboratory have identified a stable acrosomal matrix assembly from the bovine sperm acrosome termed the outer acrosomal membrane-matrix complex (OMC). This stable matrix assembly exhibits precise binding activity for acrosin and N-acetylglucosaminidase. A highly purified OMC fraction comprises three major (54, 50, and 45 kDa) and several minor (38-19 kDa) polypeptides. The set of minor polypeptides (38-19 kDa) termed "OMCrpf polypeptides" is selectively solubilized by high-pH extraction (pH 10.5), while the three major polypeptides (55, 50, and 45 kDa) remain insoluble. Proteomic identification of the OMC32 polypeptide (32 kDa polypeptide isolated from high-pH soluble fraction of OMC) yielded two peptides that matched the NCBI database sequence of acrosin-binding protein. Anti-OMC32 recognized an antigenically related family of polypeptides (OMCrpf polypeptides) in the 38-19-kDa range with isoelectric points ranging between 4.0 and 5.1. Other than glycohydrolases, OMC32 may also be complexed to other acrosomal proteins. The present study was undertaken to identify and localize the OMC32 binding polypeptides and to elucidate the potential role of the acrosomal protein complex in sperm function. OMC32 affinity chromatography of a detergent-soluble fraction of bovine cauda sperm acrosome followed by mass spectrometry-based identification of bound proteins identified acrosin, lactadherin, SPACA3, and IZUMO1. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis also demonstrated the interaction of OMC32 with acrosin, lactadherin, SPACA3, and IZUMO1. Our immunofluorescence studies revealed the presence of SPACA3 and lactadherin over the apical segment, whereas IZUMO1 is localized over the equatorial segment of Triton X-100 permeabilized cauda sperm. Immunoblot analysis showed that a significant portion of SPACA3 was released after the lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)-induced acrosome

  4. Theories of Kinematic Analysis and Synthesis of Spatial Mechanisms Containing Lower and Higher Pairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-17

    34Design of Space Mechanisms for Rigid Body Guidance," Journal of Emgineering for Industry , Trans. ASME, Series B, Vol. 90, No. 3, 1968, pp.499-506...a Path Generating Mechanism by a Programmed Digital Computer," Journal of Engineering for Industry , Trans. ASME, Series B, Vol. 81, No. 2, May 1959...Engineering for Industry , Trans. ASME, Series B, Vol. 76, No. 3, April 1954, pp. 483-492. 5. Freudenstein, F., "Four-Bar Function Generators, u

  5. 40 CFR 89.3 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials CAA Clean... Oxygen OEM Original equipment manufacturer PM Particulate matter SAE Society of Automotive Engineers...

  6. 40 CFR 89.3 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials CAA Clean... Oxygen OEM Original equipment manufacturer PM Particulate matter SAE Society of Automotive Engineers...

  7. 40 CFR 89.3 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials CAA Clean... Oxygen OEM Original equipment manufacturer PM Particulate matter SAE Society of Automotive Engineers...

  8. 78 FR 20141 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993 -- American...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... -- American Society of Mechanical Engineers Notice is hereby given that, on March 5, 2013, pursuant to Section... Act''), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (``ASME'') has filed written...

  9. Birefringence Microscopy Platform for Assessing Airway Smooth Muscle Structure and Function in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Adams, David C.; Hariri, Lida P.; Miller, Alyssa J.; Wang, Yan; Cho, Josalyn L.; Villiger, Martin; Holz, Jasmin A.; Szabari, Margit V.; Hamilos, Daniel L.; Harris, R. Scott; Griffith, Jason W.; Bouma, Brett E.; Luster, Andrew D.; Medoff, Benjamin D.; Suter, Melissa J.

    2017-01-01

    The inability to visualize airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells in vivo is a major obstacle in understanding their role in normal physiology and diseases. At present, there is no imaging modality available to assess ASM in vivo. Confocal endomicroscopy lacks the penetration depth and field of view, and conventional optical coherence tomography (OCT) does not have sufficient contrast to differentiate ASM from surrounding tissues. We have developed a birefringence microscopy platform which leverages the micro-organization of tissue to add further dimension to traditional OCT. We have utilized this technology to validate ASM measurements in ex vivo swine and canine studies, visualize and characterize volumetric representations of ASM in vivo, and to quantify and predict ASM contractile force as a function of optical retardation. We provide in vivo images and volumetric assessments of ASM in living humans and document structural disease variations in subjects with mild asthma. The opportunity to link inflammatory responses to ASM responses, and to link ASM responses to clinical responses and outcomes could lead to an increased understanding of diseases of the airway and ultimately to improved patient outcomes. PMID:27708064

  10. Mast Cell-Airway Smooth Muscle Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Davinder; Doe, Camille; Woodman, Lucy; Heidi Wan, Wing-Yan; Sutcliffe, Amanda; Hollins, Fay

    2012-01-01

    Background: The mast cell localization to airway smooth muscle (ASM) bundle in asthma is important in the development of disordered airway physiology. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is expressed by airway structural cells. Whether it has a role in the crosstalk between these cells is uncertain. We sought to define TSLP expression in bronchial tissue across the spectrum of asthma severity and to investigate the TSLP and TSLP receptor (TSLPR) expression and function by primary ASM and mast cells alone and in coculture. Methods: TSLP expression was assessed in bronchial tissue from 18 subjects with mild to moderate asthma, 12 with severe disease, and nine healthy control subjects. TSLP and TSLPR expression in primary mast cells and ASM was assessed by immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and its function was assessed by calcium imaging. The role of TSLP in mast cell and ASM proliferation, survival, differentiation, synthetic function, and contraction was examined. Results: TSLP expression was increased in the ASM bundle in mild-moderate disease. TSLP and TSLPR were expressed by mast cells and ASM and were functional. Mast cell activation by TSLP increased the production of a broad range of chemokines and cytokines, but did not affect mast cell or ASM proliferation, survival, or contraction. Conclusions: TSLP expression by the bronchial epithelium and ASM was upregulated in asthma. TSLP promoted mast cell synthetic function, but did not contribute to other functional consequences of mast cell-ASM crosstalk. PMID:22052771

