Science.gov

Sample records for asotin creek fencing

  1. BPA Riparian Fencing and Alternative Water Development Projects Completed within Asotin Creek Watershed, 2000 and 2001 Asotin Creek Fencing Final Report of Accomplishments.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    The Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington in Water Resource Inventory Area (WRIA) 35. According to Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife's (WDFW) Priority WRIA's by ''At-Risk Stock Significance Map'', it is the highest priority WRIA in southeastern Washington. Summer steelhead, bull trout, and Snake River spring chinook salmon which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. WDFW manages it as a Wild Steelhead Reserve; no hatchery fish have been released here since 1997. The ACCD has been working with landowners, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Washington State Conservation Commission (WCC), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Forest Service, Pomeroy Ranger District (USFS), Nez Perce Tribe, Washington Department of Ecology (DOE), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to address habitat projects in Asotin County. Local students, volunteers and Salmon Corps members from the Nez Perce Tribe have been instrumental in the success of the Model Watershed Program on Asotin Creek. ACCD began coordinating habitat projects in 1995 with the help of BPA funding. Approximately two hundred and seventy-six projects have been implemented as of 1999. The Washington State Legislature was successful in securing funding for endangered salmon and steelhead recovery throughout the State in 1998. While these issues were new to most of the State, the ACCD has been securing and administering funding for endangered salmonids since 1994. The ''Asotin Creek Riparian Planting 2000-053-00 and Asotin Creek Riparian Fencing 2000-054-00'' teamed BPA and the Governor's Salmon Recovery Funding to plant approximately 84

  2. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  3. Riparian Planting Projects Completed within Asotin Creek Watershed : 2000-2002 Asotin Creek Riparian Final Report of Accomplishments.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B. J.

    2002-01-01

    The Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington in Water Resource Inventory Area (WRIA) 35. According to Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife's (WDFW) Priority WRIA's by ''At-Risk Stock Significance Map'', it is the highest priority WRIA in southeastern Washington. Summer steelhead, bull trout, and Snake River spring chinook salmon which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. WDFW manages it as a Wild Steelhead Reserve; no hatchery fish have been released here since 1997. The ACCD has been working with landowners, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Washington State Conservation Commission (WCC), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Forest Service, Pomeroy Ranger District (USFS), Nez Perce Tribe, Washington Department of Ecology (DOE), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to address habitat projects in Asotin County. Local students, volunteers and Salmon Corps members from the Nez Perce Tribe have been instrumental in the success of the Model Watershed Program on Asotin Creek. ACCD began coordinating habitat projects in 1995 with the help of BPA funding. Approximately two hundred and seventy-six projects have been implemented as of 1999. The Washington State Legislature was successful in securing funding for threatened and endangered salmon and steelhead recovery throughout the State in 1998. While these issues were new to most of the State, the ACCD has been securing and administering funding for threatened salmonids since 1994. The Asotin Creek Riparian Planting 2000-053-00 and Asotin Creek Riparian Fencing 2000-054-00 teamed BPA and the Governor's Salmon Recovery Funding to plant

  4. Asotin Creek Instream Habitat Alteration Projects: 1998 Habitat Evaluation Surveys.

    SciTech Connect

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.

    1999-03-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Master Plan was completed 1994. The plan was developed by a landowner steering committee for the Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD), with technical support from the various Federal, State and local entities. Actions identified within the plan to improve the Asotin Creek ecosystem fall into four main categories, (1) Stream and Riparian, (2) Forestland, (3) Rangeland, and (4) Cropland. Specific actions to be carried out within the stream and in the riparian area to improve fish habitat were, (a) create more pools, (b) increase the amount of large organic debris (LOD), (c) increase the riparian buffer zone through tree planting, and (d) increase fencing to limit livestock access; additionally, the actions are intended to stabilize the river channel, reduce sediment input, and protect private property. Fish species of main concern in Asotin Creek are summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), spring chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). Spring chinook in Asotin Creek are considered extinct (Bumgarner et al. 1998); bull trout and summer steelhead are below historical levels and are currently as ''threatened'' under the ESA. In 1998, 16 instream habitat projects were planned by ACCD along with local landowners. The ACCD identified the need for a more detailed analysis of these instream projects to fully evaluate their effectiveness at improving fish habitat. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife's (WDFW) Snake River Lab (SRL) was contracted by the ACCD to take pre-construction measurements of the existing habitat (pools, LOD, width, depth, etc.) within each identified site, and to eventually evaluate fish use within these sites. All pre-construction habitat measurements were completed between 6 and 14 July, 1998. 1998 was the first year that this sort of evaluation has occurred. Post construction measurements of habitat structures installed in 1998, and fish usage evaluation, will be

  5. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan: Asotin County, Washington, 1995.

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, Dave

    1995-04-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council completed its ``Strategy for Salmon'' in 1992. This is a plan, composed of four specific elements,designed to double the present production of 2.5 million salmon in the Columbia River watershed. These elements have been called the ``four H's'': (1) improve harvest management; (2) improve hatcheries and their production practices; (3) improve survival at hydroelectric dams; and (4) improve and protect fish habitat. The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon''. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity.

  6. Habitat Projects Completed within the Asotin Creek Watershed, 1998 Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Bradley J.

    1999-11-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Program (ACMWP) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The Asotin Creek watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington. Snake River spring chinook salmon, summer steelhead and bull trout, which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. The ACMWP began coordinating habitat projects in 1995. Approximately two hundred forty-six projects have been implemented through the ACMWP as of 1998. Fifty-nine of these projects were funded in part through Bonneville Power Administration's 1998 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. These projects used a variety of methods to enhance and protect watershed conditions. In-stream work for fish habitat included construction of hard structures (e.g. vortex rock weirs), meander reconstruction, placement of large woody debris (LWD) and whole trees and improvements to off-channel rearing habitat; one hundred thirty-nine pools were created with these structures. Three miles of stream benefited from riparian improvements such as fencing, vegetative plantings, and noxious weed control. Two alternative water developments were completed, providing off-stream-watering sources for livestock. 20,500 ft of upland terrace construction, seven sediment basin construction, one hundred eighty-seven acres of grass seeding, eight hundred fifty acres of direct seeding and eighteen sediment basin cleanouts were implemented to reduce sediment production and delivery to streams in the watershed.

  7. Asotin Creek Model Watershed 1997 Habitat Projects, 1997-1998 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.J.

    1998-12-01

    The installation of fish and wildlife restoration projects on Asotin Creek completed in 1997 include: 11 in-stream habitat restoration projects, 3 reparian exclusion fences, 6 riparian fences, 14 sediment basin constructions, 54 sediment basin cleanouts, 1 multi-purpose pond construction, 1800 ft of terraces, and 1 three month water quality study. In-stream project objectives were to increase the number of large pools with complex fish habitat containing LWD, re-establish the steambank stability, and reduce in-stream temperatures. Most of the projects listed above were cost-share on private land with the landowners paying 50%-10% of the project costs and signing a ten-year maintenance agreement.

  8. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-58) - Asotin Creek Channel, Floodplain and Riparian Restoration (2001)

    SciTech Connect

    Yarde, Richard

    2001-08-07

    BPA proposes to fund an instream and riparian habitat improvement project within the Asotin Creek watershed. This portion of the ongoing restoration program within the Asotin Creek watershed is comprised of the Hendrickson instream and riparian project and the George Creek instream and riparian project. These proposed projects include improving instream and riparian habitat, reestablishing geomorphic stability and enhancing the riparian plant community, by planting riparian vegetation, fencing cattle out of the riparian area, placement of large woody debris and constructing a stream channel within the unstable George Creek. The proposal calls for the removal of up to 300 feet of existing dikes and the placement of up to 10 rock weirs and 40 J-hook veins. Instream work would also include 4,300 feet of constructed meanders and 1,000 feet of constructed oxbow lakes and sediment berms.

  9. Asotin Creek ISCO Water Sample Data Summary: Water Year 2002, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Stacia

    2003-08-01

    The Pomeroy Ranger District operates 3 automated water samplers (ISCOs) in the Asotin Creek drainage in cooperation with the Asotin Model Watershed. The samplers are located on Asotin Creek: Asotin Creek at the mouth, Asotin Creek at Koch site, and South Fork Asotin Creek above the forks. At the end of Water Year (WY) 2001 we decided to sample from Oct. 1 through June 30 of each water year. This decision was based on the difficulty of obtaining good low flow samples, since the shallow depth of water often meant that instrument intakes were on the bed of the river and samples were contaminated with bed sediments. The greatest portion of suspended sediment is transported during the higher flows of fall and especially during the spring snow runoff period, and sampling the shorter season should allow characterization of the sediment load of the river. The ISCO water samplers collected a daily composite sample of 4 samples per day into one bottle at 6-hour intervals until late March when they were reprogrammed to collect 3 samples per day at 8-hour intervals. This was done to reduce battery use since battery failure had become an ongoing problem. The water is picked up on 24-day cycles and brought to the Forest Service Water Lab in Pendleton, OR. The samples are analyzed for total suspended solids (TSS), conductivity, and turbidity. A total dissolved solids value is estimated based on conductivity. The USGS gage, Asotin Creek at the mouth, No.13335050 has been discontinued and there are no discharge records available for this period.

  10. Asotin Creek Instream Habitat Alteration Projects : Habitat Evaluation, Adult and Juvenile Habitat Utilization and Water Temperature Monitoring : 2001 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.

    2002-01-01

    Asotin Creek originates from a network of deeply incised streams on the slopes of the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington. The watershed drains an area of 322 square miles that provides a mean annual flow of 74 cfs. The geomorphology of the watershed exerts a strong influence on biologic conditions for fish within the stream. Historic and contemporary land-use practices have had a profound impact on the kind, abundance, and distribution of anadromous salmonids in the watershed. Fish habitat in Asotin Creek and other local streams has been affected by agricultural development, grazing, tilling practices, logging, recreational activities and implementation of flood control structures (Neilson 1950). The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Master Plan was completed in 1994. The plan was developed by a landowner steering committee for the Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD), with technical support from various Federal, State and local entities. Actions identified within the plan to improve the Asotin Creek ecosystem fall into four main categories: (1) Stream and Riparian, (2) Forestland, (3) Rangeland, and (4) Cropland. Specific actions to be carried out within the stream and in the riparian area to improve fish habitat were: (1) create more pools, (2) increase the amount of large organic debris (LOD), (3) increase the riparian buffer zone through tree planting, and (4) increase fencing to limit livestock access. All of these actions, in combination with other activities identified in the Plan, are intended to stabilize the river channel, reduce sediment input, increase the amount of available fish habitat (adult and juvenile) and protect private property. Evaluation work described within this report was to document the success or failure of the program regarding the first two items listed (increasing pools and LOD). Beginning in 1996, the ACCD, with cooperation from local landowners and funding from Bonneville Power Administration began constructing instream

  11. BPA Instream Habitat Projects Completed within Asotin Creek Watershed, 1999-2001 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Bradley J.

    2002-10-23

    The Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington in WRIA 35. According to WDFW's Priority WRIA's by At-Risk Stock Significance Map, it is the highest priority WRIA in southeastern WA. Summer steelhead, bull trout, and Snake River spring chinook salmon which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. WDFW manages it as a Wild Steelhead Reserve, because no hatchery fish have been released here since 1997. The ACCD has been working with landowners, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Washington State Conservation Commission (WCC), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Forest Service, Pomeroy Ranger District (USFS), Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), Department of Ecology (DOE), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to address habitat projects in Asotin County. Local students, volunteers and Salmon Corps Members have been instrumental in the success of the Model Watershed Program on Asotin Creek. ACCD began coordinating habitat projects in 1995 with the help of BPA funding. Approximately two hundred seventy-six projects have been implemented as of 1999. The Washington State Legislature was successful in securing funding for endangered salmon and steelhead recovery throughout the State in 1998. While these issues were new to most of the State, southeastern Washington had been dealing with endangered fall and spring chinook salmon since 1994. The Asotin Creek In-Stream Habitat Project teamed BPA and Governor's Salmon Recovery Funding on four instream habitat projects in the Asotin Creek Watershed. These projects provide complex instream habitat for steelhead, bull trout and spring chinook in the stream. 38 pools were

  12. Habitat Projects Completed within the Asotin Creek Watershed, 1999 Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Bradley J.

    2000-01-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Program (ACMWP) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The Asotin Creek watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington in WRIA 35. According to WDFW's Priority WRIA's by At-Risk Stock Significance Map, it is the highest priority in southeastern WA. Snake River spring chinook salmon, summer steelhead and bull trout, which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. The ACMWP began coordinating habitat projects in 1995. Approximately two hundred seventy-six projects have been implemented through the ACMWP as of 1999. Twenty of these projects were funded in part through Bonneville Power Administration's 1999 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. These projects used a variety of methods to enhance and protect watershed conditions. In-stream work for fish habitat included construction of hard structures (e.g. vortex rock weirs), meander reconstruction, placement of large woody debris (LWD) and whole trees and improvements to off-channel rearing habitat; thirty-eight were created with these structures. Three miles of stream benefited from riparian improvements such as vegetative plantings (17,000 trees and shrubs) and noxious weed control. Two sediment basin constructions, 67 acres of grass seeding, and seven hundred forty-five acres of minimum till were implemented to reduce sediment production and delivery to streams in the watershed.

  13. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  14. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-92) - Asotin Creek Six-Year Direct Seed Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karnezis, Jason

    2002-10-16

    BPA proposes to fund a no-till/direct seed farming program to reduce erosion into the Asotin Creek Watershed. Objectives include developing contracts with landowners and implementing the direct seed program, operation and maintenance of the direct seed program, and monitoring and evaluation of the direct seed program.

  15. Study design and preliminary data analysis for a streambank fencing project in the Mill Creek Basin, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galeone, Daniel G.; Koerkle, Edward H.

    1996-01-01

    The Pequea Creek and Mill Creek Basins within Lancaster and Chester Counties in Pennsylvania have been identified as areas needing control of nonpoint-source (NFS) pollution to improve water quality. The two basins are a total of approximately 200 square miles and are primarily underlain by carbonate bedrock. Land use is predominantly agriculture. The most common agricultural NFS pollution-control practices implemented in the Pequea Creek and Mill Creek Basins are barnyard-runoff control and Streambank fencing. To provide land managers information on the effectiveness of Streambank fencing in controlling NFS pollution, a study is being conducted in two small paired watersheds within the Mill Creek Basin.

  16. Fencing.

    PubMed

    Murgu, Andreia-Ileana; Buschbacher, Ralph

    2006-08-01

    Fencing is a sport in which two people attempt to score points by making their weapon (epee, foil, or saber) contact their opponent. The most common types of injury seen in fencing are weapon injuries; strains, sprains, and trauma; and nontraumatic injuries, the pathologic findings of which are discussed in this article.

  17. Couse/Tenmile Creeks Watershed Project Implementation : 2007 Conservtion Projects. [2007 Habitat Projects Completed].

    SciTech Connect

    Asotin County Conservation District

    2008-12-10

    The Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on private lands within Asotin County watersheds. The Tenmile Creek watershed is a 42 square mile tributary to the Snake River, located between Asotin Creek and the Grande Ronde River. Couse Creek watershed is a 24 square mile tributary to the Snake River, located between Tenmile Creek and the Grande Ronde River. Both watersheds are almost exclusively under private ownership. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife has documented wild steelhead and rainbow/redband trout spawning and rearing in Tenmile Creek and Couse Creek. The project also provides Best Management Practice (BMP) implementation throughout Asotin County, but the primary focus is for the Couse and Tenmile Creek watersheds. The ACCD has been working with landowners, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Washington State Conservation Commission (WCC), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), Farm Service Agency (FSA), Salmon Recovery Funding Board (SRFB), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Forest Service, Pomeroy Ranger District (USFS), Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), Washington Department of Ecology (DOE), National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA Fisheries), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to address habitat projects in Asotin County. The Asotin Subbasin Plan identified priority areas and actions for ESA listed streams within Asotin County. Couse Creek and Tenmile Creek are identified as protection areas in the plan. The Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) has been successful in working with landowners to protect riparian areas throughout Asotin County. Funding from BPA and other agencies has also been instrumental in protecting streams throughout Asotin County by utilizing the ridge top to ridge top approach.

  18. Friendship Fence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ann

    2007-01-01

    A friendship fence is a wonderful alternative to the standard mural. It provides a fantastic opportunity for children to help design a creative learning environment. In this article, the author describes an art project that involves creating a friendship fence. The author relates that she began introducing her students to Ndebele beadwork dolls…

  19. Mini-Pak Fencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stucky, Franklin; And Others

    The document presents unit plans which offer lists of experiences and competencies to be learned in the construction, planning, and building of fences. The lessons are comprised of seven areas: (1) planning the location and arrangement of fences, (2) fencing and fence building equipment, (3) types of fences, (4) constructing fences, (5) end and…

  20. Fencing intruders out

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Chain link fences are a component of almost every perimeter security system, and their use ranges from simply delineating a boundary to supporting sophisticated intrusion detectors. Standard chain link fences provide little delay, and often, fence-mounted sensors can be circumvented by using a lightweight ladder to jump over the fence with minimum fence disturbance. This investigation summarizes the results of approximately four hundred intrusions against several sensor combinations and fences from seven to twelve feet high. Fence climbing delays range from three to twenty seconds, depending on the fence and sensor combination used, and detection probabilities vary from low, in some cases, to very high for one configuration which has never been crossed without an alarm. A perimeter fence/barrier/sensor combination designed to delay and discourage intruders and provide for a high probability of detection is discussed as an end result of the investigation.

  1. Fencing intruders out

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Chain link fences are a component of almost every perimeter security system, and their use ranges from simply delineating a boundary to supporting sophisticated intrusion detectors. Standard chain link fences provide little delay, and often, fence-mounted sensors can be circumvented by using a lightweight ladder to jump over the fence with minimum fence disturbance. This investigation summarizes the results of approximately four hundred intrusions against several sensor combinations and fences from seven to twelve feet high. Fence climbing delays range from three to twenty seconds, depending on the fence and sensor combination used, and detection probabilities vary from low, in some cases, to very high for one configuration which has never been crossed without an alarm. A perimeter fence/barrier/sensor combination designed to delay and discourage intruders and provide for a high probability of detection is discussed as an end result of the investigation. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS - Idaho Model Watershed Habitat Projects - Welp Riparian Enhancement Fence

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-08-04

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund the installation of approximately 1.5 miles of post and wire fence along Valley Creek in Stanley, Idaho. The proposed fence will meet or exceed BPA's minimum requirement of a 35-foot setback from the stream. Fence posts will be driven into the ground with a post ponder. The goal of this project is to enhance salmon and steelhead rearing and migration habitat through exclusion fencing.

  3. Pataha Creek Model Watershed : January 2000-December 2002 Habitat Conservation Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Bartels, Duane G.

    2003-04-01

    The projects outlined in detail on the attached project reports were implemented from calendar year 2000 through 2002 in the Pataha Creek Watershed. The Pataha Creek Watershed was selected in 1993, along with the Tucannon and Asotin Creeks, as model watersheds by NPPC. In previous years, demonstration sites using riparian fencing, off site watering facilities, tree and shrub plantings and upland conservation practices were used for information and education and were the main focus of the implementation phase of the watershed plan. These practices were the main focus of the watershed plan to reduce the majority of the sediment entering the stream. Prior to 2000, several bank stabilization projects were installed but the installation costs became prohibitive and these types of projects were reduced in numbers over the following years. The years 2000 through 2002 were years where a focused effort was made to work on the upland conservation practices to reduce the sedimentation into Pataha Creek. Over 95% of the sediment entering the stream can be tied directly to the upland and riparian areas of the watershed. The Pataha Creek has steelhead in the upper reaches and native and planted rainbow trout in the mid to upper portion. Suckers, pikeminow and shiners inhabit the lower portion because of the higher water temperatures and lack of vegetation. The improvement of riparian habitat will improve habitat for the desired fish species. The lower portion of the Pataha Creek could eventually develop into spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon if some migration barriers are removed and habitat is restored. The upland projects completed during 2000 through 2002 were practices that reduce erosion from the cropland. Three-year continuous no-till projects were finishing up and the monitoring of this particular practice is ongoing. Its direct impact on soil erosion along with the economical aspects is being studied. Other practices such as terrace, waterway, sediment

  4. Space Fence Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haimerl, J.; Fonder, G.

    Space is no longer a vast, empty void. Unprecedented quantities of new satellites, derelict satellites, and debris litter the skies, posing an imminent threat to America's space assets. The Space Fence System is a ground-based system of S-band radars designed to greatly enhance the Air Force Space Surveillance network. Space Fence provides unprecedented sensitivity, coverage and tracking accuracy, and contributes to key mission threads with the ability to detect, track and catalog small objects in LEO, MEO and GEO. Space Fence capabilities will revolutionize space situational awareness. Space Fence includes up to two minimally-manned radar sites and the Space Fence Operations Center. Each radar site features a design with closely-spaced, but separate, Transmit and Receive Arrays that are mission-optimized for high availability and low lifetime support costs, including prime power. The radar architecture is based on Digital Beam-forming. This capability permits tremendous user-defined flexibility to customize volume surveillance and track sectors instantaneously without impacting routine surveillance functions. Space Fence offers assured surveillance coverage for improved custody and features the capability to develop long arc tracks for accurate orbit determination, while simultaneously maintaining a persistent surveillance volume. Space Fence allows operators to reconstruct recent events such as collisions or satellite break-ups and accurately predict future events. For high-interest objects, a micro fence can be electronically constructed to gather more track data, focusing radar resources specifically on that object, providing more timely and accurate information. The Space Fence System is net-centric and will seamlessly integrate into the existing Space Surveillance Network, providing services to external users such as JSpOC and coordinating handoffs to other SSN sites. Space Fence is a robust, flexible, advanced end-to-end system that will meet the warfighters

  5. Oil fence arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, I.; Tatsuguchi, M.

    1984-01-10

    An oil fence arrangement for effectively preventing oil spills from spreading or diffusing over the surface of the sea. The arrangement is of a double wall construction and can fold into a small space.

  6. Optimal array of sand fences

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Izael A.; Araújo, Ascânio D.; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Andrade, José S.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2017-01-01

    Sand fences are widely applied to prevent soil erosion by wind in areas affected by desertification. Sand fences also provide a way to reduce the emission rate of dust particles, which is triggered mainly by the impacts of wind-blown sand grains onto the soil and affects the Earth’s climate. Many different types of fence have been designed and their effects on the sediment transport dynamics studied since many years. However, the search for the optimal array of fences has remained largely an empirical task. In order to achieve maximal soil protection using the minimal amount of fence material, a quantitative understanding of the flow profile over the relief encompassing the area to be protected including all employed fences is required. Here we use Computational Fluid Dynamics to calculate the average turbulent airflow through an array of fences as a function of the porosity, spacing and height of the fences. Specifically, we investigate the factors controlling the fraction of soil area over which the basal average wind shear velocity drops below the threshold for sand transport when the fences are applied. We introduce a cost function, given by the amount of material necessary to construct the fences. We find that, for typical sand-moving wind velocities, the optimal fence height (which minimizes this cost function) is around 50 cm, while using fences of height around 1.25 m leads to maximal cost. PMID:28338053

  7. Optimal array of sand fences.

    PubMed

    Lima, Izael A; Araújo, Ascânio D; Parteli, Eric J R; Andrade, José S; Herrmann, Hans J

    2017-03-24

    Sand fences are widely applied to prevent soil erosion by wind in areas affected by desertification. Sand fences also provide a way to reduce the emission rate of dust particles, which is triggered mainly by the impacts of wind-blown sand grains onto the soil and affects the Earth's climate. Many different types of fence have been designed and their effects on the sediment transport dynamics studied since many years. However, the search for the optimal array of fences has remained largely an empirical task. In order to achieve maximal soil protection using the minimal amount of fence material, a quantitative understanding of the flow profile over the relief encompassing the area to be protected including all employed fences is required. Here we use Computational Fluid Dynamics to calculate the average turbulent airflow through an array of fences as a function of the porosity, spacing and height of the fences. Specifically, we investigate the factors controlling the fraction of soil area over which the basal average wind shear velocity drops below the threshold for sand transport when the fences are applied. We introduce a cost function, given by the amount of material necessary to construct the fences. We find that, for typical sand-moving wind velocities, the optimal fence height (which minimizes this cost function) is around 50 cm, while using fences of height around 1.25 m leads to maximal cost.

  8. Optimal array of sand fences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Izael A.; Araújo, Ascânio D.; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Andrade, José S.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2017-03-01

    Sand fences are widely applied to prevent soil erosion by wind in areas affected by desertification. Sand fences also provide a way to reduce the emission rate of dust particles, which is triggered mainly by the impacts of wind-blown sand grains onto the soil and affects the Earth’s climate. Many different types of fence have been designed and their effects on the sediment transport dynamics studied since many years. However, the search for the optimal array of fences has remained largely an empirical task. In order to achieve maximal soil protection using the minimal amount of fence material, a quantitative understanding of the flow profile over the relief encompassing the area to be protected including all employed fences is required. Here we use Computational Fluid Dynamics to calculate the average turbulent airflow through an array of fences as a function of the porosity, spacing and height of the fences. Specifically, we investigate the factors controlling the fraction of soil area over which the basal average wind shear velocity drops below the threshold for sand transport when the fences are applied. We introduce a cost function, given by the amount of material necessary to construct the fences. We find that, for typical sand-moving wind velocities, the optimal fence height (which minimizes this cost function) is around 50 cm, while using fences of height around 1.25 m leads to maximal cost.

  9. Fence Posts and Rails

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turton, Roger

    2016-01-01

    "Mathematical Lens" uses photographs as a springboard for mathematical inquiry and appears in every issue of "Mathematics Teacher." Recently while dismantling an old wooden post-and-rail fence, Roger Turton noticed something very interesting when he piled up the posts and rails together in the shape of a prism. The total number…

  10. Fence Posts and Rails

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turton, Roger

    2016-01-01

    "Mathematical Lens" uses photographs as a springboard for mathematical inquiry and appears in every issue of "Mathematics Teacher." Recently while dismantling an old wooden post-and-rail fence, Roger Turton noticed something very interesting when he piled up the posts and rails together in the shape of a prism. The total number…

  11. Effects of streambank fencing of pasture land on benthic macroinvertebrates and the quality of surface water and shallow ground water in the Big Spring Run basin of Mill Creek watershed, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1993-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galeone, Daniel G.; Brightbill, Robin A.; Low, Dennis J.; O'Brien, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Streambank fencing along stream channels in pastured areas and the exclusion of pasture animals from the channel are best-management practices designed to reduce nutrient and suspended-sediment yields from drainage basins. Establishment of vegetation in the fenced area helps to stabilize streambanks and provides better habitat for wildlife in and near the stream. This study documented the effectiveness of a 5- to 12-foot-wide buffer strip on the quality of surface water and near-stream ground water in a 1.42-mi2 treatment basin in Lancaster County, Pa. Two miles of stream were fenced in the basin in 1997 following a 3- to 4-year pre-treatment period of monitoring surface- and ground-water variables in the treatment and control basins. Changes in surface- and ground-water quality were monitored for about 4 years after fence installation. To alleviate problems in result interpretation associated with climatic and hydrologic variation over the study period, a nested experimental design including paired-basin and upstream/downstream components was used to study the effects of fencing on surface-water quality and benthic-macroinvertebrate communities. Five surface-water sites, one at the outlet of a 1.77-mi2 control basin (C-1), two sites in the treatment basin (T-3 and T-4) that were above any fence installation, and two sites (one at an upstream tributary site (T-2) and one at the outlet (T-1)) that were treated, were sampled intensively. Low-flow samples were collected at each site (approximately 25-30 per year at each site), and stormflow was sampled with automatic samplers at all sites except T-3. For each site where stormflow was sampled, from 35 to 60 percent of the storm events were sampled over the entire study period. Surface-water sites were sampled for analyses of nutrients, suspended sediment, and fecal streptococcus (only low-flow samples), with field parameters (only low-flow samples) measured during sample collection. Benthic-macroinvertebrate samples

  12. Synthetic Fence Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurdson, Lorenz; Apps, Christopher

    2000-11-01

    "Synthetic Jets" have previously been produced where an oscillating flow with zero net mass flux acts on the edges of an orifice. The resulting flow is similar to a normal jet. We have proposed and verified that another type of jet called a "Synthetic Fence Jet" (SFJ or "fe-je") can also be created. We introduced a fence perpendicular to both a wall and an oscillating velocity field. Under certain conditions a jet was formed by vortices of alternating sign. The vortices were shed from the fence and they induced each other away from it. This phenomenon could be used as a method of flow control. The objective of this project was to use flow visualization to prove the existence of and characterize this jet. A test rig was used which incorporates smoke-wire flow visualization; independent oscillation level and frequency control; and computer- controlled data acquisition. It has been discovered that the jet direction can be vectored by altering the forcing waveform shape. To explain this a theory was developed that is based on the Biot-Savart law of vortex dynamics.

  13. Environmental Assessment of Construction of Antenna Parts Storage Facility, Upgrade of Perimeter Security Fence, Demolition of Storage Shed, Hawkinsville Air Force Space Surveillance Station, Hawkinsville, Georgia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    Installa- tion with an eight-foot high chain link fence with an outrigger on the top. The fence would be a seven- foot high, nine gauge steel wire...coarse textures . There is an intermittent stream that crosses the Installation in the northern end that is a tributary to Town Creek (see Figure 3...fence are described in Tables 4 and 5 below and shown in Figure 5. TABLE 4. SOIL CHARACTERISTICS AT HAWKINSVILLE AFSSS Soil Series Texture Shrink

  14. 10. DETAIL OF AREATYPICAL FENCE LINE WITH HISTORIC ROCK FENCE; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL OF AREA-TYPICAL FENCE LINE WITH HISTORIC ROCK FENCE; VIEW ALONG WHITE ROCK ROAD EAST OF HIDDEN RIVER WAY; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  15. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-93) - Couse/Tenmile Creeks Six-Year Direct Seed Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, Kelly

    2002-10-16

    BPA proposes to fund a six-year direct seed program consistent with the ongoing improvement project within the Asotin Creek watershed. This portion of the ongoing restoration program within the Asotin Creek watershed is comprised of converting from traditional farming methods to no till/direct seeding in an effort to decrease erosion and in-stream sediment levels in Couse and Tenmile Creeks. These creeks are important tributaries to the Snake River for the spawning and rearing of steelhead. The project consists of direct seeding measures on six different private properties located within a mile of either Couse or Tenmile Creeks. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and ACCD will manage the operation and maintenance of the projects. The total land area of the six properties involved in the direct seeding is 1315.7 acres. Most of the sediment delivered to the Snake River and its tributaries comes from the upland agricultural areas. 1.7 million tons of sediment moves from upland areas to steams each year, severely damaging water quality and fish habitat (S.E. WA Cooperative River Basin Study). In most instances, no-till/direct seed farming can reduce erosion by 95 percent. BPA will fund $27.00 per acre for each of the first five years of the project.

  16. Fence Posts for Southern Farms

    Treesearch

    H. H. Muntz

    1950-01-01

    Of the more common woods native to the South, the heartwood of osageorange (bois d'arc), black locust, red mulberry, cedar, and baldcypress is most desirable and makes good fence posts without any preservative treatment. The heartwood of other southern tree species, and all sapwood is much less durable and will give only a few years of service when used for fence...

  17. Electric fences and accidental death.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michael; Odell, Morris; Bouwer, Heinrich; Murdoch, Adam

    2017-03-28

    Deaths which occur in association with agricultural electric fences are very rare. In fact, electric fences have undoubtedly saved numerous human and animal lives by safely and reliably keeping livestock confined to their fields and enclosures and thus preventing motor vehicle incidents when livestock get onto roads and highways. Accidental and intentional human contact with electric fences occurs regularly and causes little more than transient discomfort, however, on exceptional occasions, contact with electric fences appears to be directly related to the death of the individual. The precise pathophysiological cause of these deaths is unclear. We present two cases of deaths associated with electric fences, discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanisms in these cases, and suggest a universal approach to the medico-legal investigation and documentation of these deaths.

  18. 25 CFR 168.13 - Fences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 168.13 Fences. Fencing will be erected by the Federal Government around the perimeter of the 1882... partitioned to each tribe by the Judgment of Partition of April 18, 1979. Fencing of other areas in the former... established under § 168.4. Such fencing shall be erected at Government expense and ownership shall be...

  19. 25 CFR 168.13 - Fences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 168.13 Fences. Fencing will be erected by the Federal Government around the perimeter of the 1882... partitioned to each tribe by the Judgment of Partition of April 18, 1979. Fencing of other areas in the former... established under § 168.4. Such fencing shall be erected at Government expense and ownership shall be...

  20. 25 CFR 168.13 - Fences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 168.13 Fences. Fencing will be erected by the Federal Government around the perimeter of the 1882... partitioned to each tribe by the Judgment of Partition of April 18, 1979. Fencing of other areas in the former... established under § 168.4. Such fencing shall be erected at Government expense and ownership shall be...

  1. 25 CFR 168.13 - Fences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 168.13 Fences. Fencing will be erected by the Federal Government around the perimeter of the 1882... partitioned to each tribe by the Judgment of Partition of April 18, 1979. Fencing of other areas in the former... established under § 168.4. Such fencing shall be erected at Government expense and ownership shall be...

  2. 25 CFR 168.13 - Fences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 168.13 Fences. Fencing will be erected by the Federal Government around the perimeter of the 1882... partitioned to each tribe by the Judgment of Partition of April 18, 1979. Fencing of other areas in the former... established under § 168.4. Such fencing shall be erected at Government expense and ownership shall be...

  3. Fences and grazing management in northern Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Since Namibian independence, many fences have been erected in the communal land of the Ohangwena region in northern Namibia. Most fencing issues discussed so far in the region concern large-scale fencing of communal land by the new Namibian elite. Rarely discussed are the fences erected around small-scale farmers' parcels. This paper will discuss the impact of such increased small-scale fencing activities in northern Namibia. Fencing of land has different functions, including protection of fields against livestock and securing property rights. However, not all community members can afford the monetary and labor costs involved. In the annual agricultural cycle of the study area, livestock is left un-herded after the harvest of most crops. They can then feed on available crop remains and grass on the fields. The livestock then freely utilizes unfenced and unprotected land. This system has the advantage to accelerate crop degradation and fertilize the soils. However, by erecting efficient fences, the new middle-class community members concentrate fertility in their own field, thereby degrading agricultural soils of poorer farmers. Potentially, such small-scale fencing of land has therefore an impact on sol quality and thus fosters degradation of unfenced cropland. By using fences as features to determine the limits of the new land rights, the ongoing Communal Land Reform may not only promote the erection of fences, but may also have a negative impact on soil quality and potentially food security of small-scale farmers without cattle.

  4. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Residential fencing in a metropolitan area and three small towns.

    Treesearch

    Edwin Kallio; Jerry A. Sesco

    1967-01-01

    Many types of fences were found on residential lots in the metropolitan-suburban area of St. Louis County, Missouri, and three small towns in southern Illinois. Wire fences predominated. More wooden fences were found on village lots than on city lots. In general, the more expensive homes had the most wooden fencing. Homes over 5 years old had more fencing of all...

  6. Swept wing attachment line contamination fence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A device for controlling attachment line contamination on an airfoil is presented. A fence is installed on the leading edge of the airfoil in the freestream direction perpendicular to the airfoil, outboard of the fuselage boundary layer. The inboard side of the fence arrests the spanwise movement of the turbulent boundary layer while the laminar boundary layer on the outboard side of the fence eliminates any further turbulent contamination of the attachment line.

  7. The case for fencing remains intact.

    PubMed

    Packer, C; Swanson, A; Canney, S; Loveridge, A; Garnett, S; Pfeifer, M; Burton, A C; Bauer, H; MacNulty, D

    2013-11-01

    Creel et al. argue against the conservation effectiveness of fencing based on a population measure that ignores the importance of top predators to ecosystem processes. Their statistical analyses consider, first, only a subset of fenced reserves and, second, an incomplete examination of 'costs per lion.' Our original conclusions remain unaltered.

  8. Failure Analysis of Fencing Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibaroglu, D.; Baydogan, M.; Cimenoglu, H.; Bas, B.; Yagsi, C.; Aliyeva, N.

    2017-05-01

    This study deals with the failure analysis of broken fencing blades (one épée and one foil). For the characterization of the broken blades, metallographic examinations, chemical analysis, hardness measurements, fracture surface examinations and tensile tests were performed. Maximum stress occurred at the outer fibres of the blades was estimated as high as 1456 MPa and 1298 MPa for épée and foil, respectively. Results showed that failure of the blades was initiated from a notch, which has been formed as the result of an impact action during training, or from the groove machined along the blade for inserting an electrical wire. In order to increase resistance of the blades against such failures, alternative blade material, modified blade geometry and a surface hardening treatment were proposed.

