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Sample records for aspartic proteinases fourier

  1. [Ulysses retrotransposon aspartate proteinase (Drosophila virilis)].

    PubMed

    Volkov, D A; Savvateeva, L V; Dergousova, N I; Rumsh, L D

    2002-01-01

    Retrotransposones are mobile genetic elements occurring in genomes of bacteria, plants or animals. Retrotransposones were found to contain nucleotide sequences encoding proteins which are homological to retroviral aspartic proteinases. Our research has been focused on Ulysses which is mobile genetic element found in Drosophila virilis. We suggested a primary structure of Ulysses proteinase using comparative analysis of amino acid sequences of retroviral proteinases and proteinases from retrotransposones. The appropriate cDNA fragment has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. The purification of recombinant protein (12 kD) has been carried out by affinity chromatography using pepstatine-agarose. The obtained protein has proteolytic activity at optimum pH 5.5 like the majority of aspartic proteinases.

  2. Specificity of a wheat gluten aspartic proteinase.

    PubMed

    Bleukx, W; Brijs, K; Torrekens, S; Van Leuven, F; Delcour, J A

    1998-09-08

    The substrate and peptide bond specificities of a purified wheat gluten aspartic proteinase (GlAP) are studied. GlAP shows maximum gluten hydrolysing activity at pH 3.0. At this pH, especially the wheat high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and to a lesser extent the low molecular weight glutenin subunits and gliadins are hydrolysed. GlAP has no obvious effect on albumins and globulins. In its action on oxidised insulin B-chain, GlAP forms eight peptides and has high specificity for peptide bonds located between amino acid residues with large hydrophobic side chains (Leu, Phe, Tyr) but the peptide bond Glu13-Ala14 is also hydrolysed. Although structurally quite similar to a barley aspartic proteinase, the peptide bond specificity of GlAP towards oxidised insulin B-chain resembles slightly more that of a cardoon aspartic proteinase, cardosin B. HMW-GS 7, purified from cultivar Galahad-77, is rapidly hydrolysed by GlAP. N-Terminal amino acid sequence data show that GlAP cleaves at least one Met-Ile peptide bond at the end of the N-terminal domain and two Val-Leu peptide bonds in the repetitive domain of HMW-GS 7.

  3. Some aspects of structural studies on aspartic proteinases.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, N S

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview over the differences and similarities in the structure of aspartic proteinases presently available. Comparison of the three-dimentional structure of different aspartic proteinases by a common intramolecular coordinate system have been performed. The intramolecular movable subdomains have been localized and the role of motion in substrate binding and zymogen activation is discussed.

  4. New aspartic proteinase of Ulysses retrotransposon from Drosophila virilis.

    PubMed

    Volkov, D A; Dergousova, N I; Rumsh, L D

    2004-06-01

    This work is focused on the investigation of a proteinase of Ulysses mobile genetic element from Drosophila virilis. The primary structure of this proteinase is suggested based on comparative analysis of amino acid sequences of aspartic proteinases from retroviruses and retrotransposons. The corresponding cDNA fragment has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. The protein accumulated in inclusion bodies. The recombinant protein (12 kD) was subjected to refolding and purified by affinity chromatography on pepstatin-agarose. Proteolytic activity of the protein was determined using oligopeptide substrates melittin and insulin B-chain. It was found that the maximum of the proteolytic activity is displayed at pH 5.5 as for the majority of aspartic proteinases. We observed that hydrolysis of B-chain of insulin was totally inhibited by pepstatin A in the micromolar concentration range. The molecular weight of the monomer of the Ulysses proteinase was determined by MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry.

  5. Aspartic proteinases from Mucor spp. in cheese manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Yegin, Sirma; Fernandez-Lahore, Marcelo; Jose Gama Salgado, Antonio; Guvenc, Ulgar; Goksungur, Yekta; Tari, Canan

    2011-02-01

    Filamentous fungi belonging to the order of Mucorales are well known as producers of aspartic proteinases depicting milk-clotting activity. The biosynthesis level, the biochemical characteristics, and the technological properties of the resulting proteinases are affected by the producer strain and the mode of cultivation. While the milk-clotting enzymes produced by the Rhizomucor spp. have been extensively studied in the past, much less is known on the properties and potential applications of the aspartic proteinases obtained for Mucor spp. Indeed, several Mucor spp. strains have been reported as a potential source of milk-clotting enzymes having unique technological properties. Both submerged fermentation and solid substrate cultivation are proven alternatives for the production of Mucor spp. aspartic proteinases. This review provides an overview on the bioprocessing routes to obtain large amounts of these enzymes, on their structural characteristics as related to their functional properties, and on their industrial applications with focus on cheese manufacturing.

  6. Isolation and characterization of recombinant Drosophila Copia aspartic proteinase

    PubMed Central

    Athauda, Senarath B. P.; Yoshioka, Katsuji; Shiba, Tadayoshi; Takahashi, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    The wild type Copia Gag precursor protein of Drosophila melanogaster expressed in Escherichia coli was shown to be processed autocatalytically to generate two daughter proteins with molecular masses of 33 and 23 kDa on SDS/PAGE. The active-site motif of aspartic proteinases, Asp-Ser-Gly, was present in the 23 kDa protein corresponding to the C-terminal half of the precursor protein. The coding region of this daughter protein (152 residues) in the copia gag gene was expressed in E. coli to produce the recombinant enzyme protein as inclusion bodies, which was then purified and refolded to create the active enzyme. Using the peptide substrate His-Gly-Ile-Ala-Phe-Met-Val-Lys-Glu-Val-Asn (cleavage site: Phe–Met) designed on the basis of the sequence of the cleavage-site region of the precursor protein, the enzymatic properties of the proteinase were investigated. The optimum pH and temperature of the proteinase toward the synthetic peptide were 4.0 and 70 °C respectively. The proteolytic activity was increased with increasing NaCl concentration in the reaction mixture, the optimum concentration being 2 M. Pepstatin A strongly inhibited the enzyme, with a Ki value of 15 nM at pH 4.0. On the other hand, the active-site residue mutant, in which the putative catalytic aspartic acid residue was mutated to an alanine residue, had no activity. These results show that the Copia proteinase belongs to the family of aspartic proteinases including HIV proteinase. The B-chain of oxidized bovine insulin was hydrolysed at the Leu15−–Tyr16 bond fairly selectively. Thus the recombinant Copia proteinase partially resembles HIV proteinase, but is significantly different from it in certain aspects. PMID:16813567

  7. Chlapsin, a chloroplastidial aspartic proteinase from the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Carla Malaquias; Pereira, Cláudia; da Costa, Diana Soares; Pereira, Susana; Pissarra, José; Simões, Isaura; Faro, Carlos

    2012-07-01

    Aspartic proteinases have been extensively characterized in land plants but up to now no evidences for their presence in green algae group have yet been reported in literature. Here we report on the identification of the first (and only) typical aspartic proteinase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This enzyme, named chlapsin, was shown to maintain the primary structure organization of typical plant aspartic proteinases but comprising distinct features, such as similar catalytic motifs DTG/DTG resembling those from animal and microbial counterparts, and an unprecedentedly longer plant specific insert domain with an extra segment of 80 amino acids, rich in alanine residues. Our results also demonstrated that chlapsin accumulates in Chlamydomonas chloroplast bringing this new enzyme to a level of uniqueness among typical plant aspartic proteinases. Chlapsin was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and it displayed the characteristic enzymatic properties of typical aspartic proteinases, like optimum activity at acidic pH and complete inhibition by pepstatin A. Another difference to plant aspartic proteinases emerged as chlapsin was produced in an active form without its putative prosegment domain. Moreover, recombinant chlapsin showed a restricted enzymatic specificity and a proteolytic activity influenced by the presence of redox agents and nucleotides, further differentiating it from typical plant aspartic proteinases and anticipating a more specialized/regulated function for this Chlamydomonas enzyme. Taken together, our results revealed a pattern of complexity for typical plant aspartic proteinases in what concerns sequence features, localization and biochemical properties, raising new questions on the evolution and function of this vast group of plant enzymes.

  8. Functional role of aspartic proteinase cathepsin D in insect metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Zhong Zheng; Lee, Kwang Sik; Kim, Bo Yeon; Choi, Yong Soo; Wei, Ya Dong; Choo, Young Moo; Kang, Pil Don; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Kim, Iksoo; Je, Yeon Ho; Seo, Sook Jae; Lee, Sang Mong; Guo, Xijie; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byung Rae

    2006-01-01

    Background Metamorphosis is a complex, highly conserved and strictly regulated development process that involves the programmed cell death of obsolete larval organs. Here we show a novel functional role for the aspartic proteinase cathepsin D during insect metamorphosis. Results Cathepsin D of the silkworm Bombyx mori (BmCatD) was ecdysone-induced, differentially and spatially expressed in the larval fat body of the final instar and in the larval gut of pupal stage, and its expression led to programmed cell death. Furthermore, BmCatD was highly induced in the fat body of baculovirus-infected B. mori larvae, suggesting that this gene is involved in the induction of metamorphosis of host insects infected with baculovirus. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated BmCatD knock-down inhibited programmed cell death of the larval fat body, resulting in the arrest of larval-pupal transformation. BmCatD RNAi also inhibited the programmed cell death of larval gut during pupal stage. Conclusion Based on these results, we concluded that BmCatD is critically involved in the programmed cell death of the larval fat body and larval gut in silkworm metamorphosis. PMID:17062167

  9. Identification of Novel Placentally Expressed Aspartic Proteinase in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Majewska, Marta; Lipka, Aleksandra; Panasiewicz, Grzegorz; Gowkielewicz, Marek; Jozwik, Marcin; Majewski, Mariusz Krzysztof; Szafranska, Bozena

    2017-01-01

    This study presents pioneering data concerning the human pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-Like family, identified in the genome, of the term placental transcriptome and proteome. RNA-seq allowed the identification of 1364 bp hPAG-L/pep cDNA with at least 56.5% homology with other aspartic proteinases (APs). In silico analyses revealed 388 amino acids (aa) of full-length hPAG-L polypeptide precursor, with 15 aa-signal peptide, 47 aa-blocking peptide and 326 aa-mature protein, and two Asp residues (D), specific for a catalytic cleft of the APs (VVFDTGSSNLWV91-102 and AIVDTGTSLLTG274-285). Capillary sequencing identified 9330 bp of the hPAG-L gene (Gen Bank Acc. No. KX533473), composed of nine exons and eight introns. Heterologous Western blotting revealed the presence of one dominant 60 kDa isoform of the hPAG-L amongst cellular placental proteins. Detection with anti-pPAG-P and anti-Rec pPAG2 polyclonals allowed identification of the hPAG-L proteins located within regions of chorionic villi, especially within the syncytiotrophoblast of term singleton placentas. Our novel data extend the present knowledge about the human genome, as well as placental transcriptome and proteome during term pregnancy. Presumably, this may contribute to establishing a new diagnostic tool for examination of some disturbances during human pregnancy, as well as growing interest from both scientific and clinical perspectives. PMID:28594357

  10. Modification of luciferase to be a substrate for plant aspartic proteinase.

    PubMed Central

    Amidon, W J; Pfeil, J E; Gal, S

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of using firefly luciferase as a substrate for an aspartic proteinase was explored. Several amino acid modifications to the C-terminus of the luciferase were created on the basis of the known substrate of the Arabidopsis thaliana aspartic proteinase, pro-(barley lectin). One luciferase with the sequence Arg-Asp-Gly-Val-Phe-Ala-Ala instead of the native Arg-Glu-Ile-Leu-Ile-Lys-Ala at position -15 to -9 relative to the C-terminus of native luciferase was found to possess 17% of the original luciferase activity. When this modified luciferase was incubated with the aspartic proteinase, a specific loss in activity occurred that was not observed with the original luciferase. However, both enzymes seemed very sensitive to the acidic conditions required for aspartic proteinase activity. The other versions of luciferase with different numbers of pro-(barley lectin) amino acids were not active luciferases. This provided information on the structural requirements of the C-terminal portion of the protein for luciferase activity. The luciferase proteins were also monitored during the digestion by using Western blots and some were shown to be substrates for the aspartic proteinase. Contrary to what had been expected, the modified luciferase that incorporated the pro-(barley lectin) sequences was not simply cleaved at the engineered site but at additional positions in the protein. The Arabidopsis aspartic proteinase cleaved two other standard protein substrates at many sites, suggesting that this proteinase could have a role in the degradation of proteins in addition to processing propeptides in plants. PMID:10510310

  11. A pepstatin-insensitive aspartic proteinase from a thermophilic Bacillus sp.

    PubMed Central

    Toogood, H S; Prescott, M; Daniel, R M

    1995-01-01

    Bacillus sp. strain Wp22.A1 produced a cell-associated aspartic proteinase which was purified to homogeneity using phenyl-Sepharose (hydrophobic and affinity chromatography) and Mono Q. The proteinase has a molecular mass of 45 kDa by SDS/PAGE and a pI of 3.8. It is insensitive to pepstatin, but is sensitive to the other aspartic proteinase-specific inhibitors diazoacetyl-DL-norleucine methyl ester (DAN) and 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)propane. Inactivation by DAN was only partial, suggesting that it had non-specifically modified an aspartate residue at a site other than the active site. The enzyme was not inhibited by any of the serine or cysteine proteinase inhibitors tested. Maximum proteolytic activity was observed at pH 3.5. The proteinase had a higher activity with haemoglobin, but was more specific (Vmax./Km) for cytochrome c. Substrate inhibition was observed with both these substrates. The cleavage of oxidized insulin B chain tended to occur at sites where the P1 amino acid was bulky and non-polar, and the P1' amino acid was bulky and polar, such as its primary cleavage site of Val2-Asn3. The proteinase was stable in the pH range 2.5-5.5. Thermostability was increased in the presence of Ca2+, although to a lesser extent at higher temperatures. The thermostabilities at 60, 70, 80 and 90 degrees C were 45 h, 102, 21 and 3 min respectively in the presence of Ca2+. Images Figure 1 PMID:7741709

  12. Solution Structure of the Squash Aspartic Acid Proteinase Inhibitor (SQAPI) and Mutational Analysis of Pepsin Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Headey, Stephen J.; MacAskill, Ursula K.; Wright, Michele A.; Claridge, Jolyon K.; Edwards, Patrick J. B.; Farley, Peter C.; Christeller, John T.; Laing, William A.; Pascal, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    The squash aspartic acid proteinase inhibitor (SQAPI), a proteinaceous proteinase inhibitor from squash, is an effective inhibitor of a range of aspartic proteinases. Proteinaceous aspartic proteinase inhibitors are rare in nature. The only other example in plants probably evolved from a precursor serine proteinase inhibitor. Earlier work based on sequence homology modeling suggested SQAPI evolved from an ancestral cystatin. In this work, we determined the solution structure of SQAPI using NMR and show that SQAPI shares the same fold as a plant cystatin. The structure is characterized by a four-strand anti-parallel β-sheet gripping an α-helix in an analogous manner to fingers of a hand gripping a tennis racquet. Truncation and site-specific mutagenesis revealed that the unstructured N terminus and the loop connecting β-strands 1 and 2 are important for pepsin inhibition, but the loop connecting strands 3 and 4 is not. Using ambiguous restraints based on the mutagenesis results, SQAPI was then docked computationally to pepsin. The resulting model places the N-terminal strand of SQAPI in the S′ side of the substrate binding cleft, whereas the first SQAPI loop binds on the S side of the cleft. The backbone of SQAPI does not interact with the pepsin catalytic Asp32–Asp215 diad, thus avoiding cleavage. The data show that SQAPI does share homologous structural elements with cystatin and appears to retain a similar protease inhibitory mechanism despite its different target. This strongly supports our hypothesis that SQAPI evolved from an ancestral cystatin. PMID:20538608

  13. Solution structure of the squash aspartic acid proteinase inhibitor (SQAPI) and mutational analysis of pepsin inhibition.

    PubMed

    Headey, Stephen J; Macaskill, Ursula K; Wright, Michele A; Claridge, Jolyon K; Edwards, Patrick J B; Farley, Peter C; Christeller, John T; Laing, William A; Pascal, Steven M

    2010-08-27

    The squash aspartic acid proteinase inhibitor (SQAPI), a proteinaceous proteinase inhibitor from squash, is an effective inhibitor of a range of aspartic proteinases. Proteinaceous aspartic proteinase inhibitors are rare in nature. The only other example in plants probably evolved from a precursor serine proteinase inhibitor. Earlier work based on sequence homology modeling suggested SQAPI evolved from an ancestral cystatin. In this work, we determined the solution structure of SQAPI using NMR and show that SQAPI shares the same fold as a plant cystatin. The structure is characterized by a four-strand anti-parallel beta-sheet gripping an alpha-helix in an analogous manner to fingers of a hand gripping a tennis racquet. Truncation and site-specific mutagenesis revealed that the unstructured N terminus and the loop connecting beta-strands 1 and 2 are important for pepsin inhibition, but the loop connecting strands 3 and 4 is not. Using ambiguous restraints based on the mutagenesis results, SQAPI was then docked computationally to pepsin. The resulting model places the N-terminal strand of SQAPI in the S' side of the substrate binding cleft, whereas the first SQAPI loop binds on the S side of the cleft. The backbone of SQAPI does not interact with the pepsin catalytic Asp(32)-Asp(215) diad, thus avoiding cleavage. The data show that SQAPI does share homologous structural elements with cystatin and appears to retain a similar protease inhibitory mechanism despite its different target. This strongly supports our hypothesis that SQAPI evolved from an ancestral cystatin.

  14. Kinetic analysis of a general model of activation of aspartic proteinase zymogens.

    PubMed

    Varón, R; García-Moreno, M; Valera-Ruipérez, D; García-Molina, F; García-Cánovas, F; Ladrón-de Guevara, R G; Masiá-Pérez, J; Havsteen, B H

    2006-10-07

    Starting from a simple general reaction mechanism of activation of aspartic proteinase zymogens involving an uni- and a bimolecular simultaneous route, the time course equation of the concentration of the zymogen and of the activated enzyme have been derived. From these equations, an analysis quantifying the relative contribution to the global process of the two routes has been carried out for the first time. This analysis suggests a way to predict the time course of the relative contribution as well as the effect of the initial zymogen and activating enzyme concentrations, on the relative weight. An experimental design and kinetic data analysis is suggested to estimate the kinetic parameters involved in the reaction mechanism proposed. Finally, we apply some of our results to experimental data obtained by other authors in experimental studies of the activation of some aspartic proteinase zymogens.

  15. Substrate and inhibitor studies with human gastric aspartic proteinases.

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, A; Campbell, C J; Grinham, C J; Keane, R M; Lawton, B C; Pendlebury, J E

    1990-01-01

    The separation of pepsin isoenzymes 1, 2, 3 and 5 (gastricsin) in human gastric juice was effected by chromatography on Mono Q ion-exchanger, and slow-moving proteinase was purified to homogeneity by using a modified procedure incorporating a novel affinity-chromatography step. The pH-activity profiles of these enzymes with mucus glycoprotein and basement-membrane substrates were determined; the profiles for pepsin 2 were noticeably different, and, in general, the pH optima for the hydrolysis of basement membrane were more acidic. Pepsin 1 expressed larger specificity constants (kcat./Km) than pepsin 3 with a series of synthetic peptide substrates, reflecting greater binding (smaller Km) by pepsin 1. Inhibitor studies at pH 1.7 and 4.5 with a series of P2-substituted lactoyl-pepstatins implied that valine at position P2 was optimal for inhibiting pepsins 1, 2 and 3 but detrimental for pepsin 5, whereas lysine at position P2 was tolerated well by pepsin 5 but not by pepsins 1, 2 and 3. The potency of lactoyl-pepstatin with lysine at position P2 did not increase as a function of pH. P2-substituted lactoyl-pepstatins failed to show any inhibitory selectivity among pepsins 1, 2 and 3. PMID:2111133

  16. Crystal quality and inhibitor binding by aspartic proteinases; preparation of high quality crystals of mouse renin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badasso, M.; Sibanda, B. L.; Cooper, J. B.; Dealwis, C. G.; Wood, S. P.

    1992-08-01

    Renin from mouse submandibular glands has been highly purified and co-crystallized with a synthetic nonapeptide fragment of rat angiotensionogen in which the scissile Leu-Leu bond has been modified as a hydroxyethylene mimic of the transition state. The strong diffraction from these crystals compared to the native form is discussed in relation to the behaviour of other members of the aspartic proteinase family in crystallisation.

  17. A structural comparison of 21 inhibitor complexes of the aspartic proteinase from Endothia parasitica.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, D.; Cooper, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    The aspartic proteinases are an important family of enzymes associated with several pathological conditions such as hypertension (renin), gastric ulcers (pepsin), neoplastic disease (cathepsins D and E), and AIDS (HIV proteinase). Studies of inhibitor binding are therefore of great importance for design of novel inhibitors for potential therapeutic applications. Numerous X-ray analyses have shown that transition-state isostere inhibitors of aspartic proteinases bind in similar extended conformations in the active-site cleft of the target enzyme. Upon comparison of 21 endothiapepsin inhibitor complexes, the hydrogen bond lengths were found to be shortest where the isostere (P1-P'1) interacts with the enzyme's catalytic aspartate pair. Hydrogen bonds with good geometry also occur at P'2, and more so at P3, where a conserved water molecule is involved in the interactions. Weaker interactions also occur at P2, where the side-chain conformations of the inhibitors appear to be more variable than at the more tightly held positions. At P2 and, to a lesser extent, P3, the side-chain conformations depend intriguingly on interactions with spatially adjacent side chains, namely P'1 and P1, respectively. The tight binding at P1-P'1, P3, and P'2 is also reflected in the larger number of van der Waals contacts and the large decreases in solvent-accessible area at these positions, as well as their low temperature factors. Our analysis substantiates earlier proposals for the locations of protons in the transition-state complex. Aspartate 32 is probably ionized in the complexes, its charge being stabilized by 1, or sometimes 2, hydrogen bonds from the transition-state analogues at P1. The detailed comparison also indicates that the P1 and P2 residues of substrate in the ES complex may be strained by the extensive binding interactions at P3, P'1, and P'2 in a manner that would facilitate hydrolysis of the scissile peptide bond. PMID:7703859

  18. Purification and characterization of a milk-clotting aspartic proteinase from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.).

    PubMed

    Llorente, Berta E; Brutti, Cristina B; Caffini, Néstor O

    2004-12-29

    The study of proteinase expression in crude extracts from different organs of the globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) disclosed that enzymes with proteolytic and milk-clotting activity are mainly located in mature flowers. Maximum proteolytic activity was recorded at pH 5.0, and inhibition studies showed that only pepstatin, specific for aspartic proteinases, presented a significant inhibitory effect. Such properties, in addition to easy enzyme inactivation by moderate heating, make this crude protease extract potentially useful for cheese production. Adsorption with activated carbon, together with anion exchange and affinity chromatography, led to the isolation of a heterodimeric milk-clotting proteinase consisting of 30- and 15-kDa subunits. MALDI-TOF MS of the 15-kDa chain determined a 15.358-Da mass, and the terminal amino sequence presented 96% homology with the smaller cardosin A subunit. The amino terminal sequence of the 30-kDa chain proved to be identical to the larger cardosin A subunit. Electrophoresis evidenced proteinase self-processing that was confirmed by immunoblots presenting 62-, 30-, and 15-kDa bands.

  19. Altered adherence in strains of Candida albicans harbouring null mutations in secreted aspartic proteinase genes.

    PubMed

    Watts, H J; Cheah, F S; Hube, B; Sanglard, D; Gow, N A

    1998-02-01

    The aspartate proteinase inhibitor pepstatin A has been shown previously to reduce the adherence of Candida albicans yeast cells to human surfaces. This suggests that in addition to their presumed function facilitating tissue penetration, the secreted aspartate proteinases (Saps) of this fungal pathogen may have auxiliary roles as cellular adhesins. We therefore examined the relative adherence of yeast cells of a parental wild-type strain of C. albicans in relation to yeast cells of strains harbouring specific disruptions in various members of the SAP gene family in an otherwise isogenic background. The adhesiveness of delta sap1, delta sap2, delta sap3 null mutants and a triple delta sap 4-6 disruptant was examined on three surfaces--glass coated with poly-L-lysine or a commercial cell-free basement membrane preparation (Matrigel) and on human buccal epithelial cells. Pepstatin A reduced adherence to all surfaces. Adherence of the each of the single SAP null mutants to these three substrates was either reduced or not affected significantly compared to that of the parental strain. The adherence of the delta sap4-6 mutant was reduced on poly-L-lysine and Matrigel, but increased on buccal cells. The results suggest that in addition to a primary enzymatic role, various SAPs may also act singly or synergistically to enhance the adhesiveness to C. albicans cells to certain human tissues.

  20. Mutational analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease suggests functional homology with aspartic proteinases.

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, D D; Hutchison, C A; Edgell, M H; Farmerie, W G; Swanstrom, R

    1989-01-01

    Processing of the retroviral gag and pol gene products is mediated by a viral protease. Bacterial expression systems have been developed which permit genetic analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease as measured by cleavage of the pol protein precursor. Deletion analysis of the pol reading frame locates the sequences required to encode a protein with appropriate proteolytic activity near the left end of the pol reading frame but largely outside the gag-pol overlap region, which is at the extreme left end of pol. Most missense mutations within an 11-amino-acid domain highly conserved among retroviral proteases and with sequence similarity to the active site of aspartic proteinases abolish appropriate processing, suggesting that the retrovirus proteases share a catalytic mechanism with aspartic proteinases. Substitution of the amino acids flanking the scissile bond at three of the processing sites encoded by pol demonstrates distinct sequence requirements for cleavage at these different sites. The inclusion of a charged amino acid at the processing site blocks cleavage. A subset of these substitutions also inhibits processing at the nonmutated sites. Images PMID:2642305

  1. Cloning and expression of an active aspartic proteinase from Mucor circinelloides in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Gama Salgado, Jose Antonio; Kangwa, Martin; Fernandez-Lahore, Marcelo

    2013-11-09

    Extracellular aspartic proteinase (MCAP) produced by Mucor circinelloides in solid state fermentations has been shown to possess milk clotting activity and represents a potential replacement for bovine chymosin in cheese manufacturing. Despite its prospects in the dairy industry, the molecular characteristics of this enzyme remain unknown. This work focuses on MCAP cloning and optimization of heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris, and characterization of the enzyme. The cloning of cDNA sequence encoding MCAP from M. circinelloides was performed using a fragment of approximately 1 kbp as a probe. The fragment was amplified using non-specific primers designed from the NDIEYYG and KNNYVVFN consensus motifs from aspartic proteinases of different fungi. Gene specific primers were designed to amplify a full-length cDNA using SMART™ RACE PCR. MCAP was expressed in P. pastoris under the control of the constitutive GAP promoter. It was shown that P. pastoris secreted non-glycosylated and glycosylated MCAPs with molecular weights of 33 and 37 kDa, respectively. A novel MCAP was expressed in P. pastoris and efficiently secreted into the culture medium. The expression of the heterologous proteins was significantly increased due to advantages in codon usage as compared to other expression systems. The results suggest that P. pastoris could be exploited as a safe production platform for the milk clotting enzyme.

  2. Cloning and expression of an active aspartic proteinase from Mucor circinelloides in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Extracellular aspartic proteinase (MCAP) produced by Mucor circinelloides in solid state fermentations has been shown to possess milk clotting activity and represents a potential replacement for bovine chymosin in cheese manufacturing. Despite its prospects in the dairy industry, the molecular characteristics of this enzyme remain unknown. This work focuses on MCAP cloning and optimization of heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris, and characterization of the enzyme. Results The cloning of cDNA sequence encoding MCAP from M. circinelloides was performed using a fragment of approximately 1 kbp as a probe. The fragment was amplified using non-specific primers designed from the NDIEYYG and KNNYVVFN consensus motifs from aspartic proteinases of different fungi. Gene specific primers were designed to amplify a full-length cDNA using SMART™ RACE PCR. MCAP was expressed in P. pastoris under the control of the constitutive GAP promoter. It was shown that P. pastoris secreted non-glycosylated and glycosylated MCAPs with molecular weights of 33 and 37 kDa, respectively. Conclusion A novel MCAP was expressed in P. pastoris and efficiently secreted into the culture medium. The expression of the heterologous proteins was significantly increased due to advantages in codon usage as compared to other expression systems. The results suggest that P. pastoris could be exploited as a safe production platform for the milk clotting enzyme. PMID:24206750

  3. Identification of the aspartic proteinases from human erythrocyte membranes and gastric mucosa (slow-moving proteinase) as catalytically equivalent to cathepsin E.

    PubMed Central

    Jupp, R A; Richards, A D; Kay, J; Dunn, B M; Wyckoff, J B; Samloff, I M; Yamamoto, K

    1988-01-01

    Three aspartic proteinases with similar Mr values (approx. 80,000) but from distinct sources (human gastric mucosa, human erythrocyte membranes and rat spleen) were shown to have immunological cross-reactivity and comparable mobilities when subjected to polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis under non-denaturing conditions. Kinetic parameters (kcat, Km and Ki) were determined for the interactions of the three enzymes with two synthetic chromogenic substrates and five inhibitors (naturally occurring and synthetic). On this basis it would appear that all of the enzymes should be considered equivalent to cathepsin E. pH-activity measurements indicated that the aspartic proteinase that originated from the erythrocyte membranes retained activity at a higher pH value than either of its readily soluble counterparts. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:3058118

  4. Design of dimerization inhibitors of HIV-1 aspartic proteinase: A computer-based combinatorial approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caflisch, Amedeo; Schramm, Hans J.; Karplus, Martin

    2000-02-01

    Inhibition of dimerization to the active form of the HIV-1 aspartic proteinase (HIV-1 PR) may be a way to decrease the probability of escape mutations for this viral protein. The Multiple Copy Simultaneous Search (MCSS) methodology was used to generate functionality maps for the dimerization interface of HIV-1 PR. The positions of the MCSS minima of 19 organic fragments, once postprocessed to take into account solvation effects, are in good agreement with experimental data on peptides that bind to the interface. The MCSS minima combined with an approach for computational combinatorial ligand design yielded a set of modified HIV-1 PR C-terminal peptides that are similar to known nanomolar inhibitors of HIV-1 PR dimerization. A number of N-substituted 2,5-diketopiperazines are predicted to be potential dimerization inhibitors of HIV-1 PR.

  5. Nepenthesin, a unique member of a novel subfamily of aspartic proteinases: enzymatic and structural characteristics.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kenji; Athauda, Senarath B P; Matsumoto, Koji; Rajapakshe, Sanath; Kuribayashi, Masayuki; Kojima, Masaki; Kubomura-Yoshida, Nobuko; Iwamatsu, Akihiro; Shibata, Chiaki; Inoue, Hideshi

    2005-12-01

    Carnivorous plants are known to secrete acid proteinases to digest prey, mainly insects, for nitrogen uptake. In our recent study, we have purified, for the first time, to homogeneity two acid proteinases, nepenthesin I (Nep I) and nepenthesin II (Nep II) from the pitcher fluid of Nepenthes distillatoria and investigated their enzymatic and structural characteristics. Both enzymes were optimally active at pH approx. 2.6 toward acid-denatured hemoglobin; the specificity of Nep I toward oxidized insulin B chain appears to be similar, but slightly wider than those of other aspartic proteinases (APs). At or below 50 degrees C both enzymes were remarkably stable; especially Nep I was extremely stable over a wide range of pH from 3 to 10 for over 30 days. This suggests an evolutionary adaptation of the enzymes to their specific habitat. We have also cloned the cDNAs and deduced the complete amino acid sequences of the precursors of Nep I and Nep II from the pitcher tissue of Nepenthes gracilis. Although the corresponding mature enzymes are homologous with ordinary pepsin-type APs, both enzymes had a high content of cysteine residues (12 residues per molecule), which are assumed to form six unique disulfide bonds as suggested by computer modeling and are thought to contribute toward the remarkable stability of Neps. Moreover, the amino acid sequence identity of Neps with ordinary APs, including plant vacuolar APs, are remarkably low (approx. 20%), and phylogenetic comparison shows that Neps are distantly related to them to form a novel subfamily of APs with a high content of cysteine residues and a characteristic insertion, named 'the Nep-type AP (NAP)-specific insertion', including a large number of novel, orthologous plant APs emerging in the gene/protein databases.

  6. Enzymic and structural characterization of nepenthesin, a unique member of a novel subfamily of aspartic proteinases.

    PubMed

    Athauda, Senarath B P; Matsumoto, Koji; Rajapakshe, Sanath; Kuribayashi, Masayuki; Kojima, Masaki; Kubomura-Yoshida, Nobuko; Iwamatsu, Akihiro; Shibata, Chiaki; Inoue, Hideshi; Takahashi, Kenji

    2004-07-01

    Carnivorous plants are known to secrete acid proteinases to digest prey, mainly insects, for nitrogen uptake. In the present study, we have purified, for the first time, to homogeneity two acid proteinases (nepenthesins I and II) from the pitcher fluid of Nepenthes distillatoria (a pitcher-plant known locally as badura) and investigated their enzymic and structural characteristics. Both enzymes were optimally active at pH approx. 2.6 towards acid-denatured haemoglobin; the specificity of nepenthesin I towards oxidized insulin B chain appears to be similar, but slightly wider than those of other APs (aspartic proteinases). Among the enzymic properties, however, the most notable is their unusual stability: both enzymes were remarkably stable at or below 50 degrees C, especially nepenthesin I was extremely stable over a wide range of pH from 3 to 10 for over 30 days. This suggests an evolutionary adaptation of the enzymes to their specific habitat. We have also cloned the cDNAs and deduced the complete amino acid sequences of the precursors of nepenthesins I and II (437 and 438 residues respectively) from the pitcher tissue of N. gracilis. Although the corresponding mature enzymes (each 359 residues) are homologous with ordinary pepsin-type APs, both enzymes had a high content of cysteine residues (12 residues/molecule), which are assumed to form six unique disulphide bonds as suggested by computer modelling and are supposed to contribute towards the remarkable stability of nepenthesins. Moreover, the amino acid sequence identity of nepenthesins with ordinary APs, including plant vacuolar APs, is remarkably low (approx. 20%), and phylogenetic comparison shows that nepenthesins are distantly related to them to form a novel subfamily of APs with a high content of cysteine residues and a characteristic insertion, named 'the nepenthesin-type AP-specific insertion', that includes a large number of novel, orthologous plant APs emerging in the gene/protein databases.

  7. Aspartic proteinases of Candida spp.: role in pathogenicity and antifungal resistance.

    PubMed

    Silva, Naiara C; Nery, Jéssica M; Dias, Amanda L T

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infections represent a serious health risk as they are particularly prevalent in immunocompromised individuals. Candida spp. pathogenicity depends on several factors and secreted aspartic proteinases (Sap) are considered one of the most critical factors as they are associated with adhesion, invasion and tissue damage. The production of proteinases is encoded by a family of 10 genes known as SAP, which are distributed differently among the species. The expression of these genes may be influenced by environmental conditions, which generally result in a higher fungal invasive potential. Non-pathogenic Candida spp. usually have fewer SAP genes, which are not necessarily expressed in the genome. Exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of antifungal agents promotes the development of resistant strains with an increased expression of SAP genes. In general, Candida spp. isolates that are resistant to antifungals show a higher secretion of Sap than the susceptible isolates. The relationship between Sap secretion and the susceptibility profile of the isolates is of great interest, although the role of SAPs in the development of resistance to antifungal agents remains still unclear. This review is the first one to address these issues.

  8. Free-energy analysis of enzyme-inhibitor binding: aspartic proteinase-pepstatin complexes.

    PubMed

    Kalra, P; Das, A; Jayaram, B

    2001-01-01

    Expeditious in silico determinations of the free energies of binding of a series of inhibitors to an enzyme are of immense practical value in structure-based drug design efforts. Some recent advances in the field of computational chemistry have rendered a rigorous thermodynamic treatment of biologic molecules feasible, starting from a molecular description of the biomolecule, solvent, and salt. Pursuing the goal of developing and making available a software for assessing binding affinities, we present here a computationally rapid, albeit elaborate, methodology to estimate and analyze the molecular thermodynamics of enzyme-inhibitor binding with crystal structures as the point of departure. The complexes of aspartic proteinases with seven inhibitors have been adopted for this study. The standard free energy of complexation is considered in terms of a thermodynamic cycle of six distinct steps decomposed into a total of 18 well-defined components. The model we employed involves explicit all-atom accounts of the energetics of electrostatic interactions, solvent screening effects, van der Waals components, and cavitation effects of solvation combined with a Debye-Huckel treatment of salt effects. The magnitudes and signs of the various components are estimated using the AMBER parm94 force field, generalized Born theory, and solvent accessibility measures. Estimates of translational and rotational entropy losses on complexation as well as corresponding changes in the vibrational and configurational entropy are also included. The calculated standard free energies of binding at this stage are within an order of magnitude of the observed inhibition constants and necessitate further improvements in the computational protocols to enable quantitative predictions. Some areas such as inclusion of structural adaptation effects, incorporation of site-dependent amino acid pKa shifts, consideration of the dynamics of the active site for fine-tuning the methodology are easily

  9. Differential expression of wheat aspartic proteinases, WAP1 and WAP2, in germinating and maturing seeds.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Tomoko; Terauchi, Kaede; Kiyosaki, Toshihiro; Asakura, Tomiko; Funaki, Junko; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2007-04-01

    Two aspartic proteinase (AP) cDNA clones, WAP1 and WAP2, were obtained from wheat seeds. Proteins encoded by these clones shared 61% amino acid sequence identity. RNA blotting analysis showed that WAP1 and WAP2 were expressed in both germinating and maturing seeds. The level of WAP2 mRNA expression was clearly weaker than that of WAP1 in all tissues of seeds during germination and maturation. APs purified from germinating seeds were enzymatically active and digested the wheat storage protein, gluten. To elucidate the physiological functions of WAP1 and WAP2 in seeds, we investigated the localisation of WAP1 and WAP2 by in situ hybridisation. In germinating seeds investigated 24h after imbibition, both WAP1 and WAP2 were expressed in embryos, especially in radicles and shoots, scutellum, and the aleurone layer. In maturing seeds, WAP1 was expressed in the whole embryo, with slightly stronger expression in radicles and shoots. WAP1 was also expressed in the aleurone layer 3 weeks after flowering. Strong signals of WAP1 mRNA were detected in the whole embryo and aleurone layer 6 weeks after flowering. On the other hand, WAP2 was scarcely detected in seeds 3 weeks after flowering, and thereafter weak signals began to appear in the whole embryo. WAP1 and WAP2 were expressed widely in germinating and maturing seeds. Such diversity in site- and stage-specific expression of the two enzymes suggests their differential functions in wheat seeds.