  11. The Expression of NOX4 in Smooth Muscles of Small Airway Correlates with the Disease Severity of COPD

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) remodeling is a hallmark in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (NOXs) produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in COPD pathogenesis. In the present study, the expression of NOX4 and its correlation with the ASM hypertrophy/hyperplasia, clinical pulmonary functions, and the expression of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in the ASM of COPD small airways were investigated by semiquantitative morphological and/or immunohistochemistry staining methods. The results showed that an elevated expression of NOX4 and TGF-β, along with an increased volume of ASM mass, was found in the ASM of small airways in COPD patients. The abundance of NOX4 protein in the ASM was increased with disease severity and inversely correlated with the pulmonary functions in COPD patients. In addition, the expression of NOX4 and ASM marker α-SMA was colocalized, and the increased NOX4 expression was found to accompany an upregulated expression of TGF-β in the ASM of small airways of COPD lung. These results indicate that NOX4 may be a key regulator in ASM remodeling of small airway, in part through a mechanism interacting with TGF-β signaling in the pathogenesis of COPD, which warrants further investigation. PMID:27656649

  12. The American Society of Maxillofacial Surgery Preceptorship Program: A Product of the 2013 American Society of Maxillofacial Surgery Executive Board Strategy Session and Survey.

    PubMed

    Papay, Francis; Taub, Peter J; Doumit, Gaby; Flores, Roberto L; Kuang, Anna A; Mlynek, Karolina; Tadisina, Kashyap K; Gharb, Bahar Bassiri

    2015-06-01

    One of the main goals of the American Society of Maxillofacial Surgery (ASMS) is to develop educational programs that increase expertise in maxillofacial surgery. We describe the outline of the new ASMS Preceptorship Program, a collective effort by ASMS members to increase access to all areas of maxillofacial surgery. Furthermore, we discuss the original survey pertinent to the development of this program, the results of the survey, and specifics regarding the structure of the program. We hope for the preceptorship program to be an excellent resource for members to mentor one another, develop intellectual and academic curiosity, provide avenues for collaboration, and further the ASMS's role in shaping maxillofacial surgery into the future.

  13. Discussion: "Comparison of Statistical Methods for Assessing Spatial Correlations Between Maps of Different Arterial Properties" (Rowland, E. M., Mohamied, Y., Chooi, K. Y., Bailey, E. L., and Weinberg, P. D., 2015, ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 137(10), p. 101003): An Alternative Approach Using Segmentation Based on Local Hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Himburg, Heather A; Grzybowski, Deborah M; Hazel, Andrew L; LaMack, Jeffrey A; Friedman, Morton H

    2016-09-01

    The biological response of living arteries to mechanical forces is an important component of the atherosclerotic process and is responsible, at least in part, for the well-recognized spatial variation in atherosusceptibility in man. Experiments to elucidate this response often generate maps of force and response variables over the arterial surface, from which the force-response relationship is sought. Rowland et al. discussed several statistical approaches to the spatial autocorrelation that confounds the analysis of such maps and applied them to maps of hemodynamic stress and vascular response obtained by averaging these variables in multiple animals. Here, we point out an alternative approach, in which discrete surface regions are defined by the hemodynamic stress levels they experience, and the stress and response in each animal are treated separately. This approach, applied properly, is insensitive to autocorrelation and less sensitive to the effect of confounding hemodynamic variables. The analysis suggests an inverse relation between permeability and shear that differs from that in Rowland et al. Possible sources of this difference are suggested.

  14. Recruitment of NADH Shuttling in Pressure Overloaded and Hypertrophic Rat Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, E. Douglas; O'Donnell, J. Michael; Scholz, Thomas D.; Sorokina, Natalia; Buttrick, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    Glucose metabolism in the heart requires oxidation of cytosolic NADH from glycolysis. This study examines shuttling reducing equivalents from the cytosol to the mitochondria via the activity and expression of the oxoglutarate-malate carrier (OMC), in rat hearts subjected to 2 (HYP2, n=6) and 10 weeks (HYP10, n=8) of pressure overload vs. that of sham-operated rats (SHAM2, n=6 and SHAM10, n=7). Moderate aortic banding produced increased atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) mRNA expression at 2 and 10 weeks, but only at 10 weeks did hearts develop compensatory hypertrophy (33% increase, P<0.05). Isolated hearts were perfused with the short chain fatty acid, [2,4-13C2] butyrate (2 mM) and glucose (5 mM) to enable dynamic-mode 13C NMR of intermediate exchange across OMC. OMC flux increased prior to development of hypertrophy: HYP2 = 9.6 ± 2.1 micromole/min/g dw vs. SHAM2 = 3.7 ± 1.2 providing an increased contribution of cytosolic NADH to energy synthesis in the mitochondria. With compensatory hypertrophy, OMC flux returned to normal: HYP10 = 3.9 ± 1.7 micromole/g/min vs. SHAM10 = 3.8 ± 1.2. Despite changes in activity, no differences in OMC expression occurred between HYP and SHAM. Elevated OMC flux represented augmented cytosolic NADH shuttling, coupled to increased nonoxidative glycolysis, in response to hypertrophic stimulus. However, development of compensatory hypertrophy moderated the pressure-induced elevation in OMC flux, which returned to control levels. The findings indicate that the challenge of pressure overload increases cytosolic redox state and its contribution to mitochondrial oxidation, but that hypertrophy, prior to decompensation, alleviates this stress response. PMID:17229809