  9. Fence Methods for Backcross Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thuan; Peng, Jie; Jiang, Jiming

    2013-01-01

    Model search strategies play an important role in finding simultaneous susceptibility genes that are associated with a trait. More particularly, model selection via the information criteria, such as the BIC with modifications, have received considerable attention in quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. However, such modifications often depend upon several factors, such as sample size, prior distribution, and the type of experiment, e.g., backcross, intercross. These changes make it difficult to generalize the methods to all cases. The fence method avoids such limitations with a unified approach, and hence can be used more broadly. In this paper, this method is studied in the case of backcross experiments throughout a series of simulation studies. The results are compared with those of the modified BIC method as well as some of the most popular shrinkage methods for model selection. PMID:24443613

  10. Assessment of Fencing on the Orion Heatshield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alunni, Antonella I.; Gokcen, Tahir

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents recent experimental results from arc-jet tests of the Orion heatshield that were conducted at NASA Ames Research Center. Test conditions that simulated a set of heating profiles in time representative of the Orion flight environments were used to observe their effect on Orion's block architecture in terms of differential recession or fencing. Surface recession of arc-jet models was characterized during and after testing to derive fencing profiles used for the baseline sizing of the heatshield. Arc-jet test data show that the block architecture produces varying degrees of fencing.

  11. Caspar Creek

    Treesearch

    Robert R. Ziemer

    2001-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station and the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection have gauged streamflow, and suspended sediment and precipitation since 1962 in the 473 ha North Fork and the 424 ha South Fork of the 2167 ha Caspar Creek in the Jackson Demonstation State Forest in northwestern California. Within the two Caspar...

  12. Aerodynamics and morphodynamics of sand fences: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bailiang; Sherman, Douglas J.

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews literature on the aerodynamics and morphodynamics of sand fences. We consider both wind fences for reducing wind erosion, and sand-trapping fences for controlling sand deposition. There has been substantial trial-and-error research based upon installations of sand fences, but only limited research on the fence and site attributes that provide the main aerodynamic and morphodynamic controls of interactions between aeolian systems and the fences. Such attributes include: fence porosity, height, length, width, opening size and geometry, porosity distribution, and external factors such as incoming flow characteristics, roughness length, atmospheric stability, grain size and local landform change. Considerations for the optimal design for both wind fences and sand-trapping fences are presented.

  13. Lower Walnut Creek Restoration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Lower Walnut Creek Restoration Project will restore and enhance coastal wetlands along southern shoreline of Suisun Bay from Suisun Bay upstream along Walnut Creek, improving habitat quality, diversity, and connectivity along three miles of creek channel.

  14. 11. SIDE VIEW OF ROCK FENCE LINE AND ASSOCIATED THREESTRAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SIDE VIEW OF ROCK FENCE LINE AND ASSOCIATED THREE-STRAND BARBED WIRE FENCE; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  15. Sand fences in the coastal zone: intended and unintended effects.

    PubMed

    Grafals-Soto, Rosana; Nordstrom, Karl

    2009-09-01

    Sand-trapping fences modify the character of the coastal landscape and change its spatial structure, image, and meaning. This paper examines the relationship between these changes and fence usage at the municipal level, where most decisions about fence deployment are made. Use of fences in 29 municipalities on the developed coast of New Jersey is examined over a 6-year period. Interviews with municipal officers indicate that wooden slat sand-trapping fences are used primarily to build dunes to provide protection against wave uprush and flooding, but they are also used to control pedestrian traffic and demarcate territory. These uses result in changes in landforms and habitats. An aerial video inventory of fences taken in 2002 indicates that 82% of the shoreline had fences and 72% had dunes. Single and double straight fence rows are the most commonly used. Fences are often built to accomplish a specific primary purpose, but they can cause many different and often unanticipated changes to the landscape. The effects of a sand fence change through time as the initial structure traps sand, creates a dune that is colonized by vegetation, and becomes integrated into the environment by increasing topographic variability and aesthetic and habitat value. Sand fences can be made more compatible with natural processes by not placing them in locations where sources of wind blown sand are restricted or in unnatural shore perpendicular orientations. Symbolic fences are less expensive, are easy to replace when damaged, are less visually intrusive, and can be used for controlling pedestrian access.

  16. Relationships Between Components of Speed, Accuracy, and Fencing Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauchmoyer, Sandra L.; Lefevers, Victoria

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between three tests which measured specific components of fencing skill and foil fencing success as determined by criterion measures derived from a round-robin tournament. The subjects were 59 women enrolled in four beginning fencing classes taught by the same instructor at the…

  17. Do wire fences stop ground fires?

    Treesearch

    James L. Murphy; Harry E. Schimke

    1965-01-01

    Five meshes (1/8 to 1 inch) of 16-gauge steel wire fences, 3 feet high, were tested as possible ground fire barriers in 4 fuel types. The 1/8-inch mesh stopped only 1 test fire but retarded others; 1/4-inch mesh retarded some. The results suggest that further trials may be worthwhile.

  18. [Fencing for promoting health after breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Leroy, Marie-France

    2017-10-01

    Physical activity is recommended after breast cancer surgery. Fencing is a sport that is well suited to combatting fatigue, pain and reduced arm mobility. A healthcare executive, herself a fencer, puts the benefits of this sport into perspective, both physically and psychologically. Copyright © 2017. Publié par Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Hardwood Fence Posts Give Good Service

    Treesearch

    B. E. Carpenter; T. P. Bouler

    1962-01-01

    Very few tree species make naturally durable fence posts. Osage-orange, mulberry, black locust, cypress, and some species of cedar are known for the good service they give. But in no case are their names a guarantee. Only the heartwood of these species possesses adequate durability .

  20. Stream-crossing structure for deer fence

    Treesearch

    Robert M. Blair; James A. Hays; Louis Brunett

    1963-01-01

    Stream crossings are the most vulnerable points in a deer-proof fence. When an inadequately constructed crossing washes out, enclosed deer may escape and unwanted animals enter. Structures of the type described here have withstood 2 years of frequent, severe flooding in the pine-hardwood hills of central Louisiana.

  1. Beginning Fencing, Physical Education: 5551.53.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Marjorie

    This course outline is a guide for teaching the principles and basic fundamentals of beginning fencing in grades 7-12. The course format includes lectures and demonstrations, skills practice, films, and class competition, which focus on mastery of skills, rules and etiquette, care and repair of equipment, safety, and development of techniques and…

  2. Advanced Fencing; Physical Education: 5551.54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Marjorie

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 8-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Strategy, tactics, principles, and fundamentals of advanced fencing skills. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The contents are divided into seven areas, which are Course Guidelines, Course Description and Broad Goal, Course of Study Behavioral Objectives, Course Content, Learning Activities and…

  3. Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, stabilizing streambanks, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts. During the years 2000-2003, trees were planted in riparian areas of headwater streams to Lolo Creek. Inventory of culverts is an on-going practice, being completed by sub-drainage, and are being prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage and 100-year flow events throughout the watershed. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.

  4. Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2005-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Fencing to exclude cattle for stream banks, stream bank stabilization, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts are the primary focuses of this project. Riparian enhancement through planting of riparian trees and streambank bioengineering was completed. Culvert inventory was completed in 2004 on US Forest Service and Potlatch Corporation lands in the Lolo Creek drainage. Two high priority culverts were replaced, and are now accessible for fish species. Four miles of road was decommissioned. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.

  5. Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2004-06-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Fencing to exclude cattle for stream banks, stream bank stabilization, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts are the primary focuses of this project. Riparian enhancement through planning of riparian trees continues. Culvert inventory is on-going and will be completed in 2004 for the entire Lolo Creek drainage. High priority culverts are being replaced and passage blocking log culverts are being removed. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.

  6. Effects of sand fences on coastal dune vegetation distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafals-Soto, Rosana

    2012-04-01

    Sand fences are important human adjustments modifying the morphology of developed shores. The effects of sand fences on sediment transport and deposition in their initial stages have been well studied, but little is known about the effect of deteriorated sand fences that have become partially buried low scale barriers within the dune, potentially benefiting vegetation growth by protecting it from onshore stress. Data on vegetation, topography and fence characteristics were gathered at three dune sites in Ocean City, New Jersey on September 2007 and March 2008 to evaluate the effect of fences within the dune on vegetation distribution. Variables include: distance landward of dune toe, degree of sheltering from onshore stressors, net change in surface elevation (deposition or erosion), vegetation diversity and density, presence of remnant fence, and distance landward of fence. Results for the studied environment reveal that 1) vegetation diversity or density does not increase near remnant fences because most remnants are lower than average vegetation height and can not provide shelter; but 2) vegetation distribution is related to topographic variables, such as degree of sheltering, that are most likely the result of sand accretion caused by fence deployment. Fence deployment that prioritizes the creation of topographically diverse dunes within a restricted space may increase the diversity and density of the vegetation, and the resilience and value of developed dunes. Managers should consider the benefits of using sand fences on appropriately wide beaches to create a protective dune that is also diverse, functional and better able to adapt to change.

  7. Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-03-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Fencing to exclude cattle for stream banks, stream bank stabilization, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts are the primary focuses of this effort. The successful completion of the replacement and removal of several passage blocking culverts represent a major improvement to the watershed. These projects, coupled with other recently completed projects and those anticipated in the future, are a significant step in improving habitat conditions in Lolo Creek.

  8. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir : Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek Bull Trout Enumeration Project, Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, James S.; Baxter, Jeremy

    2001-02-01

    An enumeration fence and traps were installed on Skookumchuck Creek from September 7 th to October 16 th to enable the capture of post-spawning bull trout emigrating out of the watershed. During the study period, a total of 252 bull trout were sampled through the enumeration fence. Length, weight, and sex were determined for all but one of the 252 bull trout captured. In total, one fish of undetermined sex, 63 males and 188 females were processed through the fence. A total of 67 bull trout were observed on a snorkel survey prior to the fence being removed on October 16 th . Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout count during this project was 319 fish. Several other species of fish were captured at the enumeration fence including westslope cutthroat trout, Rocky Mountain whitefish, kokanee, sucker, and Eastern brook trout. Redds were observed during ground surveys in three different locations (river km 27.5- 28.5, km 29-30, and km 24-25). The largest concentration of redds were noted in the upper two sections which have served as the index sections over the past four years. A total of 197 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground on October 4 th . The majority of redds (n=189) were observed in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past four years. The additional 8 redds were observed in a 1.5 km section (river km 24.0-25.5). Summary plots of water temperature for Bradford Creek, Sandown Creek, Skookumchuck Creek at km 39.5, and Skookumchuck Creek at the fence site suggested that water temperatures were within the range preferred by bull trout for spawning, egg incubation, and rearing.

  9. 1. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF EAGLE CREEK TRAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF EAGLE CREEK TRAIL REGISTRY BOOTH. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Eagle Creek Recreation Area, Historic Columbia River Highway at Eagle Creek, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  10. The fencing problem and Coleochaete cell division.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuandi; Dou, Mingya; Zhou, Zhigang

    2015-03-01

    The findings in this study suggest that the solution of a boundary value problem for differential equation system can be used to discuss the fencing problem in mathematics and Coleochaete, a green algae, cell division. This differential equation model in parametric expression is used to simulate the two kinds of cell division process, one is for the usual case and the case with a "dead" daughter cell.

  11. Conserving large carnivores: dollars and fence.

    PubMed

    Packer, C; Loveridge, A; Canney, S; Caro, T; Garnett, S T; Pfeifer, M; Zander, K K; Swanson, A; Macnulty, D; Balme, G; Bauer, H; Begg, C M; Begg, K S; Bhalla, S; Bissett, C; Bodasing, T; Brink, H; Burger, A; Burton, A C; Clegg, B; Dell, S; Delsink, A; Dickerson, T; Dloniak, S M; Druce, D; Frank, L; Funston, P; Gichohi, N; Groom, R; Hanekom, C; Heath, B; Hunter, L; Deiongh, H H; Joubert, C J; Kasiki, S M; Kissui, B; Knocker, W; Leathem, B; Lindsey, P A; Maclennan, S D; McNutt, J W; Miller, S M; Naylor, S; Nel, P; Ng'weno, C; Nicholls, K; Ogutu, J O; Okot-Omoya, E; Patterson, B D; Plumptre, A; Salerno, J; Skinner, K; Slotow, R; Sogbohossou, E A; Stratford, K J; Winterbach, C; Winterbach, H; Polasky, S

    2013-05-01

    Conservationists often advocate for landscape approaches to wildlife management while others argue for physical separation between protected species and human communities, but direct empirical comparisons of these alternatives are scarce. We relate African lion population densities and population trends to contrasting management practices across 42 sites in 11 countries. Lion populations in fenced reserves are significantly closer to their estimated carrying capacities than unfenced populations. Whereas fenced reserves can maintain lions at 80% of their potential densities on annual management budgets of $500 km(-2) , unfenced populations require budgets in excess of $2000 km(-2) to attain half their potential densities. Lions in fenced reserves are primarily limited by density dependence, but lions in unfenced reserves are highly sensitive to human population densities in surrounding communities, and unfenced populations are frequently subjected to density-independent factors. Nearly half the unfenced lion populations may decline to near extinction over the next 20-40 years. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  12. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir : Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek Bull Trout Enumeration Project, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, James S.; Baxter, Jeremy

    2002-03-01

    This report summarizes the second year of a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on Skookumchuck Creek in southeastern British Columbia. An enumeration fence and traps were installed on the creek from September 6th to October 12th 2001 to enable the capture of post-spawning bull trout emigrating out of the watershed. During the study period, a total of 273 bull trout were sampled through the enumeration fence. Length and weight were determined for all bull trout captured. In total, 39 fish of undetermined sex, 61 males and 173 females were processed through the fence. An additional 19 bull trout were observed on a snorkel survey prior to the fence being removed on October 12th. Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout enumerated during this project was 292 fish. Several other species of fish were captured at the enumeration fence including westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi), Rocky Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and kokanee (O. nerka). A total of 143 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground in two different locations (river km 27.5-30.5, and km 24.0-25.5) on October 3rd. The majority of redds (n=132) were observed in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past five years. The additional 11 redds were observed in a 1.5 km section (river km 24.0-25.5). Summary plots of water temperature for Bradford Creek, Sandown Creek, Buhl Creek, and Skookumchuck Creek at three locations suggested that water temperatures were within the temperature range preferred by bull trout for spawning, egg incubation, and rearing.

  13. Penetrating skull injury with six inch fence rod

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Kamlesh; Singh, Amit Kumar; Das, Shishir

    2012-01-01

    In this study we are describing an unusual case of the boundary fence (6 inch long) penetrating through the skull vault and lodging into the middle cranial fossa. A 10 years old male child fell onto his house fence while playing on the terrace. The metal fence penetrated through the scalp, parietal bone, midbrain and the midface, fracturing the parietal and the midfacial bones. CT-scans were obtained to view the trajectory and the position of the fence. The amount of midbrain injury was also accessed. The degree of morbidity vis-à-vis the type of injury was surprisingly low. Safe access to the fence was made through a bicoronal incision and modified bifrontal craniectomy to retrieve the lodged portion of the fence. These kind of penetrating injuries are rare considering the thickness of the vault. Proper preoperative planning and team approach is required for the safe surgical removal of the objects. PMID:23833500

  14. [Fencing injuries and stress injuries in modern fencing sport- a questionnaire evaluation].

    PubMed

    Trautmann, C; Rosenbaum, D

    2008-12-01

    Overload injuries and trauma caused by athletic activities in elite and non-elite fencers may be related to a variety of risk factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sport specific pattern of injuries in junior and adult elite fencers and potential causative factors for the specific injuries. Questionnaires were distributed in fencing clubs and competitions. A total of 180 athletes participated with 107 being elite fencers (55 male, 52 female) and 73 advanced fencers (77 male, 26 female). Injuries and pain could be ascertained in 167 fencers (92.8 %), and could be related to their activities in competitive fencing.

  15. ORNAMENTAL IRON FENCING ALONG FREDERICK AVENUE, FROM NORTHWEST CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ORNAMENTAL IRON FENCING ALONG FREDERICK AVENUE, FROM NORTHWEST CORNER OF CEMETERY, SHOWING SECTION A. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Loudon Park National Cemetery, 3445 Frederick Avenue, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  16. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-03-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and one high priority culvert was replaced in 2004. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  17. Restoring Fossil Creek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

    2004-01-01

    Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers…

  18. Restoring Fossil Creek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

    2004-01-01

    Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers…

  19. 1. View of blast deflector fences along southwest side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of blast deflector fences along southwest side of the operational apron. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. 2. View of blast deflector fences along northeast side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of blast deflector fences along northeast side of the operational apron. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. Techniques to construct New Zealand elk-proof fence.

    Treesearch

    Larry D. Bryant; Jack W. Thomas; Mary M. Rowland

    1993-01-01

    An elk-proof fence was built in 1987 at the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range in northeast Oregon. The 25,000-acre research enclosure holds several hundred Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni V. Bailey) and Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus Rafinesque) year round. The fence, constructed with high...

  2. 47 CFR 73.49 - AM transmission system fencing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false AM transmission system fencing requirements. 73.49 Section 73.49 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.49 AM transmission system fencing...

  3. 47 CFR 73.49 - AM transmission system fencing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false AM transmission system fencing requirements. 73.49 Section 73.49 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.49 AM transmission system fencing...

  4. 47 CFR 73.49 - AM transmission system fencing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false AM transmission system fencing requirements. 73.49 Section 73.49 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.49 AM transmission system fencing...

  5. 47 CFR 73.49 - AM transmission system fencing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false AM transmission system fencing requirements. 73.49 Section 73.49 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.49 AM transmission system fencing...

  6. 47 CFR 73.49 - AM transmission system fencing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false AM transmission system fencing requirements. 73.49 Section 73.49 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.49 AM transmission system fencing...

  7. Combination fence and solar heater for swimming pools

    SciTech Connect

    Divine, D.L.

    1981-07-28

    A combination fence and solar heater for swimming pools comprises a fence shaped for extending about the periphery of the pool to restrict ingress and egress therefrom. A tubular heat exchanger is formed in at least one section of the fence, includes an exterior surface adapted to absorb solar energy, and communicates with the water in the swimming pool. The number of heat exchanger fence sections can be varied in accordance with the climate in which the pool is located. A pump flows the water in the swimming pool through the heat exchanger fence sections during daylight hours, thereby simultaneously heating the water in the pool, and providing an attractive and protective safety barrier about the swimming pool.

  8. Design of a physical security perimeter fencing system.

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, Thomas Kimball; Ross, Michael P.; Lin, Han Wei

    2010-10-01

    Design of a physical security perimeter fencing system requires that security designers provide effective detection, delay, and response functionalities with minimal nuisance alarms. In addition, the designers must take into considerations the security fence system life cycle cost (equipment and grounds maintenance), complexity of the terrain, safety, and environmental conditions (location of where the security fence will be installed). Often, these factors drive the security designers to design a perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system (PIDAS) that includes: (1) larger than desired footprint, (2) one or more animal control fences to minimize the nuisance alarm rate (NAR), and (3) clear zones and an isolation zone to facilitate intrusion detection and assessment by keeping the fence lines clear of vegetation, trash, and other objects that could impede the security system's performance. This paper presents a two-tier PIDAS design that focuses on effective performance specifically in high probability of detection and low NAR that minimizes cost and the footprint of the system.

  9. Restore McComas Watershed; Meadow Creek Watershed, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed are coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. During years 2000-2003, trees were planted in riparian areas within the meadow and its tributaries. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Designs for replacement are being coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. Twenty miles of road were contracted for decommissioning. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.

  10. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed are coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. During the FY 2002, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  11. Restore McComas Meadows; Meadow Creek Watershed, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-08-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed are coordinated and cost shared with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, planting trees in riparian areas within the meadow and its tributaries, prioritizing culverts for replacement to accommodate fish passage, and decommissioning roads to reduce sediment input. Designs for culvert replacements are being coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. 20 miles of roads were decommissioned. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.

  12. Boiling Water at Hot Creek - The Dangerous and Dynamic Thermal Springs in California's Long Valley Caldera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Evans, William C.; Venezky, Dina Y.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Oliver, Lynn K.

    2007-01-01

    The beautiful blue pools and impressive boiling fountains along Hot Creek in east-central California have provided enjoyment to generations of visitors, but they have also been the cause of injury or death to some who disregarded warnings and fences. The springs and geysers in the stream bed and along its banks change location, temperature, and flow rates frequently and unpredictably. The hot springs and geysers of Hot Creek are visible signs of dynamic geologic processes in this volcanic region, where underground heat drives thermal spring activity.

  13. The use of composite fence with integrated sensors in security systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szustakowski, M.; Markowski, P.; Ciurapinski, W.; Zyczkowski, M.; Karol, M.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents possibilities of using the composite fence in the security systems. The fence made entirely of dielectric materials is neutral for electromagnetic waves. Thus, the fence does not introduce disturbances in propagation of electromagnetic waves. The use of composite fences reduces reflections of electromagnetic waves which cause negative effects on fence sensors, microwave barriers and radars. Additionally, the sensing part of the fence sensors can be integrated in the composite fence structure. Thus, the detecting elements mounted on the fence are invisible for potential intruder. This paper presents the composite fence with integrated fiber for fiber optic sensors. By arranging the fiber into fence grid it is possible not only discreet installation of the sensors, but also better transfer movements of the fence to sensitive optical fiber. By using the fiber as a sensing element the whole fence remain dielectric. Thereby obtaining a fence entirely transparent to electromagnetic waves which is also monitored for forcing attempts. Another way to use the dielectric properties of the composite fence is possibility of use electromagnetic sensors. Installation of the electromagnetic sensor directly on the fence allows to create a monitored zone in the close surroundings on both sides of the fence. The use of two types of sensors based on different physical phenomena provides an improvement in the detection properties of the entire security system by reducing the number of false alarms and increasing level of safety by increasing the probability of detection an attempt to force the fence.

  14. Physical Characteristics Underpinning Repetitive Lunging in Fencing.

    PubMed

    Turner, Anthony N; Marshall, Geoff; Phillips, James; Noto, Angelo; Buttigieg, Conor; Chavda, Shyam; Downing, William; Atlay, Nathan; Dimitriou, Lygeri; Kilduff, Laim

    2016-11-01

    Turner, AN, Marshall, G, Phillips, J, Noto, A, Buttigieg, C, Chavda, S, Downing, W, Atlay, N, Dimitriou, L, and Kilduff, L. Physical characteristics underpinning repetitive lunging in fencing. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3134-3139, 2016-Given the repetitive demand to execute lunging and changes in direction within fencing, the ability to sustain these at maximal capacity is fundamental to performance. The aim of this study was threefold. First, to provide normative values for this variable referred to as repeat lunge ability (RLA) and second to identify the physical characteristics that underpin it. Third, was to establish if a cause and effect relationship existed by training the associated characteristics. Assessment of lower-body power, reactive strength, speed, change of direction speed (CODS), and a sport-specific RLA were conducted on senior and junior elite male fencers (n = 36). Fencers were on average (±SD) 18.9 ± 3.2 years of age, 174.35 ± 10.42 cm tall, 70.67 ± 7.35 kg in mass, and 8.5 ± 4.2 years fencing experience. The RLA test had average work times of 16.03 ± 1.40 seconds and demonstrated "large" to "very large" associations with all tested variables, but in particular CODS (r = 0.70) and standing broad jump (SBJ; r = -0.68). Through linear regression analysis, these also provided a 2-predictor model accounting for 61% of the common variance associated with RLA. A cause and effect relationship with SBJ and CODS was confirmed by the training group, where RLA performance in these fencers improved from 15.80 ± 1.07 to 14.90 ± 0.86 seconds, with the magnitude of change reported as "moderate" (effect size (ES) = 0.93). Concurrent improvements were also noted in both SBJ (216.86 ± 17.15 vs. 221.71 ± 17.59 cm) and CODS (4.44 ± 0.29 vs. 4.31 ± 0.09 seconds) and while differences were only significant in SBJ, magnitudes of change were classed as "small" (ES = 0.28) and "moderate" (ES = 0.61), respectively. In conclusion, to improve RLA strength

  15. Space Fence Ground-Based Radar System Increment 1 (Space Fence Inc 1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    small objects in Low Earth Orbit/Medium Earth Orbit (LEO/MEO). The system, comprising one operations center and two radar sites operating at S-band...for current APB: 50% The ICE to support the Space Fence Increment 1 program, like all life -cycle cost estimates previously performed by the Office...associated with life -cycle cost estimates prepared for MDAPs. Based on the rigor in methods used in building estimates, the strong adherence to the

  16. Effects of best-management practices in Otter Creek in the Sheboygan River Priority Watershed, Wisconsin, 1990-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, Steven R.; Walker, John F.; Wang, Lizhu; Horwatich, Judy A.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2005-01-01

    Habitat and fish data were collected each year of the study to track the effects of BMPs on stream habitat and fish communities. Final trend analysis was performed using habitat quality index scores, an index of biotic integrity, and some of the originally measured fish and habitat variables. Habitat was improved for stream segments that had either natural riparian buffer or where streambank fencing was installed, but not at the station where the riparian area was pasture and no streambank fencing was installed. The results also suggest that BMP implementation in Otter Creek substantially modified fish community structure, but the overall community quality was not improved.

  17. Tip Fence for Reduction of Lift-Generated Airframe Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C. (Inventor); Storms, Bruce L. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward a unique lift-generated noise reduction apparatus. This apparatus includes a plurality of tip fences that are secured to the trailing and leading assemblies of the high-lift system, as close as possible to the discontinuities where the vortices are most likely to form. In one embodiment, these tip fences are secured to some or all of the outboard and inboard tips of the wing slats and flaps. The tip fence includes a generally flat, or an aerodynamically shaped plate or device that could be formed of almost any rigid material, such as metal, wood, plastic, fiber glass, aluminum, etc. In a preferred embodiment, the tip fences extend below and perpendicularly to flaps and the slats to which they are attached, such that these tip fences are aligned with the nominal free stream velocity of the aircraft. In addition to reducing airframe noise, the tip fence tends to decrease drag and to increase lift, thus improving the overall aerodynamic performance of the aircraft. Another advantage presented by the tip fence lies in the simplicity of its design, its elegance, and its ready ability to fit on the wing components, such as the flaps and the slats. Furthermore, it does not require non-standard materials or fabrication techniques, and it can be readily, easily and inexpensively retrofited on most of the existing aircraft, with minimal design changes.

  18. Physiological and morphological factors associated with successful fencing performance.

    PubMed

    Stewart, K J; Peredo, A R; Williams, C M

    1977-09-01

    The relation between fencing success during a season of intercollegiate competition and various physiological and morphological variables were determined in 14 fencers. Bivariate and multiple regression analysis was used to determine the extent to which the independent variables, individually and collectively, accounted for the variance in two measures of fencing success. The fencing scores correlated significantly with VE max, Vo2 max, the 2 km run, and weight, while there was no significant correlation between the fencing scores and submaximal heart rate at 6 mph, and 1 min steptest score, or other morphological measurements. Cardiorespiratory fitness variables of Vo2 max and VE max accounted for the greatest variance in each of the two fencing scores (57.7 and 58.1%, respectively). Although morphological factors play a role in fencing success, their influence is small when physiological factors are accounted for. Future energy-cost studies are suggested to determine the physiological basis for the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and fencing success.

  19. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-157) - Protect and Restore the Big Canyon Creek Watershed

    SciTech Connect

    St. Hilaire, Kimberly R.

    2004-07-13

    The proposed restoration and protection of the Big Canyon Creek Watershed will assist in the recovery and restoration of fish and wildlife habitat. All activities will take place within the ceded territories of the Nez Perce Tribe. Two activities are planned: road decommissioning and fence to prevent livestock access to sensitive wetlands and riparian areas.

  20. Straight-line drift fences and pitfall traps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, Paul Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Straight-line drift fences typically are short barriers (5-15 m) that direct animals traveling on the substrate surface into traps places at the ends of or beside the barriers. Traps (described below) can be pitfalls, funnel traps, or a combination of the two. Drift fences with pitfall or funnel traps and pitfall traps without fences are used commonly to inventory and monitor populations of amphibians and reptiles. For example, 9 of 17 field studies reported for management of terrestrial vertebrates (Sarzo et al. 1988) used these techniques to sample amphibians. Drift fences with pitfall traps can be used to determine species richness at a site and to detect the presence of rare species. They also can yield data on relative abundances and habitat use of selected species. Pitfall traps arrayed in a grid without fences can also be used to study the population ecology and habitat use of selected species. Population density can be estimated with this latter technique if used in conjunction with mark-recapture techniques (see Chapter 8). Drift fence arrays or pitfall grids can be left in place for long-term monitoring. In this section, I discuss the use of this technique to obtain data on amphibians away from breeding ponds. Use of drift fences and traps to monitory amphibian activity at breeding ponds is discussed in the section "Drift Fences Encircling Breeding Sits", below (technique 9). Some materials and procedures are common to both techniques. Investigators contemplating the use of drift fences and traps in any context should read both accounts.

  1. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir : Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek Bull Trout Enumeration Project Final Report 2000-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Jeremy; Baxter, James S.

    2002-12-01

    This report summarizes the third and final year of a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on Skookumchuck Creek in southeastern British Columbia. The fence and traps were operated from September 6th to October 11th 2002 in order to enumerate post-spawning bull trout. During the study period a total of 309 bull trout were captured at the fence. In total, 16 fish of undetermined sex, 114 males and 179 females were processed at the fence. Length and weight data, as well as recapture information, were collected for these fish. An additional 41 bull trout were enumerated upstream of the fence by snorkeling prior to fence removal. Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout enumerated during the project was 350 individuals. Several fish that were tagged in the lower Bull River were recaptured in 2002, as were repeat and alternate year spawners previously enumerated in past years at the fence. A total of 149 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground in 2002, of which 143 were in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past six years. The results of the three year project are summarized, and population characteristics are discussed.

  2. Pataha Creek Model Watershed : 1999 Habitat Conservation Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Bartels, Duane G.

    2000-10-01

    The projects outlined in detail on the attached project reports are a summary of the many projects implemented in the Pataha Creek Model Watershed since it was selected as a model in 1993. Up until last year, demonstration sites using riparian fencing, off site watering facilities, tree and shrub plantings and upland conservation practices were used for information and education and was the main focus of the implementation phase of the watershed plan. These practices are the main focus of the watershed plan to reduce the majority of the sediment entering the stream. However, the watershed stream evaluation team used in the watershed analysis determined that there were problems along the Pataha Creek that needed to be addressed that would add further protection to the banks and therefore a further reduction of sedimentation into the stream. 1999 was a year where a focused effort was made to work on the upland conservation practices to reduce the sedimentation into Pataha Creek. Over 95% of the sediment entering the stream can be tied directly to the upland and riparian areas of the watershed. In stream work was not addressed this year because of the costs associated with these projects and the low impact of the sediment issue concerning Pataha Creeks impact on Chinook Salmon in the Tucannon River.

  3. West side, oblique, partially hidden by trees, utility safety fence, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West side, oblique, partially hidden by trees, utility safety fence, and the deep shadow of the 1962 annex. View to northeast. - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  4. 18. SOUTH BRANCH, PRAIRIE CITY DITCH, RUNNING SOUTHWEST UNDER FENCE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. SOUTH BRANCH, PRAIRIE CITY DITCH, RUNNING SOUTHWEST UNDER FENCE, TOWARD US HWY. 50 IN DISTANCE. - Natomas Ditch System, Rhodes Ditch, West of Bidwell Street, north of U.S. Highway 50, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  5. VIEW OF WESTERN AND SOUTHERN SIDES OVER FENCE FROM PARKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WESTERN AND SOUTHERN SIDES OVER FENCE FROM PARKING LOT OF BUILDING 1589 (BANYAN CLUB). - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Post Office, Avenue A near Eleventh Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Cathedral house & crocker fence, Taylor Street east and north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cathedral house & crocker fence, Taylor Street east and north elevations, perspective view from the northeast - Grace Cathedral, George William Gibbs Memorial Hall, 1051 Taylor Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. View to the southeast, note sire fence in the foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to the southeast, note sire fence in the foreground - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Christmas Valley Radar Site Transmit Sector Five Antenna Array, On unnamed road west of Lost Forest Road, Christmas Valley, Lake County, OR

  8. Teaching Electric Fences: The Physics Behind the Brainiac Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, Michael

    2016-11-01

    In many states, electric fences are used to prevent animals from leaving a designated area, for example for grazing. They are quite well known by most students and can therefore serve as daily-life examples of electric circuits. Besides helping to grasp the ideas of Kirchhoff's laws for voltages and currents in circuits according to loop and junction rules, they can also serve as introduction to the topic of conduction of electricity by humans and respective effects (in contrast to electric fences, the latter can also be studied experimentally in the classroom). Here we provide background information on the circuit diagrams of electrical fences that also explains the so-called Brainiac YouTube videos on the topic. While electric fences are designed not to be dangerous to humans or animals due to the short duration of the electrical pulses, students and teachers are strongly discouraged from attempting to replicate the scenes enacted in the video.

  9. DETAIL OF FENCE FLANKING GATE AT ENTRANCE TO MEMORIAL WALK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF FENCE FLANKING GATE AT ENTRANCE TO MEMORIAL WALK. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  10. GATE AND FLANKING FENCE AT ENTRANCE TO MEMORIAL WALK. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GATE AND FLANKING FENCE AT ENTRANCE TO MEMORIAL WALK. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  11. 3. FENCE AND POLE WITH BUILDINGS 600608 IN THE BACKGROUND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FENCE AND POLE WITH BUILDINGS 600-608 IN THE BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Military Family Housing, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  12. 13. LOOKING AT "SAFETY FENCE" AND "WARNING NOTICE" AND AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. LOOKING AT "SAFETY FENCE" AND "WARNING NOTICE" AND AT BUILDING "A" FACE WITH WATER CANNON IN BACKGROUND. VIEW IS LOOKING SOUTH 30° WEST. - Cape Cod Air Station, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  13. 46. DETAIL OF FENCE AT NORTH BOUNDARY, SHOWING MERIDIAN, OR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. DETAIL OF FENCE AT NORTH BOUNDARY, SHOWING MERIDIAN, OR ARMILLARY SPHERE SYMBOL, October 1987 - Meridian Hill Park, Bounded by Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Euclid & W Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. 68. Smart view recreation area comfort station with postandrail fence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Smart view recreation area comfort station with post-and-rail fence reflecting Appalachian culture. Facing west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  15. CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, LOOKING NORTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  16. NAGWS Bowling-Fencing Guide, January 1977-January 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knierim, Helen

    This manual is designed for use by coaches of bowling and fencing. Rules and regulations are outlined, and game strategies and teaching techniques are discussed. A bibliography for each sport is included. (JD)

  17. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING ENTRY ELEVATION OF LIGHTHOUSE, FENCING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING ENTRY ELEVATION OF LIGHTHOUSE, FENCING, OIL HOUSE TO LEFT AND PATH FROM KEEPER'S COTTAGE AND PARKING LOT - Cape Hatteras Lighthouse, Point of Cape Hatteras, access road from Route 12, Buxton, Dare County, NC

  18. 9. September, 1968 FENCE AT NORTH CORNER OF LEVI STARBUCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. September, 1968 FENCE AT NORTH CORNER OF LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE, 14 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  19. Shell Creek Summers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

    2005-01-01

    In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

  20. Shell Creek Summers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

    2005-01-01

    In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

  1. CFD Analysis of a T-38 Wing Fence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    the boundary layer is not the only mechanism of the fence. [16] 2.3.1 Wing Fence and Potential Flow. Dr. Karl Nickels’ book, “ Tailless Aircraft ...State University, 2001. 57 16. Nickel, Karl and Micahel Wohlfahrt. Tailless Aircraft . American Institude of Aeronautics and Astronautics,Inc., New...38 was modeled as a half aircraft with a symmetry plane down the center line and did not include the empennage. The engine inlet and exhaust were

  2. 6. Humpback Gap Overlook. View of stone railandrider fences, commonly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Humpback Gap Overlook. View of stone rail-and-rider fences, commonly referred to as hog fences. There were built by civilian public service employees in 1943. An original wall crossed the mountain just south of Humpback Gap just south of Humpback Gap, but the new section was provided to be more visible to visitors. View faces west-northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  3. Environmental Assessment for Kirtland Air Force Base Perimeter Fencing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    Juniper Ponderosa Pine Sagebrush Steppe Proposed New Fence Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Image: Black & White Orthophoto, November 1995...Kirtland AFB Perimeter Fencing EA 3-21 Final - July 2004 Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa ) forests occur in the upper elevations, usually above 7,700 feet...Juniperus scopulurum). Tree density in the ponderosa pine community ranges from 90 to 120 square feet per acre (USFS 1996). The southern portion of

  4. Wind fence enclosures for infrasonic wind noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Abbott, JohnPaul; Raspet, Richard; Webster, Jeremy

    2015-03-01

    A large porous wind fence enclosure has been built and tested to optimize wind noise reduction at infrasonic frequencies between 0.01 and 10 Hz to develop a technology that is simple and cost effective and improves upon the limitations of spatial filter arrays for detecting nuclear explosions, wind turbine infrasound, and other sources of infrasound. Wind noise is reduced by minimizing the sum of the wind noise generated by the turbulence and velocity gradients inside the fence and by the area-averaging the decorrelated pressure fluctuations generated at the surface of the fence. The effects of varying the enclosure porosity, top condition, bottom gap, height, and diameter and adding a secondary windscreen were investigated. The wind fence enclosure achieved best reductions when the surface porosity was between 40% and 55% and was supplemented by a secondary windscreen. The most effective wind fence enclosure tested in this study achieved wind noise reductions of 20-27 dB over the 2-4 Hz frequency band, a minimum of 5 dB noise reduction for frequencies from 0.1 to 20 Hz, constant 3-6 dB noise reduction for frequencies with turbulence wavelengths larger than the fence, and sufficient wind noise reduction at high wind speeds (3-6 m/s) to detect microbaroms.

