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Sample records for aspartic endopeptidases

  1. Histidine and Aspartic Acid Residues Important for Immunoglobulin G Endopeptidase Activity of the Group A Streptococcus Opsonophagocytosis-Inhibiting Mac Protein

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Benfang; Liu, Mengyao; Meyers, Elishia G.; Manning, Heather M.; Nagiec, Michael J.; Musser, James M.

    2003-01-01

    The secreted Mac protein made by serotype M1 group A Streptococcus (GAS) (designated Mac5005) inhibits opsonophagocytosis and killing of GAS by human polymorphonuclear neutrophils. This protein also has cysteine endopeptidase activity against human immunoglobulin G (IgG). Site-directed mutagenesis was used to identify histidine and aspartic acid residues important for Mac IgG endopeptidase activity. Replacement of His262 with Ala abolished Mac5005 IgG endopeptidase activity. Asp284Ala and Asp286Ala mutant proteins had compromised enzymatic activity, whereas 21 other Asp-to-Ala mutant proteins cleaved human IgG at the apparent wild-type level. The results suggest that His262 is an active-site residue and that Asp284 and Asp286 are important for the enzymatic activity or structure of Mac protein. These Mac mutants provide new information about structure-activity relationships in this protein and will assist study of the mechanism of inhibition of opsonophagocytosis and killing of GAS by Mac. PMID:12704162

  2. Prolyl endopeptidases.

    PubMed

    Gass, J; Khosla, C

    2007-02-01

    This review describes the structure and function of prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) enzymes and how they are being evaluated as drug targets and therapeutic agents. The most well studied PEP family has a two-domain structure whose unique seven-blade beta-propeller domain works with the catalytic domain to hydrolyze the peptide bond on the carboxyl side of internal proline residues of an oligopeptide substrate. Structural and functional studies on this protease family have elucidated the mechanism for peptide entry between the two domains. Other structurally unrelated PEPs have been identified, but have not been studied in detail. Human PEP has been evaluated as a pharmacological target for neurological diseases due to its high brain concentration and ability to cleave neuropeptides in vitro. Recently, microbial PEPs have been studied as potential therapeutics for celiac sprue, an inflammatory disease of the small intestine triggered by proline-rich gluten.

  3. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as ...

  4. Secreted fungal aspartic proteases: A review.

    PubMed

    Mandujano-González, Virginia; Villa-Tanaca, Lourdes; Anducho-Reyes, Miguel Angel; Mercado-Flores, Yuridia

    2016-01-01

    The aspartic proteases, also called aspartyl and aspartate proteases or acid proteases (E.C.3.4.23), belong to the endopeptidase family and are characterized by the conserved sequence Asp-Gly-Thr at the active site. These enzymes are found in a wide variety of microorganisms in which they perform important functions related to nutrition and pathogenesis. In addition, their high activity and stability at acid pH make them attractive for industrial application in the food industry; specifically, they are used as milk-coagulating agents in cheese production or serve to improve the taste of some foods. This review presents an analysis of the characteristics and properties of secreted microbial aspartic proteases and their potential for commercial application. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Endopeptidase 24.16B. A new variant of endopeptidase 24.16.

    PubMed

    Rodd, D; Hersh, L B

    1995-04-28

    A peptidase, isolated from rat testes, is inhibited by 1 mM o-phenanthroline, 1 microM N-(1-(R,S)-carboxyl-3-phenylpropyl)-Ala-Ala-Phe-p-aminobenzoate, and 6 mM Pro-Ile, properties similar to those ascribed to endopeptidase 24.16. The enzyme hydrolyzes dynorphin A-8, neurotensin 1-13, angiotensin I, and substance P. Kinetic analysis of a series of angiotensin I analogs showed that substitutions at P-1, P-1', or P-2' had little effect on Km or Kcat. Variation of peptide size with a series of dynorphin A peptides showed chain length to be significant. The peptidase cleaved dynorphin A-8 at both Leu5-Arg6 and Arg6-Arg7, and neurotensin 1-13 at Pro10-Tyr11 and Arg8-Arg9. In contrast, rat endopeptidase 24.16 cleaves dynorphin A-8 at Gly4-Leu5 and Leu5-Arg6, and neurotensin 1-13 only at Pro10-Tyr11. These findings, as well as the observation that endopeptidase 24.16 exhibits a considerably higher affinity for Pro-Ile, Ki = 90 microM, indicates the peptidase isolated in this study is related to, but distinct from, rat endopeptidase 24.16. We propose that this new endopeptidase be referred to as endopeptidase 24.16B, while the originally described enzyme be referred to as endopeptidase 24.16A.

  6. Major acid endopeptidases of the blood-feeding monogenean Eudiplozoon nipponicum (Heteronchoinea: Diplozoidae).

    PubMed

    Jedličková, Lucie; Dvořáková, Hana; Kašný, Martin; Ilgová, Jana; Potěšil, David; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Mikeš, Libor

    2016-04-01

    In parasitic flatworms, acid endopeptidases are involved in crucial processes, including digestion, invasion, interactions with the host immune system, etc. In haematophagous monogeneans, however, no solid information has been available about the occurrence of these enzymes. Here we aimed to identify major cysteine and aspartic endopeptidase activities in Eudiplozoon nipponicum, an invasive haematophagous parasite of common carp. Employing biochemical, proteomic and molecular tools, we found that cysteine peptidase activities prevailed in soluble protein extracts and excretory/secretory products (ESP) of E. nipponicum; the major part was cathepsin L-like in nature supplemented with cathepsin B-like activity. Significant activity of the aspartic cathepsin D also occurred in soluble protein extracts. The degradation of haemoglobin in the presence of ESP and worm protein extracts was completely inhibited by a combination of cysteine and aspartic peptidase inhibitors, and diminished by particular cathepsin L, B and D inhibitors. Mass spectrometry revealed several tryptic peptides in ESP matching to two translated sequences of cathepsin L genes, which were amplified from cDNA of E. nipponicum and bioinformatically annotated. The dominance of cysteine peptidases of cathepsin L type in E. nipponicum resembles the situation in, e.g. fasciolid trematodes.

  7. Anti-Angiogenic Action of Neutral Endopeptidase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-30

    production (this is more of an in vitro phenomenon). A number of studies both in vitro and in patient specimens suggest that enhanced expression of...enzymatic site exposed to the external cell surface, Neutral endopeptidase (NEP) is a cell-surface peptidase normally expressed by prostatic epithelial...cells, whose expression is lost in over half of prostate cancers. NEP substrates include small peptides that have been implicated in prostate

  8. Identification of the Catalytic Triad of Family S46 Exopeptidases, Closely Related to Clan PA Endopeptidases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Sakamoto, Yasumitsu; Tanaka, Nobutada; Okada, Hirofumi; Morikawa, Yasushi; Ogasawara, Wataru

    2014-03-01

    The exopeptidases of family S46 are exceptional, as the closest homologs of these enzymes are the endopeptidases of clan PA. The three-dimensional structure of S46 enzymes is unknown and only one of the catalytic residues, the serine, has been identified. The catalytic histidine and aspartate residues are not experimentally identified. Here we present phylogenetic and experimental data that identify all residues of the catalytic triad of S46 peptidase, dipeptidyl aminopeptidase BII (DAP BII) from Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana WO24. Phylogenetic comparison with the protein and S46 peptidases, revealed His-86, Ser-657, and five aspartate residues as possible catalytic residues. Mutation studies identified the catalytic triad of DAP BII as His-86, Asp-224, and Ser-657, while secondary structure analysis predicted an extended alpha-helical domain in between Asp-224 and Ser-657. This domain is unique for family S46 exopeptidases and its absence from the endopeptidases of clan PA might be key to their different hydrolysis activities.

  9. Specific inhibition of endopeptidase 24.16 by dipeptides.

    PubMed

    Dauch, P; Vincent, J P; Checler, F

    1991-12-05

    The inhibitory effect of various dipeptides on the neurotensin-degrading metallopeptidase, endopeptidase 24.16, was examined. These dipeptides mimick the Pro10-Tyr11 bond of neurotensin that is hydrolyzed by endopeptidase 24.16. Among a series of Pro-Xaa dipeptides, the most potent inhibitory effect was elicited by Pro-Ile (Ki approximately 90 microM) with Pro-Ile greater than Pro-Met greater than Pro-Phe. All the Xaa-Tyr dipeptides were unable to inhibit endopeptidase 24.16. The effect of Pro-Ile on several purified peptidases was assessed by means of fluorigenic assays and HPLC analysis. A 5 mM concentration of Pro-Ile does not inhibit endopeptidase 24.11, endopeptidase 24.15, angiotensin-converting enzyme, proline endopeptidase, trypsin, leucine aminopeptidase, pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase I and carboxypeptidase B. The only enzyme that was affected by Pro-Ile was carboxypeptidase A, although it was with a 50-fold lower potency (Ki approximately 5 mM) than for endopeptidase 24.16. By means of fluorimetric substrates with a series of hydrolysing activities, we demonstrate that Pro-Ile can be used as a specific inhibitor of endopeptidase 24.16, even in a complex mixture of peptidase activities such as found in whole rat brain homogenate.

  10. The asparaginyl endopeptidase legumain after experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Taku; Erickson, Agnes; Kuric, Enida; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Inácio, Ana Rita Lourenço; Wieloch, Tadeusz; Ruscher, Karsten

    2010-10-01

    Various proteases in the brain contribute to ischemic brain injury. We investigated the involvement of the asparaginyl endopeptidase legumain after experimental stroke. On the basis of gene array studies and in situ hybridizations, we observed an increase of legumain expression in the peri-infarct area of rats after transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) for 120 mins with a maximum expression at 24 and 48 h. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the expression of legumain in Iba1(+) microglial cells and glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes of the peri-infarct area in mice after MCAO. Post-stroke recovery was also studied in aged legumain-deficient mice (45 to 58 weeks old). Legumain-deficient mice did not show any differences in physiologic parameters compared with respective littermates before, during MCAO (45 mins), and the subsequent recovery period of 8 days. Moreover, legumain deficiency had no effect on mortality, infarct volume, and the neurologic deficit determined by the rotating pole test, a standardized grip strength test, and the pole test. However, a reduced number of invading CD74(+) cells in the ischemic hemisphere indicates an involvement in post-stroke inflammation. We conclude that legumain is not essential for the functional deficit after MCAO but may be involved in mechanisms of immune cell invasion.

  11. Induced-fit Mechanism for Prolyl Endopeptidase

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Min; Chen, Changqing; Davies, David R.; Chiu, Thang K.

    2010-11-15

    Prolyl peptidases cleave proteins at proline residues and are of importance for cancer, neurological function, and type II diabetes. Prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) cleaves neuropeptides and is a drug target for neuropsychiatric diseases such as post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and schizophrenia. Previous structural analyses showing little differences between native and substrate-bound structures have suggested a lock-and-key catalytic mechanism. We now directly demonstrate from seven structures of Aeromonus punctata PEP that the mechanism is instead induced fit: the native enzyme exists in a conformationally flexible opened state with a large interdomain opening between the {beta}-propeller and {alpha}/{beta}-hydrolase domains; addition of substrate to preformed native crystals induces a large scale conformational change into a closed state with induced-fit adjustments of the active site, and inhibition of this conformational change prevents substrate binding. Absolute sequence conservation among 28 orthologs of residues at the active site and critical residues at the interdomain interface indicates that this mechanism is conserved in all PEPs. This finding has immediate implications for the use of conformationally targeted drug design to improve specificity of inhibition against this family of proline-specific serine proteases.

  12. Potent inhibition of endopeptidase 24.16 and endopeptidase 24.15 by the phosphonamide peptide N-(phenylethylphosphonyl)-Gly-L-Pro-L-aminohexanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Barelli, H; Dive, V; Yiotakis, A; Vincent, J P; Checler, F

    1992-10-15

    A phosphonamide peptide, N-(phenylethylphosphonyl)-Gly-L-Pro-L-aminohexanoic acid, previously shown to block Clostridium histolyticum collagenases, was examined as a putative inhibitor of endopeptidase 24.16 and endopeptidase 24.15. Hydrolysis of two endopeptidase 24.16 substrates, i.e. 3-carboxy-7-methoxycoumarin (Mcc)-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro-D-Lys-dinitrophenyl (Dnp) and neurotensin, were completely and dose-dependently inhibited by the phosphonamide inhibitor with KI values of 0.3 and 0.9 nM respectively. In addition, the phosphonamide peptide inhibited the hydrolysis of benzoyl (Bz)-Gly-Ala-Ala-Phe-(pAB) p-aminobenzoate and neurotensin by endopeptidase 24.15 with about a 10-fold lower potency (KI values of 5 and 7.5 nM respectively). The selectivity of this inhibitor towards several exo- and endo-peptidases belonging to the zinc-containing metallopeptidase family established that a 1 microM concentration of this inhibitor was unable to affect leucine aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase A, angiotensin-converting enzyme and endopeptidase 24.11. The present paper therefore reports on the first hydrophilic highly potent endopeptidase 24.16 inhibitor and describes the most potent inhibitory agent directed towards endopeptidase 24.15 developed to date. These tools should allow one to assess the contribution of endopeptidase 24.16 and endopeptidase 24.15 to the physiological inactivation of neurotensin as well as other neuropeptides.

  13. Cloning and expression of mouse legumain, a lysosomal endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Chen, J M; Dando, P M; Stevens, R A; Fortunato, M; Barrett, A J

    1998-10-01

    Legumain, a recently discovered mammalian cysteine endopeptidase, was found in all mouse tissues examined, but was particularly abundant in kidney and placenta. The distribution in subcellular fractions of mouse and rat kidney showed a lysosomal localization, and activity was detectable only after the organelles were disrupted. Nevertheless, ratios of legumain activity to that of cathepsin B differed considerably between mouse tissues. cDNA encoding mouse legumain was cloned and sequenced, the deduced amino acid sequence proving to be 83% identical to that of the human protein [Chen, Dando, Rawlings, Brown, Young, Stevens, Hewitt, Watts and Barrett (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 8090-8098]. Recombinant mouse legumain was expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells by use of a vector containing a cytomegalovirus promoter. The recombinant enzyme was partially purified and found to be an asparagine-specific endopeptidase closely similar to naturally occurring pig kidney legumain.

  14. Cloning and expression of mouse legumain, a lysosomal endopeptidase.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J M; Dando, P M; Stevens, R A; Fortunato, M; Barrett, A J

    1998-01-01

    Legumain, a recently discovered mammalian cysteine endopeptidase, was found in all mouse tissues examined, but was particularly abundant in kidney and placenta. The distribution in subcellular fractions of mouse and rat kidney showed a lysosomal localization, and activity was detectable only after the organelles were disrupted. Nevertheless, ratios of legumain activity to that of cathepsin B differed considerably between mouse tissues. cDNA encoding mouse legumain was cloned and sequenced, the deduced amino acid sequence proving to be 83% identical to that of the human protein [Chen, Dando, Rawlings, Brown, Young, Stevens, Hewitt, Watts and Barrett (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 8090-8098]. Recombinant mouse legumain was expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells by use of a vector containing a cytomegalovirus promoter. The recombinant enzyme was partially purified and found to be an asparagine-specific endopeptidase closely similar to naturally occurring pig kidney legumain. PMID:9742219

  15. Enzymatic and Structural Characterization of the Major Endopeptidase in the Venus Flytrap Digestion Fluid.

    PubMed

    Risør, Michael W; Thomsen, Line R; Sanggaard, Kristian W; Nielsen, Tania A; Thøgersen, Ida B; Lukassen, Marie V; Rossen, Litten; Garcia-Ferrer, Irene; Guevara, Tibisay; Scavenius, Carsten; Meinjohanns, Ernst; Gomis-Rüth, F Xavier; Enghild, Jan J

    2016-01-29

    Carnivorous plants primarily use aspartic proteases during digestion of captured prey. In contrast, the major endopeptidases in the digestive fluid of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) are cysteine proteases (dionain-1 to -4). Here, we present the crystal structure of mature dionain-1 in covalent complex with inhibitor E-64 at 1.5 Å resolution. The enzyme exhibits an overall protein fold reminiscent of other plant cysteine proteases. The inactive glycosylated pro-form undergoes autoprocessing and self-activation, optimally at the physiologically relevant pH value of 3.6, at which the protective effect of the pro-domain is lost. The mature enzyme was able to efficiently degrade a Drosophila fly protein extract at pH 4 showing high activity against the abundant Lys- and Arg-rich protein, myosin. The substrate specificity of dionain-1 was largely similar to that of papain with a preference for hydrophobic and aliphatic residues in subsite S2 and for positively charged residues in S1. A tentative structure of the pro-domain was obtained by homology modeling and suggested that a pro-peptide Lys residue intrudes into the S2 pocket, which is more spacious than in papain. This study provides the first analysis of a cysteine protease from the digestive fluid of a carnivorous plant and confirms the close relationship between carnivorous action and plant defense mechanisms.

  16. Enzymatic and Structural Characterization of the Major Endopeptidase in the Venus Flytrap Digestion Fluid*

    PubMed Central

    Risør, Michael W.; Thomsen, Line R.; Sanggaard, Kristian W.; Nielsen, Tania A.; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Lukassen, Marie V.; Rossen, Litten; Garcia-Ferrer, Irene; Guevara, Tibisay; Scavenius, Carsten; Meinjohanns, Ernst; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier; Enghild, Jan J.

    2016-01-01

    Carnivorous plants primarily use aspartic proteases during digestion of captured prey. In contrast, the major endopeptidases in the digestive fluid of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) are cysteine proteases (dionain-1 to -4). Here, we present the crystal structure of mature dionain-1 in covalent complex with inhibitor E-64 at 1.5 Å resolution. The enzyme exhibits an overall protein fold reminiscent of other plant cysteine proteases. The inactive glycosylated pro-form undergoes autoprocessing and self-activation, optimally at the physiologically relevant pH value of 3.6, at which the protective effect of the pro-domain is lost. The mature enzyme was able to efficiently degrade a Drosophila fly protein extract at pH 4 showing high activity against the abundant Lys- and Arg-rich protein, myosin. The substrate specificity of dionain-1 was largely similar to that of papain with a preference for hydrophobic and aliphatic residues in subsite S2 and for positively charged residues in S1. A tentative structure of the pro-domain was obtained by homology modeling and suggested that a pro-peptide Lys residue intrudes into the S2 pocket, which is more spacious than in papain. This study provides the first analysis of a cysteine protease from the digestive fluid of a carnivorous plant and confirms the close relationship between carnivorous action and plant defense mechanisms. PMID:26627834

  17. Highly active and selective endopeptidases with programmed substrate specificities

    PubMed Central

    Varadarajan, Navin; Rodriguez, Sarah; Hwang, Bum-Yeol; Georgiou, George; Iverson, Brent L

    2009-01-01

    A family of engineered endopeptidases has been created that is capable of cleaving a diverse array of peptide sequences with high selectivity and catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM > 104 M−1 s−1). By screening libraries with a selection-counterselection substrate method, protease variants were programmed to recognize amino acids having altered charge, size and hydrophobicity properties adjacent to the scissile bond of the substrate, including Glu↓Arg, a specificity that to our knowledge has not been observed among natural proteases. Members of this artificial protease family resulted from a relatively small number of amino acid substitutions that (at least in one case) proved to be epistatic. PMID:18391948

  18. Processing of Proopiornelanocortin by Insulin Secretory Granule Proinsulin Processing Endopeptidases*

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Christopher J.; Thorne, Barbara A.; Lincoln, Beth; Nielsen, Egon; Hutton, John C.; Thomas, Gary

    2015-01-01

    A lysed preparation of isolated insulin secretory granules efficiently cleaved murine proopiomelanocortin (mPOMC) at physiologically important Lys-Arg processing sites. This processing was mostly attributed to an activity that co-eluted with the proinsulin processing type-II endopeptidase from anion exchange chromatography (Lys-Arg-directed; Davidson, H. W., Rhodes, C. J., and Hutton, J. C. (1988) Nature 333, 93–96). The principal peptide hormone products generated by the insulin secretory granule lysate were identified by specific radioimmunoassay and NH2-terminal microsequencing analysis of high performance liquid chromatography-separated products as α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, corticotropin-like intermediate, γ-lipotropin, β-endorphin-(1–31), 18-kDa NH2-terminal fragment and, to a lesser extent, adrenocorticotrophin and β-lipotropin. This processing had an acidic pH optimum (pH 5–5.5) and was Ca2+-dependent (K0.5 activation = 5–80 µm). With increasing Ca2+ concentrations there was an increase in the extent to which mPOMC was processed. The in vitro processing of mPOMC by the insulin secretory granule endopeptidase activity reported here is in excellent agreement with the in vivo processing of this prohormone by a combination of PC2 and PC3, candidates of prohormone endpeptidase, in gene transfer studies with cells that express the regulated secretory pathway PMID:8382698

  19. Processing of proopiomelanocortin by insulin secretory granule proinsulin processing endopeptidases.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, C J; Thorne, B A; Lincoln, B; Nielsen, E; Hutton, J C; Thomas, G

    1993-02-25

    A lysed preparation of isolated insulin secretory granules efficiently cleaved murine proopiomelanocortin (mPOMC) at physiologically important Lys-Arg processing sites. This processing was mostly attributed to an activity that co-eluted with the proinsulin processing type-II endopeptidase from anion exchange chromatography (Lys-Arg-directed; Davidson, H. W., Rhodes, C. J., and Hutton, J. C. (1988) Nature 333, 93-96). The principal peptide hormone products generated by the insulin secretory granule lysate were identified by specific radioimmunoassay and NH2-terminal microsequencing analysis of high performance liquid chromatography-separated products as alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, corticotropin-like intermediate, gamma-lipotropin, beta-endorphin-(1-31), 18-kDa NH2-terminal fragment and, to a lesser extent, adrenocorticotrophin and beta-lipotropin. This processing had an acidic pH optimum (pH 5-5.5) and was Ca(2+)-dependent (K0.5 activation = 5-80 microM). With increasing Ca2+ concentrations there was an increase in the extent to which mPOMC was processed. The in vitro processing of mPOMC by the insulin secretory granule endopeptidase activity reported here is in excellent agreement with the in vivo processing of this prohormone by a combination of PC2 and PC3, candidates of prohormone endpeptidase, in gene transfer studies with cells that express the regulated secretory pathway (Thomas, L., Leduc, R., Thorne, B. A., Smeekens, S. S., Steiner, D. F., and Thomas, G. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 5297-5301).

  20. Is Aspartate an Excitatory Neurotransmitter?

    PubMed Central

    Herring, Bruce E.; Silm, Katlin

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has resurrected the idea that the amino acid aspartate, a selective NMDA receptor agonist, is a neurotransmitter. Using a mouse that lacks the glutamate-selective vesicular transporter VGLUT1, we find that glutamate alone fully accounts for the activation of NMDA receptors at excitatory synapses in the hippocampus. This excludes a role for aspartate and, by extension, a recently proposed role for the sialic acid transporter sialin in excitatory transmission. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT It has been proposed that the amino acid aspartate serves as a neurotransmitter. Although aspartate is a selective agonist for NMDA receptors, we find that glutamate alone fully accounts for neurotransmission at excitatory synapses in the hippocampus, excluding a role for aspartate. PMID:26180193

  1. The inhibition of proinsulin-processing endopeptidase activities by active-site-directed peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, C J; Zumbrunn, A; Bailyes, E M; Shaw, E; Hutton, J C

    1989-01-01

    Inhibitor studies were performed on the two endopeptidase activities involved in proinsulin conversion in isolated insulin secretory granules [Davidson, Rhodes & Hutton (1988) Nature (London) 333, 93-96]. The active-site-directed peptides L-alanyl-L-arginyl-L-arginylmethyldimethylsulphonium and L-alanyl-L-lysyl-L-arginylmethyldimethylsulphonium inhibited these activities in accordance with the observed cleavage pattern, suggesting that the primary amino acid sequence of the dibasic site was an important determinant of the endopeptidase substrate specificities. PMID:2649090

  2. Purification and partial characterization of a 31-kDa cysteine endopeptidase from germinated barley.

    PubMed

    Zhang, N; Jones, B L

    1996-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes hydrolyze cereal seed storage proteins into small peptides and amino acids, which are very important for seed germination and the malting process. A cysteine-class endopeptidase was purified from 4-d-germinated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Morex). Four purification steps were used, carboxymethyl cellulose cation-exchange chromatography, chromatofocusing, size-exclusion chromatography, and electroelution from a polyacrylamide gel. The endopeptidase was most active at pH 4.5. It's isoelectric point (pI) was 4.4, as determined by isoelectric focusing, and it's SDS-PAGE molecular size was 31 kDa. The enzyme specifically hydrolyzed peptide bonds when the S2 site contained relatively large hydrophobic amino acids. The N-terminal amino acid sequence residues (1-9) of the 31-kDa endopeptidase had high homology to those of the EP-A and EP-B cysteine proteinases reported previously. The 31-kDa endopeptidase had a hydrolytic specificity similar to that of the Morex green malt 30-kDa endopeptidase we characterized previously, and also reacted with the antibody raised against the purified 30-kDa proteinase, but the two had different mobilities on non-denaturing PAGE. The hydrolytic specificities of both 30- and 31-kDa endopeptidases are such that both would very quickly cleave hordein (barley storage) proteins to small glutamine- and proline-rich peptides that could be quickly degraded to amino acids by barley exopeptidases.

  3. Molecular cloning and expression of rat brain endopeptidase 3.4.24.16.

    PubMed

    Dauch, P; Vincent, J P; Checler, F

    1995-11-10

    We have isolated by immunological screening of a lambda ZAPII cDNA library constructed from rat brain mRNAs a cDNA clone encoding endopeptidase 3.4.24.16. The longest open reading frame encodes a 704-amino acid protein with a theoretical molecular mass of 80,202 daltons and bears the consensus sequence of the zinc metalloprotease family. The sequence exhibits a 60.2% homology with those of another zinc metallopeptidase, endopeptidase 3.4.24.15. Northern blot analysis reveals two mRNA species of about 3 and 5 kilobases in rat brain, ileum, kidney, and testis. We have transiently transfected COS-7 cells with pcDNA3 containing the cloned cDNA and established the overexpression of a 70-75-kDa immunoreactive protein. This protein hydrolyzes QFS, a quenched fluorimetric substrate of endopeptidase 3.4.24.16, and cleaves neurotensin at a single peptide bond, leading to the formation of neurotensin (1-10) and neurotensin (11-13). QFS and neurotensin hydrolysis are potently inhibited by the selective endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 dipeptide blocker Pro-Ile and by dithiothreitol, while the enzymatic activity remains unaffected by phosphoramidon and captopril, the specific inhibitors of endopeptidase 3.4.24.11 and angiotensin-converting enzyme, respectively. Altogether, these physicochemical, biochemical, and immunological properties unambiguously identify endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 as the protein encoded by the isolated cDNA clone.

  4. Homologous inhibitors from potato tubers of serine endopeptidases and metallocarboxypeptidases.

    PubMed

    Hass, C M; Venkatakrishnan, R; Ryan, C A

    1976-06-01

    A potent polypeptide inhibitor of chymotrypsin has been purified from Russett Burbank potatoes. The inhibitor has no effect on bovine carboxypeptidases A or B but exhibits homology with a carboxypeptidase inhibitor that is also present in potato tubers. The chymotrypsin inhibitor has a molecular weight of approximately 5400 as estimated by gel filtration, amino acid analysis, and titration with chymotrypsin. The polypeptide chain consists of 49 amino acid residues, of which six are half-cystine, forming three disulfide bonds. Its size is similar to that of the carboxypeptidase inhibitor, which contains 39 amino acid residues and also has three disulfide bridges. In immunological double diffusion assays, the chymotrypsin inhibitor and the carboxypeptidase inhibitor do not crossreact; however, automatic Edman degradation of reduced and alkylated derivatives of the chymotrypsin inhibitor, yielding a partial sequence of 18 amino acid residues at the NH2-terminus, reveals a similarity in sequence to that of the carboxypeptidase inhibitor. Thus, inhibitors directed toward two distinct classes of proteases, the serine endopeptidases and the metallocarboxypeptidases, appear to have evolved from a common ancestor.

  5. Protein engineering of improved prolyl endopeptidases for celiac sprue therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ehren, Jennifer; Govindarajan, Sridhar; Morón, Belén; Minshull, Jeremy; Khosla, Chaitan

    2008-01-01

    Due to their unique ability to cleave immunotoxic gluten peptides endoproteolytically, prolyl endopeptidases (PEPs) are attractive oral therapeutic candidates for protecting celiac sprue patients from the toxic effects of dietary gluten. Enhancing the activity and stability of PEPs under gastric conditions (low pH, high pepsin concentration) is a challenge for protein engineers. Using a combination of sequence- and structure-based approaches together with machine learning algorithms, we have identified improved variants of the Sphingomonas capsulata PEP, a target of clinical relevance. Through two rounds of iterative mutagenesis and analysis, variants with as much as 20% enhanced specific activity at pH 4.5 and 200-fold greater resistance to pepsin were identified. Our results vividly reinforce the concept that conservative changes in proteins, especially in hydrophobic residues within tightly packed regions, can profoundly influence protein structure and function in ways that are difficult to predict entirely from first principles and must therefore be optimized through iterative design and analytical cycles. Incubation with whole wheat bread under simulated gastric conditions also suggests that some variants have pharmacologically significant improvements in gluten detoxification activity. PMID:18836204

  6. Asparagine endopeptidase is an innovative therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhentao; Xie, Manling; Ye, Keqiang

    2016-10-01

    Asparagine endopeptidase (AEP) is a pH-dependent endolysosomal cysteine protease that cleaves its substrates after asparagine residues. Our most recent study identifies that it possesses the delta-secretase activity, and that it is implicated in numerous neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and stroke. Accumulating evidence supports that the inhibition of AEP exhibits beneficial effects for treating these devastating diseases. Based on recent evidence, it is clear that AEP cleaves its substrate, such as amyloid precursor protein (APP), tau and SET, and plays a critical role in neuronal cell death in various neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. In this article, the basic biology of AEP, its knockout phenotypes in mouse models, its substrates in neurodegenerative diseases, and its small peptidyl inhibitors and prodrugs are discussed. In addition, we discuss the potential of AEP as a novel therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases. AEP plays a unique role in numerous biological processes, depending on both pH and context. Most striking is our most recent finding; that AEP is activated in an age-dependent manner and simultaneously cleaves both APP and tau, thereby unifying both major pathological events in AD. Thus, AEP acts as an innovative trigger for neurodegenerative diseases. Inhibition of AEP will provide a disease-modifying treatment for neurodegenerative diseases including AD.

  7. Presence and expression of hydrogenase specific C-terminal endopeptidases in cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wünschiers, Röbbe; Batur, Mehtap; Lindblad, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Background Hydrogenases catalyze the simplest of all chemical reactions: the reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen or vice versa. Cyanobacteria can express an uptake, a bidirectional or both NiFe-hydrogenases. Maturation of those depends on accessory proteins encoded by hyp-genes. The last maturation step involves the cleavage of a ca. 30 amino acid long peptide from the large subunit by a C-terminal endopeptidase. Until know, nothing is known about the maturation of cyanobacterial NiFe-hydrogenases. The availability of three complete cyanobacterial genome sequences from strains with either only the uptake (Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133/PCC 73102), only the bidirectional (Synechocystis PCC 6803) or both NiFe-hydrogenases (Anabaena PCC 7120) prompted us to mine these genomes for hydrogenase maturation related genes. In this communication we focus on the presence and the expression of the NiFe-hydrogenases and the corresponding C-terminal endopeptidases, in the three strains mentioned above. Results We identified genes encoding putative cyanobacterial hydrogenase specific C-terminal endopeptidases in all analyzed cyanobacterial genomes. The genes are not part of any known hydrogenase related gene cluster. The derived amino acid sequences show only low similarity (28–41%) to the well-analyzed hydrogenase specific C-terminal endopeptidase HybD from Escherichia coli, the crystal structure of which is known. However, computational secondary and tertiary structure modeling revealed the presence of conserved structural patterns around the highly conserved active site. Gene expression analysis shows that the endopeptidase encoding genes are expressed under both nitrogen-fixing and non-nitrogen-fixing conditions. Conclusion Anabaena PCC 7120 possesses two NiFe-hydrogenases and two hydrogenase specific C-terminal endopeptidases but only one set of hyp-genes. Thus, in contrast to the Hyp-proteins, the C-terminal endopeptidases are the only known hydrogenase maturation

  8. Endopeptidase 24-16 in murines: tissue distribution, cerebral regionalization, and ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Dauch, P; Masuo, Y; Vincent, J P; Checler, F

    1992-11-01

    The tissue distribution, cerebral regionalization, and ontogeny of endopeptidase 24-16 were established in murines by means of its quenched fluorimetric substrate, Mcc-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro-D-Lys-Dnp, and its selective dipeptide blocker, Pro-Ile. Endopeptidase 24-16 was particularly abundant in the liver and kidney, and the lowest specific activity was detected in the heart. In the brain, a 16-fold difference in specific activity was observed between the poorest and the richest cerebral areas. Endopeptidase 24-16 appeared in high concentrations in the olfactory bulb and tubercule, cingulate cortex, medial striatum, and globus pallidus, and was particularly weak in the CA1, CA2, and CA3 parts of the hippocampal formation and in the cerebellum. Endopeptidase 24-16 content in thirteen thalamic nuclei indicated a rather homogeneous distribution. This homogeneity was not observed in the hypothalamus, where pronounced variations occurred between enriched zones such as suprachiasmatic and arcuate nuclei and relatively poor areas such as periventricular and supraoptic nuclei. Endopeptidase 24-16 appeared to be developmentally regulated in the mouse brain; it was already detected at the fetal stage, increased transiently after birth, then regularly declined until adulthood.

  9. Characterization of neutral endopeptidase 24.11 in dog glomeruli.

    PubMed Central

    Landry, C; Santagata, P; Bawab, W; Fournié-Zaluski, M C; Roques, B P; Vinay, P; Crine, P

    1993-01-01

    Neutral endopeptidase (NEP; also known as neprilysin and enkephalinase; EC 3.4.24.11) is a cell-surface metallopeptidase that is present in many mammalian tissues. It is particularly abundant on the brush-border membranes of the kidney proximal tubule. In this paper, the presence of NEP in purified glomeruli from dog kidney was assessed by measuring phosphoramidon- and thiorphan-sensitive [D-Ala2,Leu5]enkephalin-degrading activity. Using this assay, the Km and kcat. of the glomerular enzyme were found to be identical to those of the tubular enzyme. By Western blotting the apparent M(r) of the glomerular enzyme was found to be 104,000, compared with 94,000 for the tubular enzyme. This might be due to a different glycosylation pattern, since endoglycosidase F treatment of NEP obtained from both tissues yielded deglycosylated enzymes with similar electrophoretic mobilities. The glomerular enzyme also appears to be membrane-bound, since it was retained in the detergent-rich phase after phase separation with Triton X-114. Autoradiography experiments performed with RB104, a new highly selective and potent NEP inhibitor, showed that NEP was expressed in both glomeruli and proximal tubules. The presence in glomeruli of NEP and some other brush-border peptidases (dipeptidyl-dipeptidase IV, aminopeptidase N and angiotensin I-converting enzyme) suggests that cell-surface peptidases might play an important role as regulators of plasma-derived peptides in this part of the nephron. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8489505

  10. Activation of asparaginyl endopeptidase leads to Tau hyperphosphorylation in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Basurto-Islas, Gustavo; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Tung, Yunn Chyn; Liu, Fei; Iqbal, Khalid

    2013-06-14

    Neurofibrillary pathology of abnormally hyperphosphorylated Tau is a key lesion of Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies, and its density in the brain directly correlates with dementia. The phosphorylation of Tau is regulated by protein phosphatase 2A, which in turn is regulated by inhibitor 2, I2(PP2A). In acidic conditions such as generated by brain ischemia and hypoxia, especially in association with hyperglycemia as in diabetes, I2(PP2A) is cleaved by asparaginyl endopeptidase at Asn-175 into the N-terminal fragment (I2NTF) and the C-terminal fragment (I2CTF). Both I2NTF and I2CTF are known to bind to the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A and inhibit its activity. Here we show that the level of activated asparaginyl endopeptidase is significantly increased, and this enzyme and I2(PP2A) translocate, respectively, from neuronal lysosomes and nucleus to the cytoplasm where they interact and are associated with hyperphosphorylated Tau in Alzheimer disease brain. Asparaginyl endopeptidase from Alzheimer disease brain could cleave GST-I2(PP2A), except when I2(PP2A) was mutated at the cleavage site Asn-175 to Gln. Finally, an induction of acidosis by treatment with kainic acid or pH 6.0 medium activated asparaginyl endopeptidase and consequently produced the cleavage of I2(PP2A), inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A, and hyperphosphorylation of Tau, and the knockdown of asparaginyl endopeptidase with siRNA abolished this pathway in SH-SY5Y cells. These findings suggest the involvement of brain acidosis in the etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer disease, and asparaginyl endopeptidase-I2(PP2A)-protein phosphatase 2A-Tau hyperphosphorylation pathway as a therapeutic target.

  11. Activation of Asparaginyl Endopeptidase Leads to Tau Hyperphosphorylation in Alzheimer Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Basurto-Islas, Gustavo; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Tung, Yunn Chyn; Liu, Fei; Iqbal, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Neurofibrillary pathology of abnormally hyperphosphorylated Tau is a key lesion of Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies, and its density in the brain directly correlates with dementia. The phosphorylation of Tau is regulated by protein phosphatase 2A, which in turn is regulated by inhibitor 2, I2PP2A. In acidic conditions such as generated by brain ischemia and hypoxia, especially in association with hyperglycemia as in diabetes, I2PP2A is cleaved by asparaginyl endopeptidase at Asn-175 into the N-terminal fragment (I2NTF) and the C-terminal fragment (I2CTF). Both I2NTF and I2CTF are known to bind to the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A and inhibit its activity. Here we show that the level of activated asparaginyl endopeptidase is significantly increased, and this enzyme and I2PP2A translocate, respectively, from neuronal lysosomes and nucleus to the cytoplasm where they interact and are associated with hyperphosphorylated Tau in Alzheimer disease brain. Asparaginyl endopeptidase from Alzheimer disease brain could cleave GST-I2PP2A, except when I2PP2A was mutated at the cleavage site Asn-175 to Gln. Finally, an induction of acidosis by treatment with kainic acid or pH 6.0 medium activated asparaginyl endopeptidase and consequently produced the cleavage of I2PP2A, inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A, and hyperphosphorylation of Tau, and the knockdown of asparaginyl endopeptidase with siRNA abolished this pathway in SH-SY5Y cells. These findings suggest the involvement of brain acidosis in the etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer disease, and asparaginyl endopeptidase-I2PP2A-protein phosphatase 2A-Tau hyperphosphorylation pathway as a therapeutic target. PMID:23640887

  12. cDNA cloning of porcine brain prolyl endopeptidase and identification of the active-site seryl residue

    SciTech Connect

    Rennex, D.; Hemmings, B.A.; Hofsteenge, J.; Stone, S.R. )

    1991-02-26

    Prolyl endopeptidase is a cytoplasmic serine protease. The enzyme was purified from porcine kidney, and oligonucleotides based on peptide sequences from this protein were used to isolate a cDNA clone from a porcine brain library. This clone contained the complete coding sequence of prolyl endopeptidase and encoded a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 80751 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence of prolyl endopeptidase showed no sequence homology with other known serine proteases. ({sup 3}H)Diisopropyl fluorophosphate was used to identify the active-site serine of prolyl endopeptidase. One labeled peptide was isolated and sequenced. The sequence surrounding the active-site serine was Asn-Gly-Gly-Ser-Asn-Gly-Gly. This sequence is different from the active-site sequences of other known serine proteases. This difference and the lack of overall homology with the known families of serine proteases suggest that prolyl endopeptidase represents a new type of serine protease.

  13. Neuropeptide specificity and inhibition of recombinant isoforms of the endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 family: comparison with the related recombinant endopeptidase 3.4.24.15.

    PubMed

    Rioli, V; Kato, A; Portaro, F C; Cury, G K; te Kaat, K; Vincent, B; Checler, F; Camargo, A C; Glucksman, M J; Roberts, J L; Hirose, S; Ferro, E S

    1998-09-08

    Endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.16 (EP24.16c, neurolysin) and thimet oligopeptidase EC 3.4.24.15 are close related members of a large family of metalloproteases. Besides their cytosolic and membrane bound form, endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.16 appears to be present in the inner membrane of the mitochondria (EP24.16m). We have overexpressed two porcine EP24.16 isoforms in E. coli and purified the recombinant proteins to homogeneity. We show here that these peptidases hydrolyse a series of neuropeptides with similar rates and at sites reminiscent of those elicited by classically purified human brain EP24.16c. All neuropeptides, except neurotensin, were similarly cleaved by recombinant endopeptidase 3.4.24.15 (EP24.15, thimet oligopeptidase), another zinc-containing metalloenzyme structurally related to EP24.16. These two EP24.16 isoforms were drastically inhibited by Pro-Ile and dithiothreitol and remained unaffected by a specific carboalkyl inhibitor (CFP-AAY-pAb) directed toward the related EP24.15. The present purification procedure of EP24.16 should allow to establish, by mutagenesis analysis, the mechanistic properties of the enzyme.

  14. Altered dipeptidyl peptidase IV and prolyl endopeptidase activities in chronic tonsillitis, tonsillar hyperplasia and adenoid hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Larrinaga, Gorka; Pérez, Itxaro; Sanz, Begoña; Zarrazquin, Idoia; Casis, Luis; Anta, Jose Antonio; Martínez, Agustin; Santaolalla, Francisco

    2011-03-01

    To analyse peptidase activities in the removed tonsils and adenoids from patients with chronic tonsillitis, tonsillar hyperplasia and adenoid hyperplasia. We have analyzed 48 tissue samples from patients undergoing tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy for chronic tonsillitis, tonsillar hyperplasia or adenoid hyperplasia. Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy samples were collected and frozen for later enzyme analysis. The catalytic activity of a pool of peptidases (dipeptidyl peptidase IV, prolyl endopeptidase, aminopeptidase A, aminopeptidase N, aspartyl aminopeptidase, aminopeptidase B, neutral endopeptidase, pyroglutamyl peptidase I, puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase and cystinyl aminopeptidase) was measured fluorometrically. The activity of prolyl endopeptidase was higher in tonsillar hyperplasia and adenoid hyperplasia than in chronic tonsillitis. On the contrary, dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity was higher in chronic tonsillitis than in hypertrophic tissues. When data were stratified by age and gender, dipeptidyl peptidase IV was also found to be more active in adult and male chronic tonsillitis tissues. Inversely, dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity was higher in tissues of females with tonsillar hyperplasia. These data indicate the involvement of dipeptidyl peptidase IV and prolyl endopeptidase in the mechanisms underlying chronic tonsillitis, tonsillar hyperplasia and adenoid hyperplasia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. LysK CHAP endopeptidase domain is required for lysis of live staphylococcal cells.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    LysK is a staphylococcal bacteriophage endolysin composed of three domains, an N-terminal cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolases/peptidases (CHAP) endopeptidase domain (cleaves between D-alanine of the stem peptide and glycine of the cross-bridge peptide) a mid-protein amidase 2 domain (N-ace...

  16. Early, Real-Time Medical Diagnosis of Botulism by Endopeptidase-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Osnat; Feldberg, Liron; Gura, Sigalit; Brosh-Nissimov, Tal; Guri, Alex; Zimhony, Oren; Shapiro, Eli; Beth-Din, Adi; Stein, Dana; Ozeri, Eyal; Barnea, Ada; Turgeman, Amram; Ben David, Alon; Schwartz, Arieh; Elhanany, Eytan; Diamant, Eran; Yitzhaki, Shmuel; Zichel, Ran

    2015-12-15

    Botulinum toxin was detected in patient serum using Endopeptidase-mass-spectrometry assay, although all conventional tests provided negative results. Antitoxin was administered, resulting in patient improvement. Implementing this highly sensitive and rapid assay will improve preparedness for foodborne botulism and deliberate exposure.

  17. Purification and biochemical characterization of a vacuolar serine endopeptidase induced by glucose starvation in maize roots.

    PubMed Central

    James, F; Brouquisse, R; Suire, C; Pradet, A; Raymond, P

    1996-01-01

    An endopeptidase (designated RSIP, for root-starvation-induced protease) was purified to homogeneity from glucose-starved maize roots. The molecular mass of the enzyme was 59 kDa by SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions and 62 kDa by gel filtration on a Sephacryl S-200 column. The isoelectric point of RSIP was 4.55. The purified enzyme was stable, with no auto-proteolytic activity. The enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by proteinaceous trypsin inhibitors, di-isopropylfluorophosphate, 3,4-dichloroisocoumarin and PMSF, suggesting that the enzyme is a serine protease. The maximum proteolytic activity against different protein substrates occurred at pH 6.5. With the exception of succinyl-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-4-methylcoumarin, no hydrolysis was detected with synthetic tryptic, chymotryptic or peptidylglutamate substrates. The determination of the cleavage sites in the oxidized B-Chain of insulin showed specificity for hydrophobic residues at the P2 and P3 positions, indicating that RSIP is distinct from other previously characterized maize endopeptidases. Both subcellular fractionation and immuno-detection in situ indicated that RSIP is localized in the vacuole of the root cells. RSIP is the first vacuolar serine endopeptidase to be identified. Glucose starvation induced RSIP: after 4 days of starvation, RSIP was estimated to constitute 80% of total endopeptidase activity in the root tip. These results suggest that RSIP is implicated in vacuolar autophagic processes triggered by carbon limitation. PMID:8947499

  18. Purification and characterization of an endopeptidase from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, P S; Pos, K M; Konings, W N

    1991-01-01

    An endopeptidase has been purified to homogeneity from a crude cell extract of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2 by a procedure that includes diethyl-aminoethane-Sephacel chromatography, phenyl-Sepharose chromatography, hydroxylapatite chromatography, and fast protein liquid chromatography over an anion-exchange column and a hydrophobic-interaction column. Gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated a molecular mass of the purified enzyme of 70,000 Da. The endopeptidase can degrade several oligopeptides into various tetra-, tri-, and dipeptides. The endopeptidase has no aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase, or tripeptidase activity. It is optimally active at pH 6.0 to 6.5 and in the temperature range of 30 to 38 degrees C. The enzyme is inactivated by the chemical agents 1,10-phenanthroline, ethylenedinitrilotetraacetate, beta-mercaptoethanol, and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and is inhibited by Cu2+ and Zn2+. The ethylenedinitrilotetraacetate- or 1,10-phenanthroline-treated enzyme can be reactivated by Co2+. Immunoblotting with specific antibodies raised against the purified endopeptidase indicated that the enzyme is also present in other Lactococcus spp., as well as in Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus. Images PMID:1785932

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of heteroarylalanine diacids as potent and selective neutral endopeptidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Glossop, Melanie S; Bazin, Richard J; Dack, Kevin N; Fox, David N A; MacDonald, Graeme A; Mills, Mark; Owen, Dafydd R; Phillips, Chris; Reeves, Keith A; Ringer, Tracy J; Strang, Ross S; Watson, Christine A L

    2011-06-01

    Heteroarylalanine derivatives 4 were designed as potential inhibitors of neutral endopeptidase (NEP EC 3.4.24.11). Selectivity over other zinc metalloproteinases was explored through occupation of the S2' subsite within NEP. Structural optimisation led to the identification of 5-phenyl oxazole 4f, a potent and selective NEP inhibitor. A crystal structure of the inhibitor bound complex is reported.

  20. 21 CFR 582.5017 - Aspartic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aspartic acid. 582.5017 Section 582.5017 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5017 Aspartic acid. (a) Product. Aspartic acid (L- and DL-forms). (b) Conditions of use...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5017 - Aspartic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aspartic acid. 582.5017 Section 582.5017 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5017 Aspartic acid. (a) Product. Aspartic acid (L- and DL-forms). (b) Conditions of use...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5017 - Aspartic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aspartic acid. 582.5017 Section 582.5017 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5017 Aspartic acid. (a) Product. Aspartic acid (L- and DL-forms). (b) Conditions of use...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5017 - Aspartic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspartic acid. 582.5017 Section 582.5017 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5017 Aspartic acid. (a) Product. Aspartic acid (L- and DL-forms). (b) Conditions of use...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5017 - Aspartic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aspartic acid. 582.5017 Section 582.5017 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5017 Aspartic acid. (a) Product. Aspartic acid (L- and DL-forms). (b) Conditions of use...

  5. Neutral endopeptidase inhibition: could it have a role in the treatment of female sexual arousal disorder?

    PubMed

    Angulo, Javier

    2010-05-01

    Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is the inability to attain or maintain an adequate lubrication-swelling response of sexual excitement. The potentiation of vascular responses leading to increased blood flow in clitoris and vagina has represented the main focus in the pharmacological treatment of FSAD, including the evaluation of the type 5 phosphodiesterase (PDE5) inhibitors. However, due to a lack of clear efficacy, there is no approved pharmacotherapy for FSAD to date. In the present issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology, Wayman et al. show that the administration by intravenous or intravaginal routes of a novel neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, UK-414,445, results in enhanced genital blood flow responses to pelvic nerve stimulation in female rabbits, without significantly affecting blood pressure. Neutral endopeptidase inhibition, by preserving vasoactive peptides such as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, raises the possibility of a new pharmacological approach to the treatment of FSAD.

  6. Profiling of proteolytic enzymes in the gut of the tick Ixodes ricinus reveals an evolutionarily conserved network of aspartic and cysteine peptidases

    PubMed Central

    Sojka, Daniel; Franta, Zdeněk; Horn, Martin; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Caffrey, Conor R; Mareš, Michael; Kopáček, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Background Ticks are vectors for a variety of viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases in human and domestic animals. To survive and reproduce ticks feed on host blood, yet our understanding of the intestinal proteolytic machinery used to derive absorbable nutrients from the blood meal is poor. Intestinal digestive processes are limiting factors for pathogen transmission since the tick gut presents the primary site of infection. Moreover, digestive enzymes may find practical application as anti-tick vaccine targets. Results Using the hard tick, Ixodes ricinus, we performed a functional activity scan of the peptidase complement in gut tissue extracts that demonstrated the presence of five types of peptidases of the cysteine and aspartic classes. We followed up with genetic screens of gut-derived cDNA to identify and clone genes encoding the cysteine peptidases cathepsins B, L and C, an asparaginyl endopeptidase (legumain), and the aspartic peptidase, cathepsin D. By RT-PCR, expression of asparaginyl endopeptidase and cathepsins B and D was restricted to gut tissue and to those developmental stages feeding on blood. Conclusion Overall, our results demonstrate the presence of a network of cysteine and aspartic peptidases that conceivably operates to digest host blood proteins in a concerted manner. Significantly, the peptidase components of this digestive network are orthologous to those described in other parasites, including nematodes and flatworms. Accordingly, the present data and those available for other tick species support the notion of an evolutionary conservation of a cysteine/aspartic peptidase system for digestion that includes ticks, but differs from that of insects relying on serine peptidases. PMID:18348719

  7. Alpha 2-macroglobulin used to isolate intracellular endopeptidases from mammalian cells in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Slot, L A; Hendil, K B

    1988-01-01

    Extracts of cell cultures labelled with [3H]leucine were incubated with human alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M), a plasma proteinase inhibitor. The proteinase-alpha 2M complexes were then precipitated with immobilized monoclonal antibodies to alpha 2M and analysed by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Parallel experiments were done with methylamine-inactivated alpha 2M to check for unspecific binding of cell proteins to alpha 2M. Several 3H-labelled cell proteins bound to active, but not to inactivated, alpha 2M. Such proteins are likely to be proteinases. Putative endopeptidases of subunit Mr 112000, 78,000, 53,000, and in some experiments 88,000 and 16,000, were trapped by alpha 2M in supernatant fractions from IMR90 human fibroblasts, EBTr bovine fibroblasts and HeLa human carcinoma cells. No additional proteins were trapped in the presence of ATP. The Mr-78,000 endopeptidase was identified as calpain II by immunoblotting. At pH 5.3 putative endopeptidases of subunit Mr 80,000, 53,000 and 28,000-32,000 were trapped from IMR90-fibroblast extracts. Immunoblotting showed that both cathepsin B and cathepsin D were present in the Mr-28,000-32,000 electrophoretic bands. The use of alpha 2M and immobilized antibody to alpha 2M thus allows a rapid enrichment of endopeptidases from cell extracts. Some potentials and limitations of the method are discussed. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2462415

  8. The RipA and RipB Peptidoglycan Endopeptidases Are Individually Nonessential to Mycobacterium smegmatis

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycobacteria possess a series of Rip peptidoglycan endopeptidases that have been characterized in various levels of detail. The RipA and RipB proteins have been extensively studied and are dl-endopeptidases, and RipA has been considered essential to Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We show here that the ripA and ripB genes are individually dispensable in M. smegmatis and that at least one of the genes must be expressed for viability. We characterized strains carrying in-frame deletion mutations of ripA and ripB and found that both mutant strains exhibited increased susceptibility to a limited number of antibiotics and to detergent but that only the ΔripA mutant displayed hypersusceptibility to lysozyme. We also constructed and characterized ΔripD and ΔripA ΔripD mutants and found that the single mutant had only an intermediate lysozyme hypersusceptibility phenotype compared to that of wild-type cells while loss of ripD in the ΔripA background partially rescued the antibiotic and lysozyme phenotypes of the ΔripA mutant. IMPORTANCE We show that the RipA endopeptidase, which has been considered essential for cell division in certain mycobacteria, is not essential but that at least it or a similar protein, RipB, must be expressed by the bacteria for viability. This work is the first description of strains carrying single deletion mutations of RipA, RipB, and a novel endopeptidase-like protein, RipD. PMID:26977111

  9. An intermolecular binding mechanism involving multiple LysM domains mediates carbohydrate recognition by an endopeptidase

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Jaslyn E. M. M.; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Gysel, Kira; Thygesen, Mikkel B.; Sørensen, Kasper K.; Jensen, Knud J.; Stougaard, Jens; Thirup, Søren; Blaise, Mickaël

    2015-03-01

    The crystal and solution structures of the T. thermophilus NlpC/P60 d, l-endopeptidase as well as the co-crystal structure of its N-terminal LysM domains bound to chitohexaose allow a proposal to be made regarding how the enzyme recognizes peptidoglycan. LysM domains, which are frequently present as repetitive entities in both bacterial and plant proteins, are known to interact with carbohydrates containing N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) moieties, such as chitin and peptidoglycan. In bacteria, the functional significance of the involvement of multiple LysM domains in substrate binding has so far lacked support from high-resolution structures of ligand-bound complexes. Here, a structural study of the Thermus thermophilus NlpC/P60 endopeptidase containing two LysM domains is presented. The crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering solution studies of this endopeptidase revealed the presence of a homodimer. The structure of the two LysM domains co-crystallized with N-acetyl-chitohexaose revealed a new intermolecular binding mode that may explain the differential interaction between LysM domains and short or long chitin oligomers. By combining the structural information with the three-dimensional model of peptidoglycan, a model suggesting how protein dimerization enhances the recognition of peptidoglycan is proposed.

  10. Glycyl endopeptidase from papaya latex: partial purification and use for production of fish gelatin hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Karnjanapratum, Supatra; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-12-15

    An aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in combination with ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) precipitation was applied to fractionate glycyl endopeptidase from the papaya latex of Red Lady and Khack Dum cultivars. ATPS containing polyethylene glycol (PEG 2000 and 6000) and salts ((NH4)2SO4 and MgSO4) at different concentrations were used. Glycyl endopeptidase with high purification fold (PF) and yield was found in the salt-rich bottom phase of ATPS with 10%PEG 6000-10% (NH4)2SO4. When ATPS fraction from Red Lady cultivar was further precipitated with 40-60% saturation of (NH4)2SO4, PF of 2.1-fold with 80.23% yield was obtained. Almost all offensive odorous compounds, particularly benzyl isothiocyanate, were removed from partially purified glycyl endopeptidase (PPGE). The fish gelatin hydrolysates prepared using PPGE showed higher ABTS radical scavenging activity and less odour, compared with those of crude extract (CE). Thus antioxidative gelatin hydrolysate with negligible undesirable odour could be prepared with the aid of PPGE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cloning of human PEX cDNA. Expression, subcellular localization, and endopeptidase activity.

    PubMed

    Lipman, M L; Panda, D; Bennett, H P; Henderson, J E; Shane, E; Shen, Y; Goltzman, D; Karaplis, A C

    1998-05-29

    Mutations in the PEX gene are responsible for X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets. To gain insight into the role of PEX in normal physiology we have cloned the human full-length cDNA and studied its tissue expression, subcellular localization, and peptidase activity. We show that the cDNA encodes a 749-amino acid protein structurally related to a family of neutral endopeptidases that include neprilysin as prototype. By Northern blot analysis, the size of the full-length PEX transcript is 6.5 kilobases. PEX expression, as determined by semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, is high in bone and in tumor tissue associated with the paraneoplastic syndrome of renal phosphate wasting. PEX is glycosylated in the presence of canine microsomal membranes and partitions exclusively in the detergent phase from Triton X-114 extractions of transiently transfected COS cells. Immunofluorescence studies in A293 cells expressing PEX tagged with a c-myc epitope show a predominant cell-surface location for the protein with its COOH-terminal domain in the extracellular compartment, substantiating the assumption that PEX, like other members of the neutral endopeptidase family, is a type II integral membrane glycoprotein. Cell membranes from cultured COS cells transiently expressing PEX efficiently degrade exogenously added parathyroid hormone-derived peptides, demonstrating for the first time that recombinant PEX can function as an endopeptidase. PEX peptidase activity may provide a convenient target for pharmacological intervention in states of altered phosphate homeostasis and in metabolic bone diseases.

  12. Partial characterization of a protease inhibitor which inhibits the major endopeptidase present in the cotyledons of mung beans.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, B; Chrispeels, M J

    1976-07-01

    Germination of mung beans (Phaseolus aureus, Roxb.) is accompanied by an increase in the activity of the endopeptidase involved in storage protein metabolism. Enzyme activity in the cotyledons increases 25-fold during the first 5 days of germination. The cotyledons also contain inhibitory activity against the endopeptidase, and this inhibitory activity declines during germination, suggesting that inhibitors may play a role in regulating the activity of the endopeptidase.The inhibitory activity against the mung bean endopeptidase is due to the presence of two inhibitors which can be separated by chromatography on Sephadex G-100. The two inhibitors have approximate molecular weights of 12,000 and smaller than 2,000 daltons. The large inhibitor coelutes with trypsin inhibitor on Sephadex G-100, but these two inhibitory activities can be separated by means of a trypsin affinity column.The inhibitory activity disappears slowly from crude extracts incubated at 6 C and more rapidly when the extracts are incubated at 25 C or 37 C. The disappearance of inhibitory activity is accompanied by a rise of the endopeptidase activity, but an examination of the kinetics of these two phenomena suggests that they are not causally related. Fractionation of the cellular organelles on sucrose gradients shows that the inhibitory activity is not associated with the protein bodies, but rather with the cytosol. Our results suggest that the endopeptidase inhibitor(s) does not regulate the increase in endopeptidase activity which accompanies germination or the metabolism of storage protein. We, therefore, postulate that the inhibitor(s) may function in protecting the cytoplasm from accidental rupturing of the protease-containing protein bodies.

  13. Aspartate release from rat hippocampal synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Bradford, S E; Nadler, J V

    2004-01-01

    Certain excitatory pathways in the rat hippocampus can release aspartate along with glutamate. This study utilized rat hippocampal synaptosomes to characterize the mechanism of aspartate release and to compare it with glutamate release. Releases of aspartate and glutamate from the same tissue samples were quantitated simultaneously. Both amino acids were released by 25 mM K(+), 300 microM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and 0.5 and 1 microM ionomycin in a predominantly Ca(2+)-dependent manner. For a roughly equivalent quantity of glutamate released, aspartate release was significantly greater during exposure to elevated [K(+)] than to 4-AP and during exposure to 0.5 than to 1 microM ionomycin. Aspartate release was inefficiently coupled to P/Q-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels and was reduced by KB-R7943, an inhibitor of reversed Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange. In contrast, glutamate release depended primarily on Ca(2+) influx through P/Q-type channels and was not significantly affected by KB-R7943. Pretreatment of the synaptosomes with tetanus toxin and botulinum neurotoxins C and F reduced glutamate release, but not aspartate release. Aspartate release was also resistant to bafilomycin A(1), an inhibitor of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, whereas glutamate release was markedly reduced. (+/-) -Threo-3-methylglutamate, a non-transportable competitive inhibitor of excitatory amino acid transport, did not reduce aspartate release. Niflumic acid, a blocker of Ca(2+)-dependent anion channels, did not alter the release of either amino acid. Exogenous aspartate and aspartate recently synthesized from glutamate accessed the releasable pool of aspartate as readily as exogenous glutamate and glutamate recently synthesized from aspartate accessed the releasable glutamate pool. These results are compatible with release of aspartate from either a vesicular pool by a "non-classical" form of exocytosis or directly from the cytoplasm by an as-yet-undescribed Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism. In either case

  14. Overview of pepsin-like aspartic peptidases.

    PubMed

    Dunn, B M

    2001-11-01

    The aspartic peptidase family of enzymes has been implicated in a variety of disease states, from stomach ulcers, to breast cancer, and even Alzheimer's Disease. This unit describes the major characteristics of the aspartic peptidases, including mechanism of action, subcellular and tissue localization, and biological substrate specificity.

  15. Purification of substance P endopeptidase activity in the rat ventral tegemental area with the Akta-Purifier chromatographic system.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, K; Nyberg, F

    2000-09-29

    The new chromatographic system Akta-Purifier 10 (Amersham-Pharmacia Biotech), scaled for preparative HPLC, was used for the purification of Substance P (SP) endopeptidase activity in the ventral tegemental area (VTA) of the rat brain. SP endopeptidase previously identified and purified from human cerebrospinal fluid has been found to degrade the neuroactive peptide SP in a specific pattern. In this study we have recovered SP endopeptidase from the rat VTA following a purification scheme involving homogenization (ultrasonication) and extraction of the excised tissue, size-exclusion chromatography (Superdex 75 HR), and ion-exchange chromatography (Resource Q). In this way we were able to achieve a purification factor of almost 7,500, based on specific activity. The obtained SP endopeptidase activity, was then subjected to characterization with regard to inhibition profile. The enzyme activity was monitored by following the conversion of SP to its N-terminal fragment SP(1-7) using a radioimmunoassay, specific for the heptapeptide product. On basis of inhibition profile it was possible to discern two different SP endopeptidase-like activities, one sensitive toward the protease inhibitor phosphoramidon (preparation A), and another non-sensitive to phosphoramidon or captopril (preparation B). The molecular masses of preparations A and B, as derived from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, were found to be 90,000 and 76,000, respectively. Our data suggest that the purified phosphoramidon sensitive endopeptidase activity may be an enzyme that plays a major role in the conversion of SP to its bioactive fragment SP(1-7) in the rat VTA. This is likely to be identical to the previously known neutral endopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.11). However, this study also demonstrates the existence of a distinct endopeptidase activity with properties in agreement with rat spinal cord SP endopeptidase. In the context of previously shown altered levels of SP(1-7) in the VTA

  16. Rat kidney endopeptidase 24.16. Purification, physico-chemical characteristics and differential specificity towards opiates, tachykinins and neurotensin-related peptides.

    PubMed

    Barelli, H; Vincent, J P; Checler, F

    1993-01-15

    Endopeptidase 24.16 was purified from rat kidney homogenate on the basis of its ability to generate the biologically inactive degradation products neurotensin (1-10) and neurotensin (11-13). On SDS gels of the proteins pooled after the last purification step, the enzyme appeared homogeneous and behaved as a 70-kDa monomer. The peptidase was not sensitive to specific inhibitors of aminopeptidases, pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase I, endopeptidase 24.11, endopeptidase 24.15, proline endopeptidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme but was potently inhibited by several metal chelators such as o-phenanthroline and EDTA and was blocked by divalent cations. The specificity of endopeptidase 24.16 towards peptides of the tachykinin, opioid and neurotensin families was examined by competition experiments of tritiated neurotensin hydrolysis as well as HPLC analysis. These results indicated that endopeptidase 24.16 could discriminate between peptides belonging to the same family. Neurotensin, Lys8-Asn9-neurotensin(8-13) and xenopsin were efficiently hydrolysed while neuromedin N and kinetensin underwent little if any proteolysis by the peptidase. Analogously, substance P and dynorphins (1-7) and (1-8) were readily proteolysed by endopeptidase 24.16 while neurokinin A, amphibian tachykinins and leucine or methionine enkephalins totally resisted degradation. By Triton X-114 phase separation, 15-20% of endopeptidase 24.16 partitioned in the detergent phase, indicating that renal endopeptidase 24.16 might exist in a genuine membrane-bound form. The equipotent solubilization of the enzyme by seven detergents of various critical miscellar concentrations confirmed the occurrence of a membrane-bound counterpart of endopeptidase 24.16. Furthermore, the absence of release elicited by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C suggested that the enzyme was not attached by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor in the membrane of renal microvilli. Finally, endopeptidase 24.16 could not be

  17. Irreversible photolabeling of active site of neutral endopeptidase-24. 11 enkephalinase by azidothiorphan and (/sup 14/C)-azidothiorphan

    SciTech Connect

    Beaumont, A.; Hernandez, J.F.; Chaillet, P.; Crine, P.; Roques, B.P.

    1987-11-01

    Azidothiorphan and its (/sup 14/C)-labeled analogue have been developed as photoaffinity ligands for the active site of the neutral endopeptidase 24.11. In in vitro assays azidothiorphan inhibits the endopeptidase activity with a Ki of 0.75 nM. After ultraviolet irradiation the inhibitor binds irreversibly to the enzyme, and many factors suggest that the photolabeling occurs at the active site. The binding is accompanied by a loss of enzymatic activity, and the inclusion of the competitive inhibitor thiorphan protects the endopeptidase from this inactivation. In addition the binding of another competitive inhibitor (/sup 3/H)N-((R,S)-3-hydroxyaminocarbonyl-2-benzyl-1-oxopropyl)-glycine to the active site of endopeptidase-24.11 is inhibited after irradiation with azidothiorphan. Experiments with (/sup 14/C)-azidothiorphan have shown that very little nonspecific binding of inhibitor to enzyme occurs and the the labeled probe remains bound under denaturing conditions. Azidothiorphan has also been found to produce a long-lasting naloxone-reversible analgesia after intracerebroventricular administration. The results show that azidothiorphan should prove useful both for structural studies and for investigations on the synthesis and turnover of the neutral endopeptidase-24.11.

  18. Kinetic analysis of the type-1 proinsulin endopeptidase by a monoclonal antibody-based immunoadsorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Bailyes, E M; Hutton, J C

    1992-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive assay for the type-1 endopeptidase (Arg-Arg cleaving) was developed by using an antiproinsulin monoclonal immunoadsorbent to separate reaction products from the substrate. The values obtained by this assay were identical with those obtained by an h.p.l.c.-based procedure and yielded similar values for the pH optimum (5.6) and Ca2+ activation (K0.5 = 2 mM). It was shown that the type-1 endopeptidase was readily solubilized by Triton X-114 (87 +/- 3%, n = 12) and partitioned principally into the aqueous phase at 30 degrees C (90.1 +/- 2.6%, n = 12). Activity was lost on gel filtration, but could be restored by adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (K0.5 = 6 microM), 50 microM-dithiothreitol or 50 microM-Ca(2+)-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-NNN'N'-tetra-acetic acid (CDTA), indicating that the enzyme was particularly sensitive to heavy metal ions. The Km obtained with proinsulin as substrate (13 +/- 1.7 microM) indicated that the enzyme works at close to its Vmax. in the nascent secretory granule. The Vmax. of the enzyme prepared from insulin granules (0.6% proinsulin converted/min) corresponded closely to the rate measured in vivo in rat islets. The type-1 endopeptidase also appears to be capable of binding to proinsulin in the region of the C-peptide/A-chain junction, since a peptide spanning this region was found to inhibit the 125I-proinsulin processing measured by this assay. PMID:1520272

  19. Comparative biochemical analysis of three bacterial prolyl endopeptidases: implications for coeliac sprue.

    PubMed

    Shan, Lu; Marti, Thomas; Sollid, Ludvig M; Gray, Gary M; Khosla, Chaitan

    2004-10-15

    Prolyl endopeptidases have potential for treating coeliac sprue, a disease of the intestine caused by proteolytically resistant peptides from proline-rich prolamins of wheat, barley and rye. We compared the properties of three similar bacterial prolyl endopeptidases, including the known enzymes from Flavobacterium meningosepticum (FM) and Sphingomonas capsulate (SC) and a novel enzyme from Myxococcus xanthus (MX). These enzymes were interrogated with reference chromogenic substrates, as well as two related gluten peptides (PQPQLPYPQPQLP and LQLQPFPQPQLPYPQPQLPYPQPQLPYPQPQPF), believed to play a key role in coeliac sprue pathogenesis. In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to evaluate the activity, specificity and acid/protease stability of the enzymes. All peptidases were relatively resistant to acid, pancreatic proteases and membrane peptidases of the small intestinal mucosa. Although their activities against reference substrates were similar, the enzymes exhibited substantial differences with respect to chain length and subsite specificity. SC hydrolysed PQPQLPYPQPQLP well, but had negligible activity against LQLQPFPQPQLPYPQPQLPYPQPQLPYPQPQPF. In contrast, the FM and MX peptidases cleaved both substrates, although the FM enzyme acted more rapidly on LQLQPFPQPQLPYPQPQLPYPQPQLPYPQPQPF than MX. Whereas the FM enzyme showed a preference for Pro-Gln bonds, SC cleaved both Pro-Gln and Pro-Tyr bonds with comparable efficiency, and MX had a modest preference for Pro-(Tyr/Phe) sites over Pro-Gln sites. While a more comprehensive understanding of sequence and chain-length specificity may be needed to assess the relative utility of alternative prolyl endopeptidases for treating coeliac sprue, our present work has illustrated the diverse nature of this class of enzymes from the standpoint of proteolysing complex substrates such as gluten.

  20. The role of neutral endopeptidase in dogs with evolving congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Margulies, K B; Barclay, P L; Burnett, J C

    1995-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that neurohumoral mechanisms including decreased renal responses to increases in atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) play a central role in the progression from asymptomatic cardiac dysfunction to advanced congestive heart failure (CHF) with sodium retention, vasoconstriction, and reduced exercise tolerance. Recognizing that neutral endopeptidase 24.11 degrades ANF and may be enhanced in CHF, we hypothesized that chronic neutral endopeptidase inhibition (NEP-I) would potentiate renal responses to exogenous ANF and alter the temporal evolution of sodium retention in evolving CHF by potentiation of increased endogenous ANF. We studied 13 conscious dogs with evolving CHF produced by rapid ventricular pacing at 250 beats per minute. Six of these dogs received NEP-I with candoxatril, 10 mg/kg PO BID, throughout evolving CHF. Responses to exogenous ANF, 10 micrograms/kg IV bolus, were assessed at baseline and after 6 days of CHF. Daily metabolic studies during evolving CHF with chronic NEP-I showed increased sodium excretion and renal cGMP generation consistent with enhanced renal activity of endogenous ANF compared with untreated controls. In addition, renal natriuretic and cGMP responses to exogenous ANF were intact in CHF with chronic NEP-I in contrast to markedly attenuated renal responses to exogenous ANF in untreated CHF. Despite enhanced ANF responsiveness and improved sodium balance in evolving CHF, a moderate degree of sodium retention was observed during chronic NEP-I in evolving CHF. Enzymatic degradation by neutral endopeptidase limits local renal responses to increases in endogenous and exogenous ANF in CHF independent of changes in systemic hemodynamics or augmented plasma concentrations of ANF. The moderate sodium retention observed during evolving CHF despite chronic NEP-I probably reflects the antinatriuretic effects of hemodynamic and humoral factors independent of ANF activity.

  1. Escherichia coli murein-DD-endopeptidase insensitive to beta-lactam antibiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Keck, W; Schwarz, U

    1979-01-01

    A novel endopeptidase degrading the peptide cross-links in sacculi has been isolated from Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 30,000 and, in contrast to already known enzymes of similar specificity, remains fully active in the presence of beta-lactam antibiotics. In addition, it is exceptional in being inhibited by single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid and by some polynucleotides. The possible role of the enzyme in cell division is discussed. Images PMID:383691

  2. Serotype-Selective, Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the Zinc Endopeptidase of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    domain lacks a deep pocket at the interface of its complex .5,9 Third, the four-ligand coordination of the zinc ion embedded in the active site of the... complex with a substrate has been reported.25 In addition to the use of the active site of the endopeptidase as a target described above, the X- ray...simulations were carried out for each of the eight com- puter-identified compounds in complex with the endo- peptidase. Each of these simulations was

  3. Major increase in endopeptidase activity of human cathepsin B upon removal of occluding loop contacts.

    PubMed

    Nägler, D K; Storer, A C; Portaro, F C; Carmona, E; Juliano, L; Ménard, R

    1997-10-14

    The main feature distinguishing cathepsin B from other cysteine proteases of the papain family is the presence of a large insertion loop, termed the occluding loop, which occupies the S' subsites of the enzyme. The loop is held in place mainly by two contacts with the rest of the enzyme, involving residues His110 and Arg116 on the loop that form salt bridges with Asp22 and Asp224, respectively. The influence of this loop on the endopeptidase activity of cathepsin B has been investigated using site-directed mutagenesis and internally quenched fluorogenic (IQF) substrates. Wild-type cathepsin B displays poor activity against the substrates Abz-AFRSAAQ-EDDnp and Abz-QVVAGA-EDDnp as compared to cathepsin L and papain. Appreciable increases in kcat/KM were observed for cathepsin B containing the single mutations D22A, H110A, R116A, and D224A. The highest activity however is observed for mutants where both loop to enzyme contacts are disrupted. For the triple-mutant D22A/H110A/R116A, an optimum kcat/KM value of 12 x 10(5) M-1 s-1 was obtained for hydrolysis of Abz-AFRSAAQ-EDDnp, which corresponds to a 600-fold increase relative to wild-type cathepsin B and approaches the level of activity observed with cathepsin L or papain. By comparison, the mutations have little effect on the hydrolysis of Cbz-FR-MCA. The influence of the mutations on the pH dependency of activity also indicates that the complexity of pH activity profiles normally observed for cathepsin B is related to the presence of the occluding loop. The major increase in endopeptidase activity is attributed to an increase in loop "flexibility" and suggests that the occluding loop might move when an endopeptidase substrate binds to the enzyme. The possible contribution of these interactions in regulating endopeptidase activity and the implications for cathepsin B activity in physiological or pathological conditions are discussed.

  4. Distinct properties of neuronal and astrocytic endopeptidase 3.4.24.16: a study on differentiation, subcellular distribution, and secretion processes.

    PubMed

    Vincent, B; Beaudet, A; Dauch, P; Vincent, J P; Checler, F

    1996-08-15

    Endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 belongs to the zinc-containing metalloprotease family and likely participates in the physiological inactivation of neurotensin. The peptidase displays distinct features in pure primary cultured neurons and astrocytes. Neuronal maturation leads to a decrease in the proportion of endopeptidase 3.4.24.16-bearing neurons and to a concomitant increase in endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 activity and mRNA content. By contrast, there is no change with time in endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 activity or content in astrocytes. Primary cultured neurons exhibit both soluble and membrane-associated endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 activity. The latter behaves as an ectopeptidase on intact plated neurons and resists treatments with 0.2% digitonin and Na2CO3. Further evidence for an association of the enzyme with plasma membranes was provided by cryoprotection experiments and electron microscopic analysis. The membrane-associated form of endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 increased during neuronal differentiation and appears to be mainly responsible for the overall augmentation of endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 activity observed during neuronal maturation. Unlike neurons, astrocytes only contain soluble endopeptidase 3.4.24.16. Astrocytes secrete the enzyme through monensin, brefeldin A, and forskolin-independent mechanisms. This indicates that endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 is not released by classical regulated or constitutive secreting processes. However, secretion is blocked at 4 degrees C and by 8 bromo cAMP and is enhanced at 42 degrees C, two properties reminiscent of that of other secreted proteins lacking a classical signal peptide. By contrast, neurons appear unable to secrete endopeptidase 3.4.24.16.

  5. Insulin Aspart (rDNA Origin) Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a solution (liquid) and a suspension (liquid with particles that will settle on standing) to inject subcutaneously ( ... it is colored, cloudy, thickened, or contains solid particles. If you are using insulin aspart suspension, the ...