  15. Gonadotropin-dependent oocyte maturational competence requires activation of the protein kinase A pathway and synthesis of RNA and protein in ovarian follicles of Nibe, Nibea mitsukurii (Teleostei, Sciaenidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yoshizaki, G.; Shusa, M.; Takeuchi, T.; Patino, R.

    2002-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone- (LH)-dependent ovarian follicle maturation has been recently described in two stages for teleost fishes. The oocyte's ability to respond to the steroidal maturation-inducing hormone (MIH), also known as oocyte maturational competence (OMC), is acquired during the first stage; whereas the MIH-dependent resumption of meiosis occurs during the second stage. However, studies directly addressing OMC have been performed with a limited number of species and therefore the general relevance of the two-stage model and its mechanisms remain uncertain. In this study, we examined the hormonal regulation of OMC and its basic transduction mechanisms in ovarian follicles of the sciaenid teleost, Nibe (Nibea mitsukurii). Exposure to MIH [17,20??-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one or 17,20??,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one] stimulated germinal vesicle breakdown (index of meiotic resumption) in full-grown follicles primed with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, an LH-like gonadotropin) but not in those pre-cultured in plain incubation medium. The induction of OMC by HCG was mimicked by protein kinase A (PKA) activators (forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP), and blocked by specific inhibitors of PKA (H89 and H8) as well as inhibitors of RNA (actinomycin D) and protein (cycloheximide) synthesis. Forskolin-induced OMC was also inhibited by actinomycin D and cycloheximide. A strong activator of protein kinase C, PMA, inhibited HCG-dependent OMC. In conclusion, OMC in Nibe ovarian follicles is gonadotropin-dependent and requires activation of the PKA pathway followed by gene transcription and translation events. These observations are consistent with the two-stage model of ovarian follicle maturation proposed for other teleosts, and suggest that Nibe can be used as new model species for mechanistic studies of ovarian follicle differentiation and maturation in fishes.

  16. Immature development of the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae S.L. (Diptera: Culicidae), in relation to soil-substrate organic matter content of larval habitats in northcentral Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olayemi, I K; Ojo, V O

    2013-02-01

    This study elucidated the relationships between larval habitat soil-substrate Organic Matter Content (OMC) and immature development of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae S.L. Day-old larvae of the mosquito were reared in media substrated with typical soil samples (i.e., sandy, silt, clayey and loamy soils), from established anopheline breeding sites, to provide a gradient in soil-substrate OMC. The OMC of the soil samples were determined by ignition to a constant weight; while the developing A. gambiae mosquitoes in the culture media were monitored daily for survivorship and duration of immature life stages. The results indicated significant (p < 0.05) variation in OMC of the soil types (range = 11.21 +/- 2.91% in sandy to 29.83 +/- 2.96% in loamy soils). However, though Daily Larval Survival Rates (DLSR) were relatively high (range = 95.21 +/- 2.96 to 96.70 +/- 1.44%), as influenced by OMC, such values were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among the soil-substrate types; results contrary to those of Larval Success Rates (LSR) (i.e., range = 52.07 +/- 13.64 to 74.39 +/- 6.60%). Daily Pupation Rate (DPR) of the mosquitoes varied significantly among the soil-substrates, ranging from 13.87 +/- 2.39% in clayey to 25.00 +/- 4.30% in loamy substrates. Soil-substrate OMC significantly extended the Duration of Immature Life Stages (DILS) of the mosquitoes only in the sandy soil type (range = 12.76 +/- 1.74 to 15.81 +/- 2.40 days). On the whole, DILS was inversely related to soil-substrate OMC. Cross-correlational analysis revealed significant positive association among most of the variables tested. The findings of this study should serve as baseline information for the development of effective environmental management strategies for malaria larval-vector control.

  17. A model of the acid sphingomyelinase phosphoesterase domain based on its remote structural homolog purple acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Seto, Marian; Whitlow, Marc; McCarrick, Margaret A; Srinivasan, Subha; Zhu, Ying; Pagila, Rene; Mintzer, Robert; Light, David; Johns, Anthony; Meurer-Ogden, Janet A

    2004-12-01

    Sequence profile and fold recognition methods identified mammalian purple acid phosphatase (PAP), a member of a dimetal-containing phosphoesterase (DMP) family, as a remote homolog of human acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). A model of the phosphoesterase domain of ASM was built based on its predicted secondary structure and the metal-coordinating residues of PAP. Due to the low sequence identity between ASM and PAP (approximately 15%), the highest degree of confidence in the model resides in the metal-binding motifs. The ASM model predicts residues Asp 206, Asp 278, Asn 318, His 425, and His 457 to be dimetal coordinating. A putative orientation for the phosphorylcholine head group of the ASM substrate, sphingomyelin (SM), was made based on the predicted catalysis of the phosphorus-oxygen bond in the active site of ASM and on a structural comparison of the PAP-phosphate complex to the C-reactive protein-phosphorylcholine complex. These complexes revealed similar spatial interactions between the metal-coordinating residues, the metals, and the phosphate groups, suggesting a putative orientation for the head group in ASM consistent with the mechanism considerations. A conserved sequence motif in ASM, NX3CX3N, was identified (Asn 381 to Asn 389) and is predicted to interact with the choline amine moiety in SM. The resulting ASM model suggests that the enzyme uses an SN2-type catalytic mechanism to hydrolyze SM, similar to other DMPs. His 319 in ASM is predicted to protonate the ceramide-leaving group in the catalysis of SM. The putative functional roles of several ASM Niemann-Pick missense mutations, located in the predicted phosphoesterase domain, are discussed in context to the model.