  5. Minimizing species extinctions through strategic planning for conservation fencing.

    PubMed

    Ringma, Jeremy L; Wintle, Brendan; Fuller, Richard A; Fisher, Diana; Bode, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Conservation fences are an increasingly common management action, particularly for species threatened by invasive predators. However, unlike many conservation actions, fence networks are expanding in an unsystematic manner, generally as a reaction to local funding opportunities or threats. In a gap analysis of Australia's substantial predator exclusion fence network, we found highly uneven protection, with 67% of predator-sensitive species remaining unrepresented. Predator exclusion fences all contain small populations of threatened species, therefore a novel systematic prioritization method for expanding fence networks that explicitly incorporates population viability analysis and minimises expected species' extinctions was developed. The approach was applied to New South Wales, Australia, where the state government intends to expand the existing conservation fence network. A systematic prioritisation yields substantial efficiencies, reducing the expected number of species extinctions as much as 17 times more effectively than ad hoc approaches. This dramatically superior outcome emphasises the importance of governance when management action is applied in multiple instances with similar objectives and using systematic methods rather than expanding networks opportunistically. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Foot loading characteristics during three fencing-specific movements.

    PubMed

    Trautmann, Caroline; Martinelli, Nicolo; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2011-12-01

    Plantar pressure characteristics during fencing movements may provide more specific information about the influence of foot loading on overload injury patterns. Twenty-nine experienced fencers participated in the study. Three fencing-specific movements (lunge, advance, retreat) and normal running were performed with three different shoe models: Ballestra (Nike, USA), Adistar Fencing Lo (Adidas, Germany), and the fencers' own shoes. The Pedar system (Novel, Munich, Germany) was used to collect plantar pressures at 50 Hz. Peak pressures, force-time integrals and contact times for five foot regions were compared between four athletic tasks in the lunge leg and supporting leg. Plantar pressure analysis revealed characteristic pressure distribution patterns for the fencing movements. For the lunge leg, during the lunge and advance movements the heel is predominantly loaded; during retreat, it is the hallux. For the supporting leg, during the lunge and advance movements the forefoot is predominantly loaded; during retreat, it is the hallux. Fencing-specific movements load the plantar surface in a distinct way compared with running. An effective cushioning in the heel and hallux region would help to minimize foot loading during fencing-specific movements.

  7. Biomechanics of fencing sport: A scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tony Lin-Wei; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Wang, Yan; Ren, Sicong; Yan, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of our scoping review was to identify and summarize current evidence on the biomechanics of fencing to inform athlete development and injury prevention. Design Scoping review. Method Peer-reviewed research was identified from electronic databases using a structured keyword search. Details regarding experimental design, study group characteristics and measured outcomes were extracted from retrieved studies, summarized and information regrouped under themes for analysis. The methodological quality of the evidence was evaluated. Results Thirty-seven peer-reviewed studies were retrieved, the majority being observational studies conducted with experienced and elite athletes. The methodological quality of the evidence was “fair” due to the limited scope of research. Male fencers were the prevalent group studied, with the lunge and use of a foil weapon being the principal movement evaluated. Motion capture and pedabarography were the most frequently used data collection techniques. Conclusions Elite fencers exhibited sequential coordination of upper and lower limb movements with coherent patterns of muscle activation, compared to novice fencers. These elite features of neuromuscular coordination resulted in higher magnitudes of forward linear velocity of the body center of mass and weapon. Training should focus on explosive power. Sex- and equipment-specific effects could not be evaluated based on available research. PMID:28187164

  8. Biomechanics of fencing sport: A scoping review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tony Lin-Wei; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Wang, Yan; Ren, Sicong; Yan, Fei; Zhang, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our scoping review was to identify and summarize current evidence on the biomechanics of fencing to inform athlete development and injury prevention. Scoping review. Peer-reviewed research was identified from electronic databases using a structured keyword search. Details regarding experimental design, study group characteristics and measured outcomes were extracted from retrieved studies, summarized and information regrouped under themes for analysis. The methodological quality of the evidence was evaluated. Thirty-seven peer-reviewed studies were retrieved, the majority being observational studies conducted with experienced and elite athletes. The methodological quality of the evidence was "fair" due to the limited scope of research. Male fencers were the prevalent group studied, with the lunge and use of a foil weapon being the principal movement evaluated. Motion capture and pedabarography were the most frequently used data collection techniques. Elite fencers exhibited sequential coordination of upper and lower limb movements with coherent patterns of muscle activation, compared to novice fencers. These elite features of neuromuscular coordination resulted in higher magnitudes of forward linear velocity of the body center of mass and weapon. Training should focus on explosive power. Sex- and equipment-specific effects could not be evaluated based on available research.

  9. San Mateo Creek Basin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  10. Partridge Creek Diversion Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Goal: prevent mercury contamination by keeping the creek from flowing through a mine pit. The project improved brook trout habitat, green infrastructure, the local economy, and decreased human health risks. Includes before-and-after photos.

  11. The science of fencing: implications for performance and injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Roi, Giulio S; Bianchedi, Diana

    2008-01-01

    In this review we analyse the data from the literature on fencing with the aim of creating a psychobiological and multi-factorial model of fencing performance. Fencing is an open-skilled combat sport that was admitted to the first modern Olympic Games in Athens (1896). It is mainly practised indoors, with three different weapons: the foil, the sabre and the épée, each contested with different rules. A fencing international tournament may last between 9 and 11 hours. Bouts represent only 18% of total competition time, with an effective fight time of between 17 and 48 minutes. The physical demands of fencing competitions are high, involving the aerobic and anaerobic alactic and lactic metabolisms, and are also affected by age, sex, level of training and technical and tactical models utilized in relation to the adversary. The anthropometrical characteristics of fencers show a typical asymmetry of the limbs as a result of the practice of an asymmetrical sport activity. Fencing produces typical functional asymmetries that emphasize the very high level of specific function, strength and control required in this sport. Moreover, the physical demands of fencing are closely linked to the perceptual and psychological ones, and all are subjected to a continuous succession of changes during the bouts based on the behaviour of the opponent. For this reason it is difficult to identify a significant relationship between any one physiological characteristic and performance, and performance is more likely to be influenced by perceptual and neuro-physiological characteristics. Fencers need to anticipate the opponent and to mask their true intentions with a game of feints and counter-feints, which must be supported by an adequate psycho-physical condition to prevent central and peripheral fatigue. Fencing is not particularly dangerous; however, there is a fine line between a fatal lesion and a simple wound from a broken blade. The suggestions for injury prevention fall into three

  12. Effects of veterinary fences on Wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Russell D.; Martin, Rowan B.

    1987-07-01

    In Zimbabwe, veterinary fences are used to control trypanosomiasis and foot- and-mouth disease, two important diseases that threaten cattle production and beef exports. Wildlife is implicated in both instances and the effects of fences on wildlife conservation and land use are discussed in relation to these two diseases. Advantages and disadvantages related to direct and indirect fence effects are outlined. Although the maintenance of fences for trypanosomiasis control is likely to become obsolete, control of foot- and-mouth disease will rely on fences for the foreseeable future. Most of Zimbabwe's protected wildlife areas are located in marginal agricultural land around the periphery of the country where cattle productivity is low. This land should be excluded from any involvement in the beef export industry rather than attempting its inclusion through cordoning and isolating individual protected areas. Within such land, the need for rigid veterinary restrictions should then disappear and allow more flexible strategies for disease control, including adaptive and imaginative approaches to land-use planning.

  13. Electric fences to reduce mammalian predation on waterfowl nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lokemoen, J.T.; Doty, H.A.; Sharp, D.E.; Neaville, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    We evaluated electric fences as predator barriers to reduce high losses of waterfowl nests to mammalian predation at Waterfowl Production Areas (WPAs). The work was done in 1978-81 on 3 paired sites in central North Dakota and western Minnesota. Resident mammalian predators were trapped from inside the exclosures. All 3 fences operated during the study period with few major maintenance problems. Nest success in the exclosures was 65% in North Dakota and 55% in Minnesota vs. 45 and 12% in the respective controls. Cover inside the electric fence produced 7.8 more young/ha than cover in control plots in North Dakota during the 3 years. Cover inside the 2 electric fences in Minnesota yielded 9.5 and 4.3 more young/ha than cover in control plots during the 3 years. Using construction costs only we estimated that each additional duckling produced in cover protected by electric fencing cost $0.65 in North Dakota and $0.87 in Minnesota.

  14. Physiological responses and energy expenditure during competitive fencing.

    PubMed

    Milia, Raffaele; Roberto, Silvana; Pinna, Marco; Palazzolo, Girolamo; Sanna, Irene; Omeri, Massimo; Piredda, Simone; Migliaccio, Gianmario; Concu, Alberto; Crisafulli, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    Fencing is an Olympic sport in which athletes fight one against one using bladed weapons. Contests consist of three 3-min bouts, with rest intervals of 1 min between them. No studies investigating oxygen uptake and energetic demand during fencing competitions exist, thus energetic expenditure and demand in this sport remain speculative. The aim of this study was to understand the physiological capacities underlying fencing performance. Aerobic energy expenditure and the recruitment of lactic anaerobic metabolism were determined in 15 athletes (2 females and 13 males) during a simulation of fencing by using a portable gas analyzer (MedGraphics VO2000), which was able to provide data on oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production and heart rate. Blood lactate was assessed by means of a portable lactate analyzer. Average group energetic expenditure during the simulation was (mean ± SD) 10.24 ± 0.65 kcal·min(-1), corresponding to 8.6 ± 0.54 METs. Oxygen uptakeand heart rate were always below the level of anaerobic threshold previously assessed during the preliminary incremental test, while blood lactate reached its maximum value of 6.9 ± 2.1 mmol·L(-1) during the final recovery minute between rounds. Present data suggest that physical demand in fencing is moderate for skilled fencers and that both aerobic energy metabolism and anaerobic lactic energy sources are moderately recruited. This should be considered by coaches when preparing training programs for athletes.

  15. Gender differences in patellofemoral load during the epee fencing lunge.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J; Bottoms, L

    2015-01-01

    Clinical analyses have shown that injuries and pain linked specifically to fencing training/competition were prevalent in 92.8% of fencers. Patellofemoral pain is the most common chronic injury in athletic populations and females are considered to be more susceptible to this pathology. This study aimed to examine gender differences in patellofemoral contact forces during the fencing lunge. Patellofemoral contact forces were obtained from eight male and eight female club level epee fencers using an eight-camera 3D motion capture system and force platform data as they completed simulated lunges. Independent t-tests were performed on the data to determine whether gender differences in patellofemoral contact forces were present. The results show that females were associated with significantly greater patellofemoral contact force parameters in comparison with males. This suggests that female fencers may be at greater risk from patellofemoral pathology as a function of fencing training/competition.

  16. The Use of Sand Fences in Barrier Island Restoration: Experience on the Louisiana Coast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    PURPOSE: This System-Wide Water Resources (SWWRP) technical note describes experiences with sand fences to reduce losses by wind-blown sand...fence (United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) 1998). Sand fences are effective where there is sufficient wind speed to transport sand at the... water ). ERDC TN-SWWRP-08-4 March 2008 The Use of Sand Fences in Barrier Island Restoration: Experience on the Louisiana Coast By Syed M. Khalil

  17. 25 CFR 171.410 - Can I install a fence on a BIA irrigation project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can I install a fence on a BIA irrigation project? 171... IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.410 Can I install a fence on a BIA irrigation project? Yes. Fences are considered structures and may be installed in compliance with § 171.405. ...

  18. Effectiveness of electric deer fences to protect planted seedlings in Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    D.W. George; T.W. Bowersox; L.H. McCormick

    1991-01-01

    Electric fences are used in Pennsylvania following a timber harvest to reduce deer browse on natural regeneration. In 1984, five-strand electric deer fences were constructed around two central Pennsylvania clearcuts. Northern red oak, white ash, white pine, and yellow-poplar seedlings were planted inside each fenced clearcut area in 1984 and 1985. One-half of the 1280...

  19. 25 CFR 171.410 - Can I install a fence on a BIA irrigation project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can I install a fence on a BIA irrigation project? 171... IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.410 Can I install a fence on a BIA irrigation project? Yes. Fences are considered structures and may be installed in compliance with § 171.405. ...

  20. 25 CFR 171.410 - Can I install a fence on a BIA irrigation project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can I install a fence on a BIA irrigation project? 171... IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.410 Can I install a fence on a BIA irrigation project? Yes. Fences are considered structures and may be installed in compliance with § 171.405. ...

  1. 25 CFR 171.410 - Can I install a fence on a BIA irrigation project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can I install a fence on a BIA irrigation project? 171... IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.410 Can I install a fence on a BIA irrigation project? Yes. Fences are considered structures and may be installed in compliance with § 171.405. ...

  2. Adoption of stream fencing among dairy farmers in four New Zealand catchments.

    PubMed

    Bewsell, Denise; Monaghan, Ross M; Kaine, Geoff

    2007-08-01

    The effect of dairy farming on water quality in New Zealand streams has been identified as an important environmental issue. Stream fencing, to keep cattle out of streams, is seen as a way to improve water quality. Fencing ensures that cattle cannot defecate in the stream, prevents bank erosion, and protects the aquatic habitat. Stream fencing targets have been set by the dairy industry. In this paper the results of a study to identify the factors influencing dairy farmers' decisions to adopt stream fencing are outlined. Qualitative methods were used to gather data from 30 dairy farmers in four New Zealand catchments. Results suggest that farm contextual factors influenced farmers' decision making when considering stream fencing. Farmers were classified into four segments based on their reasons for investing in stream fencing. These reasons were fencing boundaries, fencing for stock control, fencing to protect animal health, and fencing because of pressure to conform to local government guidelines or industry codes of practice. This suggests that adoption may be slow in the absence of on-farm benefits, that promotion of stream fencing needs to be strongly linked to on-farm benefits, and that regulation could play a role in ensuring greater adoption of stream fencing.

  3. Adoption of Stream Fencing Among Dairy Farmers in Four New Zealand Catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bewsell, Denise; Monaghan, Ross M.; Kaine, Geoff

    2007-08-01

    The effect of dairy farming on water quality in New Zealand streams has been identified as an important environmental issue. Stream fencing, to keep cattle out of streams, is seen as a way to improve water quality. Fencing ensures that cattle cannot defecate in the stream, prevents bank erosion, and protects the aquatic habitat. Stream fencing targets have been set by the dairy industry. In this paper the results of a study to identify the factors influencing dairy farmers’ decisions to adopt stream fencing are outlined. Qualitative methods were used to gather data from 30 dairy farmers in four New Zealand catchments. Results suggest that farm contextual factors influenced farmers’ decision making when considering stream fencing. Farmers were classified into four segments based on their reasons for investing in stream fencing. These reasons were fencing boundaries, fencing for stock control, fencing to protect animal health, and fencing because of pressure to conform to local government guidelines or industry codes of practice. This suggests that adoption may be slow in the absence of on-farm benefits, that promotion of stream fencing needs to be strongly linked to on-farm benefits, and that regulation could play a role in ensuring greater adoption of stream fencing.

  4. Conserving large populations of lions - the argument for fences has holes.

    PubMed

    Creel, S; Becker, M S; Durant, S M; M'Soka, J; Matandiko, W; Dickman, A J; Christianson, D; Dröge, E; Mweetwa, T; Pettorelli, N; Rosenblatt, E; Schuette, P; Woodroffe, R; Bashir, S; Beudels-Jamar, R C; Blake, S; Borner, M; Breitenmoser, C; Broekhuis, F; Cozzi, G; Davenport, T R B; Deutsch, J; Dollar, L; Dolrenry, S; Douglas-Hamilton, I; Fitzherbert, E; Foley, C; Hazzah, L; Henschel, P; Hilborn, R; Hopcraft, J G C; Ikanda, D; Jacobson, A; Joubert, B; Joubert, D; Kelly, M S; Lichtenfeld, L; Mace, G M; Milanzi, J; Mitchell, N; Msuha, M; Muir, R; Nyahongo, J; Pimm, S; Purchase, G; Schenck, C; Sillero-Zubiri, C; Sinclair, A R E; Songorwa, A N; Stanley-Price, M; Tehou, C A; Trout, C; Wall, J; Wittemyer, G; Zimmermann, A

    2013-11-01

    Packer et al. reported that fenced lion populations attain densities closer to carrying capacity than unfenced populations. However, fenced populations are often maintained above carrying capacity, and most are small. Many more lions are conserved per dollar invested in unfenced ecosystems, which avoid the ecological and economic costs of fencing.

  5. Avian and amphibian use of fenced and unfenced stock ponds in northeastern Oregon forests.

    Treesearch

    Evelyn L. Bull; Jerry W. Deal; Janet E. Hohmann

    2001-01-01

    The abundance of birds and amphibian larvae was compared between fenced and unfenced stock ponds in 1993 to determine if fencing improved the habitat for these species in northeastern Oregon. Stock ponds that were fenced had significantly higher densities of bird species, guilds, and taxonomic groups than stock ponds that were unfenced. No differences in the relative...

  6. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2004-2005.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2005-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and one high priority culvert was replaced in 2004. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  7. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2003-2004.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2004-06-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and designs completed on two of the high priority culverts. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  8. Soap Creek Associates NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number MT-0023183, Soap Creek Associates, Inc. is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in West, Bighorn County, Montana, to Soap Creek.

  9. Effect of fence height on joint angles of agility dogs.

    PubMed

    Birch, Emily; Leśniak, Kirsty

    2013-12-01

    The Kennel Club (KC) and United Kingdom Agility (UKA) govern major dog agility competitions in the UK. Dogs are categorised into different jump heights depending on their height at the withers, with fence heights ranging from 300 to 650 mm for both organisations. Dogs fall into one of three height categories when competing under KC rules and one of four height categories under UKA rules. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an additional height category for agility dogs measuring over 430 mm at the withers. Jump heights were selected that related to the percentage of body height that dogs of 430 mm (7% lower) and 431 mm (51% higher) height at the withers would be encouraged to jump under UKA regulations without the addition of their fourth ('standard height') category. Joint angles were determined from anatomical markers placed on the forelimb and hind limb joints, and at six points along the vertebral column. As fence height increased, flexion of the scapulohumeral joint increased significantly for both the take-off and bascule (arc) phases of the jump. The increase in flexion as a consequence of the increase in fence height is likely to result in intensified stretching of the biceps brachii and supraspinatus muscles. In addition, increasing fence high resulted in an increase in the sacroiliac joint angle during take-off. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARD WITH CHAINLINK FENCE AND TERRACING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARD WITH CHAINLINK FENCE AND TERRACING, BEHIND 559 BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. DETAIL OF THE PARTIAL HEIGHT GRAPESTAKE FENCING WHICH ENCLOSES THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE PARTIAL HEIGHT GRAPESTAKE FENCING WHICH ENCLOSES THE LAUNDRY AREA IN THE CARPORT. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. Husbandry of free-ranging cows using virtual fencing concepts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A directional virtual fencing (DVF™) system approach employing 1 Hz GPS data acquisition and using audio cuing only was successfully used to gather mature free-ranging beef cattle from a 466 ha arid brush infested rangeland paddock into a corral in which drinking water was located . Gathering was ...

  13. "Rabbit Proof Fence": A Struggle for Cultural Existence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Momani, Hassan Ali Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to depict the struggle for cultural existence in "Rabbit Proof Fence." It also reflects the cultural conflict represented in the three aboriginal girls' characters which is due to their rejection and resistance for the colonialists' culture. Besides, the paper presents the cognitive analysis of the cultural…

  14. 7. Humpback Gap Overlook. View of stone railandrider fences built ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Humpback Gap Overlook. View of stone rail-and-rider fences built in 1943 with the curvilinear alignment of the parkway in the background. View facing southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  15. Silt fences: An economical technique for measuring hillslope soil erosion

    Treesearch

    Peter R. Robichaud; Robert E. Brown

    2002-01-01

    Measuring hillslope erosion has historically been a costly, time-consuming practice. An easy to install low-cost technique using silt fences (geotextile fabric) and tipping bucket rain gauges to measure onsite hillslope erosion was developed and tested. Equipment requirements, installation procedures, statistical design, and analysis methods for measuring hillslope...

  16. Plank fence penetration into automobiles-implications for prevention initiatives.

    PubMed

    Procter, Levi; Bernard, Andrew; Ginn, Gary; Kearney, Paul; Pienkowski, David

    2011-01-01

    The wooden plank fence presents a deadly but unrecognized hazard to motorists. We hypothesize that fence plank injury is prevalent and results in significant morbidity and mortality. Databases of the University of Kentucky's Level I Trauma Center and the Fayette County Coroner were retrospectively analyzed over a 12-year period (1995-2006). One hundred and twenty-eight subjects were involved in vehicle contact with wooden plank fences. One hundred and twenty-three subjects were evaluated at the Emergency Department of our trauma center; 35 (27%) had a patient-plank interaction (PPI). Men (30/35) were more frequently involved (86%), and average age was 32.8 years. Thirty-two (91%) were drivers; 14/35 (40%) died from PPI-related injuries. The most common cause of death was blunt head trauma in 13 of these 14 fatally injured subjects (93%). This study provides new data underscoring the frequency, lethality, and economic consequences of this injury mechanism. Further research is needed to quantify the national prevalence of this problem and develop injury-mitigating strategies pertaining to roadway or fence design.

  17. Facility fence-line monitoring using passive samplers

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2009, the U.S. EPA executed a year-long field study at a refinery in Corpus Christi, Texas, to evaluate the use of passive diffusive sampling technology for assessing time-averaged benzene concentrations at the facility fence line. The study utilized 14-day time-integrated Car...

  18. Fugitive methane assessment with mobile and fence line sensors

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is no published abstract for this short panel talk. The panel presentation titled “Fugitive methane assessment with mobile and fence line sensors” provides a basic introduction to the topic of next generation sensor technologies for identifying and fixing emiss...

  19. 4. Inside perimeter fence, view towards east and launch closure, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Inside perimeter fence, view towards east and launch closure, sensor EMP antenna left center - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility D-6, 4 miles north of Badlands National Park Headquarters, 4.5 miles east of Jackson County line on county road, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  20. Fugitive methane assessment with mobile and fence line sensors

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is no published abstract for this short panel talk. The panel presentation titled “Fugitive methane assessment with mobile and fence line sensors” provides a basic introduction to the topic of next generation sensor technologies for identifying and fixing emiss...

  1. Selected Fencing Articles. Sports Articles Reprint Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herndon, Myrtis, Ed.

    This collection of articles on fencing is "The Division for Girls and Women's Sports (DGWS) Guides" 1946-1971 and the Second National Institute on Girls Sports. It is the latest in the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation's Sports Articles Reprint Series, a special project of the Publications Area, DGWS.…

  2. Facility fence-line monitoring using passive samplers

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2009, the U.S. EPA executed a year-long field study at a refinery in Corpus Christi, Texas, to evaluate the use of passive diffusive sampling technology for assessing time-averaged benzene concentrations at the facility fence line. The study utilized 14-day time-integrated Car...

  3. Aspen fencing in northern Arizona: A 15-year perspective

    Treesearch

    James M. Rolf

    2001-01-01

    Aspen clearcuts in the 1960s and 1970s on the Peaks Ranger District of the Coconino National Forest in northern Arizona failed to regenerate successfully because of browsing primarily by elk. Since 1985, over 400 acres have been successfully regenerated using fencing of various designs to exclude elk. The expense and visual impact of establishing and maintaining over...

  4. Within compound, looking southwest along perimeter fence towards Gate House ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Within compound, looking southwest along perimeter fence towards Gate House (Building 5764) - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  5. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, OF CAST IRON FENCE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, OF CAST IRON FENCE AND MARBLE MONUMENTS IN THIS GRAVE PLOT IN THE COLUMBIANA CEMETERY WHICH DATE TO 1864. IRON WORK MANUFACTURED AT SHELBY IRONWORKS FOR IRONMASTER'S FIRST WIFE AND DAUGHTER'S GRAVES. - Ware Cemetery Plot, Shelby County Road 25, Columbiana, Shelby County, AL

  6. 5. Inside perimeter fence, view towards northeast, EMP antenna at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Inside perimeter fence, view towards northeast, EMP antenna at center, top of soft support building visible at left center - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility D-6, 4 miles north of Badlands National Park Headquarters, 4.5 miles east of Jackson County line on county road, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  7. Detusking Fence-Breaker Elephants as an Approach in Human-Elephant Conflict Mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Mutinda, Matthew; Chenge, Geoffrey; Gakuya, Francis; Otiende, Moses; Omondi, Patrick; Kasiki, Samuel; Soriguer, Ramón C.; Alasaad, Samer

    2014-01-01

    Background Human-elephant conflict (HEC) is a recurring problem that appears wherever the range of elephants and humans overlap. Different methods including the use of electric fences are used worldwide to mitigate this conflict. Nonetheless, elephants learn quickly that their tusks do not conduct electricity and use them to break down fences (fence-breakers). Methodology/Principal Findings In Lewa Wildlife Conservancy, Kenya, destructive elephants (Loxodonta africana) were monitored between 2010 and 2013. The fence-breaking rate reached four incidents (fence-breaking) per elephant per 100 days. Ten bull males and 57 females were identified as fence-breakers. The bulls were involved in 85.07% and the females in 14.93% of incidents. The Kenya Wildlife Service approved detusking (partial cutting of tusks) in four of the 10 fence-breakers as a way of preventing them from breaking down fences, thereby mitigating HEC in the Conservancy. The result of the detusking was a drastic six-fold reduction in damage to fences (range: 1.67 to 14.5 times less fence-breaking) by the four worst fence-breaker elephants, because with trimmed tusks elephants lack the tools to break down fences. Detusking could not totally eliminate fence destruction because, despite lacking their tools, elephants can still destroy fences using their heads, bodies and trunks, albeit less effectively. On the other hand, apart from inherent aesthetic considerations, the detusking of elephants may have certain negative effects on factors such as elephants' social hierarchies, breeding, mate selection and their access to essential minerals and food. Conclusions Elephant detusking seems to be effective in drastically reducing fence-breaking incidents, nonetheless its negative effects on behaviour, access to food and its aesthetical consequences still need to be further studied and investigated. PMID:24614538

  8. Detusking fence-breaker elephants as an approach in human-elephant conflict mitigation.

    PubMed

    Mutinda, Matthew; Chenge, Geoffrey; Gakuya, Francis; Otiende, Moses; Omondi, Patrick; Kasiki, Samuel; Soriguer, Ramón C; Alasaad, Samer

    2014-01-01

    Human-elephant conflict (HEC) is a recurring problem that appears wherever the range of elephants and humans overlap. Different methods including the use of electric fences are used worldwide to mitigate this conflict. Nonetheless, elephants learn quickly that their tusks do not conduct electricity and use them to break down fences (fence-breakers). In Lewa Wildlife Conservancy, Kenya, destructive elephants (Loxodonta africana) were monitored between 2010 and 2013. The fence-breaking rate reached four incidents (fence-breaking) per elephant per 100 days. Ten bull males and 57 females were identified as fence-breakers. The bulls were involved in 85.07% and the females in 14.93% of incidents. The Kenya Wildlife Service approved detusking (partial cutting of tusks) in four of the 10 fence-breakers as a way of preventing them from breaking down fences, thereby mitigating HEC in the Conservancy. The result of the detusking was a drastic six-fold reduction in damage to fences (range: 1.67 to 14.5 times less fence-breaking) by the four worst fence-breaker elephants, because with trimmed tusks elephants lack the tools to break down fences. Detusking could not totally eliminate fence destruction because, despite lacking their tools, elephants can still destroy fences using their heads, bodies and trunks, albeit less effectively. On the other hand, apart from inherent aesthetic considerations, the detusking of elephants may have certain negative effects on factors such as elephants' social hierarchies, breeding, mate selection and their access to essential minerals and food. Elephant detusking seems to be effective in drastically reducing fence-breaking incidents, nonetheless its negative effects on behaviour, access to food and its aesthetical consequences still need to be further studied and investigated.

  9. Lesser prairie-chicken fence collision risk across its northern distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Samantha G.; Haukos, David A.; Plumb, Reid T.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.; Lautenbach, Joseph M.; Sullins, Daniel S.; Kraft, John D.; Lautenbach, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Livestock fences have been hypothesized to significantly contribute to mortality of lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus); however, quantification of mortality due to fence collisions is lacking across their current distribution. Variation in fence density, landscape composition and configuration, and land use could influence collision risk of lesser prairie-chickens. We monitored fences within 3 km of known leks during spring and fall and surveyed for signs of collision occurrence within 20 m of fences in 6 study sites in Kansas and Colorado, USA during 2013 and 2014. We assessed mortality locations of radio-tagged birds (n = 286) for evidence of fence collisions and compared distance to fence relative to random points. Additionally, we quantified locations, propensity, and frequency of fences crossed by lesser prairie-chickens. We tested for landscape and vegetative characteristics that influenced fence-cross propensity and frequency of global positioning system (GPS)-marked birds. A minimum of 12,706 fence crossings occurred by GPS-marked lesser prairie-chickens. We found 3 carcasses and 12 additional possible instances of evidence of collision during >2,800 km of surveyed fences. We found evidence for a single suspected collision based on carcass evidence for 148 mortalities of transmittered birds. Mortality locations of transmittered birds were located at distances from fences 15% farther than expected at random. Our data suggested minimal biological significance and indicated that propensity and frequency of fence crossings were random processes. Lesser prairie-chickens do not appear to be experiencing significant mortality risk due to fence collisions in Kansas and Colorado. Focusing resources on other limiting factors (i.e., habitat quality) has greater potential for impact on population demography than fence marking and removal.

  10. Flow around new wind fence with multi-scale fractal structure in an atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure, Sarah; Lee, Sang-Joon; Zhang, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Understanding and controlling atmospheric boundary-layer flows with engineered structures, such as porous wind fences or windbreaks, has been of great interest to the fluid mechanics and wind engineering community. Previous studies found that the regular mono-scale grid fence of 50% porosity and a bottom gap of 10% of the fence height are considered to be optimal over a flat surface. Significant differences in turbulent flow structure have recently been noted behind multi-scale fractal wind fences, even with the same porosity. In this study, wind-tunnel tests on the turbulent flow and the turbulence kinetic energy transport of 1D and 2D multi-scale fractal fences under atmospheric boundary-layer were conducted. Velocity fields around the fractal fences were systematically measured using Particle Image Velocimetry to uncover effects of key parameters on turbulent flows around the fences at a Reynolds number of approximately 3.6x104 based on the free-stream speed and fence height. The turbulent flow structures induced by specific 1D/2D multi-scale fractal wind fences were compared to those of a conventional grid fence. The present results would contribute to the design of new-generation wind fences to reduce snow/sand deposition on critical infrastructure such as roads and bridges.

  11. Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Ward W. McCaughey

    1996-01-01

    The Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest, established in 1961, is representative of the vast expanses of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) found east of the Continental Divide in Montana, southwest Alberta, and Wyoming. Discrete generations of even-age lodgepole stands form a mosaic typical of the fireprone forests at moderate to high altitudes in the Northern Rocky...

  12. Boulder Creek Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingaman, Deirdre; Eitel, Karla Bradley

    2010-01-01

    Boulder Creek runs literally in the backyard of Donnelly Elementary School and happens to be on the EPA list of impaired water bodies. Therefore, a unique opportunity for problem solving opened the door to an exciting chance for students to become scientists, while also becoming active in their community. With the help of the Idaho Department of…

  13. Boulder Creek Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingaman, Deirdre; Eitel, Karla Bradley

    2010-01-01

    Boulder Creek runs literally in the backyard of Donnelly Elementary School and happens to be on the EPA list of impaired water bodies. Therefore, a unique opportunity for problem solving opened the door to an exciting chance for students to become scientists, while also becoming active in their community. With the help of the Idaho Department of…

  14. Bent Creek demonstration program

    Treesearch

    Erik C. Berg

    1997-01-01

    Bent Creek Research and Demonstration Forest scientists have transferred the results of research on the ecology and management of Southern Appalachian hardwoods since 1925. Since 1989, a full-time technology transfer specialist has led demonstration efforts. The demonstration program was designed to quickly transfer research results to interested users and to free...

  15. Bent Creek demonstration program

    Treesearch

    Erik C. Berg

    1997-01-01

    Bent Creek Research and Demonstration Forest scientists have transferred the results of research on the ecology and management of Southern Appalachian hardwoods since 1925. Since 1989, a full-time technology transfer specialist has led demonstration efforts. The demonstration program was designed to quickly transfer research results to interested users, and free-up...

  16. Trout Creek 1999 Burn

    Treesearch

    Sherel Goodrich

    2008-01-01

    A small prescribed fire near the mouth of Trout Creek in Strawberry Valley, Wasatch County, Utah, on the Uinta National Forest provided an opportunity to compare production and vascular plant composition in unburned and burned areas. At four years post burn, production of herbaceous plants was about four times greater in the burned area than in the unburned area. Most...

  17. Modeling Fence Location and Density at a Regional Scale for Use in Wildlife Management

    PubMed Central

    Poor, Erin E.; Jakes, Andrew; Loucks, Colby; Suitor, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Barbed and woven wire fences, common structures across western North America, act as impediments to wildlife movements. In particular, fencing influences pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) daily and seasonal movements, as well as modifying habitat selection. Because of fencing's impacts to pronghorn and other wildlife, it is a potentially important factor in both wildlife movement and habitat selection models. At this time, no geospatial fencing data is available at regional scales. Consequently, we constructed a regional fence model using a series of land tenure assumptions for the Hi-Line region of northern Montana – an area consisting of 13 counties over 103,400 km2. Randomized 3.2 km long transects (n = 738) on both paved and unpaved roads were driven to collect information on habitat, fence densities and fence type. Using GIS, we constructed a fence location and a density model incorporating ownership, size, neighboring parcels, township boundaries and roads. Local knowledge of land ownership and land use assisted in improving the final models. We predict there is greater than 263,300 km of fencing in the Hi-Line region, with a maximum density of 6.8 km of fencing per km2 and mean density of 2.4 km of fencing per km2. Using field data to assess model accuracy, Cohen's Kappa was measured at 0.40. On-the-ground fence modification or removal could be prioritized by identifying high fence densities in critical wildlife areas such as pronghorn migratory pathways or sage grouse lekking habitat. Such novel fence data can assist wildlife and land managers to assess effects of anthropogenic features to wildlife at various scales; which in turn may help conserve declining grassland species and overall ecological functionality. PMID:24416180

  18. Modeling fence location and density at a regional scale for use in wildlife management.

    PubMed

    Poor, Erin E; Jakes, Andrew; Loucks, Colby; Suitor, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Barbed and woven wire fences, common structures across western North America, act as impediments to wildlife movements. In particular, fencing influences pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) daily and seasonal movements, as well as modifying habitat selection. Because of fencing's impacts to pronghorn and other wildlife, it is a potentially important factor in both wildlife movement and habitat selection models. At this time, no geospatial fencing data is available at regional scales. Consequently, we constructed a regional fence model using a series of land tenure assumptions for the Hi-Line region of northern Montana--an area consisting of 13 counties over 103,400 km(2). Randomized 3.2 km long transects (n = 738) on both paved and unpaved roads were driven to collect information on habitat, fence densities and fence type. Using GIS, we constructed a fence location and a density model incorporating ownership, size, neighboring parcels, township boundaries and roads. Local knowledge of land ownership and land use assisted in improving the final models. We predict there is greater than 263,300 km of fencing in the Hi-Line region, with a maximum density of 6.8 km of fencing per km(2) and mean density of 2.4 km of fencing per km(2). Using field data to assess model accuracy, Cohen's Kappa was measured at 0.40. On-the-ground fence modification or removal could be prioritized by identifying high fence densities in critical wildlife areas such as pronghorn migratory pathways or sage grouse lekking habitat. Such novel fence data can assist wildlife and land managers to assess effects of anthropogenic features to wildlife at various scales; which in turn may help conserve declining grassland species and overall ecological functionality.

  19. Preliminary effects of streambank fencing of pasture land on the quality of surface water in a small watershed in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galeone, Daniel G.