  10. The crystal structure of a major secreted aspartic proteinase from Candida albicans in complexes with two inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cutfield, S M; Dodson, E J; Anderson, B F; Moody, P C; Marshall, C J; Sullivan, P A; Cutfield, J F

    1995-11-15

    Infections caused by Candida albicans, a common fungal pathogen of humans, are increasing in incidence, necessitating development of new therapeutic drugs. Secreted aspartic proteinase (SAP) activity is considered an important virulence factor in these infections and might offer a suitable target for drug design. Amongst the various SAP isozymes, the SAP2 gene product is the major form expressed in a number of C. albicans strains. The three-dimensional structures of SAP2 complexed with the tight-binding inhibitor A70450 (a synthetic hexapeptide analogue) and with the general aspartic proteinase inhibitor pepstatin A (a microbial natural product) have been determined to 2.1 A and 3.0 A resolution, respectively. Although the protein structure retains the main features of a typical aspartic proteinase, it also shows some significant differences, due mainly to several sequence insertions and deletions (as revealed by homology modelling), that alter the shape of the binding cleft. There is also considerable variation in the C-terminal structural domain. The differences in side chains, and in the conformations adopted by the two inhibitors, particularly at their P4, P3 and P'2 positions (using standard notation for protease-inhibitor residues), allows the A70450 structure to complement, more accurately, that of the substrate-binding site of SAP2. Some differences in the binding clefts of other SAP isoenzymes may be deduced from the SAP2 structure.

  11. Design, synthesis, inhibition studies, and molecular modeling of pepstatin analogues addressing different secreted aspartic proteinases of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Cadicamo, Cosimo D; Mortier, Jérémie; Wolber, Gerhard; Hell, Marie; Heinrich, Ina E; Michel, Dana; Semlin, Lydia; Berger, Ursula; Korting, Hans C; Höltje, Hans-Dieter; Koksch, Beate; Borelli, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    The family of secreted aspartic proteinases is known as an important virulence factor of yeast infections by Candida albicans in particular, which is the most common fungal pathogen for humans with respect to systemic disease. Due to the continuing increase of drug resistant strains, these proteinases are currently considered as promising drug target candidates. Based on the known Sap2-substrate specificity data and X-ray analyses of Sap/inhibitor complexes, three libraries of inhibitors were designed and synthesized by modifying the structure of pepstatin A, a common non-selective aspartic proteinase inhibitor, at the P3, P2, or P2' position. These novel inhibitors showed high inhibitory potencies for the isoenzymes Sap1, Sap3, Sap5 and Sap6. Then, the affinity and selectivity of the peptide ligands were investigated by molecular modeling, highlighting new key structural information for the design of potent and selective anti-virulence agents targeting Candida albicans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. N-terminal extension of the yeast IA3 aspartic proteinase inhibitor relaxes the strict intrinsic selectivity.

    PubMed

    Winterburn, Tim J; Phylip, Lowri H; Bur, Daniel; Wyatt, David M; Berry, Colin; Kay, John

    2007-07-01

    Yeast IA(3) aspartic proteinase inhibitor operates through an unprecedented mechanism and exhibits a remarkable specificity for one target enzyme, saccharopepsin. Even aspartic proteinases that are very closely similar to saccharopepsin (e.g. the vacuolar enzyme from Pichia pastoris) are not susceptible to significant inhibition. The Pichia proteinase was selected as the target for initial attempts to engineer IA(3) to re-design the specificity. The IA(3) polypeptides from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces castellii differ considerably in sequence. Alterations made by deletion or exchange of the residues in the C-terminal segment of these polypeptides had only minor effects. By contrast, extension of each of these wild-type and chimaeric polypeptides at its N-terminus by an MK(H)(7)MQ sequence generated inhibitors that displayed subnanomolar potency towards the Pichia enzyme. This gain-in-function was completely reversed upon removal of the extension sequence by exopeptidase trimming. Capture of the potentially positively charged aromatic histidine residues of the extension by remote, negatively charged side-chains, which were identified in the Pichia enzyme by modelling, may increase the local IA(3) concentration and create an anchor that enables the N-terminal segment residues to be harboured in closer proximity to the enzyme active site, thus promoting their interaction. In saccharopepsin, some of the counterpart residues are different and, consistent with this, the N-terminal extension of each IA(3) polypeptide was without major effect on the potency of interaction with saccharopepsin. In this way, it is possible to convert IA(3) polypeptides that display little affinity for the Pichia enzyme into potent inhibitors of this proteinase and thus broaden the target selectivity of this remarkable small protein.

  13. Kinetic analysis of a general model of activation of aspartic proteinase zymogens involving a reversible inhibitor. I. Kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-López, A; Sotos-Lomas, A; Arribas, E; Masia-Perez, J; Garcia-Molina, F; García-Moreno, M; Varon, R

    2007-04-01

    Starting from a simple general reaction mechanism of activation of aspartic proteinases zymogens involving a uni- and a bimolecular simultaneous activation route and a reversible inhibition step, the time course equation of the zymogen, inhibitor and activated enzyme concentrations have been derived. Likewise, expressions for the time required for any reaction progress and the corresponding mean activation rates as well as the half-life of the global zymogen activation have been derived. An experimental design and kinetic data analysis is suggested to estimate the kinetic parameters involved in the reaction mechanism proposed.

  14. The squash aspartic proteinase inhibitor SQAPI is widely present in the cucurbitales, comprises a small multigene family, and is a member of the phytocystatin family.

    PubMed

    Christeller, John T; Farley, Peter C; Marshall, Richelle K; Anandan, Ananda; Wright, Michele M; Newcomb, Richard D; Laing, William A

    2006-12-01

    The squash (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate-expressed aspartic proteinase inhibitor (SQAPI) is a novel aspartic acid proteinase inhibitor, constituting a fifth family of aspartic proteinase inhibitors. However, a comparison of the SQAPI sequence to the phytocystatin (a cysteine proteinase inhibitor) family sequences showed approximately 30% identity. Modeling SQAPI onto the structure of oryzacystatin gave an excellent fit; regions identified as proteinase binding loops in cystatin coincided with regions of SQAPI identified as hypervariable, and tryptophan fluorescence changes were also consistent with a cystatin structure. We show that SQAPI exists as a small gene family. Characterization of mRNA and clone walking of genomic DNA (gDNA) produced 10 different but highly homologous SQAPI genes from Cucurbita maxima and the small family size was confirmed by Southern blotting, where evidence for at least five loci was obtained. Using primers designed from squash sequences, PCR of gDNA showed the presence of SQAPI genes in other members of the Cucurbitaceae and in representative members of Coriariaceae, Corynocarpaceae, and Begoniaceae. Thus, at least four of seven families of the order Cucurbitales possess member species with SQAPI genes, covering approximately 99% of the species in this order. A phylogenetic analysis of these Cucurbitales SQAPI genes indicated not only that SQAPI was present in the Cucurbitales ancestor but also that gene duplication has occurred during evolution of the order. Phytocystatins are widespread throughout the plant kingdom, suggesting that SQAPI has evolved recently from a phytocystatin ancestor. This appears to be the first instance of a cystatin being recruited as a proteinase inhibitor of another proteinase family.

  15. Molecular and biochemical characterisation of two aspartic proteinases TcAP1 and TcAP2 from Theobroma cacao seeds.

    PubMed

    Laloi, Maryse; McCarthy, James; Morandi, Olivia; Gysler, Christof; Bucheli, Peter

    2002-09-01

    Aspartic proteinase (EC 3.4.23) activity plays a pivotal role in the degradation of Theobroma cacao L. seed proteins during the fermentation step of cacao bean processing. Therefore, this enzyme is believed to be critical for the formation of the peptide and amino acid cocoa flavor precursors that occurs during fermentation. Using cDNA cloning and northern blot analysis, we show here that there are at least two distinct aspartic proteinase genes ( TcAP1 and TcAP2) expressed during cacao seed development. Both genes are expressed early during seed development and their mRNA levels decrease towards the end of seed maturation. TcAP2 is expressed at a much higher level than TcAP1, although the expression of TcAP1 increases slightly during germination. The proteins encoded by TcAP1 and TcAP2 are relatively different from each other (73% identity). This, and the fact that the two corresponding genes have different expression patterns, suggests that the TcAP1 and TcAP2 proteins may have different functions in the maturing seeds and during germination. Because the TcAP2 gene is expressed at a much higher level during seed development than TcAP1, it is likely that the TcAP2 protein is primarily responsible for the majority of the industrially important protein hydrolysis that occurs during cacao bean fermentation. Finally, TcAP2 has been functionally expressed in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. The secreted recombinant protein is able to hydrolyse bovine haemoglobin at acidic pH and is sensitive to pepstatin A, confirming that TcAP2 encodes an aspartic proteinase, and strongly suggests that this gene encodes the well-characterized aspartic proteinase of mature cacao seeds.

  16. Purification and molecular cloning of aspartic proteinases from the stomach of adult Japanese fire belly newts, Cynops pyrrhogaster.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Tatsuki; Sano, Kaori; Kawaguchi, Mari; Kobayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Yasumasu, Shigeki; Inokuchi, Tomofumi

    2016-04-01

    Six aspartic proteinase precursors, a pro-cathepsin E (ProCatE) and five pepsinogens (Pgs), were purified from the stomach of adult newts (Cynops pyrrhogaster). On sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the molecular weights of the Pgs and active enzymes were 37-38 kDa and 31-34 kDa, respectively. The purified ProCatE was a dimer whose subunits were connected by a disulphide bond. cDNA cloning by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed that three of the purified Pgs were classified as PgA and the remaining two were classified as PgBC belonging to C-type Pg. Our results suggest that PgBC is one of the major constituents of acid protease in the urodele stomach. We hypothesize that PgBC is an amphibian-specific Pg that diverged during its evolutional lineage. PgBC was purified and characterized for the first time. The purified urodele pepsin A was completely inhibited by equal molar units of pepstatin A. Conversely, the urodele pepsin BC had low sensitivity to pepstatin A. In acidic condition, the activation rates of newt pepsin A and BC were similar to those of mammalian pepsin A and C1, respectively. Our results suggest that the enzymological characters that distinguish A- and C-type pepsins appear to be conserved in mammals and amphibians.

  17. Purification and molecular cloning of aspartic proteinases from the stomach of adult Japanese fire belly newts, Cynops pyrrhogaster

    PubMed Central

    Nagasawa, Tatsuki; Sano, Kaori; Kawaguchi, Mari; Kobayashi, Ken-ichiro; Yasumasu, Shigeki; Inokuchi, Tomofumi

    2016-01-01

    Six aspartic proteinase precursors, a pro-cathepsin E (ProCatE) and five pepsinogens (Pgs), were purified from the stomach of adult newts (Cynops pyrrhogaster). On sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the molecular weights of the Pgs and active enzymes were 37–38 kDa and 31–34 kDa, respectively. The purified ProCatE was a dimer whose subunits were connected by a disulphide bond. cDNA cloning by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed that three of the purified Pgs were classified as PgA and the remaining two were classified as PgBC belonging to C-type Pg. Our results suggest that PgBC is one of the major constituents of acid protease in the urodele stomach. We hypothesize that PgBC is an amphibian-specific Pg that diverged during its evolutional lineage. PgBC was purified and characterized for the first time. The purified urodele pepsin A was completely inhibited by equal molar units of pepstatin A. Conversely, the urodele pepsin BC had low sensitivity to pepstatin A. In acidic condition, the activation rates of newt pepsin A and BC were similar to those of mammalian pepsin A and C1, respectively. Our results suggest that the enzymological characters that distinguish A- and C-type pepsins appear to be conserved in mammals and amphibians. PMID:26711235

  18. Molecular orbital analysis of the catalytic process of serine proteinases: Effect of environment on protonation of the histidine aspartate diad of subtilisin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Náray-szabó, G.; Kapur, A.; Mezey, P. G.; Polgár, L.

    The catalytic triad of serine proteinases is composed of serine, histidine and aspartate residues. During catalysis the imidazole group of histidine, as a general base, accepts the proton from the hydroxyl group of serine. In this work the equilibrium states of the proton between the protonated imidazole group and the aspartate ion, as well as the factors determining this equilibrium, are examined by various quantum chemical approximations. The protonated histidine-aspartate diad of subtilisin BPN' has been modelled by the imidazole-formic acid system. It is found that the CNDO/2 and ab initio STO-3G basis set calculations overestimate the stability of the neutral form where the proton is attached to the aspartate side chain. A more probable proton transfer energy is obtained if the total energy of the diad is partitioned into bond and interaction energy terms calculated with 4-31G and STO-3G basis sets, respectively. However, even this approximation is insufficiently accurate to establish unambiguously the position of the proton in the gas phase. Nevertheless, the effects cf the environment on proton transfer could be estimated with more certainty. It is found that each component of the environment, i.e. (1) amino-acid residues of subtilisin within 1 nm of the diad, (2) three water molecules and (3) a counter ion, stabilizes the imidazolium- aspartate ion pair of the diad so that the proton cannot be transferred from the imidazolium to the aspartate ion. These results clearly demostrate the crucial role of the environment in the reactivities of the catalytic group of enzymes.

  19. Ovarian steroids, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and/or aspartic proteinases cooperate to control endometrial remodeling by regulating gene expression in the stroma and glands.

    PubMed

    Gaide Chevronnay, Héloïse P; Lemoine, Pascale; Courtoy, Pierre J; Marbaix, Etienne; Henriet, Patrick

    2010-09-01

    Explants from nonmenstrual endometria cultured in the absence of ovarian hormones undergo tissue breakdown. Addition of estradiol and progesterone (EP) prevents proteolysis. Explants include stromal and epithelial compartments which play different but complementary roles in endometrial physiology, including tissue remodeling and hormonal response. In order to characterize the cell type-specific contribution to regulation of tissue breakdown, we characterized the transcriptomes of microdissected stromal and glandular areas from endometrial explants cultured with or without EP. The datasets were also compared to other published endometrial transcriptomes. Finally, the contribution of proteolysis, hypoxia, and MAPKs to the regulation of selected genes was further investigated in explant culture. This analysis identified distinct gene expression profiles in stroma and glands, with differential response to EP, but functional clustering underlined convergence in biological processes, further indicating that endometrial remodeling requires cooperation between the two compartments through expression of cell type-specific genes. Only partial overlaps were observed between lists of genes involved in different occurrences of endometrial breakdown, pointing to a limited number of potentially crucial regulators but also to the requirement for additional mechanisms controlling tissue remodeling. We identified a group of genes differentially regulated by EP in stroma and glands among which some were sensitive to MAPKs and/or aspartic proteinases and were not induced by hypoxia. In conclusion, MAPKs and/or aspartic proteinases likely act in concert with EP to locally and specifically control differential expression of genes between degrading and preserved areas of the human endometrium.

  20. The diversity and evolutionary relationships of the pregnancy-associated glycoproteins, an aspartic proteinase subfamily consisting of many trophoblast-expressed genes

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Sancai; Green, Jonathan; Bixby, James B.; Szafranska, Bozena; DeMartini, James C.; Hecht, Steven; Roberts, R. Michael

    1997-01-01

    The pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) are structurally related to the pepsins, thought to be restricted to the hooved (ungulate) mammals and characterized by being expressed specifically in the outer epithelial cell layer (chorion/trophectoderm) of the placenta. At least some PAGs are catalytically inactive as proteinases, although each appears to possess a cleft capable of binding peptides. By cloning expressed genes from ovine and bovine placental cDNA libraries, by Southern genomic blotting, by screening genomic libraries, and by using PCR to amplify portions of PAG genes from genomic DNA, we estimate that cattle, sheep, and most probably all ruminant Artiodactyla possess many, possibly 100 or more, PAG genes, many of which are placentally expressed. The PAGs are highly diverse in sequence, with regions of hypervariability confined largely to surface-exposed loops. Nonsynonymous (replacement) mutations in the regions of the genes coding for these hypervariable loop segments have accumulated at a higher rate than synonymous (silent) mutations. Construction of distance phylograms, based on comparisons of PAG and related aspartic proteinase amino acid sequences, suggests that much diversification of the PAG genes occurred after the divergence of the Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla, but that at least one gene is represented outside the hooved species. The results also suggest that positive selection of duplicated genes has acted to provide considerable functional diversity among the PAGs, whose presence at the interface between the placenta and endometrium and in the maternal circulation indicates involvement in fetal–maternal interactions. PMID:9371757

  1. Engineering the substrate specificity of rhizopuspepsin: the role of Asp 77 of fungal aspartic proteinases in facilitating the cleavage of oligopeptide substrates with lysine in P1.

    PubMed Central

    Lowther, W. T.; Majer, P.; Dunn, B. M.

    1995-01-01

    Rhizopuspepsin and other fungal aspartic proteinases are distinct from the mammalian enzymes in that they are able to cleave substrates with lysine in the P1 position. Sequence and structural comparisons suggest that two aspartic acid residues, Asp 30 and Asp 77 (pig pepsin numbering), may be responsible for generating this unique specificity. Asp 30 and Asp 77 were changed to the corresponding residues in porcine pepsin, Ile 30 and Thr 77, to create single and double mutants. The zymogen forms of the wild-type and mutant enzymes were overexpressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies. Following solubilization, denaturation, refolding, activation, and purification to homogeneity, structural and kinetic comparisons were made. The mutant enzymes exhibited a high degree of structural similarity to the wild-type recombinant protein and a native isozyme. The catalytic activities of the recombinant proteins were analyzed with chromogenic substrates containing lysine in the P1, P2, or P3 positions. Mutation of Asp 77 resulted in a loss of 7 kcal mol-1 of transition-state stabilization energy in the hydrolysis of the substrate containing lysine in P1. An inhibitor containing the positively charged P1-lysine side chain inhibited only the enzymes containing Asp 77. Inhibition of the Asp 77 mutants of rhizopuspepsin and several mammalian enzymes was restored upon acetylation of the lysine side chain. These results suggest that an exploitation of the specific electrostatic interaction of Asp 77 in the active site of fungal enzymes may lead to the design of compounds that preferentially inhibit a variety of related Candida proteinases in immunocompromised patients. PMID:7613467

  2. Preliminary neutron and ultrahigh-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of the aspartic proteinase endothiapepsin cocrystallized with a gem-diol inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Tuan, Han-Fang; Erskine, Peter; Langan, Paul; Cooper, Jon; Coates, Leighton

    2007-01-01

    Endothiapepsin has been cocrystallized with the gem-diol inhibitor PD-135,040 in a low solvent-content (39%) unit cell, which is unprecedented for this enzyme–inhibitor complex and enables ultrahigh-resolution (1.0 Å) X-ray diffraction data to be collected. This atomic resolution X-ray data set will be used to deduce the protonation states of the catalytic aspartate residues. A room-temperature neutron data set has also been collected for joint refinement with a room-temperature X-ray data set in order to locate the H/D atoms at the active site. PMID:18084100

  3. Preliminary neutron and ultrahigh-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of the aspartic proteinase endothiapepsin cocrystallized with a gem-diol inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Tuan, Han-Fang; Erskine, Peter; Langan, Paul; Cooper, Jon; Coates, Leighton

    2007-12-01

    Three data sets have been collected on endothiapepsin complexed with the gem-diol inhibitor PD-135,040: a high-resolution synchrotron X-ray data set, a room-temperature X-ray data set and a neutron diffraction data set. Until recently, it has been impossible to grow large protein crystals of endothiapepsin with any gem-diol inhibitor that are suitable for neutron diffraction. Endothiapepsin has been cocrystallized with the gem-diol inhibitor PD-135,040 in a low solvent-content (39%) unit cell, which is unprecedented for this enzyme–inhibitor complex and enables ultrahigh-resolution (1.0 Å) X-ray diffraction data to be collected. This atomic resolution X-ray data set will be used to deduce the protonation states of the catalytic aspartate residues. A room-temperature neutron data set has also been collected for joint refinement with a room-temperature X-ray data set in order to locate the H/D atoms at the active site.

  4. Structures of aspartic acid-96 in the L and N intermediates of bacteriorhodopsin: analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maeda, A.; Sasaki, J.; Shichida, Y.; Yoshizawa, T.; Chang, M.; Ni, B.; Needleman, R.; Lanyi, J. K.

    1992-01-01

    The light-induced difference Fourier transform infrared spectrum between the L or N intermediate minus light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (BR) was measured in order to examine the protonated states and the changes in the interactions of carboxylic acids of Asp-96 and Asp-115 in these intermediates. Vibrational bands due to the protonated and unprotonated carboxylic acid were identified by isotope shift and band depletion upon substitution of Asp-96 or -115 by asparagine. While the signal due to the deprotonation of Asp-96 was clearly observed in the N intermediate, this residue remained protonated in L. Asp-115 was partially deprotonated in L. The C = O stretching vibration of protonated Asp-96 of L showed almost no shift upon 2H2O substitution, in contrast to the corresponding band of Asp-96 or Asp-115 of BR, which shifted by 9-12 cm-1 under the same conditions. In the model system of acetic acid in organic solvents, such an absence of the shift of the C = O stretching vibration of the protonated carboxylic acid upon 2H2O substitution was seen only when the O-H of acetic acid is hydrogen-bonded. The non-hydrogen-bonded monomer showed the 2H2O-dependent shift. Thus, the O-H bond of Asp-96 enters into hydrogen bonding upon conversion of BR to L. Its increased hydrogen bonding in L is consistent with the observed downshift of the O-H stretching vibration of the carboxylic acid of Asp-96.

  5. Structures of aspartic acid-96 in the L and N intermediates of bacteriorhodopsin: analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maeda, A.; Sasaki, J.; Shichida, Y.; Yoshizawa, T.; Chang, M.; Ni, B.; Needleman, R.; Lanyi, J. K.

    1992-01-01

    The light-induced difference Fourier transform infrared spectrum between the L or N intermediate minus light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (BR) was measured in order to examine the protonated states and the changes in the interactions of carboxylic acids of Asp-96 and Asp-115 in these intermediates. Vibrational bands due to the protonated and unprotonated carboxylic acid were identified by isotope shift and band depletion upon substitution of Asp-96 or -115 by asparagine. While the signal due to the deprotonation of Asp-96 was clearly observed in the N intermediate, this residue remained protonated in L. Asp-115 was partially deprotonated in L. The C = O stretching vibration of protonated Asp-96 of L showed almost no shift upon 2H2O substitution, in contrast to the corresponding band of Asp-96 or Asp-115 of BR, which shifted by 9-12 cm-1 under the same conditions. In the model system of acetic acid in organic solvents, such an absence of the shift of the C = O stretching vibration of the protonated carboxylic acid upon 2H2O substitution was seen only when the O-H of acetic acid is hydrogen-bonded. The non-hydrogen-bonded monomer showed the 2H2O-dependent shift. Thus, the O-H bond of Asp-96 enters into hydrogen bonding upon conversion of BR to L. Its increased hydrogen bonding in L is consistent with the observed downshift of the O-H stretching vibration of the carboxylic acid of Asp-96.

  6. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  7. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  8. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as ...

  9. 4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole as a reactivity probe for the investigation of the thiol proteinases. evidence that ficin and bromelain may lack carboxyl groups conformationally equivalent to that of aspartic acid-158 of papain.

    PubMed Central

    Shipton, M; Stuchbury, T; Brocklehurst, K

    1976-01-01

    1. 4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (Nbd chloride) was used as a reactivity probe to characterize the active centres of papin (EC 3.4.22.2), ficin (EC 3.4.22.3) and bromelain (EC 3.4.22.4). 2. In the pH range 0-8 Nbd chloride probably exists mainly as a monocation, possibly with the proton located on N-1 of the oxadiazole ring. 3. Spectroscopic evidence is presented for the intermediacy of Meisenheimer-type adducts in the reaction of Nbd chloride with nucleophiles. 4. The pH-dependence of the second-order rate constants (k) of the reactions of the three enzymes with Nbd chloride was determined at 25 degrees C, I = 0.1 mol/litre in 6.7% (v/v) ethanol in the pH range 2.5-5, where, at least for papain and ficin, the reactions occur specifically with their active-centre thiol groups. The pH-k profile for the papain reaction is bell-shaped (pKaI = 3.24, pKaII = 3.44 and k = 86M(-1)-s(-1), whereas that for ficin is sigmoidal (pKa = 3.6, k = 0.36M(-1)-s(-1), the rate increasing with increasing pH. The profile for the bromelain reaction appears to resemble that for the ficin reaction, but is complicated by amino-group labelling. 5. The bell-shaped profile of the papain reaction is considered to arise from the reaction of the thiolate ion of cysteine-25, maintained in acidic media by interaction with the side chain of histidine-159, with the Nbd chloride monocation hydrogen-bonded at its nitro group to the un-ionized form of the carboxyl group of aspartic acid-158. The lack of acid catalysis in the corresponding reactions of ficin and probably of bromelain suggests that these enzymes may lack carboxyl groups conformationally equivalent to that of aspartic acid-158 of papain. The possible consequences of this for the catalytic sites of these enzymes is discussed. PMID:11778

  10. Multiple forms of calcium-dependent proteinase in crustacean muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Mykles, D.L.; Skinner, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    Four calcium-dependent proteinase (CDP) activities in lobster muscles have been resolved by high performance liquid chromatography. These activities differ in molecular weight and net charge. Though optimum activity occurred at high (5 and 10 mM) calcium at pH 6.8, the enzymes differ in activation at lower calcium concentrations. Only one of the CDPs is active at 100 ..mu..M calcium; none are active at 10 ..mu..M and below. Although all four CDPs are inhibited by the cysteine proteinase inhibitors leupeptin, E-64, and iodoacetamide, they show a differential response to the aspartic proteinase inhibitor pepstatin and the serine proteinase inhibitor PMSF. In contrast to CDPs from vertebrate tissues, crustacean muscles contain multiple forms that require calcium at millimolar levels. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Plasmodium falciparum: effects of proteinase inhibitors on globin hydrolysis by cultured malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, P J

    1995-03-01

    The effects of peptide proteinase inhibitors on globin hydrolysis by cultured malaria parasites were studied. All of the four cysteine proteinase inhibitors evaluated blocked globin hydrolysis, as documented by the development of a morphological abnormality in which parasite food vacuoles filled with undegraded globin and by SDS-PAGE showing that the cysteine proteinase inhibitor-treated parasites accumulated large quantities of globin. The aspartic proteinase inhibitor pepstatin did not block globin hydrolysis by cultured parasites. None of seven antimalarial drugs tested elicited the food vacuole abnormality caused by cysteine proteinase inhibitors, indicating that this morphological alteration was not simply a sign of nonspecific parasite toxicity. Our results indicate that a trophozoite cysteine proteinase is required for initial cleavages of globin by intact malaria parasites.

  12. Co-factor activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1996-08-06

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying the peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  13. Co-factor activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1996-08-06

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  14. Compartmentalization of proteinases and amylases in Nauphoeta cinerea midgut.

    PubMed

    Elpidina, E N; Vinokurov, K S; Gromenko, V A; Rudenskaya, Y A; Dunaevsky, Y E; Zhuzhikov, D P

    2001-12-01

    Compartmentalization of proteinases, amylases, and pH in the midgut of Nauphoeta cinerea Oliv. (Blattoptera:Blaberidae) was studied in order to understand the organization of protein and starch digestion. Total proteolytic activity measured with azocasein was maximal at pH 11.5 both in anterior (AM) and posterior (PM) halves of the midgut, but the bulk of activity (67%) was found in PM. Total AM and PM preparations were fractionated on a Sephadex G-50 column and further analysed by means of activity electrophoresis and specific inhibitors and activators. The major activity in PM was classified as an unusual SH-dependent proteinase with M(r) 24,000 and pH optimum with synthetic substrate BApNA at 10.0. The enzyme was 43-fold activated in the presence of 1 mM DTT, insensitive to synthetic inhibitors of serine (PMSF, TLCK, TPCK) and cysteine (IAA, E-64) proteinases, strongly inhibited by STI, and displayed four active bands on zymograms. In PM, activities of trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like, subtilisin-like, and cysteine proteinases were observed. Aspartic and metalloproteinases were not detected. In AM, activity of unusual SH-dependent proteinase also dominated and activity of chymotrypsin-like proteinase was observed, but their levels were much lower than in PM. Distribution of amylase activity, exhibiting an optimum at pH 6.0, was quite the opposite. The major part of it (67%) was located in AM. Treatment of amylase preparation with proteinases from AM and PM reduced amylase activity twofold. pH of the midgut contents was 6.0-7.2 in AM, 6.4-7.6 in the first and 8.8-9.3 in the second halves of PM. Thus, pH in AM is in good agreement with the optimal pH of amylase, located in this compartment, but the activity of proteinases, including the ability to degrade amylase, in such an environment is low. Active proteolysis takes place in the second half of PM, where pH of the gut is close to the optimal pH of proteinases. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Potyviral NIa proteinase, a proteinase with novel deoxyribonuclease activity.

    PubMed

    Anindya, Roy; Savithri, Handanahal S

    2004-07-30

    The NIa proteinase from pepper vein banding virus (PVBV) is a sequence-specific proteinase required for processing of viral polyprotein in the cytoplasm. It accumulates in the nucleus of the infected plant cell and forms inclusion bodies. The function of this protein in the nucleus is not clear. The purified recombinant NIa proteinase was active, and the mutation of the catalytic residues His-46, Asp-81, and Cys-151 resulted in complete loss of activity. Most interesting, the PVBV NIa proteinase exhibited previously unidentified activity, namely nonspecific double-stranded DNA degradation. This DNase activity of the NIa proteinase showed an absolute requirement for Mg(2+). Site-specific mutational analysis showed that of the three catalytic residues, Asp-81 was the crucial residue for DNase activity. Mutation of His-46 and Cys-151 had no effect on the DNase activity, whereas mutant D81N was partially active, and D81G was completely inactive. Based on kinetic analysis and molecular modeling, a metal ion-dependent catalysis similar to that observed in other nonspecific DNases is proposed. Similar results were obtained with glutathione S-transferase-fused PVBV NIa proteinase and tobacco etch virus NIa proteinase, confirming that the DNase function is an intrinsic property of potyviral NIa proteinase. The NIa protein present in the infected plant nuclear extract also showed the proteinase and the DNase activities, suggesting that the PVBV NIa protein that accumulates in the nucleus late in the infection cycle might serve to degrade the host DNA. Thus the dual function of the NIa proteinase could play an important role in the life cycle of the virus.

  16. Effect of retroviral proteinase inhibitors on Mason-Pfizer monkey virus maturation and transmembrane glycoprotein cleavage.

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfelt, M A; Petteway, S R; Dreyer, G B; Hunter, E

    1992-01-01

    Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) is the prototype type D retrovirus which preassembles immature intracytoplasmic type A particles within the infected cell cytoplasm. Intracytoplasmic type A particles are composed of uncleaved polyprotein precursors which upon release are cleaved by the viral proteinase to their constituent mature proteins. This results in a morphological change in the virion described as maturation. We have investigated the role of the viral proteinase in virus maturation and infectivity by inhibiting the function of the enzyme through mutagenesis of the proteinase gene and by using peptide inhibitors originally designed to block human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteinase activity. Mutation of the active-site aspartic acid, Asp-26, to asparagine abrogated the activity of the M-PMV proteinase but did not affect the assembly of noninfectious, immature virus particles. In mutant virions, the transmembrane glycoprotein (TM) of M-PMV, initially synthesized as a cell-associated gp22, is not cleaved to gp20, as is observed with wild-type virions. This demonstrates that the viral proteinase is responsible for this cleavage event. Hydroxyethylene isostere human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteinase inhibitors were shown to block M-PMV proteinase cleavage of the TM glycoprotein and Gag-containing precursors in a dose-dependent manner. The TM cleavage event was more sensitive than cleavage of the Gag precursors to inhibition. The infectivity of treated particles was reduced significantly, but experiments showed that inhibition of precursor and TM cleavage may be at least partially reversible. These results demonstrate that the M-PMV aspartyl proteinase is activated in released virions and that the hydroxyethylene isostere proteinase inhibitors used in this study exhibit a broad spectrum of antiretroviral activity. Images PMID:1602542

  17. [Serine proteinases of lower vertebrates].

    PubMed

    Kolodzeĭskaia, M V

    1986-01-01

    Recent data on the effect of serine proteinases of lower vertebrates are generalized. Hydrolysis specificity and kinetics of different synthetic substrates, dependence of the activity of enzymes on pH, their irreversible inhibition by chloromethyl ketones of amino acids and peptides as well as high-molecular proteinase inhibitors are considered in detail. The data testify to the fact that chymotrypsins and trypsins of higher vertebrates and serine proteinases of lower vertebrates act as an acid-base catalysis. Enzymes in the pyloric cacca of fishes are in the state of proenzymes and are transformed into an active form with the aid of their own proteolytic factors. The esterase and proteolytic activity of fish proteinases is concentrated in the same active site and reaches the highest values at pH 7,8. New data are presented on particularities of the lower vertebrate proteinases, on the similarity and differences in their specificity. A distinct difference is shown in the nature of the binding site of the active centre in a number of serine proteinases of fishes as compared to chymotrypsin and trypsin of higher vertebrates.

  18. Fourier Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Philipp O. J.

    Fourier transformation is a very important tool for signal analysis but also helpful to simplify the solution of differential equations or the calculation of convolution integrals. An important numerical method is the discrete Fourier transformation which can be used for trigonometric interpolation and also as a numerical approximation to the continuous Fourier integral. It can be realized efficiently by Goertzel's algorithm or the family of fast Fourier transformation methods. For real valued even functions the computationally simpler discrete cosine transformation can be applied. Several computer experiments demonstrate the principles of trigonometric interpolation and nonlinear filtering.

  19. HIV proteinase inhibitors target the Ddi1-like protein of Leishmania parasites

    PubMed Central

    White, Rhian E.; Powell, David J.; Berry, Colin

    2011-01-01

    HIV proteinase inhibitors reduce the levels of Leishmania parasites in vivo and in vitro, but their biochemical target is unknown. We have identified an ortholog of the yeast Ddi1 protein as the only member of the aspartic proteinase family in Leishmania parasites, and in this study we investigate this protein as a potential target for the drugs. To date, no enzyme assay has been developed for the Ddi1 proteins, but Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking the DDI1 gene secrete high levels of protein into the medium. We developed an assay in which these knockout yeast were functionally complemented to low secretion by introduction of genes encoding Ddi1 orthologs from Leishmania major or humans. Plasmid alone controls gave no complementation. Treatment of the Ddi1 transformants with HIV proteinase inhibitors showed differential effects dependent on the origin of the Ddi1. Dose responses allowed calculation of IC50 values; e.g., for nelfinavir, of 3.4 μM (human Ddi1) and 0.44 μM (Leishmania Ddi1). IC50 values with Leishmania constructs mirror the potency of inhibitors against parasites. Our results show that Ddi1 proteins are targets of HIV proteinase inhibitors and indicates the Leishmania Ddi1 as the likely target for these drugs and a potential target for antiparasitic therapy.—White, R. E., Powell, D. J., Berry, C. HIV proteinase inhibitors target the Ddi1-Like protein of Leishmania parasites. PMID:21266539

  20. [Biosynthesis of the Bacillus intermedius subtilisin-like serine proteinase by the recombinant Bacillus subtilis strain].

    PubMed

    Kirillova, Iu M; Mikhaĭlova, E O; Balaban, N P; Mardanova, A M; Kaiumov, A R; Rudenskaia, G N; Kostrov, S V; Sharipova, M R

    2006-01-01

    The effect of certain nutrients on the growth and production of the Bacillus intermedius subtilisin-like serine proteinase by the recombinant strain Bacillus subtilis AJ73(pCS9) was studied. Glucose was found to inhibit the synthesis of proteinase in the early (28 h of growth) but not in the late stationary phase (48 h of growth). The inhibitory effect of the other mono- and disaccharides studied was less pronounced. Casamino acids added to the medium at concentrations of 0.1-1% as an additional carbon and nitrogen source stimulated enzyme biosynthesis. Individual amino acids (cysteine, asparagine, glutamine, tryptophan, histidine, and glutamate) also stimulated enzyme biosynthesis in the early stationary phase by 25-30%, whereas other amino acids (valine, leucine, alanine, and aspartate) were ineffective or even slightly inhibitory to enzyme production. The stimulatory effect of the first group of amino acids on the synthesis of proteinase in the late stationary phase was negligible. In contrast, the bivalent ions Ca2+, Mg2+, and Mn2+ stimulated biosynthesis of proteinase in the late stationary phase (by 20-60%) and not in the early stationary phase. The data indicate that there are differences in the biosyntheses of proteinase by the recombinant B. subtilis strain during the early and late periods of the stationary phases.

  1. Candida guilliermondii isolated from HIV-infected human secretes a 50 kDa serine proteinase that cleaves a broad spectrum of proteinaceous substrates.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, André Luis Souza; Soares, Rosangela Maria de Araújo

    2005-01-01

    Non-albicans Candida species cause 35-65% of all candidemias in the general population, especially in immunosuppressed individuals. Here, we describe a case of a 19-year-old HIV-infected man with pneumonia due to a yeast-like organism. This clinical yeast isolate was identified as Candida guilliermondii through mycological tests. C. guilliermondii was cultivated in brain heart infusion medium for 48 h at 37 degrees C. After sequential centrifugation and concentration steps, the free-cell culture supernatant was obtained and extracellular proteolytic activity was assayed firstly using gelatin-SDS-PAGE. A 50 kDa proteolytic enzyme was detected with activity at physiological pH. This activity was completely blocked by 10 mM phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride (PMSF), a serine proteinase inhibitor, suggesting that this extracellular proteinase belongs to the serine proteinase class. E-64, a strong cysteine proteinase inhibitor, and pepstatin A, a specific aspartic proteolytic inhibitor, did not interfere with the 50 kDa proteinase. Conversely, a zinc-metalloproteinase inhibitor (1,10-phenanthroline) restrained the proteinase activity released by C. guilliermondii by approximately 50%. Proteinases are a well-known class of enzymes that participate in a vast context of yeast-host interactions. In an effort to establish a functional implication for this extracellular serine-type enzyme, we investigated its capacity to hydrolyze some serum proteins and extracellular matrix components. We demonstrated that the 50 kDa exocellular serine proteinase cleaved human serum albumin, non-immune human immunoglobulin G, human fibronectin and human placental laminin, generating low molecular mass polypeptides. Collectively, these results showed for the first time the ability of an extracellular proteolytic enzyme other than aspartic-type proteinases in destroying a broad spectrum of relevant host proteins by a clinical species of non-albicans Candida.

  2. Manduca sexta hemolymph proteinase 21 activates prophenoloxidase-activating proteinase 3 in an insect innate immune response proteinase cascade.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Maureen J; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Haobo; Kanost, Michael R

    2007-04-20

    Melanization, an insect immune response, requires a set of hemolymph proteins including pathogen recognition proteins that initiate the response, a cascade of mostly unknown serine proteinases, and phenoloxidase. Until now, only initial and final proteinases in the pathways have been conclusively identified. Four such proteinases have been purified from the larval hemolymph of Manduca sexta: hemolymph proteinase 14 (HP14), which autoactivates in the presence of microbial surface components, and three prophenoloxidase-activating proteinases (PAP1-3). In this study, we have used two complementary approaches to identify a serine proteinase that activates proPAP3. Partial purification from hemolymph of an activator of proPAP3 resulted in an active fraction with two abundant polypeptides of approximately 32 and approximately 37 kDa. Labeling of these polypeptides with a serine proteinase inhibitor, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, indicated that they were active serine proteinases. N-terminal sequencing revealed that both were cleaved forms of the previously identified hemolymph serine proteinase, HP21. Surprisingly, cleavage of proHP21 had occurred not at the predicted activation site but more N-terminal to it. In vitro reactions carried out with purified HP14 (which activates proHP21), proHP21, proPAP3, and site-directed mutant forms of the latter two proteinases confirmed that HP21 activates proPAP3 by limited proteolysis. Like the HP21 products purified from hemolymph, HP21 that was activated by HP14 in the in vitro reactions was not cleaved at its predicted activation site.