  18. Mechanism regulating proasthmatic effects of prolonged homologous beta2-adrenergic receptor desensitization in airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Nino, Gustavo; Hu, Aihua; Grunstein, Judith S; Grunstein, Michael M

    2009-10-01

    Use of long-acting beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) agonists to treat asthma incurs an increased risk of asthma morbidity with impaired bronchodilation and heightened bronchoconstriction, reflecting the adverse effects of prolonged homologous beta2AR desensitization on airway smooth muscle (ASM) function. Since phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) regulates ASM relaxation and contractility, we examined whether the changes in ASM function induced by prolonged homologous beta2AR desensitization are attributed to altered expression and action of PDE4. Cultured human ASM cells and isolated rabbit ASM tissues exposed for 24 h to the long-acting beta2AR agonist salmeterol exhibited impaired acute beta2AR-mediated cAMP accumulation and relaxation, respectively, together with ASM constrictor hyperresponsiveness. These proasthmatic-like changes in ASM function were associated with upregulated PDE4 activity due to enhanced expression of the PDE4D5 isoform and were prevented by pretreating the ASM preparations with the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram or with inhibitors of either PKA or ERK1/2 signaling. Extended studies using gene silencing and pharmacological approaches demonstrated that: 1) the mechanism underlying upregulated PDE4D5 expression following prolonged beta2AR agonist exposure involves PKA-dependent activation of G(i) protein signaling via its betagamma-subunits, which elicits downstream activation of ERK1/2 and its induction of PDE4D5 transcription; and 2) the induction of PDE4 activity and consequent changes in ASM responsiveness are prevented by pretreating the beta2AR agonist-exposed ASM preparations with inhibitors of G(i)-betagamma signaling. Collectively, these findings identify that the proasthmatic changes in ASM function resulting from prolonged homologous beta2AR desensitization are attributed to upregulated PDE4 expression induced by G(i)-betagamma-mediated cross-talk between the PKA and ERK1/2 signaling pathways.

  19. Mechanism regulating proasthmatic effects of prolonged homologous β2-adrenergic receptor desensitization in airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Nino, Gustavo; Hu, Aihua; Grunstein, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    Use of long-acting β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonists to treat asthma incurs an increased risk of asthma morbidity with impaired bronchodilation and heightened bronchoconstriction, reflecting the adverse effects of prolonged homologous β2AR desensitization on airway smooth muscle (ASM) function. Since phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) regulates ASM relaxation and contractility, we examined whether the changes in ASM function induced by prolonged homologous β2AR desensitization are attributed to altered expression and action of PDE4. Cultured human ASM cells and isolated rabbit ASM tissues exposed for 24 h to the long-acting β2AR agonist salmeterol exhibited impaired acute β2AR-mediated cAMP accumulation and relaxation, respectively, together with ASM constrictor hyperresponsiveness. These proasthmatic-like changes in ASM function were associated with upregulated PDE4 activity due to enhanced expression of the PDE4D5 isoform and were prevented by pretreating the ASM preparations with the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram or with inhibitors of either PKA or ERK1/2 signaling. Extended studies using gene silencing and pharmacological approaches demonstrated that: 1) the mechanism underlying upregulated PDE4D5 expression following prolonged β2AR agonist exposure involves PKA-dependent activation of Gi protein signaling via its βγ-subunits, which elicits downstream activation of ERK1/2 and its induction of PDE4D5 transcription; and 2) the induction of PDE4 activity and consequent changes in ASM responsiveness are prevented by pretreating the β2AR agonist-exposed ASM preparations with inhibitors of Gi-βγ signaling. Collectively, these findings identify that the proasthmatic changes in ASM function resulting from prolonged homologous β2AR desensitization are attributed to upregulated PDE4 expression induced by Gi-βγ-mediated cross-talk between the PKA and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. PMID:19666775

  20. Insight into highly efficient co-removal of p-nitrophenol and lead by nitrogen-functionalized magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon: Performance and modelling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yaoyu; Liu, Xiaocheng; Tang, Lin; Zhang, Fengfeng; Zeng, Guangming; Peng, Xiangqi; Luo, Lin; Deng, Yaochen; Pang, Ya; Zhang, Jiachao

    2017-03-16

    Highly efficient simultaneous removal of Pb(II) and p-nitrophenol (PNP) contamination from water was accomplished by nitrogen-functionalized magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (N-Fe/OMC). The mutual effects and inner mechanisms of their adsorption onto N-Fe/OMC were systematically investigated by sole and binary systems, and thermodynamic, sorption isotherm and adsorption kinetics models. The liquid-film diffusion step might be the rate-limiting step for PNP and Pb(II). The fitting of experimental data with Temkin model indicates that the adsorption process of PNP and Pb(II) involve physisorption and chemisorption. There exist site competition and enhancement of PNP and Pb(II) on the sorption to N-Fe/OMC. Moreover, N-Fe/OMC could be regenerated effectively and recycled by using dilute NaOH and acetone. These demonstrated superior properties of N-Fe/OMC indicate that it could be applied to treatment of wastewaters containing both lead and PNP.