    2000-01-01

    The use of fencing to exclude pastured animals from streams has been recognized as an agricultural best-management practice. Streambank fencing was installed in a small basin within the Mill Creek Watershed of Lancaster County, Pa., during summer 1997 to evaluate the effectiveness of fencing on surface-water quality. A preliminary review of data collected during a pre-treatment, or calibration period (October 1993 through June 1997), and part of the post-treatment period (July 1997 through November 1998) has identified a varied instream nutrient response to streambank fencing. Concentrations of total nitrogen (N) during low-flow periods were significantly reduced by 20 to 31 percent at treated relative to untreated sites, but the yield of total N during low-flow conditions did not change significantly. Low-flow concentrations and yields of total phosphorus (P) did not change significantly at the outlet of the treatment basin, but data from a tributary site (T-2) in the treatment basin showed a 19- to 79-percent increase in the concentration and yield of total P relative to those at untreated sites. The total-P increase was due to increased concentrations of dissolved P. The processes causing the decrease in the concentration of total N and an increase in the concentration of total P were related to stream discharge, which declined after fencing to about one-third lower than the period-of-record mean. Declines in stream discharge after fence installation were caused by lower than normal precipitation. As concentrations of dissolved oxygen decreased in the stream channel as flows decreased, there was increased potential for instream denitrification and solubilization of P from sediments in the stream channel. Vegetative uptake of nitrate could also have contributed to decreased N concentrations. There were few significant changes in concentrations and yields of nutrients during stormflow except for significant reductions of 16 percent for total-N concentrations and

  20. Environmental Impact Research Program. Wooden Fences. Section 5.2.4. US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    Saucier, WES, was Program Manager, EIRP. The report was edited by Ms. Jessica S. Ruff of the WES Publications and Graphic Arts Division (PGAD). Drawings...LIMITATIONS Vandalism of wooden fences can be a major problem. In campgrounds and picnic areas, fences are often cut for firewood. Wooden fences are also...easily defaced by graffiti , and fences near parking areas are subject to dam- age by motor vehicles. Fences should be located a sufficient distance away

  1. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-160) - Protect and Restore the Lapwai Creek Watershed

    SciTech Connect

    St. Hilaire, Kimberly R.

    2004-07-15

    The proposed restoration and protection of the Lapwai Creek Watershed will assist in the recovery and restoration of fish and wildlife habitat. All activities will take place within the ceded territories of the Nez Perce Tribe (See attached Project Area Map). Activities include placement of grade control weirs to allow fish passage, road decommissioning, and installation of fencing to prevent livestock access to sensitive wetlands and riparian areas.

  2. Improvement of Anadromous Fish Habitat and Passage in Omak Creek, 2008 Annual Report : February 1, 2008 to January 31, 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Dasher, Rhonda; Fisher, Christopher

    2009-06-09

    During the 2008 season, projects completed under BPA project 2000-100-00 included installation of riparian fencing, maintenance of existing riparian fencing, monitoring of at-risk culverts and installation of riparian vegetation along impacted sections of Omak Creek. Redd and snorkel surveys were conducted in Omak Creek to determine steelhead production. Canopy closure surveys were conducted to monitor riparian vegetation recovery after exclusion of cattle since 2000 from a study area commonly known as the Moomaw property. Additional redd and fry surveys were conducted above Mission Falls and in the lower portion of Stapaloop Creek to try and determine whether there has been successful passage at Mission Falls. Monitoring adult steelhead trying to navigate the falls resulted in the discovery of shallow pool depth at an upper pool that is preventing many fish from successfully navigating the entire falls. The Omak Creek Habitat and Passage Project has worked with NRCS to obtain additional funds to implement projects in 2009 that will address passage at Mission Falls, culvert replacement, as well as additional riparian planting. The Omak Creek Technical Advisory Group (TAG) is currently revising the Omak Creek Watershed Assessment. In addition, the group is revising strategy to focus efforts in targeted areas to provide a greater positive impact within the watershed. In 2008 the NRCS Riparian Technical Team was supposed to assess areas within the watershed that have unique problems and require special treatments to successfully resolve the issues involved. The technical team will be scheduled for 2009 to assist the TAG in developing strategies for these special areas.

  3. Turbine blade squealer tip rail with fence members

    DOEpatents

    Little, David A

    2012-11-20

    A turbine blade includes an airfoil, a blade tip section, a squealer tip rail, and a plurality of chordally spaced fence members. The blade tip section includes a blade tip floor located at an end of the airfoil distal from the root. The blade tip floor includes a pressure side and a suction side joined together at chordally spaced apart leading and trailing edges of the airfoil. The squealer tip rail extends radially outwardly from the blade tip floor adjacent to the suction side and extends from a first location adjacent to the airfoil trailing edge to a second location adjacent to the airfoil leading edge. The fence members are located between the airfoil leading and trailing edges and extend radially outwardly from the blade tip floor and axially from the squealer tip rail toward the pressure side.

  4. The fence experiment — a first evaluation of shelter models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Alfredo; Bechmann, Andreas; Conti, Davide; Angelou, Nikolas; Mann, Jakob

    2016-09-01

    We present a preliminary evaluation of shelter models of different degrees of complexity using full-scale lidar measurements of the shelter on a vertical plane behind and orthogonal to a fence. Model results accounting for the distribution of the relative wind direction within the observed direction interval are in better agreement with the observations than those that correspond to the simulation at the center of the direction interval, particularly in the far-wake region, for six vertical levels up to two fence heights. Generally, the CFD results are in better agreement with the observations than those from two engineering-like obstacle models but the latter two follow well the behavior of the observations in the far-wake region.

  5. Optimal handle angle of the fencing foil for improved performance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fang-Tsan

    2004-06-01

    Improperly designed hand tools and sports equipment contribute to undesired injuries and accidents. The idea of bending the tool, not the wrist, has been applied to sports equipment. According to Bennett's idea, the design of an ideal handle angle should be in the range of 14 degrees to 24 degrees. Thus design of the handle angle in the sport of fencing is also important. A well-designed handle angle could not only reduce ulnar deviation to avoid wrist injury but also enhance performance. An experiment with several different handle angles was conducted to analyze the effect on performance. Analysis showed an angle of 18 degrees to 21 degrees provided best overall performance in fencing.

  6. Poor construction, not time, takes its toll on subsidised fences designed to deter large carnivores.

    PubMed

    Frank, Jens; Eklund, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Large carnivore conservation may be considered as successful in Sweden, as wolf (Canis lupus), lynx (Lynx lynx), brown bear (Ursus arctos), golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and wolverine (Gulo gulo) populations have recovered from extinction or near extinction to viable populations during the last three decades. Particularly the wolf and lynx populations have returned at the cost of an increasing number of carnivore attacks on domestic livestock. To support coexistence between carnivores and livestock production, the Swedish authorities subsidise interventions to prevent or reduce the number of carnivore attacks. The most commonly used intervention is carnivore deterring fencing, and all livestock owners can apply for subsidies to build a fence. To receive reimbursement the fence must be approved by the authorities according to predefined criteria. An important part of any management aiming to be adaptive is evaluating interventions. In this paper we evaluate to what extent previously subsidised fences still meet the criteria 1-15 years after their approval. Of 296 fences that had received subsidies in the county of Värmland, 100 randomly selected fences were revisited in 2016. From this subsample 14% of the fences still met the initial criteria for subsidies. None of the fences that still fulfilled the criteria were more than 8 years old, whereas fences with identified failures occurred in all age groups. Of the 86 fences that failed to meet the criteria, construction failures were the most commonly occurring problem. Maintenance failures, wear and tear, only explain a minor part of the failures. To improve the quality of fencing, as well as the quality and longevity of the subsidies programme, there is a need for improved communication between authorities, and improved communication and support from the authorities to livestock producers before and during construction of fences, as well as more rigorous inspection when the fences are built.

  7. Facility fence-line monitoring using passive samplers.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Eben D; Miller, Michael C; Chung, Kuenja C; Parsons, Nicholas L; Shine, Brenda C

    2011-08-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) executed a year-long field study at a refinery in Corpus Christi, TX, to evaluate the use of passive diffusive sampling technology for assessing time-averaged benzene concentrations at the facility fence line. The purpose of the study was to investigate the implementation viability and performance of this type of monitoring in a real-world setting as part of EPA's fence-line measurement research program. The study utilized 14-day, time-integrated Carbopack X samplers deployed at 18 locations on the fence line and at two nearby air monitoring sites equipped with automated gas chromatographs. The average fence-line benzene concentration during the study was 1075 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) with a standard deviation of 1935 pptv. For a 6-month period during which wind direction was uniform, the mean concentration value for a group of downwind sites exceeded the mean value of a similar upwind group by 1710 pptv. Mean value differences for these groups were not statistically significant for the remaining 6-month time period when wind directions were mixed. The passive sampling approach exhibited acceptable performance with a data completeness value of 97.1% (n = 579). Benzene concentration comparisons with automated gas chromatographs yielded an r2 value of 0.86 and a slope of 0.90 (n = 50). A linear regression of duplicate pairs yielded an r2 of 0.97, unity slope, and zero intercept (n = 56). In addition to descriptions of technique performance and general results, time-series analyses are described, providing insight into the utility of 2-week sampling for source apportionment under differing meteorological conditions. The limitations of the approach and recommendations for future measurement method development work are also discussed.

  8. Intrusion Detection With Quantum Mechanics: A Photonic Quantum Fence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    computing and quantum key distribution (QKD). Some of the most remarkable examples include quantum teleportation for the non-local transfer of...1 INTRUSION DETECTION WITH QUANTUM MECHANICS: A PHOTONIC QUANTUM FENCE T. S. Humble*, R. S. Bennink, and W. P. Grice Oak Ridge National...use of quantum -mechanically entangled photons for sensing intrusions across a physical perimeter. Our approach to intrusion detection uses the no

  9. Statistical Approach to the Operational Testing of Space Fence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    size of satellite tracks needed to estimate metric accuracy for individual TEARR parameters, which we calculate via chi - square hypothesis tests on...decisions. Index Terms— Analysis of variance, Operational testing , Least squares methods, Phased array radar, Satellite tracking, SATCAT, Space...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S Statistical Approach to the Operational Testing of Space Fence Daniel L. Pechkis Nelson S

  10. WELCOME CREEK WILDERNESS, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lidke, D.J.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource surveys indicate probable or substantiated mineral-resource potential for small amounts of gold and other metals. Areas of alluvium in Welcome Creek and in part of Rock Creek are classed as having probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential for small quantities of gold in small and scattered placers and in placer tailings. A small area which contains the Cleveland mine, on Cleveland Mountain, near the west border of the wilderness was classed as having probable mineral-resource potential for silver and gold in veins. Although green mudstone strata that often are favorable hosts for stratabound copper occurrences were found in the northeast part of the wilderness, no copper deposits were found and these studies indicate little likelihood for the occurrence of copper resources. The nature of the geologic terrain indicates that there is little likelihood of the occurrence of energy resources.

  11. Environmental geophysics of the Pilot Plant on the west branch of Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Borden, H.; Benson, M.; Wrobel, J.

    1994-05-01

    Plans to demolish and remediate the Pilot Plant complex in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground have served to initiate a series of nonintrusive, environmental-geophysical studies. The studies are assisting in the location and identification of pipes, tanks, trenches, and liquid waste in the subsurface. Multiple databases have been integrated to provide support for detection of underground utilities and to determine the stratigraphy and lithology of the subsurface. The studies were conducted within the double security fence and exterior to the double fence, down gradient toward the west branch of Canal Creek. To determine if contaminants found in the creek were associated with the Pilot Plant, both the east and west banks were included in the study area. Magnetic, conductivity, inductive emf, and ground-penetrating-radar anomalies outline buried pipes, trenches, and various pieces of hardware associated with building activities. Ground-penetrating-radar imagery also defines a paleovalley cut 30 ft into Potomac Group sediments of Cretaceous age. The paleovalley crosses the site between Building E5654 and the Pilot Plant fence. The valley is environmentally significant because it may control the pathways of contaminants. The Pilot Plant complex was used to manufacture CC2 Impregnite and incapacitating agents; it also served as a production facility for nerve agents.

  12. Getting to the point: injury patterns and medical care in competitive fencing.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    Modern competitive fencing, consisting of the three disciplines of foil, epee, and sabre, has experienced a rapid growth in participation across all age groups in the USA in the past decade. Unfortunately, because of media sensationalism and a lack of well-designed epidemiological studies, there are significant misconceptions regarding both the incidence and types of injuries presented in fencing. Recent research has indicated that the rate of time-loss injuries in competitive fencing is very low and the majority of these injuries are lower extremity sprains and strains, typical of ballistic, change-of-direction sports. However, most medical assistance in fencing is for minor (nontime-loss) soft tissue injuries (blisters, contusions, abrasions). Although extremely rare, significant fencing-specific injuries, such as lacerations and punctures, occur. Medical personnel dealing with fencing competitions need to be aware of the potential for catastrophic or fatal wounds.

  13. Wind Tunnel Analysis And Flight Test of A Wing Fence On A T-38

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-26

    WIND TUNNEL ANALYSIS AND FLIGHT TEST OF A WING FENCE ON A T-38 THESIS Michael D...GAE/ENY/09-M20 WIND TUNNEL ANALYSIS AND FLIGHT TEST OF A WING FENCE ON A T-38 THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of...study and flight tests were performed to examine the effects of a wing fence on the T-38A. Wind tunnel results were based upon force and moment

  14. Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest & Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed.

    Treesearch

    Valerie. Rapp

    2003-01-01

    Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest and Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed are located in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. Research focuses on basic ecological processes, hydrology, disturbance regimes, and climate change in the boreal forest region. Interior Alaska lies between the Alaska Range to the south and the Brooks Range to the north and covers an area...

  15. 75 FR 27332 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Eagle Creek Land...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources... Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC.... For the transferee: Mr. Paul Ho, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC,...

  16. Water-Quality Characteristics of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; O'Ney, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    To address water-resource management objectives of the National Park Service in Grand Teton National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service has conducted water-quality sampling on streams in the Snake River headwaters area. A synoptic study of streams in the western part of the headwaters area was conducted during 2006. Sampling sites were located on Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Sampling events in June, July, August, and October were selected to characterize different hydrologic conditions and different recreational-use periods. Stream samples were collected and analyzed for field measurements, major-ion chemistry, nutrients, selected trace elements, pesticides, and suspended sediment. Water types of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek were calcium bicarbonate. Dissolved-solids concentrations were dilute in Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 11 to 31 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 55 to 130 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Lake Creek and Granite Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and Paleozoic-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Nutrient concentrations generally were small in samples collected from Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Dissolved-nitrate concentrations were the largest in Taggart Creek. The Taggart Creek drainage basin has the largest percentage of barren land cover of the basins, and subsurface waters of talus slopes may contribute to dissolved-nitrate concentrations in Taggart Creek. Pesticide concentrations, trace-element concentrations, and suspended-sediment concentrations generally were less than laboratory reporting levels or were small for all samples. Water

  17. Restore McComas Meadows; Meadow Creek Watershed, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed are coordinated and cost shared with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, planting trees in riparian areas within the meadow and its tributaries, prioritizing culverts for replacement to accommodate fish passage, and decommissioning roads to reduce sediment input. During this contract period work was completed on two culvert replacement projects; Doe Creek and a tributary to Meadow Creek. Additionally construction was also completed for the ditch restoration project within McComas Meadows. Monitoring for project effectiveness and trends in watershed conditions was also completed. Road decommissioning monitoring, as well as stream temperature, sediment, and discharge were completed.

  18. Restore McComas Meadows; Meadow Creek Watershed, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2005-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed are coordinated and cost shared with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, planting trees in riparian areas within the meadow and its tributaries, prioritizing culverts for replacement to accommodate fish passage, and decommissioning roads to reduce sediment input. During this contract period, bids were solicited and awarded for two culvert replacement projects on Doe Creek, and a tributary to Meadow Creek. Additionally, NEPA and permits were completed for the ditch restoration project within McComas Meadows. Due to delays in cultural resource surveys, the contract was not awarded for the performance of the ditch restoration. It will occur in 2005. Monitoring for project effectiveness and trends in watershed conditions was also completed. Road decommissioning monitoring, as well as stream temperature, sediment, and discharge were completed.

  19. The Beaver Creek story

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, W.H.; Whitworth, B.G.; Smith, G.F.; Byl, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    Beaver Creek watershed in West Tennessee includes about 95,000 acres of the Nation's most productive farmland and most highly erodible soils. In 1989 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Agriculture, began a study to evaluate the effect of agricultural activities on water quality in the watershed and for best management practices designed to reduce agricultural nonpoint-source pollution. Agrichemical monitoring included testing the soils, ground water, and streams at four farm sites ranging from 27 to 420 acres. Monitoring stations were operated downstream to gain a better understanding of the water chemistry as runoff moved from small ditches into larger streams to the outlet of the Beaver Creek watershed. Prior to the implementation of best management practices at one of the farm study sites, some storms produced an average suspended-sediment concentration of 70,000 milligrams per liter. After the implementation of BMP's, however, the average value never exceeded 7,000 milligrams per liter. No-till crop production was the most effective best management practice for conserving soil on the farm fields tested. A natural bottomland hardwood wetland and a constructed wetland were evaluated as instream resource-management systems. The wetlands improved water quality downstream by acting as a filter and removing a significant amount of nonpoint-source pollution from the agricultural runoff. The constructed wetland reduced the sediment, pesticide, and nutrient load by approximately 50 percent over a 4-month period. The results of the Beaver Creek watershed study have increased the understanding of the effects of agriculture on water resources. Study results also demonstrated that BMP's do protect and improve water quality.

  20. Line Creek improves efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Harder, P.

    1988-04-01

    Boosting coal recovery rate by 8% and reducing fuel expense $18,000 annually by replacing two tractors, are two tangible benefits that Crows Nest Resources of British Columbia has achieved since overseas coal markets weakened in 1985. Though coal production at the 4-million tpy Line Creek open pit mine has been cut 25% from its 1984 level, morale among the pit crew remains high. More efficient pit equipment, innovative use of existing equipment, and encouragement of multiple skill development among workers - so people can be assigned to different jobs in the operation as situations demand - contribute to a successful operation.

  1. Hydrology of Pine Creek, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gebert, Warren A.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hydrologic characteristics of Pine Creek, Price County, Wisconsin, in order to evaluate a proposed reservoir on Pine Creek. The streamflow characteristics estimated are the mean flows, low flows, and flood peaks. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  2. Deception Creek Experimental Forest (Idaho)

    Treesearch

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain

    2004-01-01

    Deception Creek Experimental Forest is located in one of the most productive forests of the Rocky Mountains. When the forest was established in 1933, large, old western white pines were important for producing lumber products, matches, and toothpicks. Deception Creek is located in the heart of the western white pine forest type, allowing researchers to focus on the...

  3. Effect of uncertainty during the lunge in fencing.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Dávila, Marcos; Zingsem, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Cruz, Carmen; Giles, F Javier; Rojas, F Javier

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect that uncertainty, in relation to the probability of error, exerts on the reaction response and speed during the lunge in fencing. The participants were 18 regional-level fencers with over five years' experience. Force platforms under the feet recorded the horizontal components of the reaction forces, from which the kinematic parameters of the center of mass were calculated. An electronic system to present stimuli, controlled by a programmable clock, projected a target onto a screen that represented a plastron. In situations without uncertainty, the fencers had to lunge as swiftly as possible when a circle (the target) appeared in the center of the plastron, trying to touch the center of the circle with the tip of the sword. In situations with uncertainty, the fencers had the same target as in the previous situation but they received the information that they had to change the lunge into a defensive move if the target disappeared from the plastron during the action. The results indicate that the reaction time and the movement time increased with uncertainty. Although there were no differences for the horizontal velocity of the center of mass at the end of the acceleration phase, the mean horizontal velocity of the lunge was reduced by the effect of the uncertainty. Prior knowledge of the opponent´s possible action implies a reduction in uncertainty, reducing movement time as well as meaning faster execution, thereby increasing the success of the lunge in fencing. Key PointsReaction time (RT) and the movement time (MT) increase when doubts arise about being able to reach the target as planned during the lunge.The horizontal velocity of the lunge decreases by the effect of uncertainty due to the possibility that the events might not occur as planned.These results highlight the importance that tactical intent has in fencing for successfully predicting the defensive movements of the opponent during the attack.

  4. Effect of Uncertainty During the Lunge in Fencing

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Dávila, Marcos; Zingsem, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Cruz, Carmen; Giles, F. Javier; Rojas, F. Javier

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect that uncertainty, in relation to the probability of error, exerts on the reaction response and speed during the lunge in fencing. The participants were 18 regional-level fencers with over five years’ experience. Force platforms under the feet recorded the horizontal components of the reaction forces, from which the kinematic parameters of the center of mass were calculated. An electronic system to present stimuli, controlled by a programmable clock, projected a target onto a screen that represented a plastron. In situations without uncertainty, the fencers had to lunge as swiftly as possible when a circle (the target) appeared in the center of the plastron, trying to touch the center of the circle with the tip of the sword. In situations with uncertainty, the fencers had the same target as in the previous situation but they received the information that they had to change the lunge into a defensive move if the target disappeared from the plastron during the action. The results indicate that the reaction time and the movement time increased with uncertainty. Although there were no differences for the horizontal velocity of the center of mass at the end of the acceleration phase, the mean horizontal velocity of the lunge was reduced by the effect of the uncertainty. Prior knowledge of the opponent´s possible action implies a reduction in uncertainty, reducing movement time as well as meaning faster execution, thereby increasing the success of the lunge in fencing. Key Points Reaction time (RT) and the movement time (MT) increase when doubts arise about being able to reach the target as planned during the lunge. The horizontal velocity of the lunge decreases by the effect of uncertainty due to the possibility that the events might not occur as planned. These results highlight the importance that tactical intent has in fencing for successfully predicting the defensive movements of the opponent during the attack. PMID

  5. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  6. [Nutritional supplementation in children and adolescents practicing fencing].

    PubMed

    Chalcarz, Wojciech; Radzimirska-Graczyk, Monika

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of nutritional supplementation during the days of training and the days free of training in children and adolescents who attend sports schools, Questionnaires on the use of nutritional supplementation were filled in by 141 children and adolescents who practice fencing. The factor gender-age had statistically significant impact only on using mineral supplementation by the studied students. Using ergogenic aids as well as using vitamin and mineral supplements or other kind of supplementation was rare in the studied population, but was more frequent during the days of training. Nutritional supplementation was always used by higher percentage of boys than girls.

  7. Note: Vibration energy harvesting based on a round acoustic fence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiao-bin; Huang, Cheng-ping; Hu, Jun-hui

    2015-07-01

    An energy harvester based on a round acoustic fence (RAF) has been proposed and studied. The RAF is composed of cylindrical stubs stuck in a circular array on a thin metal plate, which can confine the acoustic energy efficiently. By removing one stub and thus opening a small gap in the RAF, acoustic leakage with larger intensity can be produced at the gap opening. With the vibration source surrounded by the RAF, the energy harvesting at the gap opening has a wide bandwidth and is insensitive to the position of the vibration source. The results may have potential applications in harvesting the energy of various vibration sources in solid structure.

  8. Low-Speed Investigations of ’Apex Fence’ and ’Cavity Flap’ Concepts on a 60 Degree Delta Configuration.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    with and without fences. Fig. 15. Spanwise distributions of upper-surface pressure coefficient with and without gothic fences at 5 deg. angle of...effect of fence angle. V % . . . . V" % Fig. 2U. Pitching moment and lift characteristics of gothic fences. Fig. 21. Pitching moment and lift...double- gothic fences. Fig. 24. Pitching moment and lift characteristics as a function of inboard shift of the fence hinge line. Fig. 25. Pitching

  9. 75 FR 5631 - Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... COMMISSION Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Environmental Assessment... Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation (WCNOC, the licensee), for operation of the Wolf Creek... Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Wolf Creek Generating Station--Final Report (NUREG-1437...

  10. Higher Stakes--The Hidden Risks of School Security Fences for Children's Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooney, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    In a move away from the open or low-fenced grounds that have traditionally been a feature of Australian school design, the last decade has seen a growth in the installation of high-security fences around schools. These structures, far from being passive and neutral, act to redefine the possibilities for movement and connectivity in the local…

  11. 25 CFR 171.410 - Can I install a fence on a BIA irrigation project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Can I install a fence on a BIA irrigation project? 171.410 Section 171.410 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.410 Can I install a fence on a BIA irrigation project...

  12. Higher Stakes--The Hidden Risks of School Security Fences for Children's Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooney, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    In a move away from the open or low-fenced grounds that have traditionally been a feature of Australian school design, the last decade has seen a growth in the installation of high-security fences around schools. These structures, far from being passive and neutral, act to redefine the possibilities for movement and connectivity in the local…

  13. Cross-fencing on private US rangelands: Financial costs and producer risks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Addition of cross-fencing to a ranch can increase flexibility in management, facilitate intensification of grazing management and achieve more uniform livestock distribution. Initial costs of installation and longer-term costs associated with maintenance of this fence, however, may influence profita...

  14. South Fence Road -- Phase 1 field operations summary

    SciTech Connect

    McCord, J.P.; Neel, D.

    1996-03-01

    The South Fence Road (SFR) project is part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization (SWHC) task. The SWHC task has as its objective the reduction of uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow in the SNL/NM/Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) area. The SFR project area is located along the southern boundary of SNL/KAFB. This project area was selected to provide site-specific information related to geology and groundwater hydrology within the Hubbell Spring/Tijeras/Sandia fault complex. Specific objectives included determining the depth to the Santa Fe Group/bedrock contact, the depth to the water table, and the hydrogeologic complexities related to faulting. This report is a basic data report from the first phase of field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-1D and SFR-1S, SFR-2, SFR-3D and SFR-3S, and SFR-4. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

  15. Fenced and Fragmented: Conservation Value of Managed Metapopulations.

    PubMed

    Miller, Susan M; Harper, Cindy K; Bloomer, Paulette; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; Funston, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Population fragmentation is threatening biodiversity worldwide. Species that once roamed vast areas are increasingly being conserved in small, isolated areas. Modern management approaches must adapt to ensure the continued survival and conservation value of these populations. In South Africa, a managed metapopulation approach has been adopted for several large carnivore species, all protected in isolated, relatively small, reserves that are fenced. As far as possible these approaches are based on natural metapopulation structures. In this network, over the past 25 years, African lions (Panthera leo) were reintroduced into 44 fenced reserves with little attention given to maintaining genetic diversity. To examine the situation, we investigated the current genetic provenance and diversity of these lions. We found that overall genetic diversity was similar to that in a large national park, and included a mixture of four different southern African evolutionarily significant units (ESUs). This mixing of ESUs, while not ideal, provides a unique opportunity to study the impact of mixing ESUs over the long term. We propose a strategic managed metapopulation plan to ensure the maintenance of genetic diversity and improve the long-term conservation value of these lions. This managed metapopulation approach could be applied to other species under similar ecological constraints around the globe.

  16. Lemming winter habitat choice: a snow-fencing experiment.

    PubMed

    Reid, Donald G; Bilodeau, Frédéric; Krebs, Charles J; Gauthier, Gilles; Kenney, Alice J; Gilbert, B Scott; Leung, Maria C-Y; Duchesne, David; Hofer, Elizabeth

    2012-04-01

    The insulative value of early and deep winter snow is thought to enhance winter reproduction and survival by arctic lemmings (Lemmus and Dicrostonyx spp). This leads to the general hypothesis that landscapes with persistently low lemming population densities, or low amplitude population fluctuations, have a low proportion of the land base with deep snow. We experimentally tested a component of this hypothesis, that snow depth influences habitat choice, at three Canadian Arctic sites: Bylot Island, Nunavut; Herschel Island, Yukon; Komakuk Beach, Yukon. We used snow fencing to enhance snow depth on 9-ha tundra habitats, and measured the intensity of winter use of these and control areas by counting rodent winter nests in spring. At all three sites, the density of winter nests increased in treated areas compared to control areas after the treatment, and remained higher on treated areas during the treatment. The treatment was relaxed at one site, and winter nest density returned to pre-treatment levels. The rodents' proportional use of treated areas compared to adjacent control areas increased and remained higher during the treatment. At two of three sites, lemmings and voles showed significant attraction to the areas of deepest snow accumulation closest to the fences. The strength of the treatment effect appeared to depend on how quickly the ground level temperature regime became stable in autumn, coincident with snow depths near the hiemal threshold. Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that snow depth is a primary determinant of winter habitat choice by tundra lemmings and voles.

  17. Kinematical and EMG-classifications of a fencing attack.

    PubMed

    Frère, J; Göpfert, B; Nüesch, C; Huber, C; Fischer, M; Wirz, D; Friederich, N F

    2011-01-01

    8 expert fencers were studied with a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Each subject performed 10 flèche attacks toward a standardized target. Surface electromyography signals (EMG) were recorded of the deltoid pars clavicularis, infraspinatus and triceps brachii caput laterale muscles of the weapon arm. The recorded EMGs were averaged using EMG wavelet-transformation software. 4 phases were defined based on the arm kinematics and used to classify fencers into 2 groups. A first group of 4 fencers showed an early maximal elbow extension (Early MEE) whereas the second group presented a late maximal elbow extension (Late MEE). 2 EMG-classifications were based on this kinematical classification, one in the time-domain and the other in the frequency-domain by using the spherical classification. The time-domain EMG-classification showed a significantly ( P=0.03) higher normalized deltoid intensity for the Early MEE group (91 ± 18%) than the Late MEE group (36 ± 13%) in the attack phase. The spherical classification revealed that the activity of all the muscles was significantly classified (recognition rate 75%, P=0.04) between the 2 groups. This study of EMG and kinematics of the weapon upper limb in fencing proposes several classifications, which implies a relationship between kinematic strategies, muscular activations and fencing success.

  18. Fenced and Fragmented: Conservation Value of Managed Metapopulations

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Susan M.; Harper, Cindy K.; Bloomer, Paulette; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; Funston, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Population fragmentation is threatening biodiversity worldwide. Species that once roamed vast areas are increasingly being conserved in small, isolated areas. Modern management approaches must adapt to ensure the continued survival and conservation value of these populations. In South Africa, a managed metapopulation approach has been adopted for several large carnivore species, all protected in isolated, relatively small, reserves that are fenced. As far as possible these approaches are based on natural metapopulation structures. In this network, over the past 25 years, African lions (Panthera leo) were reintroduced into 44 fenced reserves with little attention given to maintaining genetic diversity. To examine the situation, we investigated the current genetic provenance and diversity of these lions. We found that overall genetic diversity was similar to that in a large national park, and included a mixture of four different southern African evolutionarily significant units (ESUs). This mixing of ESUs, while not ideal, provides a unique opportunity to study the impact of mixing ESUs over the long term. We propose a strategic managed metapopulation plan to ensure the maintenance of genetic diversity and improve the long-term conservation value of these lions. This managed metapopulation approach could be applied to other species under similar ecological constraints around the globe. PMID:26699333

  19. Fencing data transfers in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Mamidala, Amith R.

    2015-08-11

    Fencing data transfers in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer, the PAMI including data communications endpoints, each endpoint comprising a specification of data communications parameters for a thread of execution on a compute node, including specifications of a client, a context, and a task, the compute nodes coupled for data communications through the PAMI and through data communications resources including a deterministic data communications network, including initiating execution through the PAMI of an ordered sequence of active SEND instructions for SEND data transfers between two endpoints, effecting deterministic SEND data transfers; and executing through the PAMI, with no FENCE accounting for SEND data transfers, an active FENCE instruction, the FENCE instruction completing execution only after completion of all SEND instructions initiated prior to execution of the FENCE instruction for SEND data transfers between the two endpoints.

  20. Fencing direct memory access data transfers in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Mamidala, Amith R.

    2013-09-03

    Fencing direct memory access (`DMA`) data transfers in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer, the PAMI including data communications endpoints, each endpoint including specifications of a client, a context, and a task, the endpoints coupled for data communications through the PAMI and through DMA controllers operatively coupled to segments of shared random access memory through which the DMA controllers deliver data communications deterministically, including initiating execution through the PAMI of an ordered sequence of active DMA instructions for DMA data transfers between two endpoints, effecting deterministic DMA data transfers through a DMA controller and a segment of shared memory; and executing through the PAMI, with no FENCE accounting for DMA data transfers, an active FENCE instruction, the FENCE instruction completing execution only after completion of all DMA instructions initiated prior to execution of the FENCE instruction for DMA data transfers between the two endpoints.

  1. Fencing direct memory access data transfers in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A; Mamidala, Amith R

    2014-02-11

    Fencing direct memory access (`DMA`) data transfers in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer, the PAMI including data communications endpoints, each endpoint including specifications of a client, a context, and a task, the endpoints coupled for data communications through the PAMI and through DMA controllers operatively coupled to segments of shared random access memory through which the DMA controllers deliver data communications deterministically, including initiating execution through the PAMI of an ordered sequence of active DMA instructions for DMA data transfers between two endpoints, effecting deterministic DMA data transfers through a DMA controller and a segment of shared memory; and executing through the PAMI, with no FENCE accounting for DMA data transfers, an active FENCE instruction, the FENCE instruction completing execution only after completion of all DMA instructions initiated prior to execution of the FENCE instruction for DMA data transfers between the two endpoints.

  2. Fencing data transfers in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Mamidala, Amith R.

    2015-06-02

    Fencing data transfers in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer, the PAMI including data communications endpoints, each endpoint including a specification of data communications parameters for a thread of execution on a compute node, including specifications of a client, a context, and a task; the compute nodes coupled for data communications through the PAMI and through data communications resources including at least one segment of shared random access memory; including initiating execution through the PAMI of an ordered sequence of active SEND instructions for SEND data transfers between two endpoints, effecting deterministic SEND data transfers through a segment of shared memory; and executing through the PAMI, with no FENCE accounting for SEND data transfers, an active FENCE instruction, the FENCE instruction completing execution only after completion of all SEND instructions initiated prior to execution of the FENCE instruction for SEND data transfers between the two endpoints.

  3. Fencing data transfers in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Mamidala, Amith R.

    2015-06-09

    Fencing data transfers in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer, the PAMI including data communications endpoints, each endpoint including a specification of data communications parameters for a thread of execution on a compute node, including specifications of a client, a context, and a task; the compute nodes coupled for data communications through the PAMI and through data communications resources including at least one segment of shared random access memory; including initiating execution through the PAMI of an ordered sequence of active SEND instructions for SEND data transfers between two endpoints, effecting deterministic SEND data transfers through a segment of shared memory; and executing through the PAMI, with no FENCE accounting for SEND data transfers, an active FENCE instruction, the FENCE instruction completing execution only after completion of all SEND instructions initiated prior to execution of the FENCE instruction for SEND data transfers between the two endpoints.

  4. Fencing data transfers in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Mamidala, Amith R.

    2015-06-30

    Fencing data transfers in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer, the PAMI including data communications endpoints, each endpoint comprising a specification of data communications parameters for a thread of execution on a compute node, including specifications of a client, a context, and a task, the compute nodes coupled for data communications through the PAMI and through data communications resources including a deterministic data communications network, including initiating execution through the PAMI of an ordered sequence of active SEND instructions for SEND data transfers between two endpoints, effecting deterministic SEND data transfers; and executing through the PAMI, with no FENCE accounting for SEND data transfers, an active FENCE instruction, the FENCE instruction completing execution only after completion of all SEND instructions initiated prior to execution of the FENCE instruction for SEND data transfers between the two endpoints.

  5. Fencing direct memory access data transfers in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Mamidala, Amith R.

    2013-09-03

    Fencing direct memory access (`DMA`) data transfers in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer, the PAMI including data communications endpoints, each endpoint including specifications of a client, a context, and a task, the endpoints coupled for data communications through the PAMI and through DMA controllers operatively coupled to segments of shared random access memory through which the DMA controllers deliver data communications deterministically, including initiating execution through the PAMI of an ordered sequence of active DMA instructions for DMA data transfers between two endpoints, effecting deterministic DMA data transfers through a DMA controller and a segment of shared memory; and executing through the PAMI, with no FENCE accounting for DMA data transfers, an active FENCE instruction, the FENCE instruction completing execution only after completion of all DMA instructions initiated prior to execution of the FENCE instruction for DMA data transfers between the two endpoints.

  6. An exploratory study of apex fence flaps on a 74 deg delta wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahls, R. A.; Vess, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    An exploratory wind tunnel investigation was performed to observe the flow field effects produced by vertically deployed apex fences on a planar 74 degree delta wing. The delta shaped fences, each comprising approximately 3.375 percent of the wing area, were affixed along the first 25 percent of the wing leading edge in symmetric as well as asymmetric (i.e., fence on one side only) arrangements. The vortex flow field was visualized at angles of attack from 0 to 20 degrees using helium bubble and oil flow techniques; upper surface pressures were also measured along spanwise rows. The results were used to construct a preliminary description of the vortex patterns and induced pressures associated with vertical apex fence deployment. The objective was to obtain an initial evaluation of the potential of apex fences as vortex devices for subsonic lift modulation as well as lateral directional control of delta wing aircraft.

  7. Coyote Creek Trash Reduction Project: Clean Creeks, Healthy Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Coyote Creek Trash Reduction Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  8. PINEY CREEK WILDERNESS, MISSOURI.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Walden P.; Ellis, Clarence

    1984-01-01

    The Piney Creek Wilderness in southwest Missouri was investigated by geologic, geochemical, and mineral-occurrence surveys. These is no evidence of metallic mineral deposits in the rock units exposed at the surface in the wilderness, but the entire area has a probable potential for significant zinc-lead deposits at depths of several hundred feet. A probable potential also exists for a small to moderate-sized iron ore deposit at a depth of at least 2100 ft along the northwest side of the wilderness. Evaluation of these potentials would require deep drilling, and in the case of the possible iron ore deposit, a detailed magnetic survey. No energy resource potential was identified within this area.