  3. The cysteine proteinases of the pineapple plant.

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, A D; Buttle, D J; Barrett, A J

    1990-01-01

    The pineapple plant (Ananas comosus) was shown to contain at least four distinct cysteine proteinases, which were purified by a procedure involving active-site-directed affinity chromatography. The major proteinase present in extracts of plant stem was stem bromelain, whilst fruit bromelain was the major proteinase in the fruit. Two additional cysteine proteinases were detected only in the stem: these were ananain and a previously undescribed enzyme that we have called comosain. Stem bromelain, fruit bromelain and ananain were shown to be immunologically distinct. Enzymic characterization revealed differences in both substrate-specificities and inhibition profiles. A study of the cysteine proteinase derived from the related bromeliad Bromelia pinguin (pinguinain) indicated that in many respects it was similar to fruit bromelain, although it was found to be immunologically distinct. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2327970

  4. The cysteine proteinases of the pineapple plant.

    PubMed

    Rowan, A D; Buttle, D J; Barrett, A J

    1990-03-15

    The pineapple plant (Ananas comosus) was shown to contain at least four distinct cysteine proteinases, which were purified by a procedure involving active-site-directed affinity chromatography. The major proteinase present in extracts of plant stem was stem bromelain, whilst fruit bromelain was the major proteinase in the fruit. Two additional cysteine proteinases were detected only in the stem: these were ananain and a previously undescribed enzyme that we have called comosain. Stem bromelain, fruit bromelain and ananain were shown to be immunologically distinct. Enzymic characterization revealed differences in both substrate-specificities and inhibition profiles. A study of the cysteine proteinase derived from the related bromeliad Bromelia pinguin (pinguinain) indicated that in many respects it was similar to fruit bromelain, although it was found to be immunologically distinct.

  5. Entamoeba invadens: characterization of cysteine proteinases.

    PubMed

    Sharma, M; Hirata, K; Herdman, S; Reed, S

    1996-10-01

    Cysteine proteinases have a number of important functions in the life cycle of protozoan parasites. Based on our previous studies demonstrating the role of cysteine proteinases in invasion by Entamoeba histolytica, we evaluated the cysteine proteinases of E. invadens, a related protozoan which causes invasive disease of reptiles. E. invadens readily encysts in axenic culture and provides a model to investigate the role of cysteine proteinases in encystation. Broad bands of approximately 130-230, 55, and 35 kDa were detected on gelatin substrate gels and were inhibited with specific cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Maximal enzymatic activity was detected with peptide substrates containing arginine in the P2 position. A 567-bp fragment containing the active site of an E. invadens cysteine proteinase gene was amplified by PCR and had 37.7, 79.1, and 67.9% identity to the derived amino acid sequences of the acp 1, 2, and 3 genes, respectively, of E. histolytica. The PCR product hybridized with a single band of 1.1 kb on a Southern blot of EcoRI-restricted E. invadens genomic DNA. Long-term inhibition of cysteine proteinase activity during encystation resulted in significantly fewer cysts (P < 0.02); however, this effect appeared to be secondary to decreased trophozoite cell division. No difference in chitin synthase activity was detected between controls and encysting cells with inhibited cysteine proteinases, suggesting that these proteinases are not critical for activation of a zymogen form of chitin synthase. These studies demonstrate that cysteine proteinases may be critical for the survival of E. invadens, and specific inhibition may ultimately interrupt transmission.

  6. Purification and characterization of a novel intracellular acid proteinase from the plasmodia of a true slime mold, Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Murakami-Murofushi, K; Takahashi, T; Minowa, Y; Iino, S; Takeuchi, T; Kitagaki-Ogawa, H; Murofushi, H; Takahashi, K

    1990-11-15

    An acid proteinase was purified to apparent homogeneity from the plasmodia of a slime mold, Physarum polycephalum, by a combination of detergent extraction, acid precipitation, and column chromatographies on DEAE-Sephadex, hydroxylapatite, CM-Sephadex, and Sephadex G-100. The enzyme was shown to be composed of two polypeptide chains (a 31-kDa heavy chain and a 23-kDa light chain) cross-linked by disulfide bond(s). The NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the heavy chain was determined to be Ala-Gly-Val- Asp-Gly-Tyr-Ile-Val-Pro-Tyr-Val-Ile-Phe-Asp-Leu-Tyr-Gly-Ile-Pro-Tyr and that of the light chain to be Ala-Glu-Pro-Pro-Ile. The heavy chain contained carbohydrate moiety composed of mannose, glucosamine, fucose, and glucose. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 1.7 toward hemoglobin as a substrate. Among the proteinase inhibitors tested only diazoacetyl-D,L-norleucine methyl ester, a typical aspartic proteinase inhibitor, inhibited the acid proteinase in the presence of cupric ions. It was insensitive to the other typical aspartic proteinase inhibitors, pepstatin A and 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)propane. The enzyme hydrolyzed Lys-Pro-Ile-Glu-Phe(4-NO2)-Arg-Leu at the Phe-Phe(4-NO2) bond, but could not hydrolyze another synthetic pepsin-substrate, N-acetyl-L-phenylalanyl-3,5-diiodo-L-tyrosine. The enzyme showed a unique substrate specificity toward oxidized insulin B chain. The major cleavage sites were the bonds Gly8-Ser9, Leu11-Val12, Cya19-Gly20, and Phe24-Phe25, and the Gly8-Ser9 bond was most susceptible. These results indicate that the enzyme is a novel type of intracellular acid proteinase with a unique substrate specificity.

  7. A Deficiency in Aspartate Biosynthesis in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis C2 Causes Slow Milk Coagulation†

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Yu, Weizhu; Coolbear, Tim; O’Sullivan, Dan; McKay, Larry L.

    1998-01-01

    A mutant of fast milk-coagulating (Fmc+) Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis C2, designated L. lactis KB4, was identified. Although possessing the known components essential for utilizing casein as a nitrogen source, which include functional proteinase (PrtP) activity and oligopeptide, di- and tripeptide, and amino acid transport systems, KB4 exhibited a slow milk coagulation (Fmc−) phenotype. When the amino acid requirements of L. lactis C2 were compared with those of KB4 by use of a chemically defined medium, it was found that KB4 was unable to grow in the absence of aspartic acid. This aspartic acid requirement could also be met by aspartate-containing peptides. The addition of aspartic acid to milk restored the Fmc+ phenotype of KB4. KB4 was found to be defective in pyruvate carboxylase and thus was deficient in the ability to form oxaloacetate and hence aspartic acid from pyruvate and carbon dioxide. The results suggest that when lactococci are propagated in milk, aspartate derived from casein is unable to meet fully the nutritional demands of the lactococci, and they become dependent upon aspartate biosynthesis. PMID:9572935

  8. Complement-inactivating Proteinase(s) from Clostridium histolyticum1

    PubMed Central

    Goldlust, Marvin B.; Luzzati, Alma; Levine, Lawrence

    1968-01-01

    A proteinase fraction inhibiting the hemolytic activity of guinea pig complement was obtained from supernatant fluids of Clostridium histolyticum cultures and purified 150- to 350-fold by ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephadex G-75 gel filtration, and diethylaminoethyl cellulose chromatography. An assay was developed based on the inactivation of hemolytic complement. Partially purified anticomplementary preparations were active against casein and were capable of “solubilizing” Escherichia coli endotoxin. Two components were found by differential heat inactivation, with complement and casein as substrates, but only one of these components was active against endotoxin. The more heat-stable activity, showing 50% inactivation at about 47 C, was characterized as to pH and ionic strength optima and sensitivity to reagents such as cysteine, β-mercaptoethanol, ethylenediaminetetraacetate, and heavy metals. PMID:5724966

  9. Evolutionary mechanisms acting on proteinase inhibitor variability.

    PubMed

    Christeller, John T

    2005-11-01

    The interaction of proteinase inhibitors produced, in most cases, by host organisms and the invasive proteinases of pathogens or parasites or the dietary proteinases of predators, results in an evolutionary 'arms race' of rapid and ongoing change in both interacting proteins. The importance of these interactions in pathogenicity and predation is indicated by the high level and diversity of observable evolutionary activity that has been found. At the initial level of evolutionary change, recruitment of other functional protein-folding families has occurred, with the more recent evolution of one class of proteinase inhibitor from another, using the same mechanism and proteinase contact residues. The combination of different inhibitor domains into a single molecule is also observed. The basis from which variation is possible is shown by the high rate of retention of gene duplication events and by the associated process of inhibitory domain multiplication. At this level of reorganization, mutually exclusive splicing is also observed. Finally, the major mechanism by which variation is achieved rapidly is hypervariation of contact residues, an almost ubiquitous feature of proteinase inhibitors. The diversity of evolutionary mechanisms in a single class of proteins is unlikely to be common, because few systems are under similar pressure to create variation. Proteinase inhibitors are therefore a potential model system in which to study basic evolutionary process such as functional diversification.

  10. [Extracellular proteinases of filamentous fungi as potential markers of phytopathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Dunaevskiĭ, Ia E; Gruban', T N; Beliakova, G A; Belozerskiĭ, M A

    2006-01-01

    The presence of proteins in the culture liquid of filamentous fungi under study was found to induce the secretion of proteinases. The inhibitory analysis of the major extracellular proteinases of the saprotrophic fungus Trichoderma harzianum and the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata showed that they both belong to the group of serine proteinases. The substrate specificity of these proteinases and their sensitivity to inhibitors suggest that the enzyme of T. harzianum is a subtilisin-like proteinase and the enzyme of A. alternata is a trypsin-like proteinase. This difference between the proteinases may reflect the physiological difference between their producers (saprotroph and phytopathogen).

  11. Is Aspartate an Excitatory Neurotransmitter?

    PubMed Central

    Herring, Bruce E.; Silm, Katlin

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has resurrected the idea that the amino acid aspartate, a selective NMDA receptor agonist, is a neurotransmitter. Using a mouse that lacks the glutamate-selective vesicular transporter VGLUT1, we find that glutamate alone fully accounts for the activation of NMDA receptors at excitatory synapses in the hippocampus. This excludes a role for aspartate and, by extension, a recently proposed role for the sialic acid transporter sialin in excitatory transmission. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT It has been proposed that the amino acid aspartate serves as a neurotransmitter. Although aspartate is a selective agonist for NMDA receptors, we find that glutamate alone fully accounts for neurotransmission at excitatory synapses in the hippocampus, excluding a role for aspartate. PMID:26180193

  12. Extracellular alkaline proteinase of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    PubMed

    Dunaevsky, Ya E; Matveeva, A R; Beliakova, G A; Domash, V I; Belozersky, M A

    2007-03-01

    The main proteinase of the filamentous fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing anthracnoses and serious problems for production and storage of agricultural products has molecular mass of 57 kD and was purified more than 200-fold to homogeneity with the yield of 5%. Maximal activity of the proteinase is at pH 9.0-10.0, and the enzyme is stable at pH 6.0-11.5 (residual activity not less than 70%). The studied enzyme completely kept its activity to 55 degrees C, with a temperature optimum of 45 degrees C. The purified C. gloeosporioides proteinase is stable at alkaline pH values, but rapidly loses its activity at pH values lower than 5.0. Addition of bovine serum albumin stabilizes the enzyme under acidic conditions. Data on inhibitor analysis and substrate specificity of the enzyme allow its classification as a serine proteinase of subtilisin family. It is demonstrated that the extracellular proteinase of C. gloeosporioides specifically effects plant cell wall proteins. It is proposed that the studied proteinase--via hydrolysis of cell wall--provides for penetration of the fungus into the tissues of the host plant.

  13. Aspartate Biosynthesis Is Essential for the Growth of Streptococcus thermophilus in Milk, and Aspartate Availability Modulates the Level of Urease Activity▿

    PubMed Central

    Arioli, Stefania; Monnet, Christophe; Guglielmetti, Simone; Parini, Carlo; De Noni, Ivano; Hogenboom, Johannes; Halami, Prakash M.; Mora, Diego

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the carbon dioxide metabolism of Streptococcus thermophilus, evaluating the phenotype of a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase-negative mutant obtained by replacement of a functional ppc gene with a deleted and inactive version, Δppc. The growth of the mutant was compared to that of the parent strain in a chemically defined medium and in milk, supplemented or not with l-aspartic acid, the final product of the metabolic pathway governed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. It was concluded that aspartate present in milk is not sufficient for the growth of S. thermophilus. As a consequence, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity was considered fundamental for the biosynthesis of l-aspartic acid in S. thermophilus metabolism. This enzymatic activity is therefore essential for growth of S. thermophilus in milk even if S. thermophilus was cultured in association with proteinase-positive Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. It was furthermore observed that the supplementation of milk with aspartate significantly affected the level of urease activity. Further experiments, carried out with a pureI-gusA recombinant strain, revealed that expression of the urease operon was sensitive to the aspartate concentration in milk and to the cell availability of glutamate, glutamine, and ammonium ions. PMID:17660309

  14. The picornaviral 3C proteinases: cysteine nucleophiles in serine proteinase folds.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, B A

    1995-08-01

    The 3C proteinases are a novel group of cysteine proteinases with a serine proteinase-like fold that are responsible for the bulk of polyprotein processing in the Picornaviridae. Because members of this viral family are to blame for several ongoing global pandemic problems (rhinovirus, hepatitis A virus) as well as sporadic outbreaks of more serious pathologies (poliovirus), there has been continuing interest over the last two decades in the development of antiviral therapies. The recent determination of the structure of two of the 3C proteinases by X-ray crystallography opens the door for the application of the latest advances in computer-assisted identification and design of anti-proteinase therapeutic/chemoprophylactic agents.

  15. [Activity of acid aspartic proteinase Candida strains isolated from palatine tonsils].

    PubMed

    Rózga, A; Jaskółowska, A; Kurnatowski, P

    2001-01-01

    We have evalueated the activity of acidous asparagine protease in 48 strains of Candida isolated from homogenates of palatine tonsils from 116 patients after tonsilectomy. Strains most frequently isolated were C. albicans (66.7 +/- 6.8%) and C. tropicalis (14.6 +/- 5.09%). The range of proteolysis zone for Candida strains was 4.6 to 12.5 mm. Over 60% of the studied strains showed high and very high proteolytic activity (>6.6 mm) and the remaining strains showed moderate activity (4.6-6.5). There were no strains with low medium activity (to 4.5 mm zone). The range of the number of rosettes E formed by lymphocytes obtained from the studied tonsils was 0-268.3. Lymphocytes isolated from 70 % of tonsils infected with Candida formed only 0-130 rosettes E; in the remaining cases the number ranged between 131 and 220. The number of lymphocytes T forming rosettes E isolated from palatine tonsils from patients not infected with fungi was 2.5 times higher. There was no correlation between the size of proteolysis zone and the number of rosettes E.

  16. Proteinase K improves quantitative acylation studies.

    PubMed

    Fränzel, Benjamin; Fischer, Frank; Steegborn, Clemens; Wolters, Dirk Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Acetylation is a common PTM of proteins but is still challenging to analyze. Only few acetylome studies have been performed to tackle this issue. Yet, the detection of acetylated proteins in complex cell lysates remains to be improved. Here, we present a proteomic approach with proteinase K as a suitable protease to identify acetylated peptides quantitatively. We first optimized the digestion conditions using an artificial system of purified bovine histones to find the optimal protease. Subsequently, the capability of proteinase K was demonstrated in complex HEK293 cell lysates. Finally, SILAC in combination with MudPIT was used to show that quantification with proteinase K is possible. In this study, we identified a sheer number of 557 unique acetylated peptides originating from 633 acetylation sites. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Neutral Proteinase Activity in Skeletal Muscle from Thermally Injured Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    By 21 days after injury, ployed as the substrate since it can be degraded¢) neutral proteinase activity (without Ca2 +) and by Ca2 +-activated neutral... Ca2 *-activated neutral proteinase was unchanged at this time. Neutral proteinase and Ca2 -activated neutral proteinase activities were unaltered at 21...absence of Ca2 was determined by sub- groups: a sham control group and a burned tracting a blank containing no homogenate group. The animals were burned

  18. Purification and characterization of native and recombinant SaPIN2a, a plant sieve element-localized proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Yu; Ding, Ling-Wen; Ge, Zhi-Juan; Wang, Zhaoyu; Wang, Fanghai; Li, Ning; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2007-01-01

    SaPIN2a encodes a proteinase inhibitor in nightshade (Solanum americanum), which is specifically localized to the enucleate sieve elements. It has been proposed to play an important role in phloem development by regulating proteolysis in sieve elements. In this study, we purified and characterized native SaPIN2a from nightshade stems and recombinant SaPIN2a expressed in Escherichia coli. Purified native SaPIN2a was found as a charge isomer family of homodimers, and was weakly glycosylated. Native SaPIN2a significantly inhibited serine proteinases such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, and subtilisin, with the most potent inhibitory activity on subtilisin. It did not inhibit cysteine proteinase papain and aspartic proteinase cathepsin D. Recombinant SaPIN2a had a strong inhibitory effect on chymotrypsin, but its inhibitory activities toward trypsin and especially toward subtilisin were greatly reduced. In addition, native SaPIN2a can effectively inhibit midgut trypsin-like activities from Trichoplusia ni and Spodoptera litura larvae, suggesting a potential for the production of insect-resistant transgenic plants.

  19. Novel Aggregation Properties of Candida albicans Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase Sap6 Mediate Virulence in Oral Candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohitashw; Saraswat, Darpan; Tati, Swetha; Edgerton, Mira

    2015-07-01

    Candida albicans, a commensal fungus of the oral microbiome, causes oral candidiasis in humans with localized or systemic immune deficiencies. Secreted aspartic proteinases (Saps) are a family of 10 related proteases and are virulence factors due to their proteolytic activity, as well as their roles in adherence and colonization of host tissues. We found that mice infected sublingually with C. albicans cells overexpressing Sap6 (SAP6 OE and a Δsap8 strain) had thicker fungal plaques and more severe oral infection, while infection with the Δsap6 strain was attenuated. These hypervirulent strains had highly aggregative colony structure in vitro and higher secreted proteinase activity; however, the levels of proteinase activity of C. albicans Saps did not uniformly match their abilities to damage cultured oral epithelial cells (SCC-15 cells). Hyphal induction in cells overexpressing Sap6 (SAP6 OE and Δsap8 cells) resulted in formation of large cell-cell aggregates. These aggregates could be produced in germinated wild-type cells by addition of native or heat-inactivated Sap6. Sap6 bound only to germinated cells and increased C. albicans adhesion to oral epithelial cells. The adhesion properties of Sap6 were lost upon deletion of its integrin-binding motif (RGD) and could be inhibited by addition of RGD peptide or anti-integrin antibodies. Thus, Sap6 (but not Sap5) has an alternative novel function in cell-cell aggregation, independent of its proteinase activity, to promote infection and virulence in oral candidiasis.

  20. Novel Aggregation Properties of Candida albicans Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase Sap6 Mediate Virulence in Oral Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rohitashw; Saraswat, Darpan; Tati, Swetha

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans, a commensal fungus of the oral microbiome, causes oral candidiasis in humans with localized or systemic immune deficiencies. Secreted aspartic proteinases (Saps) are a family of 10 related proteases and are virulence factors due to their proteolytic activity, as well as their roles in adherence and colonization of host tissues. We found that mice infected sublingually with C. albicans cells overexpressing Sap6 (SAP6 OE and a Δsap8 strain) had thicker fungal plaques and more severe oral infection, while infection with the Δsap6 strain was attenuated. These hypervirulent strains had highly aggregative colony structure in vitro and higher secreted proteinase activity; however, the levels of proteinase activity of C. albicans Saps did not uniformly match their abilities to damage cultured oral epithelial cells (SCC-15 cells). Hyphal induction in cells overexpressing Sap6 (SAP6 OE and Δsap8 cells) resulted in formation of large cell-cell aggregates. These aggregates could be produced in germinated wild-type cells by addition of native or heat-inactivated Sap6. Sap6 bound only to germinated cells and increased C. albicans adhesion to oral epithelial cells. The adhesion properties of Sap6 were lost upon deletion of its integrin-binding motif (RGD) and could be inhibited by addition of RGD peptide or anti-integrin antibodies. Thus, Sap6 (but not Sap5) has an alternative novel function in cell-cell aggregation, independent of its proteinase activity, to promote infection and virulence in oral candidiasis. PMID:25870228

  1. Molecular dynamic and docking interaction study of Heterodera glycines serine proteinase with Vigna mungo proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Prasad, C V S Siva; Gupta, Saurabh; Gaponenko, Alex; Tiwari, Murlidhar

    2013-08-01

    Many plants do produce various defense proteins like proteinase inhibitors (PIs) to protect them against various pests. PIs function as pseudosubstrates of digestive proteinase, which inhibits proteolysis in pests and leads to amino acid deficiency-based mortality. This work reports the structural interaction studies of serine proteinase of Heterodera glycines (SPHG) with Vigna mungo proteinase inhibitor (VMPI). 3D protein structure modeling, validation of SPHG and VMPI, and their putative protein-protein binding sites were predicted. Protein-protein docking followed by molecular dynamic simulation was performed to find the reliable confirmation of SPHG-VMPI complex. Trajectory analysis of each successive conformation concludes better interaction of first loop in comparison with second loop. Lysine residues of first loop were actively participating in complex formation. Overall, this study discloses the structural aspects and interaction mechanisms of VMPI with SPHG, and it would be helpful in the development of pest-resistant genetically modified crops.

  2. Novel proteinase inhibitor promotes resistance to insects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) and its protein are identified in response to insect feeding on B. vulgaris seedlings. BvSTI is cloned into an expression vector with constitutive promoter and transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana plants to assess BvSTI’s ability to ...

  3. Proteinase activity in human and murine saliva as a biomarker for proteinase inhibitor efficacy.

    PubMed

    Fingleton, Barbara; Menon, Ramkumar; Carter, Kathy J; Overstreet, P Dawn; Hachey, David L; Matrisian, Lynn M; McIntyre, J Oliver

    2004-12-01

    As molecularly targeted agents reach the clinic, there is a need for assays to detect their presence and effectiveness against target molecules in vivo. Proteinase inhibitors are one example of a class of therapeutic agent for which satisfactory methods of identifying successful target modulation in vivo are lacking. This is of particular importance while these drugs are in clinical trials because standard maximum-tolerated dose-finding studies often are not suitable due to lack of toxicity. Saliva represents a readily accessible bodily fluid that can be repeatedly sampled and used for assaying in vivo effects of systemic drugs. Here we show the development of a simple assay that can be used to measure proteinase activity in saliva and proteinase inhibition after systemic treatment with three different proteinase inhibitors. A variety of gelatinolytic activities present in human and murine saliva have been assayed with a fluorescent dye-labeled substrate and assigned to different proteinase categories by inclusion of specific classes of inhibitors. Treatment of mice with either matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors or a urokinase inhibitor for a period as short as 48 hours results in levels of the drugs that can be detected in saliva by mass spectrometry and concomitant decreases in salivary proteinase activity, thus demonstrating that these inhibitors successfully modulate their targets in vivo.

  4. Inhibition of a Plasmodium vinckei cysteine proteinase cures murine malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, P J; Lee, G K; Smith, R E

    1993-01-01

    Intraerythrocytic malaria parasites degrade hemoglobin as a principal source of amino acids for parasite protein synthesis. We have previously identified a Plasmodium falciparum trophozoite cysteine proteinase as a putative hemoglobinase and shown that specific inhibitors of this proteinase block the hydrolysis of globin and the development of cultured parasites. We now show that the murine malaria parasite Plasmodium vinckei has an analogous cysteine proteinase with similar biochemical properties to the P. falciparum proteinase, including an acid pH optimum, a preference for the peptide proteolytic substrate benzyloxycarbonyl (Z)-Phe-Arg-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin, and nonomolar inhibition by seven peptide fluoromethyl ketone proteinase inhibitors. Thus, P. vinckei offers a model system for the in vivo testing of the antimalarial properties of cysteine proteinase inhibitors. One of the proteinase inhibitors studied, morpholine urea (Mu)-Phe-Homophenylalanine (HPhe)-CH2F strongly inhibited the P. vinckei cysteine proteinase in vitro and rapidly blocked parasite cysteine proteinase activity in vivo. When administered four times a day for 4 d to P. vinckei-infected mice, Mu-Phe-HPhe-CH2F elicited long-term cures in 80% of the treated animals. These results show that peptide proteinase inhibitors can be effective antimalarial compounds in vivo and suggest that the P. falciparum cysteine proteinase is a promising target for chemotherapy. Images PMID:8450035

  5. Silk gland-specific proteinase inhibitor serpin16 from the Bombyx mori shows cysteine proteinase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng-Chao; Dong, Zhaoming; Xiao, Li; Li, Tao; Zhang, Yan; He, Huawei; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2015-01-30

    Serpins (serine proteinase inhibitors) are widely distributed in different species and are well known for their inhibitory activities towards serine proteinases. Here, we report the functional characterization of Bombyx mori serpin16. Expression analysis showed that serpin16 was specifically expressed at high levels in the silk gland at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Moreover, homology modeling and multi-sequence alignment suggested that serpin16 had a canonical serpin fold, but it contained a unique reactive center loop, which was obviously shorter than that of typical serpins. Inhibitory activity analyses revealed that the target proteinase of serpin18 is a cysteine proteinase, rather than a serine proteinase. Furthermore, a Michaelis complex model of serpin16 with its target proteinase was constructed to explain the structural basis of how serpin16 recognizes the cysteine proteinase and its target specificity.

  6. 21 CFR 582.5017 - Aspartic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aspartic acid. 582.5017 Section 582.5017 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5017 Aspartic acid. (a) Product. Aspartic acid (L- and DL-forms). (b) Conditions of use...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5017 - Aspartic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aspartic acid. 582.5017 Section 582.5017 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5017 Aspartic acid. (a) Product. Aspartic acid (L- and DL-forms). (b) Conditions of use...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5017 - Aspartic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aspartic acid. 582.5017 Section 582.5017 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5017 Aspartic acid. (a) Product. Aspartic acid (L- and DL-forms). (b) Conditions of use...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5017 - Aspartic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspartic acid. 582.5017 Section 582.5017 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5017 Aspartic acid. (a) Product. Aspartic acid (L- and DL-forms). (b) Conditions of use...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5017 - Aspartic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aspartic acid. 582.5017 Section 582.5017 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5017 Aspartic acid. (a) Product. Aspartic acid (L- and DL-forms). (b) Conditions of use...

  11. Predicting proteinase specificities from free energy calculations.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Seble Merid; Olufsen, Magne; Smalås, Arne O; Brandsdal, Bjørn O

    2006-10-01

    The role of the primary binding residue (P1) in complexes between three different subtilases (subtilisin Carlsberg, thermitase and proteinase K) and their canonical protein inhibitor eglin c have been studied by free energy calculations. Based on the crystal structures of eglin c in complex with subtilisin Carlsberg and thermitase, and a homology model of the eglin c-proteinase K complex, a total of 57 mutants have been constructed and docked into their host proteins. The binding free energy was then calculated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with the linear interaction energy (LIE) method for all complexes differing only in the nature of the amino acid at the P1 position. LIE calculations for 19 different complexes for each subtilase were thus carried out excluding proline. The effects of substitutions at the P1 position on the binding free energies are found to be very large, and positively charged residues (Arg, Lys and His) are particularly deleterious for all three enzymes. The charged variants of the acidic side chains are found to bind more favorably as compared to their protonated states in all three subtilases. Furthermore, hydrophobic amino acids are accommodated most favorably at the S1-site in all three enzymes. Comparison of the three series of binding free energies shows only minor differences in the 19 computed relative binding free energies among these subtilases. This is further reflected in the correlation coefficient between the 23 relative binding free energies obtained, including the possible protonation states of ionizable side chains, but excluding the P1 Pro, for subtilisin Carlsberg versus thermitase (0.95), subtilisin versus proteinase K (0.94) and thermitase versus proteinase K (0.96).

  12. Inhibition of the 20S proteosome by a protein proteinase inhibitor: evidence that a natural serine proteinase inhibitor can inhibit a threonine proteinase.

    PubMed

    Yabe, Kimihiko; Koide, Takehiko

    2009-02-01

    The 20S proteasome (20S) is an intracellular threonine proteinase (Mr 750,000) that plays important roles in many cellular regulations. Several synthetic peptide inhibitors and bacteria-derived inhibitors such as lactacystin and epoxomicin have been identified as potent proteasome inhibitors. However, essentially no protein proteinase inhibitor has been characterized. By examining several small size protein proteinase inhibitors, we found that a well-known serine proteinase inhibitor from bovine pancreas, basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), inhibits the 20S in vitro and ex vivo. Inhibition of the 20S by BPTI was time- and concentration-dependent, and stoichiometric. To inhibit the 20S activity, BPTI needs to enter into the interior of the 20S molecule. The molar ratio of BPTI to the 20S in the complex was estimated as approximately six BPTI to one 20S, thereby two sets of three peptidase activities (trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like) of the 20S were all inhibited. These results indicate that an entrance hole to the 20S formed by seven alpha-subunits is sufficiently large for BPTI to enter. This report is essentially the initial description of the inhibition of a threonine proteinase by a protein serine proteinase inhibitor, suggesting a common mechanism of inhibition between serine and threonine proteinases by a natural protein proteinase inhibitor.

  13. A supramolecular complex between proteinases and beta-cyclodextrin that preserves enzymatic activity: physicochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Denadai, Angelo M L; Santoro, Marcelo M; Lopes, Miriam T P; Chenna, Angélica; de Sousa, Frederico B; Avelar, Gabriela M; Gomes, Marco R Túlio; Guzman, Fanny; Salas, Carlos E; Sinisterra, Rubén D

    2006-01-01

    Cyclodextrins are suitable drug delivery systems because of their ability to subtly modify the physical, chemical, and biological properties of guest molecules through labile interactions by formation of inclusion and/or association complexes. Plant cysteine proteinases from Caricaceae and Bromeliaceae are the subject of therapeutic interest, because of their anti-inflammatory, antitumoral, immunogenic, and wound-healing properties. In this study, we analyzed the association between beta-cyclodextrin (betaCD) and fraction P1G10 containing the bioactive proteinases from Carica candamarcensis, and described the physicochemical nature of the solid-state self-assembled complexes by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as well as in solution by circular dichroism (CD), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and amidase activity. The physicochemical analyses suggest the formation of a complex between P1G10 and betaCD. Higher secondary interactions, namely hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces were observed at higher P1G10 : betaCD mass ratios. These results provide evidence of the occurrence of strong solid-state supramolecular non-covalent interactions between P1G10 and betaCD. Microcalorimetric analysis demonstrates that complexation results in a favorable enthalpic contribution, as has already been described during formation of similar betaCD inclusion compounds. The amidase activity of the complex shows that the enzyme activity is not readily available at 24 hours after dissolution of the complex in aqueous buffer; the proteinase becomes biologically active by the second day and remains stable until day 16, when a gradual decrease occurs, with basal activity attained by day 29. The reported results underscore the potential for betaCDs as candidates for complexing cysteine proteinases, resulting

  14. A Proteinase from Germinating Barley 1

    PubMed Central

    Poulle, M.; Jones, Berne L.

    1988-01-01

    A proteinase was purified from germinated barley (green malt from Hordeum vulgare L. cv Morex) by acidic extraction, ammonium sulfate fractionation and successive chromatographies on CM-cellulose, hemoglobin sepharose, Sephadex G-75 and organomercurial agarose columns. The overall purification and final recovery were 290-fold and 7.5%, respectively. The purified enzyme was homogeneous on analytical gel electrophoresis, yielding a single protein associated with protease activity. An apparent molecular weight of about 20 kilodaltons was estimated for the native enzyme from gel filtration. SDS-gel electrophoresis revealed a single polypeptide of about 30 kilodaltons. The optimum pH for the hydrolysis of hemoglobin was around 3.8. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by leupeptin but was insensitive to phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, indicating that it was a cysteine proteinase. It hydrolyzed several large proteins from various origins. The ability of the enzyme to digest barley storage proteins in vitro was examined using SDS-gel electrophoresis. The hydrolysis patterns obtained showed that the enzyme rapidly hydrolyzed the large hordein polypeptides into relatively small fragments. The results of this study suggest that this 30 kilodalton enzyme is one of the predominant cysteine proteinases secreted into the starchy endosperm during barley germination and that it plays a major role in the mobilization of storage proteins. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16666480

  15. Characterization of a Human Serum Inhibitor of Clostridium histolyticum Proteinase(s)1

    PubMed Central

    Luzzati, Alma; Goldlust, Marvin B.; Levine, Lawrence

    1968-01-01

    Normal animal sera inhibit at least one Clostridium histolyticum proteinase. An assay procedure based on immune hemolysis was developed for the estimation of this inhibition. This inhibitory activity occurs in various levels in the sera of different animal species. The highest titers have been obtained with rat sera. The inhibitory activity from human serum was isolated and purified 16- to 27-fold by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration and diethylaminoethyl cellulose or hydroxylapatite chromatography. The properties of the human serum inhibitor of the clostridial proteinase were compared with a trypsin inhibiting factor found in the partially purified preparations. Identical behavior of the two inhibitory factors was observed when measured by heat inactivation, β-mercaptoethanol sensitivity, pH stability, and sucrose gradient centrifugation. The inhibitory factor has an approximate sedimentation coefficient (S20,w) of 17. Goat anti–α-2-macroglobulin specifically precipitated the clostridial proteinase inhibitor from a partially purified preparation. PMID:5303620

  16. Molt cycle-associated changes in calcium-dependent proteinase activity that degrades actin and myosin in crustacean muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Mykles, D.L.; Skinner, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The role of calcium-dependent proteinase (CDP) in the proecdysial atrophy of crustacean claw muscle has been investigated. During atrophy the molar ratio of actin to myosin heavy chain decreased 31%, confirming earlier ultrastructural observations that the ratio of thin:thick myofilaments declined from 9:1 to 6:1 (D.L. Mykles and D.M. Skinner, 1981, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 75, 314 to 325). The release of TCA-soluble material in muscle homogenates at neutral pH was stimulated by Ca/sup 2 +/ and completely inhibited by EGTA. The specific degradation of the major myofibrillar proteins (actin, myosin heavy and light chains, paramyosin, tropomyosin, troponin-T, and troponin-I) was demonstrated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Proteolytic activity was more than twofold greater in proecdysial muscle homogenates. Degradation of myofibrillar proteins was inhibited by EGTA, and the two inhibitors of crysteine proteinases, leupeptin, and antipain, but not pepstatin, an inhibitor of aspartic proteinases. Unlike CDPs from vertebrate muscle, the CDP(s) in crab claw muscle degrades actin and myosin in addition to other myofibrillar proteins.

  17. Characterization of proteinases from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus involved in the generation of antimicrobial peptides

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hemoglobin is a rich source of biologically active peptides, some of which are potent antimicrobials (hemocidins). A few hemocidins have been purified from the midgut contents of ticks. Nonetheless, how antimicrobials are generated in the tick midgut and their role in immunity is still poorly understood. Here we report, for the first time, the contribution of two midgut proteinases to the generation of hemocidins. Results An aspartic proteinase, designated BmAP, was isolated from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using three chromatographic steps. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that BmAP is restricted to the midgut. The other enzyme is a previously characterized midgut cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase designated BmCL1. Substrate specificities of native BmAP and recombinant BmCL1 were mapped using a synthetic combinatorial peptide library and bovine hemoglobin. BmCL1 preferred substrates containing non-polar residues at P2 subsite and polar residues at P1, whereas BmAP hydrolysed substrates containing non-polar amino acids at P1 and P1'. Conclusions BmAP and BmCL1 generate hemocidins from hemoglobin alpha and beta chains in vitro. We postulate that hemocidins may be important for the control of tick pathogens and midgut flora. PMID:20663211

  18. Picornaviral 3C cysteine proteinases have a fold similar to the chymotrypsin-like serine proteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Allaire,M.; Chernaia, M.; Malcolm, B.; James, M.

    1994-01-01

    The picornavirus family includes several pathogens such as poliovirus, rhinovirus (the major cause of the common cold), hepatitis A virus and the foot-and-mouth disease virus. Picornaviral proteins are expressed by direct translation of the genomic RNA into a single, large polyprotein precursor. Proteolysis of the viral polyprotein into the mature proteins is assured by the viral 3C enzymes, which are cysteine proteinases. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution of the 3C proteinase from hepatitis A virus (HAV-3C). The overall architecture of HAV-3C reveals a fold resembling that of the chymotrypsin family of serine proteinases, which is consistent with earlier predictions. Catalytic residues include Cys 172 as nucleophile and His 44 as general base. The 3C cleavage specificity for glutamine residues is defined primarily by His 191. The overall structure suggests that an inter-molecular (trans) cleavage releases 3C and that there is an active proteinase in the polyprotein.

  19. Effects of endogenous cysteine proteinases on structures of collagen fibres from dermis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Xin; Zhou, Da-Yong; Ma, Dong-Dong; Liu, Zi-Qiang; Liu, Yan-Fei; Song, Liang; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Li, Dong-Mei; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Konno, Kunihiko; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2017-10-01

    Autolysis of sea cucumber, caused by endogenous enzymes, leads to postharvest quality deterioration of sea cucumber. However, the effects of endogenous proteinases on structures of collagen fibres, the major biologically relevant substrates in the body wall of sea cucumber, are less clear. Collagen fibres were prepared from the dermis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus), and the structural consequences of degradation of the collagen fibres caused by endogenous cysteine proteinases (ECP) from Stichopus japonicus were examined. Scanning electron microscopic images showed that ECP caused partial disaggregation of collagen fibres into collagen fibrils by disrupting interfibrillar proteoglycan bridges. Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed increased structural disorder of fibrillar collagen caused by ECP. SDS-PAGE and chemical analysis indicated that ECP can liberate glycosaminoglycan, hydroxyproline and collagen fragments from collagen fibres. Thus ECP can cause disintegration of collagen fibres by degrading interfibrillar proteoglycan bridges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Suppression of activity of Candida albicans proteinases by cobalt chloride].

    PubMed

    Kutyreva, M P; Mukhametzianova, A R; Ulakhovich, N A

    2012-01-01

    Influence of cobalt (II) chloride on the system of Candida albicans proteinase (SAP C. alb.) (both in solution and immobilized on a surface of nitrocellulose membranes) has been investigated. In solution cobalt chloride inactivated inducible but not constitute enzyme. In the heterogenous sytem proteolitical effect of the cobalt ion on inductible proteinase was also observed.

  1. Immunological Similarities of Proteinase Inhibitors from Potatoes 1

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Clarence A.; Santarius, Karlheinz

    1976-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors, purified independently from Japanese, United States, and German potato varieties, and having different physicochemical and inhibitory properties, are shown to be immunochemically similar. These results indicate that the heterogeneity found among proteinase inhibitors from potato tubers is apparently due both to intervarietal, as well as intravarietal, variations in isoinhibitor components. Images PMID:16659744

  2. Proteinase Inhibitor-inducing Factor in Plant Leaves

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Douglas; Ryan, Clarence A.