  1. The optical characterization of organometallic complex thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry and photovoltaic diode application

    SciTech Connect

    Özaydın, C.; Güllü, Ö.; Pakma, O.; Ilhan, S.; Akkılıç, K.

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Optical properties and thickness of the A novel organometallic complex (OMC) film were investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). • Au/OMC/n-Si metal/interlayer/semiconductor (MIS) diode has been fabricated • This paper presents the I–V analysis of Au/OMC/n-Si MIS diode. • Current–voltage and photovoltaic properties of the diode were investigated. - Abstract: In this work, organometallic complex (OMC) films have been deposited onto glass or silicon substrates by spin coating technique and their photovoltaic application potential has been investigated. Optical properties and thickness of the film have been investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Also, transmittance spectrum has been taken by UV/vis spectrophotometer. The optical method has been used to determine the band gap value of the films. Also, Au/OMC/n-Si metal/interlayer/semiconductor (MIS) diode has been fabricated. Current–voltage and photovoltaic properties of the structure were investigated. The ideality factor (n) and barrier height (Φ{sub b}) values of the diode were found to be 2.89 and 0.79 eV, respectively. The device shows photovoltaic behavior with a maximum open-circuit voltage of 396 mV and a short circuit current of 33.8 μA under 300 W light.

  2. Impact of a Gender-Transformative HIV and Antiviolence Program on Gender Ideologies and Masculinities in Two Rural, South African Communities

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Shari L.; Hatcher, Abigail M.; Colvin, Chris; Peacock, Dean

    2013-01-01

    “One Man Can” (OMC) is a rights-based gender equality and health program implemented by Sonke Gender Justice Network (Sonke) in South Africa. The program seeks to reduce the spread and impact of HIV and AIDS and reduce violence against women and men. To understand how OMC workshops impact masculinities, gender norms, and perceptions of women’s rights, an academic/non-governmental organization (NGO) partnership was carried out with the University of Cape Town, the University of California at San Francisco, and Sonke. Sixty qualitative, in-depth interviews were carried out with men who had completed OMC workshops and who were recruited from Sonke’s partner organizations that were focused on gender and/or health-related services. Men were recruited who were over age 18 and who participated in OMC workshops in Limpopo and Eastern Cape Provinces, South Africa. Results reveal how men reconfigured notions of hegemonic masculinity both in terms of beliefs and practices in relationships, households, and in terms of women’s rights. In the conclusions, we consider the ways in which the OMC program extends public health research focused on masculinities, violence, and HIV/AIDS. We then critically assess the ways in which health researchers and practitioners can bolster men’s engagement within programs focused on gender equality and health. PMID:24311940

  3. Ultraviolet optomechanical crystal cavities with ultrasmall modal mass and high optomechanical coupling rate

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wen; Yu, Zejie; Ma, Jingwen; Zhu, Bingqing; Tsang, Hon Ki; Sun, Xiankai

    2016-01-01

    Optomechanical crystal (OMC) cavities which exploit the simultaneous photonic and phononic bandgaps in periodic nanostructures have been utilized to colocalize, couple, and transduce optical and mechanical resonances for nonlinear interactions and precision measurements. The development of near-infrared OMC cavities has difficulty in maintaining a high optomechanical coupling rate when scaling to smaller mechanical modal mass because of the reduction of the spatial overlap between the optical and mechanical modes. Here, we explore OMC nanobeam cavities in gallium nitride operating at the ultraviolet wavelengths to overcome this problem. With a novel optimization strategy, we have successfully designed an OMC cavity, with a size of 3.83 × 0.17 × 0.13 μm3 and the mechanical modal mass of 22.83 fg, which possesses an optical mode resonating at the wavelength of 393.03 nm and the fundamental mechanical mode vibrating at 14.97 GHz. The radiation-limited optical Q factor, mechanical Q factor, and optomechanical coupling rate are 2.26 × 107, 1.30 × 104, and 1.26 MHz, respectively. Our design and optimization approach can also serve as the general guidelines for future development of OMC cavities with improved device performance. PMID:27892523

  4. Impact of a Gender-Transformative HIV and Antiviolence Program on Gender Ideologies and Masculinities in Two Rural, South African Communities.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Shari L; Hatcher, Abigail M; Colvin, Chris; Peacock, Dean

    2013-06-01

    "One Man Can" (OMC) is a rights-based gender equality and health program implemented by Sonke Gender Justice Network (Sonke) in South Africa. The program seeks to reduce the spread and impact of HIV and AIDS and reduce violence against women and men. To understand how OMC workshops impact masculinities, gender norms, and perceptions of women's rights, an academic/non-governmental organization (NGO) partnership was carried out with the University of Cape Town, the University of California at San Francisco, and Sonke. Sixty qualitative, in-depth interviews were carried out with men who had completed OMC workshops and who were recruited from Sonke's partner organizations that were focused on gender and/or health-related services. Men were recruited who were over age 18 and who participated in OMC workshops in Limpopo and Eastern Cape Provinces, South Africa. Results reveal how men reconfigured notions of hegemonic masculinity both in terms of beliefs and practices in relationships, households, and in terms of women's rights. In the conclusions, we consider the ways in which the OMC program extends public health research focused on masculinities, violence, and HIV/AIDS. We then critically assess the ways in which health researchers and practitioners can bolster men's engagement within programs focused on gender equality and health.