  6. A novel peptidoglycan D,L-endopeptidase induced by Salmonella inside eukaryotic cells contributes to virulence.

    PubMed

    Rico-Pérez, Gadea; Pezza, Alejandro; Pucciarelli, M Graciela; de Pedro, Miguel A; Soncini, Fernando C; García-del Portillo, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    Bacteria remodel peptidoglycan structure in response to environmental changes. Many enzymes are involved in peptidoglycan metabolism; however, little is known about their responsiveness in a defined environment or the modes they assist bacteria to adapt to new niches. Here, we focused in peptidoglycan enzymes that intracellular bacterial pathogens use inside eukaryotic cells. We identified a peptidoglycan enzyme induced by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in fibroblasts and epithelial cells. This enzyme, which shows γ-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid D,L-endopeptidase activity, is also produced by the pathogen in media with limited nutrients and in resting conditions. The enzyme, termed EcgA for endopeptidase responding to cessation of growth', is encoded in a S. Typhimurium genomic island absent in Escherichia coli. EcgA production is strictly dependent on the virulence regulator PhoP in extra- and intracellular environments. Consistent to this regulation, a mutant lacking EcgA is attenuated in the mouse typhoid model. These findings suggest that specialised peptidoglycan enzymes, such as EcgA, might facilitate Salmonella adaptation to the intracellular lifestyle. Moreover, they indicate that readjustment of peptidoglycan metabolism inside the eukaryotic cell is essential for host colonisation.

  7. Cell Sorting Enriches Escherichia coli Mutants That Rely on Peptidoglycan Endopeptidases To Suppress Highly Aberrant Morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Laubacher, Mary E.; Melquist, Amy L.; Chandramohan, Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial morphology imparts physiological advantages to cells in different environments and, judging by the fidelity with which shape is passed to daughter cells, is a tightly regulated characteristic. Surprisingly, only in the past 10 to 15 years has significant headway been made in identifying the mechanisms by which cells create and maintain particular shapes. One reason for this is that the relevant discoveries have relied heavily on the arduous, somewhat subjective process of manual microscopy. Here, we show that flow cytometry, coupled with the sorting capability of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), can detect, quantify, and enrich bacteria with morphological alterations. The light scattering properties of several highly aberrant morphological mutants of Escherichia coli were characterized by flow cytometry. Cells from a region that overlapped the distribution of normal rod-shaped cells were collected by FACS and reincubated. After 4 to 15 iterations of this enrichment process, suppressor mutants were isolated that returned almost all the population to a near-normal shape. Suppressors were successfully isolated from strains lacking three or four penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) but not from a mutant lacking a total of seven PBPs. The peptidoglycan endopeptidase, AmpH, was identified as being important for the suppression process, as was a related endopeptidase, MepA. The results validate the use of cell sorting as a means for studying bacterial morphology and identify at least one new class of enzymes required for the suppression of cell shape defects. PMID:23243305

  8. Characterization of the glutamate-specific endopeptidase from Bacillus licheniformis expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wei; Wang, Haiying; Ma, Yi; Luo, Xiaochun; Zhang, Weimin; Wang, Jufang; Wang, Xiaoning

    2013-10-10

    Glutamate-specific endopeptidase from Bacillus licheniformis (GSE-BL) is widely used in peptide recovery and synthesis because of its unique substrate specificity. However, the mechanism underlying its specificity is still not thoroughly understood. In this study, the roles of the prosegment and key amino acids involved in the proteolytic activity of GSE-BL were investigated. Loss of the GSE-BL prosegment severely restricted enzymatic activity toward Z-Phe-Leu-Glu-pNA. A homologous model of GSE-BL revealed that it contains the catalytic triad "His47, Asp96 and Ser 167", which was further confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. In vitro mutagenesis further indicated that Val2, Arg89 and His190 are essential for enzymatic activity toward Z-Phe-Leu-Glu-pNA. Moreover, the catalytic efficiency of Phe57Ala GSE-BL toward Z-Phe-Leu-Glu-pNA was 50% higher than that of the native mature GSE-BL. This is the first study to fully elucidate the key amino acids for proteolytic activity of GSE-BL. Mature GSE-BL could be obtained through self-cleavage alone when Lys at -1 position was replaced by Glu, providing a new strategy for the preparation of mature GSE-BL. This study yielded some valuable insights into the substrate specificity of glutamate-specific endopeptidase, establishing a foundation for broadening the applications of GSE-BL.

  9. Occurrence of neutral endopeptidase activity in the cat carotid body and its significance in chemoreception.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G K; Runold, M; Ghai, R D; Cherniack, N S; Prabhakar, N R

    1990-05-28

    The carotid body contains both tachykinins and enkephalins. Neutral endopeptidase (NEP, E.C. 3.4.24.11), has been suggested to involve in the metabolism of these neuropeptides in several organs. In the present study we determined neutral endopeptidase activity of the cat carotid body and assessed its significance in chemoreception. The cytosolic and membrane fractions of the carotid body contained NEP-like activity whereas it occurred only in the membrane fractions of the superior cervical and the nodose ganglia. Phosphoramidon, thiorphan and metal ion chelators inhibited NEP-like activity of all the 3 tissues studied; other protease inhibitors, however, were ineffective. Close carotid body administration of phosphoramidon significantly potentiated the carotid body response to low PO2 but not to hypercapnia. The enhanced response to hypoxia following phosphoramidon was further augmented by naloxone, an enkephalin antagonist. These results demonstrate that the glomus tissue contains detectable amounts of NEP-like activity and its inhibition selectively affects the hypoxic response of the carotid body.

  10. Purification of balansain I, an endopeptidase from unripe fruits of Bromelia balansae Mez (Bromeliaceae).

    PubMed

    Pardo, M F; López, L M; Canals, F; Avilés, F X; Natalucci, C L; Caffini, N O

    2000-09-01

    A new plant endopeptidase was obtained from unripe fruits of Bromelia balansae Mez (Bromeliaceae). Crude extracts were partially purified by ethanol fractionation. This preparation (redissolved ethanol precipitate, REP) showed maximum activity at pH 8.8-9.2, was very stable even at high ionic strength values (no appreciable decrease in proteolytic activity could be detected after 24 h in 1 M sodium chloride solution at 37 degrees C), and exhibited high thermal stability (inactivation required heating for 60 min at 75 degrees C). Anion exchange chromatography allowed the isolation of a fraction purified to mass spectroscopy, SDS-PAGE, and IEF homogeneity, named balansain I, with pI = 5.45 and molecular mass = 23192 (mass spectrometry). The purification factor is low (2.9-fold), but the yield is high (48.3%), a common occurrence in plant organs with high proteolytic activity, where proteases represent the bulk of protein content of crude extracts. Balansain I exhibits a similar but narrower pH profile than that obtained for REP, with a maximum pH value approximately 9.0 and was inhibited by E-64 and other cysteine peptidases inhibitors but not affected by inhibitors of the other catalytic types of peptidases. The alanine and glutamine derivatives of N-alpha-carbobenzoxy-L-amino acid p-nitrophenyl esters was strongly preferred by the enzyme. The N-terminal sequence of balansain I showed a very high homology (85-90%) with other known Bromeliaceae endopeptidases.

  11. Characterization of excretory/secretory endopeptidase and metallo-aminopeptidases from Taenia crassiceps metacestodes.

    PubMed

    Baig, Salman; Damian, Raymond T; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Olecki, Paula; Talhouk, Jamil; Hashmey, Rayhan; White, A Clinton

    2005-10-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia spp. metacestodes, which must survive in the host tissues to complete their life cycle. Their survival depends on their control of host immune responses. Because many parasites use proteases to modulate host responses, we examined culture media from Taenia crassiceps metacestodes for protease activity using peptide substrates. We identified prominent aminopeptidase activity at neutral pH, which was inhibited by chelating agents and partially inhibited by the aminopeptidase inhibitor, bestatin. Endopeptidase substrates were optimally cleaved at slightly acidic pH and endopeptidase activity was inhibited by cysteine protease inhibitors. Gel filtration FPLC and subsequent visualization by silver staining revealed a metallo-aminopeptidase of molecular weight 21 kDa and cysteine proteases of Mr 70 and 64 kDA. Recombinant IL-2 was digested when incubated with parasite culture supernatants, but not with control media. IL-2 degradation was completely inhibited by 1,10 phenanthroline and partially inhibited by bestatin, suggesting that a metallo-aminopeptidase was responsible. Incubation of human IgG with culture supernatants resulted in complete degradation of IgG, which was blocked by cysteine protease inhibitors. These observations demonstrate that Taenia spp. metacestodes secrete a number of proteolytic enzymes, which may target molecules from the host immune system and assist in evasion of the host immune response.

  12. An intermolecular binding mechanism involving multiple LysM domains mediates carbohydrate recognition by an endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jaslyn E M M; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Gysel, Kira; Thygesen, Mikkel B; Sørensen, Kasper K; Jensen, Knud J; Stougaard, Jens; Thirup, Søren; Blaise, Mickaël

    2015-03-01

    LysM domains, which are frequently present as repetitive entities in both bacterial and plant proteins, are known to interact with carbohydrates containing N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) moieties, such as chitin and peptidoglycan. In bacteria, the functional significance of the involvement of multiple LysM domains in substrate binding has so far lacked support from high-resolution structures of ligand-bound complexes. Here, a structural study of the Thermus thermophilus NlpC/P60 endopeptidase containing two LysM domains is presented. The crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering solution studies of this endopeptidase revealed the presence of a homodimer. The structure of the two LysM domains co-crystallized with N-acetyl-chitohexaose revealed a new intermolecular binding mode that may explain the differential interaction between LysM domains and short or long chitin oligomers. By combining the structural information with the three-dimensional model of peptidoglycan, a model suggesting how protein dimerization enhances the recognition of peptidoglycan is proposed.

  13. An intermolecular binding mechanism involving multiple LysM domains mediates carbohydrate recognition by an endopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jaslyn E. M. M.; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Gysel, Kira; Thygesen, Mikkel B.; Sørensen, Kasper K.; Jensen, Knud J.; Stougaard, Jens; Thirup, Søren; Blaise, Mickaël

    2015-01-01

    LysM domains, which are frequently present as repetitive entities in both bacterial and plant proteins, are known to interact with carbohydrates containing N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) moieties, such as chitin and peptidoglycan. In bacteria, the functional significance of the involvement of multiple LysM domains in substrate binding has so far lacked support from high-resolution structures of ligand-bound complexes. Here, a structural study of the Thermus thermophilus NlpC/P60 endopeptidase containing two LysM domains is presented. The crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering solution studies of this endopeptidase revealed the presence of a homodimer. The structure of the two LysM domains co-crystallized with N-acetyl-chitohexaose revealed a new intermolecular binding mode that may explain the differential interaction between LysM domains and short or long chitin oligomers. By combining the structural information with the three-dimensional model of peptidoglycan, a model suggesting how protein dimerization enhances the recognition of peptidoglycan is proposed. PMID:25760608

  14. Opioids, Neutral Endopeptidase, its Inhibitors and Cancer: Is There a Relationship among them?

    PubMed

    Mizerska-Dudka, Magdalena; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna

    2015-06-01

    The role of endogenous animal opioids in the biology of cancer is widely recognized but poorly understood. This is, among others, because of the short half-life of these peptides, which are quickly inactivated by endopeptidases, e.g., neutral endopeptidase (NEP, CD10). It has been established that NEP is engaged in the modulation of the tumor microenvironment, among others that of colon cancer, by exerting influence on cell growth factors, the extracellular matrix and other biologically active substances. Although there are some discrepancies among the findings on the role of both opioids and NEP in cancer development, authors agree that their role seems to depend on the origin, stage and grade of tumor, and even on the method of examination. Moreover, recently, natural inhibitors of NEP, such as sialorphin, opiorphin and spinorphin have been detected. Their analgesic activity has been established. It is interesting to ask whether there is a relationship among opioid peptides, tumor-associated NEP and its inhibitors.

  15. Control of Storage Protein Metabolism in the Cotyledons of Germinating Mung Beans: Role of Endopeptidase 12

    PubMed Central

    Chrispeels, Maarten J.; Boulter, D.

    1975-01-01

    The autodigestive proteolytic activity of extracts of cotyledons of mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) increased 4- to 5-fold during germination. A similar increase was found in the ability of these extracts to digest added casein or mung bean globulins. The increase occurred after a 2-day lag during the next 2 to 3 days of germination and coincided with the period of rapid storage protein breakdown. To understand which enzyme(s) may be responsible for this increase in proteolytic activity, the hydrolytic activity of cotyledon extracts toward a number of synthetic substrates and proteins was measured. Germination was accompanied by a marked decline in leucine aminopeptidase, while carboxypeptidase increased about 50%. There were no dramatic changes in either α-mannosidase or N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, enzymes which may be involved in the metabolism of the carbohydrate moieties of the reserve glycoproteins. The increase in general proteolytic activity was closely paralleled by a 10-fold increase in endopeptidase activity. This activity was inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide. Studies with inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes showed that reagents which blocked sulfhydryl groups also inhibited the rise in general proteolytic activity. Our results suggest that the appearance of a sulfhydryl-type endopeptidase activity is a necessary prerequisite for the rapid metabolism of the reserve proteins which accompanies germination. PMID:16659204

  16. The Anti-Fibrotic Effect of Mycophenolic Acid–Induced Neutral Endopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Dell'Oglio, Maria Pia; Rossini, Michele; Divella, Chiara; Pontrelli, Paola; Verrienti, Raffaella; Rutigliano, Monica; Ditonno, Pasquale; Stifanelli, Patrizia; Ancona, Nicola; Schena, Francesco Paolo; Grandaliano, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) appears to have anti-fibrotic effects, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this are unknown. We prospectively studied 35 stable kidney transplant recipients maintained on cyclosporine and azathioprine. We converted 20 patients from azathioprine to enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) and continued the remaining 15 patients on azathioprine. Exploratory mRNA expression profiling, performed on five randomly selected EC-MPS patients, revealed significant upregulation of neutral endopeptidase (NEP), which is an enzyme that degrades angiotensin II. We confirmed these microarray data by measuring levels of NEP expression in all subjects; in addition, we found that NEP gene expression correlated inversely with proteinuria. In an additional 33 patients, glomerular and tubular NEP protein levels from renal graft biopsies were significantly higher among the 13 patients receiving cyclosporine + EC-MPS than among the 12 patients receiving cyclosporine + azathioprine or 8 patients receiving cyclosporine alone. Glomerular NEP expression inversely correlated with glomerulosclerosis and proteinuria, and tubular NEP expression inversely correlated with interstitial fibrosis. Incubation of human proximal tubular cells with MPA increased NEP gene expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, MPA reduced angiotensin II–induced expression of the profibrotic factor plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and a specific NEP inhibitor completely reversed this effect. Taken together, our data suggest that MPA directly induces expression of neutral endopeptidase, which may reduce proteinuria and slow the progression of renal damage in kidney transplant recipients. PMID:20864690

  17. Inhibition of endopeptidase and exopeptidase activity of cathepsin B impairs extracellular matrix degradation and tumour invasion.

    PubMed

    Mitrović, Ana; Mirković, Bojana; Sosič, Izidor; Gobec, Stanislav; Kos, Janko

    2016-01-01

    Cathepsin B is a lysosomal cysteine protease that is implicated in a number of physiological processes, including protein turnover in lysosomes. Changes in its expression are associated with a variety of pathological processes, including cancer. Due to the structural feature, termed the occluding loop, cathepsin B differs from other cysteine proteases in possessing both, endopeptidase and exopeptidase activity. Here we investigated the impact of both cathepsin B activities on intracellular and extracellular collagen IV degradation and tumour cell invasion using new selective synthetic inhibitors, 2-{[(8-hydroxy-5-nitroquinoline-7-yl)methyl]amino}-acetonitrile (1), 8-(4-methylpiperidin-1-yl)-5-nitroquinoline (2) and 7-[(4-methylpiperidin-1yl)methyl]-5-nitroquinolin-8-ol (3). All three compounds (5 μM) reduced extracellular degradation of collagen IV by MCF-10A neoT cells by 45-70% as determined by spectrofluorimetry and they (50 μM) attenuated intracellular collagen IV degradation by 40-60% as measured with flow cytometry. Furthermore, all three compounds (5 μM) impaired MCF-10A neoT cell invasion by 40-80% as assessed by measuring electrical impedance in real time. Compounds 1 and 3 (5 μM), but not compound 2, significantly reduced the growth of MMTV-PyMT multicellular tumour spheroids. Collectively, these data suggest that the efficient strategy to impair harmful cathepsin B activity in tumour progression may include simultaneous and potent inhibition of cathepsin B endopeptidase and exopeptidase activities.

  18. Human cathepsin H: deletion of the mini-chain switches substrate specificity from aminopeptidase to endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Dodt, Johannes; Reichwein, Jörg

    2003-09-01

    The mini-chain of human cathepsin H has been identified as the major structural element determining the protease's substrate specificity. A genetically engineered mutant of human cathepsin H lacking the mini-chain, des[Glu(-18)-Thr(-11)]-cathepsin H, exhibits endopeptidase activity towards the synthetic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-NH-Mec (kcat = 0.4 s(-1), Km = 92 microM, kcat/Km = 4348 M(-1) s(-1)) which is not cleaved by r-wt cathepsin H. However, the mutant enzyme shows only minimal aminopeptidase activity for H-Arg-NH-Mec (kcat = 0.8 s(-1), Km = 3.6 mM, kcat/Km = 222 M(-1) s(-1)) which is one of the best known substrates for native human cathepsin H (kcat = 2.5 s(-1), Km = 150 microM, kcat/Km = 16666 M(-1) s(-1)). Inhibition studies with chicken egg white cystatin and E-64 suggest that the mini-chain normally restricts access of inhibitors to the active site. The kinetic data on substrates hydrolysis and enzyme inhibition point out the role of the mini-chain as a structural framework for transition state stabilization of free alpha-amino groups of substrates and as a structural barrier for endopeptidase-like substrate cleavage.

  19. Aspartate kinase as an enzyme able to phosphorylate aspartate in the nervous system. Immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Díaz, G; Martínez-Rodríguez, R

    1990-01-01

    An immunohistochemical method using antibodies against bacterial aspartate kinase has been carried out in order to localize this enzyme in the cerebellar cortex of rat. The results obtained with light microscope have demonstrated a positive immunoreaction in both the granular and molecular layers. Electron microscopic observation has also revealed the reaction in several dendrites, axons and myelinated fibers. These facts lead us to think that aspartate kinase could be involved in the phosphorylation of aspartate in the nervous tissue.

  20. Identification of a vesicular aspartate transporter

    PubMed Central

    Miyaji, Takaaki; Echigo, Noriko; Hiasa, Miki; Senoh, Shigenori; Omote, Hiroshi; Moriyama, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    Aspartate is an excitatory amino acid that is costored with glutamate in synaptic vesicles of hippocampal neurons and synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs) of pinealocytes and is exocytosed and stimulates neighboring cells by binding to specific cell receptors. Although evidence increasingly supports the occurrence of aspartergic neurotransmission, this process is still debated because the mechanism for the vesicular storage of aspartate is unknown. Here, we show that sialin, a lysosomal H+/sialic acid cotransporter, is present in hippocampal synaptic vesicles and pineal SLMVs. RNA interference of sialin expression decreased exocytosis of aspartate and glutamate in pinealocytes. Proteoliposomes containing purified sialin actively accumulated aspartate and glutamate to a similar extent when inside positive membrane potential is imposed as the driving force. Sialin carrying a mutation found in people suffering from Salla disease (R39C) was completely devoid of aspartate and glutamate transport activity, although it retained appreciable H+/sialic acid cotransport activity. These results strongly suggest that sialin possesses dual physiological functions and acts as a vesicular aspartate/glutamate transporter. It is possible that people with Salla disease lose aspartergic (and also the associated glutamatergic) neurotransmission, and this could provide an explanation for why Salla disease causes severe neurological defects. PMID:18695252

  1. A cysteine endopeptidase ("dionain") is involved in the digestive fluid of Dionaea muscipula (Venus's fly-trap).

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kenji; Suzuki, Takehiro; Nishii, Wataru; Kubota, Keiko; Shibata, Chiaki; Isobe, Toshiaki; Dohmae, Naoshi

    2011-01-01

    The carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula (Venus's flytrap) secretes proteinases into the digestive fluid to digest prey proteins. In this study, we obtained evidence that the digestive fluid contains a cysteine endopeptidase, presumably belonging to the papain family, through inhibitor studies and partial amino acid sequencing of the major SDS-PAGE band protein. The name "dionain" is proposed for the enzyme.

  2. Amino acid sequence of rabbit kidney neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (enkephalinase) deduced from a complementary DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Devault, A; Lazure, C; Nault, C; Le Moual, H; Seidah, N G; Chrétien, M; Kahn, P; Powell, J; Mallet, J; Beaumont, A

    1987-01-01

    Neutral endopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.11) is a major constituent of kidney brush border membranes. It is also present in the brain where it has been shown to be involved in the inactivation of opioid peptides, methionine- and leucine-enkephalins. For this reason this enzyme is often called 'enkephalinase'. In order to characterize the primary structure of the enzyme, oligonucleotide probes were designed from partial amino acid sequences and used to isolate clones from kidney cDNA libraries. Sequencing of the cDNA inserts revealed the complete primary structure of the enzyme. Neutral endopeptidase consists of 750 amino acids. It contains a short N-terminal cytoplasmic domain (27 amino acids), a single membrane-spanning segment (23 amino acids) and an extracellular domain that comprises most of the protein mass. The comparison of the primary structure of neutral endopeptidase with that of thermolysin, a bacterial Zn-metallopeptidase, indicates that most of the amino acid residues involved in Zn coordination and catalytic activity in thermolysin are found within highly honmologous sequences in neutral endopeptidase. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. PMID:2440677

  3. The hydrothermal reaction kinetics of aspartic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Jenny S.; Seward, Terry M.

    2007-02-01

    Experimental data on the hydrothermal reaction kinetics of aspartic acid were acquired using a custom-built spectrophotometric reaction cell which permits in situ observation under hydrothermal conditions. The results of this study indicate that the reaction kinetics of dilute aspartic acid solutions are significantly different depending on the presence or absence of catalytic surfaces such as standard metal alloys. The spectroscopic data presented here represent the first direct observations, in situ and in real time, of an amino acid reacting in a hydrothermal solution. Quantitative kinetic information, including rate constants, concentration versus time profiles, and calculations of the individual component spectra, was obtained from the data using a chemometric approach based on factor analysis/principle component analysis which treats the rate expressions simultaneously as a system of differential algebraic equations (DAE) of index 1. Identification of the products was confirmed where possible by high pressure anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). The reaction kinetics of aspartic acid under hydrothermal conditions was observed to be highly complex, in contrast to previous studies which indicated almost exclusively deamination. At lower temperatures (120-170 °C), several different reaction pathways were observed, including decarboxylation and polymerization, and the catalytic effects of reactor surfaces on the aspartic acid system were clearly demonstrated. At higher temperatures (above 170 °C), aspartic acid exhibited highly complex behaviour, with evidence indicating that it can simultaneously dimerize and cyclize, deaminate (by up to two pathways), and decarboxylate (by up to two pathways). These higher temperature kinetics were not fully resolvable in a quantitative manner due to the complexity of the system and the constraints of UV spectroscopy. The results of this study provide strong evidence that the reaction

  4. Asparaginyl endopeptidase from the carcinogenic liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, and its potential for serodiagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Laha, Thewarach; Sripa, Jittiyawadee; Sripa, Banchob; Pearson, Mark; Tribolet, Leon; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Brindley, Paul J.; Loukas, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Summary Objectives To isolate and characterize an asparaginyl endopeptidase from the carcinogenic liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, and evaluate its expression profile, biochemical activity, and potential as an immunodiagnostic antigen. Methods The full length mRNA encoding an asparaginyl endopeptidase (family C13), Ov-aep-1, was isolated by immunoscreening of a cDNA bacteriophage library of adult O. viverrini using sera from patients infected with O. viverrini. Investigation of Ov-aep-1 transcripts in developmental stages of the parasite, and phylogenetic analysis, immunohistochemical localization, and recombinant protein expression and enzymology were employed to characterize the Ov-AEP-1 protein. Immunoblotting was used to assess the potential of this enzyme for immunodiagnosis of human opisthorchiasis. Results Ov-AEP-1 is characteristic of the C13 cysteine protease family. Ov-aep-1 transcripts were detected in adult and juvenile worms, eggs, and metacercariae. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Ov-AEP-1 is closely related to homologous proteins in other trematodes. Recombinant Ov-AEP-1 was expressed in bacteria in inclusion bodies and refolded to a soluble form. Excretory–secretory (ES) products derived from adult O. viverrini and refolded recombinant Ov-AEP-1 both displayed catalytic activity against the diagnostic tripeptide substrate, Ala–Ala–Asn-aminomethylcoumarin. Rabbit antiserum raised to recombinant Ov-AEP-1 identified the native AEP-1 protease in both somatic extract and ES products of adult worms. Anti-Ov-AEP-1 IgG immunolocalized the anatomical site of expression to the gut of the fluke, implying a physiological role in digestion of food or activation of other digestive enzymes. Recombinant Ov-AEP-1 was recognized by serum antibodies from patients with opisthorchiasis but not other helminth infections, with a sensitivity and specificity of 85% and 100%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values are 100% and 67

  5. Effects of endopeptidase inhibition on the contraction-relaxation response of isolated human vaginal tissue.

    PubMed

    Rahardjo, Harrina E; Uckert, Stefan; Taher, Akmal; Sonnenberg, Joachim E; Kauffels, Wolfgang; Rahardjo, Djoko; Kuczyk, Markus A

    2013-04-01

    INTRODUCTION.: Vasoactive peptides, such as bradykinin, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), and endothelin 1 (ET-1), are assumed to be involved in the control of female genital vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle. Tissue levels of said peptides are controlled by the activity of endopeptidase enzymes. Theoretically, in female genital tissues, inhibiting the degradation of bradykinin, CNP, and VIP, or the conversion of Big ET-1 into ET-1 should result in an enhancement in smooth muscle relaxation and, thus, an improvement in sexual response. AIM.: Elucidate the effects of the endopeptidase inhibitor KC 12615 on the contraction/relaxation response of isolated human vaginal smooth muscle to Big ET-1, bradykinin, CNP, or VIP. METHODS.: Tissue bath experiments were carried out to ascertain the responses of human vaginal tissue challenged by ET-1 (0.1 μM) to increasing concentrations of bradykinin, CNP, and VIP (0.01 μM, 0.1 μM, and 1 μM, respectively). The effects were also evaluated following preexposure to KC 12615 (10 μM, for 20 minutes). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES.: Measure the effects of KC 12615 on the relaxation of isolated human vaginal smooth muscle brought about by bradykinin, CNP, or VIP and the contraction mediated by Big ET-1. RESULTS.: The tension induced by ET-1 was reversed by bradykinin, CNP, or VIP (-25 ± 6.6%, -13.3 ± 2.2%, and -17.6 ± 10%, respectively). Big ET-1 induced contraction of the vaginal tissue. Preexposure of the tissue to KC 12615 increased the relaxation exerted by bradykinin, CNP, or VIP (to -39.2 ± 5.8%, -40.7 ± 7.3%, and -44.6 ± 19%, respectively). The contraction induced by Big ET-1 was attenuated in the presence of KC 12615 (to approximately 25% of the initial response). CONCLUSION.: Inhibition of endopeptidase activity can antagonize the contraction of human vaginal tissue induced by Big ET-1 and increase the relaxation induced by vasoactive endogenous

  6. Immobilization of Procerain B, a Cysteine Endopeptidase, on Amberlite MB-150 Beads

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abhay Narayan; Singh, Sushant; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Proteases are involved in several crucial biological processes and reported to have important physiological functions. They also have multifarious applications in different industries. The immobilized form of the enzyme further improves its industrial applicability. Here, we report covalent immobilization of a novel cysteine endopeptidase (procerain B) on amberlite MB-150 beads through glutaraldehyde by Schiff base linkage. The immobilized product was examined extensively by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The characterization of the immobilized product showed broader pH and thermal optima compared to the soluble form of the enzyme. The immobilized form of procerain B also showed lower Km (180.27±6 µM) compared to the soluble enzyme using azocasein as substrate. Further, immobilized procerain B retains 38.6% activity till the 10th use, which strongly represents its industrial candidature. PMID:23776589

  7. AmpH, a Bifunctional dd-Endopeptidase and dd-Carboxypeptidase of Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    González-Leiza, Silvia M.; de Pedro, Miguel A.; Ayala, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, low-molecular-mass penicillin-binding proteins (LMM PBPs) are important for correct cell morphogenesis. These enzymes display dd-carboxypeptidase and/or dd-endopeptidase activities associated with maturation and remodeling of peptidoglycan (PG). AmpH has been classified as an AmpH-type class C LMM PBP, a group closely related to AmpC β-lactamases. AmpH has been associated with PG recycling, although its enzymatic activity remained uncharacterized until now. Construction and purification of His-tagged AmpH from E. coli permitted a detailed study of its enzymatic properties. The N-terminal export signal of AmpH is processed, but the protein remains membrane associated. The PBP nature of AmpH was demonstrated by its ability to bind the β-lactams Bocillin FL (a fluorescent penicillin) and cefmetazole. In vitro assays with AmpH and specific muropeptides demonstrated that AmpH is a bifunctional dd–endopeptidase and dd-carboxypeptidase. Indeed, the enzyme cleaved the cross-linked dimers tetrapentapeptide (D45) and tetratetrapeptide (D44) with efficiencies (kcat/Km) of 1,200 M−1 s−1 and 670 M−1 s−1, respectively, and removed the terminal d-alanine from muropeptides with a C-terminal d-Ala-d-Ala dipeptide. Both dd-peptidase activities were inhibited by 40 μM cefmetazole. AmpH also displayed a weak β-lactamase activity for nitrocefin of 1.4 × 10−3 nmol/μg protein/min, 1/1,000 the rate obtained for AmpC under the same conditions. AmpH was also active on purified sacculi, exhibiting the bifunctional character that was seen with pure muropeptides. The wide substrate spectrum of the dd-peptidase activities associated with AmpH supports a role for this protein in PG remodeling or recycling. PMID:22001512

  8. Natriuretic peptide pharmacogenetics: membrane metallo-endopeptidase (MME): common gene sequence variation, functional characterization and degradation.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Naveen L; Aksoy, Pinar; Moon, Irene; Peng, Yi; Redfield, Margaret M; Burnett, John C; Wieben, Eric D; Yee, Vivien C; Weinshilboum, Richard M

    2010-11-01

    Membrane metallo-endopeptidase (MME), also known as neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (EC 3.4.24.11), is involved in the metabolism of natriuretic peptides that play a key role in modulating cardiac structure and function. Common genetic variation in MME has not been addressed by resequencing the gene using DNA from different ethnic populations. We set out to identify and functionally characterize common genetic variation in MME in three ethnic groups. DNA samples from 96 European-American, 96 African-American, and 96 Han Chinese-American healthy subjects were used to resequence MME. Ninety polymorphisms, 65 novel, were identified, including 8 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs). Expression constructs for the nsSNPs were created and COS-1 cells were transfected with constructs for wild type (WT) and variant allozymes. Recombinant proteins were analyzed by quantitative Western blot analysis and by a one-step fluorometric assay. A significant reduction in enzyme activity (21% of WT) and immunoreactive protein (29% of WT) for the Val73 variant allozyme was observed. Proteasome-mediated degradation and autophagy participated in the degradation of this variant allozyme. The chaperone proteins, BiP and GRP94, were upregulated after transfection with Val73 MME, suggesting protein misfolding, compatible with conclusions based on the MME X-ray crystal structure. Multiple novel polymorphisms of MME were identified in three ethnic groups. The Val73 variant allozyme displayed a significant decrease in MME protein quantity and activity, with degradation mediated by both proteasome and autophagy pathways. This polymorphism could have a significant effect on the metabolism of natriuretic peptides. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Targeting of endopeptidase 24.16 to different subcellular compartments by alternative promoter usage.

    PubMed

    Kato, A; Sugiura, N; Saruta, Y; Hosoiri, T; Yasue, H; Hirose, S

    1997-06-13

    Endopeptidase 24.16 or mitochondrial oligopeptidase, abbreviated here as EP 24.16 (MOP), is a thiol- and metal-dependent oligopeptidase that is found in multiple intracellular compartments in mammalian cells. From an analysis of the corresponding gene, we found that the distribution of the enzyme to appropriate subcellular locations is achieved by the use of alternative sites for the initiation of transcription. The pig EP 24.16 (MOP) gene spans over 100 kilobases and is organized into 16 exons. The core protein sequence is encoded by exons 5-16 which match perfectly with exons 2-13 of the gene for endopeptidase 24.15, another member of the thimet oligopeptidase family. These two sets of 11 exons share the same splice sites, suggesting a common ancestor. Multiple species of mRNA for EP 24.16 (MOP) were detected by the 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends and they were shown to have been generated from a single gene by alternative choices of sites for the initiation of transcription and splicing. Two types of transcript were prepared, corresponding to transcription from distal and proximal sites. Their expression in vitro in COS-1 cells indicated that they encoded two isoforms (long and short) which differed only at their amino termini: the long form contained a cleavable mitochondrial targeting sequence and was directed to mitochondria; the short form, lacking such a signal sequence, remained in the cytosol. The complex structure of the EP 24.16 (MOP) gene thus allows, by alternative promoter usage, a fine transcriptional regulation of coordinate expression, in the different subcellular compartments, of the two isoforms arising from a single gene.

  10. Structural basis for type VI secreted peptidoglycan dl-endopeptidase function, specificity and neutralization in Serratia marcescens

    SciTech Connect

    Srikannathasan, Velupillai; English, Grant; Bui, Nhat Khai; Trunk, Katharina; O’Rourke, Patrick E. F.; Rao, Vincenzo A.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Coulthurst, Sarah J. Hunter, William N.

    2013-12-01

    Crystal structures of type VI secretion system-associated immunity proteins, a peptidoglycan endopeptidase and a complex of the endopeptidase and its cognate immunity protein are reported together with assays of endopeptidase activity and functional assessment. Some Gram-negative bacteria target their competitors by exploiting the type VI secretion system to extrude toxic effector proteins. To prevent self-harm, these bacteria also produce highly specific immunity proteins that neutralize these antagonistic effectors. Here, the peptidoglycan endopeptidase specificity of two type VI secretion-system-associated effectors from Serratia marcescens is characterized. These small secreted proteins, Ssp1 and Ssp2, cleave between γ-d-glutamic acid and l-meso-diaminopimelic acid with different specificities. Ssp2 degrades the acceptor part of cross-linked tetratetrapeptides. Ssp1 displays greater promiscuity and cleaves monomeric tripeptides, tetrapeptides and pentapeptides and dimeric tetratetra and tetrapenta muropeptides on both the acceptor and donor strands. Functional assays confirm the identity of a catalytic cysteine in these endopeptidases and crystal structures provide information on the structure–activity relationships of Ssp1 and, by comparison, of related effectors. Functional assays also reveal that neutralization of these effectors by their cognate immunity proteins, which are called resistance-associated proteins (Raps), contributes an essential role to cell fitness. The structures of two immunity proteins, Rap1a and Rap2a, responsible for the neutralization of Ssp1 and Ssp2-like endopeptidases, respectively, revealed two distinct folds, with that of Rap1a not having previously been observed. The structure of the Ssp1–Rap1a complex revealed a tightly bound heteromeric assembly with two effector molecules flanking a Rap1a dimer. A highly effective steric block of the Ssp1 active site forms the basis of effector neutralization. Comparisons with Ssp2–Rap2

  11. Purification and characterization of human endopeptidase 3.4.24.16. Comparison with the porcine counterpart indicates a unique cleavage site on neurotensin.

    PubMed

    Vincent, B; Vincent, J P; Checler, F

    1996-02-12

    We have purified and characterized human brain endopeptidase 3.4.24.16. The enzyme behaved as a 72 kDa protein and belonged to the metalloprotease family. Human endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 cleaved neurotensin at a unique site at the Pro10-Tyr11 bond, leading to the formation of neurotensin(1-10) and neurotensin(11-13). The kinetic parameters displayed by human endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 towards a series of natural neuropeptides indicated that bradykinin was the most efficiently proteolysed. Angiotensin I, dynorphins 1-8 and 1-9 and substance P also behaved as good substrates while neuromedin N, angiotensin II, leucine and methionine enkephalin and neurokinin A resisted degradation by human endopeptidase 3.4.24.16. We have purified the porcine counterpart of endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 and compared its ability to cleave neurotensin with that of the enzyme from human origin. It appeared that, besides a major production of neurotensin(1-10), an additional formation of neurotensin(1-8) was observed with the pig enzyme, suggesting a cleavage of neurotensin not only at the Pro10-Tyr11 bond but also at the Arg8-Arg9 peptidyl bond. The latter cleavage appeared reminiscent of endopeptidase 3.4.24.15 since this peptidase was reported to cleave neurotensin at the Arg8-Arg9 bond. Our study indicated that neurotensin(1-10) formation by porcine endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 could be potently blocked with the selective endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 dipeptide inhibitor Pro-Ile without interfering with neurotensin(1-8) formation. By contrast, the formation of the latter product was highly potentiated by dithiothreitol and inhibited by the endopeptidase 3.4.24.15 inhibitor Cpp-Ala-Ala-Tyr-pAB, two effects that were not observed for neurotensin(1-10) production. Altogether, our results indicate that porcine endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 cleaves neurotensin at a unique site, leading to the formation of neurotensin(1-10) and that the production of neurotensin(1-8) is due to contaminating endopeptidase 3.4.24.15.

  12. Human endopeptidase (THOP1) is localized on chromosome 19 within the linkage region for the late-onset Alzheimer disease AD2 locus

    SciTech Connect

    Meckelein, B.; Abraham, C.R.; De Silva, H.A.R.

    1996-01-15

    A cDNA encoding the rat endopeptidase 24.15 was used to determine the chromosomal localization of the respective human gene. Hybridization to DNA from human-rodent somatic cell hybrids assigned the human gene to chromosome 19. Fluorescence in situ hybridization on human metaphase chromosomes localized the human endopeptidase 24.15 to 19q13.3. 27 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Purification and characterization of four new cysteine endopeptidases from fruits of Bromelia pinguin L. grown in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Payrol, Juan Abreu; Obregón, Walter D; Trejo, Sebastián A; Caffini, Néstor O

    2008-02-01

    Bromelia pinguin L. is a plant broadly distributed in Central America and Caribbean islands. The fruits have been used in traditional medicine as anthelmintic, probably owed to the presence of a mixture of cysteine endopeptidases, initially termed pinguinain. This work deals with the purification and characterization of the four main components of that mixture, two of them showing acid pI and the other two alkaline pI. Molecular masses (SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF), N-terminal sequence and the reactivity and kinetic parameters versus synthetic substrates (p-nitrophenyl-N-alpha-CBZ-amino acid esters, PFLNA, Z-Arg-Arg-p-NA, and Z-Phe-Arg-p-NA) of the studied peptidases are given, as well as the N-terminal sequences of the enzymes and the homology degree with other plant endopeptidases.

  14. Development of a smart activity-based probe to detect subcellular activity of asparaginyl endopeptidase in living cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jong-Ah; Choi, Na-Eun; La, Yeo-Kyoung; Nam, Ho Yeon; Seo, Jiwon; Lee, Jiyoun

    2017-09-18

    We developed a smart activity-based probe that detects the activity of asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP) in live cells to monitor the dynamics of enzyme regulation. The newly designed probe generated a turn-on fluorescence signal in response to the activity of AEP in living cells without compromising the labelling efficiency or selectivity. Our probe closely reflected the enzyme activity in its native state, detecting subcellular AEP activity in colon cancer cells and neuronal cells.

  15. Interaction of difluoro-oxaloacetate with aspartate transaminase.

    PubMed Central

    Briley, P A; Eisenthal, R; Harrison, R; Smith, G D

    1977-01-01

    Diffluoro-oxaloacetate behaves as a competitive inhibitor of 2-oxoglutarate and as an uncompetitive inhibitor with respect to aspartate in steady-state kinetic experiments with cytoplasmic aspartate transaminase. In the presence of high concentrations of aspartate transaminase, difluoro-oxaloacetate is slowly transaminated to difluoro-aspartate, suggesting its use as a kinetic probe to study the reactions of the aminic form of the enzyme. PMID:849267

  16. Destructin-1 is a collagen-degrading endopeptidase secreted by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Anthony J; Knudsen, Giselle M; Beekman, Chapman; Perry, Jenna A; Johnson, Alexander D; DeRisi, Joseph L; Craik, Charles S; Bennett, Richard J

    2015-06-16

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is the causative agent of white-nose syndrome, a disease that has caused the deaths of millions of bats in North America. This psychrophilic fungus proliferates at low temperatures and targets hibernating bats, resulting in their premature arousal from stupor with catastrophic consequences. Despite the impact of white-nose syndrome, little is known about the fungus itself or how it infects its mammalian host. P. destructans is not amenable to genetic manipulation, and therefore understanding the proteins involved in infection requires alternative approaches. Here, we identify hydrolytic enzymes secreted by P. destructans, and use a novel and unbiased substrate profiling technique to define active peptidases. These experiments revealed that endopeptidases are the major proteolytic activities secreted by P. destructans, and that collagen, the major structural protein in mammals, is actively degraded by the secretome. A serine endopeptidase, hereby-named Destructin-1, was subsequently identified, and a recombinant form overexpressed and purified. Biochemical analysis of Destructin-1 showed that it mediated collagen degradation, and a potent inhibitor of peptidase activity was identified. Treatment of P. destructans-conditioned media with this antagonist blocked collagen degradation and facilitated the detection of additional secreted proteolytic activities, including aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases. These results provide molecular insights into the secretome of P. destructans, and identify serine endopeptidases that have the clear potential to facilitate tissue invasion and pathogenesis in the mammalian host.

  17. Destructin-1 is a collagen-degrading endopeptidase secreted by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome

    PubMed Central

    O’Donoghue, Anthony J.; Knudsen, Giselle M.; Beekman, Chapman; Perry, Jenna A.; Johnson, Alexander D.; DeRisi, Joseph L.; Craik, Charles S.; Bennett, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is the causative agent of white-nose syndrome, a disease that has caused the deaths of millions of bats in North America. This psychrophilic fungus proliferates at low temperatures and targets hibernating bats, resulting in their premature arousal from stupor with catastrophic consequences. Despite the impact of white-nose syndrome, little is known about the fungus itself or how it infects its mammalian host. P. destructans is not amenable to genetic manipulation, and therefore understanding the proteins involved in infection requires alternative approaches. Here, we identify hydrolytic enzymes secreted by P. destructans, and use a novel and unbiased substrate profiling technique to define active peptidases. These experiments revealed that endopeptidases are the major proteolytic activities secreted by P. destructans, and that collagen, the major structural protein in mammals, is actively degraded by the secretome. A serine endopeptidase, hereby-named Destructin-1, was subsequently identified, and a recombinant form overexpressed and purified. Biochemical analysis of Destructin-1 showed that it mediated collagen degradation, and a potent inhibitor of peptidase activity was identified. Treatment of P. destructans-conditioned media with this antagonist blocked collagen degradation and facilitated the detection of additional secreted proteolytic activities, including aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases. These results provide molecular insights into the secretome of P. destructans, and identify serine endopeptidases that have the clear potential to facilitate tissue invasion and pathogenesis in the mammalian host. PMID:25944934

  18. Development of a selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry-based assay to detect asparaginyl endopeptidase activity in biological fluids

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Michael J.; Gray, Oliver J.; Parker, Catriona; Holland, Mark; Williamson, Andrew J.K.; Pierce, Andrew; Unwin, Richard D.; Krishnan, Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    Cancer Biomarkers have the capability to improve patient outcomes. They have potential applications in diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring of disease progression and measuring response to treatment. This type of information is particularly useful in the individualisation of treatment regimens. Biomarkers may take many forms but considerable effort has been made to identify and quantify proteins in biological fluids. However, a major challenge in measuring protein in biological fluids, such as plasma, is the sensitivity of the assay and the complex matrix of proteins present. Furthermore, determining the effect of proteases in disease requires measurement of their activity in biological fluids as quantification of the protein itself may not provide sufficient information. To date little progress has been made towards monitoring activity of proteases in plasma. The protease asparaginyl endopeptidase has been implicated in diseases such as breast cancer, leukaemia and dementia. Here we describe a new approach to sensitively and in a targeted fashion quantify asparaginyl endopeptidase activity in plasma using a synthetic substrate peptide protected from nonspecific hydrolysis using D-amino acids within the structure. Our selected reaction monitoring approach enabled asparaginyl endopeptidase activity to be measured in human plasma with both a high dynamic range and sensitivity. This manuscript describes a paradigm for future development of assays to measure protease activities in biological fluids as biomarkers of disease. PMID:27683124

  19. Effects of endopeptidase inhibition on the relaxation response of isolated human penile erectile tissue to vasoactive peptides.

    PubMed

    Rahardjo, H E; Reichelt, K; Sonnenberg, J E; Sohn, M; Kuczyk, M A; Ückert, S

    2016-12-01

    Peptides, such as CNP, CGRP and VIP, are involved in the function of male penile erectile tissue. Tissue levels of said peptides are controlled by the endopeptidase enzymes. Theoretically, the inhibition of the degradation of CNP, CGRP and/or VIP should result in an enhancement in penile smooth muscle relaxation. The effects were investigated of CNP or VIP (0.1 nm-1 μm), without and following pre-exposure of the tissue to a threshold concentration of the endopeptidase inhibitor KC 12615 (10 μm, for 20 min), on the reversion of tension induced by means of electrical field stimulation. Drug effects on the production of cyclic AMP/GMP were also evaluated. Neither KC 12615, CNP and VIP nor the combination of CNP plus KC 12615 or VIP plus KC 12615 increased the response of the tissue to EFS. While no effects were observed of a pre-exposure of the tissue to KC 12615 on the production of cyclic AMP in the presence of VIP, an enhancement was registered in the accumulation of cyclic AMP in the presence of CNP plus KC 12615. Further studies are indicated to investigate whether endopeptidase inhibitors might tend to be more effective in tissues affected by a decreased local production of vasoactive peptides. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. [Ulysses retrotransposon aspartate proteinase (Drosophila virilis)].

    PubMed

    Volkov, D A; Savvateeva, L V; Dergousova, N I; Rumsh, L D

    2002-01-01

    Retrotransposones are mobile genetic elements occurring in genomes of bacteria, plants or animals. Retrotransposones were found to contain nucleotide sequences encoding proteins which are homological to retroviral aspartic proteinases. Our research has been focused on Ulysses which is mobile genetic element found in Drosophila virilis. We suggested a primary structure of Ulysses proteinase using comparative analysis of amino acid sequences of retroviral proteinases and proteinases from retrotransposones. The appropriate cDNA fragment has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. The purification of recombinant protein (12 kD) has been carried out by affinity chromatography using pepstatine-agarose. The obtained protein has proteolytic activity at optimum pH 5.5 like the majority of aspartic proteinases.

  1. Similarities between cysteinesulphinate transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase.

    PubMed

    Recasens, M; Mandel, P

    1979-01-01

    A method for the purification of two cysteinesulphinate transaminases, A and B (EC 2.6.1), is described. These enzymes catalyse the conversion of cysteinesulphinic acid to beta-sulphinyl pyruvate. The final preparations are homogeneous by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectrofocusing. The molecular weight of the subunits is 41 000 for cysteinesulphinate transaminase A and 43 400 for B. Both enzymes are unspecific, as L-asparate, L-glutamate and L-cysteic acid serve as substrates in addition to L-cysteinesulphinic acid. Cysteinesulphinate transaminase A has a Km of 9.8 mM for cysteinesulphinic acid and 0.25 mM for aspartic acid, whereas the B enzyme has a Km of 6.5 mM for cysteinesulphinic acid and 1.4 mM for aspartic acid. The Vmax values of the A and B enzymes are respectively 7.1 and 6.2 mmol h-1 mg-1 protein for aspartic acid and 45 and 9.3 mmol h-1 mg-1 protein for cysteinesulphinic acid. Both enzymes exhibit maximum activity at pH 8.6. A high specific activity is found in optimal conditions for these two transaminases, the pI values being 9.06 and 5.70 for cysteinesulphinate transaminase A and B respectively. These results have been compared with those already obtained for purified aspartate aminotransferase. Similarities in the pathways of taurine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism are discussed.

  2. Specificity of a wheat gluten aspartic proteinase.

    PubMed

    Bleukx, W; Brijs, K; Torrekens, S; Van Leuven, F; Delcour, J A

    1998-09-08

    The substrate and peptide bond specificities of a purified wheat gluten aspartic proteinase (GlAP) are studied. GlAP shows maximum gluten hydrolysing activity at pH 3.0. At this pH, especially the wheat high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and to a lesser extent the low molecular weight glutenin subunits and gliadins are hydrolysed. GlAP has no obvious effect on albumins and globulins. In its action on oxidised insulin B-chain, GlAP forms eight peptides and has high specificity for peptide bonds located between amino acid residues with large hydrophobic side chains (Leu, Phe, Tyr) but the peptide bond Glu13-Ala14 is also hydrolysed. Although structurally quite similar to a barley aspartic proteinase, the peptide bond specificity of GlAP towards oxidised insulin B-chain resembles slightly more that of a cardoon aspartic proteinase, cardosin B. HMW-GS 7, purified from cultivar Galahad-77, is rapidly hydrolysed by GlAP. N-Terminal amino acid sequence data show that GlAP cleaves at least one Met-Ile peptide bond at the end of the N-terminal domain and two Val-Leu peptide bonds in the repetitive domain of HMW-GS 7.

  3. A Comprehensive Review of the Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, and Clinical Effects of the Neutral Endopeptidase Inhibitor Racecadotril

    PubMed Central

    Eberlin, Marion; Mück, Tobias; Michel, Martin C.

    2012-01-01

    Racecadotril, via its active metabolite thiorphan, is an inhibitor of the enzyme neutral endopeptidase (NEP, EC 3.4.24.11), thereby increasing exposure to NEP substrates including enkephalins and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). Upon oral administration racecadotril is rapidly and effectively converted into the active metabolite thiorphan, which does not cross the blood–brain-barrier. Racecadotril has mainly been tested in animal models and patients of three therapeutic areas. As an analgesic the effects of racecadotril across animal models were inconsistent. In cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension or congestive heart failure results from animal studies were promising, probably related to increased exposure to ANP, but clinical results have not shown substantial therapeutic benefit over existing treatment options in cardiovascular disease. In contrast, racecadotril was consistently effective in animal models and patients with various forms of acute diarrhea by inhibiting pathologic (but not basal) secretion from the gut without changing gastro-intestinal transit time or motility. This included studies in both adults and children. In direct comparative studies with loperamide in adults and children, racecadotril was at least as effective but exhibited fewer adverse events in most studies, particularly less rebound constipation. Several guidelines recommend the use of racecadotril as addition to oral rehydration treatment in children with acute diarrhea. PMID:22661949

  4. ADAMTS13 Endopeptidase Protects against Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Inhibitor-Induced Thrombotic Microangiopathy.

    PubMed

    Erpenbeck, Luise; Demers, Melanie; Zsengellér, Zsuzsanna K; Gallant, Maureen; Cifuni, Stephen M; Stillman, Isaac E; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Wagner, Denisa D

    2016-01-01

    Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a life-threatening condition that affects some, but not all, recipients of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors given as part of chemotherapy. TMA is also a complication of preeclampsia, a disease characterized by excess production of the VEGF-scavenging soluble VEGF receptor 1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1; sFlt-1). Risk factors for VEGF inhibitor-related TMA remain unknown. We hypothesized that deficiency of the VWF-cleaving ADAMTS13 endopeptidase contributes to the development of VEGF inhibitor-related TMA. ADAMTS13(-/-) mice overexpressing sFlt-1 presented all hallmarks of TMA, including thrombocytopenia, schistocytosis, anemia, and VWF-positive microthrombi in multiple organs. Similar to VEGF inhibitor-related TMA in humans, these mice exhibited severely impaired kidney function and hypertension. In contrast, wild-type mice overexpressing sFlt-1 developed modest hypertension but no other features of TMA. Recombinant ADAMTS13 therapy ameliorated all symptoms of TMA in ADAMTS13(-/-) mice overexpressing sFlt-1 and normalized BP in wild-type mice. ADAMTS13 activity may thus be a critical determinant for the development of TMA secondary to VEGF inhibition. Administration of recombinant ADAMTS13 may serve as a therapeutic approach to treat or prevent thrombotic complications of VEGF inhibition.

  5. Hypothalamic prolyl endopeptidase (PREP) regulates pancreatic insulin and glucagon secretion in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Dae; Toda, Chitoku; D’Agostino, Giuseppe; Zeiss, Caroline J.; DiLeone, Ralph J.; Elsworth, John D.; Kibbey, Richard G.; Chan, Owen; Harvey, Brandon K.; Richie, Christopher T.; Savolainen, Mari; Myöhänen, Timo; Jeong, Jin Kwon; Diano, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Prolyl endopeptidase (PREP) has been implicated in neuronal functions. Here we report that hypothalamic PREP is predominantly expressed in the ventromedial nucleus (VMH), where it regulates glucose-induced neuronal activation. PREP knockdown mice (Prepgt/gt) exhibited glucose intolerance, decreased fasting insulin, increased fasting glucagon levels, and reduced glucose-induced insulin secretion compared with wild-type controls. Consistent with this, central infusion of a specific PREP inhibitor, S17092, impaired glucose tolerance and decreased insulin levels in wild-type mice. Arguing further for a central mode of action of PREP, isolated pancreatic islets showed no difference in glucose-induced insulin release between Prepgt/gt and wild-type mice. Furthermore, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp studies showed no difference between Prepgt/gt and wild-type control mice. Central PREP regulation of insulin and glucagon secretion appears to be mediated by the autonomic nervous system because Prepgt/gt mice have elevated sympathetic outflow and norepinephrine levels in the pancreas, and propranolol treatment reversed glucose intolerance in these mice. Finally, re-expression of PREP by bilateral VMH injection of adeno-associated virus–PREP reversed the glucose-intolerant phenotype of the Prepgt/gt mice. Taken together, our results unmask a previously unknown player in central regulation of glucose metabolism and pancreatic function. PMID:25071172

  6. The role of neutral endopeptidase in caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Koh, Yung-Hua; Moochhala, Shabbir; Bhatia, Madhav

    2011-11-15

    Substance P (SP) is well known to promote inflammation in acute pancreatitis (AP) by interacting with neurokinin-1 receptor. However, mechanisms that terminate SP-mediated responses are unclear. Neutral endopeptidase (NEP) is a cell-surface enzyme that degrades SP in the extracellular fluid. In this study, we examined the expression and the role of NEP in caerulein-induced AP. Male BALB/c mice (20-25 g) subjected to 3-10 hourly injections of caerulein (50 μg/kg) exhibited reduced NEP activity and protein expression in the pancreas and lungs. Additionally, caerulein (10(-7) M) also downregulated NEP activity and mRNA expression in isolated pancreatic acinar cells. The role of NEP in AP was examined in two opposite ways: inhibition of NEP (phosphoramidon [5 mg/kg] or thiorphan [10 mg/kg]) followed by 6 hourly caerulein injections) or supplementation with exogenous NEP (10 hourly caerulein injections, treatment of recombinant mouse NEP [1 mg/kg] during second caerulein injection). Inhibition of NEP raised SP levels and exacerbated inflammatory conditions in mice. Meanwhile, the severity of AP, determined by histological examination, tissue water content, myeloperoxidase activity, and plasma amylase activity, was markedly better in mice that received exogenous NEP treatment. Our results suggest that NEP is anti-inflammatory in caerulein-induced AP. Acute inhibition of NEP contributes to increased SP levels in caerulein-induced AP, which leads to augmented inflammatory responses in the pancreas and associated lung injury.

  7. Post-proline cleaving enzyme. Purification of this endopeptidase by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Koida, M; Walter, R

    1976-12-10

    The endopeptidase, post-proline cleaving enzyme, has been purified 10,500-fold in an overall yield of 18% from lamb kidney. The enzyme possesses a specific activity of 45 mumol/mg/min as tested with the substrate Z-Gly-Pro-Leu-Gly (Km = 6.0 X 10(-5)), has a molecular weight of 115,000, is comprised of two subunits with a molecular weight of 57,000, and exhibits maximal activity at pH 7.5 to 8.0. With the exception of the -Pro-Pro linkage, the -Pro-X-peptide bond (X equals L- and D-amino acid residues) located internally in the peptide sequence can be hydrolyzed (cleavage occurs faster when X = lipophilic side chain as compared to X = acidic side chain). The appropriate -Pro-X- bonds in zinc-free porcine insulin, oxytocin, arginine vasopressin, angiotensin II, bradykinin-potentiating factor were cleaved. Human gastrin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, denatured guinea pig skin collagen, and ascaris cuticle collagen were not degraded. Dipeptides with the structure Z-Pro-LD-X competitively inhibit post-proline cleaving enzyme.

  8. Improved Learning and Memory in Aged Mice Deficient in Amyloid β-Degrading Neutral Endopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Thomas; Albrecht, Doris; Becker, Matthias; Schubert, Manja; Kouznetsova, Elena; Wiesner, Burkard; Maul, Björn; Schliebs, Reinhard; Grecksch, Gisela; Furkert, Jens; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Becker, Axel; Siems, Wolf-Eberhard

    2009-01-01

    Background Neutral endopeptidase, also known as neprilysin and abbreviated NEP, is considered to be one of the key enzymes in initial human amyloid-β (Aβ) degradation. The aim of our study was to explore the impact of NEP deficiency on the initial development of dementia-like symptoms in mice. Methodology/Principal Findings We found that while endogenous Aβ concentrations were elevated in the brains of NEP-knockout mice at all investigated age groups, immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies did not detect any Aβ deposits even in old NEP knockout mice. Surprisingly, tests of learning and memory revealed that the ability to learn was not reduced in old NEP-deficient mice but instead had significantly improved, and sustained learning and memory in the aged mice was congruent with improved long-term potentiation (LTP) in brain slices of the hippocampus and lateral amygdala. Our data suggests a beneficial effect of pharmacological inhibition of cerebral NEP on learning and memory in mice due to the accumulation of peptides other than Aβ degradable by NEP. By conducting degradation studies and peptide measurements in the brain of both genotypes, we identified two neuropeptide candidates, glucagon-like peptide 1 and galanin, as first potential candidates to be involved in the improved learning in aged NEP-deficient mice. Conclusions/Significance Thus, the existence of peptides targeted by NEP that improve learning and memory in older individuals may represent a promising avenue for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19240795

  9. Endothelins are more sensitive than sarafotoxins to neutral endopeptidase: possible physiological significance.

    PubMed Central

    Skolovsky, M; Galron, R; Kloog, Y; Bdolah, A; Indig, F E; Blumberg, S; Fleminger, G

    1990-01-01

    Incubation of endothelins (ETs) with bovine kidney neutral endopeptidase (NEP) resulted in a selective two-step degradation with loss of biochemical activity. The Km of the enzyme indicated high-affinity binding, and hydrolysis was completely inhibited by phosphoramidon. The first step was nicking of the Ser5-Leu6 bond, followed by cleavage at the amino side of Ile19. The nicked peptide exhibited biochemical activities comparable to those of the intact peptide--i.e., binding to the ET receptor, induction of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis, and toxicity. The twice-cleaved product was inactive. The sarafotoxins (SRTXs) were more resistant than the ETs to NEP: for example, the half-time for ET-1 was approximately 1 hr, while it was approximately 4 hr for SRTX-b and even higher for SRTX-c. These in vitro findings may indicate a regulatory role of NEP (or similar enzymes) in the physiological inactivation of ETs. They might also help to explain why under certain physiological conditions ETs may be less toxic than SRTXs. Images PMID:2191299

  10. Endothelins are more sensitive than sarafotoxins to neutral endopeptidase: possible physiological significance.

    PubMed

    Skolovsky, M; Galron, R; Kloog, Y; Bdolah, A; Indig, F E; Blumberg, S; Fleminger, G

    1990-06-01

    Incubation of endothelins (ETs) with bovine kidney neutral endopeptidase (NEP) resulted in a selective two-step degradation with loss of biochemical activity. The Km of the enzyme indicated high-affinity binding, and hydrolysis was completely inhibited by phosphoramidon. The first step was nicking of the Ser5-Leu6 bond, followed by cleavage at the amino side of Ile19. The nicked peptide exhibited biochemical activities comparable to those of the intact peptide--i.e., binding to the ET receptor, induction of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis, and toxicity. The twice-cleaved product was inactive. The sarafotoxins (SRTXs) were more resistant than the ETs to NEP: for example, the half-time for ET-1 was approximately 1 hr, while it was approximately 4 hr for SRTX-b and even higher for SRTX-c. These in vitro findings may indicate a regulatory role of NEP (or similar enzymes) in the physiological inactivation of ETs. They might also help to explain why under certain physiological conditions ETs may be less toxic than SRTXs.

  11. Generation of food-grade recombinant Lactobacillus casei delivering Myxococcus xanthus prolyl endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Sieiro, Patricia; Martin, Maria Cruz; Redruello, Begoña; Del Rio, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Palanski, Brad A; Khosla, Chaitan; Fernandez, Maria; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2014-08-01

    Prolyl endopeptidases (PEP) (EC 3.4.21.26), a family of serine proteases with the ability to hydrolyze the peptide bond on the carboxyl side of an internal proline residue, are able to degrade immunotoxic peptides responsible for celiac disease (CD), such as a 33-residue gluten peptide (33-mer). Oral administration of PEP has been suggested as a potential therapeutic approach for CD, although delivery of the enzyme to the small intestine requires intrinsic gastric stability or advanced formulation technologies. We have engineered two food-grade Lactobacillus casei strains to deliver PEP in an in vitro model of small intestine environment. One strain secretes PEP into the extracellular medium, whereas the other retains PEP in the intracellular environment. The strain that secretes PEP into the extracellular medium is the most effective to degrade the 33-mer and is resistant to simulated gastrointestinal stress. Our results suggest that in the future, after more studies and clinical trials, an engineered food-grade Lactobacillus strain may be useful as a vector for in situ production of PEP in the upper small intestine of CD patients.

  12. No genetic association of the human prolyl endopeptidase gene in the Dutch celiac disease population.

    PubMed

    Diosdado, Begoña; Stepniak, Dariusz T; Monsuur, Alienke J; Franke, Lude; Wapenaar, Martin C; Mearin, Maria Luisa; Koning, Frits; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2005-09-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a complex genetic disorder of the small intestine. The DQ2/DQ8 human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genes explain approximately 40% of the genetic component of the disease, but the remaining non-HLA genes have not yet been identified. The key environmental factor known to be involved in the disease is gluten, a major protein present in wheat, barley, and rye. Integrating microarray data and linkage data from chromosome 6q21-22 revealed the prolyl endopeptidase (PREP) gene as a potential CD candidate in the Dutch population. Interestingly, this gene encodes for the only enzyme that is able to cleave the proline-rich gluten peptides. To investigate the role of the human PREP gene as a primary genetic factor in CD, we conducted gene expression, sequence analysis, and genetic association studies of the PREP gene and determined PREP enzyme activity in biopsies from CD patients and controls. Sequence analysis of the coding region of the PREP gene revealed two novel polymorphisms. Genetic association studies using two novel polymorphisms and three known PREP variants excluded a genetic association between PREP and CD. Determination of PREP activity revealed weak but significant differences between treated and untreated CD biopsies (P < 0.05). Our results from the association study indicate that PREP is not a causative gene for CD in the Dutch population. These are further supported by the activity determinations in which we observed no differences in PREP activity between CD patients and controls.

  13. Generation of food-grade recombinant Lactobacillus casei delivering Myxococcus xanthus prolyl endopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Sieiro, Patricia; Martin, Maria Cruz; Redruello, Begoña; del Rio, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Palanski, Brad A.; Khosla, Chaitan; Fernandez, Maria; Alvarez, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Prolyl endopeptidases (PEP), a family of serine proteases with the ability to hydrolyze the peptide bond on the carboxyl side of an internal proline residue, are able to degrade immunotoxic peptides responsible for celiac disease (CD), such as a 33-residue gluten peptide (33-mer). Oral administration of PEP has been suggested as a potential therapeutic approach for CD, although delivery of the enzyme to the small intestine requires intrinsic gastric stability or advanced formulation technologies. We have engineered two food-grade Lactobacillus casei strains to deliver PEP in an in vitro model of small intestine environment. One strain secretes PEP into the extracellular medium, whereas the other retains PEP in the intracellular environment. The strain that secretes PEP into the extracellular medium is the most effective to degrade the 33-mer and is resistant to simulated gastrointestinal stress. Our results suggest that in a future, after more studies and clinical trials, an engineered food-grade Lactobacillus strain may be useful as a vector for in situ production of PEP in the upper small intestine of CD patients. PMID:24752841

  14. Structural Basis of Murein Peptide Specificity of a γ-D-glutamyl-L-diamino Acid Endopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingping; Sudek, Sebastian; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D.; Geierstanger, Bernhard; Jones, David H.; Sri Krishna, S.; Spraggon, Glen; Bursalay, Badry; Abdubek, Polat; Acosta, Claire; Ambing, Eileen; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Carlton, Dennis; Caruthers, Jonathan; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Elias, Ylva; Elsliger, Marc-Andre; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Hale, Joanna; Han, Gye Won; Haugen, Justin; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Oommachen, Silvya; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Trout, Christina V.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; White, Aprilfawn; Wolf, Guenter; Zubieta, Chloe; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2009-01-01

    Crystal structures of two homologous peptidases from cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis and Nostoc punctiforme at 1.05 Å and 1.60 Å resolution represent the first structures of a large class of cell-wall, cysteine peptidases that contain an N-terminal bacterial SH3-like domain (SH3b) and a C-terminal NlpC/P60 cysteine peptidase domain. The NlpC/P60 domain is a primitive, papain-like peptidase in the CA clan of cysteine peptidases with a Cys126/His176/His188 catalytic triad and a conserved catalytic core. We deduced from structure and sequence analysis, and then experimentally, that that these two proteins act as γ-D-glutamyl-L-diamino acid endopeptidases (EC 3.4.22.-). The active site is located near the interface between the SH3b and NlpC/P60 domains, where the SH3b domain may help define substrate specificity, instead of functioning as a targeting domain, so that only muropeptides with an N-terminal L-alanine can bind to the active site. PMID:19217401

  15. Rab9-dependent retrograde transport and endosomal sorting of the endopeptidase furin

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Pei Zhi Cheryl; Gasnereau, Isabelle; Lieu, Zi Zhao; Gleeson, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    The endopeptidase furin and the trans-Golgi network protein TGN38 are membrane proteins that recycle between the TGN and plasma membrane. TGN38 is transported by a retromer-dependent pathway from early endosomes to the TGN, whereas the intracellular transport of furin is poorly defined. Here we have identified the itinerary and transport requirements of furin. Using internalisation assays, we show that furin transits the early and late endosomes en route to the TGN. The GTPase Rab9 and the TGN golgin GCC185, components of the late endosome-to-TGN pathway, were required for efficient TGN retrieval of furin. By contrast, TGN38 trafficking was independent of Rab9 and GCC185. To identify the sorting signals for the early endosome-to-TGN pathway, the trafficking of furin–TGN38 chimeras was investigated. The diversion of furin from the Rab9-dependent late-endosome-to-TGN pathway to the retromer-dependent early-endosome-to-TGN pathway required both the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of TGN38. We present evidence to suggest that the length of the transmembrane domain is a contributing factor in endosomal sorting. Overall, these data show that furin uses the Rab9-dependent pathway from late endosomes and that retrograde transport directly from early endosomes is dependent on both the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail. PMID:21693586

  16. Efficient backbone cyclization of linear peptides by a recombinant asparaginyl endopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Karen S.; Durek, Thomas; Kaas, Quentin; Poth, Aaron G.; Gilding, Edward K.; Conlan, Brendon F.; Saska, Ivana; Daly, Norelle L.; van der Weerden, Nicole L.; Craik, David J.; Anderson, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclotides are diverse plant backbone cyclized peptides that have attracted interest as pharmaceutical scaffolds, but fundamentals of their biosynthetic origin remain elusive. Backbone cyclization is a key enzyme-mediated step of cyclotide biosynthesis and confers a measure of stability on the resultant cyclotide. Furthermore, cyclization would be desirable for engineered peptides. Here we report the identification of four asparaginyl endopeptidases (AEPs), proteases implicated in cyclization, from the cyclotide-producing plant Oldenlandia affinis. We recombinantly express OaAEP1b and find it functions preferably as a cyclase by coupling C-terminal cleavage of propeptide substrates with backbone cyclization. Interestingly, OaAEP1b cannot cleave at the N-terminal site of O. affinis cyclotide precursors, implicating additional proteases in cyclotide biosynthesis. Finally, we demonstrate the broad utility of this enzyme by cyclization of peptides unrelated to cyclotides. We propose that recombinant OaAEP1b is a powerful tool for use in peptide engineering applications where increased stability of peptide products is desired. PMID:26680698

  17. Novel natural peptide substrates for endopeptidase 24.15, neurolysin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme.

    PubMed

    Rioli, Vanessa; Gozzo, Fabio C; Heimann, Andrea S; Linardi, Alessandra; Krieger, José E; Shida, Cláudio S; Almeida, Paulo C; Hyslop, Stephen; Eberlin, Marcos N; Ferro, Emer S

    2003-03-07

    Endopeptidase 24.15 (EC; ep24.15), neurolysin (EC; ep24.16), and angiotensin-converting enzyme (EC; ACE) are metallopeptidases involved in neuropeptide metabolism in vertebrates. Using catalytically inactive forms of ep24.15 and ep24.16, we have identified new peptide substrates for these enzymes. The enzymatic activity of ep24.15 and ep24.16 was inactivated by site-directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues within their conserved HEXXH motifs, without disturbing their secondary structure or peptide binding ability, as shown by circular dichroism and binding assays. Fifteen of the peptides isolated were sequenced by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and shared homology with fragments of intracellular proteins such as hemoglobin. Three of these peptides (PVNFKFLSH, VVYPWTQRY, and LVVYPWTQRY) were synthesized and shown to interact with ep24.15, ep24.16, and ACE, with K(i) values ranging from 1.86 to 27.76 microm. The hemoglobin alpha-chain fragment PVNFKFLSH, which we have named hemopressin, produced dose-dependent hypotension in anesthetized rats, starting at 0.001 microg/kg. The hypotensive effect of the peptide was potentiated by enalapril only at the lowest peptide dose. These results suggest a role for hemopressin as a vasoactive substance in vivo. The identification of these putative intracellular substrates for ep24.15 and ep24.16 is an important step toward the elucidation of the role of these enzymes within cells.

  18. Prolyl endopeptidase-mediated destruction of T cell epitopes in whole gluten: chemical and immunological characterization.

    PubMed

    Marti, Thomas; Molberg, Oyvind; Li, Qing; Gray, Gary M; Khosla, Chaitan; Sollid, Ludvig M

    2005-01-01

    Celiac Sprue is a widely prevalent immune disease of the small intestine induced by dietary gluten intake in genetically susceptible individuals. It has been suggested that prolyl endopeptidases (PEPs) may be useful catalysts for gluten detoxification. We have investigated this hypothesis using food-grade gluten as the target antigen, and a combination of mass spectrometry and patient-derived T cells as quantitative assay systems. Spectrometric characterization of physiologically proteolyzed gluten revealed a number of 10 to 50 residue peptides containing known T cell epitopes involved in Celiac Sprue pathogenesis. Several of these peptides were multivalent, suggesting they may be potent triggers of the inflammatory response to gluten in celiac patients. Treatment of proteolyzed gluten with recombinant bacterial PEP decreased the number of potentially immunostimulatory peptides. Substantially reduced immunogenicity was also quantified in 12 of 14 intestinal polyclonal T cell lines from celiac patients. Kinetic investigations using eight T cell clones showed rapid destruction of alpha-gliadin epitopes, but less complete processing of gamma-gliadin epitopes. Given the difficulty associated with a strict lifelong gluten-exclusion diet, the ability of a single enzyme to greatly reduce the antigenic burden of grocery store gluten reinforces the case for developing oral peptidase therapy against Celiac Sprue.

  19. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Engagement Mediates Prolyl Endopeptidase Release from Airway Epithelia via Exosomes.

    PubMed

    Szul, Tomasz; Bratcher, Preston E; Fraser, Kyle B; Kong, Michele; Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Ingersoll, Sarah; Sztul, Elizabeth; Rangarajan, Sunil; Blalock, J Edwin; Xu, Xin; Gaggar, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Proteases are important regulators of pulmonary remodeling and airway inflammation. Recently, we have characterized the enzyme prolyl endopeptidase (PE), a serine peptidase, as a critical protease in the generation of the neutrophil chemoattractant tripeptide Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP) from collagen. However, PE has been characterized as a cytosolic enzyme, and the mechanism mediating PE release extracellularly remains unknown. We examined the role of exosomes derived from airway epithelia as a mechanism for PE release and the potential extracellular signals that regulate the release of these exosomes. We demonstrate a specific regulatory pathway of exosome release from airway epithelia and identify PE as novel exosome cargo. LPS stimulation of airway epithelial cells induces release of PE-containing exosomes, which is significantly attenuated by small interfering RNA depletion of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). These differences were recapitulated upon intratracheal LPS administration in mice competent versus deficient for TLR4 signaling. Finally, sputum samples from subjects with cystic fibrosis colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa demonstrate elevated exosome content and increased PE levels. This TLR4-based mechanism highlights the first report of nonstochastic release of exosomes in the lung and couples TLR4 activation with matrikine generation. The increased quantity of these proteolytic exosomes in the airways of subjects with chronic lung disease highlights a new mechanism of injury and inflammation in the pathogenesis of pulmonary disorders.

  20. Funastrain c II: a cysteine endopeptidase purified from the latex of Funastrum clausum.

    PubMed

    Morcelle, Susana R; Trejo, Sebastián A; Canals, Francesc; Avilés, Francesc X; Priolo, Nora S

    2004-04-01

    A cysteine endopeptidase, named funastrain c II, was isolated and characterized from the latex of Funastrum clausum (Asclepiadaceae). The molecular mass (mass spectrometry) of the protease was 23.636 kDa. The analysis of funastrain c II by SDS-PAGE revealed a single polypeptide chain. The enzyme showed a remarkable stability of its caseinolytic activity after incubation at temperatures as high as 70 degrees C. Inhibition and activation assays indicated the cysteinic nature of the funastrain c II catalytic site. The optimum pH of funastrain c II enzymatic activity varied according to the substrate used (9.0-10.0 for casein and 6.2-6.8 for PFLNA). Kinetic parameters were determined for N-alpha-CBZ-Ala p-nitrophenyl ester (Km = 0.0243 mM, kcat = 1.5 s(-1)) and L-pyroglutamyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine-p-nitroanilide (PFLNA; KM = 0.1011 mM, kcat = 0.9 s(-1)). The N-terminal sequence of funastrain c II showed considerable similarity to other proteases isolated from latex of different Asclepiadaceae species as well as to other cysteine proteinases belonging to the papain family.

  1. Internally quenched fluorescent peptide libraries with randomized sequences designed to detect endopeptidases.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lilian C G; Silva, Vinícius O; Okamoto, Debora N; Kondo, Marcia Y; Santos, Saara M B; Hirata, Isaura Y; Vallim, Marcelo A; Pascon, Renata C; Gouvea, Iuri E; Juliano, Maria A; Juliano, Luiz

    2012-02-01

    Identification of synthetic peptide substrates for novel peptidases is an essential step for their study. With this purpose we synthesized fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptide libraries Abz (or MCA)-GXXXXXQ-EDDnp and Abz (or MCA)-GXXZXXQ-EDDnp, where X consists of an equimolar mixture of all amino acids, the Z position is fixed with one of the proteinogenic amino acids (cysteine was excluded), Abz (ortho-aminobenzoic acid) or MCA ([7-amino-4-methyl]coumarin) is the fluorescence donor and Q-EDDnp (glutamine-[N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-ethylenediamine]) is the fluorescence acceptor. The peptide libraries MCA-GXXX↓XXQ-EDDnp and MCA-GXXZ↓XXQ-EDDnp were cleaved as indicated (↓) by trypsin, chymotrypsin, cathepsin L, pepsin A, and Eqolisin as confirmed by Edman degradation of the products derived from the digestion of these libraries. The best hydrolyzed Abz-GXXZXXQ-EDDnp sublibraries by these proteases, including Dengue 2 virus NS2B-NS3 protease, contained amino acids at the Z position that are reported to be well accepted by their S(1) subsite. The pH profiles of the hydrolytic activities of these canonical proteases on the libraries were similar to those reported for typical substrates. The FRET peptide libraries provide an efficient and simple approach for detecting nanomolar concentrations of endopeptidases and are useful for initial specificity characterization as performed for two proteases secreted by a Bacillus subtilis.