  9. GEE CREEK WILDERNESS, TENNESSEE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Epstein, Jack B.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mine and prospect surveys, it was determined that the Gee Creek Wilderness, Tennessee has little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. Iron ore was formerly mined, but the deposits are small, have a high phosphorous content, and are inaccessible. Shale, suitable for brick or lightweight aggregate, and sandstone, which could be utilized for crushed stone or sand, are found in the area, but are also found in areas closer to potential markets. The geologic setting precludes the presence of oil and gas resources in the surface rocks, but the possibility of finding natural gas at depth below the rocks exposed in the area cannot be discounted. Geophysical exploration would be necessary to define the local structure in rocks at depth to properly evaluate the potential of the area for gas.

  10. Water, Rivers and Creeks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac, Robert D.

    Luna B. Leopold's intent in Water, Rivers and Creeks was to provide a nontechnical primer on hydrology and water resources, and he succeeded admirably. The terse style is reminiscent of the mystery writer Mickey Spillane, though the content is complex science expounded in simple terms. “Part I, Hydrology and Morphology,” makes up the first two thirds of the book, and in this section, Leopold develops hydrologic and geomorphic concepts and principles using analogies with items common to any household. Garden hoses, dishpans, bath tubs, and sieves provide illuminating examples of the effects of channel storage on stream flow, water tables and the movement of groundwater, sustainable yield and the storage equation, and the infiltration/percolation process.

  11. Does small-perimeter fencing inhibit mule deer or pronghorn use of water developments?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, R.T.; Bissonette, J.A.; Flinders, J.T.; Robinson, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Wildlife water development can be an important habitat management strategy in western North America for many species, including both pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). In many areas, water developments are fenced (often with small-perimeter fencing) to exclude domestic livestock and feral horses. Small-perimeter exclosures could limit wild ungulate use of fenced water sources, as exclosures present a barrier pronghorn and mule deer must negotiate to gain access to fenced drinking water. To evaluate the hypothesis that exclosures limit wild ungulate access to water sources, we compared use (photo counts) of fenced versus unfenced water sources for both pronghorn and mule deer between June and October 2002-2008 in western Utah. We used model selection to identify an adequate distribution and best approximating model. We selected a zero-inflated negative binomial distribution for both pronghorn and mule deer photo counts. Both pronghorn and mule deer photo counts were positively associated with sampling time and average daily maximum temperature in top models. A fence effect was present in top models for both pronghorn and mule deer, but mule deer response to small-perimeter fencing was much more pronounced than pronghorn response. For mule deer, we estimated that presence of a fence around water developments reduced photo counts by a factor of 0.25. We suggest eliminating fencing of water developments whenever possible or fencing a big enough area around water sources to avoid inhibiting mule deer. More generally, our results provide additional evidence that water development design and placement influence wildlife use. Failure to account for species-specific preferences will limit effectiveness of management actions and could compromise research results. Copyright ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  12. Farmers, Ranchers, and the Railroad: The Evolution of Fence Law in the Great Plains, 1865-1900

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawashima, Yasuhide

    2010-01-01

    This article is divided into three parts. The first examines specific fencing policies in Kansas, Nebraska, and other Plains states, highlighting the transformation from the "fence-out" to "fence-in" (herd laws) policies. The second part discusses the coming of the railroads to the Great Plains and the farmers and the ranchers…

  13. Farmers, Ranchers, and the Railroad: The Evolution of Fence Law in the Great Plains, 1865-1900

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawashima, Yasuhide

    2010-01-01

    This article is divided into three parts. The first examines specific fencing policies in Kansas, Nebraska, and other Plains states, highlighting the transformation from the "fence-out" to "fence-in" (herd laws) policies. The second part discusses the coming of the railroads to the Great Plains and the farmers and the ranchers…

  14. Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  15. 1. DEADWOOD CREEK BRIDGE FACING SOUTHWEST. MOUNT RAINIER AND EMMONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DEADWOOD CREEK BRIDGE FACING SOUTHWEST. MOUNT RAINIER AND EMMONS GLACIER VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Deadwood Creek Bridge, Spanning Deadwood Creek on Mather Memorial Parkway, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  16. Alameda Creeks Healthy Watersheds Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Alameda Creeks Healthy Watersheds Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resour

  17. 77 FR 13592 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources... Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC (transferees) filed an...) 805-1469. Transferees: Mr. Bernard H. Cherry, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek...

  18. SERVICE CREEK ROADLESS AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Paul W.; Kluender, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Service Creek Roadless Area, near Steamboat Springs, Colorado, was studied. Geologic mapping and geochemical sampling did not identify any mineral-resource potential in the area. No mining activity has been recorded for the area. An east-west topographic linear feature just south of Silver Creek, which contains clusters of single and multi-element anomalies of certain rare-earth and metallic minerals deserves further study.

  19. Fencing bodes a rapid collapse of the unique Greater Mara ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Løvschal, Mette; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Pilgaard, Jeppe; Amoke, Irene; Odingo, Alice; Thuo, Aggrey; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-01-01

    With land privatization and fencing of thousands of hectares of communal grazing areas, East Africa is struggling with one of the most radical cultural and environmental changes in its history. The 668,500-hectare Greater Mara is of crucial importance for the great migrations of large mammals and for Maasai pastoralist culture. However, the magnitude and pace of these fencing processes in this area are almost completely unknown. We provide new evidence that fencing is appropriating land in this area at an unprecedented and accelerating speed and scale. By means of a mapped series of multispectral satellite imagery (1985–2016), we found that in the conservancies with the most fences, areal cover of fenced areas has increased with >20% since 2010. This has resulted in a situation where fencing is rapidly increasing across the Greater Mara, threatening to lead to the collapse of the entire ecosystem in the near future. Our results suggest that fencing is currently instantiating itself as a new permanent self-reinforcing process and is about to reach a critical point after which it is likely to amplify at an even quicker pace, incompatible with the region’s role in the great wildebeest migration, wildlife generally, as well as traditional Maasai pastoralism. PMID:28120950

  20. Fencing bodes a rapid collapse of the unique Greater Mara ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Løvschal, Mette; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Pilgaard, Jeppe; Amoke, Irene; Odingo, Alice; Thuo, Aggrey; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-01-01

    With land privatization and fencing of thousands of hectares of communal grazing areas, East Africa is struggling with one of the most radical cultural and environmental changes in its history. The 668,500-hectare Greater Mara is of crucial importance for the great migrations of large mammals and for Maasai pastoralist culture. However, the magnitude and pace of these fencing processes in this area are almost completely unknown. We provide new evidence that fencing is appropriating land in this area at an unprecedented and accelerating speed and scale. By means of a mapped series of multispectral satellite imagery (1985-2016), we found that in the conservancies with the most fences, areal cover of fenced areas has increased with >20% since 2010. This has resulted in a situation where fencing is rapidly increasing across the Greater Mara, threatening to lead to the collapse of the entire ecosystem in the near future. Our results suggest that fencing is currently instantiating itself as a new permanent self-reinforcing process and is about to reach a critical point after which it is likely to amplify at an even quicker pace, incompatible with the region’s role in the great wildebeest migration, wildlife generally, as well as traditional Maasai pastoralism.

  1. A lattice Boltzmann-Saltation model and its simulation of aeolian saltation at porous fences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiao Fei; Xi, Ping; Wu, Jian Jun

    2015-04-01

    This paper introduces a 2D lattice Boltzmann-Saltation (LBM-Saltation) model for numerical simulation of velocity profiles of windblown sand particles. The model is based on the LBM equations for transient, incompressible viscous flow. We first introduced a lattice Boltzmann subgrid model, which was used to predict the turbulent wind field. Two-way coupling was then used to describe the interaction between wind and the saltating sand particles. The correctness of the model was verified by comparing the simulated results of several important variables of wind-sand flow with that of experiment over a flat bed surface. To show the feasibility of this model with complex boundary conditions, we used it to simulate the wind-sand flow at porous wind fences and mainly discussed the particle velocity profiles. Single porous wind fence case was computed first and compared with the measurement. Two tandem porous wind fences cases were simulated next. Different distance and porosity of the fences were considered to quantitatively investigate the variation of the shelter effect. The simulated results achieved additional conclusions: The wind speed and the velocity of sand particles are obviously weakened because of the fence; reduction of the particle velocity by porous fence varies with the fence distance and porosity; the larger the distance or the porosity (significantly larger than the 0.3), the worse the shelter effect, and the weaker the reduction of particle velocity.

  2. Fencing bodes a rapid collapse of the unique Greater Mara ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Løvschal, Mette; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Pilgaard, Jeppe; Amoke, Irene; Odingo, Alice; Thuo, Aggrey; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-01-25

    With land privatization and fencing of thousands of hectares of communal grazing areas, East Africa is struggling with one of the most radical cultural and environmental changes in its history. The 668,500-hectare Greater Mara is of crucial importance for the great migrations of large mammals and for Maasai pastoralist culture. However, the magnitude and pace of these fencing processes in this area are almost completely unknown. We provide new evidence that fencing is appropriating land in this area at an unprecedented and accelerating speed and scale. By means of a mapped series of multispectral satellite imagery (1985-2016), we found that in the conservancies with the most fences, areal cover of fenced areas has increased with >20% since 2010. This has resulted in a situation where fencing is rapidly increasing across the Greater Mara, threatening to lead to the collapse of the entire ecosystem in the near future. Our results suggest that fencing is currently instantiating itself as a new permanent self-reinforcing process and is about to reach a critical point after which it is likely to amplify at an even quicker pace, incompatible with the region's role in the great wildebeest migration, wildlife generally, as well as traditional Maasai pastoralism.

  3. High speed video analysis of rockfall fence system evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.A.; Lucero, J.P.

    1998-07-01

    Rockfall fence systems are used to protect motorists from rocks, dislodged from slopes near roadways, which would potentially roll onto the road at high speeds carrying significant energy. There is an unfortunate list of such rocks on unprotected roads that have caused fatalities and other damage. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) personnel from the Engineering Science and Applications Division, Measurement Technology Group (ESA-MT), participated in a series of rockfall fence system tests at a test range in Rifle, Colorado during March 1998. The tests were for the evaluation and certification of four rockfall fence system designs of Chama Valley Manufacturing (CVM), a Small Business, located in Chama, New Mexico. Also participating in the tests were the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) who provided the test range and some heavy equipment support and High Tech Construction who installed the fence systems. LANL provided two high speed video systems and operators to record each individual rockfall on each fence system. From the recordings LANL then measured the linear and rotational velocities at impact for each rockfall. Using the LANL velocity results, CVM then could calculate the impact energy of each rockfall and therefore certify each design up to the maximum energy that each fence system could absorb without failure. LANL participated as an independent, impartial velocity measurement entity only and did not contribute to the fence systems design or installation. CVM has published a more detailed final report covering all aspects of the project.

  4. Numerical simulation of the mitigating effects of an LNG vapor fence

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S.T.

    1990-05-01

    FEM3A, a fully three-dimensional numerical model for simulating the atmospheric dispersion of heavy gases involving complex geometry, has been used to investigate the mitigating effects of a vapor fence for LNG storage areas. In this paper, a brief description of the numerical model used to perform such calculations is given, the problem being simulated is described, and an intercomparison among the results from numerical simulations (with and without the vapor fence) and field data (with vapor fence) is made. The numerical results indicate that, with the present fence configuration, the maximum concentration on the cloud centerline was reduced by a factor of two or more within 250 m behind the fence, and the downwind distance to the 2.5% concentration was reduced from 365 m to 230 m. However, a vapor fence could also cause the vapor cloud to linger considerably longer in the source area, thus increasing the potential for ignition and combustion within the vapor fence and the area nearby over time. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Eliminating the picket fence effect of the fast Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan Feng; Chen, Kui Fu

    2008-04-01

    The canonical fast Fourier transform (FFT) is afflicted by the picket fence effect (PFE). This can be ascribed to the simplification caused by viewing non-parametrically. For a periodic signal composed of frequency well-separated tones, a complex formula for retrieving a tone's frequency can be derived in light of the parametric relationship among the FFT spectral lines around each tone's main-lobe. Compared to the modulus-based interpolated FFT, this complex spectrum-based approach is less sensitive to spectral leakage. The frequency, amplitude and phase retrieving formulas are presented for the generalized Hamming window, which is used frequently in physics but seldom mentioned in the interpolated FFT literature. Numerical simulation shows that the FPE can be eliminated efficiently by this approach.

  6. Coal exploration - Fence Lake Project, Catron County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, M.A.; Patton, J.C.; Thompson, R.T.

    1984-01-01

    The Fence Lake Project is located in the Salt Lake coal field, an extension of the San Juan Basin. Geologic formations exposed in the Project area range in age from late Cretaceous to Quaternary. Coal is encountered in the Moreno Hill Formation (upper Cretaceous). Salt River Project (SRP) followed the basic textbook approach for the exploration, regional appraisal, detailed reconnaissance, detailed surface appraisal and three-dimensional sampling (physical exploration). SRP is exploring this property as a potential fuel source for the Coronado Generating Station. Therefore, for the physical exploration stage, the quality sampling program was designed from a utility company viewpoint to determine possible impacts to the Station. Exploration drilling was completed in spring, 1982; September, 1982, and summer, 1984.

  7. Mitigating Reptile Road Mortality: Fence Failures Compromise Ecopassage Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Baxter-Gilbert, James H.; Riley, Julia L.; Lesbarrères, David; Litzgus, Jacqueline D.

    2015-01-01

    Roadways pose serious threats to animal populations. The installation of roadway mitigation measures is becoming increasingly common, yet studies that rigorously evaluate the effectiveness of these conservation tools remain rare. A highway expansion project in Ontario, Canada included exclusion fencing and ecopassages as mitigation measures designed to offset detrimental effects to one of the most imperial groups of vertebrates, reptiles. Taking a multispecies approach, we used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design to compare reptile abundance on the highway before and after mitigation at an Impact site and a Control site from 1 May to 31 August in 2012 and 2013. During this time, radio telemetry, wildlife cameras, and an automated PIT-tag reading system were used to monitor reptile movements and use of ecopassages. Additionally, a willingness to utilize experiment was conducted to quantify turtle behavioral responses to ecopassages. We found no difference in abundance of turtles on the road between the un-mitigated and mitigated highways, and an increase in the percentage of both snakes and turtles detected dead on the road post-mitigation, suggesting that the fencing was not effective. Although ecopassages were used by reptiles, the number of crossings through ecopassages was lower than road-surface crossings. Furthermore, turtle willingness to use ecopassages was lower than that reported in previous arena studies, suggesting that effectiveness of ecopassages may be compromised when alternative crossing options are available (e.g., through holes in exclusion structures). Our rigorous evaluation of reptile roadway mitigation demonstrated that when exclusion structures fail, the effectiveness of population connectivity structures is compromised. Our project emphasizes the need to design mitigation measures with the biology and behavior of the target species in mind, to implement mitigation designs in a rigorous fashion, and quantitatively evaluate road

  8. The electric fence for preventing invasion of Trimeresurus flavoviridis, Habu, the venomous snake.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Y; Tanaka, H; Wada, Y; Mishima, S

    1983-06-01

    For the purpose of preventing invasion of Trimeresurus flavoviridis, Habu, the venomous snake, the effect of an electric fence made of hollow tile blocks or polyethylene net was examined in 3 villages on Amamioshima and Tokunoshima islands in the southernmost area of Japan. The electric pulses were supplied by a pulse maker at 0.75 sec. intervals with 480 mA, 0.13 m coulombs at a load of 500 ohms and estimated peak of 8 to 10 kV. The anode from a pulse maker was connected to a stainless steel plate or a metal string woven in a vinyl rope on the fence and the cathode was grounded. The power to the pulse maker was generated by silicon solar cells, stored in a car battery and regulated by an electric eye switch to activate it at night. The necessary height of the fence to prevent Habu from slithering over the fence was experimentally determined to be 60 cm. In 3 villages, 6.75 ha were enclosed with 1000 m fence, 13.7 ha with 2100 m and 23.8 ha with 2500 m, respectively. The effect of the electric fence was remarkable as determined by the annual monitoring of the number of snakes sighted by people and the captivity rate in box traps inside the fence. The number of snakes found annually in Tean Village was 10 before construction and 5, 4, 5 after construction; 119 before construction 55, 20, 20 after construction at Tete; and 109 and 82 before construction and 15 and 11 after construction at Todoroki. The snakes were observed to aggregate outside the fence. The net barrier could be constructed at any topographical conditions with less expense. The effect was further pronounced when snakes were removed by box trap and other methods from inside the fenced area.

  9. Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon; Smith, J.G.

    1999-03-01

    Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.

  10. Border Security Fencing and Wildlife: The End of the Transboundary Paradigm in Eurasia?

    PubMed

    Linnell, John D C; Trouwborst, Arie; Boitani, Luigi; Kaczensky, Petra; Huber, Djuro; Reljic, Slaven; Kusak, Josip; Majic, Aleksandra; Skrbinsek, Tomaz; Potocnik, Hubert; Hayward, Matt W; Milner-Gulland, E J; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Olson, Kirk A; Badamjav, Lkhagvasuren; Bischof, Richard; Zuther, Steffen; Breitenmoser, Urs

    2016-06-01

    The ongoing refugee crisis in Europe has seen many countries rush to construct border security fencing to divert or control the flow of people. This follows a trend of border fence construction across Eurasia during the post-9/11 era. This development has gone largely unnoticed by conservation biologists during an era in which, ironically, transboundary cooperation has emerged as a conservation paradigm. These fences represent a major threat to wildlife because they can cause mortality, obstruct access to seasonally important resources, and reduce effective population size. We summarise the extent of the issue and propose concrete mitigation measures.

  11. Demographic screening for MRSA may compromise the effectiveness of ring fencing on a joint replacement unit.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, H-M A; Izon, C; Maley, M W

    2012-11-01

    Ring fencing of joint replacement (JR) units has been reported to reduce infections and is recommended by health authorities in Australia and the UK. It has not been determined whether a demographic risk assessment is adequate to prevent the admission of patients colonized with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to ring-fenced units. As such, 250 admissions to the JR unit of a suburban Sydney hospital were screened, and MRSA colonization was identified in 2.8% of patients complying with the demographic risk assessment. Demographic risk assessment is not an adequate substitute for physical MRSA screening, and undermines the effectiveness of ring-fencing procedures.

  12. Border Security Fencing and Wildlife: The End of the Transboundary Paradigm in Eurasia?

    PubMed Central

    Linnell, John D. C.; Trouwborst, Arie; Boitani, Luigi; Kaczensky, Petra; Kusak, Josip; Skrbinsek, Tomaz; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Bischof, Richard; Breitenmoser, Urs

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing refugee crisis in Europe has seen many countries rush to construct border security fencing to divert or control the flow of people. This follows a trend of border fence construction across Eurasia during the post-9/11 era. This development has gone largely unnoticed by conservation biologists during an era in which, ironically, transboundary cooperation has emerged as a conservation paradigm. These fences represent a major threat to wildlife because they can cause mortality, obstruct access to seasonally important resources, and reduce effective population size. We summarise the extent of the issue and propose concrete mitigation measures. PMID:27331878

  13. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring.

  14. 78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed September 23, 2013, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that they have changed its name to Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC for...

  15. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida, shall open on signal, except that from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., the draw need...

  16. White Oak Creek Embayment site characterization and contaminant screening analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Analyses of sediment samples collected near the mouth of White Oak Creek during the summer of 1990 revealed [sup 137]Cs concentrations [> 10[sup 6] Bq/kg dry wt (> 10[sup 4] pCi/g dry wt)] near the sediment surface. Available evidence indicates that these relatively high concentrations of [sup 137]Cs now at the sediment surface were released from White Oak Dam in the mid-1950s and had accumulated at depositionalsites in the embayment. These accumulated sediments are being eroded and transported downstream primarily during winter low-water levels by flood events and by a combination of normal downstream flow and the water turbulence created by the release of water from Melton Hill Dam during hydropower generation cycles. This report provides a more thorough characterization of the extent of contamination in WOCE than was previously available. Environmental samples collected from WOCE were analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in fish, water, and sediment. These results were used to conduct a human health effects screening analysis. Walkover radiation surveys conducted inside the fenced area surrounding the WOCE at summer-pool (741 ft MSL) and at winter-pool (733 ft MSL) level, indicated a maximum exposure rate of 3 mR h[sup 1] 1 m above the soil surface.

  17. Bilateral stress fractures of the ulnae in a Kendo (Japanese fencing) player.

    PubMed

    Sujino, T; Ohe, T; Shinozuka, M

    1998-12-01

    A case of bilateral stress fractures of the ulnae in a Kendo (Japanese fencing) player is reported; the mechanism of the fractures, particularly the difference in the site of fracture between the right and left ulna, is discussed.

  18. Beehive fences as a multidimensional conflict-mitigation tool for farmers coexisting with elephants.

    PubMed

    King, Lucy E; Lala, Fredrick; Nzumu, Hesron; Mwambingu, Emmanuel; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2017-08-01

    Increasing habitat fragmentation and human population growth in Africa has resulted in an escalation in human-elephant conflict between small-scale farmers and free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta Africana). In 2012 Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) implemented the national 10-year Conservation and Management Strategy for the Elephant in Kenya, which includes an action aimed at testing whether beehive fences can be used to mitigate human-elephant conflict. From 2012 to 2015, we field-tested the efficacy of beehive fences to protect 10 0.4-ha farms next to Tsavo East National Park from elephants. We hung a series of beehives every 10 m around the boundary of each farm plot. The hives were linked with strong wire. After an initial pilot test with 2 farms, the remaining 8 of 10 beehive fences also contained 2-dimensional dummy hives between real beehives to help reduce the cost of the fence. Each trial plot had a neighboring control plot of the same size within the same farm. Of the 131 beehives deployed 88% were occupied at least once during the 3.5-year trial. Two hundred and fifty-three elephants, predominantly 20-45 years old entered the community farming area, typically during the crop- ripening season. Eighty percent of the elephants that approached the trial farms were kept out of the areas protected by the beehive fences, and elephants that broke a fence were in smaller than average groups. Beehive fences not only kept large groups of elephants from invading the farmland plots but the farmers also benefited socially and financially from the sale of 228 kg of elephant-friendly honey. As news of the success of the trial spread, a further 12 farmers requested to join the project, bringing the number of beehive fence protected farms to 22 and beehives to 297. This demonstrates positive adoption of beehive fences as a community mitigation tool. Understanding the response of elephants to the beehive fences, the seasonality of crop raiding and fence breaking, and the

  19. Characterization of Plated Via Hole Fences for Isolation Between Stripline Circuits in LTCC Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.; Chen, Donghoon; Yook, Jong-Gwan; Katehi, Linda P. B.

    1998-01-01

    Reduced coupling between adjacent striplines in LTCC packages is commonly accomplished by walls made of plated via holes. In this paper, a 3D-FEM electromagnetic simulation of stripline with filled via fences on both sides is presented. It is shown that the radiation loss of the stripline and the coupling between striplines increases if the fence is placed too close to the stripline.

  20. Influence of streambank fencing on the environmental quality of cattle-excluded pastures.

    PubMed

    Miller, J J; Chanasyk, D S; Curtis, T; Willms, W D

    2010-01-01

    Limited information exists on the effect of streambank fencing on riparian zone pastures. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that 4 to 6 yr of streambank fencing would improve the environmental quality of the cattle-excluded pasture compared with the grazed pasture and cause the fenced pasture to act as a buffer or filter strip. Rangeland health, vegetative and soil properties, and rainfall simulation runoff were measured in the cattle-excluded and adjacent grazed native pastures along the fenced reach of the Lower Little Bow River in southern Alberta, Canada, for 3 yr (2005-2007). Rangeland health was improved (health score increase from 55 to 72%); vegetation cover (13-21%) and standing litter (38-742%) were increased; and bare soil (72-93%) and soil bulk density (6-8%) were decreased under cattle exclusion, indicating an improvement in environmental quality from streambank fencing. In contrast, other vegetation (total and live basal area, fallen litter) and soil properties (soil water and soil C, N, and P) were not improved by cattle exclusion. Cattle exclusion significantly (P fenced pasture may act as a buffer for certain runoff variables. In contrast, other runoff variables (turbidity, electrical conductivity, pH, concentrations and loads of total suspended solids, and certain N and P fractions) in the cattle-excluded pasture were generally not improved by streambank fencing. Overall, streambank fencing improved the quality of certain environmental variables within the cattle-excluded pasture.

  1. Plant diversity in live fences and pastures, two examples from the Mexican humid tropics.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Guerra, Betsabé; Rosas, Noé Velázquez; López-Acosta, Juan Carlos

    2014-09-01

    This study analyzes the potential uses of live fences and pastures as reservoirs of plant diversity for two regions with different management histories, Los Tuxtlas (LT) and Uxpanapa (UX), Veracruz, México. We studied two habitats, live fences and pastures, analyzed their species richness, diversity, structure and plant composition and classified species according to plant regeneration modes (light-demanding and shade tolerant), seed dispersal syndrome and their local uses. We recorded 62 species of trees at LT and 48 at UX. Live fences were more diverse than pastures in both regions. The LT site showed to analyze the relationship a higher diversity of plants in regeneration stages than the one at UX. However, UX had higher diversity of adult plants in the pastures than LT. Composition and structure of live fences were different between regions, as well as within live fences and pastures, 53 % of species were light-demanding and 40 % were shade tolerant; 70 % of the species were dispersed by birds. Differences between sites are associated with the modifications in live fences structure, which changed according to managerial practices and the use of local species; this may influence plant regeneration modes as well as the visits of avian dispersal agents. In LT, all species found in live fences were useful to humans, whereas in UX, less than half were used by the local population. Our results underline the importance of live fences and isolated trees in pasture habitats as potential sites to host native and useful species from tropical rain forests in livestock landscapes.

  2. Plant Diversity in Live Fences and Pastures, Two Examples from the Mexican Humid Tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Guerra, Betsabé; Rosas, Noé Velázquez; López-Acosta, Juan Carlos

    2014-09-01

    This study analyzes the potential uses of live fences and pastures as reservoirs of plant diversity for two regions with different management histories, Los Tuxtlas (LT) and Uxpanapa (UX), Veracruz, México. We studied two habitats, live fences and pastures, analyzed their species richness, diversity, structure and plant composition and classified species according to plant regeneration modes (light-demanding and shade tolerant), seed dispersal syndrome and their local uses. We recorded 62 species of trees at LT and 48 at UX. Live fences were more diverse than pastures in both regions. The LT site showed to analyze the relationship a higher diversity of plants in regeneration stages than the one at UX. However, UX had higher diversity of adult plants in the pastures than LT. Composition and structure of live fences were different between regions, as well as within live fences and pastures, 53 % of species were light-demanding and 40 % were shade tolerant; 70 % of the species were dispersed by birds. Differences between sites are associated with the modifications in live fences structure, which changed according to managerial practices and the use of local species; this may influence plant regeneration modes as well as the visits of avian dispersal agents. In LT, all species found in live fences were useful to humans, whereas in UX, less than half were used by the local population. Our results underline the importance of live fences and isolated trees in pasture habitats as potential sites to host native and useful species from tropical rain forests in livestock landscapes.

  3. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  4. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  5. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  6. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  7. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  8. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek...

  9. Hulburt Creek Hydrology, Southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gebert, Warren A.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hydrologic characteristics of Hulburt Creek, Sauk County, Wis., in order to evaluate a proposed reservoir. The streamflow characteristics estimated are the low flow, monthly flow, and inflow flood. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. The following estimates are for the point on Hulburt Creek at the proposed Dell Lake damsite near Wisconsin Dells. The drainage area is 11.2 square miles.

  10. Energy potential of a tidal fence deployed near a coastal headland.

    PubMed

    Draper, S; Borthwick, A G L; Houlsby, G T

    2013-02-28

    Enhanced tidal streams close to coastal headlands appear to present ideal locations for the deployment of tidal energy devices. In this paper, the power potential of tidal streams near an idealized coastal headland with a sloping seabed is investigated using a near-field approximation to represent a tidal fence, i.e. a row of tidal devices, in a two-dimensional depth-averaged numerical model. Simulations indicate that the power extracted by the tidal fence is limited because the flow will bypass the fence, predominantly on the ocean side, as the thrust applied by the devices increases. For the dynamic conditions, fence placements and headland aspect ratios considered, the maximum power extracted at the fence is not related in any obvious way to the local undisturbed kinetic flux or the natural rate of energy dissipation due to bed friction (although both of these have been used in the past to predict the amount of power that may be extracted). The available power (equal to the extracted power net of vertical mixing losses in the immediate wake of devices) is optimized for devices with large area and small centre-to-centre spacing within the fence. The influence of energy extraction on the natural flow field is assessed relative to changes in the M2 component of elevation and velocity, and residual bed shear stress and tidal dispersion.

  11. Tibial shock measured during the fencing lunge: the influence of footwear.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Bottoms, Lindsay; Taylor, Katrina; Greenhalgh, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    Fencing is a high-intensity sport involving dynamic movements such as the lunge exposing the musculoskeletal system to high impact forces, which emphasises the importance of the shock attenuating properties of footwear as a factor in the prevention of injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the magnitudes of the transient axial impact shock experienced at the tibia between traditional fencing shoes and standard athletic footwear during the impact phase of the fencing lunge. Peak tibial shock was measured in 19 male fencers in 4 different footwear conditions using an accelerometer placed on the distal aspect of the tibia. The standard footwear (11.08 g and 8.75 g for squash and running shoe, respectively) resulted in significant (p < 0.01) reductions in peak impact shock in comparison to the traditional fencing shoes (15.93 g and 13.97 g for the Adidas and Hi-Tec shoe, respectively). No significant differences were found between the running and squash shoes (p = 0.09) or between the fencing shoes (p = 0.48). The documented reduction in impact shock found suggests that running or squash specific footwear may reduce overuse injury occurrence, indicating that there is justification for a re-design of fencing shoes.

  12. Oblique, Stratified Winds about a Shelter Fence. Part I: Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John D.

    2004-08-01

    Wind statistics were measured using cup and sonic anemometers, placed upwind and downwind from a porous plastic windbreak fence (height h = 1.25 m, length Y = 114 m, resistance coefficient kr0 = 2.4, and porosity p = 0.45) standing on otherwise uniform land (short grass with roughness length z0 1.9 cm). Intercomparison with collocated two-dimensional sonic anemometers suggested that, except in strongly stratified winds, cup anemometers (distance constant 1.5 m), subjected to a uniform overspeeding correction (here 10%), provide a reasonably accurate transect of the mean wind across the disturbed flow region. The measurements, binned with respect to mean wind direction and stratification, establish that the resistance coefficient of a windbreak of this type implies the maximum (or “potential”) mean wind reduction, a potential that is realized in neutral, perpendicular flow and for which a semiempirical formula is derived. Obliquity of the approaching wind reduces actual shelter effectiveness below the potential value, as was already known. However, a systematic influence of stratification could only be discriminated in winds that were not too far (say, within about ±30°) from perpendicular, under which conditions both stable and unstable stratification reduced shelter effectiveness. The “quiet zone,” in which velocity standard deviations (σu, σ) are reduced relative to the approach flow, was found to extend farther downwind for the normal velocity component (u) than for the parallel component ().


  13. Effect of defence response time during lunge in foil fencing.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Cruz, Carmen; Rojas, F Javier; Gutiérrez-Davila, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of stimulus change timing on reaction response time parameters, horizontal velocity of the centre of mass (CM) and precision during offensive actions in fencing. Twelve fencers from the Spanish National Foil Team were included in the study. Two 500 Hz force plates were used to register the horizontal component of the reaction force while a 3D video camera set at 250 Hz recorded the spatial position of 11 body markers and a projector connected to a programmed stopwatch projected a moving target (stimulus) on a screen. When the circle (target) appeared in the centre of the plastron, fencers had to execute a step-forward-lunge as fast as possible, trying to touch the circle with the tip of the foil. During the lunge, the position of the target could randomly shift or not to three different positions. The stimulus change was performed randomly at four different times with a progressive delay. The results show that target changes did not have any effect when they occurred at the beginning of the movement sequence. However, when the target change was delayed, reaction and movement times increased and the technical execution of the lunge changed, leading to more errors.

  14. Local muscular fatigue and attentional processes in a fencing task.

    PubMed

    Devienne, M F; Audiffren, M; Ripoll, H; Stein, J F

    2000-02-01

    Study of the effects of brief exercise on mental processes by Tomporowski and Ellis (1986) has shown that moderate muscular tension improves cognitive performance while low or high tension does not. Improvements in performance induced by exercise are commonly associated with increase in arousal, while impairments are generally attributed to the effects of muscular or central fatigue. To test two hypotheses, that (1) submaximal muscular exercise would decrease premotor time and increase would increase the attentional and preparatory effects observed in premotor time 9 men, aged 20 to 30 years, performed an isometric test at 50% of their maximum voluntary contraction between blocks of a 3-choice reaction-time fencing task. Analysis showed (1) physical exercise did not improve postexercise premotor time, (2) muscular fatigue induced by isometric contractions did not increase motor time, (3) there was no effect of exercise on attentional and preparatory processes involved in the postexercise choice-RT task. The invalidation of hypotheses was mainly explained by disparity in directional effects across subjects and by use of an exercise that was not really fatiguing.

  15. Response amendment in fencing: differences between elite and novice subjects.

    PubMed

    Williams, L R; Walmsley, A

    2000-08-01

    Reaction time (RT), movement time (MT), total response time (RMT), and accuracy of 3 elite and 3 novice fencers were studied under a dual response paradigm requiring a full lunge. Electromyographic activity (EMG) from selected arm and leg muscles was used to compare response profiles of the two groups. Although the elite subjects had slower MTs, their faster RTs resulted in significantly shorter total response times. The EMG analysis showed that in comparison to the novice subjects, onset of muscle activity was significantly faster for the elite group in five of the six muscles studied. In addition, the elite subjects showed more coherent muscle synergies and more consistent patterns of muscle coordination. Although the requirement to change targets (signalled by the arrival of a second stimulus) led to slightly more target misses for the elite group, the overall frequency was low, which indicates that it did not pose difficulty for either group. The present findings show that measures of response timing and neuromuscular coordination differentiate skill level in the fencing lunge and draw attention to practical implications for skill assessment and training.

  16. Ring fencing of elective surgery: does it affect hospital efficiency?

    PubMed

    Kjekshus, Lars Erik; Hagen, Terje P

    2005-08-01

    Ring fencing (RF) is defined as separating elective from emergency operations in parallel hospital production lines. This study examines the effects of RF of elective surgery on hospital efficiency. The analysis is performed on two levels. First, an intensive three-month study at the departmental level of three hospitals was performed. Second, a panel data analysis of the organizational population of Norwegian hospitals over the period from 1992 to 2000 was conducted, using a 'fixed effect' regression model to analyse the effect of RF on hospitals' cost and technical efficiency. The intensive study indicates that RF could have positive effects both on cost and technical efficiency under certain conditions of case-mix and the demand for elective surgery, while the panel analyses of the effects of RF in the hospital population do not produce stable results. We cannot conclude that RF has unconditional positive effects on hospitals' efficiency. However, in certain situations of case-mix and demand for services, RF could be a valuable tool for managers to increase hospitals' efficiency.

  17. Effect of target change during the simple attack in fencing.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Dávila, Marcos; Rojas, F Javier; Caletti, Matteo; Antonio, Raquel; Navarro, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect that changing targets during a simple long lunge attack in fencing exerts on the temporal parameters of the reaction response, the execution speed, and the precision and the coordination of the movement pattern. Thirty fencers with more than 10 years of experience participated in this study. Two force platforms were used to record the horizontal components of the reaction forces and thereby to determine the beginning of the movement. A three-dimensional (3D) system recorded the spatial positions of the 9 markers situated on the fencer plus the epee, while a moving target was projected on a screen, enabling the control of the target change. The results indicated that when a target change is provoked the reaction time (RT), movement time (MT), and the time used in the acceleration phase of the centre of mass (CM) increases significantly with respect to the attack executed with a straight thrust. The speed and horizontal distance reached by the CM at the end of the acceleration phase (VX(CM) and SX(CM), respectively) significantly decreased, while the errors increased. However, the temporal sequence of the movement pattern did not appreciably change.

  18. The effect of carbohydrate mouth rinsing on fencing performance and cognitive function following fatigue-inducing fencing.

    PubMed

    Rowlatt, G; Bottoms, L; Edmonds, C J; Buscombe, R

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the impact that mouth rinsing carbohydrate solution has on skill-specific performance and reaction time following a fatigue-inducing bout of fencing in epee fencers. Nine healthy, national-level epee fencers visited a laboratory on two occasions, separated by a minimum of five days, to complete a 1-minute lunge test and Stroop test pre- and post-fatigue. Heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded during completion of the fatiguing protocol. Between fights the participant's mouth rinsed for 10 seconds, either 25 ml of 6.7% maltodextrin solution (MALT) or water (PLAC). Blood lactate and glucose were recorded at baseline, pre- and post-testing. Results showed an increase in heart rate and overall RPE over time in both conditions. There were no differences in blood glucose (F(1,8) = .63, P = .4, η(p) = .07) or blood lactate levels (F(1,8) = .12, P = .70, η(p) = .01) between conditions as a function of time. There was a significant improvement in lunge test accuracy during the MALT trial (F(1,8) = 5.21, P = .05, η(p) = .40) with an increase from pre (81.2 ± 8.3%) to post (87.6 ± 9.4%), whereas there was no significant change during the placebo (pre 82.1 ± 8.8%, post 78.8 ± 6.4%). There were no recorded differences between conditions in response time to congruent (F(1,8) = .33, P = .58, η(p) = .04) or incongruent stimuli (F(1,8) = .19, P = .68, η(p) = .02). The study indicates that when fatigued mouth rinsing MALT significantly improves accuracy of skill-specific fencing performance but no corresponding influence on reaction time was observed.