  5. Triplet-triplet energy transfer from a UV-A absorber butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane to UV-B absorbers.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Azusa; Oguchi-Fujiyama, Nozomi; Miyazawa, Kazuyuki; Yagi, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    The phosphorescence decay of a UV-A absorber, 4-tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzolymethane (BMDBM) has been observed following a 355 nm laser excitation in the absence and presence of UV-B absorbers, 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (octyl methoxycinnamate, OMC) and octocrylene (OCR) in ethanol at 77 K. The lifetime of the lowest excited triplet (T1) state of BMDBM is significantly reduced in the presence of OMC and OCR. The observed quenching of BMDBM triplet by OMC and OCR suggests that the intermolecular triplet-triplet energy transfer occurs from BMDBM to OMC and OCR. The T1 state of OCR is nonphosphorescent or very weakly phosphorescent. However, we have shown that the energy level of the T1 state of OCR is lower than that of the enol form of BMDBM. Our methodology of energy-donor phosphorescence decay measurements can be applied to the study of the triplet-triplet energy transfer between UV absorbers even if the energy acceptor is nonphosphorescent. In addition, the delayed fluorescence of BMDBM due to triplet-triplet annihilation was observed in the BMDBM-OMC and BMDBM-OCR mixtures in ethanol at 77 K. Delayed fluorescence is one of the deactivation processes of the excited states of BMDBM under our experimental conditions.

  6. Electron tunneling properties of outer-membrane decaheme cytochromes from Shewanella oneidensis

    SciTech Connect

    Wigginton, Nicholas S; Rosso, Kevin M; Lower, Brian H; Shi, Liang; Hochella, Michael F

    2007-02-01

    In this report, we describe the characterization of two outer-membrane decaheme cytochromes OmcA and MtrC purified from the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and tunneling spectroscopy (TS). OmcA and MtrC were solubilized with a common detergent and irreversibly bound to Au (111) substrates as self-assembled cytochrome films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) verified that OmcA and MtrC were covalently bound to the Au surface via thiol bonds to cysteine residues. Initial STM images show that a layer of detergent covers and protects the cytochrome films. Temporary application of high bias voltage causes the detergent film to reorganize around the tip, opening a window for direct STM imaging of the cytochrome layer underneath. The STM apparent sizes of both OmcA and MtrC are 58 nanometers in diameter consistent with expectations from their molecular masses. Current-voltage TS over individual cytochromes showed that OmcA and MtrC have different abilities to mediate the tunneling current, reflecting differences in their electronic structures. The data suggest that the two cytochromes could have different roles in the electron transport chain during metal reduction.

  7. Size Effect of Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Nanospheres for Anodes in Li-Ion Battery

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pei-Yi; Bindumadhavan, Kartick; Doong, Ruey-An

    2015-01-01

    The present work demonstrates the application of various sizes of ordered mesoporous carbon nanospheres (OMCS) with diameters of 46–130 nm as an active anode material for Li-ion batteries (LIB). The physical and chemical properties of OMCS have been evaluated by performing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption analysis; small-angle scattering system (SAXS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical analysis of using various sizes of OMCS as anode materials showed high capacity and rate capability with the specific capacity up to 560 mA·h·g−1 at 0.1 C after 85 cycles. In terms of performance at high current rate compared to other amorphous carbonaceous materials; a stable and extremely high specific capacity of 240 mA·h·g−1 at 5 C after 15 cycles was achieved. Such excellent performance is mainly attributed to the suitable particle size distribution of OMCS and intimate contact between OMCS and conductive additives; which can be supported from the TEM images. Results obtained from this study clearly indicate the excellence of size distribution of highly integrated mesoporous structure of carbon nanospheres for LIB application.

  8. Metallic cobalt nanoparticles imbedded into ordered mesoporous carbon: A non-precious metal catalyst with excellent hydrogenation performance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangyong; Wang, Zihao; Yan, Xiaodong; Jian, Panming

    2017-11-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC)-metal composites have attracted great attention owing to their combination of high surface area, controlled pore size distribution and physicochemical properties of metals. Herein, we report the cobalt nanoparticles/ordered mesoporous carbon (CoNPs@OMC) composite prepared by a one-step carbonization/reduction process assisted by a hydrothermal pre-reaction. The CoNPs@OMC composite presents a high specific surface area of 544m(2)g(-1), and the CoNPs are uniformly imbedded or confined in the ordered mesoporous carbon matrix. When used as a non-precious metal-containing catalyst for hydrogenation reduction of p-nitrophenol and nitrobenzene, it demonstrates high efficiency and good cycling stability. Furthermore, the CoNPs@OMC composite can be directly used to catalyze the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis for the high-pressure CO hydrogenation, and presents a good catalytic selectivity for C5(+) hydrocarbons. The excellent catalytic performance of the CoNPs@OMC composite can be ascribed to synergistic effect between the high specific surface area, mesoporous structure and well-imbedded CoNPs in the carbon matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Poly(D,L-lactide) nanoencapsulation to reduce photoinactivation of a sunscreen agent.