  2. Expression and Secretion of Barley Cysteine Endopeptidase B and Cellobiohydrolase I in Trichoderma reesei

    PubMed Central

    Nykanen, M.; Saarelainen, R.; Raudaskoski, M.; Nevalainen, K.; Mikkonen, A.

    1997-01-01

    Localization of expression and secretion of a heterologous barley cysteine endopeptidase (EPB) and the homologous main cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI) in a Trichoderma reesei transformant expressing both proteins were studied. The transformant was grown on solid medium with Avicel cellulose and lactose to induce the cbh1 promoter for the synthesis of the native CBHI and the recombinant barley protein linked to a cbh1 expression cassette. Differences in localization of expression between the two proteins were clearly indicated by in situ hybridization, indirect immunofluorescence, and immunoelectron microscopy. In young hyphae, native-size recombinant epb mRNA was localized to apical compartments. In older cultures, it was also seen in subapical compartments but not in hyphae from the colony center. The recombinant EPB had a higher molecular weight than the native barley protein, probably due to glycosylation and differential processing in the fungal host. As was found with its transcripts, recombinant EPB was localized in apical and subapical compartments of hyphae. The cbh1 mRNA and CBHI were both localized to all hyphae of a colony, which suggests that the endogenous CBHI was also secreted from these. In immunoelectron microscopy, the endoplasmic reticulum and spherical vesicles assumed to contribute to secretion were labeled by both CBHI and EPB antibodies while only CBHI was localized in elongated vesicles close to the plasma membrane and in hyphal walls. The results indicate that in addition to young apical cells, more mature hyphae in a colony may secrete proteins. PMID:16535755

  3. Breast cancer cell-associated endopeptidase EC 24.11 modulates proliferative response to bombesin

    PubMed Central

    Burns, D M; Walker, B; Gray, J; Nelson, J

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the production, growth and inactivation of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)-like peptides in human breast cancer cell lines. Radioimmunoassay detected GRP-like immunoreactivity (GRP-LI) in T47D breast cancer cells but not in the conditioned medium, indicating rapid clearance. No GRP-LI was found in the ZR-75-1 or MDA-MB-436 cells or their conditioned medium. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the GRP-LI in the T47D cells revealed a major peak, which co-eluted with GRP18–27, and a minor more hydrophilic peak. In vitro stimulation of T47D cell growth by bombesin (BN) was enhanced to 138% of control levels (bombesin alone) by the addition of the selective endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.11 inhibitor phosphoramidon (0.1 ng ml−;1). Fluorogenic analysis using whole cells confirmed low levels of this phosphoramidon-sensitive enzyme on the T47D cells. This enzyme, previously unreported in human breast cancer cells, significantly modulates both T47D growth and its response to BN-induced growth. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:9888460

  4. PepO, a CovRS-controlled endopeptidase, disrupts Streptococcus pyogenes quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Wilkening, Reid V; Chang, Jennifer C; Federle, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes) is a human-restricted pathogen with a capacity to both colonize asymptomatically and cause illnesses ranging from pharyngitis to necrotizing fasciitis. An understanding of how and when GAS switches between genetic programs governing these different lifestyles has remained an enduring mystery and likely requires carefully tuned environmental sensors to activate and silence genetic schemes when appropriate. Herein, we describe the relationship between the Control of Virulence (CovRS, CsrRS) two-component system and the Rgg2/3 quorum-sensing pathway. We demonstrate that responses of CovRS to the stress signals Mg(2+) and a fragment of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 result in modulated activity of pheromone signaling of the Rgg2/3 pathway through a means of proteolysis of SHP peptide pheromones. This degradation is mediated by the cytoplasmic endopeptidase PepO, which is the first identified enzymatic silencer of an RRNPP-type quorum-sensing pathway. These results suggest that under conditions in which the virulence potential of GAS is elevated (i.e. enhanced virulence gene expression), cellular responses mediated by the Rgg2/3 pathway are abrogated and allow individuals to escape from group behavior. These results also indicate that Rgg2/3 signaling is instead functional during non-virulent GAS lifestyles. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. PepO, a CovRS-controlled endopeptidase, disrupts Streptococcus pyogenes quorum sensing

    PubMed Central

    Wilkening, Reid V.; Chang, Jennifer C.; Federle, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Group A Streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes) is a human-restricted pathogen with a capacity to both colonize asymptomatically and cause illnesses ranging from pharyngitis to necrotizing fasciitis. An understanding of how and when GAS switches between genetic programs governing these different lifestyles has remained an enduring mystery and likely requires carefully tuned environmental sensors to activate and silence genetic schemes when appropriate. Herein, we describe the relationship between the Control of Virulence (CovRS, CsrRS) two-component system and the Rgg2/3 quorum-sensing pathway. We demonstrate that responses of CovRS to the stress signals Mg2+ and a fragment of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 result in modulated activity of pheromone signaling of the Rgg2/3 pathway through a means of proteolysis of SHP peptide pheromones. This degradation is mediated by the cytoplasmic endopeptidase PepO, which is the first identified enzymatic silencer of an RRNPP-type quorum-sensing pathway. These results suggest that under conditions in which the virulence potential of GAS is elevated (i.e. enhanced virulence gene expression), cellular responses mediated by the Rgg2/3 pathway are abrogated and allow individuals to escape from group behavior. These results also indicate that Rgg2/3 signaling is instead functional during non-virulent GAS lifestyles. PMID:26418177

  6. Role of endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 in the catabolism of neurotensin, in vivo, in the vascularly perfused dog ileum.

    PubMed

    Barelli, H; Fox-Threlkeld, J E; Dive, V; Daniel, E E; Vincent, J P; Checler, F

    1994-05-01

    1. The degradation of tritiated and unlabelled neurotensin (NT) following close intra-arterial infusion of the peptides in ileal segments of anaesthetized dogs was examined. 2. Intact NT and its catabolites recovered in the venous effluents were purified by chromatography on Sep-Pak columns followed by reverse-phase h.p.l.c. and identified by their retention times or by radioimmunoassay. 3. The half-life of neurotensin was estimated to be between 2 and 6 min. Four labelled catabolites, corresponding to free tyrosine, neurotensin (1-8), neurotensin (1-10) and neurotensin (1-11), were detected. 4. Neurotensin (1-11) was mainly generated by a phosphoramidon-sensitive cleavage, probably elicited by endopeptidase 24-11. 5. Two endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 inhibitors, phosphodiepryl 03 and the dipeptide Pro-Ile, dose-dependently potentiated the recovery of intact neurotensin. Furthermore, both agents inhibited the formation of neurotensin (1-10), the product that results from the hydrolysis of neurotensin by purified endopeptidase 3.4.24.16. In contrast, the endopeptidase 3.4.24.15 inhibitor Cpp-AAY-pAB neither protected neurotensin from degradation nor modified the production of neurotensin (1-10). 6. Our study is the first evidence to indicate that endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 contributes to the catabolism of neurotensin, in vivo, in the dog intestine.

  7. A neuroprotective brain-penetrating endopeptidase fusion protein ameliorates Alzheimer disease pathology and restores neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Brian; Verma, Inder; Desplats, Paula; Morvinski, Dinorah; Rockenstein, Ed; Adame, Anthony; Masliah, Eliezer

    2014-06-20

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by widespread neurodegeneration throughout the association cortex and limbic system, deposition of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) in the neuropil and around the blood vessels, and formation of neurofibrillary tangles. The endopeptidase neprilysin has been successfully used to reduce the accumulation of Aβ following intracranial viral vector delivery or ex vivo manipulated intracranial delivery. These therapies have relied on direct injections into the brain, whereas a clinically desirable therapy would involve i.v. infusion of a recombinant enzyme. We previously characterized a recombinant neprilysin that contained a 38-amino acid brain-targeting domain. Recombinant cell lines have been generated expressing this brain-targeted enzyme (ASN12). In this report, we characterize the ASN12 recombinant protein for pharmacology in a mouse as well as efficacy in two APPtg mouse models of AD. The recombinant ASN12 transited to the brain with a t½ of 24 h and accumulated to 1.7% of injected dose at 24 h following i.v. delivery. We examined pharmacodynamics in the tg2576 APPtg mouse with the prion promoter APP695 SWE mutation and in the Line41 mThy1 APP751 mutation mouse. Treatment of either APPtg mouse resulted in reduced Aβ, increased neuronal synapses, and improved learning and memory. In addition, the Line41 APPtg mice showed increased levels of C-terminal neuropeptide Y fragments and increased neurogenesis. These results suggest that the recombinant brain-targeted neprilysin, ASN12, may be an effective treatment for AD and warrant further investigation in clinical trials.

  8. Schistosome asparaginyl endopeptidase (legumain) is not essential for cathepsin B1 activation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Krautz-Peterson, Greice; Skelly, Patrick J

    2008-05-01

    Schistosomes are parasitic platyhelminths that constitute an important public health problem. Adult parasites live in the vasculature of their vertebrate hosts where they consume blood. Ingested blood proteins are degraded by a proteolytic cascade. One of the best characterized schistosome proteases is cathepsin B1 (SmCB1 or Sm31). This protein is synthesized as a large 38 kDa precursor form which is proteolytically cleaved to yield a mature, active 31 kDa enzyme. A second schistosome protease--the asparaginyl endopeptidase SmAE (also known as Sm32, or schistosome legumain), has been proposed to proteolytically convert the 38 kDa precursor SmCB1 into its mature form. Recombinant activated SmAE has been shown to trans-process SmCB1 into the mature, catalytic form in vitro. In the present study, our aim was to test the hypothesis that in vivo SmAE likewise processes SmCB1 into its active form. To do this, expression of the SmAE gene was suppressed in adult Schistosoma mansoni using RNA interference (RNAi). The results of these experiments show that, even in the absence of detectable SmAE protein, SmCB1 is fully processed and active and support the assertion that SmAE is not essential to activate SmCB1 in vivo. The data indicate that our original hypothesis is incorrect and that SmAE is not pivotal in the in vivo conversion of cathepsin B1 into its mature, active form.

  9. The neuronal endopeptidase ECEL1 is associated with a distinct form of recessive distal arthrogryposis.

    PubMed

    Dieterich, Klaus; Quijano-Roy, Susana; Monnier, Nicole; Zhou, Jie; Fauré, Julien; Smirnow, Daniela Avila; Carlier, Robert; Laroche, Cécile; Marcorelles, Pascale; Mercier, Sandra; Mégarbané, André; Odent, Sylvie; Romero, Norma; Sternberg, Damien; Marty, Isabelle; Estournet, Brigitte; Jouk, Pierre-Simon; Melki, Judith; Lunardi, Joël

    2013-04-15

    Distal arthrogryposis (DA) is a heterogeneous subgroup of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC), a large family of disorders characterized by multiple congenital joint limitations due to reduced fetal movements. DA is mainly characterized by contractures afflicting especially the distal extremities without overt muscular or neurological signs. Although a limited number of genes mostly implicated in the contractile apparatus have been identified in DA, most patients failed to show mutations in currently known genes. Using a pangenomic approach, we demonstrated linkage of DA to chromosome 2q37 in two consanguineous families and the endothelin-converting enzyme like 1 (ECEL1) gene present in this region was associated with DA. Screening of a panel of 20 families with non-specific DA identified seven homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations of ECEL1 in a total of six families. Mutations resulted mostly in the absence of protein. ECEL1 is a neuronal endopeptidase predominantly expressed in the central nervous system and brain structures during fetal life in mice and human. ECEL1 plays a major role in intramuscular axonal branching of motor neurons in skeletal muscle during embryogenesis. A detailed review of clinical findings of DA patients with ECEL1 mutations revealed a homogeneous and recognizable phenotype characterized by limited knee flexion, flexed third to fifth fingers and severe muscle atrophy predominant on lower limbs and tongue that suggested a common pathogenic mechanism. We described a new and homogenous phenotype of DA associated with ECEL1 that resulted in symptoms involving rather the peripheral than the central nervous system and suggesting a developmental dysfunction.

  10. Pharmacologic Comparison of Clinical Neutral Endopeptidase Inhibitors in a Rat Model of Acute Secretory Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Prinsen, Michael J.; Oliva, Jonathan; Campbell, Mary A.; Arnett, Stacy D.; Tajfirouz, Deena; Ruminski, Peter G.; Yu, Ying; Bond, Brian R.; Ji, Yuhua; Neckermann, Georg; Choy, Robert K. M.; de Hostos, Eugenio; Meyers, Marvin J.

    2016-01-01

    Racecadotril (acetorphan) is a neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitor with known antidiarrheal activity in animals and humans; however, in humans, it suffers from shortcomings that might be improved with newer drugs in this class that have progressed to the clinic for nonenteric disease indications. To identify potentially superior NEP inhibitors with immediate clinical utility for diarrhea treatment, we compared their efficacy and pharmacologic properties in a rat intestinal hypersecretion model. Racecadotril and seven other clinical-stage inhibitors of NEP were obtained or synthesized. Enzyme potency and specificity were compared using purified peptidases. Compounds were orally administered to rats before administration of castor oil to induce diarrhea. Stool weight was recorded over 4 hours. To assess other pharmacologic properties, select compounds were orally administered to normal or castor oil–treated rats, blood and tissue samples collected at multiple time points, and active compound concentrations determined by mass spectroscopy. NEP enzyme activity was measured in tissue homogenates. Three previously untested clinical NEP inhibitors delayed diarrhea onset and reduced total stool output, with little or no effect on intestinal motility assessed by the charcoal meal test. Each was shown to be a potent, highly specific inhibitor of NEP. Each exhibited greater suppression of NEP activity in intestinal and nonintestinal tissues than did racecadotril and sustained this inhibition longer. These results suggest that newer clinical-stage NEP inhibitors originally developed for other indications may be directly repositioned for treatment of acute secretory diarrhea and offer advantages over racecadotril, such as less frequent dosing and potentially improved efficacy. PMID:26907621

  11. Purification and molecular characterization of glycylglycine endopeptidase produced by Staphylococcus capitis EPK1.

    PubMed Central

    Sugai, M; Fujiwara, T; Akiyama, T; Ohara, M; Komatsuzawa, H; Inoue, S; Suginaka, H

    1997-01-01

    A novel staphylolytic enzyme, ALE-1, acting on Staphylococcus aureus, was purified from a Staphylococcus capitis EPK1 culture supernatant. The optimal pH range for staphylolytic activity was 7 to 9. ALE-1 contains one Zn2+ atom per molecule. Analysis of peptidoglycan fragments released by ALE-1 indicated that the enzyme is a glycylglycine endopeptidase. The effects of various modulators were determined, and we found that o-phenanthroline, iodoacetic acid, diethylpyrocarbonate, and Cu2+ reduced the staphylolytic activity of ALE-1. beta-Casein, elastin, and pentaglycine were poor substrates for ALE-1. Molecular cloning data revealed that ALE-1 is composed of 362 amino acid residues and is synthesized as a precursor protein which is cleaved after Ala at position 35, thus producing a mature ALE-1 of 35.6 kDa. The primary structure of mature ALE-1 is very similar to the proenzyme form of lysostaphin. It has the modular design of an N-terminal domain of tandem repeats of a 13-amino-acid sequence fused to the active site containing C-terminal domain. Unlike lysostaphin, ALE-1 does not undergo processing of the N-terminal repeat domain in broth culture. ale-1 is encoded on the plasmid. Protein homology search suggested that ALE-1 and lysostaphin are members of the novel Zn2+ protease family with a homologous 38-amino-acid-long motif, Tyr-X-His-X(11)-Val-X(12/20)-Gly-X(5-6)-His. PMID:9023202

  12. Sialorphin, a natural inhibitor of rat membrane-bound neutral endopeptidase that displays analgesic activity

    PubMed Central

    Rougeot, Catherine; Messaoudi, Michaël; Hermitte, Véronique; Rigault, Anne Gaëlle; Blisnick, Thierry; Dugave, Christophe; Desor, Didier; Rougeon, François

    2003-01-01

    Sialorphin is an exocrine and endocrine signaling mediator, which has been identified by a genomic approach. It is synthesized predominantly in the submandibular gland and prostate of adult rats in response to androgen steroids and is released locally and systemically in response to stress. We now demonstrate that the cell surface molecule to which sialorphin binds in vivo in the rat kidney is the membrane-anchored neutral endopeptidase (neprilysin; NEP, EC 3.4.24.11). NEP plays an important role in nervous and peripheral tissues, as it turns off several peptide-signaling events at the cell surface. We show that sialorphin prevents spinal and renal NEP from breaking down its two physiologically relevant substrates, substance P and Met-enkephalin in vitro. Sialorphin inhibited the breakdown of substance P with an IC50 of 0.4–1 μM and behaved as a competitive inhibitor. In vivo, i.v. sialorphin elicited potent antinociceptive responses in two behavioral rat models of injury-induced acute and tonic pain, the pin-pain test and formalin test. The analgesia induced by 100–200 μg/kg doses of sialorphin required the activation of μ- and δ-opioid receptors, consistent with the involvement of endogenous opioid receptors in enkephalinergic transmission. We conclude that sialorphin protects endogenous enkephalins released after nociceptive stimuli by inhibiting NEP in vivo. Sialorphin is a natural systemically active regulator of NEP activity. Furthermore, our study provides evidence that it is a physiological modulator of pain perception after injury and might be the progenitor of a new class of therapeutic molecules. PMID:12835417

  13. Cooperative binding of LysM domains determines the carbohydrate affinity of a bacterial endopeptidase protein.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jaslyn E M M; Alsarraf, Husam M A B; Kaspersen, Jørn Døvling; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Stougaard, Jens; Thirup, Søren; Blaise, Mickaël

    2014-02-01

    Cellulose, chitin and peptidoglycan are major long-chain carbohydrates in living organisms, and constitute a substantial fraction of the biomass. Characterization of the biochemical basis of dynamic changes and degradation of these β,1-4-linked carbohydrates is therefore important for both functional studies of biological polymers and biotechnology. Here, we investigated the functional role of multiplicity of the carbohydrate-binding lysin motif (LysM) domain that is found in proteins involved in bacterial peptidoglycan synthesis and remodelling. The Bacillus subtilis peptidoglycan-hydrolysing NlpC/P60 D,L-endopeptidase, cell wall-lytic enzyme associated with cell separation, possesses four LysM domains. The contribution of each LysM domain was determined by direct carbohydrate-binding studies in aqueous solution with microscale thermophoresis. We found that bacterial LysM domains have affinity for N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNac) polymers in the lower-micromolar range. Moreover, we demonstrated that a single LysM domain is able to bind carbohydrate ligands, and that LysM domains act additively to increase the binding affinity. Our study reveals that affinity for GlcNAc polymers correlates with the chain length of the carbohydrate, and suggests that binding of long carbohydrates is mediated by LysM domain cooperativity. We also show that bacterial LysM domains, in contrast to plant LysM domains, do not discriminate between GlcNAc polymers, and recognize both peptidoglycan fragments and chitin polymers with similar affinity. Finally, an Ala replacement study suggested that the carbohydrate-binding site in LysM-containing proteins is conserved across phyla. © 2013 FEBS.

  14. Substance P and neutral endopeptidase in development of acute respiratory distress syndrome following fire smoke inhalation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Simon S; Sun, Nina N; Lantz, R Clark; Witten, Mark L

    2004-10-01

    To characterize the tachykininergic effects in fire smoke (FS)-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), we designed a series of studies in rats. Initially, 20 min of FS inhalation induced a significant increase of substance P (SP) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) at 1 h and persisted for 24 h after insult. Conversely, FS disrupted 51.4, 55.6, 46.3, and 43.0% enzymatic activity of neutral endopeptidase (NEP, a primary hydrolyzing enzyme for SP) 1, 6, 12, and 24 h after insult, respectively. Immunolabeling density of NEP in the airway epithelium largely disappeared 1 h after insult due to acute cell damage and shedding. These changes were also accompanied by extensive influx of albumin and granulocytes/lymphocytes in BALF. Furthermore, levels of BALF SP and tissue NEP activity dose dependently increased and decreased, respectively, following 0, low (10 min), and high (20 min) levels of FS inhalation. However, neither the time-course nor the dose-response study observed a significant change in the highest affinity neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) for SP. Finally, treatment (10 mg/kg im) with SR-140333B, an NK-1R antagonist, significantly prevented 20-min FS-induced hypoxemia and pulmonary edema 24 h after insult. Further examination indicated that SR-140333B (1.0 or 10.0 mg/kg im) fully abolished early (1 h) plasma extravasation following FS. Collectively, these findings suggest that a combination of sustained SP and NEP inactivity induces an exaggerated neurogenic inflammation mediated by NK-1R, which may lead to an uncontrolled influx of protein-rich edema fluid and cells into the alveoli as a consequence of increased vascular permeability.

  15. The Role of Opiorphins (Endogenous Neutral Endopeptidase Inhibitors) in Urogenital Smooth Muscle Biology

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Kelvin Paul

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The opiorphins are a newly characterized class of peptides that act as potent endogenous neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitors. Recent reports have suggested that they play an important role in erectile physiology. Aim This article reviews recent developments that increase our understanding of the role of the opiorphin family of peptides in erectile physiology. Methods During a microarray screen of gene changes that occur in a rat diabetic model of erectile dysfunction (ED), Vcsa1 was one of the most down-regulated genes in the rat corpora. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that in at least three models of diseases that result in ED (diabetes, aging, and cavernous nerve [CN] transection), Vcsa1 was down-regulated in the rat corpora. The human opiorphin family of genes (hSMR3A/B and ProL1) also acts as markers of erectile function in patients with ED. Main Outcome Measures The reader will be informed of the most current research regarding the role of opiorphins in urogenital smooth muscle biology. Results These observations led to the suggestion that genes encoding opiorphins (and potentially their peptide products) can act as markers of ED. Gene transfer of plasmids overexpressing Vcsa1 in aging rats, as well as intracorporal injection of sialorphin, led to an improvement in erectile function. In organ bath studies, we demonstrated that sialorphin can cause increased rates of relaxation of corporal smooth muscle (CSM). We have also demonstrated that in vitro, Vcsa1 causes changes in the expression of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This has led us to suggest that the action of Vcsa1 on erectile physiology may act through relaxation of CSM by its ability to act as an inhibitor of NEP, therefore prolonging the action of peptide agonists at their GPCRs. Conclusions Overall, there is a growing body of evidence that the opiorphins play a role in regulating CSM tone and thereby erectile function. PMID:19267851

  16. Rational redesign of neutral endopeptidase binding to merlin and moesin proteins.

    PubMed

    Niv, Masha Y; Iida, Katsuyuki; Zheng, Rong; Horiguchi, Akio; Shen, Ruoqian; Nanus, David M

    2009-05-01

    Neutral endopeptidase (NEP) is a 90- to 110-kDa cell-surface peptidase that is normally expressed by numerous tissues but whose expression is lost or reduced in a variety of malignancies. The anti-tumorigenic function of NEP is mediated not only by its catalytic activity but also through direct protein-protein interactions of its cytosolic region with several binding partners, including Lyn kinase, PTEN, and ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins. We have previously shown that mutation of the K(19)K(20)K(21) basic cluster in NEPs' cytosolic region to residues QNI disrupts binding to the ERM proteins. Here we show that the ERM-related protein merlin (NF2) does not bind NEP or its cytosolic region. Using experimental data, threading, and sequence analysis, we predicted the involvement of moesin residues E(159)Q(160) in binding to the NEP cytosolic domain. Mutation of these residues to NL (to mimic the corresponding N(159)L(160) residues in the nonbinder merlin) disrupted moesin binding to NEP. Mutation of residues N(159)L(160)Y(161)K(162)M(163) in merlin to the corresponding moesin residues resulted in NEP binding to merlin. This engineered NEP peptide-merlin interaction was diminished by the QNI mutation in NEP, supporting the role of the NEP basic cluster in binding. We thus identified the region of interaction between NEP and moesin, and engineered merlin into a NEP-binding protein. These data form the basis for further exploration of the details of NEP-ERM binding and function.

  17. Structural basis for type VI secreted peptidoglycan dl-endopeptidase function, specificity and neutralization in Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Srikannathasan, Velupillai; English, Grant; Bui, Nhat Khai; Trunk, Katharina; O’Rourke, Patrick E. F.; Rao, Vincenzo A.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Coulthurst, Sarah J.; Hunter, William N.

    2013-01-01

    Some Gram-negative bacteria target their competitors by exploiting the type VI secretion system to extrude toxic effector proteins. To prevent self-harm, these bacteria also produce highly specific immunity proteins that neutralize these antagonistic effectors. Here, the peptidoglycan endopeptidase specificity of two type VI secretion-system-associated effectors from Serratia marcescens is characterized. These small secreted proteins, Ssp1 and Ssp2, cleave between γ-d-glutamic acid and l-meso-diaminopimelic acid with different specificities. Ssp2 degrades the acceptor part of cross-linked tetratetrapeptides. Ssp1 displays greater promiscuity and cleaves monomeric tripeptides, tetrapeptides and pentapeptides and dimeric tetratetra and tetrapenta muropeptides on both the acceptor and donor strands. Functional assays confirm the identity of a catalytic cysteine in these endopeptidases and crystal structures provide information on the structure–activity relationships of Ssp1 and, by comparison, of related effectors. Functional assays also reveal that neutralization of these effectors by their cognate immunity proteins, which are called resistance-associated proteins (Raps), contributes an essential role to cell fitness. The structures of two immunity proteins, Rap1a and Rap2a, responsible for the neutralization of Ssp1 and Ssp2-like endopeptidases, respectively, revealed two distinct folds, with that of Rap1a not having previously been observed. The structure of the Ssp1–Rap1a complex revealed a tightly bound heteromeric assembly with two effector molecules flanking a Rap1a dimer. A highly effective steric block of the Ssp1 active site forms the basis of effector neutralization. Comparisons with Ssp2–Rap2a orthologues suggest that the specificity of these immunity proteins for neutralizing effectors is fold-dependent and that in cases where the fold is conserved sequence differences contribute to the specificity of effector–immunity protein interactions. PMID

  18. Identification of the type 2 proinsulin processing endopeptidase as PC2, a member of the eukaryote subtilisin family.

    PubMed

    Bennett, D L; Bailyes, E M; Nielsen, E; Guest, P C; Rutherford, N G; Arden, S D; Hutton, J C

    1992-07-25

    Enzymological studies have implicated two Ca(2+)-dependent endopeptidases in the conversion of proinsulin to insulin; a type 1 activity which cleaves on the C-terminal side of Arg31-Arg32 and a type 2 activity which cleaves C-terminally to Lys64-Arg65 in the proinsulin sequence. The possibility that these enzymes are related to the recently discovered family of mammalian subtilisin-like gene products (furin, PC2, and PC3) and the yeast propheromone-converting enzyme (KEX-2), was investigated. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers flanking the putative catalytic domain within this gene family were used in a polymerase chain reaction to amplify related sequences from rat insulinoma cDNA. One major product of 700 base pairs was obtained which was greater than 99% identical to the corresponding rat PC2 sequence. This cDNA was subcloned into the bacterial expression vector pGEX-3X to generate a recombinant protein for antibody production. Western blot analysis showed the immunoreactivity was prominent in neuroendocrine tissues as a 65-kDa protein. It was concentrated in secretory granule-enriched fractions of insulinoma tissue, where it was present as a readily solubilized monomeric protein. Deglycosylation studies using endoglycosidase H and N-glycanase showed that the 65-kDa protein was comprised of approximately 9% carbohydrate, consistent with the presence of three consensus sequences for N-linked glycosylation in rat PC2. The immunoreactivity co-eluted with the type 2 proinsulin endopeptidase on gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography and the antisera specifically immunoprecipitated type 2 activity from insulin granule extracts. N-terminal sequence analysis of the immunoreactive protein gave two sequences which corresponded to residues 109-112 and 112-119 of rat PC2. This indicated that posttranslational processing of PC2 itself occurs C-terminally to basic amino acids to produce the mature enzyme. It is concluded that PC2 is the type 2 endopeptidase involved

  19. Leucoplast Pyruvate Kinase from Developing Castor Oil Seeds : Characterization of the Enzyme's Degradation by a Cysteine Endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Plaxton, W C

    1991-12-01

    Leucoplast pyruvate kinase (PK(p); EC 2.7.1.40) from endosperm of developing castor oil seeds (Ricinus communis L. cv Baker 296) appears to be highly susceptible to limited degradation by a cysteine endopeptidase during the purification of the enzyme or incubation of clarified homogenates at 4 degrees C. Purified castor seed PK(p) was previously reported to consist of immunologically related 57.5 and 44 kilodalton subunits (Plaxton WC, Dennis DT, Knowles VL [1990] Plant Physiol 94: 1528-1534). By contrast, immunoreactive polypeptides of about 63.5 and 54 kilodaltons were observed when a western blot of an extract prepared under denaturing conditions was probed with affinity purified rabbit anti-(castor seed PK(p)) immunoglobulin G. Proteolytic activity against PK(p) was estimated by the disappearance of the 63.5 and 54 kilodalton subunits and the concomitant appearance of lower molecular mass immunoreactive degradation products during the incubation of clarified homogenates at 4 degrees C. The presence of 2 millimolar dithiothreitol accelerated the degradation of PK(p). The conservation of the 63.5 and 54 kilodalton subunits was observed after extraction of the enzyme in the presence of 1 millimolar p-hydroxymecuribenzoate, or 1 millimolar Nalpha-p-tosyl-l-lysine chloromethyl ketone, or 10 millimolar iodoacetate. These results reveal that a cysteine endopeptidase was responsible for the in vitro proteolysis of PK(p). This endopeptidase is present throughout all stages of endosperm development. Its PK(p)-degrading activity, however, appears to be most pronounced in preparations from older endosperm. When lysates of purified leucoplasts were incubated at 4 degrees C for up to 21 hours, no degradation of PK(p) was observed; this indicated an extra-leucoplastic localization for the cysteine endopeptidase. Although the in vivo subunit structure of PK(p) remains uniform throughout all stages of endosperm development, the large decrease in PK activity that accompanies

  20. Effect of a novel selective and potent phosphinic peptide inhibitor of endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 on neurotensin-induced analgesia and neuronal inactivation.

    PubMed

    Vincent, B; Jiracek, J; Noble, F; Loog, M; Roques, B; Dive, V; Vincent, J P; Checler, F

    1997-06-01

    1. We have examined a series of novel phosphinic peptides as putative potent and selective inhibitors of endopeptidase 3.4.24.16. 2. The most selective inhibitor, Pro-Phe-psi(PO2CH2)-Leu-Pro-NH2 displayed a Ki value of 12 nM towards endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 and was 5540 fold less potent on its related peptidase endopeptidase 3.4.24.15. Furthermore, this inhibitor was 12.5 less potent on angiotensin-converting enzyme and was unable to block endopeptidase 3.4.24.11, aminopeptidases B and M, dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV and proline endopeptidase. 3. The effect of Pro-Phe-psi(PO2CH2)-Leu-Pro-NH2, in vitro and in vivo, on neurotensin metabolism in the central nervous system was examined. 4. Pro-Phe-psi(PO2CHH2)-Leu-Pro-NH2 dose-dependently inhibited the formation of neurotensin 1-10 and concomittantly protected neurotensin from degradation by primary cultured neurones from mouse embryos. 5. Intracerebroventricular administration of Pro-Phe-psi(PO2CH2)-Leu-Pro-NH2 significantly potentiated the neurotensin-induced antinociception of mice in the hot plate test. 6. Altogether, our study has established Pro-Phe-psi(PO2CH2)-Leu-Pro-NH2 as a fully selective and highly potent inhibitor of endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 and demonstrates, for the first time, the contribution of this enzyme in the central metabolism of neurotensin.

  1. The intracellular distribution and secretion of endopeptidases 24.15 (EC 3.4.24.15) and 24.16 (EC 3.4.24.16).

    PubMed

    Ferro, Emer S; Carreno, Flávia R; Goni, Camila; Garrido, Paula A G; Guimaraes, Alessander O; Castro, Leandro M; Oliveira, Vitor; Araujo, Maurício C; Rioli, Vanessa; Gomes, Marcelo D; Fontenele-Neto, José Domingues; Hyslop, Stephen

    2004-10-01

    Endopeptidase 24.15 (EC 3.4.24.15; EP24.15) and endopeptidase 24.16 (EC 3.4.24.16; EP24.16) are enzymes involved in general peptide metabolism in mammalian cells and tissues. This review will focus on morphological and biochemical aspects related to the subcellular distribution and secretion of these homologous enzymes in the central nervous system. These are important issues for a better understanding of the functions of EP24.15 and EP24.16 within neuroendocrine systems.

  2. Homoserine as an Aspartic Acid Precursor for Synthesis of Proteoglycan Glycopeptide Containing Aspartic Acid and a Sulfated Glycan Chain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weizhun; Ramadan, Sherif; Yang, Bo; Yoshida, Keisuke; Huang, Xuefei

    2016-12-02

    Among many hurdles in synthesizing proteoglycan glycopeptides, one challenge is the incorporation of aspartic acid in the peptide backbone and acid sensitive O-sulfated glycan chains. To overcome this, a new strategy was developed utilizing homoserine as an aspartic acid precursor. The conversion of homoserine to aspartic acid in the glycopeptide was successfully accomplished by late stage oxidation using (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidin-1-yl)oxyl (TEMPO) and bis(acetoxy)iodobenzene (BAIB). This is the first time that a glycopeptide containing aspartic acid and an O-sulfated glycan was synthesized.

  3. Role of angiotensin converting enzyme in the vascular effects of an endopeptidase 24.15 inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Telford, S E; Smith, A I; Lew, R A; Perich, R B; Madden, A C; Evans, R G

    1995-01-01

    1. We investigated the role of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the cardiovascular effects of N-[1-(R,S)-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl]-Ala-Ala-Tyr-p-aminobenzoate (cFP), a peptidase inhibitor selective for metalloendopeptidase (EP) E.C. 3.4.24.15. 2. In conscious rabbits, cFP (5 mg kg-1, i.v.) markedly slowed the degradation of [3H]-bradykinin, potentiated the depressor response to right atrial administration of bradykinin (10-1000 ng kg-1), and inhibited the pressor response to right atrial angiotensin I (10-100 ng kg-1). In each of these respects, the effects of cFP were indistinguishable from those of the ACE inhibitor, captopril (0.5 mg plus 10 mg kg-1h-1 i.v.). Furthermore, the effects of combined administration of cFP and captopril were indistinguishable from those of captopril alone. 3. In experimentally naive anaesthetized rats, cFP administration (9.3 mg kg-1, i.v.) was followed by a moderate but sustained fall in arterial pressure of 13 mmHg. However, in rats pretreated with bradykinin (50 micrograms kg-1) a more pronounced fall of 30 mmHg was observed. Captopril (5 mg kg-1) had similar hypotensive effects to those of cFP, and cFP had no effect when it was administered after captopril. 4. CFP displaced the binding of [125I]-351A (the p-hydroxybenzamidine derivative of lisinopril) from preparations of rat plasma ACE and solubilized lung membrane ACE (KD = 1.2 and 0.14 microM respectively), and inhibited rat plasma ACE activity (KI = 2.4 microM). Addition of phosphoramidon (10 microM), an inhibitor of a range of metalloendopeptidases, including neutral endopeptidase (E.C.3.4.24.11), markedly reduced the potency of cFP in these systems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7620708

  4. Atrial fibrillation down-regulates renal neutral endopeptidase expression and induces profibrotic pathways in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Bukowska, Alicja; Lendeckel, Uwe; Krohn, Alexander; Keilhoff, Gerburg; ten Have, Sara; Neumann, Klaus Hinrich; Goette, Andreas

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that atrial fibrillation (AF) substantially influences microvascular flow in ventricular myocardium. This process may contribute to the occurrence of heart failure in AF. In general, development of heart failure and renal dysfunction go hand-in-hand causing systemic fluid overload and oedema. So far, it is unknown whether AF itself influences renal function. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of AF on renal gene expression in a closed chest rapid atrial pacing model. A total of 14 pigs were studied. In five pigs, rapid atrial pacing (AT) was performed for 7 h (600 bpm); in five additional animals, rapid atrial pacing was performed in the presence of irbesartan infusion (irbesartan group). Four pigs were instrumented without interventions (sham). After the pacing period, renal expression of collagen I alpha 1 and I alpha 3, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), neutral endopeptidase (NEP; the main enzyme involved in natriuretic protein metabolism), and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) were determined by RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis. Functional in vitro experiments were performed using HEK-293 kidney cells. Renal mRNA expression of NEP was substantially down-regulated during AT (AT: 12.7 +/- 9.3% vs. sham: 100 +/- 43.4%; P < 0.01). Results at the mRNA level were confirmed at the protein level. Irbesartan therapy did not prevent down-regulation of NEP. In contrast, TGF-beta1 mRNA expression was up-regulated (AT: 208.5 +/- 79.3% vs. sham: 100 +/- 34.6% P< 0.05). Collagen and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) expression were not significantly altered by AT. HEK-293 cells were used to determine the potential humoral factors involved in down-regulation of NEP. Application of aldosterone, ANP, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and angiotensin peptides failed to cause down-regulation of renal NEP expression in vitro. AT reduces NEP expression and stimulates TGF-beta1 signalling in the kidneys. Thus, even brief episodes of

  5. Dual ACE and neutral endopeptidase inhibitors: novel therapy for patients with cardiovascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Tabrizchi, Reza

    2003-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure is a risk factor for a variety of cardiovascular disorders, including coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, cardiac failure and cerebrovascular disease. The prevailing view is that an elevated systolic rather than diastolic blood pressure is the major contributor in mortality and morbidity attributed to cardiovascular disorders. Isolated high systolic blood pressure, especially in the elderly, is a major risk factor and should undoubtedly be a target for drug treatment. In the general population, systolic and diastolic blood pressure are highly correlated, and thus it is difficult to dissociate the effects of these two components of the blood pressure and specifically ascribe cardiovascular risk factors to just elevated systolic blood pressure. Therefore, the goal in therapy of an individual with hypertension must be to reduce elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure in order to reduce mortality and morbidity. ACE and neutral peptidase inhibitors are a new class of drugs that may be beneficial in the treatment of patients with hypertension and heart failure. They may also be useful in the treatment of diabetic patients with hypertension and/or heart failure. Drugs of this class are dual inhibitors of ACE and neutral endopeptidase, and are capable of affecting vascular tone and fluid balance. They are capable of producing vasodilatation by virtue of inhibiting the production of angiotensin II, degradation of natriuretic peptides and bradykinin. They also appear to promote natriuresis and diuresis by amplifying the actions of natriuretic peptidase and reducing aldosterone effects. In addition, they should also attenuate trophogenic actions of the renin angiotensin system and the sympathetic nervous system. Omapatrilat is one drug that appears to be at the advanced stages of clinical development. This drug has been shown to be quite effective in the treatment of hypertension. Evidence also seems to indicate that treatment

  6. Preparation of specifically activatable endopeptidase derivatives of Clostridium botulinum toxins type A, B, and C and their applications.

    PubMed

    Sutton, J Mark; Wayne, Jonathan; Scott-Tucker, Anthony; O'Brien, Susan M; Marks, Philip M H; Alexander, Frances C G; Shone, Clifford C; Chaddock, John A

    2005-03-01

    Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins are potently toxic proteins of 150 kDa with specific endopeptidase activity for SNARE proteins involved in vesicle docking and release. Following treatment with trypsin, a fragment of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A that lacks the C-terminal domain responsible for neuronal cell binding, but retains full catalytic activity, can be obtained. Known as the LH(N) fragment, we report the development of a recombinant expression and purification scheme for the isolation of comparable fragments of neurotoxin serotypes B and C. Expressed as maltose-binding protein fusions, both have specific proteolytic sites present between the fusion tag and the light chain to facilitate removal of the fusion, and between the light chain endopeptidase and the H(N) translocation domains to facilitate activation of the single polypeptide. We have also used this approach to prepare a new variant of LH(N)/A with a specific activation site that avoids the need to use trypsin. All three LH(N)s are enzymatically active and are of low toxicity. The production of specifically activatable LH(N)/A, LH(N)/B, and LH(N)/C extends the opportunities for exploitation of neurotoxin fragments. The potential utility of these fragments is discussed.

  7. Cloning and expression of a novel prolyl endopeptidase from Aspergillus oryzae and its application in beer stabilization.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chao; Yu, Xiao-Wei; Xu, Yan

    2015-02-01

    A novel prolyl endopeptidase gene from Aspergillus oryzae was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. Amino acid sequence analysis of the prolyl endopeptidase from Aspergillus oryzae (AO-PEP) showed that this enzyme belongs to a class serine peptide S28 family. Expression, purification and characterization of AO-PEP were analyzed. The optimum pH and temperature were pH 5.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The enzyme was activated and stabilized by metal ion Ca(2+) and inhibited by Zn(2+), Mn(2+), Al(3+), and Cu(2+). The K m and k cat values of the purified enzyme for different substrates were evaluated. The results implied that the recombinant AO-PEP possessed higher affinity for the larger substrate. A fed-batch strategy was developed for the high-cell-density fermentation and the enzyme activity reached 1,130 U/l after cultivation in 7 l fermentor. After addition of AO-PEP during the fermentation phase of beer brewing, demonstrated the potential application of AO-PEP in the non-biological stability of beer, which favor further industrial development of this new enzyme in beer stabilization, due to its reducing operational costs, as well as no beer losses unlike regeneration process and beer lost with regenerated polyvinylpolypyrrolidone system.

  8. Isolation and characterization of krp, a dibasic endopeptidase required for cell viability in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed Central

    Davey, J; Davis, K; Imai, Y; Yamamoto, M; Matthews, G

    1994-01-01

    The activation of pro-hormones and many precursor proteins involves cleavage by endopeptidases belonging to the subtilisin-like family of enzymes. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of the first member of this family from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The enzyme, which has been named krp for KEX2-related protease, is a type I membrane-bound endopeptidase that cleaves substrates after pairs of dibasic residues. It appears to be synthesized as a pre-pro-protein that is likely to undergo processing following translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum. Processing has been characterized in a cell-free translation/translocation system prepared from Xenopus eggs. Krp is N-glycosylated on all five of its potential sites and both the pre-sequence and the pro-sequence are quickly removed following translocation, the latter probably by autocatalytic cleavage. The inhibitor profile of krp broadly reflects the known properties of the eukaryotic subtilisin proteases, while its pH and Ca2+ dependence are consistent with it being active within the secretory pathway. One of its physiological substrates is likely to be the pheromone precursor pro-P-factor, which it is shown to process in an in vitro system, but identification of other substrates is complicated because, unlike other members of this family, krp is essential for cell viability. Images PMID:7813430

  9. Role of the disulfide cleavage induced molten globule state of type a botulinum neurotoxin in its endopeptidase activity.

    PubMed

    Cai, S; Singh, B R

    2001-12-18

    Botulinum neurotoxins are produced by anaerobic Clostridium botulinum in an inactive form. The endopeptidase activity of type A botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/A) is triggered by reduction of its disulfide bond between its heavy chain and light chain. By using circular dichroism spectroscopy, we show that, upon reduction of BoNT/A and under physiological temperature (37 degrees C), the BoNT/A loses most of its native tertiary structure, while retaining most of its secondary structure. This type of structure is characterized as a molten globule type conformation, which was further confirmed for BoNT/A by the characteristic binding of 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid. Under nonreducing conditions where the interchain disulfide bond is intact, the enzymatically inactive BoNT/A did not show a molten globule type of structure. A temperature profile of the structure and enzyme activity of BoNT/A revealed that, under reducing conditions, there was a strong correlation in the existence of the molten globule structure and optimum endopeptidase activity at about 37 degrees C.

  10. [Conformation of aspartate aminotransferase in crystals].

    PubMed

    Borisov, V V; Borisova, S N; Sosfenov, N I; Dikson, Kh BF

    1983-01-01

    X-ray study of chicken cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase revealed conformational changes in the protein of two kinds: (1) a shift of the small domain adjacent to substrate-binding area due to interaction of the protein with two carboxyl groups of substrate and (2) a change in inclination of the coenzyme plane due to replacement of C = N bond of the coenzyme with Lys-258 by C = N bond with a substrate. An asymmetry in subunit behaviour is observed in both cases: the domain is shifted in one subunit and the coenzyme is rotated in other. Substrate-binding properties of each subunit are strictly dependent on the protein conformation in substrate-binding area.

  11. Some aspects of structural studies on aspartic proteinases.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, N S

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview over the differences and similarities in the structure of aspartic proteinases presently available. Comparison of the three-dimentional structure of different aspartic proteinases by a common intramolecular coordinate system have been performed. The intramolecular movable subdomains have been localized and the role of motion in substrate binding and zymogen activation is discussed.

  12. The sodium effect of Bacillus subtilis growth on aspartate.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, P; Marks, C; Freese, E

    1980-08-01

    aspH mutants of Bacillus subtilis have a constitutive aspartase activity and grow well on aspartate as sole carbon source. aspH aspT mutants, which are deficient in high affinity aspartate transport as a result of the aspT mutation, grow as well as aspH mutants in medium containing high concentrations of aspartate and Na+. This Na+ effect is not due to an enhancement of aspartate transport but is the result of increased cellular metabolism. The ability to grow rapidly in sodium aspartate is induced by prior growth in the presence of Na+. In potassium aspartate, the addition of arginine, citrulline, ornithine, delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylase or proline instead of Na+ also allows rapid growth; but in a mutant deficient in ornithine--oxo-acid aminotransferase, only pyrroline-carboxylate or proline can replace Na+. The amino acid pool of cells growing slowly in potassium aspartate contains proline at a low concentration which increases upon addition of proline (but not Na+) to the medium. Thus, Na+ addition does not increase the synthesis of proline, but proline or pyrroline-carboxylate acts similarly to Na+ either in preventing some inhibitory effect (by aspartate or the accumulating NH4+) or in overcoming some deficiency (e.g. in further proline metabolism.

  13. Characterization of Member of DUF1888 Protein Family, Self-cleaving and Self-assembling Endopeptidase*

    PubMed Central

    Osipiuk, Jerzy; Mulligan, Rory; Bargassa, Monireh; Hamilton, John E.; Cunningham, Mark A.; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structure of SO1698 protein from Shewanella oneidensis was determined by a SAD method and refined to 1.57 Å. The structure is a β sandwich that unexpectedly consists of two polypeptides; the N-terminal fragment includes residues 1–116, and the C-terminal one includes residues 117–125. Electron density also displayed the Lys-98 side chain covalently linked to Asp-116. The putative active site residues involved in self-cleavage were identified; point mutants were produced and characterized structurally and in a biochemical assay. Numerical simulations utilizing molecular dynamics and hybrid quantum/classical calculations suggest a mechanism involving activation of a water molecule coordinated by a catalytic aspartic acid. PMID:22493430

  14. Stably transfected human cells overexpressing rat brain endopeptidase 3.4.24.16: biochemical characterization of the activity and expression of soluble and membrane-associated counterparts.

    PubMed

    Vincent, B; Dauch, P; Vincent, J P; Checler, F

    1997-02-01

    We recently cloned endopeptidase-24.16 (neurolysin; EC 3.4.24.16), a neurotensin-degrading peptidase likely involved in the physiological termination of the neurotensinergic signal in the central nervous system and in the gastrointestinal tract. We stably transfected human kidney cells with the pcDNA3-lambda 7aB1 construction bearing the whole open reading frame encoding the rat brain peptidase. Transfectants displayed endopeptidase-24.16 immunoreactivity and exhibited QFS- and neurotensin-hydrolyzing activities, the biochemical and specificity properties of which fully matched those observed with the purified murine enzyme. Cryoprotection experiments and substrate degradation by intact plated cells indicated that transfectants exhibited a membrane-associated form of endopeptidase-24.16, the catalytic site of which clearly faced the extracellular domain. Transfected cells were unable to secrete the enzyme. Overall, our experiments indicate that we have obtained stably transfectant cells that overexpress an enzymatic activity displaying biochemical properties identical to those of purified endopeptidase-24.16. The membrane-associated counterpart and lack of secretion of the enzyme were clearly reminiscent of what was observed with pure cultured neurons, but not with astrocytes. Therefore, the transfected cell model described here could prove useful for establishing, by a mutagenesis approach, the structural elements responsible for the "neuronal" phenotype exhibited by the enzyme in transfected cells.

  15. Identification in lupin seed of a serine-endopeptidase activity cleaving between twin arginine pairs and causing limited proteolysis of seed storage proteins.

    PubMed

    Magni, Chiara; Sessa, Fabio; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Negri, Armando; Scarafoni, Alessio; Consonni, Alessandro; Duranti, Marcello

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence of twin-arginine motifs (-R-R-) in the amino acid sequences of animal pro-proteins frequently defines the cleavage site(s) for their structural/functional maturation. No information is available on the presence and possible biological meaning of these motifs in the seed storage proteins. In this work, a novel endopeptidase activity with cleavage specificity to twin-arginine pairs has been detected in mature dry Lupinus albus seeds. The endopeptidase was tested with a number of endogenous and exogenous protein substrates, which were selected according to the presence of one or more twin-arginine residue motifs in their amino acid sequences. The observed hydrolysis patterns were limited and highly specific. Partial proteolysis led to stable polypeptide fragments that were characterized by 1- and 2-D electrophoresis. Selected polypeptides were submitted to N-terminal amino acid sequencing and mass spectrometry analyses. These approaches, supported by bioinformatic analysis of the available sequences, allowed the conclusion that the polypeptide cleavage events had occurred at the peptide bonds comprised between twin-arginine residue pairs with all tested protein substrates. The endopeptidase activity was inhibited by 4-(2-AminoEthyl)Benzene-Sulphonyl Fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF), leupeptin, and serine proteinase protein inhibitors, while it was not affected by pepstatin, trans-Epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane (E64), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), thus qualifying the Arg-Arg cleaving enzyme as a serine endopeptidase. The structural features of storage proteins from lupin and other legume seeds strongly support the hypothesis that the occurrence of an endopeptidase activity cleaving -R-R- bonds may be functional to facilitate their degradation at germination and possibly generate polypeptide fragments with specific biological activity.

  16. [Detection of AlpA and AlpB lytic endopeptidase propeptides of Lysobacter sp. XL1 by sandwich-enzyme immunoassay based on monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Rudenko, N V; Tsfasman, I M; Latypov, O R; Ledova, L A; Krasovskaia, L A; Karatovskaia, A P; Brovko, F A; Vasil'eva, N V; Stepnaia, O A

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular lytic endopeptidases AlpA and AlpB of the bacterium Lysobacter sp. XL1 are highly homologous and synthesized as precursors consisting of signal peptide, propeptide and mature form. In this work, two monoclonal antibodies against propeptide endopeptidase AlpA (ProA) and eleven against propeptide endopeptidase AlpB (ProB) were obtained to study the AlpA and AlpB endopeptidases secretion. The affinity constants of the antibodies against ProA were 2.9 x 10(9) and 3.5 x 10(9) M(-1), and the affinity constants of the antibodies against ProB were from 1.5 x 10(8) to 2.2 x 10(9) M(-1). The obtained antibodies did not have cross-reactivity between themselves, as well as mature forms of the enzymes. The monoclonal antibodies based sandwich-type enzyme immunoassay has been developed for measuring the propeptide in a native form. The linear range of determination ProA was 1.5-100 ng/mL with 6% error of measurement, and for determining ProB 0.2-6.25 ng/mL with 6% error. Using the developed assay, ProA and ProB propeptides have been detected in cell lysates of Lysobacter sp. XL1 in an amount 1.18 ± 0.03 ng and 0.096 ± 0.002 ng per 1 OD540 of the bacterial culture, respectively. The immunochemical assay for detection various forms of AlpA and AlpB lytic endopeptidases can be useful when dealing with issues related to their secretion into the environment.

  17. Endopeptidases 24.16 and 24.15 are responsible for the degradation of somatostatin, neurotensin, and other neuropeptides by cultivated rat cortical astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Mentlein, R; Dahms, P

    1994-01-01

    Several neuropeptides, including neurotensin, somatostatin, bradykinin, angiotensin II, substance P, and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone but not vasopressin and oxytocin, were actively metabolized through proteolytic degradation by cultivated astrocytes obtained from rat cerebral cortex. Because phenanthroline was an effective degradation inhibitor, metalloproteases were responsible for neuropeptide fragmentation. Neurotensin was cleaved by astrocytes at the Pro10-Tyr11 and Arg8-Arg9 bonds, whereas somatostatin was cleaved at the Phe6-Phe7 and Thr10-Phe11 bonds. These cleavage sites have been found previously with endopeptidases 24.16 and 24.15 purified from rat brain. Addition of specific inhibitors of these proteases, the dipeptide Pro-Ile and N-[1-(RS)-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl]-Ala-Ala-Phe-4-aminobenzoate, significantly reduced the generation of the above neuropeptide fragments by astrocytes. The presence of endopeptidases 24.16 and 24.15 in homogenates of astrocytes could also be demonstrated by chromatographic separations of supernatant solubilized cell preparations. Proteolytic activity for neurotensin eluted after both gel and hydroxyapatite chromatography at the same positions as found for purified endopeptidase 24.16 or 24.15. In incubation experiments or in chromatographic separations no phosphoramidon-sensitive endopeptidase 24.11 (enkephalinase) or captopril-sensitive peptidyl dipeptidase A (angiotensin-converting enzyme) could be detected in cultivated astrocytes. Because astrocytes embrace the neuronal synapses where neuropeptides are released, we presume that the endopeptidases 24.16 and 24.15 on astrocytes are strategically located to contribute significantly to the inactivation of neurotensin, somatostatin, and other neuropeptides in the brain.

  18. Free D-aspartate in mammals.

    PubMed

    Furuchi, Takemitsu; Homma, Hiroshi

    2005-09-01

    D-Aspartate (D-Asp) is an endogenous amino acid present in nervous and endocrine tissues in mammals. A high concentration of D-Asp is observed in embryos, which disappears in nervous tissues after delivery, but increases temporarily in endocrine glands, particularly in the pituitary, pineal and adrenal glands at the specific stages. In the pineal gland, D-Asp that is apparently derived from other tissues suppresses melatonin secretion from parenchymal cells. Additionally, D-Asp levels increase in the testis just before birth and during maturation. The amino acid is presumed to be synthesized by the pituitary gland and testis. In the testis, D-Asp produced inside the seminiferous tubules acts on Leydig cells following release to enhance testosterone synthesis by activating the expression of Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein. Mammalian cells appear to contain all the molecular components required to regulate D-Asp homeostasis, as they can synthesize, release, take up, and degrade the amino acid. These findings collectively indicate that D-Asp is a novel type of messenger in the mammalian body.

  19. Purification and characterization of a cysteine endopeptidase from Vasconcellea quercifolia A. St.-Hil. latex displaying high substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Torres, M José; Trejo, Sebastián A; Martin, M Inés; Natalucci, Claudia L; Avilés, Francesc X; López, Laura M I

    2010-10-27

    A new proteolytic preparation from Vasconcellea quercifolia ("oak leaved papaya") latex containing several cysteine endopeptidases with high proteolytic activity has been obtained. The specific activity of the new enzymatic preparation (VQ) was higher than that of Carica papaya latex. VQ was able to coagulate milk and to hydrolyze caseins and then could be used to produce cheeses and/or casein hydrolysates. Ion exchange chromatography of VQ allowed the isolation of a new protease, named quercifoliain I, homogeneous when analyzed by SDS-PAGE, IEF and MALDI-TOF-MS. Molecular mass was 24195 Da, and its isoelectric point was >9.3. The N-terminal sequence was determined (YPESVDWRQ). Insulin B-chain cleavage showed higher specificity than that of papain and was restricted to glycyl and alanyl residues at P1' position. The tryptic peptide mass fingerprint of quercifoliain I analyzed with the MASCOT search tool did not find a match with papain or any other plant cysteine proteases.

  20. cDNA Cloning and Molecular Modeling of Procerain B, a Novel Cysteine Endopeptidase Isolated from Calotropis procera

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abhay Narayan; Yadav, Prity; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Procerain B, a novel cysteine protease (endopeptidase) isolated from Calotropis procera belongs to Asclepiadaceae family. Purification of the enzyme, biochemical characterization and potential applications are already published by our group. Here, we report cDNA cloning, complete amino acid sequencing and molecular modeling of procerain B. The derived amino acid sequence showed high sequence homology with other papain like plant cysteine proteases of peptidase C1A superfamily. The three dimensional structure of active procerain B was modeled by homology modeling using X-ray crystal structure of actinidin (PDB ID: 3P5U), a cysteine protease from the fruits of Actinidia arguta. The structural aspect of the enzyme is also discussed. PMID:23527269

  1. A gene (PEX) with homologies to endopeptidases is mutated in patients with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets. The HYP Consortium.

    PubMed

    1995-10-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (HYP) is a dominant disorder characterised by impaired phosphate uptake in the kidney, which is likely to be caused by abnormal regulation of sodium phosphate cotransport in the proximal tubules. By positional cloning, we have isolated a candidate gene from the HYP region in Xp22.1. This gene exhibits homology to a family of endopeptidase genes, members of which are involved in the degradation or activation of a variety of peptide hormones. This gene (which we have called PEX) is composed of multiple exons which span at least five cosmids. Intragenic non-overlapping deletions from four different families and three mutations (two splice sites and one frameshift) have been detected in HYP patients, which suggest that the PEX gene is involved in the HYP disorder.

  2. Substrate phosphorylation affects degradation and interaction to endopeptidase 24.15, neurolysin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme.

    PubMed

    Machado, M F M; Cunha, F M; Berti, D A; Heimann, A S; Klitzke, C F; Rioli, V; Oliveira, V; Ferro, E S

    2006-01-13

    Recent findings from our laboratory suggest that intracellular peptides containing putative post-translational modification sites (i.e., phosphorylation) could regulate specific protein interactions. Here, we extend our previous observations showing that peptide phosphorylation changes the kinetic parameters of structurally related endopeptidase EP24.15 (EC 3.4.24.15), neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16), and angiotensin-converting enzyme (EC 3.4.15.1). Phosphorylation of peptides that are degraded by these enzymes leads to reduced degradation, whereas phosphorylation of peptides that interacted as competitive inhibitors of these enzymes alters only the K(i)'s. These data suggest that substrate phosphorylation could be one of the mechanisms whereby some intracellular peptides would escape degradation and could be regulating protein interactions within cells.

  3. Cephalopod vision involves dicarboxylic amino acids: D-aspartate, L-aspartate and L-glutamate.

    PubMed

    D'Aniello, Salvatore; Spinelli, Patrizia; Ferrandino, Gabriele; Peterson, Kevin; Tsesarskia, Mara; Fisher, George; D'Aniello, Antimo

    2005-03-01

    In the present study, we report the finding of high concentrations of D-Asp (D-aspartate) in the retina of the cephalopods Sepia officinalis, Loligo vulgaris and Octopus vulgaris. D-Asp increases in concentration in the retina and optic lobes as the animal develops. In neonatal S. officinalis, the concentration of D-Asp in the retina is 1.8+/-0.2 micromol/g of tissue, and in the optic lobes it is 5.5+/-0.4 micromol/g of tissue. In adult animals, D-Asp is found at a concentration of 3.5+/-0.4 micromol/g in retina and 16.2+/-1.5 micromol/g in optic lobes (1.9-fold increased in the retina, and 2.9-fold increased in the optic lobes). In the retina and optic lobes of S. officinalis, the concentration of D-Asp, L-Asp (L-aspartate) and L-Glu (L-glutamate) is significantly influenced by the light/dark environment. In adult animals left in the dark, these three amino acids fall significantly in concentration in both retina (approx. 25% less) and optic lobes (approx. 20% less) compared with the control animals (animals left in a diurnal/nocturnal physiological cycle). The reduction in concentration is in all cases statistically significant (P=0.01-0.05). Experiments conducted in S. officinalis by using D-[2,3-3H]Asp have shown that D-Asp is synthesized in the optic lobes and is then transported actively into the retina. D-aspartate racemase, an enzyme which converts L-Asp into D-Asp, is also present in these tissues, and it is significantly decreased in concentration in animals left for 5 days in the dark compared with control animals. Our hypothesis is that the dicarboxylic amino acids, D-Asp, L-Asp and L-Glu, play important roles in vision.

  4. Non-enzymic beta-decarboxylation of aspartic acid.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doctor, V. M.; Oro, J.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the mechanism of nonenzymic beta-decarboxylation of aspartic acid in the presence of metal ions and pyridoxal. The results suggest that aspartic acid is first converted to oxalacetic acid by transamination with pyridoxal which in turn is converted to pyridoxamine. This is followed by decarboxylation of oxalacetic acid to form pyruvic acid which transaminates with pyridoxamine to form alanine. The possible significance of these results to prebiotic molecular evolution is briefly discussed.

  5. Non-enzymic beta-decarboxylation of aspartic acid.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doctor, V. M.; Oro, J.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the mechanism of nonenzymic beta-decarboxylation of aspartic acid in the presence of metal ions and pyridoxal. The results suggest that aspartic acid is first converted to oxalacetic acid by transamination with pyridoxal which in turn is converted to pyridoxamine. This is followed by decarboxylation of oxalacetic acid to form pyruvic acid which transaminates with pyridoxamine to form alanine. The possible significance of these results to prebiotic molecular evolution is briefly discussed.

  6. Fragmentation reactions of deprotonated peptides containing aspartic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Alex G.; Young, Alex B.

    2006-09-01

    The fragmentation reactions of deprotonated peptides containing aspartic acid have been elucidated using MS2 and MS3 experiments and accurate mass measurements where necessary. The disposition of labile (N and O bonded) hydrogens in the fragmentation products has been studied by exchanging the labile hydrogens for deuterium whereby the [MD]- ion is formed on electrospray ionization. [alpha]-Aspartyl and [beta]-aspartyl dipeptides give very similar fragment ion spectra on collisional activation, involving for both species primarily formation of the y1 ion and loss of H2O from [MH]- followed by further fragmentation, thus precluding the distinction of the isomeric species by negative ion tandem mass spectrometry. Dipeptides of sequence HXxxAspOH give characteristic spectra different from the [alpha]- and [beta]-isomers. For larger peptides containing aspartic acid a common fragmentation reaction involves nominal cleavage of the NC bond N-terminal to the aspartic acid residue to form a c ion (deprotonated amino acid amide (c1) or peptide amide (cn)) and the complimentary product involving elimination of a neutral amino acid amide or peptide amide. When aspartic acid is in the C-terminal position this fragmentation reaction occurs from the [MH]- ion while when the aspartic acid is not in the C-terminal position the fragmentation reaction occurs mainly from the [MHH2O]- ion. The products of this NC bond cleavage reaction serve to identify the position of the aspartic acid residue in the peptide.

  7. Characterization, Genome Sequence, and Analysis of Escherichia Phage CICC 80001, a Bacteriophage Infecting an Efficient L-Aspartic Acid Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Xu, Youqiang; Ma, Yuyue; Yao, Su; Jiang, Zengyan; Pei, Jiangsen; Cheng, Chi

    2016-03-01

    Escherichia phage CICC 80001 was isolated from the bacteriophage contaminated medium of an Escherichia coli strain HY-05C (CICC 11022S) which could produce L-aspartic acid. The phage had a head diameter of 45-50 nm and a tail of about 10 nm. The one-step growth curve showed a latent period of 10 min and a rise period of about 20 min. The average burst size was about 198 phage particles per infected cell. Tests were conducted on the plaques, multiplicity of infection, and host range. The genome of CICC 80001 was sequenced with a length of 38,810 bp, and annotated. The key proteins leading to host-cell lysis were phylogenetically analyzed. One protein belonged to class II holin, and the other two belonged to the endopeptidase family and N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase family, respectively. The genome showed the sequence identity of 82.7% with that of Enterobacteria phage T7, and carried ten unique open reading frames. The bacteriophage resistant E. coli strain designated CICC 11021S was breeding and its L-aspartase activity was 84.4% of that of CICC 11022S.

  8. Abnormal presence of the matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein-derived acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif peptide in human hypophosphatemic dentin.

    PubMed

    Boukpessi, Tchilalo; Gaucher, Celine; Léger, Thibaut; Salmon, Benjamin; Le Faouder, Julie; Willig, Cyril; Rowe, Peter S; Garabédian, Michèle; Meilhac, Olivier; Chaussain, Catherine

    2010-08-01

    Severe dental troubles are associated with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets and are mainly related to impaired dentin mineralization. In dentin matrix, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) may be protected from proteolysis by a specific interaction with PHEX (phosphate regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome). The objective of our work was to determine whether PHEX impairment induces MEPE cleavage in dentin and the subsequent release of the C-terminal acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif (ASARM) peptide, which is known to inhibit mineralization. By Western blot analysis, we explored dentin extracts from seven hypophosphatemic patients with mutations of the PHEX gene. A proteomic approach combining immunoprecipitation, surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight analysis of the samples completed this exploration. This study shows a 4.1-kDa peptide containing the MEPE-derived ASARM peptide in hypophosphatemic samples. The presence of ASARM was less marked in patients treated with 1-hydroxylated vitamin D and phosphate during growth. Moreover, recombinant ASARM implanted in a rat pulp injury model disturbed the formation of the reparative dentin bridge. These results suggest that abnormal MEPE cleavage occurs when PHEX activity is deficient in humans, the ASARM peptide may be involved in the mineralization defects and the PHEX-MEPE interaction may be indirect, as ensuring a better phosphate and vitamin D environment to the mineralizing dentin prevents MEPE cleavage.

  9. Cephalopod vision involves dicarboxylic amino acids: D-aspartate, L-aspartate and L-glutamate

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we report the finding of high concentrations of D-Asp (D-aspartate) in the retina of the cephalopods Sepia officinalis, Loligo vulgaris and Octopus vulgaris. D-Asp increases in concentration in the retina and optic lobes as the animal develops. In neonatal S. officinalis, the concentration of D-Asp in the retina is 1.8±0.2 μmol/g of tissue, and in the optic lobes it is 5.5±0.4 μmol/g of tissue. In adult animals, D-Asp is found at a concentration of 3.5±0.4 μmol/g in retina and 16.2±1.5 μmol/g in optic lobes (1.9-fold increased in the retina, and 2.9-fold increased in the optic lobes). In the retina and optic lobes of S. officinalis, the concentration of D-Asp, L-Asp (L-aspartate) and L-Glu (L-glutamate) is significantly influenced by the light/dark environment. In adult animals left in the dark, these three amino acids fall significantly in concentration in both retina (approx. 25% less) and optic lobes (approx. 20% less) compared with the control animals (animals left in a diurnal/nocturnal physiological cycle). The reduction in concentration is in all cases statistically significant (P=0.01–0.05). Experiments conducted in S. officinalis by using D-[2,3-3H]Asp have shown that D-Asp is synthesized in the optic lobes and is then transported actively into the retina. D-aspartate racemase, an enzyme which converts L-Asp into D-Asp, is also present in these tissues, and it is significantly decreased in concentration in animals left for 5 days in the dark compared with control animals. Our hypothesis is that the dicarboxylic amino acids, D-Asp, L-Asp and L-Glu, play important roles in vision. PMID:15491279

  10. Production and characterization of two major Aspergillus oryzae secreted prolyl endopeptidases able to efficiently digest proline-rich peptides of gliadin.

    PubMed

    Eugster, Philippe J; Salamin, Karine; Grouzmann, Eric; Monod, Michel

    2015-12-01

    Prolyl endopeptidases are key enzymes in the digestion of proline-rich proteins. Fungal extracts rich in prolyl endopeptidases produced by a species such as Aspergillus oryzae used in food fermentation would be of particular interest for the development of an oral enzyme therapy product in patients affected by intolerance to gluten. Two major A. oryzae secreted prolyl endopeptidases of the MEROPS S28 peptidase family, AoS28A and AoS28B, were identified when this fungus was grown at acidic pH in a medium containing soy meal protein or wheat gliadin as the sole source of nitrogen. AoS28B was produced by 12 reference A. oryzae strains used in food fermentation. AoS28A was secreted by six of these 12 strains. This protease is the orthologue of the previously characterized Aspergillus fumigatus (AfuS28) and Aspergillus niger (AN-PEP) prolyl endopeptidases which are encoded by genes with a similar intron-exon structure. Large amounts of secreted AoS28A and AoS28B were obtained by gene overexpression in A. oryzae. AoS28A and AoS28B are endoproteases able to cleave N-terminally blocked proline substrates. Both enzymes very efficiently digested the proline-rich 33-mer of gliadin, the most representative immunotoxic peptide deriving from gliadin, with some differences in terms of specificity and optimal pH. Digestion of the gliadin peptide in short peptides with both enzymes was found to occur from its N terminus.

  11. Bacillus subtilis CwlP of the SP-β Prophage Has Two Novel Peptidoglycan Hydrolase Domains, Muramidase and Cross-linkage Digesting dd-Endopeptidase*

    PubMed Central

    Sudiarta, I Putu; Fukushima, Tatsuya; Sekiguchi, Junichi

    2010-01-01

    For bacteria and bacteriophages, cell wall digestion by hydrolases is a very important event. We investigated one of the proteins involved in cell wall digestion, the yomI gene product (renamed CwlP). The gene is located in the SP-β prophage region of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome. Inspection of the Pfam database indicates that CwlP contains soluble lytic transglycosylase (SLT) and peptidase M23 domains, which are similar to Escherichia coli lytic transglycosylase Slt70, and the Staphylococcus aureus Gly-Gly endopeptidase LytM, respectively. The SLT domain of CwlP exhibits hydrolytic activity toward the B. subtilis cell wall; however, reverse phase (RP)-HPLC and mass spectrometry revealed that the CwlP-SLT domain has only muramidase activity. In addition, the peptidase M23 domain of CwlP exhibited hydrolytic activity and could cleave d-Ala-diaminopimelic acid cross-linkage, a property associated with dd-endopeptidases. Remarkably, the M23 domain of CwlP possessed a unique Zn2+-independent endopeptidase activity; this contrasts with all other characterized M23 peptidases (and enzymes similar to CwlP), which are Zn2+ dependent. Both domains of CwlP could hydrolyze the peptidoglycan and cell wall of B. subtilis. However, the M23 domain digested neither the peptidoglycans nor the cell walls of S. aureus or Streptococcus thermophilus. The effect of defined point mutations in conserved amino acid residues of CwlP is also determined. PMID:20980266

  12. Development of the first potent and selective inhibitor of the zinc endopeptidase neurolysin using a systematic approach based on combinatorial chemistry of phosphinic peptides.

    PubMed

    Jirácek, J; Yiotakis, A; Vincent, B; Checler, F; Dive, V

    1996-08-09

    A new systematic approach, based on combinatorial chemistry of phosphinic peptides, is proposed for rapid development of highly potent and selective inhibitors of zinc metalloproteases. This strategy first evaluates the effects on the inhibitory potency and selectivity of the following parameters: 1) size of the phosphinic peptides, 2) position of the phosphinic bond in the sequence, and 3) the state (free or blocked) of the peptide extremities. After this selection step, the influence of the inhibitor sequence is analyzed in order to determine the identity of the residues that optimized both the potency and the selectivity. We demonstrate the efficiency of this novel approach in rapid identification of the first potent inhibitor of the mammalian zinc endopeptidase neurolysin(24-16), able to discriminate between this enzyme and the related zinc endopeptidase thimet oligopeptidase(24-15). The most potent and selective inhibitor developed in this study, Pro-LPhePsi(PO2CH2)Gly-Pro, displays a Ki value of 4 nM for 24-16 and is 2000 times less potent on 24-15. The specific recognition of such a free phosphinic tetrapeptide by 24-16, as well as the unique specificity of the 24-16 S2 and S2' subsites for proline, unveiled by this study, are discussed in terms of their possible significance for the function of this enzyme and its related zinc endopeptidase activities.

  13. Functional expression and characterization of Schistosoma mansoni cathepsin B and its trans-activation by an endogenous asparaginyl endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Mohammed; McKerrow, James H; Hansell, Elizabeth; Mathieu, Mary A; Lucas, Kimberley D; Hsieh, Ivy; Greenbaum, Doron; Bogyo, Matthew; Salter, Jason P; Lim, Kee C; Franklin, Christopher; Kim, Jea-Hyoun; Caffrey, Conor R

    2003-09-01

    Peptidases are essential for the establishment and survival of the medically important parasite, Schistosoma mansoni. This helminth expresses a number of gut-associated peptidases that degrade host blood proteins, including hemoglobin, as a means of nutrition. Using irreversible affinity probes, we demonstrate that S. mansoni cathepsin B-like endopeptidase 1 (SmCB1) is the most abundant papain family cysteine peptidase in both the parasite gut and somatic extracts. SmCB1 zymogen (SmCB1pm) was functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris (4-11mgl(-1)). Monospecific and immunoselected antibodies raised against SmCB1pm localized the enzyme exclusively to the gut lumen and surrounding gastrodermis of adult worms. Recombinant SmCB1pm was unable to catalyze its activation, even at low pH. However, recombinant S. mansoni asparaginyl endopeptidase (SmAE), another gut-associated cysteine peptidase, processed and activated SmCB1pm in trans. Consistent with the known specificity of AEs, processing occurred on the carboxyl side of an asparagine residue, two residues upstream of the start of the mature SmCB1 sequence. The remaining pro-region dipeptide was removed by rat cathepsin C (dipeptidyl-peptidase I)-an action conceivably performed by an endogenous cathepsin C in vivo. The activated recombinant SmCB1 is biochemically identical to the native enzyme with respect to dipeptidyl substrate kinetics and pH profiles. Also, the serum proteins, hemoglobin, serum albumin, IgG, and alpha-2 macroglobulin were efficiently degraded. Further, a novel application of an assay to measure the peptidyl carboxypeptidase activity of SmCB1 and other cathepsins B was developed using the synthetic substrate benzoyl-glycinyl-histidinyl-leucine (Bz-Gly-His-Leu). This study characterizes the major digestive cysteine peptidase in schistosomes and defines novel trans-processing events required to activate the SmCB1 zymogen in vitro which may facilitate the digestive process in vivo.

  14. Aspartate aminotransferase and tylosin biosynthesis in Streptomyces fradiae.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S H; Lee, K J

    1993-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase as well as valine dehydrogenase and threonine dehydratase was required for the biosynthesis of tylosin in Streptomyces fradiae NRRL 2702. The biosynthesis of these enzymes and tylosin production were repressed by high concentrations of ammonium ions. The change in specific tylosin production rates in batch cultures with different initial concentrations of ammonium ions showed patterns similar to those of the specific production rates of aspartate aminotransferase, valine dehydrogenase, and threonine dehydratase. Aspartate aminotransferase has been purified by acetone precipitation, DEAE-cellulose, hydroxyapatite, and preparative electrophoresis chromatographies. The purified enzyme (120 kDa) consisted of two subunits identical in molecular mass (54 kDa) and showed homogeneity, giving one band with a pI of 4.2 upon preparative isoelectric focusing. The enzyme was specific for L-aspartate in the forward reaction; the Km values were determined to be 2.7 mM for L-aspartate, 0.7 mM for 2-oxyglutarate, 12.8 mM for L-glutamate, and 0.15 mM for oxaloacetate. The enzyme was somewhat thermostable, having a maximum activity at 55 degrees C, and had a broad pH optimum that ranged from 5.5 to 8.0. The mode of action was a ping-pong-bi-bi mechanism. Images PMID:8481008

  15. Aspartate-Derived Amino Acid Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Jander, Georg; Joshi, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    The aspartate-derived amino acid pathway in plants leads to the biosynthesis of lysine, methionine, threonine, and isoleucine. These four amino acids are essential in the diets of humans and other animals, but are present in growth-limiting quantities in some of the world's major food crops. Genetic and biochemical approaches have been used for the functional analysis of almost all Arabidopsis thaliana enzymes involved in aspartate-derived amino acid biosynthesis. The branch-point enzymes aspartate kinase, dihydrodipicolinate synthase, homoserine dehydrogenase, cystathionine gamma synthase, threonine synthase, and threonine deaminase contain well-studied sites for allosteric regulation by pathway products and other plant metabolites. In contrast, relatively little is known about the transcriptional regulation of amino acid biosynthesis and the mechanisms that are used to balance aspartate-derived amino acid biosynthesis with other plant metabolic needs. The aspartate-derived amino acid pathway provides excellent examples of basic research conducted with A. thaliana that has been used to improve the nutritional quality of crop plants, in particular to increase the accumulation of lysine in maize and methionine in potatoes.