  19. The Caspar Creek Experimental Watershed

    Treesearch

    T. E. Lisle

    1979-01-01

    The Caspar Creek Experimental Watershed was set up as a traditional paired watershed to investigate the effects of logging and road construction on erosion and sedimentation. Research participants have come from the California Division of Forestry, the Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, the California Department of Water Resources, the California...

  20. Caspar Creek study completion report

    Treesearch

    C. S. Kabel; E. R. German

    1967-01-01

    The Department of Fish and Game assisted in an interagency study on Caspar Creek, a small coastal stream in Mendocino County. This study included the effects of logging on the stream and its population of silver salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdnerii).

  1. LINCOLN CREEK ROADLESS AREA, NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Stebbins, Scott A.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, the Lincoln Creek Roadless Area, Nevada was determined to have little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral resources. Geologic terrane favorable for the occurrence of contact-metasomatic tungsten deposits exists, but no evidence for this type of mineralization was identified. The geologic setting precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels and no other energy resources were identified.

  2. Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This pamphlet describes Union Oil's shale oil project in the Parachute Creek area of Garfield County, Colorado. The oil shale is estimated to contain 1.6 billion barrels of recoverable oil in the high Mahogany zone alone. Primarily a public relations publication, the report presented contains general information on the history of the project and Union Oil's future plans. (JMT)

  3. Effectiveness of Wildlife Underpasses and Fencing to Reduce Wildlife–Vehicle Collisions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; McCollister, Matthew F.

    2010-01-01

    Transportation planners are increasingly incorporating roadway design features to mitigate impacts of highways on wildlife and to increase driver safety. We used camera and track surveys to evaluate wildlife use before and after construction of 3 wildlife underpasses and associated fencing on a new section of United States Highway 64 in Washington County, North Carolina, USA. We recorded 242 occasions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) use of underpass areas before highway construction began. Following completion of the highway, we collected 2,433 photographs of 9 species with deer representing 93% of all crossings. Adjusting for differences in number of monitoring days, white-tailed deer use of underpass areas averaged 6.7 times greater after the new highway and underpasses were completed. We recorded 3,614 wildlife crossings of ≥20 species based on track counts, representing most medium and large mammals known to occur in the area and several reptiles and birds. After completion of the highway, we documented wildlife mortality due to vehicle collisions during a 13-month period and recorded 128 incidences representing ≥24 species. Within fenced highway segments, mortalities were lowest near underpasses and increased with distance from the underpasses. However, we also documented more mortalities in fenced areas compared with unfenced areas. With greater distance from an underpass, animals with smaller home ranges seemed less likely to reach the underpass and instead attempted to climb over or crawl under fencing. Based on collision reports from adjacent highway sections, the new section of United States Highway 64 experienced approximately 58% fewer wildlife mortalities (primarily white-tailed deer), suggesting underpasses and fencing reduced the number of deer–vehicle collisions. Continuous fencing between underpasses may further reduce the number of vehicle collisions for deer but additional design features (e.g., buried fencing) should be

  4. Benefits of protective fencing to plant and rodent communities of the western Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Matthew L.

    1995-01-01

    Human disturbance in the western Mojave Desert takes many forms. The most pervasive are livestock grazing and off-highway vehicle use. Over the past few decades several areas within this region have been fenced to preclude human disturbance. These areas provide opportunities to study the impact of human activities in a desert ecosystem. This paper documents the response of plant and small mammal populations to fencing constructed between 1978 and 1979 at the Desert Tortoise Research Natural Area, Kern County, California. Aboveground live annual plant biomass was generally greater inside than outside the fenced plots during April 1990, 1991, and 1992. The alien grass Schismus barbatus was a notable exception, producing more biomass in the unprotected area. Forb biomass was greater than that of alien annual grasses inside the fence during all three years of the study. Outside the fence, forb biomass was significantly higher than that of alien grasses only during spring 1992. Percent cover of perennial shrubs was higher inside the fence than outside, while no significant trend was detected in density. There was als more seed biomass inside the fence; this may have contributed to the greater diversity and density of Merriam's kangaroo rats ( Dipodomys merriami), long-tailed pocket mice ( Chaetodipus formosus), and southern grasshopper mice ( Onychomys torridus) in the protected area. These results show that protection from human disturbance has many benefits, including greater overall community biomass and diversity. The significance and generality of these results can be further tested by studying other exclosures of varying age and configurations in different desert regions of the southwestern United States.

  5. A novel bipolar electric fence for excluding white-tailed deer from stored livestock feed.

    PubMed

    Phillips, G E; Lavelle, M J; Fischer, J W; White, J J; Wells, S J; Vercauteren, K C

    2012-11-01

    Where cattle (Bos taurus) and free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) coexist, they frequently share space and resources, potentially resulting in damage to stores of livestock feed and risk of interspecies disease transmission. Preventing use of stored feed by deer can be an important objective in farm management, depending on amount of damage experienced and perceived risk of disease transmission. Woven wire fences (2.4 to 3.0 m high) are generally considered to be the most effective means for excluding deer. However, rapidly deployable temporary means of excluding deer could be useful, especially during late winter when deer are most physiologically stressed and motivated to consume feed meant for cattle. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate a novel 1.2-m-tall electric fence consisting of 4 strands of bipolar tape (not requiring separate ground wires or animal contact with ground) for excluding deer from artificially established feed piles during late winter 2008 in northwestern Minnesota. To induce deer to pause, investigate the fence, and receive negative stimuli before attempting to jump the fence, the bipolar tape was baited with a viscous fluid attractive to deer. The fence was estimated to be >80% effective at reducing deer presence at feed piles (10 treatment sites and 11 control sites) given the late winter to early spring conditions. Despite the efficacy, using the fence as a primary means of protecting stored feed from deer in areas with known disease transmission risk (e.g., presence of bovine tuberculosis) is not recommended because risk could remain unacceptably high if even low numbers of deer access stored feed. Yet, the fence could be effective as immediate protection of stored feed in winter before a more permanent and effective deterrence strategy, such as woven-wire fencing, could be installed during the subsequent summer. The fence would also be effective for reducing deer depredation of stored feed, as well as

  6. An innovative type of rockfall protection fence on forested slopes specially designed for low energy events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigot, C.; Berger, F.; Lambert, S.

    2009-04-01

    Forest management in mountainous regions implies sylvicultural interventions on slopes. But in such forested areas, engines, workers or falling trees can initiate rock falls and the site can temporarily turn to a potentially dangerous site. This presentation deals with a type of fence specifically developed for this context. In particular, this type of fence requires no heavy interventions neither than heavy engines such as for soil-moving or nailing. Moreover, it is a temporary structure, supposed to act for the duration of the interventions or as long as it is necessary to counterbalance the lack of protection within the growing period of the trees. The fence is composed of a wire mesh, three cables and two rigid rods. This fence is tightened between existing trees. The first real size experiments have been made during summer 2008. It consisted in impacting successively the fence in its centre with rocks of varying mass (from 30kg to 500kg) with the aim of evaluating its capacities. For this purpose, a cable was tightened between two trees. This cable allowed conveying a trolley supporting the rock. The rock was dropped just before the impact thanks to a snap shackle. The system allowed reaching a maximal rock velocity before impact of 17m/s. This velocity was calculated thanks to image analysis obtained with a numerical video camera and a numerical high speed camera. The main continuous measurement made was tension in the upper cable. In addition, an accelerometer was nailed on one of the fence supporting trees. A total of 17 impact experiments were performed on for different fences. The first results showed that (i) angular blocks can cut wires even for low mass rocks, (ii) the wire rupture hardly propagates in the mesh during another impact, (iii) supporting cables can be cut during the impact, (iv) the fence is not perforated by the direct impact even for rocks 500kg in mass, and (v) a reparation of a perforated mesh consisting in placing a patch is perfectly

  7. Improvement in Capsule Abort Performance Using Supersonic Aerodynamic Interaction by Fences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Hiroto; Wang, Yunpeng; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Katsunori; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    The space transportation system will need advanced abort systems to secure crew against serious accidents. Here this study deals with the capsule-type space transportation systems with a Launch Abort System (LAS). This system is composed of a conic capsule as a Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) and a cylindrical rocket as a Service Module (SM), and the capsule is moved away from the rocket by supersonic aerodynamic interactions in an emergency. We propose a method to improve the performance of the LAV by installing fences at the edges of surfaces on the rocket and capsule sides. Their effects were investigated by experimental measurements and numerical simulations. Experimental results show that the fences on the rocket and capsule surfaces increase the aerodynamic thrust force on the capsule by 70% in a certain clearance between the capsule and rocket. Computational results show the detailed flow fields where the centripetal flow near the surface on the rocket side is induced by the fence on the rocket side and the centrifugal flow near the surface on the capsule side is blocked by the fence on the capsule side. These results can confirm favorable effects of the fences on the performance of the LAS.

  8. Verbal overshadowing of memories for fencing movements is mediated by expertise.

    PubMed

    Defrasne Ait-Said, Elise; Maquestiaux, François; Didierjean, André

    2014-01-01

    Does verbalizing a previously-seen complex visual stimulus influence its subsequent recollection? We investigated this question by examining the mediating role played by expertise level in fencing on the effects of verbalizing upon visual memory. Participants with three distinct levels of expertise in fencing (novices, intermediates, experts) performed seven trials. In each trial, they first watched four times a short video that displayed fencing movements. Then, half of them verbalized the previously-seen visual stimulus (i.e., the verbalization group), the other half carried out a hidden-word task (i.e., the non-verbalization group). Finally, all the participants were asked to recognize the previously-seen fencing movements amongst novel fencing movements. Overall, verbalizing improved recognition for novices, altered recognition for intermediates, and had no effect for experts. These findings replicated the classical verbal-overshadowing effect, while extending it to a more conceptual material. They also point out to some potential benefits and costs of verbalizing on visual memory, depending on the level of expertise.

  9. Impacts of deer herbivory on vegetation in Rock Creek Park, 2001-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraft, Cairn C.; Hatfield, Jeff S.

    2011-01-01

    Starting in 2001, vegetation data have been collected annually in 16 study modules consisting of paired (1x4 m) fenced plots and unfenced control plots located in the upland forests of Rock Creek Park, Washington, D.C. Vegetation data collected from 2001-2009 have been analyzed to determine impacts of deer herbivory on vegetation in the park. Differences between fenced plots and unfenced control plots were analyzed for the following variables: cover provided by various groups of species (woody, herbaceous, native, non-native, trees, shrubs, and woody vines), as well as by individual dominant species, vegetation thickness (a measure of percent cover projected horizontally that provides information on the vertical distribution of vegetation), and species richness overall and for groups of species (woody, herbaceous, native, non-native, trees, shrubs, and woody vines). The analyses were performed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and associated tests. Vegetation in plots protected from deer herbivory for 9 years showed significantly greater vegetative cover compared to plots not protected from deer herbivory. This effect was most pronounced for woody and shrub cover. Cover by the dominant species was not significantly greater in the fenced plots compared to the unfenced control plots, indicating that the significant differences observed for groups were not driven by single species within those groups. With respect to vegetation thickness, results indicate that protection from deer herbivory produced significantly higher levels of vegetation in the fenced plots compared to the unfenced control plots for both the Low (0-30 cm) and Middle (30-110 cm) height classes. Protection from deer herbivory has led to higher overall species richness and higher species richness for woody species, natives, and shrubs compared to plots not receiving protection. There is also evidence that plots protected from deer herbivory and those not receiving this protection

  10. RICHLAND CREEK ROADLESS AREA, ARKANSAS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mary H.; Wood, Robert H.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic and mineral surveys, Richland Creek Roadless Area, Arkanses, has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources, gas and oil, or oil shale. The Boone Formation of Mississippian age and the Everton Formation of Ordovician age, both known to contain zinc and lead deposits in northern Arkansas, underlie the roadless area. The presence or absence of zinc and lead deposits in these formations in the subsurface can be neither confirmed nor ruled out without exploratory drilling. Most of the Richland Creek Roadless Area is under lease for oil and gas; however two wells drilled near the eastern boundary of the area did not show contained gas or oil.

  11. Testing the effects of perimeter fencing and elephant exclosures on lion predation patterns in a Kenyan wildlife conservancy.

    PubMed

    Dupuis-Desormeaux, Marc; Davidson, Zeke; Pratt, Laura; Mwololo, Mary; MacDonald, Suzanne E

    2016-01-01

    The use of fences to segregate wildlife can change predator and prey behaviour. Predators can learn to incorporate fencing into their hunting strategies and prey can learn to avoid foraging near fences. A twelve-strand electric predator-proof fence surrounds our study site. There are also porous one-strand electric fences used to create exclosures where elephant (and giraffe) cannot enter in order to protect blocs of browse vegetation for two critically endangered species, the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and the Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi). The denser vegetation in these exclosures attracts both browsing prey and ambush predators. In this study we examined if lion predation patterns differed near the perimeter fencing and inside the elephant exclosures by mapping the location of kills. We used a spatial analysis to compare the predation patterns near the perimeter fencing and inside the exclosures to predation in the rest of the conservancy. Predation was not over-represented near the perimeter fence but the pattern of predation near the fence suggests that fences may be a contributing factor to predation success. Overall, we found that predation was over-represented inside and within 50 m of the exclosures. However, by examining individual exclosures in greater detail using a hot spot analysis, we found that only a few exclosures contained lion predation hot spots. Although some exclosures provide good hunting grounds for lions, we concluded that exclosures did not necessarily create prey-traps per se and that managers could continue to use this type of exclusionary fencing to protect stands of dense vegetation.

  12. Disturbance of the inclined inserting-type sand fence to wind-sand flow fields and its sand control characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jian-jun; Lei, Jia-qiang; Li, Sheng-yu; Wang, Hai-feng

    2016-06-01

    The inclined inserting-type sand fence is a novel sand retaining wall adopted along the Lanxin High-Speed Railway II in Xinjiang for controlling and blocking sand movement. To verify the effectiveness of the new fence structure for sand prevention, a wind tunnel test was used for flow field test simulation of the sand fence. The results indicate that the inclined inserting-type sand fence was able to deflect the flow of the sand and was able to easily form an upward slant acceleration zone on the leeward side of the sand fence. As shown by the percentage change in sand collection rates on the windward side and the leeward side of the sand fence, the sand flux per unit area at 4 m height in the slant upward direction increased on the leeward side of the inclined inserting-type sand fence. By comparing the flow fields, this site is an acceleration zone, which also reaffirms the correspondence of wind-sand flow fields with the spatial distribution characteristic of the wind-carried sand motion. The field sand collection data indicates that under the effects of the inclined inserting-type sand fence, the sandy air currents passing in front and behind the sand fence not only changed in quality, but the grain composition and particle size also significantly changed, suggesting that the inclined inserting-type sand fence has a sorting and filtering effect on the sandy air currents that passed through. The fence retained coarse particulates on the windward side and fine particulates within the shade of the wind on the leeward side.

  13. Testing the effects of perimeter fencing and elephant exclosures on lion predation patterns in a Kenyan wildlife conservancy

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Zeke; Pratt, Laura; Mwololo, Mary; MacDonald, Suzanne E.

    2016-01-01

    The use of fences to segregate wildlife can change predator and prey behaviour. Predators can learn to incorporate fencing into their hunting strategies and prey can learn to avoid foraging near fences. A twelve-strand electric predator-proof fence surrounds our study site. There are also porous one-strand electric fences used to create exclosures where elephant (and giraffe) cannot enter in order to protect blocs of browse vegetation for two critically endangered species, the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and the Grevy’s zebra (Equus grevyi). The denser vegetation in these exclosures attracts both browsing prey and ambush predators. In this study we examined if lion predation patterns differed near the perimeter fencing and inside the elephant exclosures by mapping the location of kills. We used a spatial analysis to compare the predation patterns near the perimeter fencing and inside the exclosures to predation in the rest of the conservancy. Predation was not over-represented near the perimeter fence but the pattern of predation near the fence suggests that fences may be a contributing factor to predation success. Overall, we found that predation was over-represented inside and within 50 m of the exclosures. However, by examining individual exclosures in greater detail using a hot spot analysis, we found that only a few exclosures contained lion predation hot spots. Although some exclosures provide good hunting grounds for lions, we concluded that exclosures did not necessarily create prey-traps per se and that managers could continue to use this type of exclusionary fencing to protect stands of dense vegetation. PMID:26893967

  14. Otter Creek Wilderness, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Warlow, R.C.; Behum, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Otter Creek Wilderness conducted in 1978 resulted in the determination of demonstrated coal resources estimated to total about 24 million short tons in beds more than 28 in. thick and an additional 62 million short tons of coal in beds between 14 and 28 in. thick. There is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or other energy resources in the area.

  15. LUSK CREEK ROADLESS AREA, ILLINOIS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klasner, John S.; Thompson, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic mapping and geochemical sampling show that the eastern third of the Lusk Creek Roadless Area in Illinois has a substantiated resource potential for fluorspar, lead, zinc, and barite, and other parts of the area have a probable resource potential for fluorspar. Fluorspar, which occurs along fault zones in the eastern part of the area, has been produced in the adjacent Illinois-Kentucky fluorspar district. There is little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources.

  16. Beaver response to recurrent alien scents: scent fence or scent match?

    PubMed

    Sun; MÜller-schwarze

    1998-06-01

    By repeatedly presenting an alien scent to territory-owning beavers, Castor canadensis, we tested two competing hypotheses about the function of scent marking: scent fence and scent matching. The scent-fence hypothesis predicts that territory owners should respond increasingly strongly over time towards a recurrent alien scent because of the ineffectiveness of previous responses. The scent-matching hypothesis predicts that the intensity of response should be the same or decrease because, without the presence of the intruding signaller coupled with the chemical signal, the presence of the scent itself does not advertise the ownership of a territory. The response level of resident beaver families was stable to strangers' anal gland secretions (AGSs) and decreased to strangers' castoreum during a period of 6 days. These results support the scent-matching hypothesis but not the scent-fence hypothesis. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  17. Mobile Robot Sonar Backscatter Algorithm for Automatically Distinguishing Walls, Fences and Hedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wen; Hinders, Mark

    2006-03-01

    An algorithm to distinguish brick walls, picket fences and hedges based on backscattered sonar echoes is described. The echo data are acquired by a mobile robot with a 50kHz computer-controlled sonar scanning system packaged as its sensor head. For several locations along a wall, fence or hedge a fan of backscatter sonar echoes are acquired and digitized as the sonar transducer is swept over a horizontal arc. Backscatter is then plotted vs. scan angle, with a series deformable templates fit to this data. The number of peaks in the best-fitting template indicates the presence and location of retro-reflectors, and allows automatic categorization of the various fences, hedges and brick walls.

  18. Ring-fencing a budget for cancer drugs: is it fair?

    PubMed

    Graham, J; Cassidy, J; Hughes, D; Duerden, M

    2011-09-01

    Ring-fencing is defined as protecting funds for use in a specific area. In the National Health Service in the UK, various methods to ring-fence cancer have been employed over the years; more recently the Cancer Drugs Fund in England has enabled cancer drugs that would not normally be considered cost-effective to be provided to patients. This has created variation in provision between England and the devolved countries. While some would argue that ring-fencing allows major advances to be made in the treatment of a particular condition, others would argue that it is intrinsically unfair. In this debate, Graham and Cassidy have written an article arguing the affirmative position and Hughes and Duerden were invited to respond directly to their arguments. As with all the RCPE's 'Current controversies', the authors have been asked to take a deliberately polarised position and so the views they express may be somewhat overstated.

  19. Anthropometric, flexibility, strength-power, and sport-specific correlates in elite fencing.

    PubMed

    Tsolakis, Charilaos; Kostaki, Emmanuela; Vagenas, George

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated selected structural correlates of fencing performance. 33 elite fencers were tested on (a) selected anthropometric, flexibility, and strength-power related parameters, and (b) specific lower extremity functional fencing tests. Multiple regression showed that drop jump and thigh cross-sectional area were best predictors of lunge time and distance of squat jump on the shuttle test. When the two performance variables were expressed per Lean Body Mass, lunge time was significantly predicted only by the performance on the arm-driven counter-movement jump, while time on the shuttle test was best predicted by three noncollinear significant predictors: squat jump performance, thigh circumference, and percent body fat. Lunge time and time on the shuttle test were predicted by explosive power, while none of the nontrainable anthropometric measures or years of training seemed to be important in performance of fencing-related skills.

  20. Determinants of olympic fencing performance and implications for strength and conditioning training.

    PubMed

    Turner, Anthony; James, Nic; Dimitriou, Lygeri; Greenhalgh, Andy; Moody, Jeremy; Fulcher, David; Mias, Eduard; Kilduff, Liam

    2014-10-01

    Fencing is one of only a few sports that have featured at every modern Olympic games. Despite this, there is still much the sport science team does not know regarding competition demands and athlete physical characteristics. This review aims to undertake an analysis of the current literature to identify what is known, and questions that must be answered to optimize athlete support in this context. In summary, fencing is an explosive sport requiring energy production predominately from anaerobic sources. Lunging and change-of-direction speed seem vital to performance, and strength and power qualities underpin this. In the elimination rounds, fencers are likely to accumulate high levels of blood lactate, and so high-intensity interval training is recommended to reduce the intolerance to and the accumulation of hydrogen ions. Injury data report the hamstrings as a muscle group that should be strengthened and address imbalances caused by continuous fencing in an asymmetrical stance.

  1. Floods in Starkweather Creek basin, Madison, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Carl L.; Holmstrom, Barry K.

    1972-01-01

    The reaches evaluated are (1) Starkweather Creek and West Branch Starkweather Creek, for a distance of 6.0 river miles from the mouth at Lake Monona upstream to the U.S. Highway 51 crossing north of Truax Field; and (2) East Branch Starkweather Creek (2.8 river miles), from its confluence with the West Branch near Milwaukee Street upstream to a point near the Interstate Highway 90-94 crossing.

  2. Traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek, upper Colorado River basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Spahr, Norman E.; Szmajter, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, major highways are often constructed in stream valleys. In the event of a vehicular accident involving hazardous materials, the close proximity of highways to the streams increases the risk of contamination entering the streams. Recent population growth has contributed to increased traffic volume along Colorado highways and has resulted in increased movement of hazardous materials, particularly along Interstate 70. Gore Creek and its major tributary, Black Gore Creek, are vulnerable to such contamination from vehicular accidents along Interstate 70. Gore Creek, major tributary of the Eagle River, drains approximately 102 square miles, some of which has recently undergone significant urban development. The headwaters of Gore Creek originate in the Gore Range in the eastern part of the Gore Creek watershed. Gore Creek flows west to the Eagle River. Beginning at the watershed boundary on Vail Pass, southeast of Vail Ski Resort, Interstate 70 parallels Black Gore Creek and then closely follows Gore Creek the entire length of the watershed. Interstate 70 crosses Gore Creek and tributaries 20 times in the watershed. In the event of a vehicular accident involving a contaminant spill into Gore Creek or Black Gore Creek, a stepwise procedure has been developed for water-resource managers to estimate traveltimes of the leading edge and peak concentration of a conservative contaminant. An example calculating estimated traveltimes for a hypothetical contaminant release in Black Gore Creek is provided. Traveltime measurements were made during May and September along Black Gore Creek and Gore Creek from just downstream from the Black Lakes to the confluence with the Eagle River to account for seasonal variability in stream discharge. Fluorometric dye injection of rhodamine WT and downstream dye detection by fluorometry were used to measure traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek. During the May traveltime measurements

  3. 77 FR 56238 - Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... COMMISSION Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Application for Amendment... Public Documents'' and then select ``Begin Web- based ADAMS Search.'' For problems with ADAMS, please... Commission (NRC or the Commission) has granted the request of Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation (the...

  4. Coop Creek Bridge with Checkerboard Mesa in background, historic photograph, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Co-op Creek Bridge with Checkerboard Mesa in background, historic photograph, no date, Zion National Park collection - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Co-op Creek Bridge, Spanning Co-op Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  5. 3. Threequarter view of Oak Creek Bridge behind visitor center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Three-quarter view of Oak Creek Bridge behind visitor center facing southwest - Oak Creek Administrative Center, One half mile east of Zion-Mount Carmel Highway at Oak Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  6. 2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  7. 1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  8. 1. Topographic view of the Rocky Creek Bridge and the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Topographic view of the Rocky Creek Bridge and the Oregon coast, view looking east - Rocky Creek Bridge, Spanning Rocky Creek on Oregon Coast Highway (U.S. Route 101), Depoe Bay, Lincoln County, OR

  9. Detail view of 850 plate girder span directly over creek, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of 85-0 plate girder span directly over creek, looking west. - New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Elk Creek Trestle, Spanning Elk Creek, south of Elk Park Road, Lake City, Erie County, PA

  10. Perspective view showing 850 plate girder span directly over creek, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view showing 85-0 plate girder span directly over creek, looking west. - New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Elk Creek Trestle, Spanning Elk Creek, south of Elk Park Road, Lake City, Erie County, PA

  11. 7. Cable Creek Bridge after completion. Zion National Park negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Cable Creek Bridge after completion. Zion National Park negative number 1485, classification series 002, 12. - Floor of the Valley Road, Cable Creek Bridge, Spanning Cable Creek on Floor of Valley, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  12. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking northwest. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  13. Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  14. Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State Park, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  15. Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  16. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking southeast. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  17. Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  18. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  19. 2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING SIMPSON CREEK BRIDGE WITH BRIDGEPORT LAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING SIMPSON CREEK BRIDGE WITH BRIDGEPORT LAMP AND CHIMNEY COMPANY IN BACKGROUND. - Bridgeport Lamp Chimney Company, Simpson Creek Bridge, Spanning Simpson Creek, State Route 58 vicinity, Bridgeport, Harrison County, WV

  20. 2. View of Clear Creek Bridge railing and understructure, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of Clear Creek Bridge railing and under-structure, looking northwest. - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, 62-foot Concrete Arch Pine Creek Bridge, Spanning Clear Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  1. 121. Credit JE. Galpin Creek ditch, a feeder leading water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. Credit JE. Galpin Creek ditch, a feeder leading water to the Keswick ditch, supplying Volta powerhouse. (JE, v. 12 1902 p. 235). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  2. 6. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, showing bushhammered, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, showing bush-hammered, recessed panels in fascia wall - Neawanna Creek Bridge, Spanning Neawanna Creek at Milepoint 19.72 on U.S. 101 (Oregon Coast Highway), Seaside, Clatsop County, OR

  3. 5. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, showing articulated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, showing articulated fascia walls - Neawanna Creek Bridge, Spanning Neawanna Creek at Milepoint 19.72 on U.S. 101 (Oregon Coast Highway), Seaside, Clatsop County, OR

  4. 8. DETAIL VIEW OF DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'HARP CREEK, LUTEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW OF DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'HARP CREEK, LUTEN BRIDGE CO., CONTRACTOR, ARKANSAS STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT, 1928' - Harp Creek Bridge, Spans Harp Creek at State Highway 7, Harrison, Boone County, AR

  5. 2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. 5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, deck view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  7. 4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, elevation view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. 1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion Great Smoky Mountains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  9. 59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next to powerhouse. Note height of water in relation to tailraces. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  10. 2. 1994 AERIAL PERSPECTIVE OF BISHOP CREEK WITH OWENS VALLEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 1994 AERIAL PERSPECTIVE OF BISHOP CREEK WITH OWENS VALLEY AND WHITE MOUNTAINS IN BACKGROUND, SOUTH LAKE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  11. Impacts of electronic deer exclusion fencing and soils on plant species abundance, richness, and diversity following clearcutting in Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Jonathan Lyon; William E. Sharpe

    1995-01-01

    Electric deer exclusion fencing has become a widely used management tool to promote hardwood regeneration in high deer browsing intensity areas. To assess the impacts of deer browsing on hardwood regeneration and vegetation patterns on clearcuts, six clearcuts with paired electric fenced and unfenced treatments were investigated. Additional data were collected on 10...

  12. Incorporating farmer observations in efforts to manage bovine tuberculosis using barrier fencing at the wildlife-livestock interface.

    PubMed

    Brook, Ryan K

    2010-05-01

    A federal and provincial cost-shared program was initiated in 2001 around Riding Mountain National Park in southwestern Manitoba, Canada to provide free game wire barrier fences for baled hay storage areas to prevent transmission of TB among cattle (Bos taurus), wild elk (Cervus elaphus), and deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Farmer observations of cervids on their farms were evaluated by interviewing 50 farmers that owned a game wire fence for >1 year. Of those interviewed, 82% reported some type of elk or deer damage to hay bales in the field or in their yard prior to fencing. After fencing, 23% of respondents reported some annual damage to stored hay bales that were not inside the fence, but there was a 100% decrease in the estimated annual value of hay losses. Incursions of deer inside the barrier fence were reported by 18% of respondents and most of these were due to leaving gates open. No incursions of elk inside a barrier fence were reported. Despite the important successes achieved, barrier fencing of hay bales alone does not completely protect cattle from bovine tuberculosis.

  13. Fencing network direct memory access data transfers in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Mamidala, Amith R.

    2015-07-14

    Fencing direct memory access (`DMA`) data transfers in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer, the PAMI including data communications endpoints, each endpoint including specifications of a client, a context, and a task, the endpoints coupled for data communications through the PAMI and through DMA controllers operatively coupled to a deterministic data communications network through which the DMA controllers deliver data communications deterministically, including initiating execution through the PAMI of an ordered sequence of active DMA instructions for DMA data transfers between two endpoints, effecting deterministic DMA data transfers through a DMA controller and the deterministic data communications network; and executing through the PAMI, with no FENCE accounting for DMA data transfers, an active FENCE instruction, the FENCE instruction completing execution only after completion of all DMA instructions initiated prior to execution of the FENCE instruction for DMA data transfers between the two endpoints.

  14. Fencing network direct memory access data transfers in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Mamidala, Amith R.

    2015-07-07

    Fencing direct memory access (`DMA`) data transfers in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer, the PAMI including data communications endpoints, each endpoint including specifications of a client, a context, and a task, the endpoints coupled for data communications through the PAMI and through DMA controllers operatively coupled to a deterministic data communications network through which the DMA controllers deliver data communications deterministically, including initiating execution through the PAMI of an ordered sequence of active DMA instructions for DMA data transfers between two endpoints, effecting deterministic DMA data transfers through a DMA controller and the deterministic data communications network; and executing through the PAMI, with no FENCE accounting for DMA data transfers, an active FENCE instruction, the FENCE instruction completing execution only after completion of all DMA instructions initiated prior to execution of the FENCE instruction for DMA data transfers between the two endpoints.

  15. The aerodynamic and heat transfer effects of an endwall boundary layer fence in a 90 degree turning square duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Dean H.

    1994-05-01

    This experimental study investigates the utility of boundary layer fences in turbine passage flow. Boundary layer fences have recently been reintroduced as a possible method to achieve favorable effects in turbines. Previous studies have used linear cascades which necessarily introduce a horseshoe vortex resulting from the endwall boundary layer impinging on the blade leading edge. The present study uses a curved square duct that exhibits no horseshoe vortex, but does have the characteristic passage vortices of a turning flow. The turbine passage is simulated to study the interaction effects of the boundary layer fence and the passage flow dominated by the passage vortices. Specifically, a single boundary layer fence of varying dimensions is attached to a heated endwall of the duct. The flow is fully turbulent at the inlet of the duct. Five-hole probe and liquid crystal thermography experimental techniques are used to determine the changes in the aerodynamic flowfield and the heat transfer coefficient of the heated endwall as compared to the same duct with no fence. Hotwire measurements are also presented for the description of the inlet flow field turbulence. This study adds to the currently small volume of information on fences in passage flow in several important aspects. The effect of the fence on the passage vortex is studied in a known flow configuration. The increased pressure losses of thicker (wider) fences are investigated and results show a significant dependence on fence dimensions. Liquid crystal thermography is used to obtain a high-resolution map of the endwall heat transfer coefficient for two fence configurations.

  16. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS, (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-69) - Improvement of Anadromous Fish Habitat and Passage in Omak Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Spiering, Colleen

    2001-11-15

    BPA proposes to fund a project with the Colville Confederated Tribes that will improve spawning and rearing specifically for summer steelhead in the Omak Creek Watershed. Efforts to achieve this objective include improved livestock and forestry management and barrier removal. These techniques include exclusionary fencing, spring developments, hardened-rock crossings, road decommissioning, culvert removal and placement, riparian vegetation planting and installation of instream structures. The result of implementing these techniques will reduce fine sediment delivered to the stream channel which will result in increased hatching success of summer steelhead. Also, reestablishing riparian vegetation will provide canopy and enclose the stream channel resulting in reduced stream temperatures. Two “on-the-ground” projects are proposed for this year. One project consists of installing three instream structures and planting riparian vegetation to provide bank stability along approximately 200’ of privately owned stream bank of Omak Creek. Also a fence will be constructed to exclude the landowner’s horses. The second project consists of removal of an inadequate sized culvert (5’ diameter) and replacement with a larger bottomless arch (6’ x 12’). This project will also include seven instream structures to stabilize the stream bank both upstream and downstream of the culvert and direct flows through the center of the bottomless arch.

  17. Montezuma Creek Stability Evaluation at Site of Former Monticello Tailings Pile

    SciTech Connect

    Korte, N.

    2001-10-04

    This report documents the results of an evaluation of stream stability for Montezuma Creek downstream of the former uranium and vanadium millsite at Monticello, Utah. The work was performed by personnel from Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Environmental Technology Section (ETS). ORNL/ETS was the Independent Verification Contractor (IVC) for the Monticello projects, and it established independent verification strategies that provided the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with a third-party assessment of whether remedial action had effectively reduced levels of contamination and whether supporting documentation that described the remediation was adequate. The DOE regulation 10 CFR 1022, which implements Executive Orders 11988 and 11990 for the protection of wetlands and floodplains, provided the regulatory rationale for the activity. This report documents both the impact of millsite remedial activities and postremediation conditions of Montezuma Creek. The scientific rationale for the stream survey was that conventional engineering practices do not adequately account for varying hydrologic regimes nor do they address the entire riparian zone as an interrelated unit. As a result, modifications to streams consistently cause damage to the environment by increasing erosion and sedimentation. Field activities included the establishment of permanent cross sections and periodic measurements and surveys of physical characteristics. The data demonstrated an increase in downstream stream bank erosion when activities at the millsite were greatest. Note, however, that agricultural practices have also contributed to erosion and bank instability. Nevertheless, an increase in fine sediment and bank recession were correlated to the construction. In addition, the project documented the failure of best management practices such as silt fences, to control sediment loss. Furthermore, conventional engineering designs were used to reroute Montezuma Creek, an action that will

  18. SANDY CREEK ROADLESS AREA, MISSISSIPPI.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haley, Boyd R.; Bitar, Richard F.

    1984-01-01

    The Sandy Creek Roadless Area includes about 3. 7 sq mi in the southeastern part of Adams County, Mississippi. On the basis of a mineral survey, the area offers little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources but has a probable resource potential for oil and natural gas. It is possible that wells drilled deep enough to penetrate the older reservoirs will encounter significant quantities of oil and natural gas in the roadless area. The deposits of gravel, sand, and clay present in the area could be utilized in the construction industry, but similar deposits elsewhere are much closer to available markets.

  19. KANAB CREEK ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billingsley, George H.; Ellis, Clarence E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, the Kanab Creek Roadless Area in north-central Arizona has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium and copper in four small areas around five collapse structures. Gypsum is abundant in layers along the canyon rim of Snake Gulch, but it is a fairly common mineral in the region outside the roadless area. There is little promise for the occurence of fossil fuels in the area. Studies of collapse structures in surrounding adjacent areas might reveal significant mineralization at depth, such as the recent discovery of the uranium ore body at depth in the Pigeon Pipe.

  20. 33 CFR 117.557 - Curtis Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Curtis Creek. 117.557 Section 117.557 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.557 Curtis Creek. The draw of the I695 bridge...

  1. 33 CFR 117.283 - Dunns Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dunns Creek. 117.283 Section 117.283 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.283 Dunns Creek. The draw of the US17 bridge, mile...

  2. 33 CFR 117.268 - Billy's Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Billy's Creek. 117.268 Section 117.268 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.268 Billy's Creek. The draw of the State...

  3. 33 CFR 117.268 - Billy's Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Billy's Creek. 117.268 Section 117.268 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.268 Billy's Creek. The draw of the State...

  4. 33 CFR 117.335 - Taylor Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Taylor Creek. 117.335 Section 117.335 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.335 Taylor Creek. The draw of US441 bridge, mile 0...

  5. 33 CFR 117.283 - Dunns Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dunns Creek. 117.283 Section 117.283 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.283 Dunns Creek. The draw of the US17 bridge, mile...