    1974-01-01

    Thirty-nine plant species representing 20 families from the four major divisions of plants were surveyed for the presence of proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor activity in leaves or other tissues. Tissue juices were assayed for their capacity to induce accumulation of proteinase inhibitor I in excised tomato (Lycopersico esculentum) leaves. In tissues of only 2 of the 39 species was proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor-like activity not found. The activity was absent in cabbage leaves and celery stalks. Fruiting bodies from one of three fungi genera assayed contained exceptionally large quantities of proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor-like activity. Extracts from Agraricus campestris fruiting bodies contained over 20 times more activity than tomato leaf juice. The survey confirms that substances with proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor-like activity are widespread in the plant kingdom. PMID:16658956

  3. Aspartate release from rat hippocampal synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Bradford, S E; Nadler, J V

    2004-01-01

    Certain excitatory pathways in the rat hippocampus can release aspartate along with glutamate. This study utilized rat hippocampal synaptosomes to characterize the mechanism of aspartate release and to compare it with glutamate release. Releases of aspartate and glutamate from the same tissue samples were quantitated simultaneously. Both amino acids were released by 25 mM K(+), 300 microM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and 0.5 and 1 microM ionomycin in a predominantly Ca(2+)-dependent manner. For a roughly equivalent quantity of glutamate released, aspartate release was significantly greater during exposure to elevated [K(+)] than to 4-AP and during exposure to 0.5 than to 1 microM ionomycin. Aspartate release was inefficiently coupled to P/Q-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels and was reduced by KB-R7943, an inhibitor of reversed Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange. In contrast, glutamate release depended primarily on Ca(2+) influx through P/Q-type channels and was not significantly affected by KB-R7943. Pretreatment of the synaptosomes with tetanus toxin and botulinum neurotoxins C and F reduced glutamate release, but not aspartate release. Aspartate release was also resistant to bafilomycin A(1), an inhibitor of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, whereas glutamate release was markedly reduced. (+/-) -Threo-3-methylglutamate, a non-transportable competitive inhibitor of excitatory amino acid transport, did not reduce aspartate release. Niflumic acid, a blocker of Ca(2+)-dependent anion channels, did not alter the release of either amino acid. Exogenous aspartate and aspartate recently synthesized from glutamate accessed the releasable pool of aspartate as readily as exogenous glutamate and glutamate recently synthesized from aspartate accessed the releasable glutamate pool. These results are compatible with release of aspartate from either a vesicular pool by a "non-classical" form of exocytosis or directly from the cytoplasm by an as-yet-undescribed Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism. In either case

  4. Overview of pepsin-like aspartic peptidases.

    PubMed

    Dunn, B M

    2001-11-01

    The aspartic peptidase family of enzymes has been implicated in a variety of disease states, from stomach ulcers, to breast cancer, and even Alzheimer's Disease. This unit describes the major characteristics of the aspartic peptidases, including mechanism of action, subcellular and tissue localization, and biological substrate specificity.

  5. Fourier Series Operating Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnow, Milton L.

    1961-01-01

    This report presents a computer program for multiplying, adding, differentiating, integrating, "barring" and scalarly multiplying "literal" Fourier series as such, and for extracting the coefficients of specified terms.

  6. Leukocyte Cell Surface Proteinases: Regulation of Expression, Functions, and Mechanisms of Surface Localization

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Caroline A.

    2008-01-01

    A number of proteinases are expressed on the surface of leukocytes including members of the serine, metallo-, and cysteine proteinase superfamilies. Some proteinases are anchored to the plasma membrane of leukocytes by a transmembrane domain or a glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchor. Other proteinases bind with high affinity to classical receptors, or with lower affinity to integrins, proteoglycans, or other leukocyte surface molecules. Leukocyte surface levels of proteinases are regulated by: 1) cytokines, chemokines, bacterial products, and growth factors which stimulate synthesis and/or release of proteinase by cells; 2) the availability of surface binding sites for proteinases; and/or 3) internalization or shedding of surface-bound proteinases. The binding of proteinases to leukocyte surfaces serves many functions including: 1) concentrating the activity of proteinases to the immediate pericellular environment; 2) facilitating pro-enzyme activation; 3) increasing proteinase stability and retention in the extracellular space; 4) regulating leukocyte function by proteinases signaling through cell surface binding sites or other surface proteins; and 5) protecting proteinases from inhibition by extracellular proteinase inhibitors. There is strong evidence that membrane-associated proteinases on leukocytes play critical roles in wound healing, inflammation, extracellular matrix remodeling, fibrinolysis, and coagulation. This review will outline the biology of membrane-associated proteinases expressed by leukocytes and their roles in physiologic and pathologic processes. PMID:18329945

  7. Leukocyte cell surface proteinases: regulation of expression, functions, and mechanisms of surface localization.

    PubMed

    Owen, Caroline A

    2008-01-01

    A number of proteinases are expressed on the surface of leukocytes including members of the serine, metallo-, and cysteine proteinase superfamilies. Some proteinases are anchored to the plasma membrane of leukocytes by a transmembrane domain or a glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchor. Other proteinases bind with high affinity to classical receptors, or with lower affinity to integrins, proteoglycans, or other leukocyte surface molecules. Leukocyte surface levels of proteinases are regulated by: (1) cytokines, chemokines, bacterial products, and growth factors which stimulate synthesis and/or release of proteinases by cells; (2) the availability of surface binding sites for proteinases; and/or (3) internalization or shedding of surface-bound proteinases. The binding of proteinases to leukocyte surfaces serves many functions including: (1) concentrating the activity of proteinases to the immediate pericellular environment; (2) facilitating pro-enzyme activation; (3) increasing proteinase stability and retention in the extracellular space; (4) regulating leukocyte function by proteinases signaling through cell surface binding sites or other surface proteins; and (5) protecting proteinases from inhibition by extracellular proteinase inhibitors. There is strong evidence that membrane-associated proteinases on leukocytes play critical roles in wound healing, inflammation, extracellular matrix remodeling, fibrinolysis, and coagulation. This review will outline the biology of membrane-associated proteinases expressed by leukocytes and their roles in physiologic and pathologic processes.

  8. Peptide aldehyde inhibitors of hepatitis A virus 3C proteinase.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, B A; Lowe, C; Shechosky, S; McKay, R T; Yang, C C; Shah, V J; Simon, R J; Vederas, J C; Santi, D V

    1995-06-27

    Picornaviral 3C proteinases are a group of closely related thiol proteinases responsible for processing of the viral polyprotein into its component proteins. These proteinases adopt a chymotrypsin-like fold [Allaire et al. (1994) Nature 369, 72-77; Matthews et al. (1994) Cell 77, 761-771] and a display an active-site configuration like those of the serine proteinases. Peptide-aldehydes based on the preferred peptide substrates for hepatitis A virus (HAV) 3C proteinase were synthesized by reduction of a thioester precursor. Acetyl-Leu-Ala-Ala-(N,N'-dimethylglutaminal) was found to be a reversible, slow-binding inhibitor for HAV 3C with a Ki* of (4.2 +/- 0.8) x 10(-8) M. This inhibitor showed 50-fold less activity against the highly homologous human rhinovirus (strain 14) 3C proteinase, whose peptide substrate specificity is slightly different, suggesting a high degree of selectivity. NMR spectrometry of the adduct of the 13C-labeled inhibitor with the HAV-3C proteinase indicate that a thiohemiacetal is formed between the enzyme and the aldehyde carbon as previously noted for peptide-aldehyde inhibitors of papain [Lewis & Wolfenden (1977) Biochemistry 16,4890-4894; Gamcsik et al. (1983) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 105, 6324-6325]. The adduct can also be observed by electrospray mass spectrometry.

  9. Proteinases as virulence factors in Leishmania spp. infection in mammals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Leishmania parasites cause human tegumentary and visceral infections that are commonly referred to as leishmaniasis. Despite the high incidence and prevalence of cases, leishmaniasis has been a neglected disease because it mainly affects developing countries. The data obtained from the analysis of patients’ biological samples and from assays with animal models confirm the involvement of an array of the parasite’s components in its survival inside the mammalian host. These components are classified as virulence factors. In this review, we focus on studies that have explored the role of proteinases as virulence factors that promote parasite survival and immune modulation in the mammalian host. Additionally, the direct involvement of proteinases from the host in lesion evolution is analyzed. The gathered data shows that both parasite and host proteinases are involved in the clinical manifestation of leishmaniasis. It is interesting to note that although the majority of the classes of proteinases are present in Leishmania spp., only cysteine-proteinases, metalloproteinases and, to a lesser scale, serine-proteinases have been adequately studied. Members from these classes have been implicated in tissue invasion, survival in macrophages and immune modulation by parasites. This review reinforces the importance of the parasite proteinases, which are interesting candidates for new chemo or immunotherapies, in the clinical manifestations of leishmaniasis. PMID:22871236

  10. Characterization and pathogenetic role of proteinase from Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed

    Na, B K; Kim, J C; Song, C Y

    2001-01-01

    A secreted proteinase was purified from the culture supernatant of Acanthamoeba castellanii with several chromatographic steps. The purified proteinase was a chymotrypsin-like serine proteinase. Its molecular weight was approximately 12 kDa on SDS-PAGE, and its native molecular weight was 12 kDa when determined by molecular sieve chromatography. It showed a broad temperature optimum ranging 30-55 degrees C with an optimal at 55 degrees C and an optimal pH of 8.5. It could degrade various protein substrates, such as collagen, fibronectin, laminin, secretory immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin G, plasminogen, fibrinogen, haemoglobin and rabbit corneal proteins. It showed strong cytopathic effects in cultured cells, including HEp2 and HEK cells. The corneal lesions, induced by both the purified proteinase and A. castellanii, displayed similar clinical results for both cases, in which the stromal infiltration and opacity with the epithelial defect were revealed. These results suggest that the enzyme was highly associated with the pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba. The fact that cytopathic effects and development of corneal lesions caused by the proteinase of Acanthamoeba were inhibited by the proteinase inhibitor suggest that the proteinase inhibitor might be useful as a therapeutic agent.

  11. Coevolution between pathogen-derived proteinases and proteinase inhibitors of host insects.

    PubMed

    Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Virulence is thought to coevolve as a result of reciprocal selection between pathogens and their hosts. This paper focuses on coevolution between microbial proteinases operating as virulence factors and host defense molecules of insects. Owing to shorter generation times and smaller genomes, microbes exhibit a high evolutionary adaptability in comparison with their hosts. Indeed, the latter can only compete with pathogens if they evolve mechanisms providing a comparable genetic plasticity. Gene or domain duplication and shuffling by recombination is the driving force behind the countermeasures in host defense effectors. Recent literature provides evidence for both diversifications of fungal proteinases involved in pathogenesis and expansion host proteinase inhibitors subsets contributing to insect innate immunity. For example, the pathogen-associated spectrum of proteolytic enzymes encompasses thermolysin-like metalloproteinases that putatively promoted the evolution of corresponding host inhibitors of these virulence factors which complement the insect repertoire of antimicrobial defense molecules. Beyond mutual diversification of effector molecules coevolution resulted also in sophisticated molecular adaptations of host insects such as sensing and feedback-loop regulation of microbial metalloproteinases and corresponding countermeasures of pathogens providing evasion of host immunity induced by these virulence factors.

  12. Action of plant proteinase inhibitors on enzymes of physiopathological importance.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Maria Luiza V; Sampaio, Misako U

    2009-09-01

    Obtained from leguminous seeds, various plant proteins inhibit animal proteinases, including human, and can be considered for the development of compounds with biological activity. Inhibitors from the Bowman-Birk and plant Kunitz-type family have been characterized by proteinase specificity, primary structure and reactive site. Our group mostly studies the genus Bauhinia, mainly the species bauhinioides, rufa, ungulata and variegata. In some species, more than one inhibitor was characterized, exhibiting different properties. Although proteins from this group share high structural similarity, they present differences in proteinase inhibition, explored in studies using diverse biological models.

  13. [Arthrobacter proteinase and its effect on fibrin thrombi].

    PubMed

    Sokolova, I G; Shataeva, L K; Zaikina, N A

    1993-01-01

    Arthrobacteria are producers of proteolytic enzymes. Optimal cultivation conditions were determined for Arthrobacter luteus and the mineral composition of the culture medium providing active synthesis of proteinase was optimized. The proteinase was isolated from the culture liquid of Arthrobacter luteus using preparative ion-exchange chromatography on a carboxyl cation exchange resin KMT. The enzyme was homogeneous according to gel chromatography on Sephadex G-200 and had a molecular weight of 24 kD. The fibrinolytic activity of the proteinase is comparable with that of trypsin.

  14. Characterization of a Torovirus Main Proteinase

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Saskia L.; Snijder, Eric J.; de Groot, Raoul J.

    2006-01-01

    Viruses of the order Nidovirales encode huge replicase polyproteins. These are processed primarily by the chymotrypsin-like main proteinases (Mpros). So far, Mpros have been studied only for corona-, arteri-, and roniviruses. Here, we report the characterization of the Mpro of toroviruses, the fourth main Nidovirus branch. Comparative sequence analysis of polyprotein 1a of equine torovirus (EToV) strain Berne, identified a serine proteinase domain, flanked by hydrophobic regions. Heterologous expression of this domain resulted in autoprocessing at flanking cleavage sites. N-terminal sequence analysis of cleavage products tentatively identified FxxQ↓(S, A) as the substrate consensus sequence. EToV Mpro combines several traits of its closest relatives. It has a predicted three-domain structure, with two catalytic β-barrel domains and an additional C-terminal domain of unknown function. With respect to substrate specificity, the EToV Mpro resembles its coronavirus homologue in its preference for P1-Gln, but its substrate-binding subsite, S1, more closely resembles that of arteri- and ronivirus Mpros, which prefer P1-Glu. Surprisingly, in contrast to the Mpros of corona- and roniviruses, but like that of arterivirus, the torovirus Mpro uses serine instead of cysteine as its principal nucleophile. Under the premise that the Mpros of corona- and toroviruses are more closely related to each other than to those of arteri- and roniviruses, the transition from serine- to cysteine-based proteolytic catalysis (or vice versa) must have happened more than once in the course of nidovirus evolution. In this respect, it is of interest that a mutant EToV Mpro with a Ser165→Cys substitution retained partial enzymatic activity. PMID:16571831

  15. Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.

    2003-03-01

    This paper gives a short account of some key elements in the life of Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830), specifically his relation to Napoleon Bonaparte. The mathematical approach to Fourier series and the original scepticism by French mathematicians are briefly illustrated.

  16. Fourier Series Optimization Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This note discusses the introduction of Fourier series as an immediate application of optimization of a function of more than one variable. Specifically, it is shown how the study of Fourier series can be motivated to enrich a multivariable calculus class. This is done through discovery learning and use of technology wherein students build the…

  17. Fourier Series Optimization Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This note discusses the introduction of Fourier series as an immediate application of optimization of a function of more than one variable. Specifically, it is shown how the study of Fourier series can be motivated to enrich a multivariable calculus class. This is done through discovery learning and use of technology wherein students build the…

  18. Effects of HIV aspartyl-proteinase inhibitors on Leishmania sp.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, Elizabeth; Rangel, Ariadne; Moreno, Javier; Saugar, Jose María; Cañavate, Carmen; Alvar, Jorge; Dagger, Francehuli

    2010-12-01

    In this work, we have found an antiproliferative effect on Leishmania sp. promastigotes and axenic amastigotes by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) aspartyl-proteinase inhibitors, Ac-Leu-Val-Phenylalaninal, Saquinavir mesylate and Nelfinavir, the latter two being used as part of antiretroviral therapy. This effect appears to be the result of cell division blockage. In addition, these drugs induced in culture a decrease in the percentage of co-infected HIV/Leishmania monocytes and amastigotes of Leishmania per macrophage. The finding of a dose-dependent inhibition of Leishmania promastigotes aspartyl-proteinase activity by these drugs allows us to propose this activity as the drug parasite target. A direct action of these HIV aspartyl-proteinase inhibitors on the parasite, would be correlated with the effect that highly active antiretroviral therapy have had in the decrease of HIV/Leishmania coinfection, opening an interesting perspective for new drugs research development based on this novel parasite proteinase family.

  19. Effect of polyelectrolytes on serine proteinase secretion by Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Artemov, A V; Samuilov, V D

    1990-03-12

    Addition of polycations with molecular masses of 5-40 kDa as well as Na+, stimulated serine proteinase secretion by Bacillus subtilis cells. Polyanions and higher-molecular-mass polycations (100-200 kDa) were inefficient. The enzyme yields in the presence of polycations or Na+ were equal in magnitude. The results indicate that the cations, apparently counteracting the negative surface charge of the bacterial plasma membrane, cause the desorption of the serine (alkaline) proteinase. The synthesis of the proteinase is inferred to be stopped as the enzyme is bound to the outer surface of the plasma membrane. The desorption of the enzyme thus induces the synthesis of the new portions of proteinase.

  20. Proteinase inhibitors from the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis.

    PubMed

    Baskova, I P; Zavalova, L L

    2001-07-01

    The medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis produces various types of proteinase inhibitors: bdellins (inhibitors of trypsin, plasmin, and acrosin), hirustasin (inhibitor of tissue kallikrein, trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, and granulocyte cathepsin G), tryptase inhibitor, eglins (inhibitors of alpha-chymotrypsin, subtilisin, and chymasin and the granulocyte proteinases elastase and cathepsin G), inhibitor of factor Xa, hirudin (thrombin inhibitor), inhibitor of carboxypeptidase, and inhibitor of complement component C1s. This review summarizes data on their primary and tertiary structures, action mechanisms, and biological activities.

  1. The reaction of serpins with proteinases involves important enthalpy changes.

    PubMed

    Boudier, C; Bieth, J G

    2001-08-21

    When active serpins are proteolytically inactivated in a substrate-like reaction, they undergo an important structural transition with a resultant increase in their conformational stability. We have used microcalorimetry to show that this conformational alteration is accompanied by an important enthalpy change. For instance, the cleavage of alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor by Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase, Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase, or papain and that of antithrombin by leukocyte elastase are characterized by large enthalpy changes (DeltaH = -53 to -63 kcal mol(-1)). The former reaction also has a large and negative heat capacity (DeltaC(p)() = -566 cal K(-1) mol(-1)). In contrast, serpins release significantly less heat when they act as proteinase inhibitors. For example, the inhibition of pancreatic elastase, leukocyte elastase, and pancreatic chymotrypsin by alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor and that of pancreatic trypsin and coagulation factor Xa by antithrombin are accompanied by a DeltaH of -20 to -31 kcal mol(-1). We observe no heat release upon proteolytic cleavage of inactive serpins or following inhibition of serine proteinases by canonical inhibitors or upon acylation of chymotrypsin by N-trans-cinnamoylimidazole. We suggest that part of the large enthalpy change that occurs during the structural transition of serpins is used to stabilize the proteinase in its inactive state.

  2. Characterization of proteinases from Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba).

    PubMed

    Sjödahl, Johan; Emmer, Asa; Vincent, Jan; Roeraade, Johan

    2002-10-01

    Fractions of three trypsin-like proteinases, TL I, TL II, and TL III, a chymotrypsin-like proteinase, CL, two carboxypeptidase A enzymes, CPA I and CPA II and two carboxypeptidase B enzymes, CPB I and CPB II, from Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) have been characterized with respect to purity by the means of capillary electrophoresis, CE, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The masses of the trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like proteinases were determined to be 25,020, 25,070, 25,060, and 26,260Da for TL I, TL II, TL III, and CL, respectively. The masses of the CPA enzymes are likely 23,170 and 23,260Da, whereas the CPB enzyme masses likely are 33,730 and 33,900Da. The degradation efficiency and cleavage pattern of the trypsin-like proteinases were studied with native myoglobin as a model substrate using CE, MALDI-TOF-MS, and nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry (nESI-MS). The degradation efficiency of the trypsin-like proteinases was found to be approximately 12 and 60 times higher compared to bovine trypsin at 37 degrees C and 1-3 degrees C, respectively. All three fractions of trypsin-like proteinases showed a carboxypeptidase activity in combination with their trypsin activity.

  3. The induction of proteinases in corn and soybean by anoxia

    SciTech Connect

    VanToai, T.; Hwang, Shihying )

    1989-04-01

    This study characterized the anaerobic changes in proteinase activities in corn and soybean roots and to investigate the possibility that these changes might contribute to the differential anaerobiosis tolerance of the two species. After 24 h of anoxia, crude protein extracts from H60 corn and Keller soybean root tips (10cm) were assayed for proteinase activities at pH range from 4.5 to 9.5. Turnover of aberrant proteins was studied in seedlings labelled with {sup 3}H-leucine for 12 h under: (a) puromycin (0.64 mM) in air, (b) ethanol (1%) in air, (c) nitrogen and (d) air. After the treatment, the labelled proteins remaining in roots were determined every 2 h for 6 h. In both corn and soybean, activities of alkali proteinases increased, and activities of acid proteinases declined under anoxia. Neutral proteinases increase in anoxic corn roots, but decline in anoxic soybean roots. The protein turnover rate in corn treated with puromycin, ethanol and nitrogen was much higher than in control roots. The protein turnover rate in soybean roots treated with puromycin, ethanol was similar to the rate of the control. The results indicated that: (a) anoxic corn can degrade aberrant proteins, but anoxic soybean cannot, (b) the degradation of aberrant proteins in anoxic corn is accomplished by neutral proteinases, and (c) the accumulation of aberrant proteins in soybean might contribute to the susceptibility of this species to anoxia.

  4. A low molecular weight proteinase inhibitor produced by T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ganea, D; Teodorescu, M; Dray, S

    1986-01-01

    A low molecular weight (MW) proteinase inhibitor, between 6500 and 21,500 MW, appeared in the supernatant of rabbit spleen cells cultured at high density for 24 hr. The inhibitor inhibited the enzymatic activity of trypsin for both a high MW natural substrate, fibrinogen, and for a low MW artificial substrate, Chromozym TRY. The low MW proteinase inhibitor is protein in nature and is different, in terms of specificity for enzymes, MW and sensitivity to different physical or chemical treatments, from aprotinin, a low MW proteinase inhibitor (6500 MW) of bovine origin, and from the soybean trypsin inhibitor, a relatively high MW proteinase inhibitor (21,500 MW). The inhibitor was found in the supernatant of purified T cells but not B cells, and its production was increased in the presence of an optimal concentration of Con A. The possibility that this proteinase inhibitor has a role in the regulation of trypsin-like proteinases involved to the immune response remains to be investigated. Images Figure 4 PMID:2417942

  5. Fourier Modulus Image Construction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    Fourier Optics: the Encoding of Infor- mation by Complex Zeroes," Optica Acta 26, 1139-46 (1979). 13. Y.M. Bruck and L.(. Sodin, "On the Ambiguity of the...0002 UNCLASSIFIED RADC-TR-81-63 NL -- END LEVEL# " DC-TR-61143 Finul Technical Relort 0 FOURIER MODULUS IMAGE "N CONSTRUCTION C Environmental Research... FOURIER MODULUS IMAGE CONSTRUCTION 7Sep 9--3 Sep 8 _ N/A 7. AUTHOR(s) N . James E Fienup. 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  6. Insulin Aspart (rDNA Origin) Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a solution (liquid) and a suspension (liquid with particles that will settle on standing) to inject subcutaneously ( ... it is colored, cloudy, thickened, or contains solid particles. If you are using insulin aspart suspension, the ...

  7. Aspartate kinase as an enzyme able to phosphorylate aspartate in the nervous system. Immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Díaz, G; Martínez-Rodríguez, R

    1990-01-01

    An immunohistochemical method using antibodies against bacterial aspartate kinase has been carried out in order to localize this enzyme in the cerebellar cortex of rat. The results obtained with light microscope have demonstrated a positive immunoreaction in both the granular and molecular layers. Electron microscopic observation has also revealed the reaction in several dendrites, axons and myelinated fibers. These facts lead us to think that aspartate kinase could be involved in the phosphorylation of aspartate in the nervous tissue.

  8. A Short Biography of Joseph Fourier and Historical Development of Fourier Series and Fourier Transforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with a brief biographical sketch of Joseph Fourier, his first celebrated work on analytical theory of heat, his first great discovery of Fourier series and Fourier transforms. Included is a historical development of Fourier series and Fourier transforms with their properties, importance and applications. Special emphasis is made…

  9. A Short Biography of Joseph Fourier and Historical Development of Fourier Series and Fourier Transforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with a brief biographical sketch of Joseph Fourier, his first celebrated work on analytical theory of heat, his first great discovery of Fourier series and Fourier transforms. Included is a historical development of Fourier series and Fourier transforms with their properties, importance and applications. Special emphasis is made…

  10. Proteinases in the joint: clinical relevance of proteinases in joint destruction

    PubMed Central

    Rengel, Yvonne; Ospelt, Caroline; Gay, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    Proteinases are involved in essential steps in cartilage and bone homeostasis. Consequently, efforts have been made to establish their potential role in the pathology of rheumatic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and spondyloarthritis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are sensitive markers of disease severity and response to treatment, and therefore they have potential in the assessment of rheumatic diseases. Despite disappointing early results with synthetic inhibitors of MMPs, there is still much scope for developing effective and safe MMPs inhibitors, and consequently to deliver new options to inhibit joint destruction. PMID:18001502

  11. Identification of a vesicular aspartate transporter

    PubMed Central

    Miyaji, Takaaki; Echigo, Noriko; Hiasa, Miki; Senoh, Shigenori; Omote, Hiroshi; Moriyama, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    Aspartate is an excitatory amino acid that is costored with glutamate in synaptic vesicles of hippocampal neurons and synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs) of pinealocytes and is exocytosed and stimulates neighboring cells by binding to specific cell receptors. Although evidence increasingly supports the occurrence of aspartergic neurotransmission, this process is still debated because the mechanism for the vesicular storage of aspartate is unknown. Here, we show that sialin, a lysosomal H+/sialic acid cotransporter, is present in hippocampal synaptic vesicles and pineal SLMVs. RNA interference of sialin expression decreased exocytosis of aspartate and glutamate in pinealocytes. Proteoliposomes containing purified sialin actively accumulated aspartate and glutamate to a similar extent when inside positive membrane potential is imposed as the driving force. Sialin carrying a mutation found in people suffering from Salla disease (R39C) was completely devoid of aspartate and glutamate transport activity, although it retained appreciable H+/sialic acid cotransport activity. These results strongly suggest that sialin possesses dual physiological functions and acts as a vesicular aspartate/glutamate transporter. It is possible that people with Salla disease lose aspartergic (and also the associated glutamatergic) neurotransmission, and this could provide an explanation for why Salla disease causes severe neurological defects. PMID:18695252

  12. Fourier optics on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakil, Ashkan; Engheta, Nader

    2012-02-01

    Using numerical simulations, here, we demonstrate that a single sheet of graphene with properly designed inhomogeneous, nonuniform conductivity distributions can act as a convex lens for focusing and collimating the transverse-magnetic (TM) surface plasmon polariton (SPP) surface waves propagating along the graphene. Consequently, we show that the graphene can act as a platform for obtaining spatial Fourier transform of infrared (IR) SPP signals. This may lead to rebirth of the field of Fourier optics on a 1-atom-thick structure.

  13. Steerable Discrete Fourier Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fracastoro, Giulia; Magli, Enrico

    2017-03-01

    Directional transforms have recently raised a lot of interest thanks to their numerous applications in signal compression and analysis. In this letter, we introduce a generalization of the discrete Fourier transform, called steerable DFT (SDFT). Since the DFT is used in numerous fields, it may be of interest in a wide range of applications. Moreover, we also show that the SDFT is highly related to other well-known transforms, such as the Fourier sine and cosine transforms and the Hilbert transforms.

  14. Generalized fiber Fourier optics.

    PubMed

    Cincotti, Gabriella

    2011-06-15

    A twofold generalization of the optical schemes that perform the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is given: new passive planar architectures are presented where the 2 × 2 3 dB couplers are replaced by M × M hybrids, reducing the number of required connections and phase shifters. Furthermore, the planar implementation of the discrete fractional Fourier transform (DFrFT) is also described, with a waveguide grating router (WGR) configuration and a properly modified slab coupler.

  15. Proteinases of the cornea and preocular tear film.

    PubMed

    Ollivier, F J; Gilger, B C; Barrie, K P; Kallberg, M E; Plummer, C E; O'Reilly, S; Gelatt, K N; Brooks, D E

    2007-01-01

    Maintenance and repair of corneal stromal extracellular matrix (ECM) requires a tightly coordinated balance of ECM synthesis, degradation and remodeling in which proteolytic enzymes (proteinases) perform important functions. There are natural proteinase inhibitors present in preocular tear film (PTF) and cornea simultaneously with proteinases that prevent excessive degradation of normal healthy tissue. Disorders occur when there is an imbalance between proteinases and proteinase inhibitors in favor of the proteinases, causing pathologic degradation of stromal collagen and proteoglycans in the cornea. Two matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-2 and MMP-9, are of major importance in terms of remodeling and degradation of the corneal stromal collagen. Immunohistochemical studies have shown different origins of MMP-2 and -9. MMP-2 is synthesized by corneal keratocytes and performs a surveillance function in the normal cornea, becoming locally activated to degrade collagen molecules that occasionally become damaged. Alternatively, MMP-9 may be produced by epithelial cells and polymorphonuclear neutrophils following corneal wounding. Because the cornea is in close contact with the preocular tear film (PTF), proteinases have been evaluated in the PTF. In damaged corneas, total proteolytic activity in the tear fluid was found to be significantly increased compared to normal eyes and contralateral eyes. Studies analyzing the proteolytic activity in serial PTF samples during corneal healing led to the following conclusions: ulcerative keratitis in animals is associated with initially high levels of tear film proteolytic activity, which decrease as ulcers heal; proteinase levels in melting ulcers remain elevated leading to rapid progression of the ulcers. The success of medical and surgical treatment of the corneal ulcers is reflected by the proteolytic activity in tears. In animals, successful treatment leads to a rapid reduction in tear film proteolytic activity that

  16. Developing novel anthelmintics from plant cysteine proteinases

    PubMed Central

    Behnke, Jerzy M; Buttle, David J; Stepek, Gillian; Lowe, Ann; Duce, Ian R

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal helminth infections of livestock and humans are predominantly controlled by treatment with three classes of synthetic drugs, but some livestock nematodes have now developed resistance to all three classes and there are signs that human hookworms are becoming less responsive to the two classes (benzimidazoles and the nicotinic acetylcholine agonists) that are licensed for treatment of humans. New anthelmintics are urgently needed, and whilst development of new synthetic drugs is ongoing, it is slow and there are no signs yet that novel compounds operating through different modes of action, will be available on the market in the current decade. The development of naturally-occurring compounds as medicines for human use and for treatment of animals is fraught with problems. In this paper we review the current status of cysteine proteinases from fruits and protective plant latices as novel anthelmintics, we consider some of the problems inherent in taking laboratory findings and those derived from folk-medicine to the market and we suggest that there is a wealth of new compounds still to be discovered that could be harvested to benefit humans and livestock. PMID:18761736

  17. Adult Schistosoma mansoni express cathepsin L proteinase activity.

    PubMed

    Smith, A M; Dalton, J P; Clough, K A; Kilbane, C L; Harrop, S A; Hole, N; Brindley, P J

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the deduced amino acid sequence of a novel cathepsin L proteinase from Schistosoma mansoni, and describes cathepsin L-like activity in extracts of adult schistosomes. Using consensus primers specific for cysteine proteinases, gene fragments were amplified from adult S. mansoni cDNA by PCR and cloned. One of these fragments showed marked identity to Sm31, the cathepsin B cysteine proteinase of adult S. mansoni, whereas another differed from Sm31 and was employed as a probe to isolate two cDNAs from an adult S. mansoni gene library. Together these cDNAs encoded a novel preprocathepsin L of 319 amino acids; this zymogen is predicted to be processed in vivo into a mature, active cathepsin L proteinase of 215 amino acids. Closest homologies were with cathepsins L from rat, mouse, and chicken (46-47% identity). Southern hybridization analysis suggested that only one or a few copies of the gene was present per genome, demonstrated that its locus was distinct from that of Sm31, and that a homologous sequence was present in Schistosoma japonicum. Because these results indicated that schistosomes expressed a cathepsin L proteinase, extracts of adult S. mansoni were examined for acidic, cysteine proteinase activity. Based on rates of cleavage of peptidyl substrates employed to discriminate between classes of cysteine proteinases, namely cathepsin L (Z-phe-arg-AMC), cathepsin B (Z-arg-arg-AMC) and cathepsin H (Bz-arg-AMC), the extracts were found to contain vigorous cathepsin L-like activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Proteinase activity and stability of natural bromelain preparations.

    PubMed

    Hale, Laura P; Greer, Paula K; Trinh, Chau T; James, Cindy L

    2005-04-01

    Bromelain is a complex mixture of proteinases typically derived from pineapple stem. Similar proteinases are also present in pineapple fruit. Beneficial therapeutic effects of bromelain have been suggested or proven in several human inflammatory diseases and animal models of inflammation, including arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. However, it is not clear how each of the proteinases within bromelain contributes to its anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. Previous in vivo studies using bromelain have been limited by the lack of assays to control for potential differences in the composition and proteolytic activity of this naturally derived proteinase mixture. In this study, we present model substrate assays and assays for cleavage of bromelain-sensitive cell surface molecules can be used to assess the activity of constituent proteinases within bromelain without the need for biochemical separation of individual components. Commercially available chemical and nutraceutical preparations of bromelain contain predominately stem bromelain. In contrast, the proteinase activity of pineapple fruit reflects its composition of fruit bromelain>ananain approximately stem bromelain. Concentrated bromelain solutions (>50 mg/ml) are more resistant to spontaneous inactivation of their proteolytic activity than are dilute solutions, with the proteinase stability in the order of stem bromelain>fruit bromelain approximately ananain. The proteolytic activity of concentrated bromelain solutions remains relatively stable for at least 1 week at room temperature, with minimal inactivation by multiple freeze-thaw cycles or exposure to the digestive enzyme trypsin. The relative stability of concentrated versus dilute bromelain solutions to inactivation under physiologically relevant conditions suggests that delivery of bromelain as a concentrated bolus would be the preferred method to maximize its proteolytic activity in vivo.

  19. Caspase-1 (interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme) is inhibited by the human serpin analogue proteinase inhibitor 9.

    PubMed Central

    Annand, R R; Dahlen, J R; Sprecher, C A; De Dreu, P; Foster, D C; Mankovich, J A; Talanian, R V; Kisiel, W; Giegel, D A

    1999-01-01

    The regulation of caspases, cysteine proteinases that cleave their substrates after aspartic residues, is poorly understood, even though they are involved in tightly regulated cellular processes. The recently discovered serpin analogue proteinase inhibitor 9 (PI9) is unique among human serpin analogues in that it has an acidic residue in the putative specificity-determining position of the reactive-site loop. We measured the ability of PI9 to inhibit the amidolytic activity of several caspases. The hydrolysis of peptide substrates by caspase-1 (interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme), caspase-4 and caspase-8 is inhibited by PI9 in a time-dependent manner. The rate of reaction of caspase-1 with PI9, as well as the rate of substrate hydrolysis of the initial caspase-PI9 complex, shows a hyperbolic dependence on the concentration of PI9, indicative of a two-step kinetic mechanism for inhibition with an apparent second-order rate constant of 7x10(2) M(-1).s(-1). The hydrolysis of a tetrapeptide substrate by caspase-3 is not inhibited by PI9. The complexes of caspase-1 and caspase-4 with PI9 can be immunoprecipitated but no complex with caspase-3 can be detected. No complex can be immunoprecipitated if the active site of the caspase is blocked with a covalent inhibitor. These results show that PI9 is an inhibitor of caspase-1 and to a smaller extent caspase-4 and caspase-8, but not of the more distantly related caspase-3. PI9 is the first example of a human serpin analogue that inhibits members of this class of cysteine proteinases. PMID:10477277

  20. Systematic mutational analysis of the active-site threonine of HIV-1 proteinase: rethinking the "fireman's grip" hypothesis.

    PubMed Central

    Strisovsky, K.; Tessmer, U.; Langner, J.; Konvalinka, J.; Kräusslich, H. G.

    2000-01-01

    Aspartic proteinases share a conserved network of hydrogen bonds (termed "fireman's grip"), which involves the hydroxyl groups of two threonine residues in the active site Asp-Thr-Gly triplets (Thr26 in the case of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) PR). In the case of retroviral proteinases (PRs), which are active as symmetrical homodimers, these interactions occur at the dimer interface. For a systematic analysis of the "fireman's grip," Thr26 of HIV-1 PR was changed to either Ser, Cys, or Ala. The variant enzymes were tested for cleavage of HIV-1 derived peptide and polyprotein substrates. PR(T26S) and PR(T26C) showed similar or slightly reduced activity compared to wild-type HIV-1 PR, indicating that the sulfhydryl group of cysteine can substitute for the hydroxyl of the conserved threonine in this position. PR(T26A), which lacks the "fireman's grip" interaction, was virtually inactive and was monomeric in solution at conditions where wild-type PR exhibited a monomer-dimer equilibrium. All three mutations had little effect when introduced into only one chain of a linked dimer of HIV-1 PR. In this case, even changing both Thr residues to Ala yielded residual activity suggesting that the "fireman's grip" is not essential for activity but contributes significantly to dimer formation. Taken together, these results indicate that the "fireman's grip" is crucial for stabilization of the retroviral PR dimer and for overall stability of the enzyme. PMID:11045610

  1. The hydrothermal reaction kinetics of aspartic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Jenny S.; Seward, Terry M.

    2007-02-01

    Experimental data on the hydrothermal reaction kinetics of aspartic acid were acquired using a custom-built spectrophotometric reaction cell which permits in situ observation under hydrothermal conditions. The results of this study indicate that the reaction kinetics of dilute aspartic acid solutions are significantly different depending on the presence or absence of catalytic surfaces such as standard metal alloys. The spectroscopic data presented here represent the first direct observations, in situ and in real time, of an amino acid reacting in a hydrothermal solution. Quantitative kinetic information, including rate constants, concentration versus time profiles, and calculations of the individual component spectra, was obtained from the data using a chemometric approach based on factor analysis/principle component analysis which treats the rate expressions simultaneously as a system of differential algebraic equations (DAE) of index 1. Identification of the products was confirmed where possible by high pressure anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). The reaction kinetics of aspartic acid under hydrothermal conditions was observed to be highly complex, in contrast to previous studies which indicated almost exclusively deamination. At lower temperatures (120-170 °C), several different reaction pathways were observed, including decarboxylation and polymerization, and the catalytic effects of reactor surfaces on the aspartic acid system were clearly demonstrated. At higher temperatures (above 170 °C), aspartic acid exhibited highly complex behaviour, with evidence indicating that it can simultaneously dimerize and cyclize, deaminate (by up to two pathways), and decarboxylate (by up to two pathways). These higher temperature kinetics were not fully resolvable in a quantitative manner due to the complexity of the system and the constraints of UV spectroscopy. The results of this study provide strong evidence that the reaction

  2. The serine proteinase chain of human complement component C1s. Cyanogen bromide cleavage and N-terminal sequences of the fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, P E; Dunbar, B; Fothergill, J E

    1983-01-01

    Human complement component C1s was purified from fresh blood by conventional methods of precipitation and chromatography. The single-chain zymogen form was activated by treatment with C1r. Reduction and carboxymethylation then allowed the light chain and heavy chain to be separated on DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B in 8 M-urea. Liquid-phase sequencing of the light chain determined 50 residues from the N-terminus. CNBr-cleavage fragments of the light chain were separated by high-pressure liquid chromatography on gel-permeation and reverse-phase columns. N-Terminal sequencing of these fragments determined the order of a further 138 residues, giving a total of 188 residues or about 75% of the light chain. Seven of these eight sequences could be readily aligned with the amino acid sequences of other serine proteinases. The typical serine proteinase active-site residues are clearly conserved in C1s, and the specificity-related side chain of the substrate-binding pocket is aspartic acid, as in trypsin, consistent with the proteolytic action of C1s on C4 at an arginine residue. Somewhat surprisingly, when the C1s sequence is compared with that of complement subcomponent C1r, the percentage difference (59%) is approximately the same as that found between the other mammalian serine proteinases (56-71%). PMID:6362661

  3. Aspartate-bond isomerization affects the major conformations of synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Szendrei, G I; Fabian, H; Mantsch, H H; Lovas, S; Nyéki, O; Schön, I; Otvos, L

    1994-12-15

    The aspartic acid bond changes to an beta-aspartate bond frequently as a side-reaction during peptide synthesis and often as a post-translational modification of proteins. The formation of beta-asparate bonds is reported to play a major role not only in protein metabolism, activation and deactivation, but also in pathological processes such as deposition of the neuritic plaques of Alzheimer's disease. Recently, we reported how conformational changes following the aspartic-acid-bond isomerization may help the selective aggregation and retention of the amyloid beta peptide in affected brains (Fabian et al., 1994). In the current study we used circular dichroism, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and molecular modeling to characterize the general effect of the beta-aspartate-bond formation on the conformation of five sets of synthetic model peptides. Each of the non-modified, parent peptides has one of the major secondary structures as the dominant spectroscopically determined conformation: a type I beta turn, a type II beta turn, short segments of alpha or 3(10) helices, or extended beta strands. We found that both types of turn structures are stabilized by the aspartic acid-bond isomerization. The isomerization at a terminal position did not affect the helix propensity, but placing it in mid-chain broke both the helix and the beta-pleated sheet with the formation of reverse turns. The alteration of the geometry of the lowest energy reverse turn was also supported by molecular dynamics calculations. The tendency of the aspartic acid-bond isomerization to stabilize turns is very similar to the effect of incorporating sugars into synthetic peptides and suggests a common feature of these post-translational modifications in defining the secondary structure of protein fragments.