  16. Aspartic proteinases from Mucor spp. in cheese manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Yegin, Sirma; Fernandez-Lahore, Marcelo; Jose Gama Salgado, Antonio; Guvenc, Ulgar; Goksungur, Yekta; Tari, Canan

    2011-02-01

    Filamentous fungi belonging to the order of Mucorales are well known as producers of aspartic proteinases depicting milk-clotting activity. The biosynthesis level, the biochemical characteristics, and the technological properties of the resulting proteinases are affected by the producer strain and the mode of cultivation. While the milk-clotting enzymes produced by the Rhizomucor spp. have been extensively studied in the past, much less is known on the properties and potential applications of the aspartic proteinases obtained for Mucor spp. Indeed, several Mucor spp. strains have been reported as a potential source of milk-clotting enzymes having unique technological properties. Both submerged fermentation and solid substrate cultivation are proven alternatives for the production of Mucor spp. aspartic proteinases. This review provides an overview on the bioprocessing routes to obtain large amounts of these enzymes, on their structural characteristics as related to their functional properties, and on their industrial applications with focus on cheese manufacturing.

  17. High levels of functional endopeptidase 24.11 (CD10) activity on human thymocytes: preferential expression on immature subsets.

    PubMed Central

    Mari, B; Breittmayer, J P; Guerin, S; Belhacene, N; Peyron, J F; Deckert, M; Rossi, B; Auberger, P

    1994-01-01

    Although it is now well established that cells of the immune system express most of the exopeptidases described so far, little information is available concerning the identification and the characterization of the peptidases associated with the surface of human thymocytes. In the present study we have focused on CD10 expression on thymocytes using both FACS and enzymatic analysis. Unfractionated intact human thymocytes were shown to express significant levels of CD10-specific enzymatic activity, as assessed by the hydrolysis of the neutral endopeptidase (NEP) substrate Suc-Ala-Ala-Phe-pNA and of D-Ala2-Leu-enkephalin, a typical NEP substrate. CD10 activity was abolished by specific NEP inhibitors, including thiorphan, retrothiorphan and phosphoramidon. Moreover, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that intact thymocytes and purified NEP hydrolysed thymopentin, a thymic factor known to induce the maturation of prothymocytes into thymocytes. Finally, CD 10/NEP was preferentially associated with CD3- CD3low and immature CD4- CD8- thymocytes. The data demonstrate for the first time that human thymocytes express functional NEP and suggest a role for this enzyme in the maturation of human thymocytes. PMID:7959879

  18. Decreased expression of messenger RNAs encoding endothelin receptors and neutral endopeptidase 24.11 in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Pekonen, F.; Nyman, T.; Ammälä, M.; Rutanen, E. M.

    1995-01-01

    In this study, we used reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to compare the expression of mRNAs encoding endothelin-1 (ET-1), endothelin receptors type A (ETA-R) and type B (ETB-R) and ET-1-degrading enzyme neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP) in 15 endometrial cancer tissues and 13 normal endometrial tissues. The relative levels of ET-1 mRNA in endometrial cancer tissues did not differ from those in normal endometrium. Both ETA-R and ETB-R mRNA levels were significantly lower in endometrial cancer tissue than in normal endometrium (P < 0.001). The complete lack of NEP mRNA in endometrial cancer tissues was in marked contrast to results from normal endometrium (P < 0.001). In conclusion, differential expression of mRNAs encoding ET-R and NEP in normal endometrium and endometrial cancer suggests that ET action is altered in endometrial cancer compared with normal endometrium. Images Figure 2 PMID:7819049

  19. Asparaginyl endopeptidase promotes the invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer through modulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Li, Qian; Yu, Yiyi; Xu, Xiaojing; Xu, Bei; Liu, Tianshu

    2016-01-01

    Asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP) is a lysosomal protease often overexpressed in gastric cancer. AEP was expressed higher in peritoneal metastatic loci than in primary gastric cancer. Then we overexpressed AEP or knocked it down with a lentiviral vector in gastric cancer cell lines and detected the cell cycle arrest and the changes of the invasive and metastatic ability in vitro and in vivo. When AEP was knocked-down, the proliferative, invasive and metastatic capacity of gastric cancer cells were inhibited, and the population of sub-G1 cells increased. AEP knockdown led to significant decrease of expression of transcription factor Twist and the mesenchymal markers N-cadherin, ß-catenin and Vimentin and to increased expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin. These results showed that AEP could promote invasion and metastasis by modulating EMT. We used phosphorylation-specific antibody microarrays to investigate the mechanism how AEP promotes gastric cancer invasion and metastasis, and found that the phosphorylation level of AKT and MAPK signaling pathways was decreased significantly if AEP was knocked-down. Therefore, AKT and MAPK signaling pathways took part in the modulation. PMID:27102302

  20. Alterations in plasma prolyl endopeptidase activity in depression, mania, and schizophrenia: effects of antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Maes, M; Goossens, F; Scharpé, S; Calabrese, J; Desnyder, R; Meltzer, H Y

    1995-10-16

    The activity of prolyl endopeptidase (PEP), a serine proteinase, has been found to be significantly lower in the blood of patients with major depression than in normal volunteers. The present study investigates plasma PEP activity in 25 major depressed, 10 manic, and 14 schizophrenic subjects versus 30 normal volunteers. It also examines the effects of antidepressants, valproate, and neuroleptic drugs on plasma PEP activity. PEP activity was significantly lower in major depressed subjects than in normal volunteers and in patients with mania and schizophrenia. In depressed subjects, plasma PEP activity was significantly increased during treatment with antidepressant drugs, such as fluoxetine. Plasma PEP activity was significantly increased in manic and schizophrenic subjects compared with normal volunteers. In manic subjects, short-term treatment with valproate had a significant suppressive effect on PEP activity. No significant effects of neuroleptics on PEP activity could be found in the schizophrenic patients. The results support the hypothesis that lower PEP activity could play a role in the pathophysiology of major depression, while increased PEP activity may be related to psychotic conditions, such as mania and schizophrenia.

  1. Bacteriocin protein BacL1 of Enterococcus faecalis is a peptidoglycan D-isoglutamyl-L-lysine endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Kurushima, Jun; Hayashi, Ikue; Sugai, Motoyuki; Tomita, Haruyoshi

    2013-12-27

    Enterococcus faecalis strains are commensal bacteria in humans and other animals, and they are also the causative agent of opportunistic infectious diseases. Bacteriocin 41 (Bac41) is produced by certain E. faecalis clinical isolates, and it is active against other E. faecalis strains. Our genetic analyses demonstrated that the extracellular products of the bacL1 and bacA genes, which are encoded in the Bac41 operon, coordinately express the bacteriocin activity against E. faecalis. In this study, we investigated the molecular functions of the BacL1 and BacA proteins. Immunoblotting and N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis revealed that BacL1 and BacA are secreted without any processing. The coincidental treatment with the recombinant BacL1 and BacA showed complete bacteriocin activity against E. faecalis, but neither BacL1 nor BacA protein alone showed the bacteriocin activity. Interestingly, BacL1 alone demonstrated substantial degrading activity against the cell wall fraction of E. faecalis in the absence of BacA. Furthermore, MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed that BacL1 has a peptidoglycan D-isoglutamyl-L-lysine endopeptidase activity via a NlpC/P60 homology domain. These results collectively suggest that BacL1 serves as a peptidoglycan hydrolase and, when BacA is present, results in the lysis of viable E. faecalis cells.

  2. Escherichia coli prlC encodes an endopeptidase and is homologous to the Salmonella typhimurium opdA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Conlin, C A; Trun, N J; Silhavy, T J; Miller, C G

    1992-01-01

    Mutations at the Escherichia coli prlC locus suppress the export defect of certain lamB signal sequence mutations. The Salmonella typhimurium opdA gene encodes an endoprotease that can participate in the catabolism of certain peptides and is required for normal development of phage P22. Plasmids carrying either the wild-type (pTC100 prlC+) or suppressor alleles of prlC complemented all phenotypes associated with an S. typhimurium opdA mutation. A plasmid carrying an amber mutation in prlC [prlC31(AM)] was unable to complement except in an amber suppressor background. Tn1000 insertions which eliminated the ability of pTC100 (prlC+) to complement opdA mapped to the region of the plasmid shown by deletion analysis and subcloning to contain prlC. The nucleotide sequence of a 2.7-kb fragment including this region was determined, revealing an open reading frame encoding a 77-kDa protein. The sequences of this open reading frame and its putative promoter region were very similar (84% nucleotide sequence identity and 95% amino acid identity) to those of S. typhimurium opdA, showing that these genes are homologs. The nucleotide sequence of the prlC1 suppressor allele was determined and predicts an in-frame duplication of seven amino acids, providing further confirmation that the prlC suppressor phenotype results from changes in the endopeptidase OpdA. PMID:1325967

  3. A Highly Unstable Transcript Makes CwlO d,l-Endopeptidase Expression Responsive to Growth Conditions in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Salzberg, Letal I.; Botella, Eric; Bäsell, Katrin; Becher, Dörte; Antelmann, Haike; Devine, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis cell wall is a dynamic structure, composed of peptidoglycan and teichoic acid, that is continually remodeled during growth. Remodeling is effected by the combined activities of penicillin binding proteins and autolysins that participate in the synthesis and turnover of peptidoglycan, respectively. It has been established that one or the other of the CwlO and LytE d,l-endopeptidase-type autolysins is essential for cell viability, a requirement that is fulfilled by coordinate control of their expression by WalRK and SigI RsgI. Here we report on the regulation of cwlO expression. The cwlO transcript is very unstable, with its degradation initiated by RNase Y cleavage within the 187-nucleotide leader sequence. An antisense cwlO transcript of heterogeneous length is expressed from a SigB promoter that has the potential to control cellular levels of cwlO RNA and protein under stress conditions. We discuss how a multiplicity of regulatory mechanisms makes CwlO expression and activity responsive to the prevailing growth conditions. PMID:24163346

  4. Structural and Functional Analyses Reveal That Staphylococcus aureus Antibiotic Resistance Factor HmrA Is a Zinc-dependent Endopeptidase*

    PubMed Central

    Botelho, Tiago O.; Guevara, Tibisay; Marrero, Aniebrys; Arêde, Pedro; Fluxà, Viviana S.; Reymond, Jean-Louis; Oliveira, Duarte C.; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    HmrA is an antibiotic resistance factor of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular analysis of this protein revealed that it is not a muramidase or β-lactamase but a nonspecific double-zinc endopeptidase consisting of a catalytic domain and an inserted oligomerization domain, which probably undergo a relative interdomain hinge rotation upon substrate binding. The active-site cleft is located at the domain interface. Four HmrA protomers assemble to a large ∼170-kDa homotetrameric complex of 125 Å. All four active sites are fully accessible and ∼50–70 Å apart, far enough apart to act on a large meshwork substrate independently but simultaneously. In vivo studies with four S. aureus strains of variable resistance levels revealed that the extracellular addition of HmrA protects against loss of viability in the presence of oxacillin and that this protection depends on proteolytic activity. All of these results indicate that HmrA is a peptidase that participates in resistance mechanisms in vivo in the presence of β-lactams. Furthermore, our results have implications for most S. aureus strains of known genomic sequences and several other cocci and bacilli, which harbor close orthologs. This suggests that HmrA may be a new widespread antibiotic resistance factor in bacteria. PMID:21622555

  5. Endopeptidases 3.4.24.15 and 24.16 in endothelial cells: potential role in vasoactive peptide metabolism.

    PubMed

    Norman, M Ursula; Reeve, Shane B; Dive, Vincent; Smith, A Ian; Lew, Rebecca A

    2003-06-01

    The closely related metalloendopeptidases EC (EP24.15; thimet oligopeptidase) and 24.16 (EP24.16; neurolysin) cleave a number of vasoactive peptides such as bradykinin and neurotensin in vitro. We have previously shown that hypotensive responses to bradykinin are potentiated by an inhibitor of EP24.15 and EP24.16 (26), suggesting a role for one or both enzymes in bradykinin metabolism in vivo. In this study, we have used selective inhibitors that can distinguish between EP24.15 and EP24.16 to determine their activity in cultured endothelial cells (the transformed human umbilical vein endothelial hybrid cell line EA.hy926 or ovine aortic endothelial cells). Endopeptidase activity was assessed using a specific quenched fluorescent substrate [7-methoxycoumarin-4-acetyl-Pro-Leu-Gly-d-Lys(2,4-dinitrophenyl)], as well as the peptide substrates bradykinin and neurotensin (assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopic detection). Our results indicate that both peptidases are present in endothelial cells; however, EP24.16 contributes significantly more to substrate cleavage by both cytosolic and membrane preparations, as well as intact cells, than EP24.15. These findings, when coupled with previous observations in vivo, suggest that EP24.16 activity in vascular endothelial cells may play an important role in the degradation of bradykinin and/or other peptides in the circulation.

  6. Prolyl endopeptidase is revealed following SILAC analysis to be a novel mediator of human microglial and THP-1 cell neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Klegeris, Andis; Li, Jane; Bammler, Theo K; Jin, Jinghua; Zhu, David; Kashima, Daniel T; Pan, Sheng; Hashioka, Sadayuki; Maguire, John; McGeer, Patrick L; Zhang, Jing

    2008-04-15

    Reactive microglial cells may exacerbate the pathology in some neurodegenerative disorders. Supernatants of stimulated human microglial cells, or their surrogate THP-1 cells, are lethal to cultured human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. To explore this neurotoxicity, we examined the spectrum of proteins generated by THP-1 cells using the technique of stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). Unstimulated cells were grown in medium with light L-[(12)C(6)] arginine while cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were grown in medium with heavy L-[(13)C(6)] arginine. Proteins isolated from the media were digested with trypsin, and relative concentrations of generated peptides determined by mass spectrometry. More than 1,500 proteins or putative proteins were identified. Of these, 174 were increased and 189 decreased by more than twofold in the stimulated cell supernatant. We selected one upregulated protein, prolyl endopeptidase (PEP), for further investigation of its potential contribution to neurotoxicity. We first confirmed its upregulation by comparing its enzymatic activity in stimulated and unstimulated cell supernatants. We then evaluated two specific PEP inhibitors, Boc-Asn-Phe-Pro-aldehyde and Z-Pro-Pro-aldehyde-dimethyl acetal, for their potential to reduce toxicity of stimulated THP-1 cell and human microglia supernatants towards SH-SY5Y cells. We found both to be partially protective in a concentration-dependent manner. Inhibition of PEP may be a therapeutic approach to neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases.

  7. Methionine Regeneration and Aspartate Aminotransferase in Parasitic Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Louise C.; Wilson, Judith; Wood, Pamela; Berger, Bradley J.

    2001-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferases have been cloned and expressed from Crithidia fasciculata, Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Giardia intestinalis, and Plasmodium falciparum and have been found to play a role in the final step of methionine regeneration from methylthioadenosine. All five enzymes contain sequence motifs consistent with membership in the Ia subfamily of aminotransferases; the crithidial and giardial enzymes and one trypanosomal enzyme were identified as cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferases, and the second trypanosomal enzyme was identified as a mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. The plasmodial enzyme contained unique sequence substitutions and appears to be highly divergent from the existing members of the Ia subfamily. In addition, the P. falciparum enzyme is the first aminotransferase found to lack the invariant residue G197 (P. K. Mehta, T. I. Hale, and P. Christen, Eur. J. Biochem. 214:549–561, 1993), a feature shared by sequences discovered in P. vivax and P. berghei. All five enzymes were able to catalyze aspartate-ketoglutarate, tyrosine-ketoglutarate, and amino acid-ketomethiobutyrate aminotransfer reactions. In the latter, glutamate, phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and histidine were all found to be effective amino donors. The crithidial and trypanosomal cytosolic aminotransferases were also able to catalyze alanine-ketoglutarate and glutamine-ketoglutarate aminotransfer reactions and, in common with the giardial aminotransferase, were able to catalyze the leucine-ketomethiobutyrate aminotransfer reaction. In all cases, the kinetic constants were broadly similar, with the exception of that of the plasmodial enzyme, which catalyzed the transamination of ketomethiobutyrate significantly more slowly than aspartate-ketoglutarate aminotransfer. This result obtained with the recombinant P. falciparum aminotransferase parallels the results seen for total ketomethiobutyrate transamination in malarial homogenates; activity in the latter was much

  8. Trichosporon asahii secretes a 30-kDa aspartic peptidase.

    PubMed

    Valle, Roberta S; Ramos, Lívia S; Reis, Vanessa J; Ziccardi, Mariangela; Dornelas-Ribeiro, Marcos; Sodré, Cátia L; Branquinha, Marta H; Santos, André L S

    2017-12-01

    Trichosporon asahii is a fungal opportunistic pathogen that causes superficial and deep-seated infections presenting high mortality. Very little is known about the virulence attributes produced by this fungus. Herein, aspartic peptidase production was identified in Brazilian clinical isolates of T. asahii by different methodologies. Initially, T. asahii strain 250 (from skin lesion) was inoculated in both liquid and solid culture media containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the sole nitrogenous source. A translucent halo around the fungal colony was observed from the 5th day of culture. The cell-free culture supernatant revealed that soluble BSA was hydrolyzed along the growth, generating low molecular mass polypeptides as observed by electrophoresis. Subsequently, the secretions from four clinical strains of T. asahii were analyzed by BSA-SDS-PAGE and a single proteolytic band of 30-kDa was detected under acidic pH at 37°C. The secreted aspartic peptidase of T. asahii efficiently cleaved the cathepsin D peptide substrate, but not the substrates with specificity to HIV-1 peptidase and rennin. The capability to cleave either cathepsin D substrate in a fluorogenic assay or BSA immobilized within a gel matrix varied according to the T. asahii isolate. T. asahii extracellular peptidase activity was strongly inhibited by pepstatin A and HIV peptidase inhibitors, classifying it as an aspartic-type peptidase. Human serum albumin, mucin, non-immune immunoglobulin G and gelatin induced, in different levels, the secretion of this aspartic peptidase. With these results, T. asahii must be included in the list of many human fungal opportunistic pathogens able to secrete an aspartic-type peptidase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Potentiation of the depressor responses to atrial natriuretic peptides in conscious SHR by an inhibitor of neutral endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Seymour, A A; Swerdel, J N; Fennell, S A; Druckman, S P; Neubeck, R; Delaney, N G

    1989-08-01

    In previous studies, neutral endopeptidase (NEP) hydrolyzed the Cys105-Phe106 bond of atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) in vitro. Three such ring-opened peptides derived from ANP 99-126, 103-126, and 103-123 were inactive in conscious rats. In conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) in the present study, 100 mumol/kg, intravenously (i.v.) of the NEP inhibitor, SQ 29,072 (7-[[2-(mercaptomethyl)-1-oxo-3-phenyl-propyl]amino]heptanoic acid), significantly increased the area over the curve (AOC) of the depressor response to 3 nmol/kg of ANP 103-126 from 165 +/- 36 to 792 +/- 350, 1,515 +/- 374, and 828 +/- 164 mm Hg.min at 15, 30, and 60 min after inhibitor treatment. Thirty minutes after 3, 10, 30, and 100 mumol/kg of SQ 29,072, the AOC of 3 nmol/kg of ANP 99-126 increased from 175 +/- 59 mm Hg.min in vehicle-treated rats to 296 +/- 100, 318 +/- 34, 632 +/- 194 (p less than 0.05) and 656 +/- 151 (p less than 0.05) mm Hg.min. Furthermore, 100 mumol/kg of SQ 29,072 potentiated the AOC of human ANP 99-126 and 105-126 and rat ANP 99-126, 103-126, and 103-123, suggesting that the exocyclic N-terminal residues and the C-terminal tripeptide did not influence ANP potentiation by SQ 29,072. In contrast, inhibitors of aminopeptidase, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and serine protease and an arginine vasopressin (AVP) antagonist did not substantially affect the AOC of 3 nmol/kg ANP 99-126. Finally, SQ 29,072 did not alter the activities of bradykinin, AVP, or angiotensin I or II. In conclusion, NEP may inactivate ANP in vivo by cleavage of susceptible bonds within the ANP ring.

  10. Prognostic significance of the combined expression of neutral endopeptidase and dipeptidyl peptidase IV in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients after surgery resection

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jianyong; Guo, XiaoDong; Qiu, Baoan; Li, Zhiyan; Xia, Nianxin; Yang, Yingxiang; Liu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the expression of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) proteins, and the clinical significance of the two proteins in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (IHCC). Methods Expression patterns and subcellular localizations of NEP and DPP IV proteins in 186 primary IHCC and 60 noncancerous liver tissue specimens were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results Both the expression of NEP and DPP IV proteins in IHCC tissues were significantly higher than those in noncancerous liver tissues (both P<0.001). Of 186 patients with IHCC, 128 (68.82%) highly expressed both NEP and DPP IV proteins. In addition, the coexpression of NEP and DPP IV proteins was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage (P=0.009), positive lymph node metastasis (P=0.016) and distant metastasis (P=0.013), and the presence of recurrence (P=0.027). Moreover, Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that IHCC patients with high NEP expression, high DPP IV expression, and combined overexpression of NEP and DPP IV proteins all had poorer overall survival and early recurrence after surgery. Furthermore, Cox analysis suggested that NEP expression, DPP IV expression, and combined expression of NEP and DPP IV proteins were all independent prognostic markers for overall survival and recurrence-free survival in patients with IHCC. Conclusion Our data suggest, for the first time, that both the expression of NEP and DPP IV proteins may be upregulated in human IHCC tissues and the combined expression of NEP and DPP IV proteins may play important roles in progression and prognosis of patients with IHCC. PMID:24570591

  11. Mechanisms of toxic smoke inhalation and burn injury: role of neutral endopeptidase and vascular leakage in mice.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sam; Deyo, Donald J; Cox, Robert A; Traber, Daniel L; Herndon, David N; Hawkins, Hal K

    2009-03-01

    The effects of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) in acute inflammation in the lung were studied using a newly developed murine model of smoke and burn (SB) injury. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with an i.v. dose of a specific NEP antagonist CGS-24592 (10 mg/Kg) 1 h prior to SB injury (n = 5-8/group). Mice were anesthetized with i.p. ketamine/xylazine, intubated, and exposed to cooled cotton smoke (2 x 30 s). After s.c. injection of 1 ml 0.9% saline, each received a 40% total body surface area (TBSA) flame burn. Buprenorphene (2 mg/kg) was given i.p. and resuscitated by saline. Evans Blue dye (EB) was injected i.v. 15 min before sacrifice. Lung wet/dry weight ratio was measured. After vascular perfusion, lungs were analyzed for their levels of EB dye and myeloperoxidase (MPO). In mice pretreated with CGS-24592 followed by SB injury the EB levels were significantly higher (61%, p = 0.043) than those with SB injury alone. There was a significant increase (144%, p = 0.035) in EB dye in animals with SB injury alone as compared to shams. In mice pretreated with CGS-24592 prior to SB injury wet/dry weight ratios were significantly (27%, p = 0.042) higher compared to animals with SB injury alone. CGS-24592 pretreatment also caused a significant increase in MPO (29%, p = 0.026) as compared to mice with SB injury alone. In conclusion the current study indicates that specific NEP inhibitor CGS 24592 exacerbates the SB-induced lung injury and inflammation in mice.

  12. Fermentation, purification, formulation, and pharmacological evaluation of a prolyl endopeptidase from Myxococcus xanthus: implications for Celiac Sprue therapy.

    PubMed

    Gass, Jonathan; Ehren, Jennifer; Strohmeier, Gregg; Isaacs, Indu; Khosla, Chaitan

    2005-12-20

    Celiac Sprue is a multi-factorial disease characterized by an inflammatory response to ingested wheat gluten and similar proteins in rye and barley. Proline-rich gluten peptides from wheat, rye, and barley are relatively resistant to gastrointestinal digestion, and therefore persist in the intestinal lumen to elicit immunopathology in genetically susceptible individuals. In this study, we characterize the in vitro gluten detoxifying properties of a therapeutically promising prolyl endopeptidase from Myxococcus xanthus (MX PEP), and describe the development of a prototypical enteric-coated capsule containing a pharmacologically useful dose of this enzyme. A high-cell density fed-batch fermentation process was developed for overproduction of recombinant MX PEP in E. coli, yielding 0.25-0.4 g/L purified protein. A simple, scalable purification and lyophilization procedure was established that yields >95% pure, highly active and stable enzyme as a dry powder. The dry powder was blended with excipients and encapsulated in a hard gelatin capsule. The resulting capsule was enteric coated using Eudragit L30-D55 polymer coat, which provided sufficient resistance to gastric conditions (> 1 h in 0.01 M HCl, pH 2 with pepsin) and rapid release under duodenal conditions (15-30 min release in pH 6.0 in the presence of trypsin and chymotrypsin). In conjunction with pancreatic enzymes, MX PEP breaks down whole gluten into a product mixture that is virtually indistinguishable from that generated by the Flavobacterium meningosepticum (FM) PEP as judged by chromatographic assays. Competitive studies involving selected immunogenic peptides mixed with whole gluten reveal that both PEPs have a wide range of substrate specificity. Our results support further in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the MX PEP capsule as an oral therapeutic agent for Celiac Sprue patients.

  13. CD10/neutral endopeptidase inhibition augments pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia in hamsters treated with diethylnitrosamine and hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Willett, C G; Shahsafei, A; Graham, S A; Sunday, M E

    1999-07-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated that pulmonary neuroendocrine cell (PNEC) hyperplasia in hamsters treated with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) plus 65% hyperoxia (DEN/O2) reflects predominantly neuroendocrine cell differentiation. Several peptides implicated in non-neoplastic PNEC hyperplasia are hydrolyzed by CD10/neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (CD10/NEP), an enzyme known to downregulate neurogenic inflammation of the lung by modulating locally effective concentrations of multiple bioactive peptides. In fetal mice, we observed that CD10/NEP inhibition by SCH32615 potentiates cell proliferation and type II cell differentiation in the lung in utero. Further, CD10/NEP messenger RNA levels parallelled relative PNEC numbers in DEN/O2-treated hamster lung, suggesting that the enzyme might mediate spontaneous regression of PNEC hyperplasia. The goals of the present study were: (1) to determine whether CD10/NEP inhibition would alter the extent of PNEC hyperplasia occurring in these hamsters, and (2) to analyze cellular mechanisms potentially involved in altering numbers of PNECs in this model. We administered SCH32615 chronically to a subset of DEN/O2-treated hamsters. Immunostaining of lungs from the CD10/ NEP-inhibited subset demonstrated significant acceleration of the development of PNEC hyperplasia, increased PNEC proliferation, and diminished PNEC apoptosis as compared with animals receiving no SCH32615. These observations indicate that PNEC hyperplasia can occur as a result of multiple cellular processes, including increased neuroendocrine cell differentiation, proliferation, and survival. CD10/NEP modulates PNEC numbers primarily by promoting cell differentiation and proliferation during lung injury, probably via increasing the half-life of bioactive peptides in the lung.

  14. The mecillinam resistome reveals a role for peptidoglycan endopeptidases in stimulating cell wall synthesis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ghee Chuan; Cho, Hongbaek; Bernhardt, Thomas G

    2017-07-01

    Bacterial cells are typically surrounded by an net-like macromolecule called the cell wall constructed from the heteropolymer peptidoglycan (PG). Biogenesis of this matrix is the target of penicillin and related beta-lactams. These drugs inhibit the transpeptidase activity of PG synthases called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), preventing the crosslinking of nascent wall material into the existing network. The beta-lactam mecillinam specifically targets the PBP2 enzyme in the cell elongation machinery of Escherichia coli. Low-throughput selections for mecillinam resistance have historically been useful in defining mechanisms involved in cell wall biogenesis and the killing activity of beta-lactam antibiotics. Here, we used transposon-sequencing (Tn-Seq) as a high-throughput method to identify nearly all mecillinam resistance loci in the E. coli genome, providing a comprehensive resource for uncovering new mechanisms underlying PG assembly and drug resistance. Induction of the stringent response or the Rcs envelope stress response has been previously implicated in mecillinam resistance. We therefore also performed the Tn-Seq analysis in mutants defective for these responses in addition to wild-type cells. Thus, the utility of the dataset was greatly enhanced by determining the stress response dependence of each resistance locus in the resistome. Reasoning that stress response-independent resistance loci are those most likely to identify direct modulators of cell wall biogenesis, we focused our downstream analysis on this subset of the resistome. Characterization of one of these alleles led to the surprising discovery that the overproduction of endopeptidase enzymes that cleave crosslinks in the cell wall promotes mecillinam resistance by stimulating PG synthesis by a subset of PBPs. Our analysis of this activation mechanism suggests that, contrary to the prevailing view in the field, PG synthases and PG cleaving enzymes need not function in multi-enzyme complexes

  15. IrAE – an asparaginyl endopeptidase (legumain) in the gut of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    PubMed Central

    Sojka, Daniel; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Dvořák, Jan; Sajid, Mohammed; Franta, Zdeněk; Schneider, Eric L.; Craik, Charles S.; Vancová, Marie; Burešová, Veronika; Bogyo, Matthew; Sexton, Kelly B.; McKerrow, James H.; Caffrey, Conor R.; Kopáček, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Ticks are ectoparasitic blood-feeders and important vectors for pathogens including arboviruses, rickettsiae, spirochetes and protozoa. As obligate blood-feeders, one possible strategy to retard disease transmission is disruption of the parasite’s ability to digest host proteins. However, the constituent peptidases in the parasite gut and their potential interplay in the digestion of the blood meal are poorly understood. We have characterized a novel asparaginyl endopeptidase (legumain) from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus (termed IrAE), which is the first such characterization of a clan CD family C13 cysteine peptidase (protease) in arthropods. By RT-PCR of different tissues, IrAE mRNA was only expressed in the tick gut. Indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy localized IrAE in the digestive vesicles of gut cells and within the peritrophic matrix. IrAE was functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris and reacted with a specific peptidyl fluorogenic substrate, and acyloxymethyl ketone and aza-asparagine Michael acceptor inhibitors. IrAE activity was unstable at pH ≥ 6.0 and was shown to have a strict specificity for asparagine at P1 using a positional scanning synthetic combinatorial library. The enzyme hydrolyzed protein substrates with a pH optimum of 4.5, consistent with the pH of gut cell digestive vesicles. Thus, IrAE cleaved the major protein of the blood meal, hemoglobin, to a predominant peptide of 4 kDa. Also, IrAE trans-processed and activated the zymogen form of Schistosoma mansoni cathepsin B1 – an enzyme contributing to hemoglobin digestion in the gut of that bloodfluke. The possible functions of IrAE in the gut digestive processes of I. ricinus are compared with those suggested for other hematophagous parasites. PMID:17336985

  16. Cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema in mice is associated with prolyl endopeptidase, an enzyme involved in collagen breakdown

    PubMed Central

    Koelink, Pim J.; Henricks, Paul A. J.; Jackson, Patricia L.; Nijkamp, Frans P.; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D.; Blalock, J. Edwin; Folkerts, Gert

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the neutrophil chemoattractant proline-glycine-proline (PGP), derived from the breakdown of the extracellular matrix, plays an important role in neutrophil recruitment to the lung. PGP formation is a multistep process involving neutrophils, metalloproteinases (MMPs), and prolyl endopeptidase (PE). This cascade of events is now investigated in the development of lung emphysema. A/J mice were whole body exposed to cigarette smoke for 20 wk. After 20 wk or 8 wk after smoking cessation, animals were killed, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue were collected to analyze the neutrophilic airway inflammation, the MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels, the PE activity, and the PGP levels. Lung tissue degradation was assessed by measuring the mean linear intercept. Additionally, we investigated the effect of the peptide l-arginine-threonine-arginine (RTR), which binds to PGP sequences, on the smoke-induced neutrophil influx in the lung after 5 days of smoke exposure. Neutrophilic airway inflammation was induced by cigarette smoke exposure. MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels, PE activity, and PGP levels were elevated in the lungs of cigarette smoke-exposed mice. PE was highly expressed in epithelial and inflammatory cells (macrophages and neutrophils) in lung tissue of cigarette smoke-exposed mice. After smoking cessation, the neutrophil influx, the MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels, the PE activity, and the PGP levels were decreased or reduced to normal levels. Moreover, RTR inhibited the smoke-induced neutrophil influx in the lung after 5 days' smoke exposure. In the present murine model of cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema, it is demonstrated for the first time that all relevant components (neutrophils, MMP-8, MMP-9, PE) involved in PGP formation from collagen are upregulated in the airways. Together with MMPs, PE may play an important role in the formation of PGP and thus in the pathophysiology of lung emphysema. PMID:21112944

  17. Autoradiographic comparison of the distribution of the neutral endopeptidase enkephalinase and of. mu. and delta opioid receptors in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Waksman, G.; Hamel, E.; Fournie-Zaluski, M.C.; Roques, B.P.

    1986-03-01

    The neutral endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.11, also designated enkephalinase, has been visualized by in vitro autoradiography using the tritiated inhibitor (/sup 3/H)-N-((2RS)-3-hydroxyaminocarbonyl-2-benzyl-1-oxopropyl)glycine, ((/sup 3/H)HACBO-Gly). Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)HACBO-Gly corresponding to 85% of the total binding to brain slices was inhibited by 1 ..mu..M thiorphan, a selective inhibitor of enkephalinase, but remained unchanged in the presence of captopril, a selective inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme. Very high levels of (/sup 3/H)HACBO-Gly binding were found in the choroid plexus and the substantia nigra. High levels were present in the caudate putamen, globus pallidus, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, and in the substantia gelatinosa of the spinal cord. The distribution of enkephalinase was compared to that of ..mu.. and delta opioid receptors, selectively labeled with (/sup 3/H)Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-MePhe-glycinol and (/sup 3/H)Try-D-Thr-Gly-Phe-Leu-Thr, respectively. In the caudate putamen, (/sup 3/H)HACBO-Gly binding overlapped the clustered ..mu.. sites but appeared more closely related to the diffusely distributed delta sites. The association of enkephalinase with delta and ..mu.. opioid receptors in these areas is consistent with the observed role of the enzyme in regulating the effects of opioid peptides in striatal dopamine release and analgesia, respectively. Except for the choroid plexus and the cerebellum, the close similarity observed in numerous rat brain areas between the distribution of enkephalinase and that of ..mu.. and/ or delta opioid binding sites could account for most of the pharmacological effects elicited by enkephalinase inhibitors.

  18. Expression of Chironomus riparius serine-type endopeptidase gene under di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) exposure.

    PubMed

    Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Inn-Sil

    2008-11-01

    Environmental stressors can induce changes in gene expression that can be useful as biomarkers. To identify potential biomarkers of water quality, we characterized full-length cDNA sequences of the serine-type endopeptidase (SP) gene from Chironomus riparius. Their expression was analyzed during different life-history stages and in response to treatment with various concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) for short and long periods of time. A comparative molecular and phylogenetic investigation was then conducted among different orders of insects using sequence database analysis. The sequence of the C. riparius SP gene was found to be most closely related to the sequence of SPs isolated from Aedes aegypti. In addition, the basal level of C. riparius SP mRNA was more highly expressed in larvae than in other life-history stages. However, the expression of C. riparius SP was primarily limited to the gut in larvae. When the effects of short-term exposure to DEHP were evaluated, C. riparius SP gene expression decreased within 1 h of treatment, regardless of dose. We also investigated expression of the C. riparius SP gene following long-term DEHP exposure (10 days) and found that it decreased significantly across all DEHP dosages. Finally, the response of the SP gene was more sensitive in C. riparius that were exposed to low concentrations of DEHP than in those that were exposed to high concentrations. These results show that suppression of the C. riparius SP gene by DEHP is as a potential biomarker that could be useful for monitoring aquatic quality.

  19. Transcription of G-protein coupled receptors in corporal smooth muscle is regulated by sialorphin (an endogenous neutral endopeptidase inhibitor)

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yuehong; Tiplitsky, Scott I.; Tar, Moses; Melman, Arnold; Davies, Kelvin P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Several reports have suggested the rat Vcsa1 gene is down-regulated in models of erectile dysfunction (ED). Vcsa’s protein product, sialorphin, is an endogenous neutral endopeptidase (NEP), and its down-regulation could result in prolonged activation of G-protein activated signaling pathways by their peptide agonists. We investigated if down- regulation of Vcsa1 could result in adaptive change in the expression of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). Materials and Methods Gene expression in cultured rat corporal smooth muscle cells (CSM) following treatment with siRNA directed against Vcsa1 or the NEP gene was analyzed using microarray and quantitative RT-PCR. In rats Vcsa1 is one of the most down-regulated genes following bilateral transection of the cavernosal nerves. Using that animal model, we also investigated whether the down-regulation of Vcsa1 is accompanied by similar changes in gene expression observed in the CSM cells where Vcsa1 was knocked-down in vitro. Results Microarray analysis and quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that CSM cells treated in vitro with siRNA against Vcsa1 resulted in up-regulation of GPCR as a functional group. In contrast, treatment of CSM cells that lowered NEP activity resulted in decreases in GPCR expression. These results suggest that the peptide product of Vcsa1, sialorphin, can effect GPCR expression by acting on NEP. In animals with bilaterally transected cavernous nerves the reduced expression of Vcsa1 is accompanied by increased GPCR expression in cavernosal tissue. Conclusions These experiments suggest that the mechanism by which Vcsa1 modulates erectile function is partly mediated through changes in GPCR expression. PMID:18554633

  20. Preferential cleavage of des-31,32-proinsulin over intact proinsulin by the insulin secretory granule type II endopeptidase. Implication of a favored route for prohormone processing.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, C J; Lincoln, B; Shoelson, S E

    1992-11-15

    Two Ca(2+)-dependent endopeptidase activities are involved in proinsulin to insulin conversion: type I cleaves COOH-terminal to proinsulin Arg31-Arg32 (B-chain/C-peptide junction); and type II preferentially cleaves at the Lys64-Arg65 site (C-peptide/A-chain junction). To further understand the mechanism of proinsulin processing, we have investigated types I and II endopeptidase processing of intact proinsulin in parallel to that of the conversion intermediates, des-31,32-proinsulin and des-64,65-proinsulin. The type I processed des-64,65-proinsulin and proinsulin at the same rate. In contrast, the type II endopeptidase processed des-31,32-proinsulin at a much faster rate (> 19-fold; p < 0.001) than it did intact proinsulin. Furthermore, unlabeled proinsulin concentrations required for competitive inhibition of 125I-labeled des-64,65-proinsulin and 125I-proinsulin processing by a purified insulin secretory granule lysate were similar (ID50 = 14-16 microM), whereas inhibition of 125I-labeled des-31,32-proinsulin processing required a higher nonradiolabeled proinsulin concentration (ID50 = 197 microM). Synthetic peptides corresponding to the sequences surrounding Lys64-Arg65 (AC-peptide/substrate) and Arg31-Arg32 (BC-peptide/substrate) of human proinsulin were synthesized for use as specific substrates or competitive inhibitors. Cleavage of the BC-substrate by type I and AC-substrate by type II was COOH-terminal of the dibasic sequence, with similar Ca(2+)-and pH requirements previously observed for proinsulin cleavage. Apparent Km and Vmax for type I processing of the BC-substrate was Km = 20 microM; Vmax = 22.8 pmol/min, and for type II processing of the AC-substrate was Km = 68 microM; Vmax = 97 pmol/min. In competitive inhibition assays, the BC-peptide similarly blocked insulin secretory granule lysate processing of des-64,65-proinsulin and proinsulin (ID50 = 45-55 microM), but did not inhibit des-31,32-proinsulin processing. However, the AC

  1. Synthesis of 6-phosphofructose aspartic acid and some related Amadori compounds.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Alexandar L; Behrman, Edward J

    2016-08-05

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of 6-phosphofructose-aspartic acid, an intermediate in the metabolism of fructose-asparagine by Salmonella. We also report improved syntheses of fructose-asparagine itself and of fructose-aspartic acid.

  2. Drosophila melanogaster NEP2 is a new soluble member of the neprilysin family of endopeptidases with implications for reproduction and renal function

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The mammalian neprilysin (NEP) family members are typically type II membrane endopeptidases responsible for the activation/inactivation of neuropeptides and peptide hormones. Differences in substrate specificity and subcellular localization of the seven mammalian NEPs contribute to their functional diversity. The sequencing of the Drosophila melanogaster genome has revealed a large expansion of this gene family, resulting in over 20 fly NEP-like genes, suggesting even greater diversity in structure and function than seen in mammals. We now report that one of these genes (Nep2) codes for a secreted endopeptidase with a highly restricted pattern of expression. D. melanogaster NEP2 is expressed in the specialized stellate cells of the renal tubules and in the cyst cells that surround the elongating spermatid bundles in adult testis, suggesting roles for the peptidase in renal function and in spermatogenesis. D. melanogaster NEP2 was found in vesicle-like structures in the syncytial cytoplasm of the spermatid bundles, suggesting that the protein was acquired by endocytosis of protein secreted from the cyst cells. Expression of NEP2 cDNA in D. melanogaster S2 cells confirmed that the peptidase is secreted and is only weakly inhibited by thiorphan, a potent inhibitor of human NEP. D. melanogaster NEP2 also differs from human NEP in the manner in which the peptidase cleaves the tachykinin, GPSGFYGVR-amide. Molecular modelling suggests that there are important structural differences between D. melanogaster NEP2 and human NEP in the S1′ and S2′ ligand-binding subsites, which might explain the observed differences in inhibitor and substrate specificities. A soluble isoform of a mouse NEP-like peptidase is strongly expressed in spermatids, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved role for a soluble endopeptidase in spermatogenesis. PMID:15554877

  3. Proteinase A, a storage-globulin-degrading endopeptidase of vetch (Vicia sativa L.) seeds, is not involved in early steps of storage-protein mobilization.

    PubMed

    Becker, C; Senyuk, V I; Shutov, A D; Nong, V H; Fischer, J; Horstmann, C; Müntz, K

    1997-09-01

    Proteinase A is a papain-like cysteine endopeptidase of vetch (Vicia sativa L.) which was assumed to initiate storage-globulin breakdown just after the onset of seed germination. This enzyme was purified from cotyledons of vetch seedlings. On gelatin-containg SDS gels, active proteinase A migrated with an apparent molecular mass of 21 kDa, whereas after heat denaturation its molecular size on SDS/PAGE was 29 kDa. Although proteinase A is capable of hydrolyzing storage globulins in vitro it could not be localized in the protein-body fraction of cotyledons from germinating seeds. cDNA clones encoding proteinase A precursor have been obtained by PCR. The precursor is composed of an N-terminal signal sequence followed by a propeptide, the region encoding mature proteinase A, and a C-terminal KDEL sequence. Mature proteinase A with a derived molecular mass of 25,244 Da does not have the KDEL sequence. The derived amino acid sequence of the proteinase A precursor is 78.2% identical to sulfhydryl-endopeptidase (SH-EP), a cysteine endopeptidase from germinating Vigna mungo seedlings. Northern blot analysis indicated that proteinase A mRNA appears de novo in cotyledons of 1-day-germinated vetch seeds, where its amount increases up to day 6. No proteinase A mRNA was detected in other vetch organs, not even in the embryo axis, which contains stored globulins. By means of antibodies raised against the purified and against recombinantly produced proteinase A, the 29-kDa bands of mature proteinase A were detected in cotyledon extracts of 6-day-germinated seeds when globulin degradation has already far proceeded. The reported data do not agree with the proposed triggering role of proteinase A in storage-globulin breakdown during germination.

  4. Poly(Aspartic Acid) Degradation by a Sphingomonas sp. Isolated from Freshwater

    PubMed Central

    Tabata, Kenji; Kasuya, Ken-Ichi; Abe, Hideki; Masuda, Kozue; Doi, Yoshiharu

    1999-01-01

    A poly(aspartic acid) degrading bacterium (strain KT-1 [JCM10459]) was isolated from river water and identified as a member of the genus Sphingomonas. The isolate degraded only poly(aspartic acid)s of low molecular masses (<5 kDa), while the cell extract hydrolyzed high-molecular-mass poly(aspartic acid)s of 5 to 150 kDa to yield aspartic acid monomer. PMID:10473451

  5. A member of the eukaryotic subtilisin family (PC3) has the enzymic properties of the type 1 proinsulin-converting endopeptidase.

    PubMed Central

    Bailyes, E M; Shennan, K I; Seal, A J; Smeekens, S P; Steiner, D F; Hutton, J C; Docherty, K

    1992-01-01

    PC3, a mammalian homologue of the yeast subtilisin-like proteinase Kex2, was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and its activity was characterized. PC3 cleaved human proinsulin at one of the two dibasic sites (KTRR32 but not LQKR65). The specificity, inhibitor profile, pH optimum (5.5) and Ca(2+)-dependence (K0.5 = 2.5-3 mM) paralleled those of the insulin-granule type 1 endopeptidase activity, suggesting a role for PC3 in the conversion of prohormones. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. PMID:1637332

  6. 40 CFR 721.10348 - Aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi-alkanediyl)bis, tetraalkane esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aspartic acid, N,Nâ²-(iminodi... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10348 Aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi... reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi-alkanediyl)bis...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10348 - Aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi-alkanediyl)bis, tetraalkane esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aspartic acid, N,Nâ²-(iminodi... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10348 Aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi... reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi-alkanediyl)bis...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10348 - Aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi-alkanediyl)bis, tetraalkane esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aspartic acid, N,Nâ²-(iminodi... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10348 Aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi... reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi-alkanediyl)bis...

  9. Behavior of aspartic acid as a corrosion inhibitor for steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kalota, D.J.; Silverman, D.C. )

    1994-02-01

    Corrosion inhibition of steel by aspartic acid (C[sub 4]H[sub 7]NO[sub 4]), an amino acid of low molecular weight, was found to depend strongly on pH. At a pH less than the ionization constant at [approximately]9.5 to 10 (measured at 25 C), C[sub 4]H[sub 7]NO[sub 4] appeared to accelerate corrosion. Above the pH, it acted as a corrosion inhibitor for steel. A specially constructed potential-pH diagram for iron (Fe) that incorporated C[sub 4]H[sub 7]NO[sub 4] showed the change in behavior was accompanied by the most stable thermodynamic state changing from an iron aspartate complex to iron oxide. Polymerized C[sub 4]H[sub 7]NO[sub 4] (polyaspartic acid) behaved in a similar manner. Some other amino acids of low molecular weight behaved similarly.

  10. New aspartic proteinase of Ulysses retrotransposon from Drosophila virilis.

    PubMed

    Volkov, D A; Dergousova, N I; Rumsh, L D

    2004-06-01

    This work is focused on the investigation of a proteinase of Ulysses mobile genetic element from Drosophila virilis. The primary structure of this proteinase is suggested based on comparative analysis of amino acid sequences of aspartic proteinases from retroviruses and retrotransposons. The corresponding cDNA fragment has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. The protein accumulated in inclusion bodies. The recombinant protein (12 kD) was subjected to refolding and purified by affinity chromatography on pepstatin-agarose. Proteolytic activity of the protein was determined using oligopeptide substrates melittin and insulin B-chain. It was found that the maximum of the proteolytic activity is displayed at pH 5.5 as for the majority of aspartic proteinases. We observed that hydrolysis of B-chain of insulin was totally inhibited by pepstatin A in the micromolar concentration range. The molecular weight of the monomer of the Ulysses proteinase was determined by MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry.

  11. Bioproduction of L-Aspartic Acid and Cinnamic Acid by L-Aspartate Ammonia Lyase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Patel, Arti T; Akhani, Rekha C; Patel, Manisha J; Dedania, Samir R; Patel, Darshan H

    2016-12-17

    Aspartase (L-aspartate ammonia lyase, EC 4.3.1.1) catalyses the reversible amination and deamination of L-aspartic acid to fumaric acid which can be used to produce important biochemical. In this study, we have explored the characteristics of aspartase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (PA-AspA). To overproduce PA-AspA, the 1425-bp gene was introduced in Escherichia coli BL21 and purified. A 51.0-kDa protein was observed as a homogenous purified protein on SDS-PAGE. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 8.0 and 35 °C. PA-AspA has retained 56% activity after 7 days of incubation at 35 °C, which displays the hyperthermostablility characteristics of the enzyme. PA-AspA is activated in the presence of metal ions and Mg2+ is found to be most effective. Among the substrates tested for specificity of PA-AspA, L-phenylalanine (38.35 ± 2.68) showed the highest specific activity followed by L-aspartic acid (31.21 ± 3.31) and fumarate (5.42 ± 2.94). K m values for L-phenylalanine, L-aspartic acid and fumarate were 1.71 mM, 0.346 μM and 2 M, respectively. The catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m) for L-aspartic acid (14.18 s(-1) mM(-1)) was higher than that for L-phenylalanine (4.65 s(-1) mM(-1)). For bioconversion, from an initial concentration of 1000 mM of fumarate and 30 mM of L-phenylalanine, PA-AspA was found to convert 395.31 μM L-aspartic acid and 3.47 mM cinnamic acid, respectively.

  12. Microwave-assisted reaction of glycosylamine with aspartic acid.

    PubMed

    Real-Fernández, Feliciana; Nuti, Francesca; Bonache, M Angeles; Boccalini, Marco; Chimichi, Stefano; Chelli, Mario; Papini, Anna Maria

    2010-07-01

    The synthesis of N-protected glycosyl amino acids from amines has been investigated and it was found that, under microwave conditions, glycosylamines could be hydrolyzed leading to new products containing a glycosyl ester linkage. The efficiency of the microwave-induced glycosylation of aspartic acid was studied comparing the microwave activity between amide and ester bond formation. Different sugar moieties have been employed to demonstrate the simple and reproducible coupling methodology. New glycosyl ester compounds were further characterized by NMR spectroscopy.

  13. Explosive enantiospecific decomposition of aspartic acid on Cu surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mhatre, B S; Dutta, S; Reinicker, A; Karagoz, B; Gellman, A J

    2016-12-01

    Aspartic acid adsorbed on Cu surfaces is doubly deprotonated. On chiral Cu(643)(R&S) its enantiomers undergo enantiospecific decomposition via an autocatalytic explosion. Once initiated, the decomposition mechanism proceeds via sequential cleavage of the C3-C4 and C1-C2 bonds each yielding CO2, followed by conversion of the remaining species into N[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCH3.

  14. On the solvation of L-aspartic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxton, A. T.; Harper, J. B.

    2004-01-01

    We use molecular statics and dynamics to study the stability of L-aspartic acid both in vacuo and solvated by polar and non-polar molecules using density functional theory in the generalized gradient approximation. We find that structures stable in vacuo are unstable in aqueous solution and vice versa. From our simulations we are able to come to some conclusions about the mechanism of stabilisation of zwitterions by polar protic solvents, water and methanol.

  15. Microbial aspartic proteases: current and potential applications in industry.

    PubMed

    Theron, Louwrens W; Divol, Benoit

    2014-11-01

    Aspartic proteases are a relatively small group of proteolytic enzymes that are active in acidic environments and are found across all forms of life. Certain microorganisms secrete such proteases as virulence agents and/or in order to break down proteins thereby liberating assimilable sources of nitrogen. Some of the earlier applications of these proteolytic enzymes are found in the manufacturing of cheese where they are used as milk-clotting agents. Over the last decade, they have received tremendous research interest because of their involvement in human diseases. Furthermore, there has also been a growing interest on these enzymes for their applications in several other industries. Recent research suggests in particular that they could be used in the wine industry to prevent the formation of protein haze while preserving the wines' organoleptic properties. In this mini-review, the properties and mechanisms of action of aspartic proteases are summarized. Thereafter, a brief overview of the industrial applications of this specific class of proteases is provided. The use of aspartic proteases as alternatives to clarifying agents in various beverage industries is mentioned, and the potential applications in the wine industry are thoroughly discussed.

  16. Age estimation based on aspartic acid racemization in human sclera.

    PubMed

    Klumb, Karolin; Matzenauer, Christian; Reckert, Alexandra; Lehmann, Klaus; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Age estimation based on racemization of aspartic acid residues (AAR) in permanent proteins has been established in forensic medicine for years. While dentine is the tissue of choice for this molecular method of age estimation, teeth are not always available which leads to the need to identify other suitable tissues. We examined the suitability of total tissue samples of human sclera for the estimation of age at death. Sixty-five samples of scleral tissue were analyzed. The samples were hydrolyzed and after derivatization, the extent of aspartic acid racemization was determined by gas chromatography. The degree of AAR increased with age. In samples from younger individuals, the correlation of age and D-aspartic acid content was closer than in samples from older individuals. The age-dependent racemization in total tissue samples proves that permanent or at least long-living proteins are present in scleral tissue. The correlation of AAR in human sclera and age at death is close enough to serve as basis for age estimation. However, the precision of age estimation by this method is lower than that of age estimation based on the analysis of dentine which is due to molecular inhomogeneities of total tissue samples of sclera. Nevertheless, the approach may serve as a valuable alternative or addition in exceptional cases.

  17. Endoplasmic reticulum KDEL-tailed cysteine endopeptidase 1 of Arabidopsis (AtCEP1) is involved in pathogen defense.

    PubMed

    Höwing, Timo; Huesmann, Christina; Hoefle, Caroline; Nagel, Marie-Kristin; Isono, Erika; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Gietl, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a genetically determined process in all multicellular organisms. Plant PCD is effected by a unique group of papain-type cysteine endopeptidases (CysEP) with a C-terminal KDEL endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal (KDEL CysEP). KDEL CysEPs can be stored as pro-enzymes in ER-derived endomembrane compartments and are released as mature CysEPs in the final stages of organelle disintegration. KDEL CysEPs accept a wide variety of amino acids at the active site, including the glycosylated hydroxyprolines of the extensins that form the basic scaffold of the cell wall. In Arabidopsis, three KDEL CysEPs (AtCEP1, AtCEP2, and AtCEP3) are expressed. Cell- and tissue-specific activities of these three genes suggest that KDEL CysEPs participate in the abscission of flower organs and in the collapse of tissues in the final stage of PCD as well as in developmental tissue remodeling. We observed that AtCEP1 is expressed in response to biotic stress stimuli in the leaf. atcep1 knockout mutants showed enhanced susceptibility to powdery mildew caused by the biotrophic ascomycete Erysiphe cruciferarum. A translational fusion protein of AtCEP1 with a three-fold hemaglutinin-tag and the green fluorescent protein under control of the endogenous AtCEP1 promoter (PCEP1::pre-pro-3xHA-EGFP-AtCEP1-KDEL) rescued the pathogenesis phenotype demonstrating the function of AtCEP1 in restriction of powdery mildew. The spatiotemporal AtCEP1-reporter expression during fungal infection together with microscopic inspection of the interaction phenotype suggested a function of AtCEP1 in controlling late stages of compatible interaction including late epidermal cell death. Additionally, expression of stress response genes appeared to be deregulated in the interaction of atcep1 mutants and E. cruciferarum. Possible functions of AtCEP1 in restricting parasitic success of the obligate biotrophic powdery mildew fungus are discussed.

  18. Effect of an inhaled neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, phosphoramidon, on baseline airway calibre and bronchial responsiveness to bradykinin in asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Crimi, N.; Polosa, R.; Pulvirenti, G.; Magrì, S.; Santonocito, G.; Prosperini, G.; Mastruzzo, C.; Mistretta, A.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Bradykinin is a potent vasoactive peptide which has been proposed as an important inflammatory mediator in asthma since it provokes potent bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects. Little is known at present about the potential role of lung peptidases in modulating bradykinin-induced airway dysfunction in vivo in man. The change in bronchial reactivity to bradykinin was therefore investigated after treatment with inhaled phosphoramidon, a potent neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitor, in a double blind, placebo controlled, randomised study of 10 asthmatic subjects. METHODS--Subjects attended on six separate occasions at the same time of day during which concentration-response studies with inhaled bradykinin and histamine were carried out, without treatment and after each test drug. Subjects received nebulised phosphoramidon sodium salt (10(-5) M, 3 ml) or matched placebo for 5-7 minutes using an Inspiron Mini-neb nebuliser 5 minutes before the bronchoprovocation test with bradykinin or histamine. Agonists were administered in increasing concentrations as an aerosol generated from a starting volume of 3 ml in a nebuliser driven by compressed air at 8 1/min. Changes in airway calibre were measured as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and responsiveness as the provocative concentration causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20). RESULTS--Phosphoramidon administration caused a transient fall in FEV1 from baseline, FEV1 values decreasing 6.3% and 5.3% on the bradykinin and histamine study days, respectively. When compared with placebo, phosphoramidon elicited a small enhancement of the airways response to bradykinin, the geometric mean PC20 value (range) decreasing from 0.281 (0.015-5.575) to 0.136 (0.006-2.061) mg/ml. In contrast, NEP blockade failed to alter the airways response to a subsequent inhalation with histamine, the geometric mean (range) PC20 histamine value of 1.65 (0.17-10.52) mg/ml after placebo being no different from that of 1.58 (0

  19. epr, which encodes glycylglycine endopeptidase resistance, is homologous to femAB and affects serine content of peptidoglycan cross bridges in Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Sugai, M; Fujiwara, T; Ohta, K; Komatsuzawa, H; Ohara, M; Suginaka, H

    1997-01-01

    Staphylococcus capitis EPK1 produces a glycylglycine endopeptidase, ALE-1 (M. Sugai, T. Fujiwara, T. Akiyama, M. Ohara, H. Komatsuzawa, S. Inoue, and H. Suginaka, J. Bacteriol. 179:1193-1202, 1997), which hydrolyzes interpeptide pentaglycine chains of cell wall peptidoglycan of S. aureus. Characterizations of the enzyme activity and cloning of ale-1 revealed that ALE-1 is very similar to prolysostaphin produced by S. simulans bv. staphylolyticus. Strain EPK1 is resistant to lysis by ALE-1 and by lysostaphin. A gene that renders the cells resistant to glycylglycine endopeptidase (epr) was found 322 bp upstream of and in the opposite orientation to ale-1. The deduced amino acid sequence of epr showed similarities to FemA and FemB, which have been characterized as factors essential for methicillin resistance of S. aureus. Inactivation of either femA or femB causes decreased resistance to methicillin, increased resistance to lysostaphin, and decreased glycine content in the interpeptide chains of peptidoglycan. Therefore, femAB is suggested to be involved in the addition of glycine to pentapeptide peptidoglycan precursor. S. aureus with epr on a multicopy plasmid had phenotypes similar to those of femAB mutants except that it did not alter resistance level to methicillin. These results suggest that epr and femAB belong to the protein family involved in adding amino acids to the pentapeptide peptidoglycan precursor and that epr is involved in the addition of serine to the pentapeptide. PMID:9209049

  20. Propagation of biochirality: crossovers and nonclassical crystallization kinetics of aspartic acid in water.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tu; Lin, Yu Kun; Tsai, Ya Chung; Lee, Hung Lin

    2013-11-01

    All experimental procedures discussed could be treated as a screening tool for probing the existence of molecular association among the chiral molecules and the solvent system. The molecular association phases of a racemic conglomerate solution (CS) and a racemic compound solution (RCS), and the templating effect of aspartic acid solid surface were observed to minimize the chance of redissolving racemic conglomerate and racemic compound aspartic acid in water and reforming an RCS in crossovers experiments. Only 1 %wt% of l-aspartic acid was adequate enough to induce a transformation from a racemic compound aspartic acid to a racemic conglomerate aspartic acid. This would make the propagation of biochirality more feasible and sound. However, tetrapeptide, (l-aspartic acid)4 , failed to induce enantioseparation as templates purely by crystallization. Nonclassical crystallization theory was needed to take into account the existence of a CS. Fundamental parameters of the crystallization kinetics such as the induction time, interfacial energy, Gibbs energetic barrier, nucleation rate, and critical size of stable nuclei of: (i) racemic compound aspartic acid, (ii) racemic compound aspartic acid seeded with 1 %wt% l-aspartic acid, (iii) racemic conglomerate aspartic acid, and (iv) l-aspartic acid were evaluated and compared with different initial supersaturation ratios. Morphological studies of crystals grown from the crystallization kinetics were also carried out. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Origins of hydration differences in homochiral and racemic crystals of aspartic acid.

    PubMed

    Juliano, Thomas R; Korter, Timothy M

    2015-02-26

    The propensity for crystalline hydrates of organic molecules to form is related to the strength of the interactions between molecules, including the chiral composition of the molecular solids. Specifically, homochiral versus racemic crystalline samples can exhibit distinct differences in their ability to form energetically stable hydrates. The focus of the current study is a comparison of the crystal structures and intermolecular forces found in solid-state L-aspartic acid, DL-aspartic acid, and L-aspartic acid monohydrate. The absence of experimental evidence for the DL-aspartic acid monohydrate is considered here in terms of the enhanced thermodynamic stability of the DL-aspartic acid anhydrate crystal as compared to the L-aspartic acid anhydrate as revealed through solid-state density functional theory calculations and terahertz spectroscopic measurements. The results indicate that anhydrous DL-aspartic acid is the more stable solid, not due to intermolecular forces alone but also due to the improved conformations of the molecules within the racemic solid. Hemihydrated and monohydrated forms of DL-aspartic acid have been computationally evaluated, and in each case, the hydrates produce destabilized aspartic acid conformations that prevent DL-aspartic acid hydrate formation from occurring.

  2. Isolation and characterization of recombinant Drosophila Copia aspartic proteinase

    PubMed Central

    Athauda, Senarath B. P.; Yoshioka, Katsuji; Shiba, Tadayoshi; Takahashi, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    The wild type Copia Gag precursor protein of Drosophila melanogaster expressed in Escherichia coli was shown to be processed autocatalytically to generate two daughter proteins with molecular masses of 33 and 23 kDa on SDS/PAGE. The active-site motif of aspartic proteinases, Asp-Ser-Gly, was present in the 23 kDa protein corresponding to the C-terminal half of the precursor protein. The coding region of this daughter protein (152 residues) in the copia gag gene was expressed in E. coli to produce the recombinant enzyme protein as inclusion bodies, which was then purified and refolded to create the active enzyme. Using the peptide substrate His-Gly-Ile-Ala-Phe-Met-Val-Lys-Glu-Val-Asn (cleavage site: Phe–Met) designed on the basis of the sequence of the cleavage-site region of the precursor protein, the enzymatic properties of the proteinase were investigated. The optimum pH and temperature of the proteinase toward the synthetic peptide were 4.0 and 70 °C respectively. The proteolytic activity was increased with increasing NaCl concentration in the reaction mixture, the optimum concentration being 2 M. Pepstatin A strongly inhibited the enzyme, with a Ki value of 15 nM at pH 4.0. On the other hand, the active-site residue mutant, in which the putative catalytic aspartic acid residue was mutated to an alanine residue, had no activity. These results show that the Copia proteinase belongs to the family of aspartic proteinases including HIV proteinase. The B-chain of oxidized bovine insulin was hydrolysed at the Leu15−–Tyr16 bond fairly selectively. Thus the recombinant Copia proteinase partially resembles HIV proteinase, but is significantly different from it in certain aspects. PMID:16813567

  3. Purification, Cloning and Immuno-Biochemical Characterization of a Fungal Aspartic Protease Allergen Rhi o 1 from the Airborne Mold Rhizopus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Sircar, Gaurab; Saha, Bodhisattwa; Mandal, Rahul Shubhra; Pandey, Naren; Saha, Sudipto; Gupta Bhattacharya, Swati

    2015-01-01

    Background Fungal allergy is considered as serious health problem worldwide and is increasing at an alarming rate in the industrialized areas. Rhizopus oyzae is a ubiquitously present airborne pathogenic mold and an important source of inhalant allergens for the atopic population of India. Here, we report the biochemical and immunological features of its 44 kDa sero-reactive aspartic protease allergen, which is given the official designation ‘Rhi o 1’. Method The natural Rhi o 1 was purified by sequential column chromatography and its amino acid sequence was determined by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. Based on its amino acid sequence, the cDNA sequence was identified, cloned and expressed to produce recombinant Rhi o 1. The allergenic activity of rRhi o 1 was assessed by means of its IgE reactivity and histamine release ability. The biochemical property of Rhi o 1 was studied by enzyme assay. IgE-inhibition experiments were performed to identify its cross-reactivity with the German cockroach aspartic protease allergen Bla g 2. For precise characterization of the cross-reactive epitope, we used anti-Bla g 2 monoclonal antibodies for their antigenic specificity towards Rhi o 1. A homology based model of Rhi o 1 was built and mapping of the cross-reactive conformational epitope was done using certain in silico structural studies. Results The purified natural nRhi o 1 was identified as an endopeptidase. The full length allergen cDNA was expressed and purified as recombinant rRhi o 1. Purified rRhi o 1 displayed complete allergenicity similar to the native nRhi o 1. It was recognized by the serum IgE of the selected mold allergy patients and efficiently induced histamine release from the sensitized PBMC cells. This allergen was identified as an active aspartic protease functional in low pH. The Rhi o 1 showed cross reactivity with the cockroach allergen Bla g 2, as it can inhibit IgE binding to rBla g 2 up to certain level. The rBla g 2 was also found

  4. Structure and mechanisms of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, William N; Kantrowitz, Evan R

    2012-03-20

    Enzymes catalyze a particular reaction in cells, but only a few control the rate of this reaction and the metabolic pathway that follows. One specific mechanism for such enzymatic control of a metabolic pathway involves molecular feedback, whereby a metabolite further down the pathway acts at a unique site on the control enzyme to alter its activity allosterically. This regulation may be positive or negative (or both), depending upon the particular system. Another method of enzymatic control involves the cooperative binding of the substrate, which allows a large change in enzyme activity to emanate from only a small change in substrate concentration. Allosteric regulation and homotropic cooperativity are often known to involve significant conformational changes in the structure of the protein. Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) is the textbook example of an enzyme that regulates a metabolic pathway, namely, pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis, by feedback control and by the cooperative binding of the substrate, L-aspartate. The catalytic and regulatory mechanisms of this enzyme have been extensively studied. A series of X-ray crystal structures of the enzyme in the presence and absence of substrates, products, and analogues have provided details, at the molecular level, of the conformational changes that the enzyme undergoes as it shifts between its low-activity, low-affinity form (T state) to its high-activity, high-affinity form (R state). These structural data provide insights into not only how this enzyme catalyzes the reaction between l-aspartate and carbamoyl phosphate to form N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate and inorganic phosphate, but also how the allosteric effectors modulate this activity. In this Account, we summarize studies on the structure of the enzyme and describe how these structural data provide insights into the catalytic and regulatory mechanisms of the enzyme. The ATCase-catalyzed reaction is regulated by nucleotide binding some 60

  5. Identification of Endopeptidase Genes from the Genomic Sequence of Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ32 and the Role of These Genes in Hydrolysis of Model Bitter Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Vidya R.; Hughes, Joanne E.; Welker, Dennis L.; Broadbent, Jeffery R.; Steele, James L.

    2005-01-01

    Genes encoding three putative endopeptidases were identified from a draft-quality genome sequence of Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ32 and designated pepO3, pepF, and pepE2. The ability of cell extracts from Escherichia coli DH5α derivatives expressing CNRZ32 endopeptidases PepE, PepE2, PepF, PepO, PepO2, and PepO3 to hydrolyze the model bitter peptides, β-casein (β-CN) (f193-209) and αS1-casein (αS1-CN) (f1-9), under cheese-ripening conditions (pH 5.1, 4% NaCl, and 10°C) was examined. CNRZ32 PepO3 was determined to be a functional paralog of PepO2 and hydrolyzed both peptides, while PepE and PepF had unique specificities towards αS1-CN (f1-9) and β-CN (f193-209), respectively. CNRZ32 PepE2 and PepO did not hydrolyze either peptide under these conditions. To demonstrate the utility of these peptidases in cheese, PepE, PepO2, and PepO3 were expressed in Lactococcus lactis, a common cheese starter, using a high-copy vector pTRKH2 and under the control of the pepO3 promoter. Cell extracts of L. lactis derivatives expressing these peptidases were used to hydrolyze β-CN (f193-209) and αS1-CN (f1-9) under cheese-ripening conditions in single-peptide reactions, in a defined peptide mix, and in Cheddar cheese serum. Peptides αS1-CN (f1-9), αS1-CN (f1-13), and αS1-CN (f1-16) were identified from Cheddar cheese serum and included in the defined peptide mix. Our results demonstrate that in all systems examined, PepO2 and PepO3 had the highest activity with β-CN (f193-209) and αS1-CN (f1-9). Cheese-derived peptides were observed to affect the activity of some of the enzymes examined, underscoring the importance of incorporating such peptides in model systems. These data indicate that L. helveticus CNRZ32 endopeptidases PepO2 and PepO3 are likely to play a key role in this strain's ability to reduce bitterness in cheese. PMID:15932998

  6. The substituted aspartate analogue L-beta-threo-benzyl-aspartate preferentially inhibits the neuronal excitatory amino acid transporter EAAT3.

    PubMed

    Esslinger, C Sean; Agarwal, Shailesh; Gerdes, John; Wilson, Paul A; Davis, Erin S; Awes, Alicia N; O'Brien, Erin; Mavencamp, Teri; Koch, Hans P; Poulsen, David J; Rhoderick, Joseph F; Chamberlin, A Richard; Kavanaugh, Michael P; Bridges, Richard J

    2005-11-01

    The excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) play key roles in the regulation of CNS L-glutamate, especially related to synthesis, signal termination, synaptic spillover, and excitotoxic protection. Inhibitors available to delineate EAAT pharmacology and function are essentially limited to those that non-selectively block all EAATs or those that exhibit a substantial preference for EAAT2. Thus, it is difficult to selectively study the other subtypes, particularly EAAT1 and EAAT3. Structure activity studies on a series of beta-substituted aspartate analogues identify L-beta-benzyl-aspartate (L-beta-BA) as among the first blockers that potently and preferentially inhibits the neuronal EAAT3 subtype. Kinetic analysis of D-[(3)H]aspartate uptake into C17.2 cells expressing the hEAATs demonstrate that L-beta-threo-BA is the more potent diastereomer, acts competitively, and exhibits a 10-fold preference for EAAT3 compared to EAAT1 and EAAT2. Electrophysiological recordings of EAAT-mediated currents in Xenopus oocytes identify L-beta-BA as a non-substrate inhibitor. Analyzing L-beta-threo-BA within the context of a novel EAAT2 pharmacophore model suggests: (1) a highly conserved positioning of the electrostatic carboxyl and amino groups; (2) nearby regions that accommodate select structural modifications (cyclopropyl rings, methyl groups, oxygen atoms); and (3) a unique region L-beta-threo-BA occupied by the benzyl moieties of L-TBOA, L-beta-threo-BA and related analogues. It is plausible that the preference of L-beta-threo-BA and L-TBOA for EAAT3 and EAAT2, respectively, could reside in the latter two pharmacophore regions.

  7. Plastidic aspartate aminotransferases and the biosynthesis of essential amino acids in plants.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Fernando; Cañas, Rafael A; Pascual, M Belén; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2014-10-01

    In the chloroplasts and in non-green plastids of plants, aspartate is the precursor for the biosynthesis of different amino acids and derived metabolites that play distinct and important roles in plant growth, reproduction, development or defence. Aspartate biosynthesis is mediated by the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.1), which catalyses the reversible transamination between glutamate and oxaloacetate to generate aspartate and 2-oxoglutarate. Plastids contain two aspartate aminotransferases: a eukaryotic-type and a prokaryotic-type bifunctional enzyme displaying aspartate and prephenate aminotransferase activities. A general overview of the biochemistry, regulation, functional significance, and phylogenetic origin of both enzymes is presented. The roles of these plastidic aminotransferases in the biosynthesis of essential amino acids are discussed.

  8. Neuronal death enhanced by N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy; Stefovska, Vanya; Turski, Lechoslaw

    2000-01-01

    Glutamate promotes neuronal survival during brain development and destroys neurons after injuries in the mature brain. Glutamate antagonists are in human clinical trials aiming to demonstrate limitation of neuronal injury after head trauma, which consists of both rapid and slowly progressing neurodegeneration. Furthermore, glutamate antagonists are considered for neuroprotection in chronic neurodegenerative disorders with slowly progressing cell death only. Therefore, humans suffering from Huntington's disease, characterized by slowly progressing neurodegeneration of the basal ganglia, are subjected to trials with glutamate antagonists. Here we demonstrate that progressive neurodegeneration in the basal ganglia induced by the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionate or in the hippocampus by traumatic brain injury is enhanced by N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists but ameliorated by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate antagonists. These observations reveal that N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists may increase neurodestruction in mature brain undergoing slowly progressing neurodegeneration, whereas blockade of the action of glutamate at α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors may be neuroprotective. PMID:11058158

  9. Aspartic acid substitutions affect proton translocation by bacteriorhodopsin.

    PubMed Central

    Mogi, T; Stern, L J; Marti, T; Chao, B H; Khorana, H G

    1988-01-01

    We have substituted each of the aspartic acid residues in bacteriorhodopsin to determine their possible role in proton translocation by this protein. The aspartic acid residues were replaced by asparagines; in addition, Asp-85, -96, -115, and -112 were changed to glutamic acid and Asp-212 was also replaced by alanine. The mutant bacteriorhodopsin genes were expressed in Escherichia coli and the proteins were purified. The mutant proteins all regenerated bacteriorhodopsin-like chromophores when treated with a detergent-phospholipid mixture and retinal. However, the rates of regeneration of the chromophores and their lambda max varied widely. No support was obtained for the external point charge model for the opsin shift. The Asp-85----Asn mutant showed not detectable proton pumping, the Asp-96----Asn and Asp-212----Glu mutants showed less than 10% and the Asp-115----Glu mutant showed approximately equal to 30% of the normal proton pumping. The implications of these findings for possible mechanisms of proton translocation by bacteriorhodopsin are discussed. PMID:3288985

  10. Aspartate and glutamate mimetic structures in biologically active compounds.

    PubMed

    Stefanic, Peter; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2004-04-01

    Glutamate and aspartate are frequently recognized as key structural elements for the biological activity of natural peptides and synthetic compounds. The acidic side-chain functionality of both the amino acids provides the basis for the ionic interaction and subsequent molecular recognition by specific receptor sites that results in the regulation of physiological or pathophysiological processes in the organism. In the development of new biologically active compounds that possess the ability to modulate these processes, compounds offering the same type of interactions are being designed. Thus, using a peptidomimetic design approach, glutamate and aspartate mimetics are incorporated into the structure of final biologically active compounds. This review covers different bioisosteric replacements of carboxylic acid alone, as well as mimetics of the whole amino acid structure. Amino acid analogs presented include those with different distances between anionic moieties, and analogs with additional functional groups that result in conformational restriction or alternative interaction sites. The article also provides an overview of different cyclic structures, including various cycloalkane, bicyclic and heterocyclic analogs, that lead to conformational restriction. Higher di- and tripeptide mimetics in which carboxylic acid functionality is incorporated into larger molecules are also reviewed. In addition to the mimetic structures presented, emphasis in this article is placed on their steric and electronic properties. These mimetics constitute a useful pool of fragments in the design of new biologically active compounds, particularly in the field of RGD mimetics and excitatory amino acid agonists and antagonists.

  11. The bioactive acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif peptide.

    PubMed

    Minamizaki, Tomoko; Yoshiko, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    The organic component of the bone matrix comprises 40% dry weight of bone. The organic component is mostly composed of type I collagen and small amounts of non-collagenous proteins (NCPs) (10-15% of the total bone protein content). The small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein (SIBLING) family, a NCP, is considered to play a key role in bone mineralization. SIBLING family of proteins share common structural features and includes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif and acidic serine- and aspartic acid-rich motif (ASARM). Clinical manifestations of gene mutations and/or genetically modified mice indicate that SIBLINGs play diverse roles in bone and extraskeletal tissues. ASARM peptides might not be primary responsible for the functional diversity of SIBLINGs, but this motif is suggested to be a key domain of SIBLINGs. However, the exact function of ASARM peptides is poorly understood. In this article, we discuss the considerable progress made in understanding the role of ASARM as a bioactive peptide.

  12. Interaction Between Some Monosaccharides and Aspartic Acid in Dilute Aqueous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Kulikova, Galina A.

    2008-01-01

    Interaction between aspartic acid and d-glucose, d-galactose, and d-fructose has been studied by isothermal titration calorimetry, calorimetry of dissolution, and densimetry. It has been found that d-glucose and d-fructose form thermodynamically stable associates with aspartic acid, in contrast to d-galactose. The selectivity in the interaction of aspartic acid with monosaccharides is affected by their stereochemical structures. PMID:19669542

  13. Recovery, viscoelastic and functional properties of Barbel skin gelatine: investigation of anti-DPP-IV and anti-prolyl endopeptidase activities of generated gelatine polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Sila, Assaâd; Martinez-Alvarez, Oscar; Haddar, Anissa; Gómez-Guillén, M Carmen; Nasri, Moncef; Montero, M Pilar; Bougatef, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The characteristics and functional properties of gelatine from freshwater fish skin (Barbus callensis) were investigated. The gelatine extraction efficiency was improved by an acid-swelling process in the presence of barbel crude acid protease extract. Barbel skin gelatine (BSG) contained 92.15% protein, 0.31% lipid and 0.72% ash. The amino acid profile of BSG showed a high percentage of imino acids. The electrophoretic profile showed that BSG is mainly composed of α- and β-components. BSG showed an excellent solubility and possessed interfacial properties, which were governed by the protein concentration. Biological activities of the hydrolysates obtained after digestion of BSG with several commercial proteases were evaluated. The results suggested that these hydrolysates are a good source of natural inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV and prolyl endopeptidase and could potentially be used as dietary ingredients in the management of type 2-diabetes and/or neuropathological disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Peptides in Seminal Fluid and Their Role in Infertility: A Potential Role for Opiorphin Inhibition of Neutral Endopeptidase Activity as a Clinically Relevant Modulator of Sperm Motility

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Kelvin P.; Neal-Perry, Genevieve S.