    PubMed

    Vettor, M; Perugini, P; Scalia, S; Conti, B; Genta, I; Modena, T; Pavanetto, F

    2008-06-01

    The use of sunscreens is the 'gold standard' for protecting the skin from ultraviolet light. Octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) is one of the most widely used UVB filter but it can act as a sensitizer or photoallergen. When exposed to sunlight, OMC can change from the primary trans-form to cis-form and the isomerization, not reversible, conducts to a reduction of the UVB filtering efficiency because the trans-form has a higher extinction coefficient. Photostability is the most important characteristic of effective sunscreens and it can be influenced by formulation ingredients and by applying technological strategies. In this work, photostability experiments, performed on emulsion-gels containing different percentages of OMC free or loaded in poly(D,L-lactide) nanoparticles, were carried out. The presence of a polymeric envelop may act to protect the active ingredient. In this study, the influence of poly(D,L-lactide) matrices on the photochemical stability of the sunscreen agent was investigated. As highlighted in this study, free OMC in different formulations has different photoisomerization degree. Moreover, a dissimilar behaviour was observed by studying different sunscreen concentrations in the same cosmetic formulation. Photostability results show a significant reduction in photoisomerization degree for formulations containing sunscreen loaded in nanoparticles, highlighting that the encapsulation is a suitable strategy to improve OMC photostability. Moreover, sun protection factor (SPF) results show that the UVB filter protective power is also maintained after encapsulation.

  10. Size Effect of Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Nanospheres for Anodes in Li-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pei-Yi; Bindumadhavan, Kartick; Doong, Ruey-An

    2015-12-18

    The present work demonstrates the application of various sizes of ordered mesoporous carbon nanospheres (OMCS) with diameters of 46-130 nm as an active anode material for Li-ion batteries (LIB). The physical and chemical properties of OMCS have been evaluated by performing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N₂ adsorption-desorption analysis; small-angle scattering system (SAXS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical analysis of using various sizes of OMCS as anode materials showed high capacity and rate capability with the specific capacity up to 560 mA·h·g(-1) at 0.1 C after 85 cycles. In terms of performance at high current rate compared to other amorphous carbonaceous materials; a stable and extremely high specific capacity of 240 mA·h·g(-1) at 5 C after 15 cycles was achieved. Such excellent performance is mainly attributed to the suitable particle size distribution of OMCS and intimate contact between OMCS and conductive additives; which can be supported from the TEM images. Results obtained from this study clearly indicate the excellence of size distribution of highly integrated mesoporous structure of carbon nanospheres for LIB application.

  11. Ultraviolet optomechanical crystal cavities with ultrasmall modal mass and high optomechanical coupling rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen; Yu, Zejie; Ma, Jingwen; Zhu, Bingqing; Tsang, Hon Ki; Sun, Xiankai

    2016-11-01

    Optomechanical crystal (OMC) cavities which exploit the simultaneous photonic and phononic bandgaps in periodic nanostructures have been utilized to colocalize, couple, and transduce optical and mechanical resonances for nonlinear interactions and precision measurements. The development of near-infrared OMC cavities has difficulty in maintaining a high optomechanical coupling rate when scaling to smaller mechanical modal mass because of the reduction of the spatial overlap between the optical and mechanical modes. Here, we explore OMC nanobeam cavities in gallium nitride operating at the ultraviolet wavelengths to overcome this problem. With a novel optimization strategy, we have successfully designed an OMC cavity, with a size of 3.83 × 0.17 × 0.13 μm3 and the mechanical modal mass of 22.83 fg, which possesses an optical mode resonating at the wavelength of 393.03 nm and the fundamental mechanical mode vibrating at 14.97 GHz. The radiation-limited optical Q factor, mechanical Q factor, and optomechanical coupling rate are 2.26 × 107, 1.30 × 104, and 1.26 MHz, respectively. Our design and optimization approach can also serve as the general guidelines for future development of OMC cavities with improved device performance.

  12. Immunogenicity of Coxiella burnetii whole cells and their outer membrane components.

    PubMed

    Gajdosová, E; Kovácová, E; Toman, R; Skultéty, L; Lukácová, M; Kazár, J

    1994-12-01

    The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the phase I and phase II Coxiella burnetii whole cells (Cb I and Cb II) and their outer membrane components (OMC), i.e. phase I trichloroacetic acid extract (TCAE), phase I 29 K protein (PRO), phase I and II lipopolysaccharides (LPS I, LPS II), polysaccharides (PS I, PS II), and lipid A (LA I, LA II), were compared. The highest immune response was observed in BALB/c mice by Cb I in both humoral immunity and lymphocyte transformation assays, and in the protective effect as well. The immune response was also significant by Cb II, but their protective capacity was low. The OMC reacted variously. Only TCAE and PRO gave a high value of humoral immunity evaluated by the serological methods. All OMC reacted in the haemolytic plaque assay giving different responses. Lymphoproliferation of splenocytes was positive with all OMC using both Cb I and Cb II antigens with the exception of PS I and PS II in the case of Cb II antigen. The induction of protection against infectious Cb I was demonstrated after immunization with TCAE, PRO, and LPS I. Other OMC did not induce protection against this agent.

  13. Comparison of effects of estradiol with those of octylmethoxycinnamate and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor on fat tissue, lipids and pituitary hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Christoffel, Julie; Rimoldi, Guillermo; Jarry, Hubertus; Wuttke, Wolfgang . E-mail: ufkendo@med.uni-goettingen.de

    2006-07-01

    Octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC) and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) are commercially used absorbers of ultraviolet (UV) light. In rats, they were shown to exert endocrine disrupting including uterotrophic, i.e. estrogenic effects. Estrogens have also metabolic effects, therefore the impact of oral application of the two UV absorbers at 2 doses for 3 months on lipids and hormones were compared with those of estradiol-17{beta} (E2). E2, OMC and 4MBC reduced weight gain, the size of fat depots and serum leptin, a lipocyte-derived hormone, when compared to the ovariectomized control animals. Serum triglycerides were also reduced by the UV screens but not by E2. On the other hand, E2 and OMC reduced serum cholesterol, low density lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins; this effect was not shared by 4MBC. While E2 inhibited, OMC and 4MBC stimulated serum LH levels. In the uterus, both UV filters had mild stimulatory effects. 4MBC inhibited serum T4 resulting in increased serum TSH levels. It is concluded that OMC and 4MBC have effects on several metabolic parameters such as fat and lipid homeostasis as well as on thyroid hormone production. Many of these effects are not shared by E2. Hence, other than estrogen-receptive mechanisms may be responsible for these effects.