  4. A second hepatitis C virus-encoded proteinase.

    PubMed Central

    Grakoui, A; McCourt, D W; Wychowski, C; Feinstone, S M; Rice, C M

    1993-01-01

    Host and viral proteinases are believed to be required for the production of at least nine hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific polyprotein cleavage products. Although several cleavages appear to be catalyzed by host signal peptidase or the HCV NS3 serine proteinase, the enzyme responsible for cleavage at the 2/3 site has not been identified. In this report, we have defined the 2/3 cleavage site and obtained evidence which suggests that this cleavage is mediated by a second HCV-encoded proteinase, located between aa 827 and 1207. This region encompasses the C-terminal portion of the 23-kDa NS2 protein, the 2/3 cleavage site, and the serine proteinase domain of NS3. Efficient processing at the 2/3 site was observed in mammalian cells, Escherichia coli, and in plant or animal cell-free translation systems in the absence of microsomal membranes. Cleavage at the 2/3 site was abolished by alanine substitutions for NS2 residues His-952 or Cys-993 but was unaffected by several other substitution mutations, including those that inactivate NS3 serine proteinase function. Mutations abolishing cleavage at the 2/3 site did not block cleavage at other sites in the HCV polyprotein. Cotransfection experiments indicate that the 2/3 site can be cleaved in trans, which should facilitate purification and further characterization of this enzyme. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8248148

  5. A serine proteinase inhibitor from frog eggs with bacteriostatic activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Yaoping; Yu, Haining; Yang, Xinbo; Rees, Huw H; Liu, Jingze; Lai, Ren

    2008-01-01

    By Sephadex G-50 gel filtration, Resource Q anionic exchange and C4 reversed phase liquid high performance liquid chromatography, a proteinase inhibitor protein (Ranaserpin) was identified and purified from the eggs of the odour frog, Rana grahami. The protein displayed a single band adjacent to the molecular weight marker of 14.4 kDa analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The inhibitor protein homogeneity and its molecular weight were confirmed again by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis. The MALDI-TOF mass spectrum analysis gave this inhibitor protein an m/z of 14422.26 that was matched well with the result from SDS-PAGE. This protein is a serine proteinase inhibitor targeting multiple proteinases including trypsin, elastase, and subtilisin. Ranaserpin inhibited the proteolytic activities of trypsin, elastase, and subtilisin. It has an inhibitory constant (K(i)) of 6.2 x 10(-8) M, 2.7 x 10(-7) M and 2.2 x 10(-8) M for trypsin, elastase, and subtilisin, respectively. This serine proteinase inhibitor exhibited bacteriostatic effect on Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633). It was suggested that ranaserpin might act as a defensive role in resistance to invasion of pests or pathogens. This is the first report of serine proteinase inhibitor and its direct defensive role from amphibian eggs.

  6. Candida albicans Secreted Aspartyl Proteinases in Virulence and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Naglik, Julian R.; Challacombe, Stephen J.; Hube, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen of humans and has developed an extensive repertoire of putative virulence mechanisms that allows successful colonization and infection of the host under suitable predisposing conditions. Extracellular proteolytic activity plays a central role in Candida pathogenicity and is produced by a family of 10 secreted aspartyl proteinases (Sap proteins). Although the consequences of proteinase secretion during human infections is not precisely known, in vitro, animal, and human studies have implicated the proteinases in C. albicans virulence in one of the following seven ways: (i) correlation between Sap production in vitro and Candida virulence, (ii) degradation of human proteins and structural analysis in determining Sap substrate specificity, (iii) association of Sap production with other virulence processes of C. albicans, (iv) Sap protein production and Sap immune responses in animal and human infections, (v) SAP gene expression during Candida infections, (vi) modulation of C. albicans virulence by aspartyl proteinase inhibitors, and (vii) the use of SAP-disrupted mutants to analyze C. albicans virulence. Sap proteins fulfill a number of specialized functions during the infective process, which include the simple role of digesting molecules for nutrient acquisition, digesting or distorting host cell membranes to facilitate adhesion and tissue invasion, and digesting cells and molecules of the host immune system to avoid or resist antimicrobial attack by the host. We have critically discussed the data relevant to each of these seven criteria, with specific emphasis on how this proteinase family could contribute to Candida virulence and pathogenesis. PMID:12966142

  7. The amino acid sequence of the aspartate aminotransferase from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, V B; Maras, B; Barra, D; Doonan, S

    1991-01-01

    1. The single (cytosolic) aspartate aminotransferase was purified in high yield from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). 2. Amino-acid-sequence analysis was carried out by digestion of the protein with trypsin and with CNBr; some of the peptides produced were further subdigested with Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase or with pepsin. Peptides were sequenced by the dansyl-Edman method and/or by automated gas-phase methods. The amino acid sequence obtained was complete except for a probable gap of two residues as indicated by comparison with the structures of counterpart proteins in other species. 3. The N-terminus of the enzyme is blocked. Fast-atom-bombardment m.s. was used to identify the blocking group as an acetyl one. 4. Alignment of the sequence of the enzyme with those of vertebrate cytosolic and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferases and with the enzyme from Escherichia coli showed that about 25% of residues are conserved between these distantly related forms. 5. Experimental details and confirmatory data for the results presented here are given in a Supplementary Publication (SUP 50164, 25 pages) that has been deposited at the British Library Document Supply Centre, Boston Spa. Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7 BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1991) 273, 5. PMID:1859361

  8. Fourier plane imaging microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, Daniel Peralta, Luis Grave de; Alharbi, Nouf; Alhusain, Mdhaoui; Bernussi, Ayrton A.

    2014-09-14

    We show how the image of an unresolved photonic crystal can be reconstructed using a single Fourier plane (FP) image obtained with a second camera that was added to a traditional compound microscope. We discuss how Fourier plane imaging microscopy is an application of a remarkable property of the obtained FP images: they contain more information about the photonic crystals than the images recorded by the camera commonly placed at the real plane of the microscope. We argue that the experimental results support the hypothesis that surface waves, contributing to enhanced resolution abilities, were optically excited in the studied photonic crystals.

  9. Secreted fungal aspartic proteases: A review.

    PubMed

    Mandujano-González, Virginia; Villa-Tanaca, Lourdes; Anducho-Reyes, Miguel Angel; Mercado-Flores, Yuridia

    2016-01-01

    The aspartic proteases, also called aspartyl and aspartate proteases or acid proteases (E.C.3.4.23), belong to the endopeptidase family and are characterized by the conserved sequence Asp-Gly-Thr at the active site. These enzymes are found in a wide variety of microorganisms in which they perform important functions related to nutrition and pathogenesis. In addition, their high activity and stability at acid pH make them attractive for industrial application in the food industry; specifically, they are used as milk-coagulating agents in cheese production or serve to improve the taste of some foods. This review presents an analysis of the characteristics and properties of secreted microbial aspartic proteases and their potential for commercial application. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Production of proteinase on noncarbohydrate carbon sources by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Morihara, K

    1965-09-01

    Proteinase production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied in medium containing noncarbohydrate materials, especially various hydrocarbons, as the sole carbon source. On heavy oil, kerosene, n-paraffinic hydrocarbon of C(12), C(14), or C(16), and propylene glycol, the bacteria grew well and high protinase production was observed. However, production on paraffinic hydrocarbon differed remarkably with strains of varied origins. The elastase-positive strain, IFO 3455, showed abundant growth and high proteinase production on medium containing a paraffin of C(12), C(14), or C(16), whereas the elastase-negative strain, IFO 3080, showed little growth on the same medium. Neither elastase-positive nor elastase-negative strains, however, utilized n-paraffins of C(5) to C(10), or various aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and anthracene. The proteinases produced on the noncarbohydrate medium were identical with those produced in glucose medium.

  11. Effects of leupeptin on proteinase and germination of castor beans

    SciTech Connect

    Alpi, A.; Beevers, H.

    1981-10-01

    Leupeptin, tripeptide inhibitor of some proteinases, was shown previously to maintain the stability of several enzymes (isocitrate lyase, fumarase, and catalase) in crude extracts of castor bean endosperm. This reagent is now shown to inhibit the breakdown of water-soluble and crystalloid-storage proteins of the protein bodies isolated from castor beans by the SH-proteinase and it also inhibits the endopeptidase from mung beans. When suitably introduced into the endosperm of dry castor beans it strongly inhibits germination and seedling development. Application of leupeptin to endosperm halves removed from the seed prevents the normal development of enzymes concerned with gluconeogenesis from fat and drastically curtails sugar production. The results suggest that the SH-proteinase is intimately involved in the mobilization of storage proteins.

  12. [The HIV proteinase--a target for antiviral agents].

    PubMed

    Grinde, B; Jonassen, T O

    1996-10-10

    The enormous resources spent on developing inhibitors of the HIV proteinase is finally proving worth while. The FDA in the USA approved saquinavir (Invirase, Roche) for treatment of AIDS in December 1995, and the presumably even more useful inhibitors, ritonavir (Norvir, Abbott) and indinavir (Crixivan, Merck) in March 1996. The clinical trials indicate that these substances are more efficient antiviral agents than the well known reverse transcriptase inhibitors (e.g., AZT or ddC). In the present article, the function of the HIV proteinase will be discussed, as well as the drug design strategies leading to the success. We believe that the combination of biotechnology and computer modelling is a potent tool for designing drugs, and that these proteinase inhibitors not only signal optimism in the treatment of AIDS, but also a new era in the development of therapeutics.

  13. LARGE SCALE PURIFICATION OF PROTEINASES FROM CLOSTRIDIUM HISTOLYTICUM FILTRATES

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, David A.; Webster, Marion E.; Altieri, Patricia L.; Berman, Sanford; Lowenthal, Joseph P.; Gochenour, Raymond B.

    1961-01-01

    Conklin, David A. (Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D. C.), Marion E. Webster, Patricia L. Altieri, Sanford Berman, Joseph P. Lowenthal, and Raymond B. Gochenour. Large scale purification of proteinases from Clostridium histolyticum filtrates. J. Bacteriol. 82:589–594. 1961.—A method for the large scale preparation and partial purification of Clostridium histolyticum proteinases by fractional precipitation with ammonium sulfate is described. Conditions for adequate separation and purification of the δ-proteinase and the gelatinase were obtained. Collagenase, on the other hand, was found distributed in four to five fractions and little increase in purity was achieved as compared to the crude ammonium sulfate precipitates. PMID:13880849

  14. Effects of leupeptin on proteinase and germination of castor beans.

    PubMed

    Alpi, A; Beevers, H

    1981-10-01

    Leupeptin, a tripeptide inhibitor of some proteinases, was shown previously to maintain the stability of several enzymes (isocitrate lyase, fumarase, and catalase) in crude extracts of castor bean endosperm. This reagent is now shown to inhibit the breakdown of water-soluble and crystalloidstorage proteins of the protein bodies isolated from castor beans by the SH-proteinase and it also inhibits the endopeptidase from mung beans. When suitably introduced into the endosperm of dry castor beans it strongly inhibits germination and seedling development. Application of leupeptin to endosperm halves removed from the seed prevents the normal development of enzymes concerned with gluconeogenesis from fat and drastically curtails sugar production. The results suggest that the SH-proteinase is intimately involved in the mobilization of storage proteins.

  15. SufA--a novel subtilisin-like serine proteinase of Finegoldia magna.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Christofer; Andersson, Marie-Louise; Collin, Mattias; Schmidtchen, Artur; Björck, Lars; Frick, Inga-Maria

    2007-12-01

    Finegoldia magna is an anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium and commensal, which is also associated with clinically important conditions such as skin and soft tissue infections. This study describes a novel subtilisin-like extracellular serine proteinase of F. magna, denoted SufA (subtilase of Finegoldia magna), which is believed to be the first subtilase described among Gram-positive anaerobic cocci. SufA is associated with the bacterial cell surface, but is also released in substantial amounts during bacterial growth. Papain was used to release SufA from the surface of F. magna and the enzyme was purified by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. A protein band on SDS-PAGE corresponding to the dominating proteolytic activity on gelatin zymography was analysed by MS/MS. Based on the peptide sequences obtained, the sufA gene was sequenced. The gene comprises 3466 bp corresponding to a preprotein of 127 kDa. Like other members of the subtilase family, SufA contains the catalytic triad of aspartic acid, histidine and serine with surrounding conserved residues. A SufA homologue was identified in 33 of 34 investigated isolates of F. magna, as revealed by PCR and immunoprinting. The enzyme forms dimers, which are more proteolytically active than the monomeric protein. SufA was found to efficiently cleave and inactivate the antibacterial peptide LL-37 and the CXC chemokine MIG/CXCL9, indicating that the enzyme promotes F. magna survival and colonization.

  16. Optique de Fourier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellat-Finet, Pierre

    L'optique de Fourier doit son nom à l'emploi délibéré de la transformation de Fourier dans la représentation de phénomènes fondés sur la diffraction de la lumière1. Inscrite dans les limites d'une théorie scalaire, elle est, traditionnellement, liée à l'optique cohérente et les sujets développés dans ce livre se rattachent à ce thème. Le domaine et les applications ussuelles de l'optique de Fourier concernent la formation des images, la résolution des instruments d'optique, le traitement du signal optique, l'holographie, le transfert de la cohérence. Nous verrons comment y inclure la théorie des résonateurs optiques et celle des faisseaux gaussiens; celle de la dispersion dans les fibres optiques. L'optique de Fourier fournit ainsi un cadre général à la modélisation d'un grand nombre de phénomènes optiques2.

  17. Introduction to Fourier Optics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2007-01-01

    Much like a physical prism, which displays the frequency components of a light wave, Fourier analysis can be thought of as a mathematical prism that can tell us what harmonics or frequency components are contained in a recording of a sound wave. We wrote the MacScope II program so that the user could not only see a plot of the harmonic amplitudes…

  18. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Michael L.; Rempel, Don L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Fourier transform mass spectrometry and its unique combination of high mass resolution, high upper mass limit, and multichannel advantage. Examines its operation, capabilities and limitations, applications (ion storage, ion manipulation, ion chemistry), and future applications and developments. (JN)

  19. Introduction to Fourier Optics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2007-01-01

    Much like a physical prism, which displays the frequency components of a light wave, Fourier analysis can be thought of as a mathematical prism that can tell us what harmonics or frequency components are contained in a recording of a sound wave. We wrote the MacScope II program so that the user could not only see a plot of the harmonic amplitudes…

  20. Relationship of proteinases and proteinase inhibitors with microbial presence in chronic lung disease of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Davies, Philip L; Spiller, O Brad; Beeton, Michael L; Maxwell, Nicola C; Remold-O'Donnell, Eileen; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2010-03-01

    A proteolytic imbalance has been implicated in the development of "classical" chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD). However, in "new" CLD this pattern has changed. This study examines the longitudinal relationship between neutrophil proteinases and their inhibitors in ventilated preterm infants and their relationship to microbial colonisation. Serial bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was obtained from ventilated newborn preterm infants. Neutrophil elastase (NE) activity, cell counts, metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, MMP-9/TIMP-1 complex, SerpinB1 concentration and percentage of SerpinB1 and alpha(1)-antitrypsin (AAT) in complex with elastase were measured. The presence of microbial genes was examined using PCR for 16S rRNA genes. Statistically more infants who developed CLD had NE activity in at least one sample (10/20) compared with infants with resolved respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (2/17). However, NE activity was present in a minority of samples, occurring as episodic peaks. Peak levels of MMP-9, MMP-9/TIMP-1 complex, percentage of AAT and SerpinB1 in complex and cell counts were all statistically greater in infants developing CLD than in infants with resolved RDS. Peak values frequently occurred as episodic spikes and strong temporal relationships were noted between all markers. The peak values for all variables were significantly correlated to each other. The presence of bacterial 16S rRNA genes was associated with the development of CLD and with elevated elastase and MMP-9. NE activity and MMP-9 appear to be important in the development of "new" CLD with both proteinase and inhibitor concentrations increasing episodically, possibly in response to postnatal infection.

  1. Relationship of proteinases and proteinase inhibitors with microbial presence in chronic lung disease of prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Philip L; Beeton, Michael L; Maxwell, Nicola C; Remold-O'Donnell, Eileen; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2010-01-01

    Background A proteolytic imbalance has been implicated in the development of “classical” chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD). However, in “new” CLD this pattern has changed. This study examines the longitudinal relationship between neutrophil proteinases and their inhibitors in ventilated preterm infants and their relationship to microbial colonisation. Methods Serial bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was obtained from ventilated newborn preterm infants. Neutrophil elastase (NE) activity, cell counts, metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, MMP-9/TIMP-1 complex, SerpinB1 concentration and percentage of SerpinB1 and α1-antitrypsin (AAT) in complex with elastase were measured. The presence of microbial genes was examined using PCR for 16S rRNA genes. Results Statistically more infants who developed CLD had NE activity in at least one sample (10/20) compared with infants with resolved respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (2/17). However, NE activity was present in a minority of samples, occurring as episodic peaks. Peak levels of MMP-9, MMP-9/TIMP-1 complex, percentage of AAT and SerpinB1 in complex and cell counts were all statistically greater in infants developing CLD than in infants with resolved RDS. Peak values frequently occurred as episodic spikes and strong temporal relationships were noted between all markers. The peak values for all variables were significantly correlated to each other. The presence of bacterial 16S rRNA genes was associated with the development of CLD and with elevated elastase and MMP-9. Conclusion NE activity and MMP-9 appear to be important in the development of “new” CLD with both proteinase and inhibitor concentrations increasing episodically, possibly in response to postnatal infection. PMID:20335295

  2. [Isolation of a specific inhibitor of microbial serine proteinase from kidney bean seeds].

    PubMed

    Mosolov, V V; Malova, E L; Cheban, A N

    1983-10-01

    A protein acting as a specific inhibitor of microbial serine proteinases was isolated from kidney bean seeds. The purification procedure included complex formation between the inhibitor and Aspergillus oryzae proteinase. The protein with a Mr approximately 10 000 inhibits subtilisin and Asp. oryzae proteinase but does not affect trypsin and chymotrypsin. The inhibitor molecule contains no half-cystine residues.

  3. Phase diagram of crystallization of Aspergillus niger acid proteinase A, a non-pepsin-type acid proteinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Norio; Ataka, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Tomonari; Katsura, Tatsuo; Tanokura, Masaru

    1996-10-01

    Proteinase A from Aspergillus niger var. macrosporus is a non-pepsin-type acid proteinase with an extremely low isoelectric point (pI 3.3). The protein is crystallized from ammonium sulfate solutions of pH lower than 4. The crystallization is affected by the presence of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). We have studied the phase diagram of the crystallization of proteinase A in the absence and presence of DMSO, to clarify crystallization at such an extremely low pH and to study the effects of DMSO. The results indicate that the logarithm of protein solubility is a rectilinear function of ammonium sulfate concentration in both the absence and presence of DMSO. DMSO definitely lowers the solubility at relatively low concentrations of ammonium sulfate, but had little effect on protein solubility at higher concentrations of ammonium sulfate.

  4. Proteinases and Oxidants as Targets in the Treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Caroline A.

    2005-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that proteinases and oxidative stress play pathogenetic roles in the following pathologies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: airspace enlargement; chronic inflammation in the airways, lung interstitium, and alveolar space; and mucus hypersecretion in the large airways. Proteinases and oxidants may also contribute to remodeling processes in the small airways. In addition, data are emerging that show interactions between classes of proteinases and between proteinases and oxidants, which amplify lung inflammation and injury in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This review discusses the biologic roles of proteinases and oxidants, their roles in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and their potential as targets for therapy. PMID:16267366

  5. Studies on Proteinases from Some Blood-Sucking Insects,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ovinus, and Pediculus humanus, but not in those of Cimex lectularius or Rhodnius prolixus. The trypsin and chymotrypsin have been partially... Cimex and Rhodnius appear to have a high molecular weight proteinase with optimal activity at pH 5 in their midguts. (Author)

  6. Phospholipase and proteinase activities of Candida isolates from denture wearers.

    PubMed

    Marcos-Arias, Cristina; Eraso, Elena; Madariaga, Lucila; Aguirre, Jose Manuel; Quindós, Guillermo

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterise phospholipase and proteinase activities of oral Candida isolates from 100 denture wearers and to study the relationship of these activities with denture stomatitis. Of 100 patients studied, 44 suffered from denture stomatitis. Specimens were collected by swabbing the denture and underlying mucosa. Isolates were previously identified by conventional mycological and genotypic methods. The phospholipase and proteinase activities were evaluated by agar plate methods. A total of 152 isolates were recovered from denture and underlying mucosa, including 101 Candida albicans, 18 Candida tropicalis, 14 Candida glabrata, 11 Candida guilliermondii, four Candida parapsilosis, two Saccharomyces cerevisiae and one isolate each of Candida dubliniensis and Candida krusei. Most C. albicans (97%) showed phospholipase activity; furthermore, the unique C. dubliniensis isolate showed a moderate phospholipase activity. The isolation of C. albicans (chi-square test, P = 0.0016) and phospholipase production by Candida spp. (chi-square test, P = 0.0213) was found to be significantly associated with denture stomatitis. Proteinase production was observed in <30% of isolates, and it was not related to the presence of denture stomatitis (P = 0.7675). Candida albicans isolates may produce both virulence factors, although the proteinase production was only observed in <30% of the isolates. Phospholipase production was exclusive of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis.

  7. Purification and characterization of major extracellular proteinases from Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed Central

    Asahi, M; Lindquist, R; Fukuyama, K; Apodaca, G; Epstein, W L; McKerrow, J H

    1985-01-01

    Two extracellular proteinases that probably play a central role in the metabolism and pathogenesis of the most common dermatophyte of man, Trichophyton rubrum, were purified to homogeneity. Size-exclusion chromatography and Chromatofocusing were used to purify the major proteinases 42-fold from crude fungal culture filtrate. The major enzyme has pI 7.8 and subunit Mr 44 000, but forms a dimer of Mr approx. 90 000 in the absence of reducing agents. A second enzyme with pI 6.5 and subunit Mr 36 000, was also purified. It is very similar in substrate specificity to the major enzyme but has lower specific activity, and may be an autoproteolysis product. The major proteinase has pH optimum 8, a Ca2+-dependence maximum of 1 mM, and was inhibited by serine-proteinase inhibitors, especially tetrapeptidyl chloromethane derivatives with hydrophobic residues at the P-1 site. Kinetic studies also showed that tetrapeptides containing aromatic or hydrophobic residues at P-1 were the best substrates. A kcat./Km of 27 000 M-1 X S-1 was calculated for the peptide 3-carboxypropionyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide. The enzyme has significant activity against keratin, elastin and denatured type I collagen (Azocoll). Images Fig. 1. PMID:3910025

  8. Fast increase of proteinase inhibitors in necrotic collagenous tissue.

    PubMed

    Oehmichen, M

    1989-01-01

    Using the PAP immunohistochemical technique, accumulation of two proteinase inhibitors, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin and alpha-2-macroglobulin, can be detected at the edges of collagenous fibers in the corium after slash wounds of the skin. This accumulation was observed within a survival time of 10-30 min. It, however, is not detectable in postmortally inflicted trauma.

  9. Serine proteinases from barley malt may degrade beta-amylase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Barley seed proteinases are critically important to seed germination and malting in that they generate amino acids from seed N reserves, supporting embryo growth during germination and yeast fermentation during brewing. However, relatively little is known regarding the endogenous protein substrate ...

  10. Proteinase Inhibitor I Accumulation in Tomato Suspension Cultures 1

    PubMed Central

    Walker-Simmons, Mary; Ryan, Clarence A.

    1986-01-01

    Suspension-cultured cells of tomato accumulate proteinase Inhibitor I as the sucrose is depleted from 1% to less than 0.1% in the culture medium. Inhibitor I can be prematurely induced to accumulate in the cells by the addition to the medium of the proteinase inhibitor inducing factor, trigalacturonic acid, ethylene glycol chitin, or chitosan. In cultures grown in 0.6% initial sucrose with no inducers added, a uronic acid-rich extracellular polysaccharide appears in the medium during growth of the cells. This extracellular polysaccharide apparently contains an `endogenous inducer' of Inhibitor I synthesis. When the partially purified polysaccharide is added to the culture medium, Inhibitor I accumulation is induced. Proteinase inhibitors also accumulate in tobacco and alfalfa suspension-cultured cells as the cell cultures age. As with the tomato cultures, a uronic acid-rich component(s) appears in the media prior to inhibitor accumulation. These data suggest that an endogenous inducer may be activating proteinase inhibitor genes through a similar mechanism in all three types of cells. PMID:16664609

  11. Gas-phase acidities of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and their amino acid amides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhong; Matus, Myrna H.; Velazquez, Hector Adam; Dixon, David A.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2007-09-01

    Gas-phase acidities (GA or [Delta]Gacid) for the two most acidic common amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have been determined for the first time. Because of the amide linkage's importance in peptides and as an aid in studying side chain versus main chain deprotonation, aspartic acid amide and glutamic acid amide were also studied. Experimental GA values were measured by proton transfer reactions in an electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Calculated GAs were obtained by density functional and molecular orbital theory approaches. The best agreement with experiment was found at the G3MP2 level; the MP2/CBS and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ results are 3-4 kcal/mol more acidic than the G3MP2 results. Experiment shows that aspartic acid is more acidic than glutamic acid by ca. 3 kcal/mol whereas the G3MP2 results show a smaller acidity difference of 0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, aspartic acid amide is experimentally observed to be ca. 2 kcal/mol more acidic than glutamic acid amide whereas the G3MP2 results show a correspondingly smaller energy difference of 0.7 kcal/mol. The computational results clearly show that the anions are all ring-like structures with strong hydrogen bonds between the OH or NH2 groups and the CO2- group from which the proton is removed. The two amino acids are main-chain deprotonated. In addition, use of the COSMO model for the prediction of the free energy differences in aqueous solution gave values in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental values for pKa. Glutamic acid is predicted to be more acidic than aspartic acid in aqueous solution due to differential solvation effects.

  12. Propeptide-Mediated Inhibition of Cognate Gingipain Proteinases

    PubMed Central

    Huq, N. Laila; Seers, Christine A.; Toh, Elena C. Y.; Dashper, Stuart G.; Slakeski, Nada; Zhang, Lianyi; Ward, Brent R.; Meuric, Vincent; Chen, Dina; Cross, Keith J.; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2013-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen associated with chronic periodontitis. The organism’s cell-surface cysteine proteinases, the Arg-specific proteinases (RgpA, RgpB) and the Lys-specific proteinase (Kgp), which are known as gingipains have been implicated as major virulence factors. All three gingipain precursors contain a propeptide of around 200 amino acids in length that is removed during maturation. The aim of this study was to characterize the inhibitory potential of the Kgp and RgpB propeptides against the mature cognate enzymes. Mature Kgp was obtained from P. gingivalis mutant ECR368, which produces a recombinant Kgp with an ABM1 motif deleted from the catalytic domain (rKgp) that enables the otherwise membrane bound enzyme to dissociate from adhesins and be released. Mature RgpB was obtained from P. gingivalis HG66. Recombinant propeptides of Kgp and RgpB were produced in Escherichia coli and purified using nickel-affinity chromatography. The Kgp and RgpB propeptides displayed non-competitive inhibition kinetics with Ki values of 2.04 µM and 12 nM, respectively. Both propeptides exhibited selectivity towards their cognate proteinase. The specificity of both propeptides was demonstrated by their inability to inhibit caspase-3, a closely related cysteine protease, and papain that also has a relatively long propeptide. Both propeptides at 100 mg/L caused a 50% reduction of P. gingivalis growth in a protein-based medium. In summary, this study demonstrates that gingipain propeptides are capable of inhibiting their mature cognate proteinases. PMID:23762374

  13. Interaction of difluoro-oxaloacetate with aspartate transaminase.

    PubMed Central

    Briley, P A; Eisenthal, R; Harrison, R; Smith, G D

    1977-01-01

    Diffluoro-oxaloacetate behaves as a competitive inhibitor of 2-oxoglutarate and as an uncompetitive inhibitor with respect to aspartate in steady-state kinetic experiments with cytoplasmic aspartate transaminase. In the presence of high concentrations of aspartate transaminase, difluoro-oxaloacetate is slowly transaminated to difluoro-aspartate, suggesting its use as a kinetic probe to study the reactions of the aminic form of the enzyme. PMID:849267

  14. Digestive proteinases of yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) larvae: purification and characterization of a trypsin-like proteinase.

    PubMed

    Tsybina, T A; Dunaevsky, Y E; Belozersky, M A; Zhuzhikov, D P; Oppert, B; Elpidina, E N

    2005-03-01

    A new trypsin-like proteinase was purified to homogeneity from the posterior midgut of Tenebrio molitor larvae by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and gel filtration on Superdex-75. The isolated enzyme had molecular mass of 25.5 kD and pI 7.4. The enzyme was also characterized by temperature optimum at 55 degrees C, pH optimum at 8.5, and K(m) value of 0.04 mM (for hydrolysis of Bz-Arg-pNA). According to inhibitor analysis the enzyme is a trypsin-like serine proteinase stable within the pH range of 5.0-9.5. The enzyme hydrolyzes peptide bonds formed by Arg or Lys residues in the P1 position with a preference for relatively long peptide substrates. The N-terminal amino acid sequence, IVGGSSISISSVPXQIXLQY, shares 50-72% identity with other insect trypsin-like proteinases, and 44-50% identity to mammalian trypsins. The isolated enzyme is sensitive to inhibition by plant proteinase inhibitors and it can serve as a suitable target for control of digestion in this stored product pest.

  15. Similarities between cysteinesulphinate transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase.

    PubMed

    Recasens, M; Mandel, P

    1979-01-01

    A method for the purification of two cysteinesulphinate transaminases, A and B (EC 2.6.1), is described. These enzymes catalyse the conversion of cysteinesulphinic acid to beta-sulphinyl pyruvate. The final preparations are homogeneous by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectrofocusing. The molecular weight of the subunits is 41 000 for cysteinesulphinate transaminase A and 43 400 for B. Both enzymes are unspecific, as L-asparate, L-glutamate and L-cysteic acid serve as substrates in addition to L-cysteinesulphinic acid. Cysteinesulphinate transaminase A has a Km of 9.8 mM for cysteinesulphinic acid and 0.25 mM for aspartic acid, whereas the B enzyme has a Km of 6.5 mM for cysteinesulphinic acid and 1.4 mM for aspartic acid. The Vmax values of the A and B enzymes are respectively 7.1 and 6.2 mmol h-1 mg-1 protein for aspartic acid and 45 and 9.3 mmol h-1 mg-1 protein for cysteinesulphinic acid. Both enzymes exhibit maximum activity at pH 8.6. A high specific activity is found in optimal conditions for these two transaminases, the pI values being 9.06 and 5.70 for cysteinesulphinate transaminase A and B respectively. These results have been compared with those already obtained for purified aspartate aminotransferase. Similarities in the pathways of taurine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism are discussed.

  16. Fourier Domain Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldkhun, Daniel (Inventor); Wagner, Kelvin H. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and systems are disclosed of sensing an object. A first radiation is spatially modulated to generate a structured second radiation. The object is illuminated with the structured second radiation such that the object produces a third radiation in response. Apart from any spatially dependent delay, a time variation of the third radiation is spatially independent. With a single-element detector, a portion of the third radiation is detected from locations on the object simultaneously. At least one characteristic of a sinusoidal spatial Fourier-transform component of the object is estimated from a time-varying signal from the detected portion of the third radiation.

  17. Fourier multispectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jie; Ni, Chuan; Sarangan, Andrew; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2015-08-24

    Current multispectral imaging systems use narrowband filters to capture the spectral content of a scene, which necessitates different filters to be designed for each application. In this paper, we demonstrate the concept of Fourier multispectral imaging which uses filters with sinusoidally varying transmittance. We designed and built these filters employing a single-cavity resonance, and made spectral measurements with a multispectral LED array. The measurements show that spectral features such as transmission and absorption peaks are preserved with this technique, which makes it a versatile technique than narrowband filters for a wide range of multispectral imaging applications.

  18. Astronomical Fourier spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Connes, P; Michel, G

    1975-09-01

    A high resolution near ir Fourier spectrometer with the same general design as previously described laboratory instruments has been built for astronomical observations at a coudé focus. Present spectral range is 0.8-3.5 microm with PbS and Ge detectors and maximum path difference 1 m. The servo system can accommodate various recording modes: stepping or continuous scan, path difference modulation, sky chopping. A real time computer is incorporated into the system, which has been set up at the Hale 500-cm telescope on Mount Palomar. Samples of the results are given.

  19. Immunodetection of thiol proteinase levels in various populations of Artemia cysts and during development.

    PubMed

    Lu, J; Warner, A H

    1991-01-01

    An immunodetection assay on Western blots has been used to determine the thiol proteinase content and composition in cysts from 12 populations of the brine shrimp Artemia. Our results showed no differences in the subunit composition of the thiol proteinase among cysts from eight bisexual strains and four parthenogenic strains, and confirmed an earlier finding that the proteinase is composed of two subunits of 25.9 and 31.5 kilodaltons. In contrast, we found that Artemia cysts from parthenogenic strains contain 17.1 ng/cyst of the thiol proteinase, while cysts from bisexual strains contain 8.2 ng/cyst of the thiol proteinase. Also, there was a good linear correlation (r = 0.863; p less than 0.001) between the thiol proteinase content and cyst mass. Embryo fractionation experiments showed that 82% of the thiol proteinase was in the cytosol, while 14 and 4%, respectively, were in the nuclei/yolk platelets and mitochondria/lysosome fractions. Measurements of the thiol proteinase content of developing Artemia embryos showed that the proteinase content was relatively constant during early development, suggesting that the activity of the thiol proteinase gene(s) may be constitutive and not developmentally regulated in Artemia embryos.

  20. Fourier plane image amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, L.A.; Hermann, M.R.; Dane, C.B.; Tiszauer, D.H.

    1995-12-12

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 {micro}m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only about 1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power. 1 fig.

  1. Fast Fourier transform telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2009-04-15

    We propose an all-digital telescope for 21 cm tomography, which combines key advantages of both single dishes and interferometers. The electric field is digitized by antennas on a rectangular grid, after which a series of fast Fourier transforms recovers simultaneous multifrequency images of up to half the sky. Thanks to Moore's law, the bandwidth up to which this is feasible has now reached about 1 GHz, and will likely continue doubling every couple of years. The main advantages over a single dish telescope are cost and orders of magnitude larger field-of-view, translating into dramatically better sensitivity for large-area surveys. The key advantages over traditional interferometers are cost (the correlator computational cost for an N-element array scales as Nlog{sub 2}N rather than N{sup 2}) and a compact synthesized beam. We argue that 21 cm tomography could be an ideal first application of a very large fast Fourier transform telescope, which would provide both massive sensitivity improvements per dollar and mitigate the off-beam point source foreground problem with its clean beam. Another potentially interesting application is cosmic microwave background polarization.

  2. Fourier plane image amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Dane, C. Brent; Tiszauer, Detlev H.

    1995-01-01

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 .mu.m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only .about.1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power.

  3. Caprine plasma proteinase inhibitors--II. Genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Vankan, D M; Bell, K

    1993-01-01

    1. Analysis of the inheritances of the variants of five caprine plasma proteinase inhibitor systems in families demonstrated a genetic control of codominant alleles at five loci. 2. The PIA, B, C, D and E proteins are controlled by four (PIA1,2,3,4), three (PIB1,4,0), three (PIC2,3,0), five (PID1,2,3,4,0) and two (PIE1,2) alleles respectively. Null alleles were postulated for the PIB, PIC and PID systems. 3. The frequencies of the alleles differed substantially between the Australian and Texan Angoras and Cashmere breeds of goats. 4. The combined exclusion probability for the five PI systems was as high as 0.82 in the Cashmere breed, indicating the potential of the proteinase inhibitor proteins for parentage control purposes.

  4. Ozone inactivation of human alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.A.

    1980-06-01

    Ozone decreased the trypsin, chymotrypsin, and elastase inhibitory activities of human alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor both in plasma and in solutions of the pure inhibitor. The total loss of porcine elastase inhibitory activity required 18 mol of ozone/mol of pure alpha 1-PI and approximately 850 mol of ozone/mol of alpha 1-PI in plasma. A corresponding loss of the ability to inhibit human leukocyte elastase was observed. Inactivated alpha 1-PI contains four residues of methionine sulfoxide, in addition to oxidized tryosine and tryptophan. Electrophoretic analysis demonstrated that the ozone-inactivated alpha 1-PI did not form normal complexes with serine proteinases. These findings suggest that the inhalation of ozone could inactivate alpha 1-PI on the airspace side of the lung to create a localized alpha 1-PI deficiency, which might contribute to the development of emphysema.