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is a devastating medical condition that adversely affects emotional health and well-being of couples who desire pregnancy and parenthood. The overall demographic data suggest that the indication for more than one-third of assisted reproductive technology cycles performed in the United States includes male factor infertility. There is increasing recognition of the role that peptides present in seminal plasma have in determining sperm motility. Several recent studies suggest that peptidases, such as neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and aminopeptidase N (APN), impose significant adverse effects on sperm motility. Interestingly, several recent studies demonstrate that there is an endogenous NEP/APN inhibitor peptide called opiorphin in human seminal plasma. Our pilot studies suggest opiorphin promotes sperm motility and may positively influence sperm motility parameters in some cases of males infertility characterized by asthenozoospermia. PMID:24855109

  15. Effects of a Proline Endopeptidase on the Detection and Quantitation of Gluten by Antibody-Based Methods during the Fermentation of a Model Sorghum Beer.

    PubMed

    Panda, Rakhi; Fiedler, Katherine L; Cho, Chung Y; Cheng, Raymond; Stutts, Whitney L; Jackson, Lauren S; Garber, Eric A E

    2015-12-09

    The effectiveness of a proline endopeptidase (PEP) in hydrolyzing gluten and its putative immunopathogenic sequences was examined using antibody-based methods and mass spectrometry (MS). Based on the results of the antibody-based methods, fermentation of wheat gluten containing sorghum beer resulted in a reduction in the detectable gluten concentration. The addition of PEP further reduced the gluten concentration. Only one sandwich ELISA was able to detect the apparent low levels of gluten present in the beers. A competitive ELISA using a pepsin-trypsin hydrolysate calibrant was unreliable because the peptide profiles of the beers were inconsistent with that of the hydrolysate calibrant. Analysis by MS indicated that PEP enhanced the loss of a fragment of an immunopathogenic 33-mer peptide in the beer. However, Western blot results indicated partial resistance of the high molecular weight (HMW) glutenins to the action of PEP, questioning the ability of PEP in digesting all immunopathogenic sequences present in gluten.

  16. Variation in bull beef quality due to ultimate muscle pH is correlated to endopeptidase and small heat shock protein levels.

    PubMed

    Pulford, D J; Dobbie, P; Fraga Vazquez, S; Fraser-Smith, E; Frost, D A; Morris, C A

    2009-09-01

    This study set out to determine if ultimate pH (pH(u)) affected the performance of intracellular small heat shock protein and endopeptidase dynamics in muscle during beef ageing. Longissimus dorsi muscles from 39 Angus or Limousin×Angus bulls were examined to see if pH(u) achieved at 22h post mortem (rigor) affected tenderness and water holding capacity of beef. Samples were segregated into three pH(u) groups termed high (pH>6.3), intermediate (5.73 days post mortem for intermediate pH(u) beef. High levels of alpha β-crystallin (aβC) at 22h post mortem coincided with delayed muscle protein degradation for low pH(u) beef. Our results support the hypothesis that aβC shields myofibrils and buffers against endopeptidase degradation of beef structure during ageing.

  17. Conjugative type IV secretion in Gram-positive pathogens: TraG, a lytic transglycosylase and endopeptidase, interacts with translocation channel protein TraM.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Verena; Probst, Ines; Aufschnaiter, Andreas; Büttner, Sabrina; Schaden, Lisa; Rechberger, Gerald N; Koraimann, Günther; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Keller, Walter

    2017-02-17

    Conjugative transfer plays a major role in the transmission of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. pIP501 is a Gram-positive conjugative model plasmid with the broadest transfer host-range known so far and is frequently found in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates. The pIP501 type IV secretion system is encoded by 15 transfer genes. In this work, we focus on the VirB1-like protein TraG, a modular peptidoglycan metabolizing enzyme, and the VirB8-homolog TraM, a potential member of the translocation channel. By providing full-length traG in trans, but not with a truncated variant, we achieved full recovery of wild type transfer efficiency in the traG-knockout mutant E. faecalis pIP501ΔtraG. With peptidoglycan digestion experiments and tandem mass spectrometry we could assign lytic transglycosylase and endopeptidase activity to TraG, with the CHAP domain alone displaying endopeptidase activity. We identified a novel interaction between TraG and TraM in a bacterial-2-hybrid assay. In addition we found that both proteins localize in focal spots at the E. faecalis cell membrane using immunostaining and fluorescence microscopy. Extracellular protease digestion to evaluate protein cell surface exposure revealed that correct membrane localization of TraM requires the transmembrane helix of TraG. Thus, we suggest an essential role for TraG in the assembly of the pIP501 type IV secretion system.

  18. Growth and characterization of KDP crystals doped with L-aspartic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, R.; Rajasekaran, R.; Samuel, Bincy Susan

    2013-03-01

    Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP) doped with L-aspartic acid has been grown by solvent slow evaporation technique from a mixture of aqueous solution of KDP and 0.7% of L-aspartic acid at room temperature. The grown crystals were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, UV-visible, FTIR analysis. The doping of aspartic acid was confirmed by FTIR spectrum. The Nonlinear optical property (SHG) of L-aspartic acid doped KDP has been confirmed. Microhardness studies were carried out on the grown crystal.

  19. Growth and characterization of KDP crystals doped with L-aspartic acid.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, R; Rajasekaran, R; Samuel, Bincy Susan

    2013-03-01

    Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP) doped with L-aspartic acid has been grown by solvent slow evaporation technique from a mixture of aqueous solution of KDP and 0.7% of L-aspartic acid at room temperature. The grown crystals were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, UV-visible, FTIR analysis. The doping of aspartic acid was confirmed by FTIR spectrum. The Nonlinear optical property (SHG) of L-aspartic acid doped KDP has been confirmed. Microhardness studies were carried out on the grown crystal.

  20. Oral administration of D-aspartate, but not L-aspartate, depresses rectal temperature and alters plasma metabolites in chicks.

    PubMed

    Erwan, Edi; Chowdhury, Vishwajit Sur; Nagasawa, Mao; Goda, Ryosei; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2014-07-25

    L-Aspartate (L-Asp) and D-aspartate (D-Asp) are physiologically important amino acids in mammals and birds. However, the functions of these amino acids have not yet been fully understood. In this study, we therefore examined the effects of L-Asp and D-Asp in terms of regulating body temperature, plasma metabolites and catecholamines in chicks. Chicks were first orally administered with different doses (0, 3.75, 7.5 and 15 mmol/kg body weight) of L- or D-Asp to monitor the effects of these amino acids on rectal temperature during 120 min of the experimental period. Oral administration of D-Asp, but not of L-Asp, linearly decreased the rectal temperature in chicks. Importantly, orally administered D-Asp led to a significant reduction in body temperature in chicks even under high ambient temperature (HT) conditions. However, centrally administered D-Asp did not significantly influence the body temperature in chicks. As for plasma metabolites and catecholamines, orally administered D-Asp led to decreased triacylglycerol and uric acid concentrations and increased glucose and chlorine concentrations but did not alter plasma catecholamines. These results suggest that oral administration of D-Asp may play a potent role in reducing body temperature under both normal and HT conditions. The alteration of plasma metabolites further indicates that D-Asp may contribute to the regulation of metabolic activity in chicks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental evidence for a chiral symmetry-breaking mechanism in aspartic acid: Lattice and sub-lattice matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teschke, Omar; Soares, David Mendez

    2017-10-01

    A mother crystal formed from a transient molecular structure of (D+L) aspartic acid in solution is reported. Hexagonal structures with a lattice constant of 1.04 nm were crystallized from a solution in which three aspartic acid species coexist: right- and left-handed enantiomorphs, denoted D-aspartic and L-aspartic, respectively, and transitory (D+L) aspartic acid specie. Atomic force microscopy images of the crystalline deposits reveal domains of the transitory (D+L) aspartic acid crystal forming the substrate deposit on silicon wafers, and on top of this hexagonal lattice only L-aspartic acid is observed to conform and crystallize. A preferential crystallization mechanism is then observed for (D+L) aspartic acid crystals that seed only L-aspartic deposits by the geometrical matching of their multiple hexagonal lattice structures with periodicities of 1.04 nm and 0.52 nm, respectively.

  2. A Potent, Versatile Disulfide-Reducing Agent from Aspartic Acid

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dithiothreitol (DTT) is the standard reagent for reducing disulfide bonds between and within biological molecules. At neutral pH, however, >99% of DTT thiol groups are protonated and thus unreactive. Herein, we report on (2S)-2-amino-1,4-dimercaptobutane (dithiobutylamine or DTBA), a dithiol that can be synthesized from l-aspartic acid in a few high-yielding steps that are amenable to a large-scale process. DTBA has thiol pKa values that are ∼1 unit lower than those of DTT and forms a disulfide with a similar E°′ value. DTBA reduces disulfide bonds in both small molecules and proteins faster than does DTT. The amino group of DTBA enables its isolation by cation-exchange and facilitates its conjugation. These attributes indicate that DTBA is a superior reagent for reducing disulfide bonds in aqueous solution. PMID:22353145

  3. Analysis of the aspartic acid metabolic pathway using mutant genes.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, R A

    2002-01-01

    Amino acid metabolism is a fundamental process for plant growth and development. Although a considerable amount of information is available, little is known about the genetic control of enzymatic steps or regulation of several pathways. Much of the information about biochemical pathways has arisen from the use of mutants lacking key enzymes. Although mutants were largely used already in the 60's, by bacterial and fungal geneticists, it took plant research a long time to catch up. The advance in this area was rapid in the 80's, which was followed in the 90's by the development of techniques of plant transformation. In this review we present an overview of the aspartic acid metabolic pathway, the key regulatory enzymes and the mutants and transgenic plants produced for lysine and threonine metabolism. We also discuss and propose a new study of high-lysine mutants.

  4. Allostery and cooperativity in Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase.

    PubMed

    Kantrowitz, Evan R

    2012-03-15

    The allosteric enzyme aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) from Escherichia coli has been the subject of investigations for approximately 50 years. This enzyme controls the rate of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis by feedback inhibition, and helps to balance the pyrimidine and purine pools by competitive allosteric activation by ATP. The catalytic and regulatory components of the dodecameric enzyme can be separated and studied independently. Many of the properties of the enzyme follow the Monod, Wyman Changeux model of allosteric control thus E. coli ATCase has become the textbook example. This review will highlight kinetic, biophysical, and structural studies which have provided a molecular level understanding of how the allosteric nature of this enzyme regulates pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis.

  5. Pleiotropic aspartate taxis and serine taxis mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Reader, R W; Tso, W W; Springer, M S; Goy, M F; Adler, J

    1979-04-01

    Mutants that at one time were thought to be specifically defective in taxis toward aspartate and related amino acids (tar mutants) or specifically defective in taxis toward serine and related amino acids (tar mutants) are now shown to be pleiotropic in their defects. The tar mutants also lack taxis toward maltose and away from Co2+ and Ni2+. The tsr mutants are altered in their response to a variety of repellents. Double mutants (tar tsr) fail in nearly all chemotactic responses. The tar and tsr mutants provide evidence for two complementary, converging pathways of information flow: certain chemoreceptors feed information into the tar pathway and others into the tsr pathway. The tar and tsr products have been shown to be two different sets of methylated proteins.

  6. AGC1/2, the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carriers.

    PubMed

    Amoedo, N D; Punzi, G; Obre, E; Lacombe, D; De Grassi, A; Pierri, C L; Rossignol, R

    2016-10-01

    In this review we discuss the structure and functions of the aspartate/glutamate carriers (AGC1-aralar and AGC2-citrin). Those proteins supply the aspartate synthesized within mitochondrial matrix to the cytosol in exchange for glutamate and a proton. A structure of an AGC carrier is not available yet but comparative 3D models were proposed. Moreover, transport assays performed by using the recombinant AGC1 and AGC2, reconstituted into liposome vesicles, allowed to explore the kinetics of those carriers and to reveal their specific transport properties. AGCs participate to a wide range of cellular functions, as the control of mitochondrial respiration, calcium signaling and antioxydant defenses. AGC1 might also play peculiar tissue-specific functions, as it was found to participate to cell-to-cell metabolic symbiosis in the retina. On the other hand, AGC1 is involved in the glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity in neurons and AGC gene or protein alterations were discovered in rare human diseases. Accordingly, a mice model of AGC1 gene knock-out presented with growth delay and generalized tremor, with myelinisation defects. More recently, AGC was proposed to play a crucial role in tumor metabolism as observed from metabolomic studies showing that the asparate exported from the mitochondrion by AGC1 is employed in the regeneration of cytosolic glutathione. Therefore, given the central role of AGCs in cell metabolism and human pathology, drug screening are now being developed to identify pharmacological modulators of those carriers. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Channels edited by Pierre Sonveaux, Pierre Maechler and Jean-Claude Martinou.

  7. Interaction of aspartate and aspartate-derived antimetabolites with the enzymes of the threonine biosynthetic pathway of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shames, S L; Ash, D E; Wedler, F C; Villafranca, J J

    1984-12-25

    The five enzymes responsible for the conversion of L-aspartate to L-threonine in Escherichia coli were purified to homogeneity and subsequently reconstituted in vitro in ratios approximating those found in vivo. 31P NMR was used to conveniently monitor the rates of consumption of the substrates ATP and NADPH, the accumulation of the intermediates beta-aspartyl phosphate and homoserine phosphate, and the formation of the products ADP, NADP+, and Pi in a single experiment. By this method, the flux of aspartic acid through the enzymes of the pathway was monitored in the absence and in the presence of several alternative substrates and inhibitors. Several known antimetabolites were found to be alternative substrates that ultimately became inhibitors of pathway flux. L-threo-3-Hydroxyaspartic acid was converted to 3-hydroxyhomoserine phosphate by the first four enzymes of the pathway. The antimetabolite L-threo-3-hydroxyhomoserine was found to bind to and inhibit aspartokinase-homoserine dehydrogenase I in a cooperative fashion (I 0.5 = 3 mM, nH = 2.5), similar to the action of the allosteric end product inhibitor L-threonine (I 0.5 = 0.36 mM, nH = 2.4). In the presence of the remaining enzymes of the pathway, however, L-threo-3-hydroxyhomoserine was phosphorylated to the apparent ultimate antimetabolite L-threo-3-hydroxyhomoserine phosphate that was a potent inhibitor of threonine synthase and consequently of L-threonine biosynthesis. When aspartic acid alone was examined as a substrate of the enzymes of the pathway, no accumulation of the beta-aspartyl phosphate and homoserine phosphate intermediates was observed. However, in the presence of either 5 mM L-threo-3-hydroxyhomoserine or 5 mM L-threo-3-hydroxyhomoserine phosphate, homoserine phosphate was found to accumulate. In contrast to the homoserine phosphate and 3-hydroxyhomoserine phosphate intermediates, both of which were very stable, the acylphosphate intermediates beta-aspartyl phosphate and beta-3

  8. Properties of Copolymers of Aspartic Acid and Aliphatic Dicarboxylic Acids Prepared by Reactive Extrusion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspartic acid may be prepared chemically or by the fermentation of carbohydrates. Currently, low molecular weight polyaspartic acids are prepared commercially by heating aspartic acid at high temperatures (greater than 220 degrees C) for several hours in the solid state. In an effort to develop a ...

  9. Citrin and aralar1 are Ca2+-stimulated aspartate/glutamate transporters in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, L.; Pardo, B.; Lasorsa, F.M.; del Arco, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Iijima, M.; Runswick, M.J.; Walker, J.E.; Saheki, T.; Satrústegui, J.; Palmieri, F.

    2001-01-01

    The mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier catalyzes an important step in both the urea cycle and the aspartate/malate NADH shuttle. Citrin and aralar1 are homologous proteins belonging to the mitochondrial carrier family with EF-hand Ca2+-binding motifs in their N-terminal domains. Both proteins and their C-terminal domains were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, reconstituted into liposomes and shown to catalyze the electrogenic exchange of aspartate for glutamate and a H+. Overexpression of the carriers in transfected human cells increased the activity of the malate/aspartate NADH shuttle. These results demonstrate that citrin and aralar1 are isoforms of the hitherto unidentified aspartate/glutamate carrier and explain why mutations in citrin cause type II citrullinemia in humans. The activity of citrin and aralar1 as aspartate/glutamate exchangers was stimulated by Ca2+ on the external side of the inner mitochondrial membrane, where the Ca2+-binding domains of these proteins are localized. These results show that the aspartate/glutamate carrier is regulated by Ca2+ through a mechanism independent of Ca2+ entry into mitochondria, and suggest a novel mechanism of Ca2+ regulation of the aspartate/malate shuttle. PMID:11566871

  10. Chlapsin, a chloroplastidial aspartic proteinase from the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Carla Malaquias; Pereira, Cláudia; da Costa, Diana Soares; Pereira, Susana; Pissarra, José; Simões, Isaura; Faro, Carlos

    2012-07-01

    Aspartic proteinases have been extensively characterized in land plants but up to now no evidences for their presence in green algae group have yet been reported in literature. Here we report on the identification of the first (and only) typical aspartic proteinase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This enzyme, named chlapsin, was shown to maintain the primary structure organization of typical plant aspartic proteinases but comprising distinct features, such as similar catalytic motifs DTG/DTG resembling those from animal and microbial counterparts, and an unprecedentedly longer plant specific insert domain with an extra segment of 80 amino acids, rich in alanine residues. Our results also demonstrated that chlapsin accumulates in Chlamydomonas chloroplast bringing this new enzyme to a level of uniqueness among typical plant aspartic proteinases. Chlapsin was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and it displayed the characteristic enzymatic properties of typical aspartic proteinases, like optimum activity at acidic pH and complete inhibition by pepstatin A. Another difference to plant aspartic proteinases emerged as chlapsin was produced in an active form without its putative prosegment domain. Moreover, recombinant chlapsin showed a restricted enzymatic specificity and a proteolytic activity influenced by the presence of redox agents and nucleotides, further differentiating it from typical plant aspartic proteinases and anticipating a more specialized/regulated function for this Chlamydomonas enzyme. Taken together, our results revealed a pattern of complexity for typical plant aspartic proteinases in what concerns sequence features, localization and biochemical properties, raising new questions on the evolution and function of this vast group of plant enzymes.

  11. Membrane reactor coupled with electrophoresis for enzymatic production of aspartic acid.

    PubMed

    Lee, C K; Hong, J

    1988-08-20

    Aspartic acid production by aspartase reaction on ammonium fumarate was carried out in a membrane reactor coupled with electrophoresis. A pressurized, stirred vessel attached with an ultrafiltration membrane was used as a membrane reactor. An electric field was applied across the membrane to preferentially remove the product aspartate from the reactor into the permeate stream. The charged molecule, aspartate, is much smaller than the molecular-weight cutoff of the membrane (10(4)) so that the ions would move freely through pores of the membrane. The concentration of aspartate in the permeate stream is determined by the electromigration velocity of the ions and the permeation rate of solvent (water) through the membrane. The permeation rate of solvent could be controlled by the applied pressure, and the migration velocity of the ions could be controlled by the electric field strength applied. The equilibrium conversion of ammonium fumarate to the aspartate was 70%. In the presence of electric field, the aspartase activity was not disturbed. Also, it is shown that the aspartate concentration in the permeate stream was 20% higher than that in the reaction solution with the permeate flow rate of 0.7 mL/min. The steady-state conversion was 60%. Instead of aspartate, aspartic acid can be recovered directly from the permeate stream by controlling the circulation of buffer electrolyte in the anode compartment.

  12. L-aspartate-evoked inhibition of melatonin production in rat pineal glands.

    PubMed

    Yamada, H; Yamaguchi, A; Moriyama, Y

    1997-06-06

    Our previous studies in rat indicated that pinealocytes secrete L-glutamate through microvesicle-mediated exocytosis to regulate negatively melatonin production. Recently, we further found that pinealocytes secrete L-aspartate through microvesicle-mediated exocytosis. In the present study, we investigated the role of L-aspartate in the melatonin production in isolated rat pineal glands. It was found that L-aspartate inhibits norepinephrine-stimulated melatonin production as well as serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity reversibly and dose-dependently, the concentrations required for 50% inhibition being 150 and 175 microM, respectively. L-Asparagine and oxaloacetate, metabolites of L-aspartate, had no effect on the melatonin production. These results suggest that pinealocytes use L-aspartate, as well as L-glutamate, as a negative regulator for melatonin production.

  13. Photosynthetic metabolism of malate and aspartate in Flaveria trinervia a C/sub 4/ dicot

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    C/sub 4/ species are known to vary in their apparent relative use of malate and aspartate to mediate carbon flux through the C/sub 4/ cycle. These studies investigate some of the adjustments in photosynthetic carbon metabolism that occur during a dark to light transition and during expansion of leaves of Flaveria trinervia, a C/sub 4/ dicot. Enzyme localization studies with isolated leaf mesophyll and bundle sheath protoplasts, indicated that both C/sub 4/ acids are formed in the mesophyll chloroplast, and that aspartate is metabolized to malate in the bundle sheath chloroplast prior to decaroxylation there. During photosynthetic induction, the partitioning of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ between malate and aspartate showed a single oscillation of increased aspartate labelling after 5 min of illumination. Turnover of (4-14C) (malate plus aspartate) was slow initially during illumination, prior to establishment of active pools of C/sub 4/ cycle metabolites.

  14. Fermentation of L-aspartate by a saccharolytic strain of Bacteroides melaninogenicus.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, J C; Dyer, J K; Tribble, J L

    1977-01-01

    Resting cells of Bacteroides melaninogenicus fermented L-[14C]aspartate as a single substrate. The 14C-labeled products included succinate, acetate, CO2, oxaloacetate, formate, malate, glycine, alanine, and fumarate in the relative percentages 68, 15, 9.9, 2.7, 1.8, 1.0, 0.7, 0.5, and 0.06, respectively, based on the total counts per minute of the L-[14C]aspartate fermented. Ammonia was produced in high amounts, indicating that 96% of the L-aspartate fermented was deaminated. These data suggest that L-aspartate is mainly being reduced through a number of intermediate reactions involving enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle to succinate. L-[14C]asparagine was also fermented by resting cells of B. melaninogenicus to form L-aspartate, which was subsequently, but less actively, fermented. PMID:13713

  15. Exchange of aspartate and alanine. Mechanism for development of a proton-motive force in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Abe, K; Hayashi, H; Maloney, P C; Malone, P C

    1996-02-09

    We examined the idea that aspartate metabolism by Lactobacillus subsp. M3 is organized as a proton-motive metabolic cycle by using reconstitution to monitor the activity of the carrier, termed AspT, expected to carry out the electrogenic exchange of precursor (aspartate) and product (alanine). Membranes of Lactobacillus subsp. M3 were extracted with 1.25% octyl glucoside in the presence of 0. 4% Escherichia coli phospholipid and 20% glycerol. The extracts were then used to prepare proteoliposomes loaded with either aspartate or alanine. Aspartate-loaded proteoliposomes accumulated external [3H]aspartate by exchange with internal substrate; this homologous self-exchange (Kt = 0.4 mm) was insensitive to potassium or proton ionophores and was unaffected by the presence or absence of Na+, K+, or Mg2+. Alanine-loaded proteoliposomes also took up [3H]aspartate in a heterologous antiport reaction that was stimulated or inhibited by an inside-positive or inside-negative membrane potential, respectively. Several lines of evidence suggest that these homologous and heterologous exchange reactions were catalyzed by the same functional unit. Thus, [3H]aspartate taken up by AspT during self-exchange was released by a delayed addition of alanine. In addition, the spontaneous loss of AspT activity that occurs when a detergent extract is held at 37 degrees C prior to reconstitution was prevented by the presence of either aspartate (KD(aspartate) = 0.3 mm) or alanine (KD(alanine) > or = 10 mm), indicating that both substrates interact directly with AspT. These findings are consistent with operation of a proton-motive metabolic cycle during aspartate metabolism by Lactobacillus subsp. M3.

  16. Synthetic Lethality of the lytE cwlO Genotype in Bacillus subtilis Is Caused by Lack of d,l-Endopeptidase Activity at the Lateral Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Masayuki; Ooiwa, Seika

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial peptidoglycan acts as an exoskeleton to protect the bacterial cell. Although peptidoglycan biosynthesis by penicillin-binding proteins is well studied, few studies have described peptidoglycan disassembly, which is necessary for a dynamic structure that allows cell growth. In Bacillus subtilis, more than 35 genes encoding cell wall lytic enzymes have been identified; however, only two d,l-endopeptidases (lytE and cwlO) are involved in cell proliferation. In this study, we demonstrated that the d,l-endopeptidase activity at the lateral cell wall is essential for cell proliferation. Inactivation of LytE and CwlO by point mutation of the catalytic residues caused cell growth defects. However, the forced expression of LytF or CwlS, which are paralogs of LytE, did not suppress lytE cwlO synthetic lethality. Subcellular localization studies of these d,l-endopeptidases showed LytF and CwlS at the septa and poles, CwlO at the cylindrical part of the cell, and LytE at the septa and poles as well as the cylindrical part. Furthermore, construction of N-terminal and C-terminal domain-swapped enzymes of LytE, LytF, CwlS, and CwlO revealed that localization was dependent on the N-terminal domains. Only the chimeric proteins that were enzymatically active and localized to the sidewall were able to suppress the synthetic lethality, suggesting that the lack of d,l-endopeptidase activity at the cylindrical part of the cell leads to a growth defect. The functions of LytE and CwlO in cell morphogenesis were discussed. PMID:22139507

  17. Introduction of β-cyclodextrin into poly(aspartic acid) matrix for adsorption and time-release of ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhao-Yang; Shen, Ming-Xing; Yang, An-Wen; Liang, Cong-Qiang; Wang, Nan; Cao, Gui-Ping

    2011-01-21

    Biodegradable copolymers with molecule inclusion ability was prepared by introduction of β-cyclodextrin into poly(aspartic acid) matrices. The ibuprofen loading and dissolution properties of poly(aspartic acid)-β-cyclodextrin were investigated.

  18. An essential role of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in cell proliferation is to enable aspartate synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Birsoy, Kıvanç; Wang, Tim; Chen, Walter; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Abu-Remaileh, Monther; Sabatini, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) enables many metabolic processes, but why its inhibition suppresses cell proliferation is unclear. It is also not well understood why pyruvate supplementation allows cells lacking ETC function to proliferate. We used a CRISPR-based genetic screen to identify genes whose loss sensitizes human cells to phenformin, a complex I inhibitor. The screen yielded GOT1, the cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase, loss of which kills cells upon ETC inhibition. GOT1 normally consumes aspartate to transfer electrons into mitochondria, but, upon ETC inhibition, it reverses to generate aspartate in the cytosol, which partially compensates for the loss of mitochondrial aspartate synthesis. Pyruvate stimulates aspartate synthesis in a GOT1-dependent fashion, which is required for pyruvate to rescue proliferation of cells with ETC dysfunction. Aspartate supplementation or overexpression of an aspartate transporter allows cells without ETC activity to proliferate. Thus, enabling aspartate synthesis is an essential role of the ETC in cell proliferation. PMID:26232224

  19. A Deficiency in Aspartate Biosynthesis in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis C2 Causes Slow Milk Coagulation†

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Yu, Weizhu; Coolbear, Tim; O’Sullivan, Dan; McKay, Larry L.

    1998-01-01

    A mutant of fast milk-coagulating (Fmc+) Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis C2, designated L. lactis KB4, was identified. Although possessing the known components essential for utilizing casein as a nitrogen source, which include functional proteinase (PrtP) activity and oligopeptide, di- and tripeptide, and amino acid transport systems, KB4 exhibited a slow milk coagulation (Fmc−) phenotype. When the amino acid requirements of L. lactis C2 were compared with those of KB4 by use of a chemically defined medium, it was found that KB4 was unable to grow in the absence of aspartic acid. This aspartic acid requirement could also be met by aspartate-containing peptides. The addition of aspartic acid to milk restored the Fmc+ phenotype of KB4. KB4 was found to be defective in pyruvate carboxylase and thus was deficient in the ability to form oxaloacetate and hence aspartic acid from pyruvate and carbon dioxide. The results suggest that when lactococci are propagated in milk, aspartate derived from casein is unable to meet fully the nutritional demands of the lactococci, and they become dependent upon aspartate biosynthesis. PMID:9572935

  20. Adsorption of Aspartic Acid onto Rutile: Implications for Biochirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, C. F.; Jonsson, C. M.; Jonsson, C. L.; Sverjensky, D. A.; Hazen, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Mineral surfaces may have facilitated the concentration and polymerization of simple biomolecules into macromolecules while promoting the development of biochirality. In this study, rutile and aspartic acid (Asp) were investigated as a possible system in this scenario. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to examine the adsorption of Asp as a function of total concentration and pH. A constant background electrolyte of 0.1 M NaCl was applied to the system, and all solutions were purged with argon gas to eliminate carbon dioxide contamination. Asp adsorbs onto rutile to the highest extent over the pH range 3-5.5 suggesting that an acidic environment is required for the adsorption between Asp and rutile to occur in significant amounts. This pH range of maximum adsorption is constrained between the isoelectric point of Asp and the point of zero charge of rutile, which indicates that electrostatic effects are influencing Asp adsorption. Both the L- and D- enantiomers of Asp were individually adsorbed onto the rutile surface to determine the potential of the system for chiral selection. Preliminary results indicate that D-Asp may possibly adsorb in greater amounts than L-Asp at higher Asp total concentrations. This trend is unexpected as the growth planes dominating the rutile are achiral, and a more thorough study is required to validate this difference in adsorption. Nevertheless, this result may provide insight on the emergence of chiral selection in macromolecules within what might be a predominantly achiral prebiotic system.

  1. Supermacroporous chemically cross-linked poly(aspartic acid) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Gyarmati, Benjámin; Mészár, E Zsuzsanna; Kiss, Lóránd; Deli, Mária A; László, Krisztina; Szilágyi, András

    2015-08-01

    Chemically cross-linked poly(aspartic acid) (PASP) gels were prepared by a solid-liquid phase separation technique, cryogelation, to achieve a supermacroporous interconnected pore structure. The precursor polymer of PASP, polysuccinimide (PSI) was cross-linked below the freezing point of the solvent and the forming crystals acted as templates for the pores. Dimethyl sulfoxide was chosen as solvent instead of the more commonly used water. Thus larger temperatures could be utilized for the preparation and the drawback of increase in specific volume of water upon freezing could be eliminated. The morphology of the hydrogels was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and interconnectivity of the pores was proven by the small flow resistance of the gels. Compression tests also confirmed the interconnected porous structure and the complete re-swelling and shape recovery of the supermacroporous PASP hydrogels. The prepared hydrogels are of interest for several biomedical applications as scaffolding materials because of their cytocompatibility, controllable morphology and pH-responsive character.

  2. Functional role of aspartic proteinase cathepsin D in insect metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Zhong Zheng; Lee, Kwang Sik; Kim, Bo Yeon; Choi, Yong Soo; Wei, Ya Dong; Choo, Young Moo; Kang, Pil Don; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Kim, Iksoo; Je, Yeon Ho; Seo, Sook Jae; Lee, Sang Mong; Guo, Xijie; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byung Rae

    2006-01-01

    Background Metamorphosis is a complex, highly conserved and strictly regulated development process that involves the programmed cell death of obsolete larval organs. Here we show a novel functional role for the aspartic proteinase cathepsin D during insect metamorphosis. Results Cathepsin D of the silkworm Bombyx mori (BmCatD) was ecdysone-induced, differentially and spatially expressed in the larval fat body of the final instar and in the larval gut of pupal stage, and its expression led to programmed cell death. Furthermore, BmCatD was highly induced in the fat body of baculovirus-infected B. mori larvae, suggesting that this gene is involved in the induction of metamorphosis of host insects infected with baculovirus. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated BmCatD knock-down inhibited programmed cell death of the larval fat body, resulting in the arrest of larval-pupal transformation. BmCatD RNAi also inhibited the programmed cell death of larval gut during pupal stage. Conclusion Based on these results, we concluded that BmCatD is critically involved in the programmed cell death of the larval fat body and larval gut in silkworm metamorphosis. PMID:17062167

  3. Identification of Novel Placentally Expressed Aspartic Proteinase in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Majewska, Marta; Lipka, Aleksandra; Panasiewicz, Grzegorz; Gowkielewicz, Marek; Jozwik, Marcin; Majewski, Mariusz Krzysztof; Szafranska, Bozena

    2017-01-01

    This study presents pioneering data concerning the human pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-Like family, identified in the genome, of the term placental transcriptome and proteome. RNA-seq allowed the identification of 1364 bp hPAG-L/pep cDNA with at least 56.5% homology with other aspartic proteinases (APs). In silico analyses revealed 388 amino acids (aa) of full-length hPAG-L polypeptide precursor, with 15 aa-signal peptide, 47 aa-blocking peptide and 326 aa-mature protein, and two Asp residues (D), specific for a catalytic cleft of the APs (VVFDTGSSNLWV91-102 and AIVDTGTSLLTG274-285). Capillary sequencing identified 9330 bp of the hPAG-L gene (Gen Bank Acc. No. KX533473), composed of nine exons and eight introns. Heterologous Western blotting revealed the presence of one dominant 60 kDa isoform of the hPAG-L amongst cellular placental proteins. Detection with anti-pPAG-P and anti-Rec pPAG2 polyclonals allowed identification of the hPAG-L proteins located within regions of chorionic villi, especially within the syncytiotrophoblast of term singleton placentas. Our novel data extend the present knowledge about the human genome, as well as placental transcriptome and proteome during term pregnancy. Presumably, this may contribute to establishing a new diagnostic tool for examination of some disturbances during human pregnancy, as well as growing interest from both scientific and clinical perspectives. PMID:28594357

  4. New paradigm for allosteric regulation of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase.

    PubMed

    Cockrell, Gregory M; Zheng, Yunan; Guo, Wenyue; Peterson, Alexis W; Truong, Jennifer K; Kantrowitz, Evan R

    2013-11-12

    For nearly 60 years, the ATP activation and the CTP inhibition of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) has been the textbook example of allosteric regulation. We present kinetic data and five X-ray structures determined in the absence and presence of a Mg(2+) concentration within the physiological range. In the presence of 2 mM divalent cations (Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Zn(2+)), CTP does not significantly inhibit the enzyme, while the allosteric activation by ATP is enhanced. The data suggest that the actual allosteric inhibitor of ATCase in vivo is the combination of CTP, UTP, and a divalent cation, and the actual allosteric activator is a divalent cation with ATP or ATP and GTP. The structural data reveals that two NTPs can bind to each allosteric site with a divalent cation acting as a bridge between the triphosphates. Thus, the regulation of ATCase is far more complex than previously believed and calls many previous studies into question. The X-ray structures reveal that the catalytic chains undergo essentially no alternations; however, several regions of the regulatory chains undergo significant structural changes. Most significant is that the N-terminal region of the regulatory chains exists in different conformations in the allosterically activated and inhibited forms of the enzyme. Here, a new model of allosteric regulation is proposed.

  5. Intentional overdose with insulin glargine and insulin aspart.

    PubMed

    Tofade, Toyin S; Liles, E Allen

    2004-10-01

    Reports of intentional massive overdoses of insulin are infrequent. A review of the literature revealed no reports of overdose attempts with either insulin glargine or insulin aspart. We report the case of a 33-year-old woman without diabetes mellitus who intentionally injected herself with an overdose of both products, which belonged to her husband. She arrived at the emergency department 15 hours after her suicide attempt, which took place the night before. Her husband had checked her blood glucose level throughout the night and had given her high-carbohydrate drinks and foods. The patient had a history of obsessive-compulsive disorder, major depression, and numerous suicide attempts. She recovered from the resulting hypoglycemia after 40 hours of dextrose infusion and was transferred to a mental health facility. The main danger associated with insulin overdose is the resultant hypoglycemia and its effects on the central nervous system; hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, and hypomagnesemia also can develop with excess insulin administration. Dextrose infusion, with liberal oral intake when possible, and monitoring for electrolyte changes, making adjustments as needed, are recommended for the treatment of intentional insulin overdose.

  6. Aspartate Biosynthesis Is Essential for the Growth of Streptococcus thermophilus in Milk, and Aspartate Availability Modulates the Level of Urease Activity▿

    PubMed Central

    Arioli, Stefania; Monnet, Christophe; Guglielmetti, Simone; Parini, Carlo; De Noni, Ivano; Hogenboom, Johannes; Halami, Prakash M.; Mora, Diego

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the carbon dioxide metabolism of Streptococcus thermophilus, evaluating the phenotype of a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase-negative mutant obtained by replacement of a functional ppc gene with a deleted and inactive version, Δppc. The growth of the mutant was compared to that of the parent strain in a chemically defined medium and in milk, supplemented or not with l-aspartic acid, the final product of the metabolic pathway governed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. It was concluded that aspartate present in milk is not sufficient for the growth of S. thermophilus. As a consequence, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity was considered fundamental for the biosynthesis of l-aspartic acid in S. thermophilus metabolism. This enzymatic activity is therefore essential for growth of S. thermophilus in milk even if S. thermophilus was cultured in association with proteinase-positive Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. It was furthermore observed that the supplementation of milk with aspartate significantly affected the level of urease activity. Further experiments, carried out with a pureI-gusA recombinant strain, revealed that expression of the urease operon was sensitive to the aspartate concentration in milk and to the cell availability of glutamate, glutamine, and ammonium ions. PMID:17660309

  7. The initial step in the archaeal aspartate biosynthetic pathway catalyzed by a monofunctional aspartokinase

    PubMed Central

    Faehnle, Christopher R.; Liu, Xuying; Pavlovsky, Alexander; Viola, Ronald E.

    2006-01-01

    The activation of the β-carboxyl group of aspartate catalyzed by aspartokinase is the commitment step to amino-acid biosynthesis in the aspartate pathway. The first structure of a microbial aspartokinase, that from Methanococcus jannaschii, has been determined in the presence of the amino-acid substrate l-­aspartic acid and the nucleotide product MgADP. The enzyme assembles into a dimer of dimers, with the interfaces mediated by both the N- and C-terminal domains. The active-site functional groups responsible for substrate binding and specificity have been identified and roles have been proposed for putative catalytic functional groups. PMID:17012784

  8. Purification of the main somatostatin-degrading proteases from rat and pig brains, their action on other neuropeptides, and their identification as endopeptidases 24.15 and 24.16.

    PubMed

    Dahms, P; Mentlein, R

    1992-08-15

    The main somatostatin-degrading proteases were purified from rat and pig brain homogenates and characterized as thiol- and metal-dependent endoproteases. Two types of proteases with apparent native and subunit molecular masses of 70 kDa and 68 kDa could be differentiated in both species. Beside somatostatin, both hydrolyzed several other neuropeptides with chain lengths between 8 and 30 amino acid residues. Cleavage sites were generally similar or identical, but some clear exceptions were observed for enzymes from both species which could be used to differentiate between the two proteases. The 68-kDa protease cleaved somatostatin at three bonds (Asn5-Phe6, Phe6-Phe7 and Thr10-Phe11) and neurotensin only at the Arg8-Arg9 bond, whereas the 70-kDa protease digested somatostatin at only two bonds (Phe6-Phe7 and Thr10-Phe11) and neurotensin as well as acetylneurotensin-(8-13) additionally (pig protease) or almost exclusively (rat protease) at the Pro10-Tyr11 bond. Relative rates for the digestions of various peptides were, however, more dependent on the species than on the type of protease. Cleavage sites for angiotensin II, bradykinin, dynorphin, gonadoliberin and substance P were, apart from different rates, identical for both proteases. In both species the 68-kDa protease was found to be mainly, but not exclusively, soluble and not membrane-associated, whereas the inverse was detected for the 70-kDa protease. Based on distinct molecular and catalytic properties, the 68-kDa protease is supposed to be congruent with the endopeptidase 24.15 (EC 3.4.24.15), the 70-kDa protease with endopeptidase 24.16 (EC 3.4.24.16, neurotensin-degrading endopeptidase). This investigation demonstrates that both proteases hydrolyze various neuropeptides with similar cleavage sites, but with species-dependent activity. Species-independent distinctions are the exclusive action of endopeptidase 24.16 on acetylneurotensin-(8-13) and liberation of free Phe from somatostatin only by

  9. Aza-peptidyl Michael acceptor and epoxide inhibitors--potent and selective inhibitors of Schistosoma mansoni and Ixodes ricinus legumains (asparaginyl endopeptidases).

    PubMed

    Ovat, Asli; Muindi, Fanuel; Fagan, Crystal; Brouner, Michelle; Hansell, Elizabeth; Dvorák, Jan; Sojka, Daniel; Kopácek, Petr; McKerrow, James H; Caffrey, Conor R; Powers, James C

    2009-11-26

    Aza-peptide Michael acceptors and epoxides with the general structure of YCO-Ala-Ala-AAsn-trans-CH horizontal lineCHCOR and YCO-Ala-Ala-AAsn-EP-COR, respectively, are shown to be potent inhibitors of asparaginyl endopeptidases (legumains) from the bloodfluke, Schistosoma mansoni (SmAE), and the hard tick, Ixodes ricinus (IrAE). Structure-activity relationships (SARs) were determined for a set of 41 aza-peptide Michael acceptors and eight aza-peptide epoxides. Both enzymes prefer disubstituted amides to monosubstituted amides in the P1' position, and potency increased as we increased the hydrophobicity of the inhibitor in this position. Extending the inhibitor to P5 resulted in increased potency, especially against IrAE, and both enzymes prefer small over large hydrophobic residues at P2. Aza-peptide Michael acceptor inhibitors are more potent than aza-peptide epoxide inhibitors, and for some of these compounds, second-order inhibiton rate constants are the fastest yet discovered. Given the central functions of these enzymes in both parasites, the data presented here may facilitate the eventual design of selective antiparasitic drugs.

  10. Neutral endopeptidase-resistant C-type natriuretic peptide variant represents a new therapeutic approach for treatment of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3-related dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Daniel J; Dvorak-Ewell, Melita; Bullens, Sherry; Lorget, Florence; Bell, Sean M; Peng, Jeff; Castillo, Sianna; Aoyagi-Scharber, Mika; O'Neill, Charles A; Krejci, Pavel; Wilcox, William R; Rimoin, David L; Bunting, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    Achondroplasia (ACH), the most common form of human dwarfism, is caused by an activating autosomal dominant mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 gene. Genetic overexpression of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), a positive regulator of endochondral bone growth, prevents dwarfism in mouse models of ACH. However, administration of exogenous CNP is compromised by its rapid clearance in vivo through receptor-mediated and proteolytic pathways. Using in vitro approaches, we developed modified variants of human CNP, resistant to proteolytic degradation by neutral endopeptidase, that retain the ability to stimulate signaling downstream of the CNP receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor B. The variants tested in vivo demonstrated significantly longer serum half-lives than native CNP. Subcutaneous administration of one of these CNP variants (BMN 111) resulted in correction of the dwarfism phenotype in a mouse model of ACH and overgrowth of the axial and appendicular skeletons in wild-type mice without observable changes in trabecular and cortical bone architecture. Moreover, significant growth plate widening that translated into accelerated bone growth, at hemodynamically tolerable doses, was observed in juvenile cynomolgus monkeys that had received daily subcutaneous administrations of BMN 111. BMN 111 was well tolerated and represents a promising new approach for treatment of patients with ACH.

  11. Multifunctional amaranth cystatin inhibits endogenous and digestive insect cysteine endopeptidases: A potential tool to prevent proteolysis and for the control of insect pests.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Rodríguez, Silvia; Galván-Ramírez, Juan Pablo; Guerrero-Rangel, Armando; Cedro-Tanda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, the amaranth cystatin was characterized. This cystatin is believed to provide protection from abiotic stress because its transcription is induced in response to heat, drought, and salinity. It has also been shown that recombinant amaranth cystatin inhibits bromelain, ficin, and cysteine endopeptidases from fungal sources and also inhibits the growth of phytopathogenic fungi. In the present study, evidence is presented regarding the potential function of amaranth cystatin as a regulator of endogenous proteinases and insect digestive proteinases. During amaranth germination and seedling growth, different proteolytic profiles were observed at different pH levels in gelatin-containing SDS-PAGE. Most of the proteolytic enzymes detected at pH 4.5 were mainly inhibited by trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucyl amido(4-guanidino)butane (E-64) and the purified recombinant amaranth cystatin. Furthermore, the recombinant amaranth cystatin was active against insect proteinases. In particular, the E-64-sensitive proteolytic digestive enzymes from Callosobruchus maculatus, Zabrotes subfasciatus, and Acanthoscelides obtectus were inhibited by the amaranth cystatin. Taken together, these results suggest multiple roles for cystatin in amaranth, specifically during germination and seedling growth and in the protection of A. hypochondriacus against insect predation. Amaranth cystatin represents a promising tool for diverse applications in the control of insect pest and for preventing undesirable proteolytic activity.

  12. Cytoplasmic expression of mature glycylglycine endopeptidase lysostaphin with an amino terminal hexa-histidine in a soluble and catalytically active form in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rahul; Sharma, Poonam R; Choudhary, Manohar L; Pande, Amit; Khatri, Ghan Shyam

    2006-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a major problem in the world, causing hospital acquired infections and the infections/pathogenesis in community. Lysostaphin is a novel therapeutic molecule to kill the multidrug-resistant S. aureus. Mature lysostaphin is a single polypeptide (approximately 27 kDa) chain metalloprotease glycylglycine endopeptidase, capable of specifically hydrolyzing penta-glycine crosslinks present in the peptidoglycan of the S. aureus cell wall. The mature lysostaphin gene of Staphylococcus simulans has been cloned and overexpressed in the cytoplasm of E. coli with amino terminal hexa-histidine as a fusion partner under the transcriptional control of bacteriophage T7 phi 10 promoter/lac operator and ribosome binding site. The transformed E. coli BL21 (lambdaDE3) cells produced catalytically active soluble (His)6-lysostaphin fusion protein in the cytoplasm representing approximately 20% of the total cellular proteins. The fusion protein was purified to homogeneity using a single chromatographic step of IMAC on Ni-NTA agarose. The present cloning, expression, and purification procedure of recombinant lysostaphin from a non-pathogenic organism E. coli enables preparation of large quantity of r-lysostaphin for structure function studies and evaluation of its clinical potential in therapy and prophylaxis of staphylococcal infections.

  13. The assignment of a Thinopyrum distichum (Thunb.) Löve-derived translocation to the long arm of wheat chromosome 7D using endopeptidase polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Marais, G F; Marais, A S

    1990-02-01

    Endopeptidase zymograms of the translocation line 'Indis' revealed the presence of several major and minor bands that had differential expression in coleoptile and seed tissues. While 'Indis' lacks Ep-D1a, which is present in the parental cultivar 'Inia 66', it also may not express any of the Th. distichum bands. The 'Indis' zymogram was found to be identical to that of an isogenic line of 'Inia 66' possessing Lr19. Since the absence of an Ep-D1a product appears to be linked to the 7DL translocation, it is possible to use the null condition as a marker for both the Lr19 or 'Indis' translocations. The 'Indis' translocation also did not show recombination with the cn-D1 chlorophyl mutant on 7DL, confirming that a part of 7D was involved. The results of a telocentric mapping experiment involving the 7D telosomes indicated that in 'Indis' a chromosome segment from Th. distichum replaced a large section of 7DL of 'Inia 66'.

  14. Functional up-regulation of endopeptidase neurolysin during post-acute and early recovery phases of experimental stroke in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mamoon; Wangler, Naomi J; Yang, Li; Shah, Kaushik; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Abbruscato, Thomas J; Karamyan, Vardan T

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we provide evidence for the first time that membrane-bound endopeptidase neurolysin is up-regulated in different parts of mouse brain affected by focal ischemia-reperfusion in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke. Radioligand binding, enzymatic and immunoblotting experiments in membrane preparations of frontoparietal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus isolated from the ischemic hemisphere of mouse brain 24 h after reperfusion revealed statistically significant increase (≥ twofold) in quantity and activity of neurolysin compared with sham-operated controls. Cerebellar membranes isolated from the ischemic hemisphere served as negative control supporting the observations that up-regulation of neurolysin occurs in post-ischemic brain regions. This study also documents sustained functional up-regulation of neurolysin in frontoparietal cortical membranes for at least 7 days after stroke, which appears not to be transcriptionally or translationally regulated, but rather depends on translocation of cytosolic neurolysin to the membranes and mitochondria. Considering diversity of endogenous neurolysin substrates (neurotensin, bradykinin, angiotensins I/II, substance P, hemopressin, dynorphin A(1-8), metorphamide, somatostatin) and the well-documented role of these peptidergic systems in pathogenesis of stroke, resistance to ischemic injury and/or post-stroke brain recovery, our findings suggest that neurolysin may play a role in processes modulating the brain's response to stroke and its recovery after stroke.

  15. Substrate specificity of an elongation-specific peptidoglycan endopeptidase and its implications for cell wall architecture and growth of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Dörr, Tobias; Cava, Felipe; Lam, Hubert; Davis, Brigid M.; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial cell wall consists of peptidoglycan (PG), a sturdy mesh of glycan strands cross-linked by short peptides. This rigid structure constrains cell shape and size, yet is sufficiently dynamic to accommodate insertion of newly synthesized PG, which was long hypothesized, and recently demonstrated, to require cleavage of the covalent peptide crosslinks that couple previously inserted material. Here, we identify several genes in Vibrio cholerae that collectively are required for growth – particularly elongation - of this pathogen. V. cholerae encodes three putative periplasmic proteins, here denoted ShyA, ShyB, and ShyC, that contain both PG-binding and M23 family peptidase domains. While none is essential individually, the absence of both ShyA and ShyC results in synthetic lethality, while the absence of ShyA and ShyB causes a significant growth deficiency. ShyA is a D,D-endopeptidase able to cleave most peptide chain crosslinks in V. cholerae’s PG. PG from a shyA mutant has decreased average chain length, suggesting that ShyA may promote removal of short PG strands. Unexpectedly, ShyA has little activity against muropeptides containing pentapeptides, which typically characterize newly synthesized material. ShyA’s substrate-dependent activity may contribute to selection of cleavage sites in PG, whose implications for the process of side-wall growth are discussed. PMID:23834664

  16. Role of aspartate-96 in proton translocation by bacteriorhodopsin

    SciTech Connect

    Gerwert, K.; Hess, B.; Soppa, J.; Oesterhelt, D.

    1989-07-01

    Proton transfer reactions in bacteriorhodopsin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, using a mutant protein in which Asp-96 was replaced by Asn-96. By comparison of the BR - K, BR - L, and BR - M difference spectra (BR indicating bacteriorhodopsin ground state and K, L, and M indicating photo-intermediates) of the wild-type protein with the corresponding difference spectra of the mutant protein, detailed insight into the functional role of this residue in the proton pump mechanism is obtained. Asp-96 is protonated in BR, as well as another aspartic residue, which is tentatively assigned to be Asp-115. Asp-96 is not affected in the primary photoreaction. During formation of the L intermediate it is subjected to a change in the H-bonding character of its carboxylic group, but no deprotonation occurs at this reaction step. Also, in the mutant protein a light-induced structural change of the protein interior near the Asn-96 residue is probed. The BR - M difference spectrum of the mutant protein lacks the negative carbonyl band at 1742 cm-1 of Asp-96 and in addition a positive band at about 1378 cm-1, which is most likely to be caused by the carboxylate vibration of Asp-96. This argues for a deprotonation of Asp-96 in the time range of the M intermediate during its photostationary accumulation. On the basis of these results, it is suggested that the point mutation does not induce a gross change of the protein structure, but a proton-binding site in the proton pathway from the cytoplasmic side to the Schiff base is lost.

  17. Opiate physical dependence and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.

    PubMed

    Noda, Yukihiro; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2004-10-01

    The present review focused the involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in morphine physical dependence. The increased levels of extracellular glutamate, NMDA receptor zeta subunit (NR1) mRNA, NMDA receptor epsilon 1 subunit (NR2A) protein, phosphorylated Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase II (p-CaMKII) protein, c-fos mRNA, c-Fos protein, are observed in the specific brain areas of mice and/or rats showing signs of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. In preclinical and clinical studies, a variety of NMDA receptor antagonists and pretreatment with an antisense oligonucleotide of the NR1 have been reported to inhibit the development, expression and/or maintenance of opiate physical dependence. In contrast to data obtained in adult animals, NMDA receptor antagonists are neither effective in blocking the development of opiate dependence nor the expression of opiate withdrawal in neonatal rats. In the NMDA receptor-deficient mice, the NR2A knockout mice show the marked loss of typical withdrawal abstinence behaviors precipitated by naloxone. The rescue of NR2A protein by electroporation into the nucleus accumbens of NR2A knockout mice reverses the loss of abstinence behaviors. The activation of CaMKII and increased expression of c-Fos protein in the brain of animals with naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome are prevented by NMDA receptor antagonists, whereas the increased levels of extracellular glutamate are not prevented by them. These findings indicate that glutamatergic neurotransmission at the NMDA receptor site contributes to the development, expression and maintenance of opiate dependence, and suggest that NMDA receptor antagonists may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of opiate dependence.

  18. Pharmacology of Triheteromeric N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Cheriyan, John; Balsara, Rashna D.; Hansen, Kasper B.; Castellino, Francis J.

    2016-01-01

    The N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors (NMDARs) are heteromeric cation channels involved in learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity, and their dysregulation leads to various neurodegenerative disorders. Recent evidence has shown that apart from the GluN1/GluN2A and GluN1/GluN2B diheteromeric ion channels, the NMDAR also exists as a GluN1/GluN2A/GluN2B triheteromeric channel that occupies the majority of the synaptic space. These GluN1/GluN2A/GluN2B triheteromers exhibit pharmacological and electrophysiological properties that are distinct from the GluN1/GluN2A and GluN1/GluN2B diheteromeric subtypes. However, these receptors have not been characterized with regards to their inhibition by conantokins, as well as their allosteric modulation by polyamines and extracellular protons. Here, we show that the GluN1/GluN2A/GluN2B triheteromeric channels showed less sensitivity to GluN2B-specific conantokin (con)-G and con-RlB, and subunit non-specific con-T, compared to the GluN2A-specific inhibitor TCN-201. Also, spermine modulation of GluN1/GluN2A/GluN2B triheteromers switched its nature from potentiation to inhibition in a pH dependent manner, and was 2.5-fold slower compared to the GluN1/GluN2B diheteromeric channels. Unraveling the distinctive functional attributes of the GluN1/GluN2A/GluN2B triheteromers is physiologically relevant since they form an integral part of the synapse, which will aid in understanding spermine/pH-dependent potentiation of these receptors in pathological settings. PMID:26917100

  19. Aspartate oxidase plays an important role in Arabidopsis stomatal immunity.

    PubMed

    Macho, Alberto P; Boutrot, Freddy; Rathjen, John P; Zipfel, Cyril

    2012-08-01

    Perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as bacterial flagellin (or the peptide flg22), by surface-localized receptors activates defense responses and subsequent immunity. In a previous forward-genetic screen aimed at the identification of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) flagellin-insensitive (fin) mutants, we isolated fin4, which is severely affected in flg22-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) bursts. Here, we report that FIN4 encodes the chloroplastic enzyme ASPARTATE OXIDASE (AO), which catalyzes the first irreversible step in the de novo biosynthesis of NAD. Genetic studies on the role of NAD have been hindered so far by the lethality of null mutants in NAD biosynthetic enzymes. Using newly identified knockdown fin alleles, we found that AO is required for the ROS burst mediated by the NADPH oxidase RBOHD triggered by the perception of several unrelated PAMPs. AO is also required for RBOHD-dependent stomatal closure. However, full AO activity is not required for flg22-induced responses that are RBOHD independent. Interestingly, although the fin4 mutation dramatically affects RBOHD function, it does not affect functions carried out by other members of the RBOH family, such as RBOHC and RBOHF. Finally, we determined that AO is required for stomatal immunity against the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. Altogether, our work reveals a novel specific requirement for AO activity in PAMP-triggered RBOHD-dependent ROS burst and stomatal immunity. In addition, the availability of viable mutants for the chloroplastic enzyme AO will enable future detailed studies on the role of NAD metabolism in different cellular processes, including immunity, in Arabidopsis.

  20. Aspartate Aminotransferase in Effective and Ineffective Alfalfa Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Gantt, J. Stephen; Larson, Ruby J.; Farnham, Mark W.; Pathirana, Sudam M.; Miller, Susan S.; Vance, Carroll P.

    1992-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) is a key plant enzyme affecting nitrogen and carbon metabolism, particularly in legume root nodules and leaves of C4 species. To ascertain the molecular genetic characteristics and biochemical regulation of AAT, we have isolated a cDNA encoding the nodule-enhanced AAT (AAT-2) of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) by screening a root nodule cDNA expression library with antibodies. Complementation of an Escherichia coli AAT mutant with the alfalfa nodule AAT-2 cDNA verified the identity of the clone. The deduced amino acid sequence of alfalfa AAT-2 is 53 and 47% identical to animal mitochondrial and cytosolic AATs, respectively. The deduced molecular mass of AAT-2 is 50,959 daltons, whereas the mass of purified AAT-2 is about 40 kilodaltons as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the protein's N-terminal domain (amino acids 1-59) contains many of the characteristics of plastid-targeting peptides. We postulate that AAT-2 is localized to the plastid. Southern blot analysis suggests that AAT-2 is encoded by a small, multigene family. The expression of AAT-2 mRNA in nodules is severalfold greater than that in either leaves or roots. Northern and western blots showed that expression of AAT activity during effective nodule development is accompanied by a sevenfold increase in AAT-2 mRNA and a comparable increase in enzyme protein. By contrast, plant-controlled ineffective nodules express AAT-2 mRNA at much lower levels and have little to no AAT-2 enzyme protein. Expression of root nodule AAT-2 appears to be regulated by at least two events: the first is independent of nitrogenase activity; the second is associated with nodule effectiveness. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:16668758

  1. Chiral Asymmetric Structures in Aspartic Acid and Valine Crystals Assessed by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Omar; Soares, David Mendez

    2016-03-29

    Structures of crystallized deposits formed by the molecular self-assembly of aspartic acid and valine on silicon substrates were imaged by atomic force microscopy. Images of d- and l-aspartic acid crystal surfaces showing extended molecularly flat sheets or regions separated by single molecule thick steps are presented. Distinct orientation surfaces were imaged, which, combined with the single molecule step size, defines the geometry of the crystal. However, single molecule step growth also reveals the crystal chirality, i.e., growth orientations. The imaged ordered lattice of aspartic acid (asp) and valine (val) mostly revealed periodicities corresponding to bulk terminations, but a previously unreported molecular hexagonal lattice configuration was observed for both l-asp and l-val but not for d-asp or d-val. Atomic force microscopy can then be used to identify the different chiral forms of aspartic acid and valine crystals.

  2. Aspartic Acid Racemization and Age-Depth Relationships for Organic Carbon in Siberian Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinton, Karen L. F.; Tsapin, Alexandre I.; Gilichinsky, David; McDonald, Gene D.

    2002-03-01

    We have analyzed the degree of racemization of aspartic acid in permafrost samples from Northern Siberia, an area from which microorganisms of apparent ages up to a few million years have previously been isolated and cultured. We find that the extent of aspartic acid racemization in permafrost cores increases very slowly up to an age of ~25,000 years (around 5 m in depth). The apparent temperature of racemization over the age range of 0-25,000 years, determined using measured aspartic acid racemization rate constants, is -19°C. This apparent racemization temperature is significantly lower than the measured environmental temperature (-11 to -13°C) and suggests active recycling of D-aspartic acid in Siberian permafrost up to an age of around 25,000 years. This indicates that permafrost organisms are capable of repairing some molecular damage incurred while in a "dormant" state over geologic time.

  3. Atomic resolution crystal structure of Sapp2p, a secreted aspartic protease from Candida parapsilosis.

    PubMed

    Dostál, Jiří; Pecina, Adam; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga; Marečková, Lucie; Pichová, Iva; Řezáčová, Pavlina; Lepšík, Martin; Brynda, Jiří

    2015-12-01

    The virulence of the Candida pathogens is enhanced by the production of secreted aspartic proteases, which therefore represent possible targets for drug design. Here, the crystal structure of the secreted aspartic protease Sapp2p from Candida parapsilosis was determined. Sapp2p was isolated from its natural source and crystallized in complex with pepstatin A, a classical aspartic protease inhibitor. The atomic resolution of 0.83 Å allowed the protonation states of the active-site residues to be inferred. A detailed comparison of the structure of Sapp2p with the structure of Sapp1p, the most abundant C. parapsilosis secreted aspartic protease, was performed. The analysis, which included advanced quantum-chemical interaction-energy calculations, uncovered molecular details that allowed the experimentally observed equipotent inhibition of both isoenzymes by pepstatin A to be rationalized.

  4. New evidence for the antiquity of man in North America deduced from aspartic acid racemization.

    PubMed

    Bada, J L; Schroeder, R A; Carter, G F

    1974-05-17

    Ages of several Californzia Paleo-Indlian skeletons have been deduced from the extent of aspartic acid racemization. These dates suggest that man was present in North America at least 50,000 years before the present.

  5. Supporting aspartate biosynthesis is an essential function of respiration in proliferating cells

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Lucas B.; Gui, Dan Y.; Hosios, Aaron M.; Bush, Lauren N.; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Vander Heiden, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mitochondrial respiration is important for cell proliferation, however the specific metabolic requirements fulfilled by respiration to support proliferation have not been defined. Here we show that a major role of respiration in proliferating cells is to provide electron acceptors for aspartate synthesis. This finding is consistent with the observation that cells lacking a functional respiratory chain are auxotrophic for pyruvate, which serves as an exogenous electron acceptor. Further, the pyruvate requirement can be fulfilled with an alternative electron acceptor, alpha-ketobutyrate, which provides cells neither carbon nor ATP. Alpha-ketobutyrate restores proliferation when respiration is inhibited, suggesting that an alternative electron acceptor can substitute for respiration to support proliferation. We find that electron acceptors are limiting for producing aspartate, and supplying aspartate enables proliferation of respiration deficient cells in the absence of exogenous electron acceptors. Together, these data argue a major function of respiration in proliferating cells is to support aspartate synthesis. PMID:26232225

  6. Supporting Aspartate Biosynthesis Is an Essential Function of Respiration in Proliferating Cells.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Lucas B; Gui, Dan Y; Hosios, Aaron M; Bush, Lauren N; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Vander Heiden, Matthew G

    2015-07-30

    Mitochondrial respiration is important for cell proliferation; however, the specific metabolic requirements fulfilled by respiration to support proliferation have not been defined. Here, we show that a major role of respiration in proliferating cells is to provide electron acceptors for aspartate synthesis. This finding is consistent with the observation that cells lacking a functional respiratory chain are auxotrophic for pyruvate, which serves as an exogenous electron acceptor. Further, the pyruvate requirement can be fulfilled with an alternative electron acceptor, alpha-ketobutyrate, which provides cells neither carbon nor ATP. Alpha-ketobutyrate restores proliferation when respiration is inhibited, suggesting that an alternative electron acceptor can substitute for respiration to support proliferation. We find that electron acceptors are limiting for producing aspartate, and supplying aspartate enables proliferation of respiration deficient cells in the absence of exogenous electron acceptors. Together, these data argue a major function of respiration in proliferating cells is to support aspartate synthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Activation May Contribute to Glufosinate Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Activation May Contribute to Glufosinate Neurotoxicity Glufosinate (GLF) at high levels in mammals causes convulsions through a mechanism that is not completely understood. The structural similarity of GLF to glutamate (GLU) implicates the glutamate...

  8. Purification and characterization of aspartic protease derived from Sf9 insect cells.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Takeshi; Ono, Hiroki; Kikuchi, Ken-Ichi; Nirasawa, Satoru; Takahashi, Saori

    2010-01-01

    An aspartic protease that is significantly produced by baculovirus-infected Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells was purified to homogeneity from a growth medium. To monitor aspartic protease activity, an internally quenched fluoresce (IQF) substrate specific to cathepsin D was used. The purified aspartic protease showed a single protein band on SDS-PAGE with an apparent molecular mass of 40 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme had a high homology to a Bombyx mori aspartic protease. The enzyme showed greatest affinity for the IQF substrate at pH 3.0 with a K(m) of 0.85 µM. The k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m) values were 13 s(-1) and 15 s(-1) µM(-1) respectively. Pepstatin A proved to be a potent competitive inhibitor with inhibitor constant, K(i), of 25 pM.

  9. Aspartic acid racemization and age-depth relationships for organic carbon in Siberian permafrost.

    PubMed

    Brinton, Karen L F; Tsapin, Alexandre I; Gilichinsky, David; McDonald, Gene D

    2002-01-01

    We have analyzed the degree of racemization of aspartic acid in permafrost samples from Northern Siberia, an area from which microorganisms of apparent ages up to a few million years have previously been isolated and cultured. We find that the extent of aspartic acid racemization in permafrost cores increases very slowly up to an age of approximately 25,000 years (around 5 m in depth). The apparent temperature of racemization over the age range of 0-25,000 years, determined using measured aspartic acid racemization rate constants, is -19 degrees C. This apparent racemization temperature is significantly lower than the measured environmental temperature (-11 to -13 degrees C) and suggests active recycling of D-aspartic acid in Siberian permafrost up to an age of around 25,000 years. This indicates that permafrost organisms are capable of repairing some molecular damage incurred while in a "dormant" state over geologic time.

  10. N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Activation May Contribute to Glufosinate Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Activation May Contribute to Glufosinate Neurotoxicity Glufosinate (GLF) at high levels in mammals causes convulsions through a mechanism that is not completely understood. The structural similarity of GLF to glutamate (GLU) implicates the glutamate...

  11. Analysis of a Delivery Device Conversion for Insulin Aspart: Potential Clinical Impact in Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Greck, Beth D.; Killian, Jancy H.

    2016-01-01

    In Brief Insulin therapies using a wide variety of delivery devices are available to accommodate individual patients’ needs. In this study of veterans with diabetes, converting from insulin aspart delivered with vials and syringes to insulin aspart delivered via a pen device resulted in no significant change in A1C. Although insulin pen delivery devices offer benefits, providers should thoroughly consider all potential reasons for uncontrolled diabetes before modifying a patient’s insulin delivery method. PMID:27092019

  12. The standard enthalpies of formation of crystalline N-(carboxymethyl)aspartic acid and its aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytkin, A. I.; Chernyavskaya, N. V.; Volkov, A. V.; Nikol'Skii, V. M.

    2007-07-01

    The energy of combustion of N-(carboxymethyl)aspartic acid (CMAA) was determined by bomb calorimetry in oxygen. The standard enthalpies of combustion and formation of crystalline N-(carboxymethyl)aspartic acid were calculated. The heat effects of solution of crystalline CMAA in water and a solution of sodium hydroxide were measured at 298.15 K by direct calorimetry. The standard enthalpies of formation of CMAA and its dissociation products in aqueous solution were determined.

  13. Infrared and Raman spectra of DL-aspartic acid nitrate monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajkumar, B. J. M.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Rajaram, R. K.

    1998-09-01

    Infrared and Raman spectral studies of DL-aspartic acid nitrate monohydrate help to determine the influence of extensive intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the aspartic acid crystal. The presence of the carbonyl rather than the carboxylic group indicates that the molecule is ionic. The shifting of several group frequencies in the molecule confirms extensive hydrogen bonding. The anion fundamentals however continue to be degenerate. This indicates that its symmetry is unaffected in the molecule.

  14. Motor Axon Synapses on Renshaw Cells Contain Higher Levels of Aspartate than Glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Dannette S.; Griffith, Ronald W.; Romer, Shannon H.; Alvarez, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    Motoneuron synapses on spinal cord interneurons known as Renshaw cells activate nicotinic, AMPA and NMDA receptors consistent with co-release of acetylcholine and excitatory amino acids (EAA). However, whether these synapses express vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) capable of accumulating glutamate into synaptic vesicles is controversial. An alternative possibility is that these synapses release other EAAs, like aspartate, not dependent on VGLUTs. To clarify the exact EAA concentrated at motor axon synapses we performed a quantitative postembedding colloidal gold immunoelectron analysis for aspartate and glutamate on motor axon synapses (identified by immunoreactivity to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter; VAChT) contacting calbindin-immunoreactive (-IR) Renshaw cell dendrites. The results show that 71% to 80% of motor axon synaptic boutons on Renshaw cells contained aspartate immunolabeling two standard deviations above average neuropil labeling. Moreover, VAChT-IR synapses on Renshaw cells contained, on average, aspartate immunolabeling at 2.5 to 2.8 times above the average neuropil level. In contrast, glutamate enrichment was lower; 21% to 44% of VAChT-IR synapses showed glutamate-IR two standard deviations above average neuropil labeling and average glutamate immunogold density was 1.7 to 2.0 times the neuropil level. The results were not influenced by antibody affinities because glutamate antibodies detected glutamate-enriched brain homogenates more efficiently than aspartate antibodies detecting aspartate-enriched brain homogenates. Furthermore, synaptic boutons with ultrastructural features of Type I excitatory synapses were always labeled by glutamate antibodies at higher density than motor axon synapses. We conclude that motor axon synapses co-express aspartate and glutamate, but aspartate is concentrated at higher levels than glutamate. PMID:24816812

  15. Aspartic Peptidases of Human Pathogenic Trypanosomatids: Perspectives and Trends for Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Santos, L.O.; Garcia-Gomes, A.S.; Catanho, M.; Sodré, C.L.; Santos, A.L.S.; Branquinha, M.H.; d’Avila-Levy, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aspartic peptidases are proteolytic enzymes present in many organisms like vertebrates, plants, fungi, protozoa and in some retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These enzymes are involved in important metabolic processes in microorganisms/virus and play major roles in infectious diseases. Although few studies have been performed in order to identify and characterize aspartic peptidase in trypanosomatids, which include the etiologic agents of leishmaniasis, Chagas’ disease and sleeping sickness, some beneficial properties of aspartic peptidase inhibitors have been described on fundamental biological events of these pathogenic agents. In this context, aspartic peptidase inhibitors (PIs) used in the current chemotherapy against HIV (e.g., amprenavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir) were able to inhibit the aspartic peptidase activity produced by different species of Leishmania. Moreover, the treatment of Leishmania promastigotes with HIV PIs induced several perturbations on the parasite homeostasis, including loss of the motility and arrest of proliferation/growth. The HIV PIs also induced an increase in the level of reactive oxygen species and the appearance of irreversible morphological alterations, triggering parasite death pathways such as programed cell death (apoptosis) and uncontrolled autophagy. The blockage of physiological parasite events as well as the induction of death pathways culminated in its incapacity to adhere, survive and escape of phagocytic cells. Collectively, these results support the data showing that parasites treated with HIV PIs have a significant reduction in the ability to cause in vivo infection. Similarly, the treatment of Trypanosoma cruzi cells with pepstatin A showed a significant inhibition on both aspartic peptidase activity and growth as well as promoted several and irreversible morphological changes. These studies indicate that aspartic peptidases can be promising targets in

  16. Motor axon synapses on renshaw cells contain higher levels of aspartate than glutamate.

    PubMed

    Richards, Dannette S; Griffith, Ronald W; Romer, Shannon H; Alvarez, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    Motoneuron synapses on spinal cord interneurons known as Renshaw cells activate nicotinic, AMPA and NMDA receptors consistent with co-release of acetylcholine and excitatory amino acids (EAA). However, whether these synapses express vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) capable of accumulating glutamate into synaptic vesicles is controversial. An alternative possibility is that these synapses release other EAAs, like aspartate, not dependent on VGLUTs. To clarify the exact EAA concentrated at motor axon synapses we performed a quantitative postembedding colloidal gold immunoelectron analysis for aspartate and glutamate on motor axon synapses (identified by immunoreactivity to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter; VAChT) contacting calbindin-immunoreactive (-IR) Renshaw cell dendrites. The results show that 71% to 80% of motor axon synaptic boutons on Renshaw cells contained aspartate immunolabeling two standard deviations above average neuropil labeling. Moreover, VAChT-IR synapses on Renshaw cells contained, on average, aspartate immunolabeling at 2.5 to 2.8 times above the average neuropil level. In contrast, glutamate enrichment was lower; 21% to 44% of VAChT-IR synapses showed glutamate-IR two standard deviations above average neuropil labeling and average glutamate immunogold density was 1.7 to 2.0 times the neuropil level. The results were not influenced by antibody affinities because glutamate antibodies detected glutamate-enriched brain homogenates more efficiently than aspartate antibodies detecting aspartate-enriched brain homogenates. Furthermore, synaptic boutons with ultrastructural features of Type I excitatory synapses were always labeled by glutamate antibodies at higher density than motor axon synapses. We conclude that motor axon synapses co-express aspartate and glutamate, but aspartate is concentrated at higher levels than glutamate.

  17. Aspartic peptidases of human pathogenic trypanosomatids: perspectives and trends for chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Santos, L O; Garcia-Gomes, A S; Catanho, M; Sodre, C L; Santos, A L S; Branquinha, M H; d'Avila-Levy, C M

    2013-01-01

    Aspartic peptidases are proteolytic enzymes present in many organisms like vertebrates, plants, fungi, protozoa and in some retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These enzymes are involved in important metabolic processes in microorganisms/virus and play major roles in infectious diseases. Although few studies have been performed in order to identify and characterize aspartic peptidase in trypanosomatids, which include the etiologic agents of leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease and sleeping sickness, some beneficial properties of aspartic peptidase inhibitors have been described on fundamental biological events of these pathogenic agents. In this context, aspartic peptidase inhibitors (PIs) used in the current chemotherapy against HIV (e.g., amprenavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir) were able to inhibit the aspartic peptidase activity produced by different species of Leishmania. Moreover, the treatment of Leishmania promastigotes with HIV PIs induced several perturbations on the parasite homeostasis, including loss of the motility and arrest of proliferation/growth. The HIV PIs also induced an increase in the level of reactive oxygen species and the appearance of irreversible morphological alterations, triggering parasite death pathways such as programed cell death (apoptosis) and uncontrolled autophagy. The blockage of physiological parasite events as well as the induction of death pathways culminated in its incapacity to adhere, survive and escape of phagocytic cells. Collectively, these results support the data showing that parasites treated with HIV PIs have a significant reduction in the ability to cause in vivo infection. Similarly, the treatment of Trypanosoma cruzi cells with pepstatin A showed a significant inhibition on both aspartic peptidase activity and growth as well as promoted several and irreversible morphological changes. These studies indicate that aspartic peptidases can be promising targets in

  18. [Extraction of heavy metals from sewage sludge using aspartic acid and citric acid].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Zhang, Li-Hua; Qiu, Yan-Ling; Zhao, Jian-Fu

    2008-03-01

    Aspartic acid, as a biodegradable natural amino acid, was used to separate and remove the heavy metals from the sewage sludge based on chemical extraction technology. Under various conditions, the extraction processes were carried out for the sewage sludge from Shanghai Taopu Municipal Wastewater Plant. The comparison of extraction between aspartic acid and citric acid was also discussed for the separation of three heavy metals from sewage sludge. The results showed that pH and the dosage of aspartic acid or citric acid had a significant effect on the extraction efficiency. Zn, Ni and Cu can be apart extracted for more than 85% by aspartic acid at low pH. With the increment of pH value, the extraction ration decreased gradually for both two systems. Within the whole pH range, aspartic acid showed higher extraction efficiency for Ni, Cu than citric acid and the extraction efficiencies of aspartic acid for Ni, Cu were found to respectively be more than 50%, 40%. For the situation of Zn, citric acid had a higher extraction efficiency at pH > or = 3.0.