  6. 33 CFR 117.283 - Dunns Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dunns Creek. 117.283 Section 117.283 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.283 Dunns Creek. The draw of the US17 bridge, mile...

  7. 33 CFR 117.268 - Billy's Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Billy's Creek. 117.268 Section 117.268 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.268 Billy's Creek. The draw of the State...

  8. 33 CFR 117.268 - Billy's Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Billy's Creek. 117.268 Section 117.268 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.268 Billy's Creek. The draw of the State...

  9. 33 CFR 117.283 - Dunns Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dunns Creek. 117.283 Section 117.283 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.283 Dunns Creek. The draw of the US17 bridge, mile...

  10. 33 CFR 117.335 - Taylor Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylor Creek. 117.335 Section 117.335 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.335 Taylor Creek. The draw of US441 bridge, mile...

  11. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133...

  12. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133...

  13. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133...

  14. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133...

  15. Pine Creek Ranch; Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Mark E.

    2003-02-01

    This report gives information about the following four objectives: OBJECTIVE 1--Gather scientific baseline information for monitoring purposes and to assist in the development of management plans for Pine Creek Ranch; OBJECTIVE 2--Complete and implement management plans; OBJECTIVE 3--Protect, manage and enhance the assets and resources of Pine Creek Ranch; and OBJECTIVE 4--Deliverables.

  16. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the Baltimore...

  17. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  18. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  19. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  20. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  1. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  2. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draw of the...

  3. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draw of the...

  4. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draw of the...

  5. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the...

  6. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  7. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  8. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  9. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133...

  10. "Visit to Caspar Creek, northern California"

    Treesearch

    Nick Schofield

    1989-01-01

    As part of a brief study tour in California, I had the good fortune of spending a very pleasant day on the Caspar Creek watershed, ably guided by Peter Cafferata and Liz Keppeler. Amongst the many notable achievements of the Caspar Creek Study is its longevity. The study started in 1962 and has evolved over time

  11. 33 CFR 117.725 - Manantico Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manantico Creek. 117.725 Section 117.725 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.725 Manantico Creek. The draw of...

  12. 33 CFR 117.745 - Rancocas Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rancocas Creek. 117.745 Section 117.745 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.745 Rancocas Creek. (a) The...

  13. 33 CFR 117.732 - Nacote Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nacote Creek. 117.732 Section 117.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.732 Nacote Creek. (a) The Route 9 bridge,...

  14. 33 CFR 117.750 - Schellenger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Schellenger Creek. 117.750 Section 117.750 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.750 Schellenger Creek. The draw...

  15. 33 CFR 117.732 - Nacote Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nacote Creek. 117.732 Section 117.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.732 Nacote Creek. (a) The Route 9 bridge,...

  16. 33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of...

  17. 33 CFR 117.745 - Rancocas Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rancocas Creek. 117.745 Section 117.745 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.745 Rancocas Creek. (a) The...

  18. 33 CFR 117.725 - Manantico Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manantico Creek. 117.725 Section 117.725 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.725 Manantico Creek. The draw of...

  19. 33 CFR 117.732 - Nacote Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nacote Creek. 117.732 Section 117.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.732 Nacote Creek. (a) The Route 9 bridge,...

  20. 33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of...

  1. 33 CFR 117.725 - Manantico Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manantico Creek. 117.725 Section 117.725 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.725 Manantico Creek. The draw of...

  2. 33 CFR 117.750 - Schellenger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Schellenger Creek. 117.750 Section 117.750 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.750 Schellenger Creek. The draw...

  3. 33 CFR 117.750 - Schellenger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Schellenger Creek. 117.750 Section 117.750 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.750 Schellenger Creek. The draw...

  4. 33 CFR 117.725 - Manantico Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manantico Creek. 117.725 Section 117.725 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.725 Manantico Creek. The draw of...

  5. 33 CFR 117.750 - Schellenger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Schellenger Creek. 117.750 Section 117.750 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.750 Schellenger Creek. The draw...

  6. 33 CFR 117.732 - Nacote Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nacote Creek. 117.732 Section 117.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.732 Nacote Creek. (a) The Route 9 bridge,...

  7. 33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of...

  8. 33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of...

  9. 33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of...

  10. 33 CFR 117.750 - Schellenger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Schellenger Creek. 117.750 Section 117.750 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.750 Schellenger Creek. The draw...

  11. 33 CFR 117.745 - Rancocas Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rancocas Creek. 117.745 Section 117.745 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.745 Rancocas Creek. (a) The...

  12. 33 CFR 117.725 - Manantico Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manantico Creek. 117.725 Section 117.725 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.725 Manantico Creek. The draw of...

  13. 33 CFR 117.732 - Nacote Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nacote Creek. 117.732 Section 117.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.732 Nacote Creek. (a) The Route 9 bridge,...

  14. 33 CFR 117.185 - Pacheco Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacheco Creek. 117.185 Section 117.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.185 Pacheco Creek. The draw of the Contra Costa County highway bridge, mile 1.0,...

  15. 33 CFR 117.571 - Spa Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spa Creek. 117.571 Section 117.571 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.571 Spa Creek. The S181 bridge, mile 4.0, at...

  16. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  17. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  18. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  19. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  20. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  1. 2. View of McKenzieRichey property from north fence line. Barn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of McKenzie-Richey property from north fence line. Barn with wood shed on left edge, root cellar behind trees, house in center, and garage in foreground, facing south - McKenzie Property, North Bank of Sailor Gulch 750 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  2. CONTROL HOUSE, EXCLUSION AREA, TRA621. ELEVATIONS, FLOOR PLAN, FENCE DETAILS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTROL HOUSE, EXCLUSION AREA, TRA-621. ELEVATIONS, FLOOR PLAN, FENCE DETAILS, TURNSTILE SECTION. BLAW-KNOX 3150-821-1, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0621-00-098-100710, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Stress Reduction and Mood Enhancement in Four Exercise Modes: Swimming, Body Conditioning, Hatha Yoga, and Fencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Bonnie G.; Owen, David R.

    1988-01-01

    Differences in mood before and after class of college students taking different courses (swimming, body conditioning, hatha yoga, fencing exercise, and lecture) were analyzed using the Profile Mood States and the State Anxiety Inventory. Results suggest that courses which meet four requirements involving aerobics, noncompetitiveness,…

  4. Responses of northern red oak seedlings to lime and deer exclosure fencing in Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Robert P. Long; Patrick H. Brose; Stephen B. Horsley

    2012-01-01

    In Pennsylvania, two hypotheses compete to explain the chronic oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration problem: excessive deer browsing and soil cation depletion. We tested these hypotheses by evaluating the effect of forest liming and deer exclosure fencing on northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedling growth and nutrition in five...

  5. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  6. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  7. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  8. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  9. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  10. Stress Reduction and Mood Enhancement in Four Exercise Modes: Swimming, Body Conditioning, Hatha Yoga, and Fencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Bonnie G.; Owen, David R.

    1988-01-01

    Differences in mood before and after class of college students taking different courses (swimming, body conditioning, hatha yoga, fencing exercise, and lecture) were analyzed using the Profile Mood States and the State Anxiety Inventory. Results suggest that courses which meet four requirements involving aerobics, noncompetitiveness,…

  11. Bowling-Fencing Guide with Official Rules. January 1973 - January 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docherty, Ethel, Ed.; Curry, Nancy L., Ed.

    Rules for women's bowling and fencing from January 1973 to January 1975 are discussed. Standards in sports for girls and women are detailed along with the Division for Girls and Women's Sports (DGWS) statement of beliefs. Specific articles dealing with bowling skills, norms, and rules for women are included. Articles are also included on the…

  12. Advanced Oak Seedling Development as Influenced by Shelterwood Treatments, Competition Control, Deer Fencing, and Prescribed Fire

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller; Patrick H. Brose; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    2017-01-01

    Advanced northern red oak (Quercus rubra) seedlings in an 85-year-old forest located in north-central Pennsylvania were observed for 10 years after manipulation of available sunlight by shelterwood treatments, reduction of interfering plants by broadcast herbicides and/or a single prescribed fire, and reduction of deer damage by fencing. Twenty-...

  13. Summary of South Fence Road phase II 1993 field operations at site SFR-3

    SciTech Connect

    Foutz, W.L.; McCord, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    This report is a basic data report fro field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-3P and SFR-3T. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

  14. Summary of South Fence Road phase II 1993 field operations at Site SFR-4

    SciTech Connect

    Foutz, W.L.; McCord, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    This report is a basic data report for field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-4P and SFR-4T. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

  15. Identifying On-Orbit Test Targets for Space Fence Operational Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechkis, D.; Pacheco, N.; Botting, T.

    2014-09-01

    Space Fence will be an integrated system of two ground-based, S-band (2 to 4 GHz) phased-array radars located in Kwajalein and perhaps Western Australia [1]. Space Fence will cooperate with other Space Surveillance Network sensors to provide space object tracking and radar characterization data to support U.S. Strategic Command space object catalog maintenance and other space situational awareness needs. We present a rigorous statistical test design intended to test Space Fence to the letter of the program requirements as well as to characterize the system performance across the entire operational envelope. The design uses altitude, size, and inclination as independent factors in statistical tests of dependent variables (e.g., observation accuracy) linked to requirements. The analysis derives the type and number of necessary test targets. Comparing the resulting sample sizes with the number of currently known targets, we identify those areas where modelling and simulation methods are needed. Assuming hypothetical Kwajalein radar coverage and a conservative number of radar passes per object per day, we conclude that tests involving real-world space objects should take no more than 25 days to evaluate all operational requirements; almost 60 percent of the requirements can be tested in a single day and nearly 90 percent can be tested in one week or less. Reference: [1] L. Haines and P. Phu, Space Fence PDR Concept Development Phase, 2011 AMOS Conference Technical Papers.

  16. 123. ARAI Substation (ARA726) plan, elevation, security fence details, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. ARA-I Substation (ARA-726) plan, elevation, security fence details, and sections. Norman Engineering Company 961-area/SF-726-E-1. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0726-10-613-102778. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. View west of the BurrillPeterson Monument and fenced family plot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west of the Burrill-Peterson Monument and fenced family plot in the Female Union Band Cemetery. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Over the Fence: Learning about Education for Sustainability with New Tools and Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClam, Sherie; Diefenbacher, Lori

    2015-01-01

    The metaphor of talking "over the fence" underscores the neutrality of tools. Shovels and hoes do the job, but the gardener creates the transformation of earth to food. Each garden requires a unique approach. Such are the tools of education for sustainable development (ESD). Pre-packaged textbooks and toolkits provide definitions and…

  19. Effect of dual-attention task on attack and defensive actions in fencing.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Davila, Marcos; Rojas, F Javier; Gutiérrez-Cruz, Carmen; Navarro, Enrique

    2017-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect that the presence of two stimuli that require two different responses (dual-attention) has both, on offensive reaction-response time to a light stimulus, and on defensive response time when the stimulus is a real fencing attack. Twenty-five elite fencers and a fencing master were included in the study. The equipment included four force plates adapted to a scaffold that served as a fencing piste. Two force plates were placed, at the start position, under the fencer's feet and another two plates were placed under the master's feet. The results demonstrate that choice reaction time to visual stimuli increases in dual-task conditions with respect to simple reaction time, whereas the mean horizontal force tends to decrease in dual-task. However, when the stimulus was an opponent's movement, dual-task conditions did not have any effect on the time required to initiate a defensive action. The changes in reaction time when real movements were used as stimuli challenge the validity of the reaction time to visual stimuli paradigm as a predictor of performance in fencing. Also, the results obtained demonstrate that perceptual and attentional processes play a major role in fencer performance in real competition.

  20. The Chain-Link Fence Model: A Framework for Creating Security Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    A long standing problem in information technology security is how to help reduce the security footprint. Many specific proposals exist to address specific problems in information technology security. Most information technology solutions need to be repeatable throughout the course of an information systems lifecycle. The Chain-Link Fence Model is…

  1. A Fencing Project. Youth Training Scheme. Core Exemplar Work Based Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Staff Coll., Blagdon (England).

    This trainer's guide is intended to assist supervisors of work-based career training projects in helping students plan, cost, and carry out the building of a post and wire fence. The guide is one in a series of core curriculum modules that is intended for use in combination on -and off-the-job programs to familiarize youth with the skills,…

  2. Phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometer for distributed fence-perimeter intrusion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xuhui; Zhou, Deliang; Lu, Bin; Liu, Sufang; Pan, Ming

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a distributed fence-perimeter intrusion detection system using a phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometer (Φ-OTDR) with several advantages, such as high spatial resolution, large detection range, single-end measurement and immunity from electromagnetic interference. By the effort of generating a high-extinction-ratio optical pulse, optimizing the incident optical power and utilizing a differential algorithm, a home-made Φ-OTDR system, as a distributed vibration sensor, is implemented with a spatial resolution of 10 meter. Nowadays, a fence-perimeter intrusion detection system is desired for the security monitor. We set up a fence perimeter using a fiber cable containing only one fiber and a field experiment is carried out based on our Φ-OTDR system. Various vibration events are recorded and analyzed, including wind blowing, personal climbing and knocking. The experiment results reveal unique vibration characteristics of different events in the frequency domain and confirm the effectiveness of the homemade Φ-OTDR system in the application of the distributed fence-perimeter intrusion detection.

  3. [Cranial wounds of the skull caused by a fencing-foil].

    PubMed

    Calvo-Rubal, A; Martínez, F; Tarigo, A

    2006-12-01

    Penetrating stab cranial wounds of the skull by fencing-foil are rare in western countries. This 46-year-old man suffered a penetrating stab wound of the skull through the right orbital region. As a consequence he developed an intracranial hematoma requiring surgical evacuation. Damage of intracranial contents due to transorbital penetrating objects other than missiles is a rare event.

  4. The Chain-Link Fence Model: A Framework for Creating Security Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    A long standing problem in information technology security is how to help reduce the security footprint. Many specific proposals exist to address specific problems in information technology security. Most information technology solutions need to be repeatable throughout the course of an information systems lifecycle. The Chain-Link Fence Model is…

  5. An armored-cable-based fiber Bragg grating sensor array for perimeter fence intrusion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jianzhong; Dong, Bo; Varghese, Paulose; Phua, Jiliang; Foo, Siang Fook

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, an armored-cable-based optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor array, for perimeter fence intrusion detection, is demonstrated and some of the field trial results are reported. The field trial was conducted at a critical local installation in Singapore in December 2010. The sensor array was put through a series of both simulated and live intrusion scenarios to test the stability and suitability of operation in the local environmental conditions and to determine its capabilities in detecting and reporting these intrusions accurately to the control station. Such a sensor array can provide perimeter intrusion detection with fine granularity and preset pin-pointing accuracy. The various types of intrusions included aided or unaided climbs, tampering and cutting of the fence, etc. The unique sensor packaging structure provides high sensitivity, crush resistance and protection against rodents. It is also capable of resolving nuisance events such as rain, birds sitting on the fence or seismic vibrations. These sensors are extremely sensitive with a response time of a few seconds. They can be customized for a desired spatial resolution and pre-determined sensitivity. Furthermore, it is easy to cascade a series of such sensors to monitor and detect intrusion events over a long stretch of fence line. Such sensors can be applied to real-time intrusion detection for perimeter security, pipeline security and communications link security.

  6. An armored-cable-based fiber Bragg grating sensor array for perimeter fence intrusion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jianzhong; Dong, Bo; Varghese, Paulose; Phua, Jiliang; Foo, Siang Fook

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an armored-cable-based optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor array, for perimeter fence intrusion detection, is demonstrated and some of the field trial results are reported. The field trial was conducted at a critical local installation in Singapore in December 2010. The sensor array was put through a series of both simulated and live intrusion scenarios to test the stability and suitability of operation in the local environmental conditions and to determine its capabilities in detecting and reporting these intrusions accurately to the control station. Such a sensor array can provide perimeter intrusion detection with fine granularity and preset pin-pointing accuracy. The various types of intrusions included aided or unaided climbs, tampering and cutting of the fence, etc. The unique sensor packaging structure provides high sensitivity, crush resistance and protection against rodents. It is also capable of resolving nuisance events such as rain, birds sitting on the fence or seismic vibrations. These sensors are extremely sensitive with a response time of a few seconds. They can be customized for a desired spatial resolution and pre-determined sensitivity. Furthermore, it is easy to cascade a series of such sensors to monitor and detect intrusion events over a long stretch of fence line. Such sensors can be applied to real-time intrusion detection for perimeter security, pipeline security and communications link security.

  7. Service life of fence posts treated by double-diffusion methods

    Treesearch

    Donald C. Markstrom; Lee R. Gjovik

    1999-01-01

    Service-life tests indicate that Engelmann spruce, lodgepole pine, and Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir fence posts treated by double-diffusion methods performed excellently after field exposure of 30 years with no failures. The test site was located in the semiarid Central Plains near Nunn, Colorado. Although Engelmann spruce posts generally defy treatment by other treating...

  8. Service life of treated and untreated fence posts on the Pringle Falls Experimental Forest.

    Treesearch

    Walter G. Dahms

    1952-01-01

    The service life of lodgepole pine fence posts can be greatly extended by a good preservative treatment, After more than 15 years, however, little or no difference can be found between treated lodgepole pine posts and untreated Western redcedar posts. These conclusions have been reached as a result of observations on 517 lodgepole pins posts for 16 years and 355 cedar...

  9. Over the Fence: Learning about Education for Sustainability with New Tools and Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClam, Sherie; Diefenbacher, Lori

    2015-01-01

    The metaphor of talking "over the fence" underscores the neutrality of tools. Shovels and hoes do the job, but the gardener creates the transformation of earth to food. Each garden requires a unique approach. Such are the tools of education for sustainable development (ESD). Pre-packaged textbooks and toolkits provide definitions and…

  10. Dairy farm impacts of fencing riparian land: pasture production and farm productivity.

    PubMed

    Aarons, Sharon R; Melland, Alice R; Dorling, Lianne

    2013-11-30

    Dairy farmers are encouraged to restrict stock access by fencing riparian zones to reduce stream pollution and improve biodiversity. Many farmers are reluctant to create fenced riparian zones because of the perceived loss of productive pasture. Anecdotal reports indicate that pasture production in fenced areas is especially valued during summer months when water stress is likely to limit pasture growth in other areas of the farm. We measured pasture production, botanical composition, soil moisture, and fertility in Riparian (within 20 m of the riverbank), Flat (greater than 20 but less than 50 m from the riverbank), and Hill (elevated) areas on three commercial dairy farms from October 2006 to November 2007 in south eastern Australia. Riparian and Flat areas produced significantly more pasture, with on average approximately 25% more dry matter per ha grown in these areas compared with Hill paddocks. Percentage ryegrass was 14% lower on Hill slopes compared with Riparian and Flat areas and was compensated for by only a 5% increase in other grass species. Significant seasonal effects were observed with the difference in pasture production between Hill, and Riparian and Flat areas most pronounced in summer, due to soil moisture limitations on Hill paddocks. To examine potential productivity impacts of this lost pasture, we used a questionnaire-based survey to interview the farmers regarding their farm and riparian management activities. The additional pasture that would have been available if the riverbanks were not fenced to their current widths ranged from 6.2 to 27.2 t DM for the 2006/2007 year and would have been grown on 0.4-3.4% of their milking area. If this pasture was harvested instead of grazed, the farmers could have saved between $2000 and $8000 of their purchased fodder costs in that year. By fencing their riparian areas to 20 m for biodiversity benefits, between 2.2% and 9.8% of their milking area would be out of production amounting to about $16

  11. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-152) - Idaho Model Watershed Habitat Projects – Zeigler Riparian Fence Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Shannon C.

    2004-06-30

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund the installation of approximately 600 feet of jack post and pole fence along a side channel to the Salmon River in Custer County, Idaho. In 2003 BPA funded the installation of approximately 1,300 feet of riparian fence along the Salmon River at this site. The proposed 600-foot fence addition will meet or exceed BPA’s minimum requirement of a 35-foot setback. This addition will connect with the Phase I fence and will protect a spring and side channel from livestock disturbance. The goal of this project is to enhance salmon and steelhead rearing and migration habitat through exclusion fencing.

  12. Reduction in size and unsteadiness of a VTOL ground vortex by ground fences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimbala, John M.; Billet, Michael L.; Harman, Todd B.

    1993-01-01

    A ground vortex, produced when a jet impinges on the ground in the presence of cross flow, is encountered by V/STOL aircraft hovering near the ground and is known to be hazardous to the aircraft. The objective of this research was to identify a ground-based technique by which both the mean size and fluctuation in size of the ground vortex could be reduced. A simple passive method was identified and examined in the laboratory. Specifically, one or two fine wire mesh screens (ground fences) bent in a horseshoe shape and located on the ground in front of the jet impingement point proved to be very effective. The ground fences work by decreasing the momentum of the upstream-traveling wall jet, effectively causing a higher freestream-to-jet velocity ratio (V(sub infinity)/V(sub j)) and thus, a ground vortex smaller in size and unsteadiness. At(V(sub infinity)/V(sub j)) = 0.15, the addition of a single ground fence resulted in a 70 percent reduction in mean size of the ground vortex. With two ground fences, the mean size decreased by about 85 percent. Fluctuations in size decreased nearly in proportion to the mean size, for both the single and double fence configurations. These results were consistent over a wide range of jet Reynolds number (10(exp 4) less than Re(sub jet) less than 10(exp 5)); further development and full-scale Reynolds number testing are required, however, to determine if this technique can be made practical for the case of actual VTOL aircraft.

  13. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 6): Tar Creek (Ottawa County), Operable Unit 2, Ottawa County, OK, August 27, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the residential areas of the Tar Creek Superfund Site (the Site), in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. The remedy addresses the contamination from mining waste in the residential areas of the Site. The major components of the selected remedy include: Excavation of lead-contaminated surface soil in residential areas; Replacement of excavated soil with clean soil and restoration of the remediated areas; Disposal of excavated soil on-Site in dry mining waste areas remote from the residential areas or, in the event of inability to dispose of excavated materials on-Site, disposal off-Site in an approved landfill; Covering or replacement of mining waste in traffic areas located near residences; Restriction of access to mining waste areas located near residences by use of physical barriers (e.g., fences and warning signs); and County-wide implementation of institutional controls, including community protective measures, to supplement engineering response actions.

  14. Hydrology of the Johnson Creek Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Karl K.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    The Johnson Creek basin is an important resource in the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Johnson Creek forms a wildlife and recreational corridor through densely populated areas of the cities of Milwaukie, Portland, and Gresham, and rural and agricultural areas of Multnomah and Clackamas Counties. The basin has changed as a result of agricultural and urban development, stream channelization, and construction of roads, drains, and other features characteristic of human occupation. Flooding of Johnson Creek is a concern for the public and for water management officials. The interaction of the groundwater and surface-water systems in the Johnson Creek basin also is important. The occurrence of flooding from high groundwater discharge and from a rising water table prompted this study. As the Portland metropolitan area continues to grow, human-induced effects on streams in the Johnson Creek basin will continue. This report provides information on the groundwater and surface-water systems over a range of hydrologic conditions, as well as the interaction these of systems, and will aid in management of water resources in the area. High and low flows of Crystal Springs Creek, a tributary to Johnson Creek, were explained by streamflow and groundwater levels collected for this study, and results from previous studies. High flows of Crystal Springs Creek began in summer 1996, and did not diminish until 2000. Low streamflow of Crystal Springs Creek occurred in 2005. Flow of Crystal Springs Creek related to water-level fluctuations in a nearby well, enabling prediction of streamflow based on groundwater level. Holgate Lake is an ephemeral lake in Southeast Portland that has inundated residential areas several times since the 1940s. The water-surface elevation of the lake closely tracked the elevation of the water table in a nearby well, indicating that the occurrence of the lake is an expression of the water table. Antecedent conditions of the groundwater level and autumn

  15. 1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING BUILDING 108 AT PHOTO RIGHT AND BUILDING 105 AT PHOTO CENTER BEHIND TREE. RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE IS PARTIALLY VISIBLE AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT). VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  16. 78 FR 76750 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Chambers Creek, Steilacoom, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Chambers Creek, Steilacoom, WA AGENCY... (BNSF) Chambers Creek Railway Bridge across Chambers Creek, mile 0.0, at Steilacoom, WA. The deviation... Bridge across Chambers Creek, mile 0.0, near Steilacoom, WA. The ] bridge provides 50 feet of vertical...

  17. 81. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING NEW CREEK CHANNEL UNDER CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING NEW CREEK CHANNEL UNDER CONSTRUCTION AT P STREET BEND, FROM 1940 REPORT ON PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT OF ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY, SECTION II (ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY FILE, HISTORY DEPARTMENT ARCHIVES, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, WASHINGTON, DC). - Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. 1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING THE RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO RIGHT (TAILRACE IN FOREGROUND), BUILDING 106 NEXT TO THE POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER, AND BUILDING 103 AT UPPER PHOTO LEFT ABOVE AND BEHIND BUILDING 106. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  19. Impact of fencing on the conservation of wildlife habitat in a sub-mountainous open scrub forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Mansoor; Naz, Nargis; Ashraf, Muhammad; Aqeel Ahmad, M. Sajid; Nawaz, Tahira; Chaudhry, Abdul Aleem

    2012-11-01

    In Pakistan, Lehri/Jindi evergreen open scrub forest is a characteristic habitat of critically or locally endangered species including Punjab urial (Ovis vignei punjabiensis) and leopard (Panthera pardus), and the important game species desert hare (Lepus nigricollis), black francolin (Francolinus francolinus), grey francolin (Francolinus pondicerianus), see-see partridge (Ammoperdix griseogularis) and chukor partridge (Alectoris chukar). Four separate fenced enclosures were established to maintain captive Punjab urial population in a semi-wild state. Vegetation surveys were conducted through permanently laid quadrats to explore its impact on native flora in 1987-1992 before the fencing was installed and then 2003-2007 over a decade after the fencing was installed.

  20. Flood discharges and hydraulics near the mouths of Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, studied the frequency and magnitude of flooding near the mouths of five tributaries to the New River in the New River Gorge National River. The 100-year peak discharge at each tributary was determined from regional frequency equations. The 100-year discharge at Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek was 3,400 cubic feet per second, 640 cubic feet per second, 8,200 cubic feet per second, 7,100 cubic feet per second, and 9,400 cubic feet per second, respectively. Flood elevations for each tributary were determined by application of a steady-state, one-dimensional flow model. Manning's roughness coefficients for the stream channels ranged from 0.040 to 0.100. Bridges that would be unable to contain the 100-year flood within the bridge opening included: the State Highway 82 bridge on Wolf Creek, the second Fayette County Highway 25 bridge upstream from the confluence with New River on Dunloup Creek, and an abandoned log bridge on Mill Creek.

  1. Flood of August 27-28, 1977, West Cache Creek and Blue Beaver Creek, southwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corley, Robert K.; Huntzinger, Thomas L.

    1979-01-01

    This report documents a major storm which occurred August 27-28, 1977, in southwest Oklahoma near the communities of Cache and Faxon, OK. Blue Beaver Creek and West Cache Creek and their tributaries experienced extensive flooding that caused an estimated $1 million in damages. Reported rainfall amounts of 8 to 12 inches in 6 hours indicate the storm had a frequency in excess of the 100-year rainfall. Peak discharges on Blue Beaver Creek near Cache and West Cache Creek near Faxon were 13,500 cubic feet per second and 45,700 cubic feet per second respectively. The estimated flood frequency was in excess of 100 years on Blue Beaver Creek and in excess of 50 years on West Cache Creek. Unit runoff on small basins were in excess of 2000 cubic feet per second per square mile. Surveyed highwater marks were used to map the flooded area. (USGS)

  2. Steel Creek wildlife: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Giffin, M.A.; Patterson, K.K.

    1988-03-01

    Reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek below L-Lake were assessed in monthly or quarterly sampling programs. Thirty-eight species of reptiles or amphibians were collected during 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment, and in the delta and channel. Juvenile turtles and alligators, and larval amphibians were observed or collected during the study, indicating continued reproduction in Steel Creek. The reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek show no indication of any effect due to the impoundment of the lake or the operation of L-Reactor. Waterfowl and associated birds in Steel Creek below L-Lake were observed, in conjunction with other sampling programs, during winter--spring and fall--winter migrations. Nine species of waterfowl and five species of associated birds were observed in 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment and in the delta and channel.

  3. 78 FR 5798 - Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of Petition for Enforcement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of... Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC and Grouse Creek Wind Park...

  4. Panther Creek, Idaho, Habitat Rehabilitation, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, Dudley W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to achieve full chinook salmon and steelhead trout production in the Panther Creek, Idaho, basin. Plans were developed to eliminate the sources of toxic effluent entering Panther Creek. Operation of a cobalt-copper mine since the 1930's has resulted in acid, metal-bearing drainage entering the watershed from underground workings and tailings piles. The report discusses plans for eliminating and/or treating the effluent to rehabilitate the water quality of Panther Creek and allow the reestablishment of salmon and trout spawning runs. (ACR)

  5. LOST CREEK ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Campbell, Harry W.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral-resource investigations identified no mineral-resource potential in the Lost Creek Roadless Area, California. Sand and gravel have been mined from alluvial flood-plain deposits less than 1 mi outside the roadless area; these deposits are likely to extend into the roadless area beneath a Holocene basalt flow that may be as much as 40 ft thick. An oil and gas lease application which includes the eastern portion of the roadless area is pending. Abundant basalt in the area can be crushed and used as aggregate, but similar deposits of volcanic cinders or sand and gravel in more favorable locations are available outside the roadless area closer to major markets. No indication of coal or geothermal energy resources was identified.

  6. Steel Creek fish, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III

    1992-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The lake has an average width of approximately 600 m and extends along the Steel Creek valley approximately 7000 m from the dam to the headwaters. Water level is maintained at a normal pool elevation of 58 m above mean sea level by overflow into a vertical intake tower that has multilevel discharge gates. The intake tower is connected to a horizontal conduit that passes through the dam and releases water into Steel Creek. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

  7. In fencing, what gives left-handers the edge? Views from the present and the distant past.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lauren Julius

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies show that in the sport of fencing left-handers have an advantage over right-handers. This was recognised by fencing masters as early as the sixteenth century. They also agreed that the advantage was due to left-handers' numbers-that being a minority gave them more opportunities to compete against right-handers than right-handers had against them. Fencing masters today have reached the same conclusion, as have laterality researchers, who see the advantage as an example of what is now called a "frequency-dependent" effect. However, some researchers have also suggested other possibilities that relate the advantage to natural differences in ability. This article presents a sampling of views of fencing masters from the past, along with a summary and analysis of explanations, old and new.

  8. CTUIR Grande Ronde River Basin Watershed Restoration Program McCoy Creek/McIntyre Creek Road Crossing, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.

    1999-07-01

    This Annual Report provides a detailed overview of watershed restoration accomplishments achieved by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and project partners in the Upper Grande Ronde River Basin under contract with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) during the period July 1, 1997 through June 30, 1998. The Contract Agreement entitled McCoy Meadows Watershed Restoration Project (Project No.96-83-01) includes habitat restoration planning, design, and implementation in two project areas--the McCoy Meadows Ranch located in the Meadow, McCoy, and McIntyre Creek subbasins on private land and the Mainstem Grande Ronde River Habitat Enhancement Project located on private and National Forest System lands near Bird Tract Springs along the Grande Ronde River. During the contract period, the CTUIR and partners (Mark and Lorna Tipperman, landowners), Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) initiated phase 1 construction of the McCoy Meadows Restoration Project. Phase 1 involved reintroduction of a segment of McCoy Creek from its existing channelized configuration into a historic meander channel. Project efforts included bioengineering and tree/shrub planting and protection, transporting salvaged cottonwood tree boles and limbs from offsite source to the project area for utilization by resident beaver populations for forage and dam construction materials, relocation of existing BPA/ODFW riparian corridor fencing to outer edges of meadow floodplain, establishment of pre-project photo points, and coordination of other monitoring and evaluation efforts being led by other project partners including groundwater monitoring wells, channel cross sections, water quality monitoring stations, juvenile population sampling index sites, redd surveys, and habitat surveys. Project activities also included

  9. Proctor Creek Watershed/Atlanta (Georgia)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Proctor Creek Watershed/Atlanta (Georgia) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  10. News and Updates from Proctor Creek

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains news and updates from the Proctor Creek Urban Waters Partnership location. They span ongoing projects, programs, and initiatives that this Atlanta-based partnership is taking on in its work plan.

  11. Proctor Creek Boone Boulevard Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Proctor Creek watershed and community, green infrastructure, the Boone Boulevard Green Street Project Conceptual Design, and the added value and application of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to the project.

  12. 33 CFR 117.929 - Durham Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.929 Durham Creek. The removable span of the... Charleston of an emergency in the Bushy Park Reservoir, the span shall be removed as soon as possible to...

  13. 33 CFR 117.929 - Durham Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.929 Durham Creek. The removable span of the... Charleston of an emergency in the Bushy Park Reservoir, the span shall be removed as soon as possible to...

  14. 33 CFR 117.929 - Durham Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.929 Durham Creek. The removable span of the... Charleston of an emergency in the Bushy Park Reservoir, the span shall be removed as soon as possible to...

  15. Featured Partner: Saddle Creek Logistics Services

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EPA fact sheet spotlights Saddle Creek Logistics as a SmartWay partner committed to sustainability in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by freight transportation, partly by growing its compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles for

  16. 33 CFR 117.1057 - Skamokawa Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1057 Skamokawa Creek. The draw of the Washington State highway bridge at Skamokawa need not be opened for the passage of vessels. ...

  17. 33 CFR 117.1057 - Skamokawa Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1057 Skamokawa Creek. The draw of the Washington State highway bridge at Skamokawa need not be opened for the passage of vessels. ...

  18. 33 CFR 117.1057 - Skamokawa Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1057 Skamokawa Creek. The draw of the Washington State highway bridge at Skamokawa need not be opened for the passage of vessels. ...

  19. Update on the Caspar Creek watershed study

    Treesearch

    Peter Cafferata

    1987-01-01

    Readers of this Newsletter are aware that CDF and the USFS, through its Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Stationa at Arcata (PSW), are carrying out a long term cooperative watershed experiment in JDSF's Caspar Creek drainage.

  20. 33 CFR 117.701 - Alloway Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.701 Alloway Creek. (a) The draws of the Salem County bridges, miles 5.1 at Hancocks Bridge, and 6.5 at New Bridge, shall open on signal...

  1. 33 CFR 117.701 - Alloway Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.701 Alloway Creek. (a) The draws of the Salem County bridges, miles 5.1 at Hancocks Bridge, and 6.5 at New Bridge, shall open on signal...

  2. 33 CFR 117.701 - Alloway Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.701 Alloway Creek. (a) The draws of the Salem County bridges, miles 5.1 at Hancocks Bridge, and 6.5 at New Bridge, shall open on signal...

  3. 33 CFR 117.701 - Alloway Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.701 Alloway Creek. (a) The draws of the Salem County bridges, miles 5.1 at Hancocks Bridge, and 6.5 at New Bridge, shall open on signal...

  4. 33 CFR 117.701 - Alloway Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.701 Alloway Creek. (a) The draws of the Salem County bridges, miles 5.1 at Hancocks Bridge, and 6.5 at New Bridge, shall open on signal...

  5. 33 CFR 117.736 - Oceanport Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.736 Oceanport Creek. The drawspan for the New Jersey Transit Rail Operations Drawbridge, mile 8.4 near Oceanport, must open on signal...

  6. 33 CFR 117.736 - Oceanport Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.736 Oceanport Creek. The drawspan for the New Jersey Transit Rail Operations Drawbridge, mile 8.4 near Oceanport, must open on signal...

  7. A dolichopodid hotspot: Montana's Milligan Creek Canyon

    Treesearch

    Justin B. Runyon

    2016-01-01

    In southwest Montana, near the town of Three Forks, Milligan Creek cuts a small and seemingly mundane notch through dry limestone hills. Milligan Creek is unassuming and small enough to be effortlessly stepped over in most places. In fact, it flows underground for much of its 4-5 mile journey to the Jefferson River. Incredibly, forty-nine species of long-legged flies (...

  8. Intermediate-band photosensitive device with quantum dots embedded in energy fence barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Wei, Guodan

    2010-07-06

    A plurality of layers of a first semiconductor material and a plurality of dots-in-a-fence barriers disposed in a stack between a first electrode and a second electrode. Each dots-in-a-fence barrier consists essentially of a plurality of quantum dots of a second semiconductor material embedded between and in direct contact with two layers of a third semiconductor material. Wave functions of the quantum dots overlap as at least one intermediate band. The layers of the third semiconductor material are arranged as tunneling barriers to require a first electron and/or a first hole in a layer of the first material to perform quantum mechanical tunneling to reach the second material within a respective quantum dot, and to require a second electron and/or a second hole in a layer of the first semiconductor material to perform quantum mechanical tunneling to reach another layer of the first semiconductor material.

  9. Transition Induced by Fence Geometrics on Shuttle Orbiter at Mach 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, Joel L.