  5. Wound-induced Proteinase Inhibitor in Tomato Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Green, T. R.; Ryan, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    Wounding of single leaflets of young tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum var. Bonnie Best) plants causes the release of a proteinase inhibitor inducing factor. This factor is rapidly transported throughout the plant where it causes accumulation of inhibitor I, a potent inhibitor of several serine proteinases from both animals and microorganisms. The wound-induced accumulation of inhibitor I is both light- and temperature-dependent. In total darkness no accumulation results from wounding. The accumulation exhibits a linear dependence upon light up to 300 foot candles. At 600 foot candles and above, the response is maximal. In light the wound response possesses an unusual temperature dependence with an optimum rate of accumulation near 36 C. Below 20 C no accumulation occurs. The over-all process contains two light- and temperature-dependent steps, one involving wounding and transport, the other involving accumulation. PMID:16658283

  6. CP30, a Cysteine Proteinase Involved in Trichomonas vaginalis Cytoadherence

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-López, M. Remedios; Becerril-Garcia, Cecilia; Fattel-Facenda, Loriz V.; Avila-Gonzalez, Leticia; Ruíz-Tachiquín, Martha E.; Ortega-Lopez, Jaime; Arroyo, Rossana

    2000-01-01

    We describe here the participation of a Trichomonas vaginalis 30-kDa proteinase (CP30) with affinity to the HeLa cell surface in attachment of this parasite to host epithelial cells. The CP30 band is a cysteine proteinase because its activity was inhibited by E-64, a thiol proteinase inhibitor. In two-dimensional substrate gel electrophoresis of total extracts of the trichomonad isolate CNCD 147, three spots with proteolytic activity were detected in the 30-kDa region, in the pI range from 4.5 to 5.5. Two of the spots (pI 4.5 and 5.0) bound to the surfaces of fixed HeLa cells corresponding to the CP30 band. The immunoglobulin G fraction of the rabbit anti-CP30 antiserum that recognized a 30-kDa band by Western blotting and immunoprecipitated CP30 specifically inhibited trichomonal cytoadherence to HeLa cell monolayers in a concentration-dependent manner and reacted with CP30 at the parasite surface. CP30 degraded proteins found on the female urogenital tract, including fibronectin, collagen IV, and hemoglobin. Interestingly, CP30 digested fibronectin and collagen IV only at pH levels between 4.5 and 5.0. Moreover, trichomonosis patients whose diagnosis was confirmed by in vitro culture possessed antibody to CP30 in both sera and vaginal washes, and CP30 activity was found in vaginal washes. Our results suggest that surface CP30 is a cysteine proteinase necessary for trichomonal adherence to human epithelial cells. PMID:10948104

  7. Dental Enamel Development: Proteinases and Their Enamel Matrix Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, John D.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on recent discoveries and delves in detail about what is known about each of the proteins (amelogenin, ameloblastin, and enamelin) and proteinases (matrix metalloproteinase-20 and kallikrein-related peptidase-4) that are secreted into the enamel matrix. After an overview of enamel development, this review focuses on these enamel proteins by describing their nomenclature, tissue expression, functions, proteinase activation, and proteinase substrate specificity. These proteins and their respective null mice and human mutations are also evaluated to shed light on the mechanisms that cause nonsyndromic enamel malformations termed amelogenesis imperfecta. Pertinent controversies are addressed. For example, do any of these proteins have a critical function in addition to their role in enamel development? Does amelogenin initiate crystallite growth, does it inhibit crystallite growth in width and thickness, or does it do neither? Detailed examination of the null mouse literature provides unmistakable clues and/or answers to these questions, and this data is thoroughly analyzed. Striking conclusions from this analysis reveal that widely held paradigms of enamel formation are inadequate. The final section of this review weaves the recent data into a plausible new mechanism by which these enamel matrix proteins support and promote enamel development. PMID:24159389

  8. Biochemical characterization of Acacia schweinfurthii serine proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Odei-Addo, Frank; Frost, Carminita; Smith, Nanette; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Muramoto, Koji; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela; Gráf, László; Naude, Ryno

    2014-10-01

    One of the many control mechanisms of serine proteinases is their specific inhibition by protein proteinase inhibitors. An extract of Acacia schweinfurthii was screened for potential serine proteinase inhibition. It was successfully purified to homogeneity by precipitating with 80% (v/v) acetone and sequential chromatographic steps, including ion-exchange, affinity purification and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Reducing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis conditions revealed an inhibitor (ASTI) consisting of two polypeptide chains A and B of approximate molecular weights of 16 and 10 kDa, respectively, and under non-reducing conditions, 26 kDa was observed. The inhibitor was shown to inhibit bovine trypsin (Ki of 3.45 nM) at an approximate molar ratio of inhibitor:trypsin (1:1). The A- and B-chains revealed complete sequences of 140 and 40 amino acid residues, respectively. Sequence similarity (70%) was reported between ASTI A-chain and ACTI A-chain (Acacia confusa) using ClustalW. The B-chain produced a 76% sequence similarity between ASTI and Leucaena leucocephala trypsin inhibitor.

  9. Astronomical Fourier spectropolarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, F. F.; Fymat, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    Spectra of the Stokes polarization parameters of Venus (resolution 0.5 per cm) are presented. They were obtained at the Cassegrain focus of the 154-cm telescope of the National Mexican Observatory, Baja California, Mexico, July 12 and 13, 1972, with the Fourier Interferometer Polarimeter (FIP). A preliminary, limited analysis of four spectral features and of the CO2 rotational band structures at 6080 and 6200 per cm has demonstrated that spectral polarization is indeed present. These experimental results, confirmed by two series of observations, provide substantiation for this theoretically predicted phenomenon. They also tend to show that the FIP represents a novel astronomical tool for variable spectral resolution studies of both the intensity and the state of polarization of astronomical light sources.

  10. Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.; Carter, M.R.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.

    1993-04-14

    The operating principles of an Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of such instruments with respect to alternative imaging spectrometers are discussed. The primary advantages of the IFTS are the capacity to acquire more than an order of magnitude more spectral channels than alternative systems with more than an order of magnitude greater etendue than for alternative systems. The primary disadvantage of IFTS, or FTS in general, is the sensitivity to temporal fluctuations, either random or periodic. Data from the IRIFTS (ir IFTS) prototype instrument, sensitive in the infrared, are presented having a spectral sensitivity of 0.01 absorbance units, a spectral resolution of 6 cm{sup {minus}1} over the range 0 to 7899 cm{sup {minus}1}, and a spatial resolution of 2.5 mr.

  11. Digital Fourier optics.

    PubMed

    Ozaktas, H M; Miller, D A

    1996-03-10

    Analog Fourier optical processing systems can perform important classes of signal processing operations in parallel, but suffer from limited accuracy. Digital-optical equivalents of such systems could be built that share many features of the analog systems while allowing greater accuracy. We show that the digital equivalent of any system consisting of an arbitrary number of lenses, niters, spatial light modulators, and sections of free space can be constructed. There are many possible applications for such systems as well as many alternative technologies for constructing them; this paper stresses the potential of free-space interconnected active-device-plane-based optoelectronic architectures as a digital signal processing environment. Implementation of the active-device planes through hybridization of optoelectronic components with silicon electronics should allow the realization of systems whose performance exceeds that of purely electronic systems.

  12. A Sagnac Fourier spectrometer

    DOE PAGES

    Lenzner, Matthias; Diels, Jean -Claude

    2017-03-09

    A spectrometer based on a Sagnac interferometer, where one of the mirrors is replaced by a transmission grating, is introduced. Since the action of a transmission grating is reversible, both directions experience the same diffraction at a given wavelength. At the output, the crossed wavefronts are imaged onto a camera, where their Fizeau fringe pattern is recorded. Each spectral element produces a unique spatial frequency, hence the Fourier transform of the recorded interferogram contains the spectrum. Since the grating is tuned to place zero spatial frequency at a selected wavelength, the adjoining spectrum is heterodyned with respect to this wavelength.more » This spectrum can then be discriminated at a high spectral resolution from relatively low spatial frequencies. The spectrometer can be designed without moving parts for a relatively narrow spectral range or with a rotatable grating. As a result, the latter version bears the potential to be calibrated without a calibrated light source.« less

  13. Fourier Transform Spectrometer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data acquisition system includes an FTS spectrometer that receives a spectral signal and a laser signal. The system further includes a wideband detector, which is in communication with the FTS spectrometer and receives the spectral signal and laser signal from the FTS spectrometer. The wideband detector produces a composite signal comprising the laser signal and the spectral signal. The system further comprises a converter in communication with the wideband detector to receive and digitize the composite signal. The system further includes a signal processing unit that receives the composite signal from the converter. The signal processing unit further filters the laser signal and the spectral signal from the composite signal and demodulates the laser signal, to produce velocity corrected spectral data.

  14. Astronomical Fourier spectropolarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, F. F.; Fymat, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    Spectra of the Stokes polarization parameters of Venus (resolution 0.5 per cm) are presented. They were obtained at the Cassegrain focus of the 154-cm telescope of the National Mexican Observatory, Baja California, Mexico, July 12 and 13, 1972, with the Fourier Interferometer Polarimeter (FIP). A preliminary, limited analysis of four spectral features and of the CO2 rotational band structures at 6080 and 6200 per cm has demonstrated that spectral polarization is indeed present. These experimental results, confirmed by two series of observations, provide substantiation for this theoretically predicted phenomenon. They also tend to show that the FIP represents a novel astronomical tool for variable spectral resolution studies of both the intensity and the state of polarization of astronomical light sources.

  15. Rainbow Fourier Transform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel technique for remote sensing of cloud droplet size distributions. Polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135deg and 165deg exhibit a sharply defined rainbow structure, the shape of which is determined mostly by single scattering properties of cloud particles, and therefore, can be modeled using the Mie theory. Fitting the observed rainbow with such a model (computed for a parameterized family of particle size distributions) has been used for cloud droplet size retrievals. We discovered that the relationship between the rainbow structures and the corresponding particle size distributions is deeper than it had been commonly understood. In fact, the Mie theory-derived polarized reflectance as a function of reduced scattering angle (in the rainbow angular range) and the (monodisperse) particle radius appears to be a proxy to a kernel of an integral transform (similar to the sine Fourier transform on the positive semi-axis). This approach, called the rainbow Fourier transform (RFT), allows us to accurately retrieve the shape of the droplet size distribution by the application of the corresponding inverse transform to the observed polarized rainbow. While the basis functions of the proxy-transform are not exactly orthogonal in the finite angular range, this procedure needs to be complemented by a simple regression technique, which removes the retrieval artifacts. This non-parametric approach does not require any a priori knowledge of the droplet size distribution functional shape and is computationally fast (no look-up tables, no fitting, computations are the same as for the forward modeling).

  16. κ-deformed Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarfone, A. M.

    2017-08-01

    We present a new formulation of Fourier transform in the picture of the κ-algebra derived in the framework of the κ-generalized statistical mechanics. The κ-Fourier transform is obtained from a κ-Fourier series recently introduced by Scarfone (2013). The kernel of this transform, that reduces to the usual exponential phase in the κ → 0 limit, is composed by a κ-deformed phase and a damping factor that gives a wavelet-like behaviour. We show that the κ-Fourier transform is isomorph to the standard Fourier transform through a changing of time and frequency variables. Nevertheless, the new formalism is useful to study, according to Fourier analysis, those functions defined in the realm of the κ-algebra. As a relevant application, we discuss the central limit theorem for the κ-sum of n-iterate statistically independent random variables.

  17. Intracellular localization and trafficking of serine proteinase AhSub and cysteine proteinase AhCP of Acanthamoeba healyi.

    PubMed

    Moon, E-K; Lee, S-T; Chung, D-I; Kong, H-H

    2006-01-01

    Proteinases have been proposed to play important roles in pathogenesis and various biologic actions in Acanthamoeba. Although genetic characteristics of several proteases of Acanthamoeba have been reported, the intracellular localization and trafficking of these enzymes has yet to be studied. In the present study, we analyzed the intracellular localization and trafficking of two proteinases, AhSub and AhCP, of Acanthamoeba healyi by transient transfection. Full-length AhSub-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fusion protein was found in intracellular vesicle-like structures of transfected amoebae. Time-lapse photographs confirmed the secretion of the fluorescent material of the vesicle toward the extracellular space. The mutated AhSub, of which the pre or prepro region was deleted, was found to localize diffusely throughout the cytoplasm of the amoeba rather than concentrated in the secretory vesicle. Transfection of the construct containing the pre region only showed the same localization and trafficking of the full-length AhSub. A cysteine proteinase AhCP-EGFP fusion protein showed similar localization in the vesicle-like structure in the amoeba. However, using Lyso Tracker analysis, these vesicular structures of AhCP were confirmed to be lysosomes rather than secretory vesicles. The AhCP construct with a deletion of the prepro region showed a dispersed distribution of fluorescence in the cytoplasm of the cells. These results indicated that AhSub and AhCP would play different roles in Acanthameoba biology and that the pre region of AhSub and pro region of AhCP are important for proper intracellular localization and trafficking of each proteinase.

  18. Antiviral cytokines induce hepatic expression of the granzyme B inhibitors, proteinase inhibitor 9 and serine proteinase inhibitor 6.

    PubMed

    Barrie, Mahmoud B; Stout, Heather W; Abougergi, Marwan S; Miller, Bonnie C; Thiele, Dwain L

    2004-05-15

    Expression of the granzyme B inhibitors, human proteinase inhibitor 9 (PI-9), or the murine orthologue, serine proteinase inhibitor 6 (SPI-6), confers resistance to CTL or NK killing by perforin- and granzyme-dependent effector mechanisms. In light of prior studies indicating that virally infected hepatocytes are selectively resistant to this CTL effector mechanism, the present studies investigated PI-9 and SPI-6 expression in hepatocytes and hepatoma cells in response to adenoviral infection and to cytokines produced during antiviral immune responses. Neither PI-9 nor SPI-6 expression was detected by immunoblotting in uninfected murine or human hepatocytes. Similarly, human Huh-7 hepatoma cells were found to express only very low levels of PI-9 relative to levels detected in perforin- and granzyme-resistant CTL or lymphokine-activated killer cells. Following in vivo adenoviral infection or in vitro culture with IFN-alphabeta or IFN-gamma, SPI-6 expression was induced in murine hepatocytes. Similarly, after culture with IFN-alpha, induction of PI-9 mRNA and protein expression was observed in human hepatocytes and Huh-7 cells. IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha also induced 4- to 10-fold higher levels of PI-9 mRNA expression in Huh-7 cells, whereas levels of mRNA encoding a related serine proteinase inhibitor, proteinase inhibitor 8, were unaffected by culture of Huh-7 cells with IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, or TNF-alpha. These findings indicate that cytokines that promote antiviral cytopathic responses also regulate expression of the cytoprotective molecules, PI-9 and SPI-6, in hepatocytes that are potential targets of CTL and NK effector mechanisms.

  19. Ultrasonic Transducers for Fourier Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment that uses the ultrasonic transducer for demonstrating the Fourier components of waveshapes such as the square and triangular waves produced by laboratory function generators. (JRH)

  20. Ultrasonic Transducers for Fourier Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment that uses the ultrasonic transducer for demonstrating the Fourier components of waveshapes such as the square and triangular waves produced by laboratory function generators. (JRH)

  1. Characterization of a novel Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Pariani, Sebastián; Contreras, Marisol; Rossi, Franco R; Sander, Valeria; Corigliano, Mariana G; Simón, Francisco; Busi, María V; Gomez-Casati, Diego F; Pieckenstain, Fernando L; Duschak, Vilma G; Clemente, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Many different types of serine proteinase inhibitors have been involved in several kinds of plant physiological processes, including defense mechanisms against phytopathogens. Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors, which are included in the serine proteinase inhibitor family, are present in several organisms. These proteins play a regulatory role in processes that involve serine proteinases like trypsin, chymotrypsin, thrombin, elastase and/or subtilisin. In the present work, we characterized two putative Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors from Arabidopsis thaliana, which have a single putative Kazal-type domain. The expression of these inhibitors is transiently induced in response to leaf infection by Botrytis cinerea, suggesting that they play some role in defense against pathogens. We also evaluated the inhibitory specificity of one of the Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors, which resulted to be induced during the local response to B. cinerea infection. The recombinant Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor displayed high specificity for elastase and subtilisin, but low specificity for trypsin, suggesting differences in its selectivity. In addition, this inhibitor exhibited a strong antifungal activity inhibiting the germination rate of B. cinerea conidia in vitro. Due to the important role of proteinase inhibitors in plant protection against pathogens and pests, the information about Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors described in the present work could contribute to improving current methods for plant protection against pathogens.

  2. Fourier plane filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, D. S.; Aldrich, R. E.; Krol, F. T.

    1972-01-01

    An electrically addressed liquid crystal Fourier plane filter capable of real time optical image processing is described. The filter consists of two parts: a wedge filter having forty 9 deg segments and a ring filter having twenty concentric rings in a one inch diameter active area. Transmission of the filter in the off (transparent) state exceeds fifty percent. By using polarizing optics, contrast as high as 10,000:1 can be achieved at voltages compatible with FET switching technology. A phenomenological model for the dynamic scattering is presented for this special case. The filter is designed to be operated from a computer and is addressed by a seven bit binary word which includes an on or off command and selects any one of the twenty rings or twenty wedge pairs. The overall system uses addressable latches so that once an element is in a specified state, it will remain there until a change of state command is received. The drive for the liquid crystal filter is ? 30 V peak at 30 Hz to 70 Hz. These parameters give a rise time for the scattering of 20 msec and a decay time of 80 to 100 msec.

  3. Role of aspartate-96 in proton translocation by bacteriorhodopsin

    SciTech Connect

    Gerwert, K.; Hess, B.; Soppa, J.; Oesterhelt, D.

    1989-07-01

    Proton transfer reactions in bacteriorhodopsin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, using a mutant protein in which Asp-96 was replaced by Asn-96. By comparison of the BR - K, BR - L, and BR - M difference spectra (BR indicating bacteriorhodopsin ground state and K, L, and M indicating photo-intermediates) of the wild-type protein with the corresponding difference spectra of the mutant protein, detailed insight into the functional role of this residue in the proton pump mechanism is obtained. Asp-96 is protonated in BR, as well as another aspartic residue, which is tentatively assigned to be Asp-115. Asp-96 is not affected in the primary photoreaction. During formation of the L intermediate it is subjected to a change in the H-bonding character of its carboxylic group, but no deprotonation occurs at this reaction step. Also, in the mutant protein a light-induced structural change of the protein interior near the Asn-96 residue is probed. The BR - M difference spectrum of the mutant protein lacks the negative carbonyl band at 1742 cm-1 of Asp-96 and in addition a positive band at about 1378 cm-1, which is most likely to be caused by the carboxylate vibration of Asp-96. This argues for a deprotonation of Asp-96 in the time range of the M intermediate during its photostationary accumulation. On the basis of these results, it is suggested that the point mutation does not induce a gross change of the protein structure, but a proton-binding site in the proton pathway from the cytoplasmic side to the Schiff base is lost.

  4. Midgut proteinases of Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae): Characterization and relationship to resistance in cereals

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Lan.

    1989-01-01

    Midgut proteinases are vital to the insects which digest ingested food in the midgut. Insect midgut proteinases, therefore, have been considered as possible targets for the control of insect pests. Proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors are very attractive for their potential use in developing insect resistant plant varieties via genetic engineering. Sitotroga cerealella is one of the major storage pests of cereals, and no antibiotic resistance in wheat against this insect has been identified to date. A series of diagnostic inhibitors, thiol-reducing agents and a metal-ion chelator were used in the identification of proteinases in crude extracts from S. cerealella larval midguts with both protein and ester substrates. The partial inhibition of proteolytic activity in crude midgut extract toward ({sup 3}H)-methemoglobin by pepstatin A suggested the presence of another proteinase which was sensitive to pepstatin A. The optimum pH range for the proteolytic activity, however, indicated that the major midgut proteinases were not carboxyl proteinases. Two proteinases were successfully purified by a combination of fractionation with ammonium sulfate, gel permeation and anion exchange chromatography. Characterization of the enzymes with the purified enzyme preparations confirmed that the two major proteinases were serine endoproteinases with trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like specificities respectively. Bioassays were conducted using the artificial seeds to test naturally occurring proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors of potential value. Soybean trypsin inhibitor and the Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitor had adverse effects on the development of the insect. A predictive model was constructed to evaluate effects of seed resistance in conjunction with other control methods on S. cerealella population dynamics.

  5. Explicit Fourier wavefield operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, R. J.; Margrave, G. F.

    2006-04-01

    Explicit wavefield extrapolators are based on direct analytic mathematical formulae that express the output as an extrapolation operator acting on the input, while implicit methods usually require the calculation of the numerical inverse of a matrix to obtain the output. Typically, explicit methods are faster than implicit methods, and they often give more insight into the physics of the wave propagation, but they often suffer from instability. Four different explicit extrapolators based on Fourier theory are presented and analysed. They are: PS (ordinary phase shift), GPSPI (generalized phase shift plus interpolation), NSPS (non-stationary phase shift) and SNPS (symmetric non-stationary phase shift). A formal proof is given that NSPS in a direction orthogonal to the velocity gradient is the mathematical adjoint process to GPSPI in the opposite direction. This motivates the construction of SNPS that combines NSPS and GPSPI in a symmetric fashion. This symmetry (under interchange of input and output lateral coordinates) is required by reciprocity arguments. PS and SNPS are symmetric while NSPS and GPSPI are not. A numerical stability study using SVD (singular value decomposition) shows that all of these extrapolators can become unstable for strong lateral velocity gradients. Unstable operators allow amplitudes to grow non-physically in a recursion. Stability is enhanced by introducing a small (~3 per cent) imaginary component to the velocities. This causes a numerical attenuation that tends to stabilize the operators but does not address the cause of the instability. For the velocity model studied (a very challenging case) GPSPI and NSPS have exactly the same instability while SNPS is always more stable. Instability manifests in a complicated way as a function of extrapolation step size, frequency, velocity gradient, and strength of numerical attenuation. The SNPS operator can be stabilized over a wide range of conditions with considerably less attenuation than is

  6. The role of fungal proteinases in pathophysiology of Stachybotrys chartarum.

    PubMed

    Yike, Iwona; Rand, Thomas; Dearborn, Dorr G

    2007-10-01

    The adverse health effects of Stachybotrys chartarum have often been linked to exposure to the trichothecene mycotoxins. Recent studies have shown that in addition to mycotoxins this fungus is capable of producing and secreting in vivo proteins such as hemolysins and proteinases. Spore extracts obtained from a high trichothecene producing isolate JS 58-17 exhibited a significantly lower proteolytic activity compared to the low trichothecene producer, JS 58-06. Growing isolates on rice or potato dextrose agar results in higher proteolytic activity of the spores compared to those grown on drywall. Proteinases in the spore extracts can hydrolyze gelatin and collagen I and IV. Analysis of zymograms shows the presence of several proteins with proteolytic activity in the spores of S. chartarum. Human tracheal epithelial cells exposed to spore extracts produced significantly higher levels of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha than control cells. This stimulation of cytokine production was completely abolished by Pefabloc, a serine protease inhibitor. Neutrophil numbers and proinflammatory cytokine (IL1-beta and TNF-alpha) concentrations were highly elevated in the lungs of 7 day old rat pups exposed intratracheally to 4 x 10(4) spores/gm body weight compared to control. No significant differences in those inflammatory indices in vivo were noted between the treatments with the high trichothecene producer, isolate JS 58-17 and JS 58-06, which does not produce macrocyclic trichothecenes. Immunohistochemistry revealed reduced collagen IV labeling in spore-induced lung granulomas in rat pups exposed to both isolates. These results suggest that proteinases from S. chartarum spores significantly contribute to lung inflammation and injury.

  7. Homoserine as an Aspartic Acid Precursor for Synthesis of Proteoglycan Glycopeptide Containing Aspartic Acid and a Sulfated Glycan Chain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weizhun; Ramadan, Sherif; Yang, Bo; Yoshida, Keisuke; Huang, Xuefei

    2016-12-02

    Among many hurdles in synthesizing proteoglycan glycopeptides, one challenge is the incorporation of aspartic acid in the peptide backbone and acid sensitive O-sulfated glycan chains. To overcome this, a new strategy was developed utilizing homoserine as an aspartic acid precursor. The conversion of homoserine to aspartic acid in the glycopeptide was successfully accomplished by late stage oxidation using (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidin-1-yl)oxyl (TEMPO) and bis(acetoxy)iodobenzene (BAIB). This is the first time that a glycopeptide containing aspartic acid and an O-sulfated glycan was synthesized.

  8. [Conformation of aspartate aminotransferase in crystals].

    PubMed

    Borisov, V V; Borisova, S N; Sosfenov, N I; Dikson, Kh BF

    1983-01-01

    X-ray study of chicken cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase revealed conformational changes in the protein of two kinds: (1) a shift of the small domain adjacent to substrate-binding area due to interaction of the protein with two carboxyl groups of substrate and (2) a change in inclination of the coenzyme plane due to replacement of C = N bond of the coenzyme with Lys-258 by C = N bond with a substrate. An asymmetry in subunit behaviour is observed in both cases: the domain is shifted in one subunit and the coenzyme is rotated in other. Substrate-binding properties of each subunit are strictly dependent on the protein conformation in substrate-binding area.

  9. Fourier Analysis and Structure Determination: Part I: Fourier Transforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesick, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Provides a brief introduction with some definitions and properties of Fourier transforms. Shows relations, ways of understanding the mathematics, and applications. Notes proofs are not included but references are given. First of three part series. (MVL)

  10. Pest protection conferred by A Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proteinase inhibitors provide a means of engineering plant resistance to insect pests. A Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) was fused to the constitutive CaMV35S promoter for over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana plants to study its effect on lepidopteran insect pests. Indep...

  11. Purification and characterization of the cysteine proteinases in the latex of Vasconcellea spp.

    PubMed

    Kyndt, Tina; Van Damme, Els J M; Van Beeumen, Jozef; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2007-01-01

    Latex of all Vasconcellea species analyzed to date exhibits higher proteolytic amidase activities, generally attributed to cysteine proteinases, than the latex of Carica papaya. In the present study, we show that this higher activity is correlated with a higher concentration of enzymes in the latex of Vasconcellea fruits, but in addition also results from the presence of other cysteine proteinases or isoforms. In contrast to the cysteine proteinases present in papaya latex, which have been extensively studied, very little is known about the cysteine proteinases of Vasconcellea spp. In this investigation, several cDNA sequences coding for cysteine proteinases in Vasconcellea x heilbornii and Vasconcellea stipulata were determined using primers based on conserved sequences. In silico translation showed that they hold the characteristic features of all known papain-class cysteine proteinases, and a phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of several papain and chymopapain homologues in these species. Ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration procedures were applied on latex of V. x heilbornii in order to characterize its cysteine proteinases at the protein level. Five major protein fractions (VXH-I-VXH-V) revealing very high amidase activities (between 7.5 and 23.3 nkat x mg protein(-1)) were isolated. After further purification, three of them were N-terminally sequenced. The observed microheterogeneity in the N-terminal and cDNA sequences reveals the presence of several distinct cysteine proteinase isoforms in the latex of Vasconcellea spp.

  12. Roles for proteinases in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Caroline A

    2008-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, a compelling body of evidence has accumulated to show that proteinases play critical roles in airspace enlargement in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, until recently the causative enzymes and their exact roles in pathologic processes in COPD have not been clear. Recent studies of gene-targeted mice in murine models of COPD have confirmed roles for proteinases not only in airspace enlargement, but also in airway pathologies in COPD. These studies have also shed light on the specific proteinases involved in COPD pathogenesis, and the mechanisms by which these proteinases injure the lung. They have also identified important interactions between different classes of proteinases, and between proteinases and other molecules that amplify lung inflammation and injury. This review will discuss the biology of proteinases and the mechanisms by which they contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD. In addition, I will discuss the potential of proteinase inhibitors and anti-inflammatory drugs as new treatment strategies for COPD patients. PMID:18686734

  13. Purification of trypsin and bacterial proteinases by column chromatography on coffee grain particles.

    PubMed

    Safarík, I

    1987-01-01

    Trypsin and extracellular proteinases produced by Bacillus sp. were purified by column chromatography on coffee grain particles. The ballast proteins were eluted with water, while the adsorbed proteinases were eluted with 1 M sodium chloride solution. The capacity is approximately 2 mg of trypsin per ml of the packed sorbent.

  14. Antibody in sera of patients infected with Trichomonas vaginalis is to trichomonad proteinases.

    PubMed Central

    Alderete, J F; Newton, E; Dennis, C; Neale, K A

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND--A recent report demonstrated the immunogenic character of the cysteine proteinases of Trichomonas vaginalis. It was of interest, therefore, to examine for the presence of serum anti-proteinase antibody among patients with trichomoniasis. METHODS--An immunoprecipitation assay was used involving protein A-bearing Staphylococcus aureus first coated with the IgG fraction of goat anti-human Ig and then mixed with individual sera of patients to bind human antibody. These antibody-coated bacteria were then added to detergent extracts of T vaginalis. Bound immune complexes on S aureus were washed and solubilised for electrophoretic analysis on acrylamide copolymerised with gelatin for detection of proteinase activity. RESULTS--Sera from patients (50/50), but none from sera of normal, uninfected women, possessed IgG to numerous trichomonad cysteine proteinases. The presence of this serum anti-proteinase antibody disappeared after drug treatment and cure of patients of the T vaginalis infection. CONCLUSIONS--The commonality of the anti-proteinase antibody in the sera of patients with trichomoniasis provided evidence for the expression of the same repertoire of parasite proteinases during infection. These observations have important implications for the in vivo relevance of the proteinases and indicate that strategies to use a specific serum antibody response for diagnosis of this infection may be possible. Images PMID:1916796

  15. Purification and characterization of an alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitor from the mollusc Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed Central

    Thøgersen, I B; Salvesen, G; Brucato, F H; Pizzo, S V; Enghild, J J

    1992-01-01

    The cell-free haemolymph of the mollusc Octopus vulgaris inhibited the proteolytic activity of the thermolysin against the high-molecular-mass substrate hide powder azure. The purified inhibitor was a glycoprotein composed of two identical 180 kDa disulphide-linked subunits. In addition to the inhibition of the metalloproteinase thermolysin, the protein inhibited the serine proteinases human neutrophil elastase, pig pancreatic elastase, bovine chymotrypsin, bovine trypsin and the cysteine proteinase papain. A fraction of the proteinase-inhibitor complex resisted dissociation after denaturation indicating that some of the proteinase molecules became covalently bound. The nucleophile beta-aminopropionitrile decreased the covalent binding of proteinases to the Octopus vulgaris protein, suggesting that this interaction is mediated by an internal thiol ester; the reactivity and the amino acid sequence flanking the reactive residues of the putative thiol ester were consistent with this hypothesis. Bound trypsin remained active against the low-molecular-mass chromatogenic substrate H-D-Pro-Phe-Arg p-nitroanilide and was protected from inhibition by active-site-directed protein inhibitors of trypsin; however, the bound trypsin was readily inhibited by small synthetic inhibitors. This indicates that the inhibition of proteinases is accomplished by steric hindrance. The proteinase-inhibitory activity of this protein is characteristic of inhibition by mammalian alpha-macroglobulins and the presence of a putative thiol ester suggests that the Octopus vulgaris proteinase inhibitor is a homologue of human alpha 2-macroglobulin. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:1379044

  16. Purification and characterization of an alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitor from the mollusc Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Thøgersen, I B; Salvesen, G; Brucato, F H; Pizzo, S V; Enghild, J J

    1992-07-15

    The cell-free haemolymph of the mollusc Octopus vulgaris inhibited the proteolytic activity of the thermolysin against the high-molecular-mass substrate hide powder azure. The purified inhibitor was a glycoprotein composed of two identical 180 kDa disulphide-linked subunits. In addition to the inhibition of the metalloproteinase thermolysin, the protein inhibited the serine proteinases human neutrophil elastase, pig pancreatic elastase, bovine chymotrypsin, bovine trypsin and the cysteine proteinase papain. A fraction of the proteinase-inhibitor complex resisted dissociation after denaturation indicating that some of the proteinase molecules became covalently bound. The nucleophile beta-aminopropionitrile decreased the covalent binding of proteinases to the Octopus vulgaris protein, suggesting that this interaction is mediated by an internal thiol ester; the reactivity and the amino acid sequence flanking the reactive residues of the putative thiol ester were consistent with this hypothesis. Bound trypsin remained active against the low-molecular-mass chromatogenic substrate H-D-Pro-Phe-Arg p-nitroanilide and was protected from inhibition by active-site-directed protein inhibitors of trypsin; however, the bound trypsin was readily inhibited by small synthetic inhibitors. This indicates that the inhibition of proteinases is accomplished by steric hindrance. The proteinase-inhibitory activity of this protein is characteristic of inhibition by mammalian alpha-macroglobulins and the presence of a putative thiol ester suggests that the Octopus vulgaris proteinase inhibitor is a homologue of human alpha 2-macroglobulin.

  17. Molecular orbital studies of enzyme activity: I: Charge relay system and tetrahedral intermediate in acylation of serine proteinases.

    PubMed Central

    Scheiner, S; Kleier, D A; Lipscomb, W N

    1975-01-01

    The charge relay ststem and its role in the acylation of serine proteinases is studied using the partial retention of diatomic differential overlap (PRDDO) technique to perform approximate ab initio molecular orbital calculations on a model of the enzyme-substrate complex. The aspartate in the charge relay system is seen to act as the ultimate proton acceptor during the charging of the serine nucleophile. A projection of the potential energy surface is obtained in a subspace corresponding to this charge transfer and to the coupled motions of active site residues and the substrate. These results together with extended basis set results for cruder models suggest that a concerted transfer of protons from Ser-195 to His-57 and from His-57 to Asp-102 occurs with an energy barrier of 20-25 kcal/mole (84-105 kJ/mole). The subsequent nucleophilic attack on the scissile peptide linkage by the charged serine is then seen to proceed energetically downhill to the tetrahedral intermediate. The formation of the tetrahedral intermediate from the Michaelis complex is calculated to be nearly thermoneutral. PMID:1058476

  18. Fourier phase in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Uttam, Shikhar; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Phase of an electromagnetic wave propagating through a sample-of-interest is well understood in the context of quantitative phase imaging in transmission-mode microscopy. In the past decade, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography has been used to extend quantitative phase imaging to the reflection-mode. Unlike transmission-mode electromagnetic phase, however, the origin and characteristics of reflection-mode Fourier phase are poorly understood, especially in samples with a slowly varying refractive index. In this paper, the general theory of Fourier phase from first principles is presented, and it is shown that Fourier phase is a joint estimate of subresolution offset and mean spatial frequency of the coherence-gated sample refractive index. It is also shown that both spectral-domain phase microscopy and depth-resolved spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy are special cases of this general theory. Analytical expressions are provided for both, and simulations are presented to explain and support the theoretical results. These results are further used to show how Fourier phase allows the estimation of an axial mean spatial frequency profile of the sample, along with depth-resolved characterization of localized optical density change and sample heterogeneity. Finally, a Fourier phase-based explanation of Doppler optical coherence tomography is also provided. PMID:26831383

  19. Fourier phase in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Uttam, Shikhar; Liu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Phase of an electromagnetic wave propagating through a sample-of-interest is well understood in the context of quantitative phase imaging in transmission-mode microscopy. In the past decade, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography has been used to extend quantitative phase imaging to the reflection-mode. Unlike transmission-mode electromagnetic phase, however, the origin and characteristics of reflection-mode Fourier phase are poorly understood, especially in samples with a slowly varying refractive index. In this paper, the general theory of Fourier phase from first principles is presented, and it is shown that Fourier phase is a joint estimate of subresolution offset and mean spatial frequency of the coherence-gated sample refractive index. It is also shown that both spectral-domain phase microscopy and depth-resolved spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy are special cases of this general theory. Analytical expressions are provided for both, and simulations are presented to explain and support the theoretical results. These results are further used to show how Fourier phase allows the estimation of an axial mean spatial frequency profile of the sample, along with depth-resolved characterization of localized optical density change and sample heterogeneity. Finally, a Fourier phase-based explanation of Doppler optical coherence tomography is also provided.

  20. Ion beam transformation with corn DNA alters proteinase expression in rice seedling roots.

    PubMed

    Li, W C; Ji, S D; Wang, X C; Li, Z K; Zhang, H C; Tian, C Z; Liu, Y L; Duan, C X

    2015-06-29

    Corn DNA was introduced into dry seeds of rice (cv. 'YuJing-6') by ion beam irradiation. Proteinase activities in rice seedling roots were subsequently analyzed by renaturation electrophoresis at pH 4.5, 7.0, and 8.5. Proteinase activity was more pronounced on gels at higher pH. Irradiation of rice seedling roots caused the loss of some proteinase bands at all pH conditions although a novel 50-kDa band was found at both pH 7.0 and 8.5. No new proteinase activity was detected at pH 4.5. However, novel bands and bands showing stronger activity were observed at pH 7.0 and 8.5. The data indicate that the expression of proteinases in rice seedling roots was altered following low energy ion beam mediated transformation with corn DNA.

  1. Sensitive method to identify and characterize proteinases in situ after SDS-PAGE.

    PubMed

    Williams, J; McGrath, W J; Mangel, W F

    2000-11-01

    Cells and body fluids contain numerous, different proteinases; to identify and characterize them are both important and difficult tasks. Especially difficult to identify and characterize are highly specific proteinases. Here, we present an extremely sensitive and quantitative method to characterize proteinases fractionated by SDS-PAGE that cleave specific rhodamine-based fluorogenic substrates. To test the sensitivity of the technique, we used trypsin as our model system. Filter paper impregnated with rhodamine-based fluorogenic substrates was placed on a gel, and bands of fluorescence originating from specific proteinases were visualized in real time. The method is very sensitive; picogram amounts of trypsin can be detected. The method should be very general, in that even proteinases whose substrates require amino acids C-terminal to the cleavage site may be identified and characterized. The results allow one to obtain not only information on the substrate specificity of a specific enzyme but also information about its molecular weight.

  2. Purification and properties of extracellular carboxyl proteinase secreted by Candida pulcherrima.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, T; Kikuchi, K; Kodama, K; Konno, H; Kakuta, T; Koizumi, T; Nojiro, K

    1995-03-01

    An extracellular proteinase secreted by Candida pulcherrima KSY 188-5 was purified about 60-fold to electrophoretical homogeneity from its culture supernatant, by ammonium sulfate fractionation, anion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. The proteinase had a molecular weight of approximately 36,500 and an isoelectric point of pH 4.7. The enzyme had an optimum pH of around 2.5-3.5 for activity and 3.0-5.0 for stability. The optimum temperature was around 45 degrees C at pH 3.0. The enzyme showed a broad substrate specificity for a variety of proteins to hydrolyze casein, BSA, hemoglobin keratin, and collagen. Among several proteinase inhibitors, pepstatin A completely abolished the enzyme activity; indicating that the extracellular proteinase from C. pulcherrima KSY 188-5 was classified in the group of carboxyl proteinases.

  3. Expression of virus-encoded proteinases: functional and structural similarities with cellular enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, W G; Semler, B L

    1993-01-01

    Many viruses express their genome, or part of their genome, initially as a polyprotein precursor that undergoes proteolytic processing. Molecular genetic analyses of viral gene expression have revealed that many of these processing events are mediated by virus-encoded proteinases. Biochemical activity studies and structural analyses of these viral enzymes reveal that they have remarkable similarities to cellular proteinases. However, the viral proteinases have evolved unique features that permit them to function in a cellular environment. In this article, the current status of plant and animal virus proteinases is described along with their role in the viral replication cycle. The reactions catalyzed by viral proteinases are not simple enzyme-substrate interactions; rather, the processing steps are highly regulated, are coordinated with other viral processes, and frequently involve the participation of other factors. Images PMID:8302216

  4. The sodium effect of Bacillus subtilis growth on aspartate.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, P; Marks, C; Freese, E

    1980-08-01

    aspH mutants of Bacillus subtilis have a constitutive aspartase activity and grow well on aspartate as sole carbon source. aspH aspT mutants, which are deficient in high affinity aspartate transport as a result of the aspT mutation, grow as well as aspH mutants in medium containing high concentrations of aspartate and Na+. This Na+ effect is not due to an enhancement of aspartate transport but is the result of increased cellular metabolism. The ability to grow rapidly in sodium aspartate is induced by prior growth in the presence of Na+. In potassium aspartate, the addition of arginine, citrulline, ornithine, delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylase or proline instead of Na+ also allows rapid growth; but in a mutant deficient in ornithine--oxo-acid aminotransferase, only pyrroline-carboxylate or proline can replace Na+. The amino acid pool of cells growing slowly in potassium aspartate contains proline at a low concentration which increases upon addition of proline (but not Na+) to the medium. Thus, Na+ addition does not increase the synthesis of proline, but proline or pyrroline-carboxylate acts similarly to Na+ either in preventing some inhibitory effect (by aspartate or the accumulating NH4+) or in overcoming some deficiency (e.g. in further proline metabolism.