  19. Ontogeny of malate-aspartate shuttle capacity and gene expression in cardiac mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Scholz, T D; Koppenhafer, S L; tenEyck, C J; Schutte, B C

    1998-03-01

    Developmental downregulation of the malate-aspartate shuttle has been observed in cardiac mitochondria. The goals of this study were to determine the time course of the postnatal decline and to identify potential regulatory sites by measuring steady-state myocardial mRNA and protein levels of the mitochondrial proteins involved in the shuttle. By use of isolated porcine cardiac mitochondria incubated with saturating concentrations of the cytosolic components of the malate-aspartate shuttle, shuttle capacity was found to decline by approximately 50% during the first 5 wk of life (from 921 +/- 48 to 531 +/- 53 nmol.min-1.mg protein-1). Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase mRNA levels were greater in adult than in newborn myocardium. mRNA levels of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase in adult cardiac tissue were 224% of levels in newborn tissue, whereas protein levels were 54% greater in adult myocardium. Aspartate/glutamate carrier protein levels were also greater in adult than in newborn tissue. mRNA and protein levels of the oxoglutarate/malate carrier were increased in newborn myocardium. It was concluded that 1) myocardial malate-aspartate shuttle capacity declines rapidly after birth, 2) divergence of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase mRNA and protein levels during development suggests posttranscriptional regulation of this protein, and 3) the developmental decline in malate-aspartate shuttle capacity is regulated by decreased oxoglutarate/malate carrier gene expression.

  20. Hydrolysis of aspartic acid phosphoramidate nucleotides: a comparative quantum chemical study.

    PubMed

    Michielssens, Servaas; Tien Trung, Nguyen; Froeyen, Matheus; Herdewijn, Piet; Tho Nguyen, Minh; Ceulemans, Arnout

    2009-09-07

    L-Aspartic acid has recently been found to be a good leaving group during HIV reverse transcriptase catalyzed incorporation of deoxyadenosine monophosphate (dAMP) in DNA. This showed that L-Asp is a good mimic for the pyrophosphate moiety of deoxyadenosine triphosphate. The present work explores the thermochemistry and mechanism for hydrolysis of several models for L-aspartic-dAMP using B3LYP/DGDZVP, MP2/6-311++G** and G3MP2 level of theory. The effect of the new compound is gradually investigated: starting from a simple methyl amine leaving group up to the aspartic acid leaving group. The enzymatic environment was mimicked by involving two Mg(2+) ions and some important active site residues in the reaction. All reactions are compared to the corresponding O-coupled leaving group, which is methanol for methyl amine and malic acid for aspartic acid. With methyl amine as a leaving group a tautomeric associative or tautomeric dissociative mechanism is preferred and the barrier is lower than the comparable mechanism with methanol as a leaving group. The calculations on the aspartic acid in the enzymatic environment show that qualitatively the mechanism is the same as for triphosphate but the barrier for hydrolysis by the associative mechanism is higher for L-aspartic-dAMP than for L-malic-dAMP and pyrophosphate.

  1. Lowered circulating aspartate is a metabolic feature of human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Guoxiang; Zhou, Bingsen; Zhao, Aihua; Qiu, Yunping; Zhao, Xueqing; Garmire, Lana; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Yu, Herbert; Yen, Yun; Jia, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Distinct metabolic transformation is essential for cancer cells to sustain a high rate of proliferation and resist cell death signals. Such a metabolic transformation results in unique cellular metabolic phenotypes that are often reflected by distinct metabolite signatures in tumor tissues as well as circulating blood. Using a metabolomics platform, we find that breast cancer is associated with significantly (p = 6.27E-13) lowered plasma aspartate levels in a training group comprising 35 breast cancer patients and 35 controls. The result was validated with 103 plasma samples and 183 serum samples of two groups of primary breast cancer patients. Such a lowered aspartate level is specific to breast cancer as it has shown 0% sensitivity in serum from gastric (n = 114) and colorectal (n = 101) cancer patients. There was a significantly higher level of aspartate in breast cancer tissues (n = 20) than in adjacent non-tumor tissues, and in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line than in MCF-10A cell lines, suggesting that the depleted level of aspartate in blood of breast cancer patients is due to increased tumor aspartate utilization. Together, these findings suggest that lowed circulating aspartate is a key metabolic feature of human breast cancer. PMID:26452258

  2. Lowered circulating aspartate is a metabolic feature of human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Xie, Guoxiang; Zhou, Bingsen; Zhao, Aihua; Qiu, Yunping; Zhao, Xueqing; Garmire, Lana; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Yu, Herbert; Yen, Yun; Jia, Wei

    2015-10-20

    Distinct metabolic transformation is essential for cancer cells to sustain a high rate of proliferation and resist cell death signals. Such a metabolic transformation results in unique cellular metabolic phenotypes that are often reflected by distinct metabolite signatures in tumor tissues as well as circulating blood. Using a metabolomics platform, we find that breast cancer is associated with significantly (p = 6.27E-13) lowered plasma aspartate levels in a training group comprising 35 breast cancer patients and 35 controls. The result was validated with 103 plasma samples and 183 serum samples of two groups of primary breast cancer patients. Such a lowered aspartate level is specific to breast cancer as it has shown 0% sensitivity in serum from gastric (n = 114) and colorectal (n = 101) cancer patients. There was a significantly higher level of aspartate in breast cancer tissues (n = 20) than in adjacent non-tumor tissues, and in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line than in MCF-10A cell lines, suggesting that the depleted level of aspartate in blood of breast cancer patients is due to increased tumor aspartate utilization. Together, these findings suggest that lowed circulating aspartate is a key metabolic feature of human breast cancer.

  3. Temperature dependence of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channels and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor excitatory postsynaptic currents.

    PubMed

    Korinek, M; Sedlacek, M; Cais, O; Dittert, I; Vyklicky, L

    2010-02-03

    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDARs) are highly expressed in the CNS and mediate the slow component of excitatory transmission. The present study was aimed at characterizing the temperature dependence of the kinetic properties of native NMDARs, with special emphasis on the deactivation of synaptic NMDARs. We used patch-clamp recordings to study synaptic NMDARs at layer II/III pyramidal neurons of the rat cortex, recombinant GluN1/GluN2B receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells, and NMDARs in cultured hippocampal neurons. We found that time constants characterizing the deactivation of NMDAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were similar to those of the deactivation of responses to a brief application of glutamate recorded under conditions of low NMDAR desensitization (whole-cell recording from cultured hippocampal neurons). In contrast, the deactivation of NMDAR-mediated responses exhibiting a high degree of desensitization (outside-out recording) was substantially faster than that of synaptic NMDA receptors. The time constants characterizing the deactivation of synaptic NMDARs and native NMDARs activated by exogenous glutamate application were only weakly temperature sensitive (Q(10)=1.7-2.2), in contrast to those of recombinant GluN1/GluN2B receptors, which are highly temperature sensitive (Q(10)=2.7-3.7). Ifenprodil reduced the amplitude of NMDAR-mediated EPSCs by approximately 50% but had no effect on the time course of deactivation. Analysis of GluN1/GluN2B responses indicated that the double exponential time course of deactivation reflects mainly agonist dissociation and receptor desensitization. We conclude that the temperature dependences of native and recombinant NMDAR are different; in addition, we contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanism that controls the time course of NMDAR-mediated EPSCs.

  4. L-aspartic acid transport by cat erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.W.; Preston, R.L.

    1986-03-01

    Cat and dog red cells are unusual in that they have no Na/K ATPase and contain low K and high Na intracellularly. They also show significant Na dependent L-aspartate (L-asp) transport. The authors have characterized this system in cat RBCs. The influx of /sup 3/H-L-asp (typically 2..mu..M) was measured in washed RBCs incubated for 60 s at 37/sup 0/C in medium containing 140 mM NaCl, 5 mM Kcl, 2 mM CaCl/sub 2/, 15 mM MOPS pH 7.4, 5 mM glucose, and /sup 14/C-PEG as a space marker. The cells were washed 3 times in the medium immediately before incubation which was terminated by centrifuging the RBCs through a layer of dibutylphthalate. Over an L-asp concentration range of 0.5-1000..mu..M, influx obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a small added linear diffusion component. The Kt and Jmax of the saturable component were 5.40 +/- 0.34 ..mu..M and 148.8 +/- 7.2 ..mu..mol 1. cell/sup -1/h/sup -1/ respectively. Replacement of Na with Li, K, Rb, Cs or choline reduce influx to diffusion. With the addition of asp analogues (4/sup +/M L-asp, 40/sup +/M inhibitor), the following sequence of inhibition was observed (range 80% to 40% inhib.): L-glutamate > L-cysteine sulfonate > D-asp > L-cysteic acid > D-glutamate. Other amino acids such as L-alanine, L-proline, L-lysine, L-cysteine, and taurine showed no inhibition (<5%). These data suggest that cat red cells contain a high-affinity Na dependent transport system for L-asp, glutamate, and closely related analogues which resembles that found in the RBCs of other carnivores and in neural tissues.

  5. UK-414,495, a selective inhibitor of neutral endopeptidase, potentiates pelvic nerve-stimulated increases in female genital blood flow in the anaesthetized rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Wayman, CP; Baxter, D; Turner, L; Van Der Graaf, PH; Naylor, AM

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Female sexual arousal consists of a number of physiological responses resulting from increased genital blood. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), neuropeptide Y and to a lesser extent nitric oxide are neurotransmitters found in the vasculature of the genitalia. Neutral endopeptidase (NEP) modulates the activity of neuropeptides including VIP. The aim of this study was to investigate the control of genital blood flow by VIP and endogenous neuropeptides using a selective NEP inhibitor [UK-414,495, ((R)-2-({1-[(5-ethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl) carbamoyl]cyclopentyl}methyl) valeric acid)]. Experimental approach: Vaginal and clitoral blood flow (VBF and CBF) were monitored using laser Doppler in terminally anaesthetized New Zealand rabbits. Increases in VBF and CBF were induced by either electrical stimulation of the pelvic nerve or by i.v. infusion of VIP. Key results: Stimulation of the pelvic nerve increased VBF and CBF, compared with basal flow. Increases were mimicked by infusion of exogenous VIP. UK-414,495 dose-dependently potentiated pelvic nerve-stimulated increases in VBF (EC50= 37 ± 9 nM; 3.6 × IC50 rabbit NEP). Nerve-stimulated increases in VBF and CBF were both enhanced after UK-414,495. UK-414,495 increased the amplitude and duration of VIP-induced increases in VBF. UK-414,495 had no effect on basal VBF or cardiovascular parameters. Conclusions and implications: Inhibition of NEP potentiates pelvic nerve-stimulated increases in genital blood flow. This suggests that the endogenous neurotransmitter mediating genital blood flow is a substrate for NEP (most likely VIP). NEP inhibitors may restore sexual arousal in women adversely affected by female sexual arousal disorder. This article is commented on by Angulo, pp. 48–50 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00693.x PMID:20412068

  6. Effects of chronic neutral endopeptidase inhibition on the progression of left ventricular dysfunction and remodeling in dogs with moderate heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Takayuki; Tanimura, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, George; Todor, Anastassia; Sharov, Victor G; Tanhehco, Elaine J; Goldstein, Sidney; Sabbah, Hani N

    2002-05-01

    The diuretic actions of endogenously produced atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) may be beneficial in the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF). Neutral endopeptidase (NEP) is the primary enzyme responsible for the degradation of ANF. The present study investigates the effects of long-term NEP inhibition on the progression of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and remodeling in dogs with moderate heart failure. LV dysfunction was produced in 12 dogs by multiple sequential intracoronary microembolizations. Embolizations were discontinued when LV ejection fraction (EF) was between 30-40%. Two weeks after the last embolization, dogs were randomized to 3 months of oral therapy with the NEP inhibitor ecadotril (100 mg, once daily, n = 6) or to no therapy at all (control, n = 6). During the 3 months of follow-up, LV EF in control dogs decreased from 37 +/- 1% to 28 +/- 1% (P < 0.01) and LV end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) increased (EDV: 72 +/- 3 vs. 84 +/- 5 ml, P < 0.01); ESV: 45 +/- 1 vs. 60 +/- 4 ml, P < 0.01). In dogs treated with ecadotril, LV EF (34 +/- 1% vs. 37 +/- 2%), EDV (79+/- 5 vs. 78+/- 6 ml) and ESV (52 +/- 3 vs. 49 +/- 4) remained essentially unchanged after 3 months of therapy. Histomorphometric measurements at the termination of the study showed that ecadotril was associated with significantly reduced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy compared to control. Early, long-term NEP inhibition with ecadotril prevents the progression of LV dysfunction and attenuates progressive LV remodeling in dogs with moderate heart failure.

  7. The Inhibitory Effects of Anti-Oxidants on Ultraviolet-Induced Up-Regulation of the Wrinkling-Inducing Enzyme Neutral Endopeptidase in Human Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Hiroaki; Terazawa, Shuko; Niwano, Takao; Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Imokawa, Genji

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported that the over-expression of skin fibroblast-derived neutral endopeptidase (NEP) plays a pivotal role in impairing the three-dimensional architecture of dermal elastic fibers during the biological mechanism of ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin wrinkling. In that process, a UVB-associated epithelial-mesenchymal cytokine interaction as well as a direct UVA-induced cellular stimulation are associated with the up-regulation of NEP in human fibroblasts. In this study, we characterized the mode of action of ubiquinol10 which may abrogate the up-regulation of NEP by dermal fibroblasts, resulting in a reported in vivo anti-wrinkling action, and compared that with 3 other anti-oxidants, astaxanthin (AX), riboflavin (RF) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN). Post-irradiation treatment with all 4 of those anti-oxidants elicited an interrupting effect on the UVB-associated epithelial-mesenchymal cytokine interaction leading to the up-regulation of NEP in human fibroblasts but with different modes of action. While AX mainly served as an inhibitor of the secretion of wrinkle-inducing cytokines, such as interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulatory factor (GM-CSF) in UVB-exposed epidermal keratinocytes, ubiquinol10, RF and FMN predominantly interrupted the IL-1α and GM-CSF-stimulated expression of NEP in dermal fibroblasts. On the other hand, as for the UVA-associated mechanism, similar to the abrogating effects reported for AX and FMN, ubiquinol10 but not RF had the potential to abrogate the increased expression of NEP and matrix-metalloproteinase-1 in UVA-exposed human fibroblasts. Our findings strongly support the in vivo anti-wrinkling effects of ubiquinol10 and AX on human and animal skin and provide convincing proof of the UV-induced wrinkling mechanism that essentially focuses on the over-expression of NEP by dermal fibroblasts as an intrinsic causative factor. PMID:27648570

  8. A Systematic Approach to the Comparison of Cost Efficiency of Endopeptidases for the Hydrolysis of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) By-Products

    PubMed Central

    Egede-Nissen, Henning; Oterhals, Ĺge

    2016-01-01

    Summary The hydrolytic and cost efficiencies of five endopeptidases (Alcalase 2.4L, Corolase 7089, Neutrase 0.8L, Promod 671L and Protex 7L) to hydrolyze Atlantic salmon by-products were compared at standardized activity levels based on a casein assay. The substrate was characterized prior to the hydrolytic experiments (pH=6.5, t=50 °C) to obtain substrate--specific constants for nitrogen to protein mass (in g) ratio, i.e. conversion factor fN=5.23 and total amount of peptide bonds (htot)=9.3 mmol per g of protein. At low enzyme activity to substrate ratio, all enzymes were equally efficient in hydrolyzing the substrate. At highest enzyme activity to substrate ratio, Protex 7L, Alcalase 2.4L and Promod 671L gave higher degree of hydrolysis (DH=14.2–14.6%) than Corolase 7089 (13.2%) and Neutrase 0.8L (11.6%) after 120 min of hydrolysis. No differences were observed in protein recovery (yield of solubilized protein) relative to DH. Determination of DH was followed by the pH-STAT and o-phthaldialdehyde methods. Based on pH-STAT data, response surface regression models were established based on the combined effects of hydrolysis time and enzyme activity to substrate ratio on DH and protein recovery. The modelling approach was combined with enzyme cost to identify the most cost-efficient enzyme (Protex 7L). PMID:28115899

  9. A Highly Active and Negatively Charged Streptococcus pyogenes Lysin with a Rare d-Alanyl-l-Alanine Endopeptidase Activity Protects Mice against Streptococcal Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Lood, Rolf; Raz, Assaf; Molina, Henrik; Euler, Chad W.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophage endolysins have shown great efficacy in killing Gram-positive bacteria. PlyC, a group C streptococcal phage lysin, represents the most efficient lysin characterized to date, with a remarkably high specificity against different streptococcal species, including the important pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. However, PlyC is a unique lysin, in terms of both its high activity and structure (two distinct subunits). We sought to discover and characterize a phage lysin active against S. pyogenes with an endolysin architecture distinct from that of PlyC to determine if it relies on the same mechanism of action as PlyC. In this study, we identified and characterized an endolysin, termed PlyPy (phage lysin from S. pyogenes), from a prophage infecting S. pyogenes. By in silico analysis, PlyPy was found to have a molecular mass of 27.8 kDa and a pI of 4.16. It was active against a majority of group A streptococci and displayed high levels of activity as well as binding specificity against group B and C streptococci, while it was less efficient against other streptococcal species. PlyPy showed the highest activity at neutral pH in the presence of calcium and NaCl. Surprisingly, its activity was not affected by the presence of the group A-specific carbohydrate, while the activity of PlyC was partly inhibited. Additionally, PlyPy was active in vivo and could rescue mice from systemic bacteremia. Finally, we developed a novel method to determine the peptidoglycan bond cleaved by lysins and concluded that PlyPy exhibits a rare d-alanyl-l-alanine endopeptidase activity. PlyPy thus represents the first lysin characterized from Streptococcus pyogenes and has a mechanism of action distinct from that of PlyC. PMID:24637688

  10. Streptococcus pyogenes Endopeptidase O Contributes to Evasion from Complement-mediated Bacteriolysis via Binding to Human Complement Factor C1q.

    PubMed

    Honda-Ogawa, Mariko; Sumitomo, Tomoko; Mori, Yasushi; Hamd, Dalia Talat; Ogawa, Taiji; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Nakata, Masanobu; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2017-03-10

    Streptococcus pyogenes secretes various virulence factors for evasion from complement-mediated bacteriolysis. However, full understanding of the molecules possessed by this organism that interact with complement C1q, an initiator of the classical complement pathway, remains elusive. In this study, we identified an endopeptidase of S. pyogenes, PepO, as an interacting molecule, and investigated its effects on complement immunity and pathogenesis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and surface plasmon resonance analysis findings revealed that S. pyogenes recombinant PepO bound to human C1q in a concentration-dependent manner under physiological conditions. Sites of inflammation are known to have decreased pH levels, thus the effects of PepO on bacterial evasion from complement immunity was analyzed in a low pH condition. Notably, under low pH conditions, PepO exhibited a higher affinity for C1q as compared with IgG, and PepO inhibited the binding of IgG to C1q. In addition, pepO deletion rendered S. pyogenes more susceptible to the bacteriocidal activity of human serum. Also, observations of the morphological features of the pepO mutant strain (ΔpepO) showed damaged irregular surfaces as compared with the wild-type strain (WT). WT-infected tissues exhibited greater severity and lower complement activity as compared with those infected by ΔpepO in a mouse skin infection model. Furthermore, WT infection resulted in a larger accumulation of C1q than that with ΔpepO. Our results suggest that interaction of S. pyogenes PepO with C1q interferes with the complement pathway, which enables S. pyogenes to evade complement-mediated bacteriolysis under acidic conditions, such as seen in inflammatory sites. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Structures of a bifunctional cell-wall hydrolase CwlT containing a novel bacterial lysozyme and an NlpC/P60 dl-endopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingping; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Farr, Carol L.; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Lesley, Scott A.; Godzik, Adam; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    Tn916-like conjugative transposons carrying antibiotic resistance genes are found in a diverse range of bacteria. Orf14 within the conjugation module encodes a bifunctional cell-wall hydrolase CwlT that consists of an N-terminal bacterial lysozyme domain (N-acetylmuramidase, bLysG) and a C-terminal NlpC/P60 domain (γ-d-glutamyl-l-diamino acid endopeptidase) and is expected to play an important role in the spread of the transposons. We determined the crystal structures of two CwlT from pathogens Staphylococcus aureus mu50 (SaCwlT) and Clostridium difficile 630 (CdCwlT). These structures reveal that NlpC/P60 and LysG domains are compact and conserved modules, connected by a short flexible linker. The LysG domain represents a novel family of widely distributed bacterial lysozymes. The overall structure and the active site of bLysG bear significant similarity to other members of the glycoside hydrolase family 23 (GH23), such as the g-type lysozyme (LysG) and Escherichia coli lytic transglycosylase MltE. The active site of bLysG contains a unique structural and sequence signature (DxxQSSES+S) that is important for coordinating a catalytic water. Molecular modeling suggests that the bLysG domain may recognize glycan in a similar manner to MltE. The C-terminal NlpC/P60 domain contains a conserved active site (Cys-His-His-Tyr) that appears to be specific for tetrapeptide. Access to the active site is likely regulated by isomerism of a side chain atop the catalytic cysteine, allowing substrate entry or product release, or closing during catalysis. PMID:24051416

  12. Structures of a bifunctional cell wall hydrolase CwlT containing a novel bacterial lysozyme and an NlpC/P60 DL-endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingping; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Farr, Carol L; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W; Miller, Mitchell D; Lesley, Scott A; Godzik, Adam; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M; Wilson, Ian A

    2014-01-09

    Tn916-like conjugative transposons carrying antibiotic resistance genes are found in a diverse range of bacteria. Orf14 within the conjugation module encodes a bifunctional cell wall hydrolase CwlT that consists of an N-terminal bacterial lysozyme domain (N-acetylmuramidase, bLysG) and a C-terminal NlpC/P60 domain (γ-d-glutamyl-l-diamino acid endopeptidase) and is expected to play an important role in the spread of the transposons. We determined the crystal structures of CwlT from two pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus Mu50 (SaCwlT) and Clostridium difficile 630 (CdCwlT). These structures reveal that NlpC/P60 and LysG domains are compact and conserved modules, connected by a short flexible linker. The LysG domain represents a novel family of widely distributed bacterial lysozymes. The overall structure and the active site of bLysG bear significant similarity to other members of the glycoside hydrolase family 23 (GH23), such as the g-type lysozyme (LysG) and Escherichia coli lytic transglycosylase MltE. The active site of bLysG contains a unique structural and sequence signature (DxxQSSES+S) that is important for coordinating a catalytic water. Molecular modeling suggests that the bLysG domain may recognize glycan in a similar manner to MltE. The C-terminal NlpC/P60 domain contains a conserved active site (Cys-His-His-Tyr) that appears to be specific to murein tetrapeptide. Access to the active site is likely regulated by isomerism of a side chain atop the catalytic cysteine, allowing substrate entry or product release (open state), or catalysis (closed state).

  13. Abundance of cysteine endopeptidase dionain in digestive fluid of Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis) is regulated by different stimuli from prey through jasmonates.

    PubMed

    Libiaková, Michaela; Floková, Kristýna; Novák, Ondřej; Slováková, L'udmila; Pavlovič, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    The trap of the carnivorous plant Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) catches prey by very rapid closure of its modified leaves. After the rapid closure secures the prey, repeated mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs by struggling prey and the generation of action potentials (APs) result in secretion of digestive fluid. Once the prey's movement stops, the secretion is maintained by chemical stimuli released from digested prey. We investigated the effect of mechanical and chemical stimulation (NH4Cl, KH2PO4, further N(Cl) and P(K) stimulation) on enzyme activities in digestive fluid. Activities of β-D-glucosidases and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidases were not detected. Acid phosphatase activity was higher in N(Cl) stimulated traps while proteolytic activity was higher in both chemically induced traps in comparison to mechanical stimulation. This is in accordance with higher abundance of recently described enzyme cysteine endopeptidase dionain in digestive fluid of chemically induced traps. Mechanical stimulation induced high levels of cis-12-oxophytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA) but jasmonic acid (JA) and its isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile) accumulated to higher level after chemical stimulation. The concentration of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) did not change significantly. The external application of JA bypassed the mechanical and chemical stimulation and induced a high abundance of dionain and proteolytic activity in digestive fluid. These results document the role of jasmonates in regulation of proteolytic activity in response to different stimuli from captured prey. The double trigger mechanism in protein digestion is proposed.

  14. Abundance of Cysteine Endopeptidase Dionain in Digestive Fluid of Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis) Is Regulated by Different Stimuli from Prey through Jasmonates

    PubMed Central

    Libiaková, Michaela; Floková, Kristýna; Novák, Ondřej; Slováková, L'udmila; Pavlovič, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    The trap of the carnivorous plant Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) catches prey by very rapid closure of its modified leaves. After the rapid closure secures the prey, repeated mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs by struggling prey and the generation of action potentials (APs) result in secretion of digestive fluid. Once the prey's movement stops, the secretion is maintained by chemical stimuli released from digested prey. We investigated the effect of mechanical and chemical stimulation (NH4Cl, KH2PO4, further N(Cl) and P(K) stimulation) on enzyme activities in digestive fluid. Activities of β-D-glucosidases and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidases were not detected. Acid phosphatase activity was higher in N(Cl) stimulated traps while proteolytic activity was higher in both chemically induced traps in comparison to mechanical stimulation. This is in accordance with higher abundance of recently described enzyme cysteine endopeptidase dionain in digestive fluid of chemically induced traps. Mechanical stimulation induced high levels of cis-12-oxophytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA) but jasmonic acid (JA) and its isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile) accumulated to higher level after chemical stimulation. The concentration of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) did not change significantly. The external application of JA bypassed the mechanical and chemical stimulation and induced a high abundance of dionain and proteolytic activity in digestive fluid. These results document the role of jasmonates in regulation of proteolytic activity in response to different stimuli from captured prey. The double trigger mechanism in protein digestion is proposed. PMID:25153528

  15. Asparaginyl endopeptidase improves the resistance of microtubule-targeting drugs in gastric cancer through IQGAP1 modulating the EGFR/JNK/ERK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuehong; Li, Qian; Li, Hong; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hongshan; Chen, Weidong; Zhang, Shangmin; Cao, Jian; Liu, Tianshu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose In recent years, understanding of the role of asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP) in tumorigenesis has steadily increased. In this study, we investigated whether AEP expression correlates with sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs in gastric cancer and explored the mechanism. Patients and methods AEP expression in the serum of patients’ peripheral blood was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patient survival time was evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Mass spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation assays were utilized to discover proteins that interact with AEP. Gastric cancer cell lines were established, in which AEP was overexpressed or knocked out using lentiviral CRISPR. The proliferative abilities of these cell lines in response to chemotherapy agents were evaluated using the Cell Counting Kit-8 method. Gene expression changes in these lines were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Results Patients with low expression of AEP were significantly more likely to have a good prognosis and experience complete response or partial response after treatment with docetaxel/S-1 regimen. Mass spectrum analysis showed that several proteins in the focal adhesion and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways interacted with AEP. IQGAP1 was confirmed to be one of the proteins interacting with AEP, and its protein level increased when AEP was knocked out. AEP knockout decreased resistance to microtubule inhibitors, including paclitaxel, docetaxel, and T-DM1. The expression levels of MDR1, p-EGFR, p-JNK, p-ERK, and p-Rac1/cdc42 were decreased in AEP knockout gastric cancer cell lines, and inhibitors of both JNK and ERK could block AEP-induced expression of MDR1. Conclusion AEP was not only a prognostic factor but also a predictive marker. AEP knockout could inhibit the activity of the EGFR/JNK/ERK signaling pathway and improve sensitivity to microtubule inhibitors through interacting with IQGAP1. PMID

  16. Comparative fine structural distribution of endopeptidase 24.15 (EC3.4.24.15) and 24.16 (EC3.4.24.16) in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Fontenele-Neto, J D; Massarelli, E E; Gurgel Garrido, P A; Beaudet, A; Ferro, E S

    2001-10-01

    Endopeptidase 24.15 (EP24.15) and 24.16 (EP24.16) are closely related metalloendopeptidases implicated in the metabolism of several neuropeptides and widely expressed in mammalian brain. To gain insight into the functional role of these two enzymes in the central nervous system, we examined their cellular and subcellular distribution in rat brain by using electron microscopic immunogold labeling. In all areas examined, EP24.15 and EP24.16 immunoreactivity were observed in selective subpopulations of neuronal and glial cells. Subcellular localization of EP24.15 in neurons revealed that this enzyme was predominantly concentrated in the nucleus, whereas EP24.16 was almost exclusively cytoplasmic. The amount of EP24.15 found in the nucleus was inversely correlated with that found in the cytoplasm, suggesting that the enzyme could be mobilized from one compartment to the other. Within the cytoplasm, EP24.15 and EP24.16 immunoreactivity showed comparable distributional patterns. Both enzymes were detected throughout perikarya and dendrites, as well as within axons and axon terminals. In all neuronal compartments, EP24.15 and EP24.16 showed a major association with membranes of neurosecretory elements, including Golgi cisternae, tubulovesicular organelles, synaptic vesicles, and endosomes. However, whereas EP24.15 always faced the cytoplasmic face of the membranes, EP24.16 was observed on both cytoplasmic and luminal sides, suggesting that the latter was more likely to contribute to the processing of peptides or to the degradation of internalized ligands. Taken together, the present results suggest that EP24.15 could play a major role in the hydrolysis of intranuclear substrates, whereas EP24.16 would be predominantly involved in the processing and inactivation of signaling peptides.

  17. Neurotensin high affinity binding sites and endopeptidase 24. 11 are present respectively in the meningothelial and in the fibroblastic components of human meningiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Mailleux, P.; Przedborski, S.; Beaumont, A.; Verslijpe, M.; Depierreux, M.; Levivier, M.; Kitabgi, P.; Roques, B.P.; Vanderhaeghen, J.J. )

    1990-11-01

    The presence of neurotensin receptors and endopeptidase 24.11 (E-24.11) in 16 human meningioma specimens, obtained at surgery, was assessed by measuring the binding of {sup 125}I-(tyrosyl3)neurotensin(1-13) ({sup 125}I-NT) and the inhibitor {sup 3}H-N(2RS)-3-hydroxyaminocarbonyl-2-benzyl-1-(oxopropyl)glycine ({sup 3}H-HACBO-Gly), for the receptor and enzyme, respectively. E-24.11 activity was also measured. Autoradiography, on the 16 meningiomas, showed that specific {sup 125}I-NT labeling (nonspecific labeling was assessed in the presence of excess NT) was exclusively located in the meningothelial regions. In contrast, specific {sup 3}H-HACBO-Gly labeling (nonspecific labeling was assessed in the presence of an excess of the E-24.11 inhibitor thiorphan) was exclusively found in fibroblastic regions. No specific labeling of either ligand was found on collagen or blood vessels. In vitro binding assays were performed on membranes of 10 of the 16 meningiomas. In the 4 meningiomas rich in meningothelial cells, {sup 125}I-NT specifically bound to one population of sites with Bmax ranging from 57 to 405 fmol/mg protein and Kd around 0.3 nM. These sites share common properties with the brain NT receptor, since the carboxy terminal acetyl NT(8-13) fragment bound to the same sites but with a higher affinity. The carboxy terminal analogue of NT, neuromedin N, also bound to the same sites with a 10-fold lower affinity and the sites were bradykinin and levocabastine insensitive. In the 4 meningiomas rich in fibroblastic cells, {sup 3}H-HACBO-Gly specifically bound to one population of sites with Bmax ranging from 251 to 739 fmol/mg protein and Kd around 2.8 nM.

  18. Genetic homogeneity but IgG subclass-dependent clinical variability of alloimmune membranous nephropathy with anti-neutral endopeptidase antibodies.

    PubMed

    Vivarelli, Marina; Emma, Francesco; Pellé, Thimothée; Gerken, Christopher; Pedicelli, Stefania; Diomedi-Camassei, Francesca; Klaus, Günter; Waldegger, Siegfried; Ronco, Pierre; Debiec, Hanna

    2015-03-01

    Alloimmune antenatal membranous nephropathy (MN) during pregnancy results from antibodies produced by a neutral endopeptidase (NEP)-deficient mother. Here we report two recent cases that provide clues to the severity of renal disease. Mothers of the two children had circulating antibodies against NEP showing the characteristic species-dependent pattern by immunofluorescence on kidney slices. A German mother produced predominantly anti-NEP IgG4 accompanied by a low amount of IgG1. Her child recovered renal function within a few weeks. In sharp contrast, an Italian mother mainly produced complement-fixing anti-NEP IgG1, which also inhibits NEP enzymatic activity, whereas anti-NEP IgG4 has a weak inhibitory potency. Her child was dialyzed for several weeks. A kidney biopsy performed at 12 days of age showed MN, ischemic glomeruli, and arteriolar and tubular lesions. A second biopsy performed at 12 weeks of age showed aggravation with an increased number of collapsed capillary tufts. Both mothers were homozygous for the truncating deletion mutation 466delC and were thus NEP deficient. The 466delC mutation, identified in three previously described families, suggests a founder effect. Because of the potential severity of alloimmune antenatal MN, it is essential to identify families at risk by the detection of anti-NEP antibodies and NEP antigen in urine. On the basis of the five families identified to date, we propose an algorithm for the diagnosis of the disease and the prevention of complications.

  19. Substrate Specificity of the Aspartate:Alanine Antiporter (AspT) of Tetragenococcus halophilus in Reconstituted Liposomes*

    PubMed Central

    Sasahara, Ayako; Nanatani, Kei; Enomoto, Masaru; Kuwahara, Shigefumi; Abe, Keietsu

    2011-01-01

    The aspartate:alanine antiporter (AspT) of the lactic acid bacterium Tetragenococcus halophilus is a member of the aspartate:alanine exchanger (AAEx) transporter family. T. halophilus AspT catalyzes the electrogenic exchange of l-aspartate1− with l-alanine0. Although physiological functions of AspT were well studied, l-aspartate1−:l-alanine0 antiport mechanisms are still unsolved. Here we report that the binding sites of l-aspartate and l-alanine are independently present in AspT by means of the kinetic studies. We purified His6-tagged T. halophilus AspT and characterized its kinetic properties when reconstituted in liposomes (Km = 0.35 ± 0.03 mm for l-aspartate, Km = 0.098 ± 0 mm for d-aspartate, Km = 26 ± 2 mm for l-alanine, Km = 3.3 ± 0.2 mm for d-alanine). Competitive inhibition by various amino acids of l-aspartate or l-alanine in self-exchange reactions revealed that l-cysteine selectively inhibited l-aspartate self-exchange but only weakly inhibited l-alanine self-exchange. Additionally, l-serine selectively inhibited l-alanine self-exchange but barely inhibited l-aspartate self-exchange. The aspartate analogs l-cysteine sulfinic acid, l-cysteic acid, and d-cysteic acid competitively and strongly inhibited l-aspartate self-exchange compared with l-alanine self-exchange. Taken together, these kinetic data suggest that the putative binding sites of l-aspartate and l-alanine are independently located in the substrate translocation pathway of AspT. PMID:21719707

  20. Substrate specificity of the aspartate:alanine antiporter (AspT) of Tetragenococcus halophilus in reconstituted liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Ayako; Nanatani, Kei; Enomoto, Masaru; Kuwahara, Shigefumi; Abe, Keietsu

    2011-08-19

    The aspartate:alanine antiporter (AspT) of the lactic acid bacterium Tetragenococcus halophilus is a member of the aspartate:alanine exchanger (AAEx) transporter family. T. halophilus AspT catalyzes the electrogenic exchange of L-aspartate(1-) with L-alanine(0). Although physiological functions of AspT were well studied, L-aspartate(1-):L-alanine(0) antiport mechanisms are still unsolved. Here we report that the binding sites of L-aspartate and L-alanine are independently present in AspT by means of the kinetic studies. We purified His(6)-tagged T. halophilus AspT and characterized its kinetic properties when reconstituted in liposomes (K(m) = 0.35 ± 0.03 mm for L-aspartate, K(m) = 0.098 ± 0 mm for D-aspartate, K(m) = 26 ± 2 mm for L-alanine, K(m) = 3.3 ± 0.2 mm for D-alanine). Competitive inhibition by various amino acids of L-aspartate or L-alanine in self-exchange reactions revealed that L-cysteine selectively inhibited L-aspartate self-exchange but only weakly inhibited L-alanine self-exchange. Additionally, L-serine selectively inhibited L-alanine self-exchange but barely inhibited L-aspartate self-exchange. The aspartate analogs L-cysteine sulfinic acid, L-cysteic acid, and D-cysteic acid competitively and strongly inhibited L-aspartate self-exchange compared with L-alanine self-exchange. Taken together, these kinetic data suggest that the putative binding sites of L-aspartate and L-alanine are independently located in the substrate translocation pathway of AspT.

  1. Caffeine alters glutamate-aspartate transporter function and expression in rat retina.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Adriana Pinto; Ferreira, Danielle Dias Pinto; Fernandes, Arlete; Martins, Robertta Silva; Borges-Martins, Vladimir Pedro Peralva; Sathler, Matheus Figueiredo; Dos-Santos-Pereira, Maurício; Paes-de-Carvalho, Roberto; Giestal-de-Araujo, Elizabeth; de Melo Reis, Ricardo Augusto; Kubrusly, Regina Celia Cussa

    2016-11-19

    l-Glutamate and l-aspartate are the main excitatory amino acids (EAAs) in the Central Nervous System (CNS) and their uptake regulation is critical for the maintenance of the excitatory balance. Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) are widely distributed among central neurons and glial cells. GLAST and GLT1 are expressed in glial cells, whereas excitatory amino acid transporter 3/excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAT3/EAAC1) is neuronal. Different signaling pathways regulate glutamate uptake by modifying the activity and expression of EAATs. In the present work we show that immature postnatal day 3 (PN3) rat retinas challenged by l-glutamate release [(3)H]-d-Aspartate linked to the reverse transport, with participation of NMDA, but not of non-NMDA receptors. The amount of [(3)H]-d-Aspartate released by l-glutamate is reduced during retinal development. Moreover, immature retinae at PN3 and PN7, but not PN14, exposed to a single dose of 200 or 500μM caffeine or the selective A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonist 100nM ZM241385 decreased [(3)H]-d-Aspartate uptake. Caffeine also selectively increased total expression of EAAT3 at PN7 and its expression in membrane fractions. However, both EAAT1 and EAAT2 were reduced after caffeine treatment in P2 fraction. Addition of 100nM DPCPX, an A1 receptor (A1R) antagonist, had no effect on the [(3)H]-d-Aspartate uptake. [(3)H]-d-Aspartate release was dependent on both extracellular sodium and Dl-TBOA, but not calcium, implying a transporter-mediated mechanism. Our results suggest that in the developing rat retina caffeine modulates [(3)H]-d-Aspartate uptake by blocking adenosine A2AR.

  2. Pharmacokinetic Properties of Fast-Acting Insulin Aspart Administered in Different Subcutaneous Injection Regions.

    PubMed

    Hövelmann, Ulrike; Heise, Tim; Nosek, Leszek; Sassenfeld, Bettina; Thomsen, Karen Margrete Due; Haahr, Hanne

    2017-05-01

    Fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart) is insulin aspart set in a new formulation with faster initial absorption after subcutaneous administration. This study investigated the pharmacokinetic properties, including the absolute bioavailability, of faster aspart when administered subcutaneously in the abdomen, upper arm or thigh. In a randomised, open-label, crossover trial, 21 healthy male subjects received a single injection of faster aspart at five dosing visits: 0.2 U/kg subcutaneously in the abdomen, upper arm and thigh, intramuscularly in the thigh and 0.02 U/kg intravenously. Blood sampling for pharmacokinetics was performed pre-dose and frequently thereafter until 12 h post-dose (8 h after intravenous administration). Onset of appearance (~3 min), time to 50% of maximum concentration (t Early 50% Cmax; ~20 min) and time to maximum concentration (t max; ~55 min) were all similar between injection regions. Early exposure within the first 2 h after injection (AUCIAsp,0-1h and AUCIAsp,0-2h) as well as maximum concentration (C max) were comparable for the abdomen and upper arm, but were ~25% lower for the thigh as seen previously for other mealtime insulin products. Total exposure (AUCIAsp,0-t) was similar for the abdomen, upper arm and thigh, and absolute bioavailability was ~80% after subcutaneous administration of faster aspart in all three injection regions. The current study supports the ultra-fast pharmacokinetic characteristics of faster aspart across different injection regions, with administration in the abdomen and upper arm resulting in greater early exposure than in the thigh. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02089451.

  3. Isolation of a nanomolar scFv inhibiting the endopeptidase activity of botulinum toxin A, by single-round panning of an immune phage-displayed library of macaque origin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A), mainly represented by subtype A1, is the most toxic substance known. It causes naturally-occurring food poisoning, and is among the biological agents at the highest risk of being weaponized. Several antibodies neutralizing BoNT/A by targeting its heavy chain (BoNT/A-H) have been isolated in the past. For the first time however, an IgG (4LCA) recently isolated by hybridoma technology and targeting the BoNT/A light chain (BoNT/A-L), was shown to inhibit BoNT/A endopeptidase activity and protect in vivo against BoNT/A. In the present study, a phage-displayed library was constructed from a macaque (Macaca fascicularis) hyper-immunized with BoNTA/L in order to isolate scFvs inhibiting BoNT/A endopeptidase activity for clinical use. Results Diversity of the scFvs constituting the library was limited due to the frequent presence, within the genes intended to be part of the library, of restriction sites utilized for its construction. After screening with several rounds of increasing stringency, as is usual with phage technology, the library got overwhelmed by phagemids encoding incomplete scFvs. The screening was successfully re-performed with a single round of high stringency. In particular, one of the isolated scFvs, 2H8, bound BoNT/A1 with a 3.3 nM affinity and effectively inhibited BoNT/A1 endopeptidase activity. The sequence encoding 2H8 was 88% identical to human germline genes and its average G-score was -0.72, quantifying the high human-like quality of 2H8. Conclusions The presence of restrictions sites within many of the sequences that were to be part of the library did not prevent the isolation of an scFv, 2H8, by an adapted panning strategy. ScFv 2H8 inhibited toxin endopeptidase activity in vitro and possessed human-like quality required for clinical development. More generally, the construction and screening of phage-displayed libraries built from hyper-immunized non-human primates is an efficient solution to isolate

  4. The mammalian enzyme which replaces B protein of E. coli quinolinate synthetase is D-aspartate oxidase.

    PubMed

    Nasu, S; Wicks, F D; Gholson, R K

    1982-06-04

    In Escherichia coli quinolinic acid, a precursor of NAD+, is synthesized from L-aspartate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate by two enzymes, an FAD-containing 'B protein' and 'A protein'. An enzyme which can replace the B protein in the E. coli quinolinate synthetase system when D-aspartate replaces L-aspartate as a substrate has been purified 300-fold from bovine kidney. This enzyme is shown to be identical with the previously described D-aspartate oxidase (D-aspartate:oxygen oxidoreductase (deaminating), EC 1.4.3.1). The immediate reaction product of D-aspartate oxidase (iminoaspartate) is condensed with dihydroxyacetone phosphate to form quinolinate in a reaction catalyzed by E. coli quinolinate synthetase A protein. In the absence of A protein (or dihydroxyacetone phosphate) iminoaspartate is spontaneously hydrolyzed to form oxaloacetate with a half-life of about 2.5 min at 25 degrees C and pH 8.0.

  5. Aspartate facilitates mitochondrial function, growth arrest and survival during doxorubicin exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dornfeld, Ken; Madden, Michael; Skildum, Andrew; Wallace, Kendall B

    2015-01-01

    Genomic screens of doxorubicin toxicity in S. cerevisiae have identified numerous mutants in amino acid and carbon metabolism which express increased doxorubicin sensitivity. This work examines the effect of amino acid metabolism on doxorubicin toxicity. S. cerevisiae were treated with doxorubicin in combination with a variety of amino acid supplements. Strains of S. cerevisiae with mutations in pathways utilizing aspartate and other metabolites were examined for sensitivity to doxorubicin. S. cerevisiae cultures exposed to doxorubicin in minimal media showed significantly more toxicity than cultures exposed in rich media. Supplementing minimal media with aspartate, glutamate or alanine reduced doxorubicin toxicity. Cell cycle response was assessed by examining the budding pattern of treated cells. Cultures exposed to doxorubicin in minimal media arrested growth with no apparent cell cycle progression. Aspartate supplementation allowed cultures exposed to doxorubicin in minimal media to arrest after one division with a budding pattern and survival comparable to cultures exposed in rich media. Aspartate provides less protection from doxorubicin in cells mutant in either mitochondrial citrate synthase (CIT1) or NADH oxidase (NDI1), suggesting aspartate reduces doxorubicin toxicity by facilitating mitochondrial function. These data suggest glycolysis becomes less active and mitochondrial respiration more active following doxorubicin exposure. PMID:26317891

  6. Biodegradation and Osteosarcoma Cell Cultivation on Poly(aspartic acid) Based Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Juriga, Dávid; Nagy, Krisztina; Jedlovszky-Hajdú, Angéla; Perczel-Kovách, Katalin; Chen, Yong Mei; Varga, Gábor; Zrínyi, Miklós

    2016-09-14

    Development of novel biodegradable and biocompatible scaffold materials with optimal characteristics is important for both preclinical and clinical applications. The aim of the present study was to analyze the biodegradability of poly(aspartic acid)-based hydrogels, and to test their usability as scaffolds for MG-63 osteoblast-like cells. Poly(aspartic acid) was fabricated from poly(succinimide) and hydrogels were prepared using natural amines as cross-linkers (diaminobutane and cystamine). Disulfide bridges were cleaved to thiol groups and the polymer backbone was further modified with RGD sequence. Biodegradability of the hydrogels was evaluated by experiments on the base of enzymes and cell culture medium. Poly(aspartic acid) hydrogels possessing only disulfide bridges as cross-links proved to be degradable by collagenase I. The MG-63 cells showed healthy, fibroblast-like morphology on the double cross-linked and RGD modified hydrogels. Thiolated poly(aspartic acid) based hydrogels provide ideal conditions for adhesion, survival, proliferation, and migration of osteoblast-like cells. The highest viability was found on the thiolated PASP gels while the RGD motif had influence on compacted cluster formation of the cells. These biodegradable and biocompatible poly(aspartic acid)-based hydrogels are promising scaffolds for cell cultivation.

  7. Reversible receptor methylation is essential for normal chemotaxis of Escherichia coli in gradients of aspartic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Weis, R M; Koshland, D E

    1988-01-01

    The chemotaxis of wild-type cells of Escherichia coli and double mutants lacking the methyltransferase and the methylesterase activities of the receptor modification system has been compared in spatial gradients of aspartic acid. Previous studies showing that a chemotactic response can be observed for the mutant raised questions about the role of methylation in the bacterial memory. To clarify the role of methylation, the redistribution of bacteria in stabilized defined gradients of aspartic acid was monitored by light scattering. There was no redistribution of the mutant cells in nonsaturating gradients of aspartic acid, but over the same range these mutant bacteria were observed to respond and to adapt during tethering experiments. In large saturating gradients of aspartate, slight movement of the mutant up the gradient was observed. These results show that dynamic receptor methylation is required for the chemotactic response to gentle gradients of aspartic acid and that methylation resets to zero and is part of the normal wild-type memory. There are certain gradients, however, in which the methylation-deficient mutants show chemotactic ability, thus explaining the apparent anomaly. Images PMID:2829179

  8. Efficient aspartic acid production by a psychrophile-based simple biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Takahisa; Hamada, Mai; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Kato, Junichi

    2015-10-01

    We previously constructed a Psychrophile-based Simple bioCatalyst (PSCat) reaction system, in which psychrophilic metabolic enzymes are inactivated by heat treatment, and used it here to study the conversion of aspartic acid from fumaric acid mediated by the activity of aspartate ammonia-lyase (aspartase). In Escherichia coli, the biosynthesis of aspartic acid competes with that of L-malic acid produced from fumaric acid by fumarase. In this study, E. coli aspartase was expressed in psychrophilic Shewanella livingstonensis Ac10 heat treated at 50 °C for 15 min. The resultant PSCat could convert fumaric acid to aspartic acid without the formation of L-malic acid because of heat inactivation of psychrophilic fumarase activity. Furthermore, alginate-immobilized PSCat produced high yields of aspartic acid and could be re-used nine times. The results of our study suggest that PSCat can be applied in biotechnological production as a new approach to increase the yield of target compounds.

  9. Effect of peroxides on [3H]D-aspartate release from bovine isolated retinae.

    PubMed

    LeDay, Angela M; Awe, Sunday O; Kulkarni, Kaustubh; Harris, Lydia C; Opere, Catherine; Dash, Alekha; Ohia, Sunny E

    2004-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of naturally occurring and synthetic peroxides on K+-depolarization-evoked release of [3H]D-aspartate from bovine isolated retinae. Furthermore, effect of peroxides on endogenous glutamate concentrations were measured by HPLC in bovine neural retinae and vitreous humor of eyes treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) ex vivo. Both naturally occurring H2O2 (1-100 microM) and synthetic (cumene hydroperoxide, cuOOH; 1-100 microM) peroxides caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of K+-evoked [3H]D-aspartate release without affecting basal tritium efflux. The antioxidant, trolox (2 mM) prevented the inhibition of evoked [3H]D-aspartate overflow elicited by both H2O2 (30 microM) and cuOOH (10 microM). Inhibition of catalase by 3-amino-triazole (3- AT 100 mM) enhanced an inhibitory effect of a low concentration of H2O2 (1 microM) but antagonized the effect of H2O2 (30 microM) on K+-induced [3H]D-aspartate release. In ex vivo experiments, exogenously applied H2O2 (1-100 microM) also caused a concentration-related decrease in glutamate levels in the bovine retina. We conclude that peroxides can inhibit K+-evoked release of [3H]D-aspartate and also decrease endogenous glutamate concentrations in the bovine retina.

  10. Two Membrane-Anchored Aspartic Proteases Contribute to Pollen and Ovule Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hui; Zhang, Yinghui; Wang, Wanlei; Zhao, Keke; Liu, Chunmei; Bai, Lin; Li, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Aspartic proteases are a class of proteolytic enzymes with conserved aspartate residues, which are implicated in protein processing, maturation, and degradation. Compared with yeast and animals, plants possess a larger aspartic protease family. However, little is known about most of these enzymes. Here, we characterized two Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored aspartic protease genes, A36 and A39, which are highly expressed in pollen and pollen tubes. a36 and a36 a39 mutants display significantly reduced pollen activity. Transmission electron microscopy and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling assays further revealed that the unviable pollen in a36 a39 may undergo unanticipated apoptosis-like programmed cell death. The degeneration of female gametes also occurred in a36 a39. Aniline Blue staining, scanning electron microscopy, and semi in vitro guidance assays indicated that the micropylar guidance of pollen tubes is significantly compromised in a36 a39. A36 and A39 that were fused with green fluorescent protein are localized to the plasma membrane and display punctate cytosolic localization and colocalize with the GPI-anchored protein COBRA-LIKE10. Furthermore, in a36 a39, the abundance of highly methylesterified homogalacturonans and xyloglucans was increased significantly in the apical pollen tube wall. These results indicate that A36 and A39, two putative GPI-anchored aspartic proteases, play important roles in plant reproduction in Arabidopsis. PMID:27872247

  11. Washout of tritium from 3R-3(/sup 3/H)-L-aspartate in the aspartase reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, B.M.; Cook, P.F.

    1987-05-01

    Bacterial aspartase catalyzes the reversible conversion of L-aspartate to fumarate and ammonia. Recent studies that made use of deuterium and /sup 15/N isotope effects suggested a carbanion intermediate mechanism in which C-N bond cleavage is rate determining. This could result in removal of a proton from the 3R position of aspartate at a rate of faster than the elimination of ammonia. 3R-3(/sup 3/H)-Aspartate was prepared enzymatically using aspartase from fumarate, ammonia and /sup 3/H/sub 2/O and aspartate isolated via chromatography on Dowex 50W x 8 at pH 1, eluting with 2N pyridine. The rate of /sup 3/H washout from this aspartate was then measured as a function of aspartate concentration and compared to the rate of production of fumarate. Tritium does washout of aspartate at a rate faster than fumarate is formed but the proton is apparently not rapidly equilibrated with solvent. The tritium washout experiments were supplemented using 3R-3(/sup 2/H)-aspartate prepared as above with /sup 2/H/sub 2/O replacing /sup 3/H/sub 2/O and monitoring the appearance of 3R-3(/sup 1/H)-aspartate via /sup 1/H-NMR. Results confirm the tritium washout results. Data are discussed in terms of the carbanion mechanism.

  12. Intramitochondrial localization of alanine aminotransferase in rat-liver mitochondria: comparison with glutaminase and aspartate aminotransferase.

    PubMed

    Masola, B; Devlin, T M

    1995-12-01

    The removal of the outer mitochondrial membrane and hence of constituents of the intermembrane space in rat-liver mitochondria using digitonin showed that phosphate-dependent glutaminase, alanine and aspartate aminotransferase were localized in the mitoplasts. Further fractionation of mitoplasts following their sonication resulted in 90% of glutaminase, 98% of alanine aminotransferase and 48% of aspartate aminotransferase being recovered in the soluble fraction while the remainder of each enzyme was recovered in the sonicated vesicles fraction. These results indicated that glutaminase and alanine aminotransferase were soluble matrix enzymes, the little of each enzyme recovered in the sonicated vesicles fraction being probably due to entrapment in the vesicles. Aspartate aminotransferase had dual localization, in the inner membrane and matrix with the high specific activity in sonicated vesicles confirming its association with the membrane. Activation experiments suggested that the membrane-bound enzyme was localized on the inner side of the inner mitochondrial membrane.

  13. Attractant Signaling by an Aspartate Chemoreceptor Dimer with a Single Cytoplasmic Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardina, Paul J.; Manson, Michael D.

    1996-10-01

    Signal transduction across cell membranes often involves interactions among identical receptor subunits, but the contribution of individual subunits is not well understood. The chemoreceptors of enteric bacteria mediate attractant responses by interrupting a phosphotransfer circuit initiated at receptor complexes with the protein kinase CheA. The aspartate receptor (Tar) is a homodimer, and oligomerized cytoplasmic domains stimulate CheA activity much more than monomers do in vitro. Intragenic complementation was used to show in Escherichia coli that heterodimers containing one full-length and one truncated Tar subunit mediated responses to aspartate in the presence of full-length Tar homodimers that could not bind aspartate. Thus, a Tar dimer containing only one cytoplasmic domain can initiate an attractant (inhibitory) signal, although it may not be able to stimulate kinase activity of CheA.

  14. Structure of RC1339/APRc from Rickettsia conorii, a retropepsin-like aspartic protease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mi; Gustchina, Alla; Cruz, Rui; Simões, Marisa; Curto, Pedro; Martinez, Juan; Faro, Carlos; Simões, Isaura; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structures of two constructs of RC1339/APRc from Rickettsia conorii, consisting of either residues 105–231 or 110–231 followed by a His tag, have been determined in three different crystal forms. As predicted, the fold of a monomer of APRc resembles one-half of the mandatory homodimer of retroviral pepsin-like aspartic proteases (retropepsins), but the quaternary structure of the dimer of APRc differs from that of the canonical retropepsins. The observed dimer is most likely an artifact of the expression and/or crystallization conditions since it cannot support the previously reported enzymatic activity of this bacterial aspartic protease. However, the fold of the core of each monomer is very closely related to the fold of retropepsins from a variety of retroviruses and to a single domain of pepsin-like eukaryotic enzymes, and may represent a putative common ancestor of monomeric and dimeric aspartic proteases. PMID:26457434

  15. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Glutamate and Aspartate on Diquat-Induced Oxidative Stress in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Wenkai; Duan, Jielin; Yang, Guan; Zhao, Yurong; Fang, Rejun; Chen, Lixiang; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of dietary glutamate and aspartate supplementations on diquat-induced oxidative stress in piglets. Diquat injection significantly reduced growth performance, including body weight, average daily weight gain, and feed intake (P<0.05). Meanwhile, diquat administration induced oxidative stress evidenced by the decreased serum nitric oxide (NO) and elevated malondialdeyhde (MDA) concentration (P<0.05). Furthermore, diquat-induced oxidative stress disrupted intestinal absorption system and decreased serum threonine, serine, and glycine levels. Dietary supplementation with glutamate improved final body weight, antioxidant system, and expressions of amino acids transporters and enhanced serum glutamate concentration compared with diquat group (P<0.05). While aspartate failed to alleviate diquat-induced oxidative stress, growth depression, and dysfunction of nutrients absorption except for liver relative weight. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with glutamate confers beneficial effects on diquat-induced oxidative stress in piglets, while aspartate exhibits little effects. PMID:25875335

  16. N-phosphonacetyl-L-isoasparagine a Potent and Specific Inhibitor of E. coli Aspartate Transcarbamoylase†

    PubMed Central

    Eldo, Joby; Cardia, James P.; O’Day, Elizabeth M.; Xia, Jiarong; Tsurata, Hiro; Kantrowitz, Evan R.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of a new inhibitor, N-phosphonacetyl-L-isoasparagine (PALI), of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) is reported, as well as structural studies of the enzyme·PALI complex. PALI was synthesized in 7 steps from β-benzyl L-aspartate. The KD of PALI was 2 μM. Kinetics and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments showed that PALI can induce the cooperative transition of ATCase from the T to the R state. The X-ray structure of the enzyme·PALI complex showed 22 hydrogen bonding interactions between the enzyme and PALI. The kinetic characterization and crystal structure of the ATCase·PALI complex also provides detailed information regarding the importance of the α-carboxylate for the binding of the substrate aspartate. PMID:17004708

  17. Structure of a fungal form of aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase from Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Dahal, Gopal; Viola, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    Aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) functions at a critical junction in the aspartate-biosynthetic pathway and represents a valid target for antimicrobial drug design. This enzyme catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reductive dephosphorylation of β-aspartyl phosphate to produce the key intermediate aspartate semialdehyde. Production of this intermediate represents the first committed step in the biosynthesis of the essential amino acids methionine, isoleucine and threonine in fungi, and also the amino acid lysine in bacteria. The structure of a new fungal form of ASADH from Cryptococcus neoformans has been determined to 2.6 Å resolution. The overall structure of CnASADH is similar to those of its bacterial orthologs, but with some critical differences both in biological assembly and in secondary-structural features that can potentially be exploited for the development of species-selective drugs. PMID:26527262

  18. Distinguishing Aspartic and Isoaspartic Acids in Peptides by Several Mass Spectrometric Fragmentation Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGraan-Weber, Nick; Zhang, Jun; Reilly, James P.

    2016-12-01

    Six ion fragmentation techniques that can distinguish aspartic acid from its isomer, isoaspartic acid, were compared. MALDI post-source decay (PSD), MALDI 157 nm photodissociation, tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)phosphonium bromide (TMPP) charge tagging in PSD and photodissociation, ESI collision-induced dissociation (CID), electron transfer dissociation (ETD), and free-radical initiated peptide sequencing (FRIPS) with CID were applied to peptides containing either aspartic or isoaspartic acid. Diagnostic ions, such as the y-46 and b+H2O, are present in PSD, photodissociation, and charge tagging. c•+57 and z-57 ions are observed in ETD and FRIPS experiments. For some molecules, aspartic and isoaspartic acid yield ion fragments with significantly different intensities. ETD and charge tagging appear to be most effective at distinguishing these residues.

  19. Effects of dietary supplementation with glutamate and aspartate on diquat-induced oxidative stress in piglets.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Liu, Mingfeng; Ren, Wenkai; Duan, Jielin; Yang, Guan; Zhao, Yurong; Fang, Rejun; Chen, Lixiang; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of dietary glutamate and aspartate supplementations on diquat-induced oxidative stress in piglets. Diquat injection significantly reduced growth performance, including body weight, average daily weight gain, and feed intake (P<0.05). Meanwhile, diquat administration induced oxidative stress evidenced by the decreased serum nitric oxide (NO) and elevated malondialdeyhde (MDA) concentration (P<0.05). Furthermore, diquat-induced oxidative stress disrupted intestinal absorption system and decreased serum threonine, serine, and glycine levels. Dietary supplementation with glutamate improved final body weight, antioxidant system, and expressions of amino acids transporters and enhanced serum glutamate concentration compared with diquat group (P<0.05). While aspartate failed to alleviate diquat-induced oxidative stress, growth depression, and dysfunction of nutrients absorption except for liver relative weight. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with glutamate confers beneficial effects on diquat-induced oxidative stress in piglets, while aspartate exhibits little effects.

  20. Aspartate-bond isomerization affects the major conformations of synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Szendrei, G I; Fabian, H; Mantsch, H H; Lovas, S; Nyéki, O; Schön, I; Otvos, L

    1994-12-15

    The aspartic acid bond changes to an beta-aspartate bond frequently as a side-reaction during peptide synthesis and often as a post-translational modification of proteins. The formation of beta-asparate bonds is reported to play a major role not only in protein metabolism, activation and deactivation, but also in pathological processes such as deposition of the neuritic plaques of Alzheimer's disease. Recently, we reported how conformational changes following the aspartic-acid-bond isomerization may help the selective aggregation and retention of the amyloid beta peptide in affected brains (Fabian et al., 1994). In the current study we used circular dichroism, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and molecular modeling to characterize the general effect of the beta-aspartate-bond formation on the conformation of five sets of synthetic model peptides. Each of the non-modified, parent peptides has one of the major secondary structures as the dominant spectroscopically determined conformation: a type I beta turn, a type II beta turn, short segments of alpha or 3(10) helices, or extended beta strands. We found that both types of turn structures are stabilized by the aspartic acid-bond isomerization. The isomerization at a terminal position did not affect the helix propensity, but placing it in mid-chain broke both the helix and the beta-pleated sheet with the formation of reverse turns. The alteration of the geometry of the lowest energy reverse turn was also supported by molecular dynamics calculations. The tendency of the aspartic acid-bond isomerization to stabilize turns is very similar to the effect of incorporating sugars into synthetic peptides and suggests a common feature of these post-translational modifications in defining the secondary structure of protein fragments.

  1. Aspartate embedding depth affects pHLIP's insertion pKa.

    PubMed

    Fendos, Justin; Barrera, Francisco N; Engelman, Donald M

    2013-07-09

    We have used the pHlow insertion peptide (pHLIP) family to study the role of aspartate embedding depth in pH-dependent transmembrane peptide insertion. pHLIP binds to the surface of a lipid bilayer as a largely unstructured monomer at neutral pH. When the pH is lowered, pHLIP inserts spontaneously across the membrane as a spanning α-helix. pHLIP insertion is reversible when the pH is adjusted back to a neutral value. One of the critical events facilitating pHLIP insertion is the protonation of aspartates in the spanning domain of the peptide: the negative side chains of these residues convert to uncharged, polar forms, facilitating insertion by altering the hydrophobicity of the spanning domain. To examine this protonation mechanism further, we created pHLIP sequence variants in which the two spanning aspartates (D14 and D25) were moved up or down in the sequence. We hypothesized that the aspartate depth in the inserted state would directly affect the proton affinity of the acidic side chains, altering the pKa of pH-dependent insertion. To this end, we also mutated the arginine at position 11 to determine whether arginine snorkeling modulates the insertion pKa by affecting the aspartate depth. Our results indicate that both types of mutations change the insertion pKa, supporting the idea that the aspartate depth is a participating parameter in determining the pH dependence. We also show that pHLIP's resistance to aggregation can be altered with our mutations, identifying a new criterion for improving the performance of pHLIP in vivo when targeting acidic disease tissues such as cancer and inflammation.

  2. Modification of luciferase to be a substrate for plant aspartic proteinase.

    PubMed Central

    Amidon, W J; Pfeil, J E; Gal, S

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of using firefly luciferase as a substrate for an aspartic proteinase was explored. Several amino acid modifications to the C-terminus of the luciferase were created on the basis of the known substrate of the Arabidopsis thaliana aspartic proteinase, pro-(barley lectin). One luciferase with the sequence Arg-Asp-Gly-Val-Phe-Ala-Ala instead of the native Arg-Glu-Ile-Leu-Ile-Lys-Ala at position -15 to -9 relative to the C-terminus of native luciferase was found to possess 17% of the original luciferase activity. When this modified luciferase was incubated with the aspartic proteinase, a specific loss in activity occurred that was not observed with the original luciferase. However, both enzymes seemed very sensitive to the acidic conditions required for aspartic proteinase activity. The other versions of luciferase with different numbers of pro-(barley lectin) amino acids were not active luciferases. This provided information on the structural requirements of the C-terminal portion of the protein for luciferase activity. The luciferase proteins were also monitored during the digestion by using Western blots and some were shown to be substrates for the aspartic proteinase. Contrary to what had been expected, the modified luciferase that incorporated the pro-(barley lectin) sequences was not simply cleaved at the engineered site but at additional positions in the protein. The Arabidopsis aspartic proteinase cleaved two other standard protein substrates at many sites, suggesting that this proteinase could have a role in the degradation of proteins in addition to processing propeptides in plants. PMID:10510310

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the periplasmic domain of the Escherichia coli aspartate receptor Tar and its complex with aspartate

    SciTech Connect

    Mise, Takeshi; Matsunami, Hideyuki; Samatey, Fadel A.; Maruyama, Ichiro N.

    2014-08-27

    The periplasmic domain of the E. coli aspartate receptor Tar was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized with and without bound ligand. The crystals obtained diffracted to resolutions of 1.58 and 1.95 Å, respectively. The cell-surface receptor Tar mediates bacterial chemotaxis toward an attractant, aspartate (Asp), and away from a repellent, Ni{sup 2+}. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of Tar activity by its ligands, the Escherichia coli Tar periplasmic domain with and without bound aspartate (Asp-Tar and apo-Tar, respectively) were each crystallized in two different forms. Using ammonium sulfate as a precipitant, crystals of apo-Tar1 and Asp-Tar1 were grown and diffracted to resolutions of 2.10 and 2.40 Å, respectively. Alternatively, using sodium chloride as a precipitant, crystals of apo-Tar2 and Asp-Tar2 were grown and diffracted to resolutions of 1.95 and 1.58 Å, respectively. Crystals of apo-Tar1 and Asp-Tar1 adopted space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, while those of apo-Tar2 and Asp-Tar2 adopted space groups P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and C2, respectively.

  4. Determination of aqueous acid-dissociation constants of aspartic acid using PCM/DFT method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang-Aroon, Wichien; Ruangpornvisuti, Vithaya

    Determination of acid-dissociation constants, pKa, of aspartic acid in aqueous solution, using density functional theory calculations combined with the conductor-like polarizable continuum model (CPCM) and with integral-equation-formalism polarizable continuum model (IEFPCM) based on the UAKS and UAHF radii, was carried out. The computed pKa values derived from the CPCM and IEFPCM with UAKS cavity model of bare structures of the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)-optimized tetrahydrated structures of aspartic acid species are mostly close to the experimental pKa values.0

  5. Proton transfer pathways in an aspartate-water cluster sampled by a network of discrete states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidelbach, Marco; Betz, Fridtjof; Mäusle, Raquel Maya; Imhof, Petra

    2016-08-01

    Proton transfer reactions are complex transitions due to the size and flexibility of the hydrogen-bonded networks along which the protons may ;hop;. The combination of molecular dynamics based sampling of water positions and orientations with direct sampling of proton positions is an efficient way to capture the interplay of these degrees of freedom in a transition network. The energetically most favourable pathway in the proton transfer network computed for an aspartate-water cluster shows the pre-orientation of water molecules and aspartate side chains to be a pre-requisite for the subsequent concerted proton transfer to the product state.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of M100240 and MDL 100,173, a dual angiotensin-converting enzyme/neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, in healthy young and elderly volunteers.

    PubMed

    Emmons, Gary T; Argenti, Rick; Martin, Louis L; Martin, Nancy E; Jensen, Bradford K

    2004-08-01

    M100240 is an acetate thioester of MDL 100,173-a dual angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitor-in phase II development. The pharmacokinetics of M100240 and MDL 100,173 were compared in young and elderly subjects. Pharmacokinetic data were obtained from 12 young (ages 18-45 years, 10 male, 2 female) and 12 elderly (ages 65-85 years, 7 male, 5 female) healthy subjects in a parallel-group, open-label study. Following an overnight fast, subjects received a single 25-mg oral dose of M100240. Serial plasma concentrations of M100240 and MDL 100,173 were determined using a validated liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with noncompartmental methods. Single-dose treatment with M100240 was well tolerated in both groups of subjects, with no clinically significant changes in vital signs, ECG recordings, or laboratory safety parameters. M100240 was rapidly absorbed and converted to MDL 100,173, with M100240 concentrations no longer detectable at 3 to 4 hours postdose in both groups. The pharmacokinetics of the pharmacologically active MDL 100,173 were similar for both groups. Although maximum concentrations of M100240 were generally higher in elderly versus young subjects (C(max) 0.48 ng/mL vs. 0.17 ng/mL), systemic availability of M100240 was quite low and variable with plasma, and this apparent difference in parent drug exposure is unlikely to have important clinical implications. No age-related differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters of MDL 100,173 (C(max) 8.16 vs. 9.62 ng/mL, t(max) 1.25 vs. 1.5 h, AUC((0-last)) 81.6 vs. 72.2 ng x h/mL) were observed between young and elderly subjects, respectively. In conclusion, there are no age-related differences in the pharmacokinetics of MDL 100,173 between young and elderly subjects.

  7. Teichoic Acid Polymers Affect Expression and Localization of dl-Endopeptidase LytE Required for Lateral Cell Wall Hydrolysis in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Jun; Kiriyama, Yuuka; Miyashita, Mari; Kondo, Takuma; Yamada, Takeshi; Yazawa, Kazuya; Yoshikawa, Ritsuko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Bacillus subtilis, the dl-endopeptidase LytE is responsible for lateral peptidoglycan hydrolysis during cell elongation. We found that σI-dependent transcription of lytE is considerably enhanced in a strain with a mutation in ltaS, which encodes a major lipoteichoic acid (LTA) synthase. Similar enhancements were observed in mutants that affect the glycolipid anchor and wall teichoic acid (WTA) synthetic pathways. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the LytE foci were considerably increased in these mutants. The localization patterns of LytE on the sidewalls appeared to be helix-like in LTA-defective or WTA-reduced cells and evenly distributed on WTA-depleted or -defective cell surfaces. These results strongly suggested that LTA and WTA affect both σI-dependent expression and localization of LytE. Interestingly, increased LytE localization along the sidewall in the ltaS mutant largely occurred in an MreBH-independent manner. Moreover, we found that cell surface decorations with LTA and WTA are gradually reduced at increased culture temperatures and that LTA rather than WTA on the cell surface is reduced at high temperatures. In contrast, the amount of LytE on the cell surface gradually increased under heat stress conditions. Taken together, these results indicated that reductions in these anionic polymers at high temperatures might give rise to increases in SigI-dependent expression and cell surface localization of LytE at high temperatures. IMPORTANCE The bacterial cell wall is required for maintaining cell shape and bearing environmental stresses. The Gram-positive cell wall consists of mesh-like peptidoglycan and covalently linked wall teichoic acid and lipoteichoic acid polymers. It is important to determine if these anionic polymers are required for proliferation and environmental adaptation. Here, we demonstrated that these polymers affect the expression and localization of a peptidoglycan hydrolase LytE required for lateral cell wall

  8. Effects of SA7060, a novel dual inhibitor of neutral endopeptidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme, on deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension in rats.

    PubMed

    Kuro, T; Okahara, A; Nose, M; Ikuse, T; Matsumura, Y

    2000-07-01

    We evaluated whether a novel dual inhibitor of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), SA7060, (S)-2-[3-[(S)-2-(butoxycarbonyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]-3-isobutylureido] -3-(2-naphtyl) propionic acid, prevents deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-induced hypertension and related organ damage, such as cardiovascular hypertrophy, renal dysfunction and renal tissue injury in rats. The effectiveness was compared with candoxatril and enalapril, which are a selective NEP and ACE inhibitor, respectively. During DOCA-salt treatment for 4 weeks, the rats were given SA7060, candoxatril, enalapril or vehicle, once daily by gavage. The 4-weeks treatment with DOCA and salt produced progressive increases in systolic blood pressure. Daily administration of SA7060, candoxatril or enalapril significantly suppressed the development of hypertension induced by DOCA and salt, although the effect of enalapril was less potent at 4-weeks of the treatment period. In vehicle-treated DOCA-salt rats, decreases in creatinine clearance and increases in urinary excretion of protein and blood urea nitrogen were observed. This functional damage was improved most efficiently by the treatment with SA7060. There were significant increases in urinary excretions of atrial natriuretic peptide and cyclic GMP in SA7060- or candoxatril-treated animals. Histopathological examination of the kidney in DOCA-salt rats revealed tubular, glomerular and vascular lesions, all of which were improved in animals given SA7060 or candoxatril. When the vascular hypertrophy of the aorta was evaluated, there were significant increases in wall thickness, wall area and the wall-to-lumen ratio in vehicle-treated DOCA-salt rats compared with the sham rats. The development of vascular hypertrophy was suppressed by the treatment with SA7060, candoxatril or enalapril. Our findings indicate that SA7060 efficiently prevents DOCA-salt-induced hypertension and related tissue injury, mainly by inhibiting NEP

  9. Plasmid-Encoded asp Operon Confers a Proton Motive Metabolic Cycle Catalyzed by an Aspartate-Alanine Exchange Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Keietsu; Ohnishi, Fumito; Yagi, Kyoko; Nakajima, Tasuku; Higuchi, Takeshi; Sano, Motoaki; Machida, Masayuki; Sarker, Rafiquel I.; Maloney, Peter C.

    2002-01-01

    Tetragenococcus halophila D10 catalyzes the decarboxylation of l-aspartate with nearly stoichiometric release of l-alanine and CO2. This trait is encoded on a 25-kb plasmid, pD1. We found in this plasmid a putative asp operon consisting of two genes, which we designated aspD and aspT, encoding an l-aspartate-β-decarboxylase (AspD) and an aspartate-alanine antiporter (AspT), respectively, and determined the nucleotide sequences. The sequence analysis revealed that the genes of the asp operon in pD1 were in the following order: promoter → aspD → aspT. The deduced amino acid sequence of AspD showed similarity to the sequences of two known l-aspartate-β-decarboxylases from Pseudomonas dacunhae and Alcaligenes faecalis. Hydropathy analyses suggested that the aspT gene product encodes a hydrophobic protein with multiple membrane-spanning regions. The operon was subcloned into the Escherichia coli expression vector pTrc99A, and the two genes were cotranscribed in the resulting plasmid, pTrcAsp. Expression of the asp operon in E. coli coincided with appearance of the capacity to catalyze the decarboxylation of aspartate to alanine. Histidine-tagged AspD (AspDHis) was also expressed in E. coli and purified from cell extracts. The purified AspDHis clearly exhibited activity of l-aspartate-β-decarboxylase. Recombinant AspT was solubilized from E. coli membranes and reconstituted in proteoliposomes. The reconstituted AspT catalyzed self-exchange of aspartate and electrogenic heterologous exchange of aspartate with alanine. Thus, the asp operon confers a proton motive metabolic cycle consisting of the electrogenic aspartate-alanine antiporter and the aspartate decarboxylase, which keeps intracellular levels of alanine, the countersubstrate for aspartate, high. PMID:12003930

  10. Plasmid-encoded asp operon confers a proton motive metabolic cycle catalyzed by an aspartate-alanine exchange reaction.

    PubMed

    Abe, Keietsu; Ohnishi, Fumito; Yagi, Kyoko; Nakajima, Tasuku; Higuchi, Takeshi; Sano, Motoaki; Machida, Masayuki; Sarker, Rafiquel I; Maloney, Peter C

    2002-06-01

    Tetragenococcus halophila D10 catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-aspartate with nearly stoichiometric release of L-alanine and CO(2). This trait is encoded on a 25-kb plasmid, pD1. We found in this plasmid a putative asp operon consisting of two genes, which we designated aspD and aspT, encoding an L-aspartate-beta-decarboxylase (AspD) and an aspartate-alanine antiporter (AspT), respectively, and determined the nucleotide sequences. The sequence analysis revealed that the genes of the asp operon in pD1 were in the following order: promoter --> aspD --> aspT. The deduced amino acid sequence of AspD showed similarity to the sequences of two known L-aspartate-beta-decarboxylases from Pseudomonas dacunhae and Alcaligenes faecalis. Hydropathy analyses suggested that the aspT gene product encodes a hydrophobic protein with multiple membrane-spanning regions. The operon was subcloned into the Escherichia coli expression vector pTrc99A, and the two genes were cotranscribed in the resulting plasmid, pTrcAsp. Expression of the asp operon in E. coli coincided with appearance of the capacity to catalyze the decarboxylation of aspartate to alanine. Histidine-tagged AspD (AspDHis) was also expressed in E. coli and purified from cell extracts. The purified AspDHis clearly exhibited activity of L-aspartate-beta-decarboxylase. Recombinant AspT was solubilized from E. coli membranes and reconstituted in proteoliposomes. The reconstituted AspT catalyzed self-exchange of aspartate and electrogenic heterologous exchange of aspartate with alanine. Thus, the asp operon confers a proton motive metabolic cycle consisting of the electrogenic aspartate-alanine antiporter and the aspartate decarboxylase, which keeps intracellular levels of alanine, the countersubstrate for aspartate, high.