  14. 46 CFR 64.2 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incorporation by reference. 64.2 Section 64.2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND... Mechanical Engineers (ASME) International Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990. ASME Boiler and...

  15. 49 CFR 178.276 - Requirements for the design, construction, inspection and testing of portable tanks intended for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) With insulation: 50 °C (122 °F). (3) Filling density means the average mass of liquefied compressed gas... stamped in accordance with the ASME Code, Section VIII. (2) Portable tanks must be postweld heat-treated... constructed in accordance with part UHT of the ASME Code must be postweld heat-treated. Where postweld...

  16. Glucocorticoid Receptor ChIP-seq Identifies PLCD1 as a KLF15 Target that Represses Airway Smooth Muscle Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Sasse, Sarah K; Kadiyala, Vineela; Danhorn, Thomas; Panettieri, Reynold A; Phang, Tzu L; Gerber, Anthony N

    2017-04-04

    Glucocorticoids exert important therapeutic effects on airway smooth muscle (ASM), yet few direct targets of glucocorticoid signaling in ASM have been definitively identified. Here, we show that the transcription factor, KLF15, is directly induced by glucocorticoids in primary human ASM and that KLF15 represses ASM hypertrophy. We integrated transcriptome data from KLF15 overexpression with genome-wide analysis of RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) occupancy (i.e. ChIP-seq) to identify PLCD1 as both a KLF15-regulated gene and a novel repressor of ASM hypertrophy. Our ChIP-seq data also allowed us to establish numerous direct transcriptional targets of GR in ASM. Genes with inducible GR occupancy and putative anti-inflammatory properties included IRS2, APPL2, RAMP1 and MFGE8. Surprisingly, we also observed GR occupancy in the absence of supplemental ligand, including robust GR binding peaks within the IL11 and LIF loci. Detection of antibody-GR complexes at these areas was abrogated by dexamethasone treatment in association with reduced RNAPII occupancy, suggesting that non-canonical pathways contribute to cytokine repression by glucocorticoids in ASM. Through defining GR interactions with chromatin on a genome-wide basis in ASM, our data also provide an important resource for future studies of GR in this therapeutically relevant cell type.

  17. 46 CFR 53.01-1 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Boilers (July 1, 2001) (“Section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code”), 53.01-10. (2) 2004 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IV, Rules for Construction of Heating Boilers (July 1, 2004..., Fourth Edition, Sep. 1, 1995 (“UL 1453”), 53.01-10. ...

  18. 46 CFR 53.01-1 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Boilers (July 1, 2001) (“Section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code”), 53.01-10. (2) 2004 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IV, Rules for Construction of Heating Boilers (July 1, 2004..., Fourth Edition, Sep. 1, 1995 (“UL 1453”), 53.01-10. ...

  19. Conceptual Design, Feasibility and Payoff Analysis of a Third Stage for EELV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Breeze M: The Next Step in Proton Evolution”. 37th AIAA, ASME, SAE, ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Salt Lake City, Utah, July 2001. 10Plachta, D.W...Stage Option for Reusable Launch Vehicles”. 32nd AIAA, ASME, SAE, ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Lake Buena Vista, July 1996 8Rudman, T.J., Austad

  20. Acid Sphingomyelinase Mediates Oxidized-LDL Induced Apoptosis in Macrophage via Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Min; Pan, Wei; Shi, Rui-zheng; Bai, Yong-ping; You, Bo-yang; Zhang, Kai; Fu, Qiong-mei; Schuchman, Edward H.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Macrophage apoptosis is a vital event in advanced atherosclerosis, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is a major contributor to this process. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) and ceramide are also involved in the induction of apoptosis, particularly in macrophages. Our current study focuses on ASM and investigates its role in ox-LDL-induced macrophage apoptosis. Methods: Human THP-1 and mouse peritoneal macrophages were cultured in vitro and treated with ox-LDL. ASM activity and ceramide levels were quantified using ultra performance liquid chromatography. Protein and mRNA levels were analyzed using Western blot analysis and quantitative realtime PCR, respectively. Cell apoptosis was determined using Hoechst staining and flow cytometry. Results: Ox-LDL-induced macrophage apoptosis was triggered by profound endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to an upregulation of ASM activity and ceramide levels at an early stage. ASM was inhibited by siRNA or desipramine (DES), and/or ceramide was degraded by recombinant acid ceramidase (AC). These events attenuated the effect of ox-LDL on ER stress. In contrast, recombinant ASM upregulated ceramide and ER stress. ASM siRNA, DES, recombinant AC, and ER stress inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid were blocked by elevated levels of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP); ox-LDL induced elevated levels of CHOP. These events attenuated macrophage apoptosis. Conclusion: These results indicate that ASM/ceramide signaling pathway is involved in ox-LDL-induced macrophage apoptosis via ER stress pathway. PMID:26923251