  5. Activation of Proteinase 3 Contributes to Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Toonen, Erik JM; Mirea, Andreea-Manuela; Tack, Cees J; Stienstra, Rinke; Ballak, Dov B; van Diepen, Janna A; Hijmans, Anneke; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Dokter, Wim H; Pham, Christine TN; Netea, Mihai G; Dinarello, Charles A; Joosten, Leo AB

    2016-01-01

    Activation of inflammatory pathways is known to accompany development of obesity-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In addition to caspase-1, the neutrophil serine proteases proteinase 3, neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G are able to process the inactive proinflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 to their bioactive forms, thereby regulating inflammatory responses. In this study, we investigated whether proteinase 3 is involved in obesity-induced development of insulin resistance and NAFLD. We investigated the development of NAFLD and insulin resistance in mice deficient for neutrophil elastase/proteinase 3 and neutrophil elastase/cathepsin G and in wild-type mice treated with the neutrophil serine proteinase inhibitor human α-1 antitrypsin. Expression profiling of metabolically relevant tissues obtained from insulin-resistant mice showed that expression of proteinase 3 was specifically upregulated in the liver, whereas neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G and caspase-1 were not. Neutrophil elastase/proteinase 3-deficient mice showed strongly reduced levels of lipids in the liver after being fed a high-fat diet. Moreover, these mice were resistant to high–fat–diet-induced weight gain, inflammation and insulin resistance. Injection of proteinase 3 exacerbated insulin resistance in caspase-1–/– mice, indicating that proteinase 3 acts independently of caspase-1. Treatment with α-1 antitrypsin during the last 10 d of a 16-wk high-fat diet reduced hepatic lipid content and decreased fasting glucose levels. We conclude that proteinase 3 is involved in NAFLD and insulin resistance and that inhibition of proteinase 3 may have therapeutic potential. PMID:27261776

  6. Activation of proteinase 3 contributes to Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Toonen, Erik J M; Mirea, Andreea-Manuela; Tack, Cees J; Stienstra, Rinke; Ballak, Dov B; van Diepen, Janna A; Hijmans, Anneke; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Dokter, Wim H; Pham, Christine T N; Netea, Mihai G; Dinarello, Charles A; Joosten, Leo A B

    2016-05-24

    Activation of inflammatory pathways is known to accompany development of obesity-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In addition to caspase-1, the neutrophil serine proteases proteinase 3, neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G are able to process the inactive pro-inflammatory mediators IL-1β and IL-18 to their bioactive forms, thereby regulating inflammatory responses. In the present study, we investigated whether proteinase 3 is involved in obesity-induced development of insulin resistance and NAFLD. We investigated the development of NAFLD and insulin resistance in mice deficient for neutrophil elastase/proteinase 3 and neutrophil elastase/cathepsin G and in wild-type mice treated with the neutrophil serine proteinase inhibitor human alpha-1 antitrypsin. Expression profiling of metabolically relevant tissues obtained from insulin resistant mice showed that expression of proteinase 3 was specifically upregulated in the liver, whereas neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G and caspase-1 were not. Neutrophil elastase/proteinase 3 deficient mice showed strongly reduced levels of lipids in the liver after fed a high fat diet. Moreover, these mice were resistant to high fat diet-induced weight gain, inflammation and insulin resistance. Injection of proteinase 3 exacerbated insulin resistance in caspase-1(-/-) mice, indicating that proteinase 3 acts independently of caspase-1. Treatment with alpha-1 antitrypsin during the last 10 days of a 16 week high fat diet reduced hepatic lipid content and decreased fasting glucose levels. We conclude that proteinase 3 is involved in NAFLD and insulin resistance and that inhibition of proteinase 3 may have therapeutic potential.

  7. Inhibition of neutrophil elastase by recombinant human proteinase inhibitor 9.

    PubMed

    Dahlen, J R; Foster, D C; Kisiel, W

    1999-09-21

    Proteinase inhibitor PI9 (PI9) is an intracellular 42-kDa member of the ovalbumin family of serpins that is found primarily in placenta, lung and lymphocytes. PI9 has been shown to be a fast-acting inhibitor of granzyme B in vitro, presumably through the utilization of Glu(340) as the P(1) inhibitory residue in its reactive site loop. In this report, we describe the inhibition of human neutrophil elastase by recombinant human PI9. Inhibition occurred with an overall K(i)' of 221 pM and a second-order association rate constant of 1.5 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), indicating that PI9 is a potent inhibitor of this serine proteinase in vitro. In addition, incubation of recombinant PI9 with native neutrophil elastase resulted in the formation of an SDS-resistant 62-kDa complex. Amino-terminal sequence analyses provided evidence that inhibition of elastase occurred through the use of Cys(342) as the reactive P(1) amino acid residue in the PI9 reactive site loop. Thus, PI9 joins its close relatives PI6 and PI8 as having the ability to utilize multiple reactive site loop residues as the inhibitory P(1) residue to expand its inhibitory spectrum.

  8. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate labeling of sperm-associated proteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Odem, R.R.; Willand, J.L.; Polakoski, K.L. )

    1990-02-01

    Proteinase inhibitors have been shown to be capable of preventing various aspects of fertilization. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) is an irreversible inhibitor of trypsin-like enzymes that is commercially available in a radiolabeled form. The experiments described herein were designed to determine if DFP would prevent sperm function in live, motile sperm and to identify the sperm proteins bound with DFP. DFP at 5 mM concentrations had no observable effect on sperm motility, but inhibited the penetration of zona-free hamster ova by human sperm (5.5%) compared to controls (33.5%). Acid extracts of motile sperm that had been incubated with radiolabeled DFP and collected by the swim-up procedure demonstrated the presence of radiolabeled DFP, and the autoradiography of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels of these extracts localized the uptake of radiolabeled DFP to proteins in the molecular weight region of the proacrosin-acrosin system. Acid-extracted proteinases from semen samples incubated with DFP demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibition of both esterolytic hydrolysis of benzoyl-arginine ethyl ester on spectrophotometric analysis and proteolytic activity on gelatin SDS-PAGE zymography. DFP-labeled proteins were precipitated by highly specific antibodies to proacrosin. These results demonstrated that DFP is capable of inhibiting sperm function, and that it associates with the proacrosin-acrosin system in live motile sperm.

  9. Zymography in Multiwells for Quality Assessment of Proteinases.

    PubMed

    Mechoor, Ambili; Madanan, Madathiparambil G

    2017-01-01

    Zymography is a well-standardized protocol for the qualitative assessment and analysis of proteinases under specified conditions. However, analysis of a large number of samples simultaneously becomes a challenge when the zymography is carried out by the usual protocol of electrophoresis. This can be overcome by assaying the matrix-degrading proteinases in substrate-impregnated gels in multiwells. Enzymes are copolymerized with 300 mL of 10% acrylamide impregnated with gelatin substrate and incubated for 16 h. The gels are then stained with Coomassie blue, destained with water, and visualized with the naked eye. The intensity; if needed can be measured with a densitometer or gel documentation system. This method has been tested for bacterial collagenases as well as some matrix-degrading metalloproteinases that were purified from rat mammary gland. It can also be used to characterize the enzymes with respect to the type and concentration of the cations required for activity and the role of other regulatory molecules that may affect the enzyme activity. The added advantage of this method is that the electrophoresis set up and electricity is not needed for the procedure.

  10. Converging beam optical Fourier transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puang-ngern, Srisuda; Almeida, Silverio P.

    1985-08-01

    The classical, most often used, system for performing the optical Fourier transform is by using parallel coherent beam illumination. Lenses used in this method can become quite costly. In this paper we present results obtained using converging beam illumination which is suitable for many applications and is less expensive than the parallel beam method. The input objects for which the Fourier transforms were made are transparencies of snowflakes.

  11. Spatially incoherent Fourier digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Takanori; Watanabe, Kaho

    2017-05-01

    The possibility of incoherent digital holography has been widely studied because it is free from coherent light sources. Here spatially incoherent Fourier digital holography is described. The incoherent hologram is obtained by a rotational shearing interferometer. The hologram obtained by the interferometer is a cosine transform of a spatially incoherent object. After describing the principle of a rotational shearing interferometer, methods to obtain Fourier transform of an object presented.

  12. A role of secreted proteinase of Candida albicans for the invasion of chick chorio-allantoic membrane.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, I; Kondoh, Y; Shimizu, K; Tanaka, K

    1989-01-01

    The invasion of Candida albicans strains into the chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) of a developing chick was studied by light and electron microscopy. A proteinase-producing strain, NUM961, invaded into intact CAM, but proteinase-deficient strain NUM678 cells remained on the surface of the CAM with no evidence of damage to the host cells. However, NUM678 cells invaded into the ectoderm-damaged CAM, or proteinase-treated one. Electron microscopy revealed that treatment with purified Candida proteinase disorganized the ectoderm tissue by disrupting the intercellular junctions. These results suggest that Candida proteinase damages the CAM surface, which enables the invasion of the growing hyphae.

  13. Molecular alteration and carbonization of aspartic acid upon N + ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, F. Z.; Sun, S. Q.; Zhang, D. M.; Ma, Z. L.; Chen, G. Q.

    2000-06-01

    Structural changes of aspartic acid (Asp) irradiated by nitrogen ions of 30 keV were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Significant decreases of the intensities of COO -, NH 3+, COOH and CH 2 vibrations in the FTIR spectra, compared with those of unirradiated Asp, were observed for the sample irradiated at the fluence of 1×10 16 ions/cm 2. The decrease rates of the intensities of COO -, NH 3+, COOH and CH 2 vibrations with respect to the increasing irradiation fluences up to 4×10 16 ions/cm 2 were different. The results were attributable to the nonstoichiometrical desorption of corresponding volatile species such as H 2, NH 3+ and CO 2. The radiolysis residue of Asp after irradiation at a high fluence of 1×10 17 ions/cm 2 was analyzed and fatty acid was detected.

  14. Free D-aspartate in mammals.

    PubMed

    Furuchi, Takemitsu; Homma, Hiroshi

    2005-09-01

    D-Aspartate (D-Asp) is an endogenous amino acid present in nervous and endocrine tissues in mammals. A high concentration of D-Asp is observed in embryos, which disappears in nervous tissues after delivery, but increases temporarily in endocrine glands, particularly in the pituitary, pineal and adrenal glands at the specific stages. In the pineal gland, D-Asp that is apparently derived from other tissues suppresses melatonin secretion from parenchymal cells. Additionally, D-Asp levels increase in the testis just before birth and during maturation. The amino acid is presumed to be synthesized by the pituitary gland and testis. In the testis, D-Asp produced inside the seminiferous tubules acts on Leydig cells following release to enhance testosterone synthesis by activating the expression of Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein. Mammalian cells appear to contain all the molecular components required to regulate D-Asp homeostasis, as they can synthesize, release, take up, and degrade the amino acid. These findings collectively indicate that D-Asp is a novel type of messenger in the mammalian body.

  15. Limited proteolysis by macrophage elastase inactivities human. cap alpha. /sub 1/-proteinase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Banda, M.J.; Clark, E.J.; Werb, Z.

    1980-12-01

    Ever since the initial description of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-proteinase inhibitor (..cap alpha../sub 1/PI), the role of this plasma glycoprotein and its allelic polymorphism in disease and in healthy physiology has been the subject of much investigation, ..cap alpha../sub 1/PI inactivates a number of serine proteinases, including granulocyte elastase, and thus affords protection from the connective tissue degradation mediated by this class of proteinases. Because an imbalance in the ratio between ..cap alpha../sub 1/PI and proteinase may contribute to the development of destructive lung diseases, proteinases have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema. Both macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes have been implicated in disruption of the ..cap alpha../sub 1/PI-proteinase balance. In this report, a new mechanism for alteration of the ..cap alpha../sub 1/PI-proteinase balance is demonstrated. It was found that the purified form of macrophage elastase catalytically degrades and inactivates ..cap alpha../sub 1/PI so that it no longer inhibits the elastinolytic activity of granulocyte elastase.

  16. ENZYMATIC DEBRIDEMENT OF THIRD-DEGREE BURNS ON GUINEA PIGS BY CLOSTRIDIUM HISTOLYTICUM PROTEINASES

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Marion E.; Altieri, Patricia L.; Conklin, David A.; Berman, Sanford; Lowenthal, Joseph P.; Gochenour, Raymond B.

    1962-01-01

    Webster, Marion E. (Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D. C.), Patricia L. Altieri, David A. Conklin, Sanford Berman, Joseph P. Lowenthal, and Raymond B. Gochenour. Enzymatic debridement of third-degree burns on guinea pigs by Clostridium histolyticum proteinases. J. Bacteriol. 83:602–608. 1962.—An attempt has been made to correlate in vitro activities of Clostridium histolyticum H-4 proteinases, as measured against azocasein, azocoll, gelatin, and collagen, with their ability to debride full-thickness third-degree burns (360 C, 15 sec) on guinea pigs. The major portion of the debriding activity is tentatively identified as due to the delta-proteinase, in the absence of cysteine, and to a new proteinase contained in the same fraction in the presence of cysteine. Other proteinases produced by this strain were also capable of debriding burns. However, collagenase and the gelatinase of the 0 to 22% fraction did not appear to be essential for the debridement of these burns. Studies of the proteinases produced by this organism have suggested that at least nine and probably more proteolytic enzymes are present. The need for more highly purified proteinases, in order to determine which enzyme(s) is responsible for debridement of guinea pig burns, is evident. PMID:14005493

  17. Effect of solvents and temperature on the conformation of poly(beta-benzyl-L-aspartate) brushes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chih-Tsung; Wang, Yuli; Chang, Ying-Chih

    2010-05-10

    We report on the synthesis and characterization of end-tethering polypeptide monolayers based on poly(beta-benzyl-L-aspartate) (PBLA) homopolymer and PBLA-b-poly(gamma-benzyl-L-glutamate) block copolymer. The homopolypeptide and copolypeptide brushes were fabricated by the sequential, surface-initiated vapor deposition polymerization of the N-carboxyanhydride of beta-benzyl-L-aspartate or gamma-benzyl-L-glutamate, yielding 80-nm-thick, chemically grafted films after 30 min of reaction time. Both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and circular dichroism showed that the polypeptide brushes could be reversibly and repeatedly switched between left-handed and right-handed alpha-helical structures in response to solvent vapor exposure or permanently converted to a beta-sheet structure when heated to 160 degrees C in air. The facile, in vacuo manufacturability and the robustness of the films of PBLA-based brushes could allow them to be incorporated as active components for biosensing and nanofabricated devices.

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteinase is rapidly and efficiently inactivated in human plasma by alpha 2-macroglobulin.

    PubMed

    Kisselev, A F; von der Helm, K

    1994-10-01

    Human plasma impairs the activity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) proteinase to cleave the HIV-1 gag-polyprotein precursor. The inhibition is due to the entrapment of the proteinase by plasma alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M). In methylamine-treated plasma, where alpha 2M is inactivated, HIV proteinase is not blocked. The interaction of alpha 2M and HIV-1 proteinase resulting in covalent complexes of proteinase and alpha 2M was demonstrated by immunoblotting with antiserum either to alpha 2M or to the HIV proteinase. We suggest if HIV-1 proteinase would be released in vivo from infected patients' cells, alpha 2M entrapment may prevent or minimize a conceivable cleavage of extracellular matrix or plasma proteins by the HIV-1 enzyme.

  19. A short biography of Joseph Fourier and historical development of Fourier series and Fourier transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2012-07-01

    The profound study of nature is the most fertile source of mathematical discoveries. Not only does this study, by offering a definite goal to research, have the advantage of excluding vague questions and futile calculations, but it is also a sure means of moulding analysis itself, and discerning those elements in it which it is still essential to know and which science ought to conserve. These fundamental elements are those which recur in all natural phenomena. Joseph Fourier pure mathematics enables us to discover the concepts and laws connecting them, which gives us the key to the understanding of the phenomena of nature. Albert Einstein This article deals with a brief biographical sketch of Joseph Fourier, his first celebrated work on analytical theory of heat, his first great discovery of Fourier series and Fourier transforms. Included is a historical development of Fourier series and Fourier transforms with their properties, importance and applications. Special emphasis is made to his splendid research contributions to mathematical physics, pure and applied mathematics and his unprecedented public service accomplishments in the history of France. This is followed by historical comments about the significant and major impact of Fourier analysis on mathematical physics, probability and mathematical statistics, mathematical economics and many areas of pure and applied mathematics including geometry, harmonic analysis, signal analysis, wave propagation and wavelet analysis. Special attention is also given to the Fourier integral formula, Brownian motion and stochastic processes and many examples of applications including isoparametric inequality, everywhere continuous but nowhere differentiable functions, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, Dirichlets' theorem on primes in

  20. Cephalopod vision involves dicarboxylic amino acids: D-aspartate, L-aspartate and L-glutamate.

    PubMed

    D'Aniello, Salvatore; Spinelli, Patrizia; Ferrandino, Gabriele; Peterson, Kevin; Tsesarskia, Mara; Fisher, George; D'Aniello, Antimo

    2005-03-01

    In the present study, we report the finding of high concentrations of D-Asp (D-aspartate) in the retina of the cephalopods Sepia officinalis, Loligo vulgaris and Octopus vulgaris. D-Asp increases in concentration in the retina and optic lobes as the animal develops. In neonatal S. officinalis, the concentration of D-Asp in the retina is 1.8+/-0.2 micromol/g of tissue, and in the optic lobes it is 5.5+/-0.4 micromol/g of tissue. In adult animals, D-Asp is found at a concentration of 3.5+/-0.4 micromol/g in retina and 16.2+/-1.5 micromol/g in optic lobes (1.9-fold increased in the retina, and 2.9-fold increased in the optic lobes). In the retina and optic lobes of S. officinalis, the concentration of D-Asp, L-Asp (L-aspartate) and L-Glu (L-glutamate) is significantly influenced by the light/dark environment. In adult animals left in the dark, these three amino acids fall significantly in concentration in both retina (approx. 25% less) and optic lobes (approx. 20% less) compared with the control animals (animals left in a diurnal/nocturnal physiological cycle). The reduction in concentration is in all cases statistically significant (P=0.01-0.05). Experiments conducted in S. officinalis by using D-[2,3-3H]Asp have shown that D-Asp is synthesized in the optic lobes and is then transported actively into the retina. D-aspartate racemase, an enzyme which converts L-Asp into D-Asp, is also present in these tissues, and it is significantly decreased in concentration in animals left for 5 days in the dark compared with control animals. Our hypothesis is that the dicarboxylic amino acids, D-Asp, L-Asp and L-Glu, play important roles in vision.

  1. Novel distribution of the secretory leucocyte proteinase inhibitor in kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Ohlsson, S; Ljungkrantz, I; Ohlsson, K; Segelmark, M; Wieslander, J

    2001-01-01

    The secretory leucocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) is a low molecular weight, tissue-specific inhibitor of, for example, elastase and cathepsin G, which also have antimicrobial capacity. SLPI has been localised to the respiratory, gastrointestinal and genital tracts, but so far not to the kidney. The presence of SLPI in renal tubuli cells was demonstrated using immunohistochemistry and, by means of in situ hybridisation on human renal biopsies, we were able to demonstrate SLPI production. In various inflammatory conditions in the kidneys, the protease-antiprotease balance is disturbed. For this reason, as well as the possible role in the defence against ascending urinary tract infections, it is interesting to establish a source of SLPI in renal tubuli cells. PMID:11817677

  2. Homology models of main proteinase from coronavirus associated with SARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Lin, Jin-Chung; Ho, Yih; Chen, Chin-Wen

    2005-01-01

    In this study, two homology models of the main proteinase (M pro) from the novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) were constructed. These models reveal three distinct functional domains, in which an intervening loop connecting domains II and III as well as a catalytic cleft containing the substrate binding subsites S1 and S2 between domains I and II are observed. S2 exhibits structural variations more significantly than S1 during the 200 ps molecular dynamics simulations because it is located at the open mouth of the catalytic cleft and the amino acid residues lining up this subsite are least conserved. In addition, the higher structural variation of S2 makes it flexible enough to accommodate a bulky hydrophobic residue from the substrate.

  3. [High molecular weight chitosan and sodium alginate effect on secretory acid proteinase of Candida albicans].

    PubMed

    Calamari, Silvia; Bojanich, Alejandra; Barembaum, Silvina; Azcurra, Ana; Virga, Carolina; Dorronsoro, Susana

    2004-12-01

    The effect of high molecular weight chitosan (HMWCh) and sodium alginate (NaAL) on acid proteinase secretion of Candida albicans (one of culture collection and five isolates) was evaluated. The secretion of acid proteinase was induced in the presence and the absence of these polymers in different concentrations and their enzymatic activity was determined. HMWCh and NaAL significantly diminished the enzymatic activity (>76% for the collection strains and > 89% for the isolates, p < 0.05). HMWCh did not modify protein concentrations, but NaAL did. It can be concluded that both polymers can inhibit the proteinase activity of Candida albicans.

  4. Structural and functional properties of kunitz proteinase inhibitors from leguminosae: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela; Ferreira, Rodrigo da Silva; Ferreira, Joana Gasperazzo; de Paula, Cláudia Alessandra Andrade; Salas, Carlos E; Sampaio, Misako Uemura

    2011-08-01

    Seed proteins that inhibit proteinases are classified in families based on amino acid sequence similarity, nature of reactive site and mechanism of action, and are used as tools for investigating proteinases in physiological and pathological events. More recently, the plant Kunitz family of inhibitors with two disulphide bridges was enlarged with members containing variable number of cysteine residues, ranging from no cysteine at all to more than four residues. The characteristic of these proteins, as well the interactions with their target proteinases, are briefly discussed.

  5. [Aspergillus ochraceus myxomycetes produce extracellular proteinases--protein C activators of blood plasma].

    PubMed

    Osmolovskiĭ, A A; Kreĭer, V G; Kurakov, A V; Baranova, N A; Egorov, N S

    2012-01-01

    Natural isolates of Aspergillus ochraceus myxomycetes from soil and plant remains from various regions have been screened. The isolated strains were characterized by similar cultural and morphological features and an identical nucleotide sequence in the ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. The ability of the extracellular proteinases of A. ochraceus myxomycetes to activate protein C of blood plasma has been established. Differences are revealed in the accumulation of proteinases activating protein C and proteinases with thrombin- and plasmin-like activities in the growth dynamics of producers.

  6. Triacontanol negatively modulates the jasmonic acid-stimulated proteinase inhibitors in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Ramanarayan, Krishnamurthy; Swamy, Gangadharamurthy Sivakumar

    2004-04-01

    Triacontanol (TRIA), a long chain aliphatic alcohol (C30H61OH) reverses the effect of jasmonic acid (JA) in inducing proteinase inhibitors (PIs) in tomato leaves. Porcine pancreas trypsin and Spodoptera litura gut proteinases were inhibited in the presence of leaf proteins treated with JA, and TRIA partially reverses this effect. Spodoptera litura larvae fed with tomato leaves treated with JA were reduced in body weight and TRIA is able to partially reverse this JA-induced effect. These results reflect the partial reversal effect of TRIA in down regulating the JA-induced production of proteinase inhibitors.

  7. Fourier dimension of random images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekström, Fredrik

    2016-10-01

    Given a compact set of real numbers, a random C^{m + α}-diffeomorphism is constructed such that the image of any measure concentrated on the set and satisfying a certain condition involving a real number s, almost surely has Fourier dimension greater than or equal to s / (m + α). This is used to show that every Borel subset of the real numbers of Hausdorff dimension s is C^{m + α}-equivalent to a set of Fourier dimension greater than or equal to s / (m + α ). In particular every Borel set is diffeomorphic to a Salem set, and the Fourier dimension is not invariant under Cm-diffeomorphisms for any m.

  8. Altered Expression of Brain Proteinase-Activated Receptor-2, Trypsin-2 and Serpin Proteinase Inhibitors in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Michael J; Durrenberger, Pascal F; Gentleman, Steve M; Walls, Andrew F; Dexter, David T

    2015-09-01

    Neuroinflammation is thought to contribute to cell death in neurodegenerative disorders, but the factors involved in the inflammatory process are not completely understood. Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) expression in brain is increased in Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis, but the status of PAR2 in Parkinson's disease is unknown. This study examined expression of PAR2 and endogenous proteinase activators (trypsin-2, mast cell tryptase) and proteinase inhibitors (serpin-A5, serpin-A13) in areas vulnerable and resistant to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease at different Braak α-synuclein stages of the disease in post-mortem brain. In normal aged brain, expression of PAR-2, trypsin-2, and serpin-A5 and serpin-A13 was found in neurons and microglia, and alterations in the amount of immunoreactivity for these proteins were found in some brain regions. Namely, there was a decrease in neurons positive for serpin-A5 in the dorsal motor nucleus, and serpin-A13 expression was reduced in the locus coeruleus and primary motor cortex, while expression of PAR2, trypsin-2 and both serpins was reduced in neurons within the substantia nigra. There was an increased number of microglia that expressed serpin-A5 in the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus and elevated numbers of microglia that expressed serpin-A13 in the substantia nigra of late Parkinson's disease cases. The number of microglia that expressed trypsin-2 increased in primary motor cortex of incidental Lewy body disease cases. Analysis of Parkinson's disease cases alone indicated that serpin-A5 and serpin-A13, and trypsin-2 expression in midbrain and cerebral cortex was different in cases with a high incidence of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia and psychosis compared to those with low levels of these treatment-induced side effects. This study showed that there was altered expression in brain of PAR2 and some proteins that can control its function in Parkinson's disease. Given the role of PAR2 in

  9. Synthetic Fourier transform light scattering.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyeoreh; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Youngchan; Hillman, Timothy R; Min, Bumki; Park, Yongkeun

    2013-09-23

    We present synthetic Fourier transform light scattering, a method for measuring extended angle-resolved light scattering (ARLS) from individual microscopic samples. By measuring the light fields scattered from the sample plane and numerically synthesizing them in Fourier space, the angle range of the ARLS patterns is extended up to twice the numerical aperture of the imaging system with unprecedented sensitivity and precision. Extended ARLS patterns of individual microscopic polystyrene beads, healthy human red blood cells (RBCs), and Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized RBCs are presented.

  10. Non-enzymic beta-decarboxylation of aspartic acid.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doctor, V. M.; Oro, J.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the mechanism of nonenzymic beta-decarboxylation of aspartic acid in the presence of metal ions and pyridoxal. The results suggest that aspartic acid is first converted to oxalacetic acid by transamination with pyridoxal which in turn is converted to pyridoxamine. This is followed by decarboxylation of oxalacetic acid to form pyruvic acid which transaminates with pyridoxamine to form alanine. The possible significance of these results to prebiotic molecular evolution is briefly discussed.

  11. Non-enzymic beta-decarboxylation of aspartic acid.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doctor, V. M.; Oro, J.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the mechanism of nonenzymic beta-decarboxylation of aspartic acid in the presence of metal ions and pyridoxal. The results suggest that aspartic acid is first converted to oxalacetic acid by transamination with pyridoxal which in turn is converted to pyridoxamine. This is followed by decarboxylation of oxalacetic acid to form pyruvic acid which transaminates with pyridoxamine to form alanine. The possible significance of these results to prebiotic molecular evolution is briefly discussed.

  12. Effect of a Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitor from Phaseolus coccineus on Hypothenemus hampei gut proteinases in vitro.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo Pereira, Railene; Valencia-Jiménez, Arnubio; Magalhães, Cláudio Picanço; Prates, Maura Vianna; Melo, Jorge Alex Taquita; de Lima, Liziane Maria; de Sales, Maurício Pereira; Tempel Nakasu, Erich Yukio; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima

    2007-12-26

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), is an important devastating coffee pest worldwide. Both trypsin and chymotrypsin enzyme activities from H. hampei larval midgut can be inactivated by proteinaceous enzyme-inhibitors. A serine proteinase inhibitor belonging to the Bowman-Birk class was purified from a wild accession of Phaseolus coccineus L. seeds. The inhibitor (PcBBI1) is a cysteine-rich protein that is heat-stable at alkaline pH. MALDI-TOF/MS analysis showed that PcBBI1 occurs in seeds as a monomer (8689 Da) or dimer (17,378 Da). Using in vitro inhibition assays, it was found that PcBBI1 has a high inhibitory activity against H. hampei trypsin-like enzymes, bovine pancreatic chymotrypsin, and trypsin. According to this, PcBBI1 could be a promising tool to make genetically modified coffee with resistance to coffee berry borer.

  13. Fragmentation reactions of deprotonated peptides containing aspartic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Alex G.; Young, Alex B.

    2006-09-01

    The fragmentation reactions of deprotonated peptides containing aspartic acid have been elucidated using MS2 and MS3 experiments and accurate mass measurements where necessary. The disposition of labile (N and O bonded) hydrogens in the fragmentation products has been studied by exchanging the labile hydrogens for deuterium whereby the [MD]- ion is formed on electrospray ionization. [alpha]-Aspartyl and [beta]-aspartyl dipeptides give very similar fragment ion spectra on collisional activation, involving for both species primarily formation of the y1 ion and loss of H2O from [MH]- followed by further fragmentation, thus precluding the distinction of the isomeric species by negative ion tandem mass spectrometry. Dipeptides of sequence HXxxAspOH give characteristic spectra different from the [alpha]- and [beta]-isomers. For larger peptides containing aspartic acid a common fragmentation reaction involves nominal cleavage of the NC bond N-terminal to the aspartic acid residue to form a c ion (deprotonated amino acid amide (c1) or peptide amide (cn)) and the complimentary product involving elimination of a neutral amino acid amide or peptide amide. When aspartic acid is in the C-terminal position this fragmentation reaction occurs from the [MH]- ion while when the aspartic acid is not in the C-terminal position the fragmentation reaction occurs mainly from the [MHH2O]- ion. The products of this NC bond cleavage reaction serve to identify the position of the aspartic acid residue in the peptide.

  14. Circular dichroism of stem bromelain: a third spectral class within the family of cysteine proteinases.

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo-Reyna, A; Hernandez-Arana, A; Arreguin-Espinosa, R

    1994-01-01

    Two forms of stem bromelain (EC 3.4.22.4) were isolated from commercial, crude and chromatographically purified preparations of the enzyme by means of gel-filtration and cation-exchange liquid chromatography. These forms possess nearly identical secondary and tertiary structures, as judged from their circular dichroism (c.d.) spectra. The spectral characteristics of stem bromelain suggest that this enzyme belongs to the alpha + beta protein class, as other cysteine proteinases do. In agreement with these results, quantitative estimation of secondary structures yielded amounts similar to those for papain and proteinase omega. However, the bromelain c.d. curve is clearly distinguishable from those reported for papain and proteinase omega, on one hand, and that of chymopapain, on the other. Thus, it is apparent that there are at least three types of c.d. spectra associated with the family of cysteine proteinases. PMID:8198520

  15. Fourier spectroscopy and planetary research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanel, R. A.; Kunde, V. G.

    1974-01-01

    The application of Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FTS) to planetary research is reviewed. The survey includes FTS observations of the sun, all the planets except Uranus and Pluto, the Galilean satellites and Saturn's rings. Instrumentation and scientific results are considered and the prospects and limitations of FTS for planetary research in the forthcoming years are discussed.

  16. Fourier Lucas-Kanade algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lucey, Simon; Navarathna, Rajitha; Ashraf, Ahmed Bilal; Sridharan, Sridha

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a framework for both gradient descent image and object alignment in the Fourier domain. Our method centers upon the classical Lucas & Kanade (LK) algorithm where we represent the source and template/model in the complex 2D Fourier domain rather than in the spatial 2D domain. We refer to our approach as the Fourier LK (FLK) algorithm. The FLK formulation is advantageous when one preprocesses the source image and template/model with a bank of filters (e.g., oriented edges, Gabor, etc.) as 1) it can handle substantial illumination variations, 2) the inefficient preprocessing filter bank step can be subsumed within the FLK algorithm as a sparse diagonal weighting matrix, 3) unlike traditional LK, the computational cost is invariant to the number of filters and as a result is far more efficient, and 4) this approach can be extended to the Inverse Compositional (IC) form of the LK algorithm where nearly all steps (including Fourier transform and filter bank preprocessing) can be precomputed, leading to an extremely efficient and robust approach to gradient descent image matching. Further, these computational savings translate to nonrigid object alignment tasks that are considered extensions of the LK algorithm, such as those found in Active Appearance Models (AAMs).

  17. Fourier Series and Elliptic Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2003-01-01

    Non-linear second-order differential equations whose solutions are the elliptic functions "sn"("t, k"), "cn"("t, k") and "dn"("t, k") are investigated. Using "Mathematica", high precision numerical solutions are generated. From these data, Fourier coefficients are determined yielding approximate formulas for these non-elementary functions that are…

  18. Fourier Analysis of Musical Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    Use of a microphone attached to a computer to capture musical sounds and software to display their waveforms and harmonic spectra has become somewhat commonplace. A recent article in "The Physics Teacher" aptly demonstrated the use of MacScope in just such a manner as a way to teach Fourier analysis. A logical continuation of this project is to…

  19. Fourier Analysis of Musical Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    Use of a microphone attached to a computer to capture musical sounds and software to display their waveforms and harmonic spectra has become somewhat commonplace. A recent article in "The Physics Teacher" aptly demonstrated the use of MacScope in just such a manner as a way to teach Fourier analysis. A logical continuation of this project is to…

  20. Fourier Series and Elliptic Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2003-01-01

    Non-linear second-order differential equations whose solutions are the elliptic functions "sn"("t, k"), "cn"("t, k") and "dn"("t, k") are investigated. Using "Mathematica", high precision numerical solutions are generated. From these data, Fourier coefficients are determined yielding approximate formulas for these non-elementary functions that are…

  1. Coffee cysteine proteinases and related inhibitors with high expression during grain maturation and germination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cysteine proteinases perform multiple functions in seeds, including participation in remodelling polypeptides and recycling amino acids during maturation and germination. Currently, few details exist concerning these genes and proteins in coffee. Furthermore, there is limited information on the cysteine proteinase inhibitors which influence the activities of these proteinases. Results Two cysteine proteinase (CP) and four cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CPI) gene sequences have been identified in coffee with significant expression during the maturation and germination of coffee grain. Detailed expression analysis of the cysteine proteinase genes CcCP1 and CcCP4 in Robusta using quantitative RT-PCR showed that these transcripts accumulate primarily during grain maturation and germination/post germination. The corresponding proteins were expressed in E. coli and purified, but only one, CcCP4, which has a KDDL/KDEL C-terminal sequence, was found to be active after a short acid treatment. QRT-PCR expression analysis of the four cysteine proteinase inhibitor genes in Robusta showed that CcCPI-1 is primarily expressed in developing and germinating grain and CcCPI-4 is very highly expressed during the late post germination period, as well as in mature, but not immature leaves. Transcripts corresponding to CcCPI-2 and CcCPI-3 were detected in most tissues examined at relatively similar, but generally low levels. Conclusions Several cysteine proteinase and cysteine proteinase inhibitor genes with strong, relatively specific expression during coffee grain maturation and germination are presented. The temporal expression of the CcCP1 gene suggests it is involved in modifying proteins during late grain maturation and germination. The expression pattern of CcCP4, and its close identity with KDEL containing CP proteins, implies this proteinase may play a role in protein and/or cell remodelling during late grain germination, and that it is likely to play a strong role

  2. Coffee cysteine proteinases and related inhibitors with high expression during grain maturation and germination.

    PubMed

    Lepelley, Maud; Amor, Mohamed Ben; Martineau, Nelly; Cheminade, Gerald; Caillet, Victoria; McCarthy, James

    2012-03-01

    Cysteine proteinases perform multiple functions in seeds, including participation in remodelling polypeptides and recycling amino acids during maturation and germination. Currently, few details exist concerning these genes and proteins in coffee. Furthermore, there is limited information on the cysteine proteinase inhibitors which influence the activities of these proteinases. Two cysteine proteinase (CP) and four cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CPI) gene sequences have been identified in coffee with significant expression during the maturation and germination of coffee grain. Detailed expression analysis of the cysteine proteinase genes CcCP1 and CcCP4 in Robusta using quantitative RT-PCR showed that these transcripts accumulate primarily during grain maturation and germination/post germination. The corresponding proteins were expressed in E. coli and purified, but only one, CcCP4, which has a KDDL/KDEL C-terminal sequence, was found to be active after a short acid treatment. QRT-PCR expression analysis of the four cysteine proteinase inhibitor genes in Robusta showed that CcCPI-1 is primarily expressed in developing and germinating grain and CcCPI-4 is very highly expressed during the late post germination period, as well as in mature, but not immature leaves. Transcripts corresponding to CcCPI-2 and CcCPI-3 were detected in most tissues examined at relatively similar, but generally low levels. Several cysteine proteinase and cysteine proteinase inhibitor genes with strong, relatively specific expression during coffee grain maturation and germination are presented. The temporal expression of the CcCP1 gene suggests it is involved in modifying proteins during late grain maturation and germination. The expression pattern of CcCP4, and its close identity with KDEL containing CP proteins, implies this proteinase may play a role in protein and/or cell remodelling during late grain germination, and that it is likely to play a strong role in the programmed cell death

  3. Trypanosoma cruzi: insights into naphthoquinone effects on growth and proteinase activity.

    PubMed

    Bourguignon, Saulo C; Cavalcanti, Danielle F B; de Souza, Alessandra M T; Castro, Helena C; Rodrigues, Carlos R; Albuquerque, Magaly G; Santos, Dilvani O; da Silva, Gabriel Gomes; da Silva, Fernando C; Ferreira, Vitor F; de Pinho, Rosa T; Alves, Carlos R

    2011-01-01

    In this study we compared the effects of naphthoquinones (α-lapachone, β-lapachone, nor-β-lapachone and Epoxy-α-lap) on growth of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes forms, and on viability of VERO cells. In addition we also experimentally analyzed the most active compounds inhibitory profile against T. cruzi serine- and cysteine-proteinases activity and theoretically evaluated them against cruzain, the major T. cruzi cysteine proteinase by using a molecular docking approach. Our results confirmed β-lapachone and Epoxy-α-lap with a high trypanocidal activity in contrast to α-lapachone and nor-β-lapachone whereas Epoxy-α-lap presented the safest toxicity profile against VERO cells. Interestingly the evaluation of the active compounds effects against T. cruzi cysteine- and serine-proteinases activities revealed different targets for these molecules. β-Lapachone is able to inhibit the cysteine-proteinase activity of T. cruzi proteic whole extract and of cruzain, similar to E-64, a classical cysteine-proteinase inhibitor. Differently, Epoxy-α-lap inhibited the T. cruzi serine-proteinase activity, similar to PMSF, a classical serine-proteinase inhibitor. In agreement to these biological profiles in the enzymatic assays, our theoretical analysis showed that E-64 and β-lapachone interact with the cruzain specific S2 pocket and active site whereas Epoxy-α-lap showed no important interactions. Overall, our results infer that β-lapachone and Epoxy-α-lap compounds may inhibit T. cruzi epimastigotes growth by affecting T. cruzi different proteinases. Thus the present data shows the potential of these compounds as prototype of protease inhibitors on drug design studies for developing new antichagasic compounds.