  11. [Familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with Huntington chorea with increased aspartate level in the cerebrospinal fluid].

    PubMed

    Blin, O; Samuel, D; Guieu, R; Pouget, J; Nieoullon, A; Serratrice, G

    1992-01-01

    We report the case of a patient who presented with both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington's disease. Interestingly, aspartate level was increased in the lumbar CSF. In vitro and in vivo studies have convincingly suggested that these two neurodegenerative diseases could be related to an excitotoxic mechanism.

  12. Aspartic acid in the hippocampus: a biomarker for postoperative cognitive dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rong; Huang, Dong; Tong, Jianbin; Liao, Qin; Hu, Zhonghua; Ouyang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    This study established an aged rat model of cognitive dysfunction using anesthesia with 2% isoflurane and 80% oxygen for 2 hours. Twenty-four hours later, Y-maze test results showed that isoflurane significantly impaired cognitive function in aged rats. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results showed that isoflurane also significantly increased the levels of N,N-diethylacetamide, n-ethylacetamide, aspartic acid, malic acid and arabinonic acid in the hippocampus of isoflurane-treated rats. Moreover, aspartic acid, N,N-diethylacetamide, n-ethylacetamide and malic acid concentration was positively correlated with the degree of cognitive dysfunction in the isoflurane-treated rats. It is evident that hippocampal metabolite changes are involved in the formation of cognitive dysfunction after isoflurane anesthesia. To further verify these results, this study cultured hippocampal neurons in vitro, which were then treated with aspartic acid (100 μmol/L). Results suggested that aspartic acid concentration in the hippocampus may be a biomarker for predicting the occurrence and disease progress of cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25206795

  13. The heat effects of dissociation of N-(carboxymethyl)aspartic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytkin, A. I.; Chernyavskaya, N. V.; Orlova, T. D.; Nikol'Skii, V. M.

    2009-07-01

    The heat effects of dissociation of N-(carboxymethyl)aspartic acid were determined calorimetrically at 298.15 K and various ionic strength values. The standard thermodynamic characteristics of dissociation of the complexone at fixed and zero ionic strengths were calculated.

  14. Estimation of paleotemperature from racemization of aspartic acid in combination with radiocarbon age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Masayo; Takeyama, Masami; Mimura, Koichi; Nakamura, Toshio

    2007-06-01

    We tried to estimate paleotemperatures from two chosen fossils by measuring D/L aspartic acid ratios and radiocarbon ages of the XAD-2-treated hydrolysate fractions in the fossils. The D/L aspartic acid ratio was measured with a gas chromatograph and radiocarbon dating was performed using a Tandetron AMS system at Nagoya University. The radiocarbon age of a fossil mammoth molar collected from Bykovsky Peninsula, eastern Siberia, was found to be 35,170 ± 300 BP as an average value for the XAD-treated hydrolysate fractions. The aspartic acid in the mammoth molar showed a little evidence of racemization, which might be due to in vivo racemization during the lifetime and then suggests negligible or no postmortem racemization during burial in permafrost. From four animal bone fossils collected from a shell mound excavated at the Awazu submarine archeological site in Lake Biwa, Shiga, Japan, the racemization-based effective mean temperature was calculated to be 15-16 °C using the D/L aspartic acid ratio of about 0.11 and the 14C age of 4500 BP for the XAD-2-treated hydrolysate fractions in the fossils. The average annual temperature was estimated to be 11-12 °C, which approximates to the temperature that the fossils experienced during burial at the site. Although the application of racemization ratios in fossils as paleotemperature indicators is surrounded with many difficulties, the results obtained in this study suggest its feasibility.

  15. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  16. Genome-wide identification, evolutuionary and expression analysis of aspartic proteases gene superfamily in grape

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspartic proteases (APs) are a large family of proteolytic enzymes in vertebrates, plants, yeast, nematodes, parasites, fungi, and viruses. In plants, they are involved in many biological processes, such as plant senescence, stress response, programmed cell death, and reproduction. Prior to the pr...

  17. Carbonyl-carbonyl interactions stabilize the partially allowed Ramachandran conformations of asparagine and aspartic acid.

    PubMed

    Deane, C M; Allen, F H; Taylor, R; Blundell, T L

    1999-12-01

    Asparagine and aspartate are known to adopt conformations in the left-handed alpha-helical region and other partially allowed regions of the Ramachandran plot more readily than any other non-glycyl amino acids. The reason for this preference has not been established. An examination of the local environments of asparagine and aspartic acid in protein structures with a resolution better than 1.5 A revealed that their side-chain carbonyls are frequently within 4 A of their own backbone carbonyl or the backbone carbonyl of the previous residue. Calculations using protein structures with a resolution better than 1.8 A reveal that this close contact occurs in more than 80% of cases. This carbonyl-carbonyl interaction offers an energetic sabilization for the partially allowed conformations of asparagine and aspartic acid with respect to all other non-glycyl amino acids. The non-covalent attractive interactions between the dipoles of two carbonyls has recently been calculated to have an energy comparable to that of a hydrogen bond. The preponderance of asparagine in the left-handed alpha-helical region, and in general of aspartic acid and asparagine in the partially allowed regions of the Ramachandran plot, may be a consequence of this carbonyl-carbonyl stacking interaction.

  18. Concordance of Collagen-Based Radiocarbon and Aspartic-Acid Racemization Ages

    PubMed Central

    Bada, Jeffrey L.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Protsch, Reiner; Berger, Rainer

    1974-01-01

    By determining the extent of racemization of aspartic acid in a well-dated bone, it is possible to calculate the in situ first-order rate constant for the interconversion of the L and D enantiomers of aspartic acid. Collagen-based radiocarbon-dated bones are shown to be suitable samples for use in “calibrating” the racemization reaction. Once the aspartic-acid racemization reaction has been “calibrated” for a site, the reaction can be used to date other bones from the deposit. Ages deduced by this method are in good agreement with radiocarbon ages. These results provide evidence that the aspartic-acid racemization reaction is an important chronological tool for dating bones either too old or too small for radiocarbon dating. As an example of the potential application of the technique for dating fossil man, a piece of Rhodesian Man from Broken Hill, Zambia, was analyzed and tentatively assigned an age of about 110,000 years. PMID:4522802

  19. A Green Polymerization of Aspartic Acid for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, George D.

    2005-01-01

    The green polymerization of aspartic acid carried out during an organic-inorganic synthesis laboratory course for undergraduate students is described. The procedure is based on work by Donlar Corporation, a Peru, Illinois-based company that won a Green Chemistry Challenge Award in 1996 in the Small Business category for preparing thermal…

  20. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  4. A Green Polymerization of Aspartic Acid for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, George D.

    2005-01-01

    The green polymerization of aspartic acid carried out during an organic-inorganic synthesis laboratory course for undergraduate students is described. The procedure is based on work by Donlar Corporation, a Peru, Illinois-based company that won a Green Chemistry Challenge Award in 1996 in the Small Business category for preparing thermal…

  5. Discovery of MK-8718, an HIV Protease Inhibitor Containing a Novel Morpholine Aspartate Binding Group.

    PubMed

    Bungard, Christopher J; Williams, Peter D; Ballard, Jeanine E; Bennett, David J; Beaulieu, Christian; Bahnck-Teets, Carolyn; Carroll, Steve S; Chang, Ronald K; Dubost, David C; Fay, John F; Diamond, Tracy L; Greshock, Thomas J; Hao, Li; Holloway, M Katharine; Felock, Peter J; Gesell, Jennifer J; Su, Hua-Poo; Manikowski, Jesse J; McKay, Daniel J; Miller, Mike; Min, Xu; Molinaro, Carmela; Moradei, Oscar M; Nantermet, Philippe G; Nadeau, Christian; Sanchez, Rosa I; Satyanarayana, Tummanapalli; Shipe, William D; Singh, Sanjay K; Truong, Vouy Linh; Vijayasaradhi, Sivalenka; Wiscount, Catherine M; Vacca, Joseph P; Crane, Sheldon N; McCauley, John A

    2016-07-14

    A novel HIV protease inhibitor was designed using a morpholine core as the aspartate binding group. Analysis of the crystal structure of the initial lead bound to HIV protease enabled optimization of enzyme potency and antiviral activity. This afforded a series of potent orally bioavailable inhibitors of which MK-8718 was identified as a compound with a favorable overall profile.

  6. The anomalous kinetics of coupled aspartate aminotransferase and malate dehydrogenase. Evidence for compartmentation of oxaloacetate.

    PubMed Central

    Bryce, C F; Williams, D C; John, R A; Fasella, P

    1976-01-01

    Cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferase and malate dehydrogenase were purified from pig heart. Kinetic parameters were determined for the separate reaction catalysed by each enzyme and used to predict the course of the coupled reaction: (see article). Although a lag phase should have been easily seen, none was detected. The same coupled reaction was also carried out by using radioactive aspartate in the presence of unlabelled oxaloacetate. The reaction was quenched with HClO4 after 70 ms and the specific radioactivity of the malate produced in this system was found to be essentially the same as that of the original aspartate. These results show that oxaloacetate produced by the aspartate aminotransferase is converted into malate by malate dehydrogenase before it equilibrates with the pool of unlabelled oxaloacetate and are consistent with a proposal that the enzymes are associated in a complex. However, no physical evidence of the existence of a complex could be found. An alternative means of compartmentation of the intermediate as an unstable isomer is considered. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:942372

  7. Thorium aspartate tetrahydrate precursor to ThO2: Comparison of hydrothermal and thermal conversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavier, N.; Maynadié, J.; Mesbah, A.; Hidalgo, J.; Lauwerier, R.; Nkou Bouala, G. I.; Parrès-Maynadié, S.; Meyer, D.; Dacheux, N.; Podor, R.

    2017-04-01

    The synthesis of original crystalline thorium aspartate tetrahydrate, Th(C4NO4H6)4.4H2O, was performed using two different wet-chemistry routes, involving either L-asparagine or L-aspartic acid as complexing agent. Characterization of this compound through 13C NMR and PXRD led to confirm the terminal coordination mode of the aspartate group and to suggest a potential cubic lattice (Pn-3 space group). Vibrational spectroscopy data were also collected. The conversion of thorium aspartate tetrahydrate into thorium dioxide was further performed through classical high temperature heat treatment or under hydrothermal conditions. On the one hand, thermal treatment provided a pseudomorphic conversion which retained the starting morphology, and favored the increase of the average crystallite size, as well as the complete elimination of the residual carbon content. On the other, hydrothermal conversion could be used to tune the morphology of the final oxide, ThO2.nH2O microspheres being prepared when starting from L-asparagine.

  8. Pediatric Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Complicated by N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Antibody Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Bamford, Alasdair; Crowe, Belinda H A; Hacohen, Yael; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Clarke, Antonia; Tudor-Williams, Gareth; Sancho-Shimizu, Vanessa; Vincent, Angela; Lim, Ming; Pullaperuma, Sunil P

    2015-06-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies (NMDAR-Abs) can contribute to neurological relapse after herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE). We describe a child with NMDAR-Ab encephalitis after HSE, which was recognized and treated early. We discuss the case in the context of existing reports, and we propose a modified immunotherapy strategy to minimize risk of viral reactivation.

  9. Confocal imaging of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in living cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Durand, J; Kojic, L; Wang, Y; Lee, P; Cynader, M S; Gu, Q

    2000-01-01

    The fluorescence-conjugated N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-selective antagonist, BODIPY-conantokin-G, was employed to label N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in living neurons derived from the visual cortex of embryonic rats. The fluorescent labeling was visualized and analysed using confocal microscopy and digital imaging techniques. BODIPY-conantokin-G binding sites were homogeneously distributed across somata four days after neurons (E17-20) were placed in culture. In five-day-old cultures, BODIPY-conantokin-G binding sites became clusters of fluorescently labeled spots which were arranged irregularly on somata and proximal neurites. Distal neurites displayed fluorescent labeling after 10-15 days in culture. Displacement experiments showed that spermine and unlabeled conantokin-G compete with BODIPY-conantokin-G labeling at the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-associated polyamine site. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid also depressed the labeling but with a weaker effect, probably due to interactions occurring between the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist binding site and the polyamine modulatory site. The fluorescent dyes FM 1-43 and FM 4-64 were used in double-labeling studies to compare the distribution of nerve terminals with that of BODIPY-conantokin-G binding sites. BODIPY-conantokin-G binding clusters were associated with presynaptic nerve terminals while isolated BODIPY-conantokin-G binding sites were not always opposed to terminals. The aggregation of receptors to form clusters may lead to the functional formation of excitatory synapses. To investigate whether modulation of membrane potentials affected the formation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor clusters, cultured neurons were chronically treated for a week with either tetrodotoxin (to block membrane action potentials) or a high concentration of potassium to depolarize the membrane. While neurons in the tetrodotoxin-treated group showed a similar number of

  10. Insights into the behaviour of biomolecules on the early Earth: The concentration of aspartate by layered double hydroxide minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégoire, Brian; Erastova, Valentina; Geatches, Dawn L.; Clark, Stewart J.; Greenwell, H. Christopher; Fraser, Donald G.

    2016-03-01

    The role of mineral surfaces in concentrating and facilitating the polymerisation of simple protobiomolecules during the Hadean and Archean has been the subject of much research in order to constrain the conditions that may have led to the origin of life on early Earth. Here we examine the adsorption of the amino acid aspartate on layered double hydroxide minerals, and use a combined computer simulation - experimental spectroscopy approach to gain insight into the resulting structures of the host-aspartate material. We show that the uptake of aspartate occurs in alkaline solution by anion exchange of the dianion form of aspartate, rather than by surface adsorption. Anion exchange only occurs at values of pH where a significant population of aspartate has the amino group deprotonated, and is then highly efficient up to the mineral anion exchange capacity.

  11. DNA interaction with octahedral and square planar Ni(II) complexes of aspartic-acid Schiff-bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallam, S. A.; Orabi, A. S.; Abbas, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Ni(II) complexes of (S,E)-2-(2-OHbenzilydene)aspartic acid; (S,E)-2-(2,3-diOHbenzilydene)aspartic acid-; (S,E)-2-(2,4-diOH-benzilydene)aspartic acid; (S,E)-2-(2,5-diOHbenzilydene)aspartic acid and (S,E)-2-((2-OHnaphthalene-1-yl)methylene)aspartic acid Schiff-bases have been synthesized by template method in ethanol or ammonia media. They were characterized by elemental analyses, conductivity measurements, magnetic moment, UV, IR and 1H nmr spectra as well as thermal analysis (TG, DTG, DTA). The Schiff-bases are dibasic tridentate or tetradentate donors and the complexes have square planar and octahedral structures. The complexes decompose in two or three steps where kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the decomposition steps were computed. The interactions of the formed complexes with FM-DNA were monitored by UV and fluorescence spectroscopy.

  12. Does Aspartic Acid Racemization Constrain the Depth Limit of the Subsurface Biosphere?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onstott, T C.; Magnabosco, C.; Aubrey, A. D.; Burton, A. S.; Dworkin, J. P.; Elsila, J. E.; Grunsfeld, S.; Cao, B. H.; Hein, J. E.; Glavin, D. P.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of the subsurface biosphere have deduced average cellular doubling times of hundreds to thousands of years based upon geochemical models. We have directly constrained the in situ average cellular protein turnover or doubling times for metabolically active micro-organisms based on cellular amino acid abundances, D/L values of cellular aspartic acid, and the in vivo aspartic acid racemization rate. Application of this method to planktonic microbial communities collected from deep fractures in South Africa yielded maximum cellular amino acid turnover times of approximately 89 years for 1 km depth and 27 C and 1-2 years for 3 km depth and 54 C. The latter turnover times are much shorter than previously estimated cellular turnover times based upon geochemical arguments. The aspartic acid racemization rate at higher temperatures yields cellular protein doubling times that are consistent with the survival times of hyperthermophilic strains and predicts that at temperatures of 85 C, cells must replace proteins every couple of days to maintain enzymatic activity. Such a high maintenance requirement may be the principal limit on the abundance of living micro-organisms in the deep, hot subsurface biosphere, as well as a potential limit on their activity. The measurement of the D/L of aspartic acid in biological samples is a potentially powerful tool for deep, fractured continental and oceanic crustal settings where geochemical models of carbon turnover times are poorly constrained. Experimental observations on the racemization rates of aspartic acid in living thermophiles and hyperthermophiles could test this hypothesis. The development of corrections for cell wall peptides and spores will be required, however, to improve the accuracy of these estimates for environmental samples.

  13. Gas-phase acidities of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and their amino acid amides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhong; Matus, Myrna H.; Velazquez, Hector Adam; Dixon, David A.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2007-09-01

    Gas-phase acidities (GA or [Delta]Gacid) for the two most acidic common amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have been determined for the first time. Because of the amide linkage's importance in peptides and as an aid in studying side chain versus main chain deprotonation, aspartic acid amide and glutamic acid amide were also studied. Experimental GA values were measured by proton transfer reactions in an electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Calculated GAs were obtained by density functional and molecular orbital theory approaches. The best agreement with experiment was found at the G3MP2 level; the MP2/CBS and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ results are 3-4 kcal/mol more acidic than the G3MP2 results. Experiment shows that aspartic acid is more acidic than glutamic acid by ca. 3 kcal/mol whereas the G3MP2 results show a smaller acidity difference of 0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, aspartic acid amide is experimentally observed to be ca. 2 kcal/mol more acidic than glutamic acid amide whereas the G3MP2 results show a correspondingly smaller energy difference of 0.7 kcal/mol. The computational results clearly show that the anions are all ring-like structures with strong hydrogen bonds between the OH or NH2 groups and the CO2- group from which the proton is removed. The two amino acids are main-chain deprotonated. In addition, use of the COSMO model for the prediction of the free energy differences in aqueous solution gave values in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental values for pKa. Glutamic acid is predicted to be more acidic than aspartic acid in aqueous solution due to differential solvation effects.

  14. Does aspartic acid racemization constrain the depth limit of the subsurface biosphere?

    SciTech Connect

    Onstott, T. C.; Aubrey, A.D.; Kieft, T L; Silver, B J; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Van Heerden, E.; Opperman, D. J.; Bada, J L.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of the subsurface biosphere have deduced average cellular doubling times of hundreds to thousands of years based upon geochemical models. We have directly constrained the in situ average cellular protein turnover or doubling times for metabolically active micro-organisms based on cellular amino acid abundances, D/L values of cellular aspartic acid, and the in vivo aspartic acid racemization rate. Application of this method to planktonic microbial communities collected from deep fractures in South Africa yielded maximum cellular amino acid turnover times of ~89 years for 1 km depth and 27 C and 1 2 years for 3 km depth and 54 C. The latter turnover times are much shorter than previously estimated cellular turnover times based upon geochemical arguments. The aspartic acid racemization rate at higher temperatures yields cellular protein doubling times that are consistent with the survival times of hyperthermophilic strains and predicts that at temperatures of 85 C, cells must replace proteins every couple of days to maintain enzymatic activity. Such a high maintenance requirement may be the principal limit on the abundance of living micro-organisms in the deep, hot subsurface biosphere, as well as a potential limit on their activity. The measurement of the D/L of aspartic acid in biological samples is a potentially powerful tool for deep, fractured continental and oceanic crustal settings where geochemical models of carbon turnover times are poorly constrained. Experimental observations on the racemization rates of aspartic acid in living thermophiles and hyperthermophiles could test this hypothesis. The development of corrections for cell wall peptides and spores will be required, however, to improve the accuracy of these estimates for environmental samples.

  15. Does aspartic acid racemization constrain the depth limit of the subsurface biosphere?

    PubMed

    Onstott, T C; Magnabosco, C; Aubrey, A D; Burton, A S; Dworkin, J P; Elsila, J E; Grunsfeld, S; Cao, B H; Hein, J E; Glavin, D P; Kieft, T L; Silver, B J; Phelps, T J; van Heerden, E; Opperman, D J; Bada, J L

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of the subsurface biosphere have deduced average cellular doubling times of hundreds to thousands of years based upon geochemical models. We have directly constrained the in situ average cellular protein turnover or doubling times for metabolically active micro-organisms based on cellular amino acid abundances, D/L values of cellular aspartic acid, and the in vivo aspartic acid racemization rate. Application of this method to planktonic microbial communities collected from deep fractures in South Africa yielded maximum cellular amino acid turnover times of ~89 years for 1 km depth and 27 °C and 1-2 years for 3 km depth and 54 °C. The latter turnover times are much shorter than previously estimated cellular turnover times based upon geochemical arguments. The aspartic acid racemization rate at higher temperatures yields cellular protein doubling times that are consistent with the survival times of hyperthermophilic strains and predicts that at temperatures of 85 °C, cells must replace proteins every couple of days to maintain enzymatic activity. Such a high maintenance requirement may be the principal limit on the abundance of living micro-organisms in the deep, hot subsurface biosphere, as well as a potential limit on their activity. The measurement of the D/L of aspartic acid in biological samples is a potentially powerful tool for deep, fractured continental and oceanic crustal settings where geochemical models of carbon turnover times are poorly constrained. Experimental observations on the racemization rates of aspartic acid in living thermophiles and hyperthermophiles could test this hypothesis. The development of corrections for cell wall peptides and spores will be required, however, to improve the accuracy of these estimates for environmental samples. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Structural Insights into the Activation and Inhibition of Histo-Aspartic Protease from Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaumik, Prasenjit; Xiao, Huogen; Hidaka, Koushi; Gustchina, Alla; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Yada, Rickey Y.; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2012-09-17

    Histo-aspartic protease (HAP) from Plasmodium falciparum is a promising target for the development of novel antimalarial drugs. The sequence of HAP is highly similar to those of pepsin-like aspartic proteases, but one of the two catalytic aspartates, Asp32, is replaced with histidine. Crystal structures of the truncated zymogen of HAP and of the complex of the mature enzyme with inhibitor KNI-10395 have been determined at 2.1 and 2.5 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. As in other proplasmepsins, the propeptide of the zymogen interacts with the C-terminal domain of the enzyme, forcing the N- and C-terminal domains apart, thereby separating His32 and Asp215 and preventing formation of the mature active site. In the inhibitor complex, the enzyme forms a tight domain-swapped dimer, not previously seen in any aspartic proteases. The inhibitor is found in an unprecedented conformation resembling the letter U, stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Surprisingly, the location and conformation of the inhibitor are similar to those of the fragment of helix 2 comprising residues 34p-38p in the prosegments of the zymogens of gastric aspartic proteases; a corresponding helix assumes a vastly different orientation in proplasmepsins. Each inhibitor molecule is in contact with two molecules of HAP, interacting with the carboxylate group of the catalytic Asp215 of one HAP protomer through a water molecule, while also making a direct hydrogen bond to Glu278A' of the other protomer. A comparison of the shifts in the positions of the catalytic residues in the inhibitor complex presented here with those published previously gives further hints regarding the enzymatic mechanism of HAP.

  17. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of an aspartic protease from the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis.

    PubMed

    Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Sikalizyo Sikasunge, Chummy; Battsetseg, Badgar; Xuan, Xuenan; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2006-01-01

    Haemaphysalis longicornis cDNA encoding an aspartic protease (longepsin) was identified from a midgut cDNA library. The longepsin cDNA contains 1176bp that code for 392 amino acid residues with a predictable molecular weight of 39.3kDa. The cDNA has a signal peptide sequence associated with the N-terminal domains and domain structure analysis revealed that the deduced protein has two aspartic acid residues that are characteristic of a single active site for aspartic proteases. This novel longepsin cDNA exhibits 57% identity to the lysosomal aspartic protease of Aedes aegypti, 52% to Bombyx mori cathepsin D, 38% to Ancylostoma caninum, 44% to Schistosoma mansoni and 28% to Boophilus microplus aspartic proteases. The DNA fragment coding for longepsin was cloned into a pGEX-4T-3 vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant longepsin, once activated was able to hydrolyze casein substrate as well as hemoglobin (Hb) under acidic conditions (pH 3.5). RT-PCR analysis showed that the longepsin mRNA transcripts were expressed in salivary glands and midgut and not in the ovary. Northern blot analysis revealed that longepsin (1.5kb) was expressed in unfed and partially fed ticks and expression levels increased during feeding. The finding that longepsin is expressed in the midgut and salivary glands, proteolytic activity occurs under acidic conditions and longepsin can be gene silenced of longepsin provides compelling support for the hypothesis that longepsin plays an integral role in the proteolysis of erythrocyte Hb obtained from a host blood meal.

  18. Racemization of aspartic acid and phenylalanine in the sweetener aspartame at 100 degrees C.

    PubMed Central

    Boehm, M F; Bada, J L

    1984-01-01

    The racemization half-lives (i.e., the time required to reach a D/L = 0.33) at pH 6.8 for aspartic acid and phenylalanine in the sweetener aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) were determined to be 13 and 23 hours, respectively, at 100 degrees C. Racemization at this pH does not occur in aspartame but rather in its diketopiperazine decomposition product. Our results indicate that the use of aspartame to sweeten neutral pH foods and beverages that are then heated at elevated temperature could generate D-aspartic acid and D-phenylalanine. The nutritive consequences of these D-amino acids in the human diet are not well established, and thus aspartame should probably not be used as a sweetener when the exposure of neutral pH foods and beverages to elevated temperatures is required. At pH 4, a typical pH of most foods and beverages that might be sweetened with aspartame, the half-lives are 47 hours for aspartic acid and 1200 hours for phenylalanine at 100 degrees C. Racemization at pH 4 takes place in aspartame itself. Although the racemization rates at pH 4 are slow and no appreciable racemization of aspartic acid and phenylalanine should occur during the normal use of aspartame, some food and beverage components could conceivably act as catalysts. Additional studies are required to evaluate whether the use of aspartame as a sugar substitute might not in turn result in an increased human consumption of D-aspartic acid and D-phenylalanine. PMID:6591191

  19. Higher free D-aspartate and N-methyl-D-aspartate levels prevent striatal depotentiation and anticipate L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Errico, Francesco; Bonito-Oliva, Alessandra; Bagetta, Vincenza; Vitucci, Daniela; Romano, Rosaria; Zianni, Elisa; Napolitano, Francesco; Marinucci, Silvia; Di Luca, Monica; Calabresi, Paolo; Fisone, Gilberto; Carta, Manolo; Picconi, Barbara; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Usiello, Alessandro

    2011-12-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD) progressive alteration of striatal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) signaling has emerged as a considerable factor for the onset of the adverse motor effects of long-term levodopa (l-DOPA) treatment. In this regard, the NMDAR channel blocker amantadine is so far the only drug available for clinical use that attenuates L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). In this study, we examined the influence of a basal corticostriatal hyper-glutamatergic transmission in the appearance of dyskinesia, using a genetic mouse model lacking D-Aspartate Oxidase (DDO) enzyme (Ddo(-/-) mice). We found that, in Ddo(-/-) mice, non-physiological, high levels of the endogenous free D-amino acids D-aspartate (D-Asp) and NMDA, known to stimulate NMDAR transmission, resulted in the loss of corticostriatal synaptic depotentiation and precocious expression of LID. Interestingly, the block of depotentiation precedes any change in dopaminergic transmission associated to 6-OHDA lesion and l-DOPA treatment. Indeed, lesioned mutant mice display physiological L-DOPA-dependent enhancement of striatal D1 receptor/PKA/protein phosphatase-1 and ERK signaling. Moreover, in line with synaptic rearrangements of NMDAR subunits occurring in dyskinetic animal models, a short L-DOPA treatment produces a dramatic and selective reduction of the NR2B subunit in the striatal post-synaptic fraction of Ddo(-/-) lesioned mutants but not in controls. These data indicate that a preexisting hyper-glutamatergic tone at NMDARs in Ddo(-/-) mice produce abnormal striatal synaptic changes that, in turn, facilitate the onset of LID.

  20. L-Aspartate oxidase, a newly discovered enzyme of Escherichia coli, is the B protein of quinolinate synthetase.

    PubMed

    Nasu, S; Wicks, F D; Gholson, R K

    1982-01-25

    In Escherichia coli, quinolinic acid, a precursor of NAD+, is synthesized from L-aspartate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. This synthesis requires two enzymes, a FAD-containing "B protein" and an "A protein." The B protein has been purified 500-fold from E. coli cells. The enzyme behaves as an L-aspartate oxidase. In the absence of A protein, it converts L-aspartate to oxaloacetate. To our knowledge, no enzyme with this activity has been described previously. The enzyme displays some unusual properties. In its role as B protein in quinolinic acid synthetase, product formation (quinolinic acid) is linear with protein concentration; however, when it functions as an L-aspartate oxidase, product formation (oxaloacetate) is a parabolic function of protein concentration. The L-aspartate oxidase activity also shows marked substrate activation at substrate concentrations above 1.0 mM. The L-aspartate oxidase and B protein activities of the enzyme are inhibited by NAD+, which is competitive with FAD. The immediate reaction product of the enzyme has the same characteristics (rate of decay to oxaloacetate, and condensation with dihydroxyacetone phosphate to form quinolinate) as the unstable reaction product (iminoaspartate) formed from D-aspartate oxidase. A reaction mechanism for the A protein-catalyzed condensation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and iminoaspartate to form quinolinate is presented.

  1. Effects of Glutamate and Aspartate on Serum Antioxidative Enzyme, Sex Hormones, and Genital Inflammation in Boars Challenged with Hydrogen Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Hengjia; Lu, Lu; Deng, Jinpin; Fan, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Background. Oxidative stress is associated with infertility. This study was conducted to determine the effects of glutamate and aspartate on serum antioxidative enzymes, sex hormones, and genital inflammation in boars suffering from oxidative stress. Methods. Boars were randomly divided into 4 groups: the nonchallenged control (CON) and H2O2-challenged control (BD) groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with 2% alanine; the other two groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 2% glutamate (GLU) or 2% aspartate (ASP). The BD, GLU, and ASP groups were injected with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on day 15. The CON group was injected with 0.9% sodium chloride solution on the same day. Results. Dietary aspartate decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in serum (P < 0.05) compared with the BD group. Additionally, aspartate maintained serum luteinizing hormone (LH) at a relatively stable level. Moreover, glutamate and aspartate increased transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels in the epididymis and testis (P < 0.05) compared with the BD group. Conclusion. Both glutamate and aspartate promoted genital mRNA expressions of anti-inflammatory factors after oxidative stress. Aspartate more effectively decreased serum MDA and prevented fluctuations in serum sex hormones after H2O2 challenge than did glutamate. PMID:27777497

  2. Molecular cloning and enzymological characterization of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate independent aspartate racemase from hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus litoralis DSM 5473.

    PubMed

    Washio, Tsubasa; Kato, Shiro; Oikawa, Tadao

    2016-09-01

    We succeeded in expressing the aspartate racemase homolog gene from Thermococcus litoralis DSM 5473 in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) and found that the gene encodes aspartate racemase. The aspartate racemase gene consisted of 687 bp and encoded 228 amino acid residues. The purified enzyme showed aspartate racemase activity with a specific activity of 1590 U/mg. The enzyme was a homodimer with a molecular mass of 56 kDa and did not require pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a coenzyme. The enzyme showed aspartate racemase activity even at 95 °C, and the activation energy of the enzyme was calculated to be 51.8 kJ/mol. The enzyme was highly thermostable, and approximately 50 % of its initial activity remained even after incubation at 90 °C for 11 h. The enzyme showed a maximum activity at a pH of 7.5 and was stable between pH 6.0 and 7.0. The enzyme acted on L-cysteic acid and L-cysteine sulfinic acid in addition to D- and L-aspartic acids, and was strongly inhibited by iodoacetic acid. The site-directed mutagenesis of the enzyme showed that the essential cysteine residues were conserved as Cys83 and Cys194. D-Forms of aspartic acid, serine, alanine, and valine were contained in T. litoralis DSM 5473 cells.

  3. Solvent-Free Polymerization of L-Aspartic Acid in the Presence of D-Sorbitol to Obtain Water Soluble or Network Copolymers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    L-aspartic acid was thermally polymerized in the presence of D-sorbitol with the goal of synthesizing new, higher molecular weight water soluble and absorbent copolymers. No reaction occurred when aspartic acid alone was heated at 170 or 200 degrees C. In contrast, heating sorbitol and aspartic ac...

  4. Changes in D-aspartic acid and D-glutamic acid levels in the tissues and physiological fluids of mice with various D-aspartate oxidase activities.

    PubMed

    Han, Hai; Miyoshi, Yurika; Koga, Reiko; Mita, Masashi; Konno, Ryuichi; Hamase, Kenji

    2015-12-10

    D-Aspartic acid (D-Asp) and D-glutamic acid (D-Glu) are currently paid attention as modulators of neuronal transmission and hormonal secretion. These two D-amino acids are metabolized only by D-aspartate oxidase (DDO) in mammals. Therefore, in order to design and develop new drugs controlling the D-Asp and D-Glu amounts via regulation of the DDO activities, changes in these acidic D-amino acid amounts in various tissues are expected to be clarified in model animals having various DDO activities. In the present study, the amounts of Asp and Glu enantiomers in 6 brain tissues, 11 peripheral tissues and 2 physiological fluids of DDO(+/+), DDO(+/-) and DDO(-/-) mice were determined using a sensitive and selective two-dimensional HPLC system. As a result, the amounts of D-Asp were drastically increased with the decrease in the DDO activity in all the tested tissues and physiological fluids. On the other hand, the amounts of D-Glu were almost the same among the 3 strains of mice. The present results are useful for designing new drug candidates, such as DDO inhibitors, and further studies are expected.

  5. Peptides in seminal fluid and their role in infertility: a potential role for opiorphin inhibition of neutral endopeptidase activity as a clinically relevant modulator of sperm motility: a review.

    PubMed

    Bosler, Jayme S; Davies, Kelvin P; Neal-Perry, Genevieve S

    2014-11-01

    Infertility is a devastating medical condition that adversely affects emotional health and well-being of couples who desire pregnancy and parenthood. The overall demographic data suggest that the indication for more than one-third of assisted reproductive technology cycles performed in the United States includes male factor infertility. There is increasing recognition of the role that peptides present in seminal plasma have in determining sperm motility. Several recent studies suggest that peptidases, such as neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and aminopeptidase N (APN), impose significant adverse effects on sperm motility. Interestingly, several recent studies demonstrate that there is an endogenous NEP/APN inhibitor peptide called opiorphin in human seminal plasma. Our pilot studies suggest opiorphin promotes sperm motility and may positively influence sperm motility parameters in some cases of males infertility characterized by asthenozoospermia.

  6. Structure of the γ-d-glutamyl-l-diamino acid endopeptidase YkfC from Bacillus cereus in complex with l-Ala-γ-d-Glu: insights into substrate recognition by NlpC/P60 cysteine peptidases

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingping; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Cai, Xiaohui; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Chiu, Michelle; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Lam, Winnie W.; Marciano, David; Miller, Mitchell D.; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Wooten, Tiffany; Yeh, Andrew; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    Dipeptidyl-peptidase VI from Bacillus sphaericus and YkfC from Bacillus subtilis have both previously been characterized as highly specific γ-d-glutamyl-l-­diamino acid endopeptidases. The crystal structure of a YkfC ortholog from Bacillus cereus (BcYkfC) at 1.8 Å resolution revealed that it contains two N-terminal bacterial SH3 (SH3b) domains in addition to the C-terminal catalytic NlpC/P60 domain that is ubiquitous in the very large family of cell-wall-related cysteine peptidases. A bound reaction product (l-Ala-γ-d-Glu) enabled the identification of conserved sequence and structural signatures for recognition of l-Ala and γ-d-Glu and, therefore, provides a clear framework for understanding the substrate specificity observed in dipeptidyl-peptidase VI, YkfC and other NlpC/P60 domains in general. The first SH3b domain plays an important role in defining substrate specificity by contributing to the formation of the active site, such that only murein peptides with a free N-terminal alanine are allowed. A conserved tyrosine in the SH3b domain of the YkfC subfamily is correlated with the presence of a conserved acidic residue in the NlpC/P60 domain and both residues interact with the free amine group of the alanine. This structural feature allows the definition of a subfamily of NlpC/P60 enzymes with the same N-terminal substrate requirements, including a previously characterized cyanobacterial l-­alanine-γ-d-glutamate endopeptidase that contains the two key components (an NlpC/P60 domain attached to an SH3b domain) for assembly of a YkfC-like active site. PMID:20944232

  7. Transmembrane signaling by a chimera of the Escherichia coli aspartate receptor and the human insulin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Moe, G R; Bollag, G E; Koshland, D E

    1989-01-01

    Since many receptors apparently contain only one or two membrane-spanning segments, their transmembrane topology should be similar. This feature suggests that these receptors share common mechanisms of transmembrane signaling. To test the degree of conservation of signaling properties, a chimeric receptor containing the ligand-binding extracellular domain of the Escherichia coli aspartate chemoreceptor and the cytosolic portion of the human insulin receptor was constructed. This chimeric receptor is active as a tyrosine kinase, and aspartate stimulates its activity. Some interesting differences are noted in the target proteins phosphorylated by the chimera compared to the wild-type insulin receptor. These results indicate that features of the signaling mechanisms used by these diverse receptors are conserved, but that interesting changes in the protein properties are caused by differences in the neighboring domains. Images PMID:2548185

  8. Acid-Base Titration of (S)-Aspartic Acid: A Circular Dichroism Spectrophotometry Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.; Pedrosa de Jesus, Júlio D.

    2000-09-01

    The magnitude of the circular dichroism of (S)-aspartic acid in aqueous solutions at a fixed wavelength varies with the addition of strong base. This laboratory experiment consists of the circular dichroism spectrophotometric acid-base titration of (S)-aspartic acid in dilute aqueous solutions, and the use of the resulting data to determine the ionization constant of the protonated amino group. The work familiarizes students with circular dichroism and illustrates the possibility of performing titrations using a less usual instrumental method of following the course of a reaction. It shows the use of a chiroptical property in the determination of the concentration in solution of an optically active molecule, and exemplifies the use of a spectrophotometric titration in the determination of an ionization constant.

  9. Surface proton transport of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) thin films on quartz substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Yuki; Kubo, Takahiro

    2014-12-01

    Thin film structure and the proton transport property of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) (P-Asp100) have been investigated. An earlier study assessed partially protonated poly(aspartic acid), highly oriented thin film structure and enhancement of the internal proton transport. In this study of P-Asp100, IR p-polarized multiple-angle incidence resolution (P-MAIR) spectra were measured to investigate the thin film structure. The obtained thin films, with thicknesses of 120-670 nm, had no oriented structure. Relative humidity dependence of the resistance, proton conductivity, and normalized resistance were examined to ascertain the proton transport property of P-Asp100 thin films. The obtained data showed that the proton transport of P-Asp100 thin films might occur on the surface, not inside of the thin film. This phenomenon might be related with the proton transport of the biological system.

  10. Anharmonic vibrational studies of L-aspartic acid using HF and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Mohammad Jane; Ahmad, Shabbir

    2012-10-01

    The experimental and theoretical studies on the structure, molecular properties and vibrational spectra of L-aspartic acid are presented. The molecular structure, harmonic and anharmonic vibrational frequencies, molecular properties, MEP mapping, NBO analysis and electronic spectra of L-aspartic acid have been reported. Computed geometrical parameters and anharmonic frequencies of fundamental, combination and overtone transitions were found in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. The UV-Vis spectrum of present molecule has been recorded and the electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies and few low lying excited states were carried out by using time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) approach. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis has been performed for analyzing charge delocalization throughout the molecule. Molecular electrostatic potential map has also been used for quantitative measure of the chemical activities of various sites of the molecule.

  11. Pragmatic use of insulin degludec/insulin aspart co-formulation: A multinational consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Latif, Zafar A.; Comlekci, Abdurrahman; Galvez, Guillermo Gonzalez; Malik, Rached; Pathan, Md Faruque; Kumar, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Insulin degludec/insulin aspart (IDegAsp) is a modern coformulation of ultra-long-acting basal insulin degludec, with rapid-acting insulin aspart. IDegAsp provides effective, safe, well-tolerated glycemic control, with a low risk of hypoglycemia while allowing flexibility in meal patterns and timing of administration. This consensus statement describes a pragmatic framework to identify patients who may benefit from IDegAsp therapy. It highlights the utility of IDegAsp in type 2 diabetic patients who are insulin-naive, suboptimally controlled on basal or premixed insulin, or dissatisfied with basal–bolus regimens. It also describes potential IDegAsp usage in type 1 diabetic patients. PMID:27366723

  12. Pragmatic use of insulin degludec/insulin aspart co-formulation: A multinational consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Latif, Zafar A; Comlekci, Abdurrahman; Galvez, Guillermo Gonzalez; Malik, Rached; Pathan, Md Faruque; Kumar, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Insulin degludec/insulin aspart (IDegAsp) is a modern coformulation of ultra-long-acting basal insulin degludec, with rapid-acting insulin aspart. IDegAsp provides effective, safe, well-tolerated glycemic control, with a low risk of hypoglycemia while allowing flexibility in meal patterns and timing of administration. This consensus statement describes a pragmatic framework to identify patients who may benefit from IDegAsp therapy. It highlights the utility of IDegAsp in type 2 diabetic patients who are insulin-naive, suboptimally controlled on basal or premixed insulin, or dissatisfied with basal-bolus regimens. It also describes potential IDegAsp usage in type 1 diabetic patients.

  13. An easy method for diagnosing macro-aspartate aminotransferase: a case series.

    PubMed

    Beşer, Omer Faruk; Laçinel, Sibel; Gülcü, Didem; Kutlu, Tufan; Cullu Çokuğraş, Fügen; Erkan, Tülay

    2014-10-01

    Macro-aspartate transaminase (macro-AST) must be considered when the aspartate transaminase (AST) level is chronically high without any liver, cardiac, or muscle disease. Many specialized laboratory techniques have been recommended for diagnosing macro-AST, including the polyethylene glycol immune precipitate technique, which is simple. This study presents a considerably easier method based on the studies of Davidson and Watson and Castiella et al. Our method is based on the decrease in the plasma AST level after storage of the macroenzyme at 2-8 °C for 5 days, and has the advantages of low cost, reliability, and practicality at any health center. In our eight cases of macro-AST, the AST activity at day 6 had decreased by more than 50% from day 1. This method is practical for primary healthcare facilities because of its easy application and accurate results, and obviated the need for unnecessary tests after diagnosis.

  14. Signaling by the Escherichia coli Aspartate Chemoreceptor Tar with a Single Cytoplasmic Domain per Dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsuno, Ichiro; Homma, Michio; Oosawa, Kenji; Kawagishi, Ikuro

    1996-10-01

    Many transmembrane receptors are oligomeric proteins. Binding of a ligand may alter the oligomeric state of the receptor, induce structural changes within the oligomer, or both. The bacterial aspartate chemoreceptor Tar forms a homodimer in the presence or absence of ligands. Tar mediates attractant and repellent responses by modulating the activity of the cytoplasmic kinase CheA. In vivo intersubunit suppression was used to show that certain combinations of full-length and truncated mutant Tar proteins complemented each other to restore attractant responses to aspartate. These results suggest that heterodimers with only one intact cytoplasmic domain are functional. The signaling mechanism may require interactions between dimers or conformational changes within a single cytoplasmic domain.

  15. Crystallographic Snapshots of the Complete Catalytic Cycle of the Unregulated Aspartate Transcarbamoylase from Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    K Harris; G Cockrell; D Puleo; E Kantrowitz

    2011-12-31

    Here, we report high-resolution X-ray structures of Bacillus subtilis aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase), an enzyme that catalyzes one of the first reactions in pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. Structures of the enzyme have been determined in the absence of ligands, in the presence of the substrate carbamoyl phosphate, and in the presence of the bisubstrate/transition state analog N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate. Combining the structural data with in silico docking and electrostatic calculations, we have been able to visualize each step in the catalytic cycle of ATCase, from the ordered binding of the substrates, to the formation and decomposition of the tetrahedral intermediate, to the ordered release of the products from the active site. Analysis of the conformational changes associated with these steps provides a rationale for the lack of cooperativity in trimeric ATCases that do not possess regulatory subunits.

  16. Membrane topology of the electrogenic aspartate-alanine antiporter AspT of Tetragenococcus halophilus.

    PubMed

    Nanatani, Kei; Ohonishi, Fumito; Yoneyama, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Tasuku; Abe, Keietsu

    2005-03-04

    AspT is an electrogenic aspartate:alanine exchange protein that represents the vectorial component of a proton-motive metabolic cycle found in some strains of Tetragenococcus halophilus. AspT is the sole member of a new family, the Aspartate: Alanine Exchanger (AAE) family, in secondary transporters, according to the computational classification proposed by Saier et al. (http://www.biology.ucsd.edu/~msaier/transport/). We analyzed the topology of AspT biochemically, by using fusion methods in combination with alkaline phosphatase or beta-lactamase. These results suggested that AspT has a unique topology; 8 TMS, a large cytoplasmic loop (183 amino acids) between TMS5 and TMS6, and N- and C-termini that both face the periplasm. These results demonstrated a unique 2D-structure of AspT as the novel AAE family.

  17. Synthesis, accumulation, and release of D-aspartate in the Aplysia californica central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Scanlan, Cory; Shi, Ting; Hatcher, Nathan G.; Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2010-01-01

    D-aspartate (D-Asp) is an endogenous molecule that is often detected in central nervous system and endocrine tissues. Using capillary electrophoresis and a variety of radionuclide detection techniques, we examine the synthesis, release, and uptake/accumulation of D-Asp in the central nervous system of the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. We observe the preferential synthesis and accumulation of D-Asp over L-aspartate (L-Asp) in neuron-containing ganglia compared to surrounding sheath tissues. Little conversion of D-Asp to L-Asp is detected. The Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin and elevated extracellular potassium stimulates release of D-Asp from the cerebral ganglia. Lastly, radioactive D-Asp in the extracellular media is efficiently taken up and accumulated by individual F-cluster neurons. These observations point to a role for D-Asp in cell-to-cell signaling with many characteristics similar to classical transmitters. PMID:20874765

  18. Characterization of the oligosaccharides assembled on the Pichia pastoris-expressed recombinant aspartic protease.

    PubMed

    Montesino, R; Nimtz, M; Quintero, O; García, R; Falcón, V; Cremata, J A

    1999-10-01

    Aspartic protease, widely used as a milk-coagulating agent in industrial cheese production, contains three potential N-glycosylation sites. In this study, we report the characterization of N-linked oligosaccharides on recombinant aspartic protease secreted from the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris using a combination of mass spectrometric, 2D chromatographic, chemical and enzymatic methods. The carbohydrates from site I (Asn79) were found to range from Man6-17GlcNAc2 with 50% bearing a phospho-diester-motif, site II (Asn113) was not occupied and site III (Asn188) contained mostly uncharged species ranging from Man-13GlcNAc2. These charged groups are not affecting the transport through the secretion pathway of the recombinant glycoprotein. Changes from a molasses-based medium to a minimal salts-based medium led to a clear reduction of the degree of phosphorylation of the N-glycan population.

  19. Kinetic analysis of a general model of activation of aspartic proteinase zymogens.

    PubMed

    Varón, R; García-Moreno, M; Valera-Ruipérez, D; García-Molina, F; García-Cánovas, F; Ladrón-de Guevara, R G; Masiá-Pérez, J; Havsteen, B H

    2006-10-07

    Starting from a simple general reaction mechanism of activation of aspartic proteinase zymogens involving an uni- and a bimolecular simultaneous route, the time course equation of the concentration of the zymogen and of the activated enzyme have been derived. From these equations, an analysis quantifying the relative contribution to the global process of the two routes has been carried out for the first time. This analysis suggests a way to predict the time course of the relative contribution as well as the effect of the initial zymogen and activating enzyme concentrations, on the relative weight. An experimental design and kinetic data analysis is suggested to estimate the kinetic parameters involved in the reaction mechanism proposed. Finally, we apply some of our results to experimental data obtained by other authors in experimental studies of the activation of some aspartic proteinase zymogens.

  20. THE ULTRASTRUCTURAL LOCALIZATION OF THE ISOZYMES OF ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE IN MURINE TISSUES

    PubMed Central

    Papadimitriou, J. M.; Van Duijn, P.

    1970-01-01

    Two isozymes of aspartate aminotransferase have been demonstrated biochemically. One isozyme is found in the mitochondrial fraction of the cytoplasm, the other ("soluble") in the supernatant. Both isozymes can be demonstrated by the cytochemical technique of Lee and Torack, as reported in the preceding report. Aldehyde fixation rapidly inactivates both isozymes, especially the soluble one. Inactivation can be delayed by addition of ketoglutarate to the fixative. The ketoglutarate probably competes with the fixative for the active site of the enzyme, thus protecting that region of the molecule. This enables adequate tissue preservation with enough remaining enzymatic activity to be demonstrated by the precipitation of oxaloacetate as the lead salt from a medium containing α-ketoglutaric acid aspartic acid, and lead nitrate. Electron-opaque material was found not only in mitochondria but, as the result of substrate protection, on the plasma membranes of many cells including erythrocytes and bacteria, the limiting membrane of peroxisomes, and the transverse tubular system of striated muscle. Occasional centrioles, neurotubules, tubules in the tails of spermatozoa, the A-I band junction in myofibrils of striated muscle, and the ground substance between cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum in intestinal goblet cells also showed precipitate. In all cases, replacement of L-aspartic acid by D-aspartic acid in the medium resulted in unstained sections. The sensitivity of extramitochondrial sites to fixation, the need of ketoglutarate as an agent for protecting the enzymatic activity during the fixation process, and the known presence of only soluble isozyme in erythrocytes indicate that enzymatic activity at these sites can be attributed to the soluble isozyme. Localization of the soluble isozyme on the plasma membrane may be related to possible involvement in depolarization phenomena, amino acid transport, or synthesis of plasma membrane-bound mucopolysaccharides. PMID

  1. Age estimation in forensic sciences: Application of combined aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Alkass, K; Buchholz, B A; Ohtani, S; Yamamoto, T; Druid, H; Spalding, S L

    2009-11-02

    Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster, since the age at death, birth date and year of death, as well as gender, can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this paper we analyze teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that above-ground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955-1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) which have been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel and ten of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R2=0.66, p < 0.05). Radiocarbon analysis showed an excellent precision with an overall absolute error of 0.6 {+-} 04 years. Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 {+-} 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification.

  2. EPR Studies of Cu2+ in dl-Aspartic Acid Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabulut, B.; Tapramaz, R.; Bulut, A.

    1999-04-01

    EPR studies of Cu2+ doped dl-Aspartic Acid [NH2CH(CH2COOH)COO] powder and single crystal have been carried out at 113 and 300 K. The principal hyperfine and g values, covalancy parameter, mixing coefficients and Fermi-contact term of the complex were obtained, and the ground-state wavefuntion of the Cu2+ ion in the lattice has been constructed.

  3. Multivalent Repression of Aspartic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli K-12

    PubMed Central

    Boy, Emmanuelle; Patte, Jean-Claude

    1972-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli in which the lysine-sensitive aspartokinase is feedback-resistant are described. In these strains, as well as in the wild type, aspartic semialdehyde dehydrogenase is subject to multivalent repression by lysine, threonine, and methionine. When these amino acids were added to a culture in minimal medium, the differential rate of synthesis of the enzyme dropped to zero and remained there for about one generation. PMID:4404058

  4. A structural comparison of 21 inhibitor complexes of the aspartic proteinase from Endothia parasitica.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, D.; Cooper, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    The aspartic proteinases are an important family of enzymes associated with several pathological conditions such as hypertension (renin), gastric ulcers (pepsin), neoplastic disease (cathepsins D and E), and AIDS (HIV proteinase). Studies of inhibitor binding are therefore of great importance for design of novel inhibitors for potential therapeutic applications. Numerous X-ray analyses have shown that transition-state isostere inhibitors of aspartic proteinases bind in similar extended conformations in the active-site cleft of the target enzyme. Upon comparison of 21 endothiapepsin inhibitor complexes, the hydrogen bond lengths were found to be shortest where the isostere (P1-P'1) interacts with the enzyme's catalytic aspartate pair. Hydrogen bonds with good geometry also occur at P'2, and more so at P3, where a conserved water molecule is involved in the interactions. Weaker interactions also occur at P2, where the side-chain conformations of the inhibitors appear to be more variable than at the more tightly held positions. At P2 and, to a lesser extent, P3, the side-chain conformations depend intriguingly on interactions with spatially adjacent side chains, namely P'1 and P1, respectively. The tight binding at P1-P'1, P3, and P'2 is also reflected in the larger number of van der Waals contacts and the large decreases in solvent-accessible area at these positions, as well as their low temperature factors. Our analysis substantiates earlier proposals for the locations of protons in the transition-state complex. Aspartate 32 is probably ionized in the complexes, its charge being stabilized by 1, or sometimes 2, hydrogen bonds from the transition-state analogues at P1. The detailed comparison also indicates that the P1 and P2 residues of substrate in the ES complex may be strained by the extensive binding interactions at P3, P'1, and P'2 in a manner that would facilitate hydrolysis of the scissile peptide bond. PMID:7703859

  5. Age estimation in forensic sciences: application of combined aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon analysis.

    PubMed

    Alkass, Kanar; Buchholz, Bruce A; Ohtani, Susumu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu; Druid, Henrik; Spalding, Kirsty L

    2010-05-01

    Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster because the age at death, birth date, and year of death as well as gender can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization, has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this study, we analyzed teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that aboveground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955-1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 ((14)C), which has been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel, and 10 of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R(2) = 0.66, p < 0.05). Radiocarbon analysis showed an excellent precision with an overall absolute error of 1.0 +/- 0.6 years. Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 +/- 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification.

  6. An inhibitor from Lupinus bogotensis seeds effective against aspartic proteases from Hypothenemus hampei.

    PubMed

    Molina, Diana; Zamora, Humberto; Blanco-Labra, Alejandro

    2010-06-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), is one of the most devastating coffee pests (Coffea arabica L.) worldwide. Digestion in the midgut of H. hampei is facilitated by aspartic proteases. This is the first report of an aspartic protease inhibitor from Lupinus bogotensis. The L. bogotensis aspartic protease inhibitor (LbAPI) exhibited a molecular mass of 12.84kDa, as determined by MALDI-TOF, and consists of a single polypeptide chain with an isoelectric point of 4.5. In thermal activity experiments, stability was retained at pH 2.5 after heating the protein at 70 degrees C for 30 min, but was unstable at 100 degrees C. The protein was also stable over a broad range of pH, from 2 to 11, at 30 degrees C. In in vitro assays, LbAPI was highly effective against aspartic proteases from H. hampei guts with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 2.9 microg. LbAPI inhibits pepsin in a stoichiometric ratio of 1:1. LbAPI inhibition of pepsin was competitive, with a K(i) of 3.1 microM, using hemoglobin as substrate. Its amino-terminal sequence had 76% homology with the seed storage proteins vicilin and beta-conglutin. The homology of LbAPI to vicilins from Lupinus albus L. suggests that they may also serve as storage proteins in the seed. LbAPI could be a promising tool to make genetically modified coffee with resistance to H. hampei. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The mode of condensation of aspartic acid and dihydroxyacetone phosphate in quinolinate synthesis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wicks, F D; Sakakibara, S; Gholson, R K; Scott, T A

    1977-11-07

    Dihydroxy [3-14C]acetone phosphate was prepared enzymatically from [1-14C]glucose and use as a substrate in a partially purified quinolinate synthetase system prepared from Escherichia coli mutants. Carbon-by-carbon degradation of the resulting [14C]quinolinate showed that 96% of the 14C was located in carbon-4, indicating that carbon-3 of dihydroxyacetone phosphate condenses with carbon-3 of aspartate in quinolinate synthesis in E. coli.

  8. Diversion of aspartate in ASS1-deficient tumours fosters de novo pyrimidine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, Shiran; Adler, Lital; Yizhak, Keren; Sarver, Alona; Silberman, Alon; Agron, Shani; Stettner, Noa; Sun, Qin; Brandis, Alexander; Helbling, Daniel; Korman, Stanley; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Dimmock, David; Ulitsky, Igor; Nagamani, Sandesh Cs; Ruppin, Eytan; Erez, Ayelet

    2015-11-19

    Cancer cells hijack and remodel existing metabolic pathways for their benefit. Argininosuccinate synthase (ASS1) is a urea cycle enzyme that is essential in the conversion of nitrogen from ammonia and aspartate to urea. A decrease in nitrogen flux through ASS1 in the liver causes the urea cycle disorder citrullinaemia. In contrast to the well-studied consequences of loss of ASS1 activity on ureagenesis, the purpose of its somatic silencing in multiple cancers is largely unknown. Here we show that decreased activity of ASS1 in cancers supports proliferation by facilitating pyrimidine synthesis via CAD (carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase complex) activation. Our studies were initiated by delineating the consequences of loss of ASS1 activity in humans with two types of citrullinaemia. We find that in citrullinaemia type I (CTLN I), which is caused by deficiency of ASS1, there is increased pyrimidine synthesis and proliferation compared with citrullinaemia type II (CTLN II), in which there is decreased substrate availability for ASS1 caused by deficiency of the aspartate transporter citrin. Building on these results, we demonstrate that ASS1 deficiency in cancer increases cytosolic aspartate levels, which increases CAD activation by upregulating its substrate availability and by increasing its phosphorylation by S6K1 through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Decreasing CAD activity by blocking citrin, the mTOR signalling, or pyrimidine synthesis decreases proliferation and thus may serve as a therapeutic strategy in multiple cancers where ASS1 is downregulated. Our results demonstrate that ASS1 downregulation is a novel mechanism supporting cancerous proliferation, and they provide a metabolic link between the urea cycle enzymes and pyrimidine synthesis.

  9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Prokaryotic Ubiquitin-like Protein-deconjugating Enzyme Is an Unusual Aspartate Amidase*

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Kristin E.; McAllister, Fiona E.; Schwerdtfeger, Carsten; Mintseris, Julian; Cerda-Maira, Francisca; Noens, Elke E.; Wilmanns, Matthias; Hubbard, Stevan R.; Melandri, Francesco; Ovaa, Huib; Gygi, Steven P.; Darwin, K. Heran

    2012-01-01

    Deamidase of Pup (Dop), the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup)-deconjugating enzyme, is critical for the full virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is unique to bacteria, providing an ideal target for the development of selective chemotherapies. We used a combination of genetics and chemical biology to characterize the mechanism of depupylation. We identified an aspartate as a potential nucleophile in the active site of Dop, suggesting a novel protease activity to target for inhibitor development. PMID:22942282

  10. Crystal quality and inhibitor binding by aspartic proteinases; preparation of high quality crystals of mouse renin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badasso, M.; Sibanda, B. L.; Cooper, J. B.; Dealwis, C. G.; Wood, S. P.

    1992-08-01

    Renin from mouse submandibular glands has been highly purified and co-crystallized with a synthetic nonapeptide fragment of rat angiotensionogen in which the scissile Leu-Leu bond has been modified as a hydroxyethylene mimic of the transition state. The strong diffraction from these crystals compared to the native form is discussed in relation to the behaviour of other members of the aspartic proteinase family in crystallisation.

  11. Crystal Structures of the Histo-Aspartic Protease (HAP) from Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaumik, Prasenjit; Xiao, Huogen; Parr, Charity L.; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Gustchina, Alla; Yada, Rickey Y.; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2009-08-07

    The structures of recombinant histo-aspartic protease (HAP) from malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium falciparum as apoenzyme and in complex with two inhibitors, pepstatin A and KNI-10006, were solved at 2.5-, 3.3-, and 3.05-{angstrom} resolutions, respectively. In the apoenzyme crystals, HAP forms a tight dimer not seen previously in any aspartic protease. The interactions between the monomers affect the conformation of two flexible loops, the functionally important 'flap' (residues 70-83) and its structural equivalent in the C-terminal domain (residues 238-245), as well as the orientation of helix 225-235. The flap is found in an open conformation in the apoenzyme. Unexpectedly, the active site of the apoenzyme contains a zinc ion tightly bound to His32 and Asp215 from one monomer and to Glu278A from the other monomer, with the coordination of Zn resembling that seen in metalloproteases. The flap is closed in the structure of the pepstatin A complex, whereas it is open in the complex with KNI-10006. Although the binding mode of pepstatin A is significantly different from that in other pepsin-like aspartic proteases, its location in the active site makes unlikely the previously proposed hypothesis that HAP is a serine protease. The binding mode of KNI-10006 is unusual compared with the binding of other inhibitors from the KNI series to aspartic proteases. The novel features of the HAP active site could facilitate design of specific inhibitors used in the development of antimalarial drugs.

  12. Specificity of aspartate aminotransferases from leguminous plants for 4-substituted glutamic acids.

    PubMed

    Winter, H C; Dekker, E E

    1989-04-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase) was partially purified from extracts of germinating seeds of peanut (Arachis hypogaea), honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos), soybean (Glycine max), and Sophora japonica. The ability of these enzyme preparations, as well as aspartate aminotransferase purified from pig heart cytosol, to use 4-substituted glutamic acids as amino group donors and their corresponding 2-oxo acids as amino group acceptors in the aminotransferase reaction was measured. All 4-substituted glutamic acid analogs tested were poorer substrates than was glutamate or 2-oxoglutarate. 2-Oxo-4-methyleneglutarate was least effective (lowest relative V(m)/K(m)) as a substrate for the enzyme from peanuts and honey locust, which are the two species studied that accumulate 4-methyleneglutamic acid and 4-methyleneglutamine. Of the different aminotransferases tested, the enzyme from honey locust was the least active with 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-methylglutarate, the corresponding amino acid of which also accumulates in that species. These results suggest that transamination of 2-oxo-4-substituted glutaric acids is not involved in the biosynthesis of the corresponding 4-substituted glutamic acids in these species. Rather, accumulation of certain 4-substituted glutamic acids in these instances may be, in part, the result of the inefficacy of their transamination by aspartate aminotransferase.

  13. Specificity of Aspartate Aminotransferases from Leguminous Plants for 4-Substituted Glutamic Acids 1

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Harry C.; Dekker, Eugene E.

    1989-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase) was partially purified from extracts of germinating seeds of peanut (Arachis hypogaea), honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos), soybean (Glycine max), and Sophora japonica. The ability of these enzyme preparations, as well as aspartate aminotransferase purified from pig heart cytosol, to use 4-substituted glutamic acids as amino group donors and their corresponding 2-oxo acids as amino group acceptors in the aminotransferase reaction was measured. All 4-substituted glutamic acid analogs tested were poorer substrates than was glutamate or 2-oxoglutarate. 2-Oxo-4-methyleneglutarate was least effective (lowest relative Vm/Km) as a substrate for the enzyme from peanuts and honey locust, which are the two species studied that accumulate 4-methyleneglutamic acid and 4-methyleneglutamine. Of the different aminotransferases tested, the enzyme from honey locust was the least active with 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-methylglutarate, the corresponding amino acid of which also accumulates in that species. These results suggest that transamination of 2-oxo-4-substituted glutaric acids is not involved in the biosynthesis of the corresponding 4-substituted glutamic acids in these species. Rather, accumulation of certain 4-substituted glutamic acids in these instances may be, in part, the result of the inefficacy of their transamination by aspartate aminotransferase. PMID:16666674

  14. Characterization of Aspartate Kinase from Corynebacterium pekinense and the Critical Site of Arg169

    PubMed Central

    Min, Weihong; Li, Huiying; Li, Hongmei; Liu, Chunlei; Liu, Jingsheng

    2015-01-01

    Aspartate kinase (AK) is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of aspartate-derived amino acids. Recombinant AK was efficiently purified and systematically characterized through analysis under optimal conditions combined with steady-state kinetics study. Homogeneous AK was predicted as a decamer with a molecular weight of ~48 kDa and a half-life of 4.5 h. The enzymatic activity was enhanced by ethanol and Ni2+. Moreover, steady-state kinetic study confirmed that AK is an allosteric enzyme, and its activity was inhibited by allosteric inhibitors, such as Lys, Met, and Thr. Theoretical results indicated the binding mode of AK and showed that Arg169 is an important residue in substrate binding, catalytic domain, and inhibitor binding. The values of the kinetic parameter Vmax of R169 mutants, namely, R169Y, R169P, R169D, and R169H AK, with l-aspartate as the substrate, were 4.71-, 2.25-, 2.57-, and 2.13-fold higher, respectively, than that of the wild-type AK. Furthermore, experimental and theoretical data showed that Arg169 formed a hydrogen bond with Glu92, which functions as the entrance gate. This study provides a basis to develop new enzymes and elucidate the corresponding amino acid production. PMID:26633359

  15. Characterization of Aspartate Kinase from Corynebacterium pekinense and the Critical Site of Arg169.

    PubMed

    Min, Weihong; Li, Huiying; Li, Hongmei; Liu, Chunlei; Liu, Jingsheng

    2015-11-27

    Aspartate kinase (AK) is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of aspartate-derived amino acids. Recombinant AK was efficiently purified and systematically characterized through analysis under optimal conditions combined with steady-state kinetics study. Homogeneous AK was predicted as a decamer with a molecular weight of ~48 kDa and a half-life of 4.5 h. The enzymatic activity was enhanced by ethanol and Ni(2+). Moreover, steady-state kinetic study confirmed that AK is an allosteric enzyme, and its activity was inhibited by allosteric inhibitors, such as Lys, Met, and Thr. Theoretical results indicated the binding mode of AK and showed that Arg169 is an important residue in substrate binding, catalytic domain, and inhibitor binding. The values of the kinetic parameter Vmax of R169 mutants, namely, R169Y, R169P, R169D, and R169H AK, with l-aspartate as the substrate, were 4.71-, 2.25-, 2.57-, and 2.13-fold higher, respectively, than that of the wild-type AK. Furthermore, experimental and theoretical data showed that Arg169 formed a hydrogen bond with Glu92, which functions as the entrance gate. This study provides a basis to develop new enzymes and elucidate the corresponding amino acid production.

  16. Vibrational Spectroscopy and Phonon-Related Properties of the L-Aspartic Acid Anhydrous Monoclinic Crystal.

    PubMed

    Silva, A M; Costa, S N; Sales, F A M; Freire, V N; Bezerra, E M; Santos, R P; Fulco, U L; Albuquerque, E L; Caetano, E W S

    2015-12-10

    The infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectra of the monoclinic P21 l-aspartic acid anhydrous crystal were recorded and interpreted with the help of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The effect of dispersive forces was taken into account, and the optimized unit cells allowed us to obtain the vibrational normal modes. The computed data exhibits good agreement with the measurements for low wavenumbers, allowing for a very good assignment of the infrared and Raman spectral features. The vibrational spectra of the two lowest energy conformers of the l-aspartic molecule were also evaluated using the hybrid B3LYP functional for the sake of comparison, showing that the molecular calculations give a limited description of the measured IR and Raman spectra of the l-aspartic acid crystal for wavenumbers below 1000 cm(-1). The results obtained reinforce the need to use solid-state calculations to describe the vibrational properties of molecular crystals instead of calculations for a single isolated molecule picture even for wavenumbers beyond the range usually associated with lattice modes (200 cm(-1) < ω < 1000 cm(-1)).

  17. The (unusual) aspartic acid in the metal coordination sphere of the prokaryotic zinc finger domain.

    PubMed

    D'Abrosca, Gianluca; Russo, Luigi; Palmieri, Maddalena; Baglivo, Ilaria; Netti, Fortuna; de Paola, Ivan; Zaccaro, Laura; Farina, Biancamaria; Iacovino, Rosa; Pedone, Paolo Vincenzo; Isernia, Carla; Fattorusso, Roberto; Malgieri, Gaetano

    2016-08-01

    The possibility of choices of protein ligands and coordination geometries leads to diverse Zn(II) binding sites in zinc-proteins, allowing a range of important biological roles. The prokaryotic Cys2His2 zinc finger domain (originally found in the Ros protein from Agrobacterium tumefaciens) tetrahedrally coordinates zinc through two cysteine and two histidine residues and it does not adopt a correct fold in the absence of the metal ion. Ros is the first structurally characterized member of a family of bacterial proteins that presents several amino acid changes in the positions occupied in Ros by the zinc coordinating residues. In particular, the second position is very often occupied by an aspartic acid although the coordination of structural zinc by an aspartate in eukaryotic zinc fingers is very unusual. Here, by appropriately mutating the protein Ros, we characterize the aspartate role within the coordination sphere of this family of proteins demonstrating how the presence of this residue only slightly perturbs the functional structure of the prokaryotic zinc finger domain while it greatly influences its thermodynamic properties.

  18. Platinum-Incorporating Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-poly(aspartic acid) Pseudoblock Copolymer Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xikuang; Xie, Chen; Chen, Weizhi; Yang, Chenchen; Wu, Wei; Jiang, Xiqun

    2015-07-13

    Cisplatin-incorporating pseudoblock copolymer nanoparticles with high drug loading efficiency (ca. 50%) were prepared built on host-guest inclusion complexation between β-cyclodextrin end-capped poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) block and admantyl end-capped poly(aspartic acid) block, followed by the coordination between cisplatin and carboxyl groups in poly(aspartic acid). The host-guest interaction between the two polymer blocks was examined by two-dimensional nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy. The size and morphology of nanoparticles formed were characterized by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The size control of nanoparticles was carried out by varying the ratio of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) to poly(aspartic acid). The nanoparticles were stable in the aqueous medium with different pH values but disintegrated in the medium containing Cl(-) ions. The in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of cisplatin-loaded nanoparticles were evaluated. The biodistribution of the nanoparticles in vivo was studied by noninvasive near-infrared fluorescence imaging and ion-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. It was found that cisplatin-loaded nanoparticles could effectively accumulate in the tumor site and exhibited significant superior in vivo antitumor activity to the commercially available free cisplatin by combining the tumor volume, body weight, and survival rate measurements.

  19. Transport of Arginine and Aspartic Acid into Isolated Barley Mesophyll Vacuoles 1

    PubMed Central

    Martinoia, Enrico; Thume, Monika; Vogt, Esther; Rentsch, Doris; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    1991-01-01

    The transport of arginine into isolated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mesophyll vacuoles was investigated. In the absence of ATP, arginine uptake was saturable with a Km of 0.3 to 0.4 millimolar. Positively charged amino acids inhibited arginine uptake, lysine being most potent with a Ki of 1.2 millimolar. In the presence of free ATP, but not of its Mg-complex, uptake of arginine was drastically enhanced and a linear function of its concentration up to 16 millimolar. The nonhydrolyzable adenylyl imidodiphosphate, but no other nucleotide tested, could substitute for ATP. Therefore, it is suggested that this process does not require energy and does not involve the tonoplast ATPase. The ATP-dependent arginine uptake was strongly inhibited by p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid. Furthermore, hydrophobic amino acids were inhibitory (I50 phenylalanine 1 millimolar). Similar characteristics were observed for the uptake of aspartic acid. However, rates of ATP-stimulated aspartic acid transport were 10-fold lower as compared to arginine transport. Uptake of aspartate in the absence of ATP was negligible. PMID:16668447

  20. Combination of aspartic acid and glutamic acid inhibits tumor cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Yamamoto, Katsunori; Sato, Yoshinori; Inoue, Shinjiro; Morinaga, Tetsuo; Hirano, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    Placental extract contains several biologically active compounds, and pharmacological induction of placental extract has therapeutic effects, such as improving liver function in patients with hepatitis or cirrhosis. Here, we searched for novel molecules with an anti-tumor activity in placental extracts. Active molecules were separated by chromatographic analysis, and their antiproliferative activities were determined by a colorimetric assay. We identified aspartic acid and glutamic acid to possess the antiproliferative activity against human hepatoma cells. Furthermore, we showed that the combination of aspartic acid and glutamic acid exhibited enhanced antiproliferative activity, and inhibited Akt phosphorylation. We also examined in vivo tumor inhibition activity using the rabbit VX2 liver tumor model. The treatment mixture (emulsion of the amino acids with Lipiodol) administered by hepatic artery injection inhibited tumor cell growth of the rabbit VX2 liver. These results suggest that the combination of aspartic acid and glutamic acid may be useful for induction of tumor cell death, and has the potential for clinical use as a cancer therapeutic agent.

  1. Possible role of a histidine residue in the substrate specificity of yeast d-aspartate oxidase.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shouji; Shimada, Kozue; Nozawa, Shunsuke; Goto, Masaru; Abe, Katsumasa; Kera, Yoshio

    2016-03-01

    D-Aspartate oxidase (DDO) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of acidic D-amino acids, whereas neutral and basic D-amino acids are substrates of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO). DDO of the yeast Cryptococcus humicola (ChDDO) has much higher substrate specificity to D-aspartate, but the structural features that confer this specificity have not been elucidated. A three-dimensional model of ChDDO suggested that a histidine residue (His56) in the active site might be involved in the unique substrate specificity, possibly through the interaction with the substrate side chain in the active site. His56 mutants with several different amino acid residues (H56A, H56D, H56F, H56K and H56N) exhibited no significant activity toward acidic D-amino acids, but H56A and H56N mutants gained the ability to utilize neutral D-amino acids as substrates, such as D-methionine, D-phenylalanine and D-glutamine, showing the conversion of ChDDO to DAO by these mutations. This conversion was also demonstrated by the sensitivity of these mutants to competitive inhibitors of DAO. These results and kinetic properties of the mutants show that His56 is involved in the substrate specificity of ChDDO and possibly plays a role in the higher substrate specificity toward D-aspartate.

  2. Occurrence of the malate-aspartate shuttle in various tumor types.

    PubMed

    Greenhouse, W V; Lehninger, A L

    1976-04-01

    The activity of the malate-aspartate shuttle for the reoxidation of cytoplasmic reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by mitochondria was assessed in six lines of rodent ascites tumor cells (two strains of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, Krebs II carcinoma, Novikoff hepatoma, AS-30D hepatoma, and L1210 mouse leukemia). All the tumor cells examined showed mitochondrial reoxidation of cytoplasmic NADH, as evidenced by the accumulation of pyruvate when the cells were incubated aerobically with L-lactate. Reoxidation of cytoplasmic NADH thus generated was completely inhibited by the transaminase inhibitor aminooxyacetate. The involvement of the respiratory chain in the reoxidation of cytoplasmic NADH was demonstrated by the action of cyanide, rotenone, and antimycin A, which strongly inhibited the formation of pyruvate from added L-lactate. Compounds that inhibit the carrier-mediated entry of malate into mitochondria, such as butylmalonate, benzenetricarboxylate, and iodobenzylmalonate, also inhibited the accumulation of pyruvate from added L-lactate by the tumor cells. The maximal rate of the malate-aspartate shuttle was established by addtion of arsenite to inhibit the mitochondrial oxidation of the pyruvate formed from added lactate. The capacity of the various tumor lines for the reoxidation of cytoplasmic NADH via the malate-aspartate shuttle approaches 20% of the total respiratory rate of the cells and thus appears to be sufficient to account for the mitochondrial reoxidation of that fraction of glycolytic NADH not reoxidized by pyruvate and lactate dehydrognenase in the cytoplasm.

  3. Magnitude of malate-aspartate reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide shuttle activity in intact respiring tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Greenhouse, W V; Lehninger, A L

    1977-11-01

    Measurements of respiration, CO2 and lactate production, and changes in the levels of various key metabolites of the glycolytic sequence and tricarboxylic acid cycle were made on five lines of rodent ascites tumor cells (two strains of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, Krebs II carcinoma, AS-30D carcinoma, and L1210 cells) incubated aerobically in the presence of uniformly labeled D-[14C]glucose. From these data, as well as earlier evidence demonstrating that the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) shuttle in these cells requires a transaminase step and is thus identified as the malate-aspartate shuttle (W.V.V. Greenhouse and A.L. Lehninger, Cancer Res., 36: 1392-1396, 1976), metabolic flux diagrams were constructed for the five cell lines. These diagrams show the relative rates of glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transport, and the malate-aspartate shuttle in these tumors. Large amounts of cytosolic NADH were oxidized by the mitochondrial respiratory chain via the NADH shuttle, comprising anywhere from about 20 to 80% of the total flow of reducing equivalents to oxygen in these tumors. Calculations of the sources of energy for adenosine triphosphate synthesis indicated that on the average about one-third of the respiratory adenosine triphosphate is generated by electron flow originating from cytosolic NADH via the malate-aspartate shuttle.

  4. Accessing the reproducibility and specificity of pepsin and other aspartic proteases.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Joomi; Cao, Min-Jie; Yu, Ying Qing; Engen, John R

    2013-06-01

    The aspartic protease pepsin is less specific than other endoproteinases. Because aspartic proteases like pepsin are active at low pH, they are utilized in hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS) experiments for digestion under hydrogen exchange quench conditions. We investigated the reproducibility, both qualitatively and quantitatively, of online and offline pepsin digestion to understand the compliment of reproducible pepsin fragments that can be expected during a typical pepsin digestion. The collection of reproducible peptides was identified from >30 replicate digestions of the same protein and it was found that the number of reproducible peptides produced during pepsin digestion becomes constant above 5-6 replicate digestions. We also investigated a new aspartic protease from the stomach of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus Zuiew) and compared digestion efficiency and specificity to porcine pepsin and aspergillopepsin. Unique cleavage specificity was found for rice field eel pepsin at arginine, asparagine, and glycine. Different peptides produced by the various proteases can enhance protein sequence coverage and improve the spatial resolution of HDX MS data. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mass spectrometry in structural biology.