    2010-01-01

    Fence-induced transition data simulating a raised gap filler have been acquired on the wing lower surface of a Shuttle Orbiter model in the Langley 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel to compare with the Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight and HYTHIRM Experiments, and to provide additional correlation data for the Boundary Layer Transition Tool. In a qualitative assessment, the data exhibit the expected response to all parameter variations; however, it is unclear whether fully effective tripping at the fence was ever realized at any test condition with the present model hardware. A preliminary, qualitative comparison of the ground-based transition measurements with those obtained from the STS-128 HYTHIRM imagery at Mach 15 reveal similar transition-wake response characteristics in terms of the spreading and the path along the vehicle surface.

  10. A cost effective FBG-based security fence with fire alarm function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H. J.; Li, S. S.; Lu, X. L.; Wu, Y.; Rao, Y. J.

    2012-02-01

    Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) is sensitive to the temperature as well when it is measuring the strain change, which is always avoided in most measurement applications. However, in this paper strain/temperature dual sensitivity is utilized to construct a special security fence with a second function of fire threat prediction. In an FBG-based fiber fence configuration, only by characteristics analysis and identification method, it can intelligently distinguish the different effects of personal threats and fires from their different trends of the wavelength drifts. Thus without any additional temperature sensing fittings or other fire alarm systems integrated, a normal perimeter security system can possess a second function of fire prediction, which can not only monitor the intrusion induced by personal actions but also predict fire threats in advance. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the method.

  11. Modelling the effects of water-point closure and fencing removal: a GIS approach.

    PubMed

    Graz, F Patrick; Westbrooke, Martin E; Florentine, Singarayer K

    2012-08-15

    Artificial water-points in the form of troughs or ground tanks are used to augment natural water supplies within rangelands in many parts of the world. Access to such water-points leads to the development of a distinct ecological sub-system, the piosphere, where trampling and grazing impact modify the vegetation. This study aims to consolidate existing information in a GIS based model to investigate grazing patterns within the landscape. The model focuses on the closure of water-points and removal of fences on Nanya Station, New South Wales, Australia. We found that the manipulation of water-points and fences in one management intervention may change grazing activity in a way different to that which would be experienced if each had been modified separately. Such effects are further modified by the spatial distribution of the water-points and the underlying vegetation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Effects of short-term fencing on organic carbon fractions and physical stability of sandy sierozem in desert steppe of Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin-Guo; Song, Nai-Ping; Li, Xue-Bin; Liu, Bing-Ru

    2012-12-01

    In order to explore the change patterns of organic carbon fractions and physical stability of sandy sierozem in desert steppe at the early stage of fencing, 0-40 cm soil samples were collected from a 5-year fenced desert steppe (inside the fence) and a free grazing steppe (outside the fence) in Yanchi County of Ningxia, Northwest China, with the soil organic carbon, labile organic carbon, and particulate organic carbon contents and soil particle composition analyzed. No significant differences were observed in the soil organic carbon content and soil particle composition inside and outside the fence. The average soil organic carbon inside and outside the fences was 3.25 g x kg(-1), the percentages of sand, silt, and clay were averagely 72%, 16%, and 12%, respectively, and the soil physical stability index was 1.30% -1.31%. The soil active organic carbon showed a significant change in 10-20 cm layer. The soil labile organic carbon content was 0.80 g x kg(-1) inside the fence, which was significantly higher than that outside the fence (0.62 g x kg(-1)). The percentage of soil particulate organic carbon was 50.9% inside the fence, which was also significantly higher than that outside the fence (31.7%). The soil texture inside the fence changed from sandy to loam, and the soil labile organic carbon content increased gradually; while the soil texture outside the fence was sandy, and its vertical change was relatively smooth. The organic carbon of sandy si- erozem in the desert steppe under the conditions of short-term fencing was still in a balance between consumption and accumulation, the soil texture was relatively stable, and the soil physical stability changed little. It was suggested that the soil active organic carbon content and its relative percentage in 10-20 cm layer could be used as the indicators of early soil quality change of desert steppe.

  13. A triazole-bearing picket fence type nickel porphyrin as a cyanide selective allosteric host.

    PubMed

    Hong, Kyeong-Im; Yoon, Hongsik; Jang, Woo-Dong

    2015-05-01

    A triazole-bearing picket fence type nickel porphyrin (1) has been synthesized as a host compound for anion binding. Among the various anionic species examined, cyanide was the only one that affected a spectral change of 1. Moreover, 1 exhibited strong homotropic positive allosterism against cyanide binding due to an electronic effect as well as multiple hydrogen bonds formed between cyanide and the triazole groups.

  14. Analysis of Musculoskeletal Injuries Sustained in Falls From the United States-Mexico Border Fence.

    PubMed

    Burk, David R; Pah, Adam R; Ruth, John T

    2017-01-20

    Injuries sustained by unauthorized individuals who jump or fall from the United States-Mexico border fence are frequently treated by trauma centers in border states. The authors investigated patterns of musculoskeletal injury occurring in these individuals to improve emergency department assessment and to identify strategies to prevent future injuries. A retrospective chart review was performed for patients presenting to an urban, level I trauma center with musculoskeletal injuries sustained in a jump or fall from the United States-Mexico border fence between February 2004 and February 2010. Frequency of fracture by site, frequency of open fracture, and associated patterns of injury were recorded. The population was stratified by age and sex to identify disparity in injury pattern. Average length of stay and number of surgical interventions were also recorded. During the study period, 174 individuals who had jumped or fallen from the United States-Mexico border fence were identified. The population contained 93 (53%) women and 81 (47%) men with an average age of 31.5 years (range, 11-56 years). On average (±standard error), men sustained slightly more fractures than women (1.77±0.12 vs 1.43±0.07; P=.015). There were no significant differences in the number of fractures sustained between age groups. Average length of stay for patients admitted to the hospital was 3.5 days. Patients underwent an average of 0.75 surgical interventions during admission. Falls from the United States-Mexico border fence are a significant cause of morbidity among unauthorized immigrants. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.].

  15. Highly Active and Stable Fe-N-C Catalyst for Oxygen Depolarized Cathode Applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingkun; Jia, Qingying; Ghoshal, Shraboni; Liang, Wentao; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2017-09-19

    Anion immunity toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has tremendous implications in electrocatalysis with applications for fuel cells, metal-air batteries, and oxygen depolarized cathodes (ODCs) in the anodic evolution of chlorine. The necessity of exploring ORR catalysts with immunity to anion adsorption is particularly significant considering that platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts are costly and highly vulnerable to impurities such as halides. Herein, we report a metal organic framework (MOF)-derived Fe-N-C catalyst that exhibits a dramatically improved half-wave potential of 240 mV compared to the state-of-the-art RhxSy/C catalyst in a rotating disk electrode in the presence of Cl(-). The Fe-N4 active sites in Fe-N-C are intrinsically immune to Cl(-) poisoning, in contrast to Pt/C, which is severely susceptible to Cl(-) poisoning. As a result, the activity of Fe-N-C decreases only marginally in the presence of Cl(-), far exceeding that of Pt/C. The viability of this catalyst as ODCs is further demonstrated in real-life hydrochloric acid electrolyzers using highly concentrated HCl solution saturated with Cl2 gas as the electrolyte. The introduction of Fe-N-C materials as ODC catalysts here overcomes the limitations of (i) the low intrinsic ORR activity of RhxSy/C as the state-of-the-art ODC catalyst; (ii) the vulnerability to Cl(-) poisoning of Pt/C as the state-of-the-art ORR catalyst; and (iii) the high cost of precious metals in these two materials, resulting in a cost-effective ODC catalyst with the overall performance exceeding that of all previously reported materials.

  16. Acoustic resonance excitation of turbulent heat transfer and flow reattachment downstream of a fence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selcan, Claudio; Cukurel, Beni; Shashank, Judah

    2016-10-01

    The current work investigates the aero-thermal impact of standing sound waves, excited in a straight channel geometry, on turbulent, separating and reattaching flow over a fence. Effects of distinct frequency resonant forcing (ReH = 10,050 and f = 122 Hz) are quantified by wall static pressure measurements and detailed convective heat transfer distributions via liquid crystal thermometry. Acoustic boundary conditions are numerically predicted and the computed longitudinal resonance mode shapes are experimentally verified by surface microphone measurements. Findings indicate the presence of a resonant sound field to exert strong influence on local heat transfer downstream of the fence, whereas the boundary layer upstream of the obstacle remains notable unaffected. Upstream shift of the maximum heat transfer location and an earlier pressure recovery indicate a reduction in time averaged flow reattachment length of up to 37 %. Although the streamwise peak Nusselt increased by only 5 %, the heat transfer level in the vicinity of the unexcited reattachment zone was locally enhanced up to 25 %. Despite prominent impact of resonant forcing on the fence wake flow, the total pressure drop penalty remained invariant. Observations demonstrate the significant aero-thermal implications of shear layer excitation by standing sound waves superimposed on the channel flow field.

  17. Cu, Cr and As distribution in soils adjacent to pressure-treated decks, fences and poles.

    PubMed

    Chirenje, Tait; Ma, L Q; Clark, C; Reeves, M

    2003-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood has been widely used in the Southeastern United States to protect wood products from microbial and fungal decay. The aims of this study were to (1). determine the distribution of arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), and copper (Cu), in soils surrounding CCA-treated wood structures such as decks, fences and poles; and (2). evaluate the impacts of these structures on As, Cr and Cu loading of the soils. Profile and lateral soil samples were collected under CCA-treated decks and adjacent to poles and fences. The results showed elevation of As, Cr and Cu concentrations close to and under the structures, with mean As concentrations as high as 23 mg x kg(-1) close to utility poles compared with less than 3 mg x kg (-1) at distances of about 1.5 m away. Concentrations of As, Cr, and Cu decreased with depth in areas close to CCA-treated poles. However, these results were only apparent in relatively new structures. A combination of weathering and leaching with time may have reduced the impact in older poles. Increased concentrations of As, Cu and Cr were also observed close to CCA-treated decks and fences, with age showing a similar impact. These results are helpful for CCA-treated wood product users to determine the safe use of these structures.

  18. Semi-automated camera trap image processing for the detection of ungulate fence crossing events.

    PubMed

    Janzen, Michael; Visser, Kaitlyn; Visscher, Darcy; MacLeod, Ian; Vujnovic, Dragomir; Vujnovic, Ksenija

    2017-09-27

    Remote cameras are an increasingly important tool for ecological research. While remote camera traps collect field data with minimal human attention, the images they collect require post-processing and characterization before it can be ecologically and statistically analyzed, requiring the input of substantial time and money from researchers. The need for post-processing is due, in part, to a high incidence of non-target images. We developed a stand-alone semi-automated computer program to aid in image processing, categorization, and data reduction by employing background subtraction and histogram rules. Unlike previous work that uses video as input, our program uses still camera trap images. The program was developed for an ungulate fence crossing project and tested against an image dataset which had been previously processed by a human operator. Our program placed images into categories representing the confidence of a particular sequence of images containing a fence crossing event. This resulted in a reduction of 54.8% of images that required further human operator characterization while retaining 72.6% of the known fence crossing events. This program can provide researchers using remote camera data the ability to reduce the time and cost required for image post-processing and characterization. Further, we discuss how this procedure might be generalized to situations not specifically related to animal use of linear features.

  19. Time Required to Initiate a Defensive Reaction to Direct and Feint Attacks in Fencing.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Davila, Marcos; Rojas, F Javier; Gutiérrez-Cruz, Carmen; García, Carlos; Navarro, Enrique

    2016-12-01

    The two-fold purpose of this study was to analyze the time required by a fencer to initiate a defensive action in response to a direct attack, which involves identifying when the defending fencer detects the just-noticeable difference, and, secondly, to assess the effect that an attacker's rapid armed hand movement (feint attack) has on the time required to initiate a defensive move. Twenty-four elite fencers and a fencing master were included in the study. Four adapted force plates were installed on a scaffold used as a fencing piste. A 3D video analysis system recorded the location of 2 markers installed on the fencing master's shoulder and sword. The results confirm that the defending fencer has a mean movement time of 0.353 ± 0.028 s to perform the defensive action, which provides an advantage over the attacking fencer. The velocity of movement in the peripheral visual field has no influence on the time required by elite fencers to initiate a defensive action. This confirms the crucial role that response inhibition processes play when nonrelevant actions are perceived. Kinematic analysis of markers suggests that the eye movements of elite fencers are not the only source of information used while observing an attack.

  20. Influence of surface on impact shock experienced during a fencing lunge.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Andrew; Bottoms, Lindsay; Sinclair, Jonathan

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of sports surface on the magnitude of impact shock experienced during a lunge movement. Thirteen experienced, competitive fencers (age 32.4 ± 4.6 years; height 178.4 ± 7.2 cm; mass 74.4 ± 9.1 kg) performed 10 lunges on four different surfaces: concrete with an overlaid vinyl layer (COVL), wooden sprung court surface (WSCS), metallic carpet fencing piste overlaid on the WSCS, and aluminum fencing piste overlaid on the WSCS. An accelerometer measured accelerations along the longitudinal axis of the tibia at 1000 Hz. The results identified a significantly (P < .05) larger impact shock magnitude was experienced during a lunge on the COVL (14.88 ± 8.45 g) compared with the WSCS (11.61 ± 7.30 g), WSCS with metallic carpet piste (11.14 ± 6.38 g) and WSCS with aluminum piste (11.95 ± 7.21 g). Furthermore, the two types of piste used had no significant effect the impact shock magnitude measured when overlaid on the WSCS compared with the WSCS on its own. The results of this investigation suggest that occurrences of injuries related to increased levels of impact shock may be reduced through the utilization of a WSCS as opposed to a COVL surface during fencing participation.

  1. Broadband plasmonic metasurface-enabled quarter waveplates with fence-type grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Aijiao; Hu, Jingpei; Wang, Chinhua

    2016-10-01

    We propose an ultrathin, high-performance quarter waveplate with extreme bandwidth in the near-to-mid infrared wavelength range based on a metasurface consisted of Ag fence-type gratings. The broadband quarter waveplate is realized by optimizing the anisotropic response of the metasurface via changing the geometric dimensions of the fence-type gratings to tailor the interference of light at the subwavelength scale. The near-constant phase difference between two perpendicular electric fields within the broad bandwidth is achieved by manipulating the dimensions of the fence-type gratings along two perpendicular directions in which localized plasmonic resonances along the two directions dominate. Compared to previously reported metasurface-enabled waveplates, the phase retardation of the electric components of the transmitted wave of the proposed structure can be fixed at π/2 across a broad wavelength range rather than merely limited within a narrow bandwidth near the resonant wavelength of the metasurface building blocks. Simulation results indicate that a function of quarter waveplates can be realized from 2000nm to 4500nm with the control of polarization orientation of a linearly polarized incident light. Our work gives intriguing possibilities for novel metasurface-enabled optical components with broad bandwidth for photonics devices.

  2. IB-LBM simulation on blood cell sorting with a micro-fence structure.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qiang; Xu, Yuan-Qing; Tian, Fang-bao; Gao, Tian-xin; Tang, Xiao-ying; Zu, Wen-Hong

    2014-01-01

    A size-based blood cell sorting model with a micro-fence structure is proposed in the frame of immersed boundary and lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM). The fluid dynamics is obtained by solving the discrete lattice Boltzmann equation, and the cells motion and deformation are handled by the immersed boundary method. A micro-fence consists of two parallel slope post rows which are adopted to separate red blood cells (RBCs) from white blood cells (WBCs), in which the cells to be separated are transported one after another by the flow into the passageway between the two post rows. Effected by the cross flow, RBCs are schemed to get through the pores of the nether post row since they are smaller and more deformable compared with WBCs. WBCs are required to move along the nether post row till they get out the micro-fence. Simulation results indicate that for a fix width of pores, the slope angle of the post row plays an important role in cell sorting. The cells mixture can not be separated properly in a small slope angle, while obvious blockages by WBCs will take place to disturb the continuous cell sorting in a big slope angle. As an optimal result, an adaptive slope angle is found to sort RBCs form WBCs correctly and continuously.

  3. On the apparent failure of silt fences to protect freshwater ecosystems from sedimentation: A call for improvements in science, technology, training and compliance monitoring.

    PubMed

    Cooke, S J; Chapman, J M; Vermaire, J C

    2015-12-01

    Excessive sedimentation derived from anthropogenic activities is a main factor in habitat and biodiversity loss in freshwater ecosystems. To prevent offsite movement of soil particles, many environmental regulatory agencies mandate the use of perimeter silt fences. However, research regarding the efficiency of these devices in applied settings is lacking, and fences are often ineffective due to poor installation and maintenance. Here, we provide an overview of the current state of research regarding silt fences, address the current culture surrounding silt fence installation and maintenance, and provide several recommendations for improving the knowledge base related to silt fence effectiveness. It is clear that there is a need for integrated long-term (i.e., extending from prior to fence installation to well after fence removal) multi-disciplinary research with appropriate controls that evaluates the effectiveness of silt control fences. Through laboratory experiments, in silico modelling and field studies there are many factors that can be experimentally manipulated such as soil types (and sediment feed rate), precipitation regimes (and flow rate), season, slope, level of site disturbance, fence installation method, type of fence material, depth of toe, type and spacing of support structures, time since installation, level of inspection and maintenance, among others, that all require systematic evaluation. Doing so will inform the practice, as well as identify specific technical research needs, related to silt fence design and use. Moreover, what constitutes "proper" installation and maintenance is unclear, especially given regional- and site-level variation in precipitation, slope, and soil characteristics. Educating and empowering construction crews to be proactive in maintenance of silt fencing is needed given an apparent lack of compliance monitoring by regulatory agencies and the realities that the damage is almost instantaneous when silt fences fail. Our

  4. Creek Women and the "Civilizing" of Creek Society, 1790-1820.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dysart, Jane E.

    Women in traditional Creek society, while making few decisions in the public domain, held almost absolute power in the domestic realm. When a Creek couple married, the husband moved into his wife's house and lived among her clan, her matrilineal kin. The house, household goods, fields, and children belonged to her. Boys were educated by their…

  5. 75 FR 10328 - Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Exemption 1.0 Background Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation (WCNOC, the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility Operating License No. NPF-42, which... those previously imposed by Commission orders issued after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001...

  6. 4. O'BRIAN CANAL/SECOND CREEK INTERSECTION Second Creek is in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. O'BRIAN CANAL/SECOND CREEK INTERSECTION Second Creek is in the foreground; the O'Brian Canal is in the background; vicinity of East 112th Avenue and Potomac Road in Adams County - O'Brian Canal, South Platte River Drainage Area Northest of Denver, Brighton, Adams County, CO

  7. Climatological characterization of wind and snowfall in Minnesota and assessing the impacts of living snow fences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulski, Martha Elizabeth Durr

    Blowing and drifting snow on roadways is a common occurrence in Minnesota due to the topographic, vegetative, and winter climate characteristics of this area. Through proper road design and the use of snow fences this problem can be alleviated, however snowfall and wind climatological information must first be analyzed. Archived climatological records for locations in Minnesota were recently compiled. Snowfall time series data show a statistically significant increase of 28cm in the annual total since 1890. The increase is shown to occur for November--December while February and March show a decrease. This increase is largely due to an increase in the frequency of snow events less than 10cm. Wind data from federal observing sites in Minnesota show a correlation to landscape variability, with a high frequency of higher wind speeds in western and southern Minnesota. A snow relocation factor needed to quantify seasonal snow transport was calculated and shows a strong dependence on the wind speed distribution. A case study of the 2000--01 winter season allowed for examination of snow storage and agricultural implications of three living snow fence designs in southern Minnesota (two 8-row strips of corn, twin-row honeysuckle, single-row honeysuckle/red cedar). For a winter with high seasonal snowfall and spring rainfall, results of snow storage and modeled seasonal snow transport show good agreement for the two corn row strips. However, snow storage totaled approximately 50% of the modeled snow transport for the honeysuckle fence designs, which appeared to reach storage capacity prior to the end of the snow season. A key factor is the absence of a bottom gap, which promotes leeward displacement of the downwind drift and prevents snow deposition on the fence. Soil temperature and frost depth data show a moderation in temperatures and a decrease in freezing depth with an increase in associated snowpack depth. Post-season soil moisture shows no significant variability with

  8. Rangeland Condition Monitoring: A New Approach Using Cross-Fence Comparisons of Remotely Sensed Vegetation.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Adam D; Lewis, Megan M; Ostendorf, Bertram

    2015-01-01

    A need exists in arid rangelands for effective monitoring of the impacts of grazing management on vegetation cover. Monitoring methods which utilize remotely-sensed imagery may have comprehensive spatial and temporal sampling, but do not necessarily control for spatial variation of natural variables, such as landsystem, vegetation type, soil type and rainfall. We use the inverse of the red band from Landsat TM satellite imagery to determine levels of vegetation cover in a 22,672 km(2) area of arid rangeland in central South Australia. We interpret this wealth of data using a cross-fence comparison methodology, allowing us to rank paddocks (fields) in the study region according to effectiveness of grazing management. The cross-fence comparison methodology generates and solves simultaneous equations of the relationship between each paddock and all other paddocks, derived from pairs of cross-fence sample points. We compare this ranking from two image dates separated by six years, during which management changes are known to have taken place. Changes in paddock rank resulting from the cross-fence comparison method show strong correspondence to those predicted by grazing management in this region, with a significant difference between the two common management types; a change from full stocking rate to light 20% stocking regime (Major Stocking Reduction) and maintenance of full 100% stocking regime (Full Stocking Maintained) (P = 0.00000132). While no paddocks had a known increase in stocking rate during the study period, many had a reduction or complete removal in stock numbers, and many also experienced removals of pest species, such as rabbits, and other ecosystem restoration activities. These paddocks generally showed an improvement in rank compared to paddocks where the stocking regime remained relatively unchanged. For the first time, this method allows us to rank non-adjacent paddocks in a rangeland region relative to each other, while controlling for natural

  9. Rangeland Condition Monitoring: A New Approach Using Cross-Fence Comparisons of Remotely Sensed Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, Adam D.; Lewis, Megan M.; Ostendorf, Bertram

    2015-01-01

    A need exists in arid rangelands for effective monitoring of the impacts of grazing management on vegetation cover. Monitoring methods which utilize remotely-sensed imagery may have comprehensive spatial and temporal sampling, but do not necessarily control for spatial variation of natural variables, such as landsystem, vegetation type, soil type and rainfall. We use the inverse of the red band from Landsat TM satellite imagery to determine levels of vegetation cover in a 22,672km2 area of arid rangeland in central South Australia. We interpret this wealth of data using a cross-fence comparison methodology, allowing us to rank paddocks (fields) in the study region according to effectiveness of grazing management. The cross-fence comparison methodology generates and solves simultaneous equations of the relationship between each paddock and all other paddocks, derived from pairs of cross-fence sample points. We compare this ranking from two image dates separated by six years, during which management changes are known to have taken place. Changes in paddock rank resulting from the cross-fence comparison method show strong correspondence to those predicted by grazing management in this region, with a significant difference between the two common management types; a change from full stocking rate to light 20% stocking regime (Major Stocking Reduction) and maintenance of full 100% stocking regime (Full Stocking Maintained) (P = 0.00000132). While no paddocks had a known increase in stocking rate during the study period, many had a reduction or complete removal in stock numbers, and many also experienced removals of pest species, such as rabbits, and other ecosystem restoration activities. These paddocks generally showed an improvement in rank compared to paddocks where the stocking regime remained relatively unchanged. For the first time, this method allows us to rank non-adjacent paddocks in a rangeland region relative to each other, while controlling for natural spatio

  10. Effects of beach raking and sand fences on dune dimensions and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordstrom, Karl F.; Jackson, Nancy L.; Freestone, Amy L.; Korotky, Katherine H.; Puleo, Jack A.

    2012-12-01

    Raking beaches to remove wrack (natural and human litter) to enhance recreational use, and using sand fences to build and stabilize dunes are common practices on developed shores, but their effects on the landscape are not well understood. Managers in Avalon, NJ ceased using sand fences and raking in a portion of beach in 1991, providing the opportunity to evaluate evolution of natural and managed dune systems over a 19-year period. Topographic and vegetation characteristics were evaluated on 15 transects within 5 sites in a managed area, where raking and sand fences are still used, and at 15 transects within 5 sites in a naturally evolving (unmanaged) area. Raking and deploying fences in the managed area restricted the size of the cross-shore zone in which aeolian accretion occurred but resulted in greater dune crest heights than in the unmanaged area. Crest heights of the foredune in the managed area ranged from 4.45 m to 5.27 m. Crest heights in the unmanaged area ranged from 3.02 m to 4.27 m. Dune volume and beach volume were greater on average in the unmanaged area, and the dune was wider (mean of 72 m versus 40 m) and had an additional ridge. The unmanaged area had 35% more species and contained a greater percentage of all species encountered in the study area than the managed area (88% compared to 65%). More species occurred in the swales than any other of the cross-shore habitats, and most of these species were observed in the deeper, wider swales in the unmanaged area. Removing wrack from the beach prevents incipient dunes from forming, thus reducing the number of dune crests and size of swales that create topographic variability and increase the number and types of habitats for flora and fauna. Suspension of raking can allow the dunes to build seaward while producing a greater variety and number of habitats, but seaward growth does not mean that the height of the dune will increase substantially, and fences may be needed to build an initial dune ridge for

  11. Hoe Creek groundwater restoration, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Renk, R.R.; Crader, S.E.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    During the summer of 1989, approximately 6.5 million gallons of contaminated groundwater were pumped from 23 wells at the Hoe Creek underground coal gasification site, near Gillette, Wyoming. The organic contaminants were removed using activated carbon before the water was sprayed on 15.4 acres at the sites. Approximately 2647 g (5.8 lb) of phenols and 10,714 g (23.6 lb) of benzene were removed from the site aquifers. Phenols, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and naphthalene concentrations were measured in 43 wells. Benzene is the only contaminant at the site exceeds the federal standard for drinking water (5 {mu}g/L). Benzene leaches into the groundwater and is slow to biologically degrade; therefore, the benzene concentration has remained high in the groundwater at the site. The pumping operation affected groundwater elevations across the entire 80-acre site. The water levels rebounded quickly when the pumping operation was stopped on October 1, 1989. Removing contaminated groundwater by pumping is not an effective way to clean up the site because the continuous release of benzene from coal tars is slow. Benzene will continue to leach of the tars for a long time unless its source is removed or the leaching rate retarded through mitigation techniques. The application of the treated groundwater to the surface stimulated plant growth. No adverse effects were noted or recorded from some 60 soil samples taken from twenty locations in the spray field area. 20 refs., 52 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Baseline Characteristics of Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Host, Randy H.; Neal, Edward G.

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations historically have found healthy habitat in Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska. Concern regarding potential degradation to the habitat by urban development within the Mendenhall Valley led to a cooperative study among the City and Borough of Juneau, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, and the U.S. Geological Survey, that assessed current hydrologic, water-quality, and physical-habitat conditions of the stream corridor. Periods of no streamflow were not uncommon at the Jordan Creek below Egan Drive near Auke Bay stream gaging station. Additional flow measurements indicate that periods of no flow are more frequent downstream of the gaging station. Although periods of no flow typically were in March and April, streamflow measurements collected prior to 1999 indicate similar periods in January, suggesting that no flow conditions may occur at any time during the winter months. This dewatering in the lower reaches likely limits fish rearing and spawning habitat as well as limiting the migration of juvenile salmon out to the ocean during some years. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations may not be suitable for fish survival during some winter periods in the Jordan Creek watershed. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured as low as 2.8 mg/L at the gaging station and were measured as low as 0.85 mg/L in a tributary to Jordan Creek. Intermittent measurements of pH and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the mid-reaches of Jordan Creek were all within acceptable limits for fish survival, however, few measurements of these parameters were made during winter-low-flow conditions. One set of water quality samples was collected at six different sites in the Jordan Creek watershed and analyzed for major ions and dissolved nutrients. Major-ion chemistry showed Jordan Creek is calcium bicarbonate type water with little variation between sampling sites.

  13. Trends in surface-water quality during implementation of best-management practices in Mill Creek and Muddy Run Basins, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koerkle, Edward H.

    2000-01-01

    Analyses of water samples collected over a 5-year period (1993-98) in the Mill Creek and Muddy Run Basins during implementation of agricultural best-management practices (BMP’s) indicate statistically signifi- cant trends in the concentrations of several nutrient species and in nonfilterable residue (suspended solids). The strongest trends identified were those indicated by a more than 50- percent decrease in the flow-adjusted concentrations of total and dissolved phosphorus and total residue in base flow in the two streams. Analyses of stormflow samples showed a 31-percent decrease in the flow-adjusted concentration of total phosphorus in Mill Creek and a 54-percent decrease in total nonfilterable residue in Muddy Run. A 58-percent increase in the flow-adjusted concentration of total ammonia nitrogen in stormflow was found at Muddy Run. Although the effects of a specific BMP on the indicated trends is uncertain, results of statistical trend tests of the data suggest that stream fencing, possibly in concert with other practices, such as stream crossings for livestock, barnyard runoff control, manure-storage facilities, and rotational grazing, was effective in improving water quality during base flow and probably low to moderate stormflow conditions. Additional improvements in water quality in the Mill Creek and Muddy Run Basins seems likely as the implementation of BMP’s is expected to continue. Thus, the full effect of BMP implementation in the two basins may not be observed for some time.

  14. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS --Idaho Model Watershed Habitat Projects - Pahsimeroi Fence Crossing

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-08-11

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund the installation of a fenced stream crossing over the Pahsimeroi River to enhance a livestock riparian enclosure. This structure would include up to four wood fence posts and two deadman anchors buried in the ground. The goal of this project is to enhance salmon and steelhead rearing and migration habitat by preventing livestock from entering the riparian area via the river. The NEPA compliance checklist for this project was completed by Carl Rudeen with the Custer Soil and Water Conservation District (August 4, 2004) and meets the standards and guidelines for the Watershed Management Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed species that may occur in the general vicinity of the project area are gray wolf, Canada lynx, bald eagle, Ute ladies'Tresses, Snake River chinook salmon, Snake River steelhead trout, and Columbia River Basin bull trout. It was determined that the proposed fence crossing construction project would have no effect on these species. Bald eagle, gray wolf and Canada lynx are not known to occur in the immediate project vicinity. Since the site is used primarily as livestock pasture it does not lend itself to the presence of Ute ladies'Tresses. ESA listed fish may be present in the project vicinity but will not be affected because the project does not involve instream work. Soil disturbance will be limited to the livestock pasture and to two holes that will be used to bury anchors for the suspended portion of the fence. Required river crossings will be made on foot. Requirements associated with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act were handled by the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), in cooperation with staff from the U.S. Forest Service (Boise National Forest), under their existing Programmatic Agreement with the Idaho State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO). A description of the Pahsimeroi

  15. Effects of Streambank Fencing of Near-Stream Pasture Land on a Small Watershed in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galeone, Daniel G.; Low, Dennis J.; Brightbill, Robin A.

    2006-01-01

    This study indicated that a small buffer width along a stream in pasture land can have a positive influence on surface-water quality, benthic macroinvertebrates, and near-stream shallow ground-water quality. Overland runoff processes that move suspended sediment to the stream were controlled (or reduced) to some extent by the vegetative buffer established. Results indicated streambank fencing resulted in decreases in N-species, total-P, and suspended-sediment concentrations and yields at the outlet of the treatment basin relative to untreated sites; however, dissolved-P concentrations and yields increased. These results indicate that nutrient management, in conjunction with streambank fencing, is important in helping to control nutrient loadings to streams in this agricultural setting. An upstream site (T-2) in the treatment basin showed post-treatment reductions in suspended-sediment yields and increases in N and P yields. The different results for these treated sites indicates the effects of streambank fencing should be studied at as large a scale as possible because field-scale influences on water quality as drainage area decreases can mute the effects of fencing. Benthic-macroinvertebrate data indicated streambank fencing had a positive influence on benthic macroinvertebrates and their habitat. More improvement was detected at the outlet of the treatment basin than the upstream sites. Probably the most important biological metric, taxa richness, indicated a greater number of benthic-macroinvertebrate taxa at treated relative to control sites after fencing. Results indicated fencing improved shallow ground-water quality (for the well nest in a stream-gaining area), as noted by decreased concentrations of N species and fecal-streptococcus counts. This improvement only occurred at the well nest where the stream was gaining water from the shallow ground-water system.

  16. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-154) - Idaho Model Watershed Habitat Projects – Bauchman (Ives Place) Riparian Fence

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Shannon C.

    2004-07-08

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund the installation of approximately 5,525 feet of jack post and pole fence along the Salmon River in Custer County, Idaho. The proposed fence will greatly exceed BPA’s minimum requirement of a 35-foot setback, encompassing approximately 11.5 acres of land within the setback. This setback will also protect an existing cotton wood stand that lies between the fence and the river. The goal of this project is to enhance salmon and steelhead rearing and migration habitat through exclusion fencing.

  17. Cache Creek ocean: Closure or enclosure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Joanne; Mihalynuk, Mitch

    1993-02-01

    Exotic Tethyan faunas within the Cache Creek terrane contrast markedly with faunas and lithologic associations in the adjacent Quesnel and Stikine terranes. In northern British Columbia and southeast Yukon, all three terranes are enveloped in the north by pericontinental rocks of the Yukon-Tanana terrane, a geometry that imposes severe constraints on terrane assembly models for the northern Canadian Cordillera. Our solution to the problem invokes a northern join between the Stikinia and Quesnellia arcs through the Yukon-Tanana terrane, forming an orocline that encloses the Cache Creek terrane. This model involves (1) collision of a linear oceanic plateau at the cusp between Quesnellia and Stikinia, (2) anticlockwise rotation of Stikinia about an axis in the Yukon-Tanana terrane, (3) simultaneous enclosure of the Cache Creek ocean, and (4) emplacement of Quesnellia onto the margin of ancestral North America and the Cache Creek terrane onto Stikinia during final closure of the orocline. Early Mesozoic Paleomagnetic declinations in Stikinia are permissive of the large anticlockwise rotations predicted by the model. Similar large-scale rotations and ocean-basin enclosure are common features in the southwest Pacific. This model accounts for Paleozoic and younger linkages between Yukon-Tanana and both northern Stikinia and Quesnellia, the striking similarity between Triassic-Jurassic arcs east and west of the Cache Creek terrane, and the profound early Mesozoic deformational event in the Yukon-Tanana terrane.

  18. Estimating pothole wetland connectivity to Pipestem Creek ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Understanding hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and perennial streams is critical to understanding how reliant stream flow is on wetlands within their watershed. We used the isotopic evaporation signal in water to examine hydrologic connectivity within Pipestem Creek, North Dakota, with a watershed dominated by prairie potholes. During a decadal period of wet conditions, Pipestem Creek contained evaporated water that had approximately half the isotopic evaporative enrichment signal found in most evaporated permanent wetlands. If evaporation was mainly occurring within the stream, we expected the evaporation signal to increase from the headwaters with distance downstream. However, the signal either remained similar or decreased downstream over the two years of sampling. Groundwater measured at the water table adjacent to Pipestem Creek had isotopic values that indicated recharge from winter precipitation and had no significant evaporation. Using isotopic theory and discharge data, we estimated the surface area of open water necessary to generate the evaporation signal found within Pipestem Creek over time. The range of evaporating surface-area estimates was highly dynamic, spanning from 43 to 2653 ha and varying primarily with discharge. The average value (just over 600 ha) was well above the surface area of Pipestem Creek network (245 ha). This estimate of contributing area indicated that Prairie Pothole wetlands were important sources of stream fl

  19. Estimating pothole wetland connectivity to Pipestem Creek ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Understanding hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and perennial streams is critical to understanding how reliant stream flow is on wetlands within their watershed. We used the isotopic evaporation signal in water to examine wetland-stream hydrologic connectivity within the Pipestem Creek watershed, North Dakota, a watershed dominated by prairie-pothole wetlands. During a wetter-than-normal decade, Pipestem Creek exhibited an evaporated-water signal that had approximately half the isotopic-enrichment signal found in most evaporatively enriched pothole wetlands. If evaporation was mainly occurring within the stream, we expected the evaporation signal to increase from upstream towards downstream. However, the signal either remained similar or decreased downstream over the two years of sampling. Groundwater measured at the water table adjacent to Pipestem Creek had isotopic values that indicated recharge from winter precipitation and had no significant evaporative enrichment. Using isotopic theory and discharge data, we estimated the surface area of open water necessary to generate the evaporation signal found within Pipestem Creek over time. The range of evaporating surface-area estimates was highly dynamic, spanning from 35 to 2380 ha of open water contributing to streamflow over time, and varied primarily with the amount of discharge. The median value (417 ha) was well above the surface area of the Pipestem Creek network (245 ha), and only two periods

  20. Environmental setting of Maple Creek watershed, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredrick, Brian S.; Linard, Joshua I.; Carpenter, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The Maple Creek watershed covers a 955-square-kilometer area in eastern Nebraska, which is a region dominated by agricultural land use. The Maple Creek watershed is one of seven areas currently included in a nationwide study of the sources, transport, and fate of water and chemicals in agricultural watersheds. This study, known as the topical study of 'Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate' is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Maple Creek watershed was selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because its watershed represents the agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Nebraska. This report describes the environmental setting of the Maple Creek watershed in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes. A description of the environmental setting of a subwatershed within the drainage area of Maple Creek is included to improve the understanding of the variability of hydrologic and chemical cycles at two different scales.