  5. Aspartate beta-decarboxylase from Alcaligenes faecalis: carbon-13 kinetic isotope effect and deuterium exchange experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, R.M.; O'Leary, M.H.

    1985-03-26

    The authors have measured the /sup 13/C kinetic isotope effect at pH 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, and 6.5 and in D/sub 2/O at pH 5.0 and the rate of D-H exchange of the alpha and beta protons of aspartic acid in D/sub 2/O at pH 5.0 for the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme aspartate beta-decarboxylase from Alcaligenes faecalis. The /sup 13/C kinetic isotope effect, with a value of 1.0099 +/- 0.0002 at pH 5.0, is less than the intrinsic isotope effect for the decarboxylation step, indicating that the decarboxylation step is not entirely rate limiting. The authors have been able to estimate probable values of the relative free energies of the transition states of the enzymatic reaction up to and including the decarboxylation step from the /sup 13/C kinetic isotope effect and the rate of D-H exchange of alpha-H. The pH dependence of the kinetic isotope effect reflects the pKa of the pyridine nitrogen of the coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate but not that of the imine nitrogen. A mechanism is proposed for the exchange of aspartate beta-H that is consistent with the stereochemistry suggested earlier.

  6. Accessing the Reproducibility and Specificity of Pepsin and other Aspartic Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Joomi; Cao, Min-Jie; Yu, Ying Qing; Engen, John R.

    2012-01-01

    The aspartic protease pepsin is less specific than other endoproteinases. Because aspartic proteases like pepsin are active at low pH, they are utilized in hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS) experiments for digestion under hydrogen exchange quench conditions. We investigated the reproducibility, both qualitatively and quantitatively, of online and offline pepsin digestion to understand the compliment of reproducible pepsin fragments that can be expected during a typical pepsin digestion. The collection of reproducible peptides was identified from >30 replicate digestions of the same protein and it was found that the number of reproducible peptides produced during pepsin digestion becomes constant above 5-6 replicate digestions. We also investigated a new aspartic protease from the stomach of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus Zuiew) and compared digestion efficiency and specificity to porcine pepsin and aspergillopepsin. Unique cleavage specificity was found for rice field eel pepsin at arginine, asparagine, and glycine. Different peptides produced by the various proteases can enhance protein sequence coverage and improve the spatial resolution of HDX MS data. PMID:23063535

  7. Poly(L-aspartic acid) derivative soluble in a volatile organic solvent for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Oh, Nam Muk; Oh, Kyung Taek; Youn, Yu Seok; Lee, Eun Seong

    2012-09-01

    In order to develop a novel functional poly(L-amino acid) that can dissolve in volatile organic solvents, we prepared poly[L-aspartic acid-g-(3-diethylaminopropyl)]-b-poly(ethylene glycol) [poly(L-Asp-g-DEAP)-b-PEG] via the conjugation of 3-diethylaminopropyl (DEAP) to carboxylate groups of poly(L-Asp) (M(n) 4 K)-b-PEG (M(n) 2 K). This poly(L-aspartic acid) derivative evidenced a relatively high solubility in volatile organic solvents such as dichloromethane, chloroform, and acetone. We fabricated a model nanostructure (i.e., polymeric micelle) using poly(L-Asp-g-DEAP)-b-PEG by the film rehydration method, which involves the simple removal of the volatile organic solvent (dichloromethane) used to dissolve polymer, reducing concerns about organic solvents remaining in a nano-sized particle. Interestingly, this micelle showed the pH-stimulated release of encapsulated model drug [i.e., doxorubicin (DOX)] due to the protonation of DEAP according to the pH of the solution. We expect that this poly(L-aspartic acid) derivative promises to provide pharmaceutical potential for constituting a new stimuli-sensitive drug carrier for various drug molecules.

  8. Developmental changes in aspartate-family amino acid biosynthesis in pea chloroplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.R.; Cato, L.W.; Stephens, B.W.; Reeves, M. )

    1990-05-01

    Isolated chloroplasts are known to synthesize the asp-derived amino acids (ile, hse, lys and thr) from ({sup 14}C)asp (Mills et al, 1980, Plant Physiol. 65, 1166). Now, we have studied the influence of tissue age on essential amino acid biosynthesis in pea (Pisum sativum) plastids. Chloroplasts from the younger (third and fourth) leaves of 12 day old plants, were 2-3 times more active in synthesizing lys and thr from ({sup 14}C)asp than those from older (first or second) leaves. We also examined two key pathway enzymes (aspartate kinase and homoserine dehydrogenase); with each enzyme,a activity in younger leaves was about 2 times that in plastids from older tissue. Both lys- and thr-sensitive forms of aspartate kinase are known in plants; in agreement with earlier work, we found that lys-sensitive activity was about 4 times higher in the younger tissues, while the thr-sensitive activity changed little during development (Davies and Miflin, 1977, Plant Sci. Lett. 9, 323). Recently the role of aspartate kinase and homoserine dehydrogenase in controlling asp-family amino acid synthesis has been questioned (Giovanelli et al, 1989, Plant Physiol. 90, 1584); we hope that measurements of amino acid levels in chloroplasts as well as further enzyme studies will help us to better understand the regulation of asp-family amino acid synthesis.

  9. Properties of the flavoenzyme D-aspartate oxidase from Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, G; Negri, A; Ceciliani, F; Ronchi, S; Vetere, A; D'Aniello, G; D'Aniello, A

    1994-08-17

    The properties of D-aspartate oxidase from Octopus vulgaris (EC 1.4.3.1) have been investigated. The protein is a monomer of M(r) 37,000 containing one mol flavin/mol protein. The enzyme as isolated exists at least in two forms, one containing FAD and the other, which is catalytically inactive, probably containing 6-OH-FAD, as inferred from the absorption spectrum of the enzyme. An additional form of the enzyme, as far as the nature of the coenzyme is concerned, has been detected in the purified enzyme and shown to derive from the form originally containing FAD. The modulation of the coenzyme reactivity exerted by Octopus D-aspartate oxidase, as studied by spectrophotometric techniques, conforms to the one expected for an enzyme belonging to the oxidase class of flavoproteins. Structural investigations show similarities in both the amino-acid composition and the N-terminal amino-acid sequence to bovine D-aspartate oxidase and porcine D-amino-acid oxidase. In summary, the general properties of the enzyme from Octopus vulgaris closely resemble those of the enzyme from beef kidney. Moreover, kinetic analyses suggest that two active-site residues with pKa of 7.1 and 9.1 are critical for catalysis, and that the ionization of such residues has different effects on the catalytic activity depending whether mono- or dicarboxylic D-amino acids are used as substrate.

  10. Regulation of aspartate-derived amino-acid metabolism in Zygosaccharomyces rouxii compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis C; Smit; Hartmans; ter Schure EG; Tramper; Wijffels

    2000-07-01

    To elucidate the growth inhibitory effect of threonine, the regulation of the aspartate-derived amino-acid metabolism in Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, an important yeast for the flavor development in soy sauce, was investigated. It was shown that threonine inhibited the growth of Z. rouxii by blocking the methionine synthesis. It seemed that threonine blocked this synthesis by inhibiting the conversion of aspartate. In addition, it was shown that the growth of Z. rouxii, unlike that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was not inhibited by the herbicide sulfometuron methyl (SMM). From enzyme assays, it was concluded that the acetohydroxy acid synthase in Z. rouxii, unlike that in S. cerevisiae, was not sensitive to SMM. Furthermore, the enzyme assays demonstrated that the activity of threonine deaminase in Z. rouxii, like in S. cerevisiae, was strongly inhibited by isoleucine and stimulated by valine. From this work, it is clear that the aspartate-derived amino-acid metabolism in Z. rouxii only partly resembles that in S. cerevisiae.

  11. Structural Insights into a Novel Class of Aspartate Aminotransferase from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hyeoncheol Francis; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase from Corynebacterium glutamicum (CgAspAT) is a PLP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the production of L-aspartate and α-ketoglutarate from L-glutamate and oxaloacetate in L-lysine biosynthesis. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of CgAspAT and compare it with those of other aspartate aminotransferases (AspATs) from the aminotransferase class I, we determined the crystal structure of CgAspAT. CgAspAT functions as a dimer, and the CgAspAT monomer consists of two domains, the core domain and the auxiliary domain. The PLP cofactor is found to be bound to CgAspAT and stabilized through unique residues. In our current structure, a citrate molecule is bound at the active site of one molecule and mimics binding of the glutamate substrate. The residues involved in binding of the PLP cofactor and the glutamate substrate were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. Interestingly, compared with other AspATs from aminotransferase subgroup Ia and Ib, CgAspAT exhibited unique binding sites for both cofactor and substrate; moreover, it was found to have unusual structural features in the auxiliary domain. Based on these structural differences, we propose that CgAspAT does not belong to either subgroup Ia or Ib, and can be categorized into a subgroup Ic. The phylogenetic tree and RMSD analysis also indicates that CgAspAT is located in an independent AspAT subgroup. PMID:27355211

  12. The Pathway of Product Release from the R State of Aspartate Transcarbamoylase

    SciTech Connect

    Mendes, K.; Kantrowitz, E

    2010-01-01

    The pathway of product release from the R state of aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase; EC 2.1.3.2, aspartate carbamoyltransferase) has been determined here by solving the crystal structure of Escherichia coli ATCase locked in the R quaternary structure by specific introduction of disulfide bonds. ATCase displays ordered substrate binding and product release, remaining in the R state until substrates are exhausted. The structure reported here represents ATCase in the R state bound to the final product molecule, phosphate. This structure has been difficult to obtain previously because the enzyme relaxes back to the T state after the substrates are exhausted. Hence, cocrystallizing the wild-type enzyme with phosphate results in a T-state structure. In this structure of the enzyme trapped in the R state with specific disulfide bonds, we observe two phosphate molecules per active site. The position of the first phosphate corresponds to the position of the phosphate of carbamoyl phosphate (CP) and the position of the phosphonate of N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate. However, the second, more weakly bound phosphate is bound in a positively charged pocket that is more accessible to the surface than the other phosphate. The second phosphate appears to be on the path that phosphate would have to take to exit the active site. Our results suggest that phosphate dissociation and CP binding can occur simultaneously and that the dissociation of phosphate may actually promote the binding of CP for more efficient catalysis.

  13. [Efficacy and safety of insulin aspart versus regular human insulin for women with gestational diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Fan, Ling

    2012-05-22

    To explore the efficacy and safety of human aspart versus regular human insulin in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A total of 80 women with GDM during pregnancy delivered at our hospital divided into 2 groups: Group 1 with human aspart and regular human insulin N while Group 2 with regular human insulin R and N. The levels of glucose were compared before and after 2 h at breakfast, lunch and supper at Day 1, 3 and 5. And the outcomes of women and their babies were evaluated. No significant difference in general characteristics existed between two groups. Except for breakfast of Day 3, no significant difference was found in terms of the amount of insulin, the time of satisfactory glucose level and delivery time point, etc. There was no significant inter-group difference in the outcomes of pregnant women and their babies. The efficacy and safety of human aspart or regular human insulin are comparable for the women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of aspartate transcarbamoylase from the parasitic protist Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Matoba, Kazuaki; Nara, Takeshi; Aoki, Takashi; Honma, Teruki; Tanaka, Akiko; Inoue, Masayuki; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Kita, Kiyoshi; Harada, Shigeharu

    2009-09-01

    Aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase), the second enzyme of the de novo pyrimidine-biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes the production of carbamoyl aspartate from carbamoyl phosphate and L-aspartate. In contrast to Escherichia coli ATCase and eukaryotic CAD multifunctional fusion enzymes, Trypanosoma cruzi ATCase lacks regulatory subunits and is not part of the multifunctional fusion enzyme. Recombinant T. cruzi ATCase expressed in E. coli was purified and crystallized in a ligand-free form and in a complex with carbamoyl phosphate at 277 K by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique using polyethylene glycol 3350 as a precipitant. Ligand-free crystals (space group P1, unit-cell parameters a = 78.42, b = 79.28, c = 92.02 A, alpha = 69.56, beta = 82.90, gamma = 63.25 degrees) diffracted X-rays to 2.8 A resolution, while those cocrystallized with carbamoyl phosphate (space group P2(1), unit-cell parameters a = 88.41, b = 158.38, c = 89.00 A, beta = 119.66 degrees) diffracted to 1.6 A resolution. The presence of two homotrimers in the asymmetric unit (38 kDa x 6) gives V(M) values of 2.3 and 2.5 A(3) Da(-1) for the P1 and P2(1) crystal forms, respectively.

  15. Overproduction of the first three enzymes of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis in Drosophila cells resistant to N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate.

    PubMed

    Laval, M; Azou, Y; Giorgi, D; Rosset, R

    1986-04-01

    Drosophila cells were treated in vitro with N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate (PALA) which is a specific inhibitor of aspartate transcarbamylase, the second enzyme of the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. By stepwise selection using increasing amounts of this inhibitor, PALA-resistant (PALAr) stable clones have been isolated. Enzymatic activities of aspartate transcarbamylase, carbamyl phosphate synthetase and dihydro-orotase, borne by the same multifunctional protein, CAD, are increased 6-12-fold in these resistant clones compared with parental cells. The aspartate transcarbamylase in PALAr cells is shown by physical, kinetic and immunological criteria to be normal. The data from immunotitration and immunoblotting experiments indicate that the increased enzyme activities result from the overproduction of CAD.

  16. Beta-methylthio-aspartic acid: identification of a novel posttranslational modification in ribosomal protein S12 from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kowalak, J. A.; Walsh, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    Utilizing microscale chemical derivatization reactions and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we have identified a novel posttranslational modification of aspartic acid, beta-methylthio-aspartic acid. The modified residue is located at position 88 in ribosomal protein S12 from Escherichia coli, a phylogenetically conserved protein that has been implicated in maintaining translational accuracy of the ribosome. PMID:8844851

  17. Effects of Gibberellic Acid on Endogenous Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Indoleacetyl Aspartic Acid Levels in a Dwarf Pea 1

    PubMed Central

    Law, David M.; Hamilton, Robert H.

    1984-01-01

    Two-week-old dwarf peas (Pisum sativum cv Little Marvel) were sprayed with gibberellic acid (GA3), and after 3 or 4 days the upper stem and young leaf samples were analyzed for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-acetyl aspartic acid by an isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography method. GA3 increased IAA levels as much as 8-fold and decreased indole-3-acetyl aspartic acid levels. PMID:16663587

  18. Ca2+ Activation kinetics of the two aspartate-glutamate mitochondrial carriers, aralar and citrin: role in the heart malate-aspartate NADH shuttle.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Laura; Gomez-Puertas, Paulino; Iijima, Mikio; Kobayashi, Keiko; Saheki, Takeyori; Satrústegui, Jorgina

    2007-03-09

    Ca(2+) regulation of the Ca(2+) binding mitochondrial carriers for aspartate/glutamate (AGCs) is provided by their N-terminal extensions, which face the intermembrane space. The two mammalian AGCs, aralar and citrin, are members of the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle. We report that their N-terminal extensions contain up to four pairs of EF-hand motifs plus a single vestigial EF-hand, and have no known homolog. Aralar and citrin contain one fully canonical EF-hand pair and aralar two additional half-pairs, in which a single EF-hand is predicted to bind Ca(2+). Shuttle activity in brain or skeletal muscle mitochondria, which contain aralar as the major AGC, is activated by Ca(2+) with S(0.5) values of 280-350 nm; higher than those obtained in liver mitochondria (100-150 nm) that contain citrin as the major AGC. We have used aralar- and citrin-deficient mice to study the role of the two isoforms in heart, which expresses both AGCs. The S(0.5) for Ca(2+) activation of the shuttle in heart mitochondria is about 300 nm, and it remains essentially unchanged in citrin-deficient mice, although it undergoes a drastic reduction to about 100 nm in aralar-deficient mice. Therefore, aralar and citrin, when expressed as single isoforms in heart, confer differences in Ca(2+) activation of shuttle activity, probably associated with their structural differences. In addition, the results reveal that the two AGCs fully account for shuttle activity in mouse heart mitochondria and that no other glutamate transporter can replace the AGCs in this pathway.

  19. Effects of D-aspartate treatment on D-aspartate oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and caspase 3 activities in frog (Rana esculenta) tissues.

    PubMed

    Burrone, Lavinia; Di Giovanni, Marcello; Di Fiore, M Maddalena; Baccari, Gabriella Chieffi; Santillo, Alessandra

    2010-06-01

    Although D-aspartate (D-Asp) has been recognized to have a physiological role within different organs, high concentrations could elicit detrimental effects on those same organs. In this study, we examined the D-aspartate oxidase (D-AspO) activity and the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and caspase 3 in different tissues of the frog Rana esculenta after chronic D-Asp treatment. Our in vivo experiments, consisting of intraperitoneal (ip) injections of D-Asp (2.0 micromol/g b.w.) in frogs for ten consecutive days, revealed that all examined tissues can take up and accumulate D-Asp. Further, in D-Asp treated frogs, i) the D-AspO activity significantly increased in all tissues (kidney, heart, testis, liver, and brain), ii) the SOD1 expression (antioxidant enzyme) significantly increased in the kidney, and iii) the caspase 3 level (indicative of apoptosis) increased in both brain and heart. Particularly, after the D-Asp treatment we found in both brain and heart (which showed the lowest SOD1 levels) a significant increase of the caspase 3 expression and, vice versa, in the kidney (which showed the highest SOD1 expression) a significant decrease of the caspase 3 expression. Therefore, we speculate that, in frog tissue, D-AspO plays an essential role in modulating the D-Asp concentration. In addition, exaggerated D-Asp concentrations activated SOD1 as cytoprotective mechanism in the kidney, whereas, in the brain and in the heart, where the antioxidant action of SOD1 is limited, caspase 3 was activated.

  20. An aspartic protease of the scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei is involved in the digestion of host skin and blood macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Wajahat; Viberg, Linda T; Fischer, Katja; Walton, Shelley F; Holt, Deborah C

    2013-11-01

    Scabies is a disease of worldwide significance, causing considerable morbidity in both humans and other animals. The scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei burrows into the skin of its host, obtaining nutrition from host skin and blood. Aspartic proteases mediate a range of diverse and essential physiological functions such as tissue invasion and migration, digestion, moulting and reproduction in a number of parasitic organisms. We investigated whether aspartic proteases may play role in scabies mite digestive processes. We demonstrated the presence of aspartic protease activity in whole scabies mite extract. We then identified a scabies mite aspartic protease gene sequence and produced recombinant active enzyme. The recombinant scabies mite aspartic protease was capable of digesting human haemoglobin, serum albumin, fibrinogen and fibronectin, but not collagen III or laminin. This is consistent with the location of the scabies mites in the upper epidermis of human skin. The development of novel therapeutics for scabies is of increasing importance given the evidence of emerging resistance to current treatments. We have shown that a scabies mite aspartic protease plays a role in the digestion of host skin and serum molecules, raising the possibility that interference with the function of the enzyme may impact on mite survival.

  1. Autocrine activation of neuronal NMDA receptors by aspartate mediates dopamine- and cAMP-induced CREB-dependent gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Luis E. F.; Murray, Peter D.; Zielke, H. Ronald; Roby, Clinton D.; Kingsbury, Tami J.; Krueger, Bruce K.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic AMP can stimulate the transcription of many activity-dependent genes via activation of the transcription factor, CREB. However, in mouse cortical neuron cultures, prior to synaptogenesis, neither cAMP nor dopamine, which acts via cAMP, stimulated CREB-dependent gene transcription when NR2B-containing NMDA receptors (NMDARs) were blocked. Stimulation of transcription by cAMP was potentiated by inhibitors of excitatory amino acid uptake, suggesting a role for extracellular glutamate or aspartate in cAMP-induced transcription. Aspartate was identified as the extracellular messenger: enzymatic scavenging of L-aspartate, but not glutamate, blocked stimulation of CREB-dependent gene transcription by cAMP; moreover, cAMP induced aspartate but not glutamate release. Taken together, these results suggest that cAMP acts via an autocrine or paracrine pathway to release aspartate, which activates NR2B-containing NMDARs, leading to Ca2+ entry and activation of transcription. This cAMP/aspartate/NMDAR signaling pathway may mediate the effects of transmitters such as dopamine on axon growth and synaptogenesis in developing neurons or on synaptic plasticity in mature neural networks. PMID:19812345

  2. An Aspartic Protease of the Scabies Mite Sarcoptes scabiei Is Involved in the Digestion of Host Skin and Blood Macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Wajahat; Viberg, Linda T.; Fischer, Katja; Walton, Shelley F.; Holt, Deborah C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Scabies is a disease of worldwide significance, causing considerable morbidity in both humans and other animals. The scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei burrows into the skin of its host, obtaining nutrition from host skin and blood. Aspartic proteases mediate a range of diverse and essential physiological functions such as tissue invasion and migration, digestion, moulting and reproduction in a number of parasitic organisms. We investigated whether aspartic proteases may play role in scabies mite digestive processes. Methodology/Principle Findings We demonstrated the presence of aspartic protease activity in whole scabies mite extract. We then identified a scabies mite aspartic protease gene sequence and produced recombinant active enzyme. The recombinant scabies mite aspartic protease was capable of digesting human haemoglobin, serum albumin, fibrinogen and fibronectin, but not collagen III or laminin. This is consistent with the location of the scabies mites in the upper epidermis of human skin. Conclusions/Significance The development of novel therapeutics for scabies is of increasing importance given the evidence of emerging resistance to current treatments. We have shown that a scabies mite aspartic protease plays a role in the digestion of host skin and serum molecules, raising the possibility that interference with the function of the enzyme may impact on mite survival. PMID:24244770

  3. The mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier isoform 1 gene expression is regulated by CREB in neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Menga, Alessio; Iacobazzi, Vito; Infantino, Vittoria; Avantaggiati, Maria Laura; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The aspartate/glutamate carrier isoform 1 is an essential mitochondrial transporter that exchanges intramitochondrial aspartate and cytosolic glutamate across the inner mitochondrial membrane. It is expressed in brain, heart and muscle and is involved in important biological processes, including myelination. However, the signals that regulate the expression of this transporter are still largely unknown. In this study we first identify a CREB binding site within the aspartate/glutamate carrier gene promoter that acts as a strong enhancer element in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. This element is regulated by active, phosphorylated CREB protein and by signal pathways that modify the activity of CREB itself and, most noticeably, by intracellular Ca2+ levels. Specifically, aspartate/glutamate carrier gene expression is induced via CREB by forskolin while it is inhibited by the PKA inhibitor, H89. Furthermore, the CREB-induced activation of gene expression is increased by thapsigargin, which enhances cytosolic Ca2+, while it is inhibited by BAPTA-AM that reduces cytosolic Ca2+ or by STO-609, which inhibits CaMK-IV phosphorylation. We further show that CREB-dependent regulation of aspartate/glutamate carrier gene expression occurs in neuronal cells in response to pathological (inflammation) and physiological (differentiation) conditions. Since this carrier is necessary for neuronal functions and is involved in myelinogenesis, our results highlight that targeting of CREB activity and Ca2+ might be therapeutically exploited to increase aspartate/glutamate carrier gene expression in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25597433

  4. Depolarization-induced release of [(3)H]D-aspartate from GABAergic neurons caused by reversal of glutamate transporters.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J B; Pickering, D S; Schousboe, A

    2000-01-01

    Cultured neocortical neurons, which predominantly consist of GABAergic neurons exhibit a pronounced stimulus-coupled GABA release. Since the cultures may contain a small population of glutamatergic neurons and the GABAergic neurons have a high content of glutamate it was of interest to examine if glutamate in addition to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) could be released from these cultures. The neurons were preloaded with [(3)H]D-aspartate and subsequently its release was followed during depolarization induced by a high potassium concentration or the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor agonists, AMPA and kainate. Depolarization of the neurons with 55 mM potassium increased the release of [(3)H]D-aspartate by more than 10-fold. When the non-specific calcium-channel blockers cobalt or lanthanum were included in the stimulation buffer with potassium, the release of [(3)H]D-aspartate was decreased by about 40%. These results indicated that some of the released [(3)H]D-aspartate might originate from a vesicular pool. When AMPA was applied to the neurons, the release of [(3)H]D-aspartate was increased 2-fold and could not be prevented or decreased by addition of cobalt. Since AMPA has a rapid desensitizing effect on AMPA receptors, it was examined whether AMPA under non-desensitizing conditions was able to induce an increased release of [(3)H]D-aspartate as compared to the conditions of applying AMPA alone. The desensitization of AMPA receptors was blocked by 6-chloro-3,4-dihydro-3-(2-norbornen-5-yl)-2H-1,2, 4-benzothiadiazine-7-sulphonamide-1,1-dioxide (cyclothiazide). Under the non-desensitizing conditions, the AMPA-induced release of [(3)H]D-aspartate was highly enhanced showing about a 10-fold increase over basal release. Addition of cobalt or lanthanum did not decrease the amount of [(3)H]D-aspartate released, indicating that the release originated from a cytoplasmic pool. Kainate, which induces an almost non-desensitizing effect

  5. Distribution and evolution of the serine/aspartate racemase family in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Uda, Kouji; Abe, Keita; Dehara, Yoko; Mizobata, Kiriko; Sogawa, Natsumi; Akagi, Yuki; Saigan, Mai; Radkov, Atanas D; Moe, Luke A

    2016-02-01

    Free D-amino acids have been found in various invertebrate phyla, while amino acid racemase genes have been identified in few species. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the distribution, function, and evolution of amino acid racemases in invertebrate animals. We searched the GenBank databases, and found 11 homologous serine racemase genes from eight species in eight different invertebrate phyla. The cloned genes were identified based on their maximum activity as Acropora millepora (Cnidaria) serine racemase (SerR) and aspartate racemase (AspR), Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematoda) SerR, Capitella teleta (Annelida) SerR, Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca) SerR and AspR, Dugesia japonica (Platyhelminthes) SerR, Milnesium tardigradum (Tardigrada) SerR, Penaeus monodon (Arthropoda) SerR and AspR and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata) AspR. We found that Acropora, Aplysia, Capitella, Crassostrea and Penaeus had two amino acid racemase paralogous genes and these paralogous genes have evolved independently by gene duplication at their recent ancestral species. The transcriptome analyses using available SRA data and enzyme kinetic data suggested that these paralogous genes are expressed in different tissues and have different functions in vivo. Phylogenetic analyses clearly indicated that animal SerR and AspR are not separated by their particular racemase functions and form a serine/aspartate racemase family cluster. Our results revealed that SerR and AspR are more widely distributed among invertebrates than previously known. Moreover, we propose that the triple serine loop motif at amino acid positions 150-152 may be responsible for the large aspartate racemase activity and the AspR evolution from SerR.

  6. Solution Structure of the Squash Aspartic Acid Proteinase Inhibitor (SQAPI) and Mutational Analysis of Pepsin Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Headey, Stephen J.; MacAskill, Ursula K.; Wright, Michele A.; Claridge, Jolyon K.; Edwards, Patrick J. B.; Farley, Peter C.; Christeller, John T.; Laing, William A.; Pascal, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    The squash aspartic acid proteinase inhibitor (SQAPI), a proteinaceous proteinase inhibitor from squash, is an effective inhibitor of a range of aspartic proteinases. Proteinaceous aspartic proteinase inhibitors are rare in nature. The only other example in plants probably evolved from a precursor serine proteinase inhibitor. Earlier work based on sequence homology modeling suggested SQAPI evolved from an ancestral cystatin. In this work, we determined the solution structure of SQAPI using NMR and show that SQAPI shares the same fold as a plant cystatin. The structure is characterized by a four-strand anti-parallel β-sheet gripping an α-helix in an analogous manner to fingers of a hand gripping a tennis racquet. Truncation and site-specific mutagenesis revealed that the unstructured N terminus and the loop connecting β-strands 1 and 2 are important for pepsin inhibition, but the loop connecting strands 3 and 4 is not. Using ambiguous restraints based on the mutagenesis results, SQAPI was then docked computationally to pepsin. The resulting model places the N-terminal strand of SQAPI in the S′ side of the substrate binding cleft, whereas the first SQAPI loop binds on the S side of the cleft. The backbone of SQAPI does not interact with the pepsin catalytic Asp32–Asp215 diad, thus avoiding cleavage. The data show that SQAPI does share homologous structural elements with cystatin and appears to retain a similar protease inhibitory mechanism despite its different target. This strongly supports our hypothesis that SQAPI evolved from an ancestral cystatin. PMID:20538608

  7. Dosing Accuracy of Insulin Aspart FlexPens After Transport Through the Pneumatic Tube System.

    PubMed

    Ward, Leah G; Heckman, Michael G; Warren, Amy I; Tran, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether transporting insulin aspart FlexPens via a pneumatic tube system affects the dosing accuracy of the pens. A total of 115 Novo Nordisk FlexPens containing insulin aspart were randomly assigned to be transported via a pneumatic tube system (n = 92) or to serve as the control (n = 23). Each pen was then randomized to 10 international unit (IU) doses (n = 25) or 30 IU doses (n = 67), providing 600 and 603 doses, respectively, for the pneumatic tube group. The control group also received random assignment to 10 IU doses (n = 6) or 30 IU doses (n = 17), providing 144 and 153 doses, respectively. Each dose was expelled using manufacturer instructions. Weights were recorded, corrected for specific gravity, and evaluated based on acceptable International Organization for Standardization (ISO) dosing limits. In the group of pens transported through the pneumatic tube system, none of the 600 doses of 10 IU (0.0%; 95% CI, 0.0 to 0.6) and none of the 603 doses of 30 IU (0.0%; 95% CI, 0.0 to 0.6) fell outside of the range of acceptable weights. Correspondingly, in the control group, none of the 144 doses at 10 IU (0.0%; 95% CI, 0.0 to 2.5) and none of the 153 doses at 30 IU (0.0%; 95% CI, 0.0 to 2.4) were outside of acceptable ISO limits. Transportation via pneumatic tube system does not appear to compromise dosing accuracy. Hospital pharmacies may rely on the pneumatic tube system for timely and accurate transport of insulin aspart FlexPens.

  8. A pepstatin-insensitive aspartic proteinase from a thermophilic Bacillus sp.

    PubMed Central

    Toogood, H S; Prescott, M; Daniel, R M

    1995-01-01

    Bacillus sp. strain Wp22.A1 produced a cell-associated aspartic proteinase which was purified to homogeneity using phenyl-Sepharose (hydrophobic and affinity chromatography) and Mono Q. The proteinase has a molecular mass of 45 kDa by SDS/PAGE and a pI of 3.8. It is insensitive to pepstatin, but is sensitive to the other aspartic proteinase-specific inhibitors diazoacetyl-DL-norleucine methyl ester (DAN) and 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)propane. Inactivation by DAN was only partial, suggesting that it had non-specifically modified an aspartate residue at a site other than the active site. The enzyme was not inhibited by any of the serine or cysteine proteinase inhibitors tested. Maximum proteolytic activity was observed at pH 3.5. The proteinase had a higher activity with haemoglobin, but was more specific (Vmax./Km) for cytochrome c. Substrate inhibition was observed with both these substrates. The cleavage of oxidized insulin B chain tended to occur at sites where the P1 amino acid was bulky and non-polar, and the P1' amino acid was bulky and polar, such as its primary cleavage site of Val2-Asn3. The proteinase was stable in the pH range 2.5-5.5. Thermostability was increased in the presence of Ca2+, although to a lesser extent at higher temperatures. The thermostabilities at 60, 70, 80 and 90 degrees C were 45 h, 102, 21 and 3 min respectively in the presence of Ca2+. Images Figure 1 PMID:7741709

  9. Reconstitution of active catalytic trimer of aspartate transcarbamoylase from proteolytically cleaved polypeptide chains.

    PubMed Central

    Powers, V. M.; Yang, Y. R.; Fogli, M. J.; Schachman, H. K.

    1993-01-01

    Treatment of the catalytic (C) trimer of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) with alpha-chymotrypsin by a procedure similar to that used by Chan and Enns (1978, Can. J. Biochem. 56, 654-658) has been shown to yield an intact, active, proteolytically cleaved trimer containing polypeptide fragments of 26,000 and 8,000 MW. Vmax of the proteolytically cleaved trimer (CPC) is 75% that of the wild-type C trimer, whereas Km for aspartate and Kd for the bisubstrate analog, N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate, are increased about 7- and 15-fold, respectively. CPC trimer is very stable to heat denaturation as shown by differential scanning microcalorimetry. Amino-terminal sequence analyses as well as results from electrospray ionization mass spectrometry indicate that the limited chymotryptic digestion involves the rupture of only a single peptide bond leading to the production of two fragments corresponding to residues 1-240 and 241-310. This cleavage site involving the bond between Tyr 240 and Ala 241 is in a surface loop known to be involved in intersubunit contacts between the upper and lower C trimers in ATCase when it is in the T conformation. Reconstituted holoenzyme comprising two CPC trimers and three wild-type regulatory (R) dimers was shown by enzyme assays to be devoid of the homotropic and heterotropic allosteric properties characteristic of wild-type ATCase. Moreover, sedimentation velocity experiments demonstrate that the holoenzyme reconstituted from CPC trimers is in the R conformation. These results indicate that the intact flexible loop containing Tyr 240 is essential for stabilizing the T conformation of ATCase. Following denaturation of the CPC trimer in 4.7 M urea and dilution of the solution, the separate proteolytic fragments re-associate to form active trimers in about 60% yield. How this refolding of the fragments, docking, and association to form trimers are achieved is not known. PMID:8318885

  10. Hydrocortisone and triiodothyronine regulation of malate-aspartate shuttle enzymes during postnatal development of chicken.

    PubMed

    Lyngdoh, H G; Sharma, R

    2001-06-01

    The normal endogenous level of malate-aspartate shuttle enzymes and its regulation by hydrocortisone and triiodothyronine were studied in the liver and kidney of 0-, 30- and 60-day old male Rhode Island Red (RIR) chicken. The endogenous activity of cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (c-MDH) was significantly higher in the liver of day 30 as compared to day 0 and 60. In contrast, mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (m-MDH) activity decreased at day 60 in the liver. However, both c- and m-MDH had significantly lower activities at day 0, which increased sharply at day 30 and 60 in the kidney. On the other hand, activity of both cytosolic and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (c- and m-AsAT) showed peak value at day 30 in both liver and kidney. Hydrocortisone administration induced c-MDH in the liver at all the ages studied, but did not influence the activity of the isoenzymes in the kidney whereas, it induced m-MDH in the liver at day 0 and in kidney at day 30. Administration of hydrocortisone, however, did not influence AsAT isoenzymes (c- and m-AsAT) in either of the tissues at any of the postnatal ages. Triiodothyronine induced c-MDH in the liver at all the ages whereas kidney isoenzyme was induced only at day 60. In contrast, m-MDH was induced by triiodothyronine in both liver and kidney at day 30 and 60. Administration of triiodothyronine did not influence c-AsAT of liver and kidney at either of the ages, whereas it induced m-AsAT of only liver at day 0 and 60. These findings indicated a tissue- and age-specific expression of the malate-aspartate shuttle enzymes in chicken and difference in the regulation exerted by hydrocortisone and triiodothyronine during postnatal development of chicken.

  11. Solution structure of the squash aspartic acid proteinase inhibitor (SQAPI) and mutational analysis of pepsin inhibition.

    PubMed

    Headey, Stephen J; Macaskill, Ursula K; Wright, Michele A; Claridge, Jolyon K; Edwards, Patrick J B; Farley, Peter C; Christeller, John T; Laing, William A; Pascal, Steven M

    2010-08-27

    The squash aspartic acid proteinase inhibitor (SQAPI), a proteinaceous proteinase inhibitor from squash, is an effective inhibitor of a range of aspartic proteinases. Proteinaceous aspartic proteinase inhibitors are rare in nature. The only other example in plants probably evolved from a precursor serine proteinase inhibitor. Earlier work based on sequence homology modeling suggested SQAPI evolved from an ancestral cystatin. In this work, we determined the solution structure of SQAPI using NMR and show that SQAPI shares the same fold as a plant cystatin. The structure is characterized by a four-strand anti-parallel beta-sheet gripping an alpha-helix in an analogous manner to fingers of a hand gripping a tennis racquet. Truncation and site-specific mutagenesis revealed that the unstructured N terminus and the loop connecting beta-strands 1 and 2 are important for pepsin inhibition, but the loop connecting strands 3 and 4 is not. Using ambiguous restraints based on the mutagenesis results, SQAPI was then docked computationally to pepsin. The resulting model places the N-terminal strand of SQAPI in the S' side of the substrate binding cleft, whereas the first SQAPI loop binds on the S side of the cleft. The backbone of SQAPI does not interact with the pepsin catalytic Asp(32)-Asp(215) diad, thus avoiding cleavage. The data show that SQAPI does share homologous structural elements with cystatin and appears to retain a similar protease inhibitory mechanism despite its different target. This strongly supports our hypothesis that SQAPI evolved from an ancestral cystatin.

  12. Occurrence of D-aspartic acid in human seminal plasma and spermatozoa: possible role in reproduction.

    PubMed

    D'Aniello, Gemma; Ronsini, Salvatore; Guida, Francesco; Spinelli, Patrizia; D'Aniello, Antimo

    2005-11-01

    To determine D-aspartic acid (D-Asp) in human seminal plasma and spermatozoa in fertile and infertile donors. Prospective observation study. Department of Pathophysiology for Human Reproduction, Hospital "S. Luca," Salerno, Italy, and Department of Neurobiology and Comparative Physiology, Zoological Station "A. Dohrn," Naples, Italy. Ten normospermic, 10 oligoasthenoteratospermic, and 10 azoospermic (nonobstructive) men. D-aspartic acid was determined by a specific enzymatic high-performance liquid chromatography method on purified seminal plasma and on isolated spermatozoa and by an immunohistochemical method using light and electronic microscopic techniques. Concentration of D-Asp in seminal plasma and in isolated spermatozoa; subcellular localization of D-Asp in the acrosome and nucleus. The concentration of D-Asp in seminal plasma and in spermatozoa was significantly reduced in oligoasthenoteratospermic donors. In the seminal fluid of normospermic donors, D-Asp occurs at a concentration of 80 +/- 12 nmol/mL semen (10.4 +/- 1.5 microg/mL), whereas 26 +/- 6 nmol/mL semen were found in oligoasthenoteratospermic donors, and 12 +/- 1.5 nmol/mL semen were found in azoospermic donors. In spermatozoa from normospermic donors, D-Asp occurred at a concentration of 130 +/-15 fmol per spermatozoa (17.0 +/- 1.96 ng per spermatozoa), vs. 60.5 +/- 5.0 fmol per spermatozoa from oligoasthenoteratospermic subjects. Other D-amino acids analyzed were not present in seminal plasma or in spermatozoa in a significant concentration compared with D-Asp. D-aspartic acid occurs in human seminal plasma and spermatozoa and is implicated in male fertility.

  13. Isolation and characterization of a gene coding for a novel aspartate aminotransferase from Rhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, J R; Kahn, M L

    1993-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) is an important enzyme in aspartate catabolism and biosynthesis and, by converting tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates to amino acids, AAT is also significant in linking carbon metabolism with nitrogen metabolism. To examine the role of AAT in symbiotic nitrogen fixation further, plasmids encoding three different aminotransferases from Rhizobium meliloti 104A14 were isolated by complementation of an Escherichia coli auxotroph that lacks three aminotransferases. pJA10 contained a gene, aatB, that coded for a previously undescribed AAT, AatB. pJA30 encoded an aromatic aminotransferase, TatA, that had significant AAT activity, and pJA20 encoded a branched-chain aminotransferase designated BatA. Genes for the latter two enzymes, tatA and batA, were previously isolated from R. meliloti. aatB is distinct from but hybridizes to aatA, which codes for AatA, a protein required for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The DNA sequence of aatB contained an open reading frame that could encode a protein 410 amino acids long and with a monomer molecular mass of 45,100 Da. The amino acid sequence of aatB is unusual, and AatB appears to be a member of a newly described class of AATs. AatB expressed in E. coli has a Km for aspartate of 5.3 mM and a Km for 2-oxoglutarate of 0.87 mM. Its pH optimum is between 8.0 and 8.5. Mutations were constructed in aatB and tatA and transferred to the genome of R. meliloti 104A14. Both mutants were prototrophs and were able to carry out symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Images PMID:8320232

  14. Insulin aspart in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and pregestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Deepaklal, M. C.; Joseph, Kurian; Rekha, Kurian; Nandita, Thakkar

    2015-01-01

    Aims: This study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness and safety of insulin aspart in patients with gestational and pregestational diabetes. Settings and Design: An open-label, prospective, nonrandomized, comparative, and observational study conducted at single center in India. Subjects and Methods: A total of 276 patients were in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) group, 79 were in the pre-GDM group. Patients were started on insulin therapy (insulin aspart ± neutral protamine hagedorn) once medical nutrition therapy for 2 weeks failed to achieve control, that is., fasting plasma glucose ≥90 mg/dL and/or 1.0 h postprandial plasma glucose ≥130 mg/dL. Insulin dose was titrated to keep the blood glucose values between 90 and 130 mg/dL. Patients were followed once every 4 weeks until the 28th week, then once every 2 weeks until 32nd week, then once every week until delivery, and the final visit was on 60 ± 7 days. The final outcome was assessed in terms of incidence of macrosomia (>3.5 kg body weight) between the two groups and episodes of confirmed (blood glucose <56 mg/dL) minor or major maternal hypoglycemia. Results: There was no statistically significant difference among the two groups in terms of incidence of macrosomia that is., it was 5.1%, 8.9% in GDM, pre-GDM group, respectively. Conclusions: Insulin aspart was found safe in pregnancy, however, more studies with double-blind, standard controlled studies are required to confirm the findings of this study. PMID:26425478

  15. Increased plasma concentrations of aspartate, glutamate and glycine in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Y; Ikeda, K; Shiojima, T; Kinoshita, M

    1992-10-12

    We measured fasting plasma amino acids in 20 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 20 controls matched for age and sex. PD patients had significant elevations in plasma levels of aspartate, glutamate and glycine. The levels of other amino acids were not significantly different from those found in controls. No correlation was noted between PD severity and the degree of abnormality of plasma amino acids. We conclude that excitatory amino acids may be altered in patients with PD, and raise the possibility that neuroexcitotoxic mechanisms may be involved in the neurodegeneration of PD.

  16. Prevalence of serum N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor autoantibodies in refractory psychosis.

    PubMed

    Beck, Katherine; Lally, John; Shergill, Sukhwinder S; Bloomfield, Michael A P; MacCabe, James H; Gaughran, Fiona; Howes, Oliver D

    2015-02-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) autoantibodies have been reported in people with acute psychosis. We hypothesised that their presence may be implicated in the aetiology of treatment-refractory psychosis. We sought to ascertain the point prevalence of NMDA-R antibody positivity in patients referred to services for treatment-refractory psychosis. We found that 3 (7.0%) of 43 individuals had low positive NMDA-R antibody titres. This suggests that NMDA-R autoantibodies are unlikely to account for a large proportion of treatment-refractory psychosis.

  17. Conserved aspartic acid 233 and alanine 231 are not required for poliovirus polymerase function in replicons

    PubMed Central

    Freistadt, Marion S; Eberle, Karen E

    2007-01-01

    Nucleic acid polymerases have similar structures and motifs. The function of an aspartic acid (conserved in all classes of nucleic acid polymerases) in motif A remains poorly understood in RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. We mutated this residue to alanine in a poliovirus replicon. The resulting mutant could still replicate, although at a reduced level. In addition, mutation A231C (also in motif A) yielded high levels of replication. Taken together these results show that poliovirus polymerase conserved residues D233 and A231 are not essential to poliovirus replicon function. PMID:17352827

  18. Overview of N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate + fluorouracil in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Martin, D S; Kemeny, N E

    1992-04-01

    The clearest example of successful biochemical modulation of cancer chemotherapy in the laboratory, followed by initial failure to reproduce successful therapeutic results in the clinic, and then eventually followed by clinical success, is that of the combination of N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA) and fluorouracil (5-FU). This review covers the biochemistry involved, the preclinical findings, the many clinical trials, and explains the differences between the initial unsuccessful and the later successful clinical studies. The overall findings demonstrate that, to be successful, the design of modulation-based clinical trials should adhere to the principles determined in preclinical studies.

  19. Human immunodeficiency virus has an aspartic-type protease that can be inhibited by pepstatin A.

    PubMed Central

    Seelmeier, S; Schmidt, H; Turk, V; von der Helm, K

    1988-01-01

    The protease encoded by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) processes the viral gag and gag-pol protein precursor by posttranslational cleavage. In this study we have demonstrated by site-specific mutagenesis (Asp----Thr) and by pepstatin A inhibition that the recombinant HIV protease is an aspartic-type protease. Furthermore, incubation of HIV-infected H9 cells with pepstatin A inhibited part of the intracellular processing of the HIV gag protein yet had no apparent toxicity on HIV-infected cells during 48 hr of incubation. Images PMID:3045820

  20. Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) Detection Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xing-Jiu; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Im, Hyung-Soon; Yarimaga, Oktay; Yoon, Euisik; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2006-01-01

    The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) in serum can help people diagnose body tissues especially the heart and the liver are injured or not. This article provides a comprehensive review of research activities that concentrate on AST/GOT and ALT/GPT detection techniques due to their clinical importance. The detection techniques include colorimetric, spectrophotometric, chemiluminescence, chromatography, fluorescence and UV absorbance, radiochemical, and electrochemical techniques. We devote the most attention on experimental principle. In some methods a few representative devices and important conclusions are presented.

  1. Structures of aspartate aminotransferases from Trypanosoma brucei, Leishmania major and Giardia lamblia

    PubMed Central

    Abendroth, Jan; Choi, Ryan; Wall, Abigail; Clifton, Matthew C.; Lukacs, Christine M.; Staker, Bart L.; Van Voorhis, Wesley; Myler, Peter; Lorimer, Don D.; Edwards, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    The structures of three aspartate aminotransferases (AATs) from eukaryotic pathogens were solved within the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID). Both the open and closed conformations of AAT were observed. Pyridoxal phosphate was bound to the active site via a Schiff base to a conserved lysine. An active-site mutant showed that Trypanosoma brucei AAT still binds pyridoxal phosphate even in the absence of the tethering lysine. The structures highlight the challenges for the structure-based design of inhibitors targeting the active site, while showing options for inhibitor design targeting the N-terminal arm. PMID:25945710

  2. Hyperammonemic hepatic encephalopathy management through L-ornithin-L-aspartate administration in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jin-Ok; Li, Qiang; Lee, Young-Heun; Han, Sei-Myoung; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Seventeen dogs were treated with L-ornithin-L-aspartate (LOLA; experimental group). Three dogs were treated with lactulose recognized therapy (control group). Following LOLA administration, 15 dogs experienced a significant decrease in ammonia level (p < 0.05) and showed clinical signs of improvement. However, there were no clinical signs of improvement in two dogs, even though the ammonia level decreased. Conversely, the clinical signs of the control group also improved and the ammonia level decreased, although these changes were not significant (p > 0.05). These results suggest that LOLA is an effective drug to treat hyperammonemia in veterinary medicine. PMID:26726023

  3. Facile synthesis of (R)-4-mercaptopyrrolidine-2-thione from L-aspartic acid.

    PubMed

    Seki, M; Shimizu, T

    2001-04-01

    An SN2-type of substitution of (S)-bromide 4, which had been prepared from L-aspartic acid, with potassium thiobenzoate provided (R)-benzoylthio derivative 5 with complete inversion of the configuration. Compound 5 was converted, via iodide 6c, to (R)-4-amino-3-benzoylthiobutyric acid 8b. (R)-4-Mercapto pyrrolidine-2-thione 1 was readily obtained from 8b through cyclization with acetic anhydride, thionation with Lawesson's reagent and facile removal of the S-benzoyl group with sodium methoxide.

  4. Comparison of aspartate transcarbamoylase regulation in Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Pseudomonas mendocina.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Manuel F; West, Thomas P

    2003-01-01

    The regulation of aspartate transcarbamoylase activity in cell extracts of Pseudomonas alcaligenes ATCC 14909 and Pseudomonas mendocina ATCC 25411 was compared. Under saturating substrate concentrations, pyrophosphate, CTP, UDP and ADP were highly inhibitory of the P. alcaligenes transcarbamoylase activity while pyrophosphate, UDP, ADP, ATP and GTP were the most effective inhibitors of the P. mendocina transcarbamoylase. By examining transcarbamoylase inhibition by ribonucleotide triphosphates, it was possible to differentiate these species assigned to different DNA homology groups and such an analysis might prove useful in the reclassification of Pseudomonas species.

  5. Structures of aspartate aminotransferases from Trypanosoma brucei, Leishmania major and Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Abendroth, Jan; Choi, Ryan; Wall, Abigail; Clifton, Matthew C; Lukacs, Christine M; Staker, Bart L; Van Voorhis, Wesley; Myler, Peter; Lorimer, Don D; Edwards, Thomas E

    2015-05-01

    The structures of three aspartate aminotransferases (AATs) from eukaryotic pathogens were solved within the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID). Both the open and closed conformations of AAT were observed. Pyridoxal phosphate was bound to the active site via a Schiff base to a conserved lysine. An active-site mutant showed that Trypanosoma brucei AAT still binds pyridoxal phosphate even in the absence of the tethering lysine. The structures highlight the challenges for the structure-based design of inhibitors targeting the active site, while showing options for inhibitor design targeting the N-terminal arm.

  6. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis: review of clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Helen; Byrne, Susan; Barrett, Elizabeth; Murphy, Kieran C.; Cotter, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a form of encephalitis occurring primarily in women and associated with antibodies against NR1 or NR2 subunits of the NMDA receptor. As a potentially treatable differential for symptoms and signs seen in neurology and psychiatric clinics, clinicians practising across the lifespan should be aware of this form of encephalitis. Common clinical features include auditory and visual hallucinations, delusions, behavioural change (frequently with agitation), impaired consciousness, motor disturbance (ranging from dyskinesia to catatonia), seizures, and autonomic dysfunction. We present a review of the literature on the disorder, including its clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment and prognosis. PMID:26191419

  7. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis: review of clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Barry, Helen; Byrne, Susan; Barrett, Elizabeth; Murphy, Kieran C; Cotter, David R

    2015-02-01

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a form of encephalitis occurring primarily in women and associated with antibodies against NR1 or NR2 subunits of the NMDA receptor. As a potentially treatable differential for symptoms and signs seen in neurology and psychiatric clinics, clinicians practising across the lifespan should be aware of this form of encephalitis. Common clinical features include auditory and visual hallucinations, delusions, behavioural change (frequently with agitation), impaired consciousness, motor disturbance (ranging from dyskinesia to catatonia), seizures, and autonomic dysfunction. We present a review of the literature on the disorder, including its clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment and prognosis.

  8. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis in a young Lebanese girl.

    PubMed

    Safadieh, Layal; Dabbagh, Omar

    2013-10-01

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a recently recognized autoimmune neurologic disorder that presents with severe neuropsychiatric symptoms in previously healthy children. A 4-year-old Lebanese girl presented with new-onset behavioral changes, orofacial dyskinesias, fluctuation in consciousness, inability to walk, and mutism. Antibodies directed against NMDA receptors were detected in the patient's serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Prompt treatment with a single course of intravenous immunoglobulin resulted in early complete recovery. This is the first case report of a Middle Eastern child affected with this condition.

  9. Optic Neuropathy As the Initial Presenting Sign of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Mugavin, Mark; Mueller, Brett H; Desai, Masoom; Golnik, Karl C

    2017-04-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with painless vision loss for 3 months. She was in custody for allegedly robbing a bank and had recently been diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. She had 20/100 VA OD, a 2+RAPD, and optic atrophy. Extensive diagnostic workup including MRI, Fluorescein Angiography, Infectious Disease Panel, lumbar puncture, and leptomeningeal biopsy were unrevealing. Vision in her right eye declined to NLP and her left eye declined to 20/200 VA. Anti N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) Autoimmune Encephalitis was diagnosed based on CSF serology and clinical suspicion. Her clinical course improved as she was treated with corticosteroids and rituximab.

  10. Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis, an Underappreciated Disease in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Lasoff, Daniel R.; Corbett-Detig, Jimmy; Sell, Rebecca; Nolan, Matthew; Wardi, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor (NMDAR) Encephalitis is a novel disease discovered within the past 10 years. Antibodies directed at the NMDAR cause the patient to develop a characteristic syndrome of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Patients go on to develop autonomic dysregulation and often have prolonged hospitalizations and intensive care unit stays. There is little literature in the emergency medicine community regarding this disease process, so we report on a case we encountered in our emergency department to help raise awareness of this disease process. PMID:27330659

  11. Selective fluorescent detection of aspartic acid and glutamic acid employing dansyl hydrazine dextran conjugate.

    PubMed

    Nasomphan, Weerachai; Tangboriboonrat, Pramuan; Tanapongpipat, Sutipa; Smanmoo, Srung

    2014-01-01

    Highly water soluble polymer (DD) was prepared and evaluated for its fluorescence response towards various amino acids. The polymer consists of dansyl hydrazine unit conjugated into dextran template. The conjugation enhances higher water solubility of dansyl hydrazine moiety. Of screened amino acids, DD exhibited selective fluorescence quenching in the presence of aspartic acid (Asp) and glutamic acid (Glu). A plot of fluorescence intensity change of DD against the concentration of corresponding amino acids gave a good linear relationship in the range of 1 × 10(-4) M to 25 × 10(-3) M. This establishes DD as a potential polymeric sensor for selective sensing of Asp and Glu.

  12. Prevalence of serum N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor autoantibodies in refractory psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Katherine; Lally, John; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Bloomfield, Michael A. P.; MacCabe, James H.; Gaughran, Fiona; Howes, Oliver D.

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) autoantibodies have been reported in people with acute psychosis. We hypothesised that their presence may be implicated in the aetiology of treatment-refractory psychosis. We sought to ascertain the point prevalence of NMDA-R antibody positivity in patients referred to services for treatment-refractory psychosis. We found that 3 (7.0%) of 43 individuals had low positive NMDA-R antibody titres. This suggests that NMDA-R autoantibodies are unlikely to account for a large proportion of treatment-refractory psychosis. PMID:25431428

  13. Characterization of Yeast Aspartic Protease 3 (A novel basic-residue specific prohormone processing enzyme)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-05-16

    on dry ice until analysis. Products were separated from the substrate by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 ion exchange resin and then quantitated by...YEAST ASPARTIC PROTEASE 3 SUMMARY Glycosylated Y AP3p was purified from the growth media of induced yeast by ion exchange followed by gel...reduction in size of both forms to a single -65lcDa protein. In comparison to the calculated isoelectric point (pI) of the truncated y AP3p of 4.0, a pI

  14. Postsynaptic response to stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals with properties similar to those of synaptosomal aspartate release.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuying; Nadler, J Victor

    2009-10-27

    Aspartate satisfies all the criteria normally required for identification of a CNS neurotransmitter. Nevertheless, little electrophysiological evidence supports the existence of aspartate transmission. In studies with rat hippocampal synaptosomes, chemically evoked aspartate release differed from glutamate release in its relative sensitivity to increased Ca(2+) concentration outside the presynaptic active zones, inefficient coupling to P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels, sensitivity to KB-R7943, and resistance to native Clostridial toxins. We took advantage of these differences to search for a potential aspartate-mediated response at Schaffer collateral synapses in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. The slice cultures were pretreated with botulinum neurotoxin C (BoNT/C) to eliminate most of the glutamate release so that an expectedly smaller aspartate-like component of the compound EPSC could be detected by whole cell patch clamp recording. In control cultures, NMDA receptor activation accounted for only 18% of the evoked EPSC and an NR2B-selective antagonist reduced the NMDA receptor-mediated component by only 20%. Block of P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels essentially eliminated the response and 0.1 muM KB-R7943 had no significant effect. In BoNT/C-pretreated cultures, however, NMDA receptor activation accounted for 77% of the evoked EPSC and an NR2B-selective antagonist reduced the NMDA receptor-mediated component by 57%. Block of P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels reduced the response by only 28%, but 0.1 muM KB-R7943 reduced it by 45%. These results suggest that part of the Schaffer collateral synaptic response has pharmacological properties similar to those of synaptosomal aspartate release and may therefore be mediated at least partly by released aspartate.

  15. Aspartic acid racemization in dentin of the third molar for age estimation of the Chaoshan population in South China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shisheng; Lv, Yanyi; Wang, Dian; Yu, Xiaojun

    2016-09-01

    Aspartic acid racemization in teeth has been increasingly used to estimate chronological age with a considerably high accuracy in forensic practice. The Chaoshan population in South China is relatively isolated in geography, and has specific lifestyle and dietary inhibits. It is still unknown whether this method is suitable for this population. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between chronological age and the d/l aspartic acid ratio in dentin in the third molar tooth of the Chaoshan population. Fifty-eight non-carious third molar teeth (31 mandibles and 27 maxillae), from 58 living individuals of known age (24 males and 34 females), were retrieved. Dentin was extracted from these teeth. The d- and l-aspartic acids in dentins were separated and detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Linear regression was performed between the d/l aspartic acid ratio of dentins and chronological age. Results showed that the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.969, and the mean absolute error (MAE) was 2.19 years, its standard deviation (SD) was ±1.53 years, indicating excellent correlation. There was no significant difference in racemization rates of dentin between sexes (P=0.113, F=2.6), or between mandibles and maxillae (P=0.964, F=0.000). Results indicate that the ratio of the d and l forms of aspartic acid of dentins, in the third molar, is closely correlated with chronological age, special lifestyle do no obviously affect the accuracy of the age estimations by aspartic acid racemization of the dentin in the third molar and that aspartic acid racemization in the third molar dentin can be used as an accurate method to estimate chronological age in the Chaoshan population in South China.

  16. Structure-function relationships in human d-aspartate oxidase: characterisation of variants corresponding to known single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Katane, Masumi; Kanazawa, Ryo; Kobayashi, Risa; Oishi, Megumi; Nakayama, Kazuki; Saitoh, Yasuaki; Miyamoto, Tetsuya; Sekine, Masae; Homma, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    d-Aspartate oxidase (DDO) is a degradative enzyme that is stereospecific for the acidic amino acid d-aspartate, an endogenous agonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Dysregulation of NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission has been implicated in the onset of various neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and in chronic pain. Thus, appropriate regulation of the amount of d-aspartate is believed to be important for maintaining proper neural activity in the nervous system. Herein, the effects of the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) R216Q and S308N on several properties of human DDO were examined. Analysis of the purified recombinant enzyme showed that the R216Q and S308N substitutions reduce enzyme activity towards acidic d-amino acids, decrease the binding affinity for the coenzyme flavin adenine dinucleotide and decrease the temperature stability. Consistent with these findings, further experiments using cultured mammalian cells revealed elevated d-aspartate in cultures of R216Q and S308N cells compared with cells expressing wild-type DDO. Furthermore, accumulation of several amino acids other than d-aspartate also differed between these cultures. Thus, expression of DDO genes carrying the R216Q or S308N SNP substitutions may increase the d-aspartate content in humans and alter homeostasis of several other amino acids. This work may aid in understanding the correlation between DDO activity and the risk of onset of NMDA receptor-related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Southwest Saudi Arabia cohort of the A1chieve study

    PubMed Central

    Shawkat, Waffaa; Abdou, Magdy; Ghannam, Nadia; Mahfouz, Ashraf Shaaban

    2013-01-01

    Background: The A1chieve, a multicentric (28 countries), 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726) in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from southwest Saudi Arabia. Results: A total of 2561 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Study patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 987), insulin detemir (n = 1121), insulin aspart (n = 21), basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 280) and missing or other insulin combinations (n = 152). At baseline glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA1c: 9.9%) and insulin user (mean HbA1c: 9.5%) groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, both the study groups showed improvement in HbA1c (insulin naïve: −2.5%, insulin users: −2.2%). Major hypoglycaemic events did not occur in any of the study patients. SADRs were reported in 0.1% of insulin naïve and 0.1% of insulin user groups. Conclusion: Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia. PMID:24404479

  18. Aspartic acid aminotransferase activity is increased in actively spiking compared with non-spiking human epileptic cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Kish, S J; Dixon, L M; Sherwin, A L

    1988-01-01

    Increased concentration of the excitatory neurotransmitter aspartic acid in actively spiking human epileptic cerebral cortex was recently described. In order to further characterise changes in the aspartergic system in epileptic brain, the behaviour of aspartic acid aminotransferase (AAT), a key enzyme involved in aspartic acid metabolism has now been examined. Electrocorticography performed during surgery was employed to identify cortical epileptic spike foci in 16 patients undergoing temporal lobectomy for intractable seizures. Patients with spontaneously spiking lateral temporal cortex (n = 8) were compared with a non-spiking control group (n = 8) of patients in whom the epileptic lesions were confined to the hippocampus sparing the temporal convexity. Mean activity of AAT in spiking cortex was significantly elevated by 16-18%, with aspartic acid concentration increased by 28%. Possible explanations for the enhanced AAT activity include increased proliferation of cortical AAT-containing astrocytes at the spiking focus and/or a generalised increase in neuronal or extraneuronal metabolism consequent to the ongoing epileptic discharge. It is suggested that the data provide additional support for a disturbance of central excitatory aspartic acid mechanisms in human epileptic brain. PMID:2898010

  19. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis with an imaging-invisible ovarian teratoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Rahman, Zainab M; Panegyres, Peter K; Roeck, Margareta; Hawkins, David; Bharath, Jude; Grolman, Paul; Neppe, Cliffe; Palmer, David

    2016-10-24

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is a recently discovered disease entity of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. It largely affects young women and is often associated with an ovarian teratoma. It is a serious yet treatable condition if diagnosed early. Its remedy involves immunotherapy and surgical removal of the teratoma of the ovaries. This case of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis involves an early surgical intervention with bilateral oophorectomy, despite negative imaging evidence of a teratoma. A 25-year-old white woman with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis presented with behavioral changes and seizures that were confirmed to be secondary to anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis. She required an admission to our intensive care unit for ventilator support and received a number of immunological therapies. Multiple imaging investigations showed no evidence of an ovarian teratoma; she had a bilateral oophorectomy 29 days after admission. Ovarian histology confirmed the presence of a teratoma with neuronal cells. A few days after the operation she began to show signs of improvement and, apart from mild short-term memory loss, she returned to normal function. Our patient is an example of teratoma-associated anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, in which the teratoma was identified only microscopically. Her case highlights that even with negative imaging evidence of a teratoma, ovarian pathology should still be considered and explored.

  20. Molecularly imprinted polymer-matrix nanocomposite for enantioselective electrochemical sensing of D- and L-aspartic acid.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Bhim Bali; Srivastava, Amrita; Tiwari, Mahavir Prasad

    2013-10-01

    A new molecularly imprinted polymer-matrix (titanium dioxide nanoparticle/multiwalled carbon nanotubes) nanocomposite was developed for the modification of pencil graphite electrode as an enantioselective sensing probe for aspartic acid isomers, prevalent at ultra trace level in aqueous and real samples. The nanocomposite having many shape complementary cavities was synthesized adopting surface initiated-activators regenerated by electron transfer for atom transfer radical polymerization. The proposed sensor has high stability, nanocomposite uniformity, good reproducibility, and enhanced electrocatalytic activity to respond oxidative peak current of L-aspartic acid quantitatively by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, without any cross-reactivity in real samples. Under the optimized operating conditions, the L-aspartic acid imprinted modified electrode showed a wide linear response for L-aspartic acid within the concentration range 9.98-532.72 ng mL(-1), with the minimum detection limit of 1.73-1.79 ng mL(-1) (S/N=3) in aqueous and real samples. Almost similar stringent limit (1.79 ng mL(-1)) was obtained with cerebrospinal fluid which is typical for the primitive diagnosis of neurological disorders, caused by an acute depletion of L-aspartic acid biomarker, in clinical settings.

  1. The Aspartate-Less Receiver (ALR) Domains: Distribution, Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Joshua J.; Han, Lanlan; Peterson, Francis C.; Volkman, Brian F.; Silvaggi, Nicholas R.; Ulijasz, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Two-component signaling systems are ubiquitous in bacteria, Archaea and plants and play important roles in sensing and responding to environmental stimuli. To propagate a signaling response the typical system employs a sensory histidine kinase that phosphorylates a Receiver (REC) domain on a conserved aspartate (Asp) residue. Although it is known that some REC domains are missing this Asp residue, it remains unclear as to how many of these divergent REC domains exist, what their functional roles are and how they are regulated in the absence of the conserved Asp. Here we have compiled all deposited REC domains missing their phosphorylatable Asp residue, renamed here as the Aspartate-Less Receiver (ALR) domains. Our data show that ALRs are surprisingly common and are enriched for when attached to more rare effector outputs. Analysis of our informatics and the available ALR atomic structures, combined with structural, biochemical and genetic data of the ALR archetype RitR from Streptococcus pneumoniae presented here suggest that ALRs have reorganized their active pockets to instead take on a constitutive regulatory role or accommodate input signals other than Asp phosphorylation, while largely retaining the canonical post-phosphorylation mechanisms and dimeric interface. This work defines ALRs as an atypical REC subclass and provides insights into shared mechanisms of activation between ALR and REC domains. PMID:25875291

  2. Purification and Characterization of Aspartate Aminotransferase Isoenzymes from Carrot Suspension Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Turano, Frank J.; Wilson, Barbara J.; Matthews, Benjamin F.

    1990-01-01

    Three aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes were identified from extracts of carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell suspension cultures. These isoenzymes were separated by DEAE chromatography and were analyzed on native gradient polyacrylamide gels. The relative molecular weights of the isoenzymes were 111,000 ± 5000, 105,000 ± 5000, and 94,000 ± 4000 daltons; they were designated forms I, II, and III, respectively. Form I, the predominant form, has been purified to apparent homogeneity (>300-fold) using immunoaffinity chromatography with rabbit anti-pig AAT antibodies. Form I has a subunit size of 43,000 Mr, as determined on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Isoelectric focusing (IEF)-PAGE has resolved three bands at a pl of approximately 5.2. Form I may be composed of subunits of similar molecular weight and different charges, and the three bands with AAT activity on the IEF-PAGE gel are a combination of hetero- and homodimers. Form I has a broad pH optimum of 7.5 to 10.0. Km values of 23.6, 2.8, 0.05, and 0.22 millimolar were obtained for glutamate, aspartate, oxaloacetate, and α-ketoglutarate, respectively. The mode of action is a ping-pong-bi-bi mechanism. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16667320

  3. Purification and characterization of aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes from carrot suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Turano, F J; Wilson, B J; Matthews, B F

    1990-03-01

    Three aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes were identified from extracts of carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell suspension cultures. These isoenzymes were separated by DEAE chromatography and were analyzed on native gradient polyacrylamide gels. The relative molecular weights of the isoenzymes were 111,000 +/- 5000, 105,000 +/- 5000, and 94,000 +/- 4000 daltons; they were designated forms I, II, and III, respectively. Form I, the predominant form, has been purified to apparent homogeneity (>300-fold) using immunoaffinity chromatography with rabbit anti-pig AAT antibodies. Form I has a subunit size of 43,000 M(r), as determined on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Isoelectric focusing (IEF)-PAGE has resolved three bands at a pl of approximately 5.2. Form I may be composed of subunits of similar molecular weight and different charges, and the three bands with AAT activity on the IEF-PAGE gel are a combination of hetero- and homodimers. Form I has a broad pH optimum of 7.5 to 10.0. K(m) values of 23.6, 2.8, 0.05, and 0.22 millimolar were obtained for glutamate, aspartate, oxaloacetate, and alpha-ketoglutarate, respectively. The mode of action is a ping-pong-bi-bi mechanism.

  4. Elaboration of a fragment library hit produces potent and selective aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Thangavelu, Bharani; Bhansali, Pravin; Viola, Ronald E

    2015-10-15

    Aspartate-β-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) lies at the first branch point in the aspartate metabolic pathway which leads to the biosynthesis of several essential amino acids and some important metabolites. This pathway is crucial for many metabolic processes in plants and microbes like bacteria and fungi, but is absent in mammals. Therefore, the key microbial enzymes involved in this pathway are attractive potential targets for development of new antibiotics with novel modes of action. The ASADH enzyme family shares the same substrate binding and active site catalytic groups; however, the enzymes from representative bacterial and fungal species show different inhibition patterns when previously screened against low molecular weight inhibitors identified from fragment library screening. In the present study several approaches, including fragment based drug discovery (FBDD), inhibitor docking, kinetic, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies have been used to guide ASADH inhibitor development. Elaboration of a core structure identified by FBDD has led to the synthesis of low micromolar inhibitors of the target enzyme, with high selectivity introduced between the Gram-negative and Gram-positive orthologs of ASADH. This new set of structures open a novel direction for the development of inhibitors against this validated drug-target enzyme.

  5. Unbiased Metabolomic Investigation of Alzheimer's Disease Brain Points to Dysregulation of Mitochondrial Aspartate Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Paglia, Giuseppe; Stocchero, Matteo; Cacciatore, Stefano; Lai, Steven; Angel, Peggi; Alam, Mohammad Tauqeer; Keller, Markus; Ralser, Markus; Astarita, Giuseppe

    2016-02-05

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of adult dementia. Yet the complete set of molecular changes accompanying this inexorable, neurodegenerative disease remains elusive. Here we adopted an unbiased lipidomics and metabolomics approach to surveying frozen frontal cortex samples from clinically characterized AD patients (n = 21) and age-matched controls (n = 19), revealing marked molecular differences between them. Then, by means of metabolomic pathway analysis, we incorporated the novel molecular information into the known biochemical pathways and compared it with the results of a metabolomics meta-analysis of previously published AD research. We found six metabolic pathways of the central metabolism as well as glycerophospholipid metabolism predominantly altered in AD brains. Using targeted metabolomics approaches and MS imaging, we confirmed a marked dysregulation of mitochondrial aspartate metabolism. The altered metabolic pathways were further integrated with clinical data, showing various degrees of correlation with parameters of dementia and AD pathology. Our study highlights specific, altered biochemical pathways in the brains of individuals with AD compared with those of control subjects, emphasizing dysregulation of mitochondrial aspartate metabolism and supporting future venues of investigation.

  6. Poly(aspartic acid) (PAA) hydrolases and PAA biodegradation: current knowledge and impact on applications.

    PubMed

    Hiraishi, Tomohiro

    2016-02-01

    Thermally synthesized poly(aspartic acid) (tPAA) is a bio-based, biocompatible, biodegradable, and water-soluble polymer that has a high proportion of β-Asp units and equivalent moles of D- and L-Asp units. Poly(aspartic acid) (PAA) hydrolase-1 and hydrolase-2 are tPAA biodegradation enzymes purified from Gram-negative bacteria. PAA hydrolase-1 selectively cleaves amide bonds between β-Asp units via an endo-type process, whereas PAA hydrolase-2 catalyzes the exo-type hydrolysis of the products of tPAA hydrolysis by PAA hydrolase-1. The novel reactivity of PAA hydrolase-1 makes it a good candidate for a biocatalyst in β-peptide synthesis. This mini-review gives an overview of PAA hydrolases with emphasis on their biochemical and functional properties, in particular, PAA hydrolase-1. Functionally related enzymes, such as poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerases and β-aminopeptidases, are compared to PAA hydrolases. This mini-review also provides findings that offer an insight into the catalytic mechanisms of PAA hydrolase-1 from Pedobacter sp. KP-2.

  7. Syntheses, Characterization, Resolution, and Biological Studies of Coordination Compounds of Aspartic Acid and Glycine.

    PubMed

    Aiyelabola, Temitayo; Akinkunmi, Ezekiel; Ojo, Isaac; Obuotor, Efere; Adebajo, Clement; Isabirye, David

    2017-01-01

    Enantiomerically enriched coordination compounds of aspartic acid and racemic mixtures of coordination compounds of glycine metal-ligand ratio 1 : 3 were synthesized and characterized using infrared and UV-Vis spectrophotometric techniques and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Five of the complexes were resolved using (+)-cis-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) chloride, (+)-bis(glycinato)(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt(III) chloride, and (+)-tris(1,10-phenanthroline)nickel(II) chloride as resolving agents. The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of these complexes were then determined. The results obtained indicated that aspartic acid and glycine coordinated in a bidentate fashion. The enantiomeric purity of the compounds was in the range of 22.10-32.10%, with (+)-cis-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) complex as the more efficient resolving agent. The resolved complexes exhibited better activity in some cases compared to the parent complexes for both biological activities. It was therefore inferred that although the increase in the lipophilicity of the complexes may assist in the permeability of the complexes through the cell membrane of the pathogens, the enantiomeric purity of the complexes is also of importance in their activity as antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents.

  8. Multifunctional Environmental Smart Fertilizer Based on l-Aspartic Acid for Sustained Nutrient Release.

    PubMed

    Lü, Shaoyu; Feng, Chen; Gao, Chunmei; Wang, Xinggang; Xu, Xiubin; Bai, Xiao; Gao, Nannan; Liu, Mingzhu

    2016-06-22

    Fertilizer is one of the most important elements of modern agriculture. However, conventional fertilizer, when applied to crops, is vulnerable to losses through volatilization, leaching, nitrification, or other means. Such a loss limits crop yields and pollutes the environment. In an effort to enhance nutrient use efficiency and reduce environmental pollution, an environmental smart fertilizer was reported in the current study. Poly(aspartic acid) and a degradable macro-cross-linker based on l-aspartic acid were synthesized and introduced into the fertilizer as a superabsorbent to improve the fertilizer degradability and soil moisture-retention capacity. Sustained release behavior of the fertilizer was achieved in soil. Cumulative release of nitrogen and phosphorus was 79.8% and 64.4% after 30 days, respectively. The water-holding and water-retention capacities of soil with the superabsorbent are obviously higher than those of the control soil without superabsorbent. For the sample of 200 g of soil with 1.5 g of superabsorbent, the water-holding capacity is 81.8%, and the water-retention capacity remains 22.6% after 23 days. All of the current results in this study indicated that the as-prepared fertilizer has a promising application in sustainable modern agriculture.

  9. Negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy of the copper-aspartic acid anion and its hydrated complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Wang, Haopeng; Bowen, Kit H.; Martínez, Ana; Salpin, Jean-Yves; Schermann, Jean-Pierre

    2010-08-01

    Negative ions of copper-aspartic acid Cu(Asp)- and its hydrated complexes have been produced in the gas phase and studied by anion photoelectron spectroscopy. The vertical detachment energies (VDE) of Cu(Asp)- and Cu(Asp)-(H2O)1,2 were determined to be 1.6, 1.95, and 2.20 eV, respectively. The spectral profiles of Cu(Asp)-(H2O)1 and Cu(Asp)-(H2O)2 closely resembled that of Cu(Asp)-, indicating that hydration had not changed the structure of Cu(Asp)- significantly. The successive shifts to higher electron binding energies by the spectra of the hydrated species provided measures of their stepwise solvation energies. Density functional calculations were performed on anionic Cu(Asp)- and on its corresponding neutral. The agreement between the calculated and measured VDE values implied that the structure of the Cu(Asp)- complex originated with a zwitterionic form of aspartic acid in which a copper atom had inserted into the N-H bond.

  10. [Aspartic Acid Generated in the Process of Chlorination Disinfection By-product Dichloroacetonitrile].

    PubMed

    Ding, Chun-sheng; Li, Nai-jun; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Meng-qing

    2016-05-15

    In this study, a method was developed for the determination of dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) in drinking water by liquid- liquid micro-extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry ( LLE-GC/MS), which used 1,2-dibromopropane as the internal standard and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as the extractant for high accuracy. The aspartic acid was used as the precursor of the DCAN formation during chlorination and the influencing factors were evaluated. The formation mechanism of DCAN was also discussed. The results showed that the DCAN amount increased with the increase of pH value under the neutral and acidic conditions, however, the amount of DCAN decreased with the increase of pH value under the alkali condition. And the final amount of DCAN under the alkali condition was much less than that under the neutral and acidic conditions. It was also found that the DCAN amount increased with the increase of chlorine addition, while the temperature in the range of 10-30°C had little influence on the DCAN formation. The formation process of the DCAN from aspartic acid by chlorination included seven steps, such as substitution, decarboxylation, oxidation, etc and ultimately formed DCAN.