  4. [Properties of Bacillus pumilus subtilisin like proteinase secreted from recombinant strain on different growth stages].

    PubMed

    Balaban, N P; Danilova, Iu V; Shamsutdinov, T R; Mardanova, A M; Cheremin, A M; Rudenskaia, G N; Sharipova, M R

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus 3-19 glutamylendopeptidase has been isolated from culture liquid of Bacillus subtilis recombinant strain on different growth stages: growth retardation (early enzyme) and stationary phase (late enzyme). The effect of purified proteinase of different growth stages on insulin beta-chain, protein and oligopeptide substrates has been studied. Comparative study of physicochemical properties of early and late proteinases was carried out. Two protein fractions were different in catalytic characteristics and demonstrated different sensitivity to the presence of metal cations.

  5. [Activity dynamics of proteinases and glycosidases of fish chymus with exposure in fresh and brackish water].

    PubMed

    Kuz'mina, V V; Shekhovtsova, N V; Bolobonina, V E

    2010-01-01

    Activity of proteinases of the content of intestines (chymus) of the benthos-eater Carassius carassius fed different diets during prolonged exposure to water is studied. In the process of exposure of the chymus to water, the activity of proteinases decreases. Activity of glycosidases may increase, maximally during the first three days of exposure. This phenomenon suggests the important role of enzymes of the enteral microflora in processes of destruction of proteinaceous and carbohydrate components of the suspension and especially of organic detritus.

  6. Cephalopod vision involves dicarboxylic amino acids: D-aspartate, L-aspartate and L-glutamate

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we report the finding of high concentrations of D-Asp (D-aspartate) in the retina of the cephalopods Sepia officinalis, Loligo vulgaris and Octopus vulgaris. D-Asp increases in concentration in the retina and optic lobes as the animal develops. In neonatal S. officinalis, the concentration of D-Asp in the retina is 1.8±0.2 μmol/g of tissue, and in the optic lobes it is 5.5±0.4 μmol/g of tissue. In adult animals, D-Asp is found at a concentration of 3.5±0.4 μmol/g in retina and 16.2±1.5 μmol/g in optic lobes (1.9-fold increased in the retina, and 2.9-fold increased in the optic lobes). In the retina and optic lobes of S. officinalis, the concentration of D-Asp, L-Asp (L-aspartate) and L-Glu (L-glutamate) is significantly influenced by the light/dark environment. In adult animals left in the dark, these three amino acids fall significantly in concentration in both retina (approx. 25% less) and optic lobes (approx. 20% less) compared with the control animals (animals left in a diurnal/nocturnal physiological cycle). The reduction in concentration is in all cases statistically significant (P=0.01–0.05). Experiments conducted in S. officinalis by using D-[2,3-3H]Asp have shown that D-Asp is synthesized in the optic lobes and is then transported actively into the retina. D-aspartate racemase, an enzyme which converts L-Asp into D-Asp, is also present in these tissues, and it is significantly decreased in concentration in animals left for 5 days in the dark compared with control animals. Our hypothesis is that the dicarboxylic amino acids, D-Asp, L-Asp and L-Glu, play important roles in vision. PMID:15491279

  7. Fourier analysis for rotating-element ellipsometers.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong Jai; Chegal, Won; Cho, Hyun Mo

    2011-01-15

    We introduce a Fourier analysis of the waveform of periodic light-irradiance variation to capture Fourier coefficients for multichannel rotating-element ellipsometers. In this analysis, the Fourier coefficients for a sample are obtained using a discrete Fourier transform on the exposures. The analysis gives a generic function that encompasses the discrete Fourier transform or the Hadamard transform, depending on the specific conditions. Unlike the Hadamard transform, a well-known data acquisition method that is used only for conventional multichannel rotating-element ellipsometers with line arrays with specific readout-mode timing, this Fourier analysis is applicable to various line arrays with either nonoverlap or overlap readout-mode timing. To assess the effects of the novel Fourier analysis, the Fourier coefficients for a sample were measured with a custom-built rotating-polarizer ellipsometer, using this Fourier analysis with various numbers of scans, integration times, and rotational speeds of the polarizer.

  8. Effects of chymostatin and other proteinase inhibitors on protein breakdown and proteolytic activities in muscle

    PubMed Central

    Libby, Peter; Goldberg, Alfred L.

    1980-01-01

    To learn more about the enzymes involved in protein catabolism in skeletal and cardiac muscle and to identify selective inhibitors of this process, we studied the effects of proteinase inhibitors on protein turnover in isolated muscles and on proteolytic activities in muscle homogenates. Chymostatin (20μm) decreased protein breakdown by 20–40% in leg muscles from normal rodents and also in denervated and dystrophic muscles. These results are similar to our previous findings with leupeptin. The related inhibitors pepstatin, bestatin, and elastatinal did not decrease protein breakdown; antipain slowed this process in rat hind-limb muscles but not in diaphragm. Chymostatin did not decrease protein synthesis and thus probably retards proteolysis by a specific effect on cell proteinase(s). In homogenates of rat muscle, chymostatin, in common with leupeptin and antipain, inhibits the lysosomal proteinase cathepsin B, and the soluble Ca2+-activated proteinase. In addition, chymostatin, but not leupeptin, inhibits the chymotrypsin-like proteinase apparent in muscle homogenates. In muscles depleted of most of this activity by treatment with the mast-cell-degranulating agent 48/80, chymostatin still decreased protein breakdown. Therefore inhibition of this alkaline activity probably does not account for the decrease in protein breakdown. These results are consistent with a lysosomal site of action for chymostatin. Because of its lack of toxicity, chymostatin may be useful in maintaining tissues in vitro and perhaps in decreasing muscle atrophy in vivo. PMID:7406880

  9. General up regulation of Spodoptera frugiperda trypsins and chymotrypsins allows its adaptation to soybean proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Brioschi, Daniela; Nadalini, Larissa D; Bengtson, Mario H; Sogayar, Mari Cleide; Moura, Daniel S; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

    2007-12-01

    The existence of a diverse serine proteinase gene family in lepidopteran insects suggests they play a significant role in the insect adaptation to plant proteinase inhibitors. These proteinases have been shown to be involved in the process of proteolytic digestion in insect larvae. We carried out a selective transcriptome study of midguts from Spodoptera frugiperda larvae fed on a diet supplemented with soybean proteinase inhibitor (SPI). Using subtracted cDNA libraries made of gut-expressed transcripts, a total of 2100 partial sequences were obtained, of those 38% were related to digestive process. Two large and diverse groups of chymotrypsins and trypsins were obtained, and some of these proteinase-encoding genes were further characterized by quantitative RT-PCR. The transcription analyses revealed two groups: one group of genes constitutively expressed in the control larvae that is up regulated by introducing SPI to the diet, and a second group that is absent in the control but is induced by the SPI-rich diet. This observation suggests that adaptation of S. frugiperda to SPI involves de novo synthesis and also up regulation of existing enzymes. Proteases from intestines of larvae reared on a diet with SPI showed insensitivity to the inhibitor. The proteases were also insensitive to a broad-spectrum potato proteinase inhibitor preparation. We propose that adaptation of S. frugiperda to SPI follows a "shotgun" approach, based on a general up regulation of a large set of endoproteinases.

  10. Bitter gourd proteinase inhibitors: potential growth inhibitors of Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Telang, Manasi; Srinivasan, Ajay; Patankar, Aparna; Harsulkar, Abhay; Joshi, Vijay; Damle, Archana; Deshpande, Vasanti; Sainani, Mohini; Ranjekar, Prabhakar; Gupta, Gorakh; Birah, Ajanta; Rani, Seema; Kachole, Manavendra; Giri, Ashok; Gupta, Vidya

    2003-07-01

    Proteinase inhibitors (PIs) from the seeds of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) were identified as strong inhibitors of Helicoverpa armigera gut proteinases (HGP). Biochemical investigations showed that bitter gourd PIs (BGPIs) inhibited more than 80% HGP activity. Electrophoretic analysis revealed the presence of two major proteins (BGPI-1 and-2) and two minor proteins (BGPI-3 and-4) having inhibitory activity against both trypsin and HGP. The major isoforms BGPI-1 and BGPI-2 have molecular mass of 3.5 and 3.0 kDa, respectively. BGPIs inhibited HGP activity of larvae fed on different host plants, on artificial diet with or without added PIs and proteinases excreted in fecal matter. Degradation of BGPI-1 by HGP showed direct correlation with accumulation of BGPI-2-like peptide, which remained stable and active against high concentrations of HGP up to 3 h. Chemical inhibitors of serine proteinases offered partial protection to BGPI-1 from degradation by HGP, suggesting that trypsin and chymotrypsin like proteinases are involved in degradation of BGPI-1. In larval feeding studies, BGPIs were found to retard growth and development of two lepidopteran pests namely Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura. This is the first report showing that BGPIs mediated inhibition of insect gut proteinases directly affects fertility and fecundity of both H. armigera and S. litura. The results advocate use of BGPIs to introduce insect resistance in otherwise susceptible plants.

  11. Involement of an acrosinlike proteinase in the sulfhydryl-induced degradation of rabbit sperm nuclear protamine

    PubMed Central

    Zirkin, BR; Chang, TSK; Heaps, J

    1980-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that proteolytic activity is associated with isolated rabbit sperm nuclei and is responsible for the degradation of nuclear protamine that occurs during thiol-induced in vitro decondensation of the nuclei (Zirkin and Chang, 1977; Chang and Zirkin, 1978). In this study, we present the results of experiments designed to characterize this proteolytic activity. Basic protein isolated from rabbit sperm nuclei incubated with 5 mM dithiothreitol (DTT) and 1 percent Triton X-100 for increasing periods of time exhibited progressively faster migrating bands on acid-urea polyacrylamide gels, reflection the progressive degradation of protamine. Ultimately, a specific and characteristic peptide banding pattern resulted. When sperm nuclei were treated with the esterase inhibitor nitrophenyl-p-guanidino benzoate (NPGB) to inhibit the nuclear-associated proteolytic activity and then incubated with one of several exogenous proteinases in addition to DTT and Triton X-100, characteristic peptide banding patterns were seen for each exogenous proteinase employed. For trypsin, chymotrypsin, pronase, and papain, the peptide banding patterns differed from one another and from the pattern characteristic of protamine degradation by the nuclear-associated proteinase. By contrast, when rabbit acrosin served as the exogenous proteinase, the peptide banding pattern seen was identical to the pattern characteristic of the nuclear-associated proteinase. These results demonstrate directly that the proteinase associated with rabbit sperm nuclei and involved in sperm nuclear decondensation in vitro is acrosinlike. PMID:6988441

  12. A serine proteinase of an archaebacterium, Halobacterium mediterranei. A homologue of eubacterial subtilisins.

    PubMed Central

    Stepanov, V M; Rudenskaya, G N; Revina, L P; Gryaznova, Y B; Lysogorskaya, E N; Filippova IYu; Ivanova, I I

    1992-01-01

    A homogeneous serine proteinase secreted by the extreme halophilic bacterium Halobacterium mediterranei 1538 was isolated by affinity chromatography on bacitracin-Sepharose with a yield of 48% (260-fold purification). The enzyme reveals an optimum for pyroglutamyl-Ala-Ala-Leu p-nitroanilide hydrolysis at pH 8.0-8.5 (Km 0.14 mM; k(cat). 36.9 s-1). Its activity increases linearly with NaCl concentration over the range 2-5 M. The substrate specificity of the enzyme is comparable with that of secretory subtilisins, the extent of protein degradation approaching that attained with proteinase K. The enzyme has a molecular mass of 41 kDa and a pI of 7.5. The N-terminal sequence of H. mediterranei serine proteinase reveals a 50% identity with that of Thermoactinomyces vulgaris serine proteinases, indicating that the enzyme belongs to the subtilisin family. Hence the serine proteinase secreted by the halophilic bacterium should be considered as a functional analogue, and a structural homologue, of eubacterial serine proteinases (subtilisins). Images Fig. 3. PMID:1637313

  13. Serine proteinase inhibitors in the Compositae: distribution, polymorphism and properties.

    PubMed

    Konarev, Alexander V; Anisimova, Irina N; Gavrilova, V A; Vachrusheva, T E; Konechnaya, G Yu; Lewis, Mervyn; Shewry, Peter R

    2002-02-01

    Multiple molecular forms of inhibitors of trypsin (TI) and chymotrypsin (CI), which are typical digestive enzymes of insects, mammals and micro-organisms, and subtilisin (SI), a proteinase of many bacteria and phytopathogenic fungi, were identified in seeds and vegetative organs of the majority of 128 wild and cultivated species representing 65 genera of three of the subfamilies of the Compositae. Inhibitors with M(r) ranging from 7450 to 7800 and combining activities towards subtilisin and trypsin and/or chymotrypsin (T/C/SI) had the widest distribution and may be involved in plant defense mechanisms. They were found in many species of the subfamilies Carduoideae (genera Carthamus, Centaurea, Cirsium), Cichorioideae (Lactuca, Taraxacum) and Asteroideae (Helianthus, Cosmos, Bidens). Partial amino acid sequencing showed that the safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) T/C/SI and Cosmos bipinnatus T/C/SI, T/SI and C/SI belonged to the potato I inhibitor family. The most active, variable and heterogeneous inhibitors were found in species of the tribe Heliantheae, which is placed in the evolutionary advanced subfamily Asteroideae. Seeds of Helianthus species, Eclipta prostrata, Gailardia aristata, Zinnia elegans and Silphium perfoliatum contained various TI with M(r) ranging from 1500 to 14,750, with some also containing SI. H. annuus seeds contain a unique cyclic TI of M(r) 1514 and similar TI were also present in other Helianthus spp. and the related species Tithonia diversifolia. Zinnia elegans contained a TI with M(r) 11,350 which appeared to represent a novel type of inhibitor distantly related to the cereal subgroup of Bowman-Birk inhibitors. TI and T/SI varied widely in H. annuus lines and wild Helianthus species in their presence or absence and composition. Similar T/SI components were found in the cultivated diploid H. annuus and annual diploid species with the B genome but not in perennials with the A genome. Some T/SI, SI and TI were detected in vegetative organs

  14. Gamma irradiation or hydrocortisone treatment of rats increases the proteinase activity associated with histones of thymus nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kutsyi, M.P.; Gaziev, A.I.

    1994-11-01

    An increase in the activity of histone-associated rat thymus nucleus proteinases specific for histones H2A, H2B and H1 was shown after {gamma} irradiation or hydrocortisone treatment of animals. Histone H1-specific proteinase activity is dependent on DNA and increases in the presence of denatured DNA, whereas proteinases specific for core histones are inhibited in the presence of denatured DNA. The increase in the activity of histone-associated proteinases depends on the radiation dose and the time after irradiation or hydrocortisone injection. In the presence of dithiothreitol and sodium dodecyl sulfate, these proteinases dissociate from histones. It was found by gel electrophoresis that several proteinases of various molecular masses are closely associated with histones obtained from thymus nuclei of irradiated or hydrocortisone-treated rats. 43 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Purification and characterization of a subtilisin-like proteinases secreted in the stationary growth phase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H2.

    PubMed

    Balaban, N P; Malikova, L A; Mardanova, A M; Rudenskaya, G N; Sharipova, M R

    2007-04-01

    Proteinases secreted during the early and late stationary phases have been isolated from the culture liquid of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H2 using CM-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography with subsequent FPLC on a Mono S column. Considering the character of hydrolysis of specific chromogenic substrates and the type of inhibition, these enzymes were identified as subtilisin-like proteinases. The molecular weight of both proteinases is 29 kD. The proteolytic activity of the proteinases secreted during the early and late stationary phases towards the synthetic substrate Z-Ala-Ala-Leu-pNA was maximal at pH 8.5 and 9.0, respectively. The maximal activity of both proteinases was observed at 37 degrees C, and the proteins were stable within the pH range of 7.2-9.5. The subtilisin-like proteinases from B. amyloliquefaciens were shown to catalyze synthesis of peptide bonds.

  16. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  17. Fourier methods for turbomachinery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, L.

    2010-11-01

    Rapid increase in computing power has made a huge difference in scales and complexities of the problems in turbomachinery that we can tackle by use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). It is recognised, however, that there is always a need for developing efficient methods for applications to blade designs. In a design cycle, a large number of flow solutions are sought to interact iteratively or concurrently with various options, opportunities and constraints from other disciplines. This basic requirement for fast prediction methods in a multi-disciplinary design environment remains unchanged, regardless of computer speed. And it must be recognised that the multi-disciplinary nature of blading design increasingly influences outcomes of advanced gas turbine and aeroengine developments. Recently there has been considerable progress in the Fourier harmonic modelling method development for turbomachinery applications. The main driver is to develop efficient and accurate computational methodologies and working methods for prediction and analysis of unsteady effects on aerothermal performance (loading and efficiency) and aeroelasticity (blade vibration due to flutter and forced response) in turbomachinery. In this article, the developments and applications of this type of methods in the past 20 years or so are reviewed. The basic modelling assumptions and various forms of implementations for the temporal Fourier modelling approach are presented and discussed. Computational examples for realistic turbomachinery configurations/flow conditions are given to illustrate the validity and effectiveness of the approach. Although the major development has been in the temporal Fourier harmonic modelling, some recent progress in use of the spatial Fourier modelling is also described with demonstration examples.

  18. Subharmonic Fourier domain mode locking.

    PubMed

    Eigenwillig, Christoph M; Wieser, Wolfgang; Biedermann, Benjamin R; Huber, Robert

    2009-03-15

    We demonstrate a subharmonically Fourier domain mode-locked wavelength-swept laser source with a substantially reduced cavity fiber length. In contrast to a standard Fourier domain mode-locked configuration, light is recirculated repetitively in the delay line with the optical bandpass filter used as switch. The laser has a fundamental optical round trip frequency of 285 kHz and can be operated at integer fractions thereof (subharmonics). Sweep ranges up to 95 nm full width centred at 1317 nm are achieved at the 1/5th subharmonic. A maximum sensitivity of 116 dB and an axial resolution of 12 microm in air are measured at an average sweep power of 12 mW. A sensitivity roll-off of 11 dB over 4 mm and 25 dB over 10 mm is observed and optical coherence tomography imaging is demonstrated. Besides the advantage of a reduced fiber length, subharmonic Fourier domain mode locking (shFDML) enables simple scaling of the sweep speed by extracting light from the delay part of the resonator. A sweep rate of 570 kHz is achieved. Characteristic features of shFDML operation, such as power leakage during fly-back and cw breakthrough, are investigated.

  19. Fourier Analysis of Blazar Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finke, Justin D.; Becker, Peter A.

    2014-08-01

    Blazars display strong variability on multiple timescales and in multiple radiation bands. Their variability is often characterized by power spectral densities (PSDs) and time lags plotted as functions of the Fourier frequency. We develop a new theoretical model based on the analysis of the electron transport (continuity) equation, carried out in the Fourier domain. The continuity equation includes electron cooling and escape, and a derivation of the emission properties includes light travel time effects associated with a radiating blob in a relativistic jet. The model successfully reproduces the general shapes of the observed PSDs and predicts specific PSD and time lag behaviors associated with variability in the synchrotron, synchrotron self-Compton, and external Compton emission components, from submillimeter to γ-rays. We discuss applications to BL Lacertae objects and to flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), where there are hints that some of the predicted features have already been observed. We also find that FSRQs should have steeper γ-ray PSD power-law indices than BL Lac objects at Fourier frequencies <~ 10-4 Hz, in qualitative agreement with previously reported observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope.

  20. Aspartate aminotransferase and tylosin biosynthesis in Streptomyces fradiae.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S H; Lee, K J

    1993-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase as well as valine dehydrogenase and threonine dehydratase was required for the biosynthesis of tylosin in Streptomyces fradiae NRRL 2702. The biosynthesis of these enzymes and tylosin production were repressed by high concentrations of ammonium ions. The change in specific tylosin production rates in batch cultures with different initial concentrations of ammonium ions showed patterns similar to those of the specific production rates of aspartate aminotransferase, valine dehydrogenase, and threonine dehydratase. Aspartate aminotransferase has been purified by acetone precipitation, DEAE-cellulose, hydroxyapatite, and preparative electrophoresis chromatographies. The purified enzyme (120 kDa) consisted of two subunits identical in molecular mass (54 kDa) and showed homogeneity, giving one band with a pI of 4.2 upon preparative isoelectric focusing. The enzyme was specific for L-aspartate in the forward reaction; the Km values were determined to be 2.7 mM for L-aspartate, 0.7 mM for 2-oxyglutarate, 12.8 mM for L-glutamate, and 0.15 mM for oxaloacetate. The enzyme was somewhat thermostable, having a maximum activity at 55 degrees C, and had a broad pH optimum that ranged from 5.5 to 8.0. The mode of action was a ping-pong-bi-bi mechanism. Images PMID:8481008

  1. Aspartate-Derived Amino Acid Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Jander, Georg; Joshi, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    The aspartate-derived amino acid pathway in plants leads to the biosynthesis of lysine, methionine, threonine, and isoleucine. These four amino acids are essential in the diets of humans and other animals, but are present in growth-limiting quantities in some of the world's major food crops. Genetic and biochemical approaches have been used for the functional analysis of almost all Arabidopsis thaliana enzymes involved in aspartate-derived amino acid biosynthesis. The branch-point enzymes aspartate kinase, dihydrodipicolinate synthase, homoserine dehydrogenase, cystathionine gamma synthase, threonine synthase, and threonine deaminase contain well-studied sites for allosteric regulation by pathway products and other plant metabolites. In contrast, relatively little is known about the transcriptional regulation of amino acid biosynthesis and the mechanisms that are used to balance aspartate-derived amino acid biosynthesis with other plant metabolic needs. The aspartate-derived amino acid pathway provides excellent examples of basic research conducted with A. thaliana that has been used to improve the nutritional quality of crop plants, in particular to increase the accumulation of lysine in maize and methionine in potatoes.

  2. Proteinase 3-ANCA Vasculitis versus Myeloperoxidase-ANCA Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Hilhorst, Marc; van Paassen, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    In patients with GN or vasculitis, ANCAs are directed against proteinase 3 (PR3) or myeloperoxidase (MPO). The differences between PR3-ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) and MPO-AAV described in the past have been supplemented during the last decade. In this review, we discuss the differences between these two small-vessel vasculitides, focusing especially on possible etiologic and pathophysiologic differences. PR3-AAV is more common in northern parts of the world, whereas MPO-AAV is more common in southern regions of Europe, Asia, and the Pacific, with the exception of New Zealand and Australia. A genetic contribution has been extensively studied, and there is a high prevalence of the HLA-DPB1*04:01 allele in patients with PR3-AAV as opposed to patients with MPO-AAV and/or healthy controls. Histologically, MPO-AAV and PR3-AAV are similar but show qualitative differences when analyzed carefully. Clinically, both serotypes are difficult to distinguish, but quantitative differences are present. More organs are affected in PR3-AAV, whereas renal limited vasculitis occurs more often in patients with MPO-AAV. For future clinical trials, we advocate classifying patients by ANCA serotype as opposed to the traditional disease type classification. PMID:25956510

  3. Conformational Plasticity of the 2A Proteinase from Enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qixu; Yameen, Muhammad; Liu, Weihua; Gao, Zhenting; Li, Yaozong; Peng, Xuanjia; Cai, Yaxian; Wu, Caiming; Zheng, Qian

    2013-01-01

    The 2A proteinase (2Apro) is an enterovirally encoded cysteine protease that plays essential roles in both the processing of viral precursor polyprotein and the hijacking of host cell translation and other processes in the virus life cycle. Crystallographic studies of 2Apro from enterovirus 71 (EV71) and its interaction with the substrate are reported here. EV71 2Apro was comprised of an N-terminal domain of a four-stranded antiparallel β sheet and a C-terminal domain of a six-stranded antiparallel β barrel with a tightly bound zinc atom. Unlike in other 2Apro structures, there is an open cleft across the surface of the protein in an open conformation. As demonstrated by the crystallographic studies and modeling of the complex structure, the open cleft could be fitted with the substrate. On comparison 2Apro of EV71 to those of the human rhinovirus 2 and coxsackievirus B4, the open conformation could be closed with a hinge motion in the bII2 and cII β strands. This was supported by molecular dynamic simulation. The structural variation among different 2Apro structures indicates a conformational flexibility in the substrate-binding cleft. The open structure provides an accessible framework for the design and development of therapeutics against the viral target. PMID:23616646

  4. Proteinase 3, Wegener's autoantigen: from gene to antigen.

    PubMed

    van der Geld, Y M; Limburg, P C; Kallenberg, C G

    2001-02-01

    Proteinase 3 (PR3) is one of four serine protease homologues in the azurophilic granules of neutrophils and granules of monocytes. It is of importance that anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) are mainly directed against PR3 only. Furthermore, PR3 is overexpressed in a variety of acute and chronic myeloid leukemia cells. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for a PR3-derived peptide have been shown to specifically lyse leukemia cells that overexpress PR3. This review will focus on PR3 and the characteristics of PR3 that might implicate this particular antigen in the pathogenesis of WG and as target for immunotherapy in myeloid leukemias. We will discuss the genetic localization and gene regulation of PR3, the processing, storage, and expression of the PR3 protein, and the physiological functions of PR3, and compare this with the three other neutrophil-derived serine proteases: human leukocyte elastase, cathepsin G, and azurocidin. Three main differences are described between PR3 and the other serine proteases. This makes PR3 a very intriguing protein with a large array of physiological functions, some of which may play a role in ANCA-associated vasculitidis and myeloid leukemia.

  5. Interference of Wegener's granulomatosis autoantibodies with neutrophil Proteinase 3 activity.

    PubMed Central

    van de Wiel, B A; Dolman, K M; van der Meer-Gerritsen, C H; Hack, C E; von dem Borne, A E; Goldschmeding, R

    1992-01-01

    Classic anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (C-ANCA) are disease-specific markers of Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). The possible pathogenetic role of these autoantibodies, which are directed against Proteinase 3 (PR3), is not yet clear. We studied the effect of C-ANCA on PR3 proteolytic activity and on the complexation of PR3 with alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT). C-ANCA IgG from eight patients with active WG significantly inhibited PR3 proteolytic activity, particularly towards elastin (median 84.2% inhibition). C-ANCA IgG significantly inhibited the complexation of PR3 with alpha 1AT (median 58.8% inhibition). Moreover, addition of purified PR3 to C-ANCA-positive sera from WG patients yielded less complexes with alpha 1AT (median 44.8%) compared with sera containing perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (P-ANCA) or ANCA-negative sera. These findings indicate the existence of a hitherto unknown property of C-ANCA, which may be of importance in the pathogenesis of WG. PMID:1458677

  6. From Fourier optics to integrative engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we present technical evolution at Physical Optics Corporation (POC), from Fourier Optics, inspired by Professor Joseph Goodman's classic book: Introduction to Fourier Optics, to recent directions at POC, related to socalled "Integrative Engineering."

  7. Phospholipase and proteinase activities of Candida spp. isolates from vulvovaginitis in Iran.

    PubMed

    Shirkhani, S; Sepahvand, A; Mirzaee, M; Anbari, K

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to characterize phospholipase and proteinase activities of Candida isolates from 82 vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and to study the relationship of these activities with vulvovaginitis. Totally 82 Candida isolates from vagina samples of VVC patients were randomly collected over the period between September and December 2014 from hospitalized patients at the general hospitals of Lorestan province, Iran. Isolates were previously identified by conventional mycological methods. The phospholipase and proteinase activities were evaluated by Egg yolk agar, Tween 80 opacity medium and agar plate methods. The most common Candida species was identified Candida albicans (n=34, 41.5%), followed by Candida famata (n=13, 15.8%), Candida tropicalis (n=11, 13.4%), and Candida parapsilosis (n=9, 11%). The most phospholipase activity was observed in Candida colliculosa (40%), followed by C. famata (38.5%), and Candida krusei (33.3%). The findings revealed that the correlation between phospholipase production by Candida spp. and the presence of VVC was not found to be statistically significant (P=0.91). All Candida spp. exhibited considerable proteinase activity; so that 100% of C. colliculosa, C. parapsilosis, Candida kefyr, and Candida intermedia isolates produced high proteinase activity with Pz 4+ scores. There was a significant correlation between proteinase production by Candida spp. and the presence of VVC (P=0.009). The obtained findings revealed that Candida spp. isolates may produce both virulence factors, phospholipase and proteinase. Although the phospholipase production was only observed in <40% of the isolates; however there was a significant association between proteinase production by Candida spp. and VVC. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Poliovirus polypeptide precursors: expression in vitro and processing by exogenous 3C and 2A proteinases.

    PubMed Central

    Nicklin, M J; Kräusslich, H G; Toyoda, H; Dunn, J J; Wimmer, E

    1987-01-01

    Plasmids have been constructed to generate substrates for the study of proteinases 2A and 3C of poliovirus. They contain the P1 (capsomer precursor) region of the poliovirus genome or P1 and part of P2 (a nonstructural precursor), which can be transcribed and translated in vitro. A transcript containing the entire 5' nontranslated region and the P1 region of the viral RNA gave poor translation in a reticulocyte translation system. Truncation of the 5' nontranslated region to its 3'-most segment gave acceptably good yields of radiolabeled P1. P1 was specifically processed to yield capsomer proteins by enzymes supplied in a postmitochondrial supernatant from poliovirus-infected cells. Thus, proteinase 3C can be supplied exogenously (in trans) and effect processing. This system may be used to provide P1 for the assay of proteinase 3C. Precursors that lacked either the 1A or 1D regions were poor substrates for proteinase 3C--observations that demonstrated a stringent structural requirement in processing by 3C. The translation product of a transcript encoding P1 and part of P2 was rapidly cleaved at the P1-P2 site in the absence of infected-cell extract. A transcript that contained a mutated 2A region gave a stable P1-P2 precursor that could be processed specifically by exogenous proteinase from infected-cell fractions. Processing of P1 appeared to require cleavage of the P1-P2 bond. These results support our previous data that 2A is the second polioviral proteinase and also provides a means of assaying proteinase 2A in vitro. Images PMID:3035560

  9. Trichomonas vaginalis surface proteinase activity is necessary for parasite adherence to epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, R; Alderete, J F

    1989-01-01

    The role of cysteine proteinases in adherence of Trichomonas vaginalis NYH 286 to HeLa and human vaginal epithelial cells was evaluated. Only pretreatment of trichomonads, but not epithelial cells, with N-alpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK), an inhibitor of trichomonad cysteine proteinases, greatly diminished the ability of T. vaginalis to recognize and bind to epithelial cells. Leupeptin and L-1-tosylamide-2-phenylethyl chloromethyl ketone, other cysteine proteinase inhibitors, also decreased T. vaginalis cytadherence. Parasites incubated with TLCK and washed extensively still did not adhere to cells at levels equal to those seen for control trichomonads treated with phosphate-buffered saline or culture medium alone. Exposure of TLCK-treated organisms with other cysteine proteinases restored cytadherence levels, indicating that proteinase action on the parasite surface is prerequisite for host cell attachment. Concentrations of TLCK which inhibited cytadherence did not alter the metabolism of T. vaginalis, as determined by metabolic labeling of trichomonad proteins; the protein patterns of T. vaginalis in the presence and absence of TLCK were identical. Kinetics of TLCK-mediated inhibition of cytadherence of other T. vaginalis isolates with different levels of epithelial-cell parasitism were similar to the concentration-dependent inhibition seen for isolate NYH 286. Incubation of TLCK-treated, washed organisms in growth medium resulted in regeneration of adherence. Finally, treatment of T. vaginalis organisms with proteinase inhibitors for abrogation of cytadherence effectively rendered the trichomonads unable to kill host cells, which is consistent with the contact-dependent nature of host cytotoxicity. These data show for the first time the involvement of T. vaginalis cysteine proteinases in parasite attachment to human epithelial cells. These results have implications for future pharmacologic intervention at a key step in infection. PMID:2789190

  10. Trichomonas vaginalis surface proteinase activity is necessary for parasite adherence to epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, R; Alderete, J F

    1989-10-01

    The role of cysteine proteinases in adherence of Trichomonas vaginalis NYH 286 to HeLa and human vaginal epithelial cells was evaluated. Only pretreatment of trichomonads, but not epithelial cells, with N-alpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK), an inhibitor of trichomonad cysteine proteinases, greatly diminished the ability of T. vaginalis to recognize and bind to epithelial cells. Leupeptin and L-1-tosylamide-2-phenylethyl chloromethyl ketone, other cysteine proteinase inhibitors, also decreased T. vaginalis cytadherence. Parasites incubated with TLCK and washed extensively still did not adhere to cells at levels equal to those seen for control trichomonads treated with phosphate-buffered saline or culture medium alone. Exposure of TLCK-treated organisms with other cysteine proteinases restored cytadherence levels, indicating that proteinase action on the parasite surface is prerequisite for host cell attachment. Concentrations of TLCK which inhibited cytadherence did not alter the metabolism of T. vaginalis, as determined by metabolic labeling of trichomonad proteins; the protein patterns of T. vaginalis in the presence and absence of TLCK were identical. Kinetics of TLCK-mediated inhibition of cytadherence of other T. vaginalis isolates with different levels of epithelial-cell parasitism were similar to the concentration-dependent inhibition seen for isolate NYH 286. Incubation of TLCK-treated, washed organisms in growth medium resulted in regeneration of adherence. Finally, treatment of T. vaginalis organisms with proteinase inhibitors for abrogation of cytadherence effectively rendered the trichomonads unable to kill host cells, which is consistent with the contact-dependent nature of host cytotoxicity. These data show for the first time the involvement of T. vaginalis cysteine proteinases in parasite attachment to human epithelial cells. These results have implications for future pharmacologic intervention at a key step in infection.

  11. Alkaline proteinase inhibitor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a mutational and molecular dynamics study of the role of N-terminal residues in the inhibition of Pseudomonas alkaline proteinase.

    PubMed

    Feltzer, Rhona E; Trent, John O; Gray, Robert D

    2003-07-11

    Alkaline proteinase inhibitor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a 11.5-kDa, high affinity inhibitor of the serralysin class of zinc-dependent proteinases secreted by several Gram-negative bacteria. X-ray crystallography of the proteinase-inhibitor complex reveals that five N-terminal inhibitor residues occupy the extended substrate binding site of the enzyme and that the catalytic zinc is chelated by the alpha-amino and carbonyl groups of the N-terminal residue of the inhibitor. In this study, we assessed the effect of alteration of inhibitor residues 2-5 on its affinity for Pseudomonas alkaline proteinase (APR) as derived from the ratio of the dissociation and associate rate constants for formation of the enzyme-inhibitor complex. The largest effect was observed at position Ser-2, which occupies the S1' pocket of the enzyme and donates a hydrogen bond to the carboxyl group of the catalytic Glu-177 of the proteinase. Substitution of Asp, Arg, or Trp at this position increased the dissociation constant KD by 35-, 180-, and 13-fold, respectively. Mutation at positions 3-5 of the trunk also resulted in a reduction in enzyme-inhibitor affinity, with the exception of an I4W mutant, which exhibited a 3-fold increase in affinity. Molecular dynamics simulation of the complex formation between the catalytic domain of APR and the S2D mutant showed that the carboxyl of Asp-2 interacts with the catalytic zinc, thereby partially neutralizing the negative charge that otherwise would clash with the carboxyl group of Glu-177 of APR. Simulation of the interaction between the alkaline proteinase and the I4W mutant revealed a major shift in the loop comprised of residues 189-200 of the enzyme that allowed formation of a stacking interaction between the aromatic rings of Ile-4 of the inhibitor and Tyr-158 of the proteinase. This new interaction could account for the observed increase in enzyme-inhibitor affinity.

  12. Kinetic analysis of a general model of activation of aspartic proteinase zymogens involving a reversible inhibitor. II. Contribution of the uni- and bimolecular activation routes.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-López, A; Sotos-Lomas, A; Arribas, E; Escribano, J; Masia-Perez, J; Muñoz-Muñoz, J L; Varon, R

    2007-04-01

    From the kinetic study carried out in part I of this series (preceding article) an analysis quantifying the relative contribution to the global process of the uni- and bimolecular routes has been carried out. This analysis suggests a way to predict the time course of the relative contribution as well as the effect on this relative weight of the initial zymogen, inhibitor and activating enzyme concentrations.

  13. A Simple Approach to Fourier Aliasing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foadi, James

    2007-01-01

    In the context of discrete Fourier transforms the idea of aliasing as due to approximation errors in the integral defining Fourier coefficients is introduced and explained. This has the positive pedagogical effect of getting to the heart of sampling and the discrete Fourier transform without having to delve into effective, but otherwise long and…

  14. Mutation of the Myxoma virus SERP2 P1-site to prevent proteinase inhibition causes apoptosis in cultured RK-13 cells and attenuates disease in rabbits, but mutation to alter specificity causes apoptosis without reducing virulence.

    PubMed

    MacNeill, Amy L; Turner, Peter C; Moyer, Richard W

    Myxoma virus (MYX) prevents apoptosis in RK-13 cells and forms thick dermal lesions with 100% mortality in rabbits. MYX encodes the virulence factor SERP2, a serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin). SERP2 was mutated to evaluate SERP2 function during MYX infection. MYXDeltaSERP2::lacZ (deleted for SERP2) did not inhibit apoptosis in RK-13 cells; infected rabbits had thin dermal lesions and <10% mortality. MYX-SERP2-D294A, a P1-site aspartate to alanine mutant, inactivated the serpin; infection was indistinguishable from MYXDeltaSERP2::lacZ. SERP2-D294E prevented inhibition of caspase-8, caspase-10 and granzyme-B; and MYX-SERP2-D294E failed to block apoptosis in RK-13 cells, but was fully virulent in rabbits. MYXDeltaSERP2::crmA expressed crmA instead of SERP2 and inhibited apoptosis in cell culture, but caused thin lesions and only 70% mortality in rabbits, hence crmA cannot fully substitute for SERP2. Control of apoptosis in culture does not correlate with virulence in rabbits. Virulence may instead depend on inhibition of proinflammatory proteinases by SERP2.

  15. Characterization of a basic serine proteinase (pI approximately 9.5) secreted by virulent strains of Dichelobacter nodosus and identification of a distinct, but closely related, proteinase secreted by benign strains.

    PubMed Central

    Kortt, A A; Caldwell, J B; Lilley, G G; Edwards, R; Vaughan, J; Stewart, D J

    1994-01-01

    An extracellular serine proteinase with a PI approximately 9.5 (referred to as 'basic proteinase') was purified to homogeneity, from strains of Dichelobacter nodosus that cause virulent foot-rot, by gel filtration of concentrated culture supernatant on Sephadex G-100 and chromatography on sulphopropyl-Sephadex C-25 at pH 8.6 D. nodosus strains that cause benign foot-rot do not secrete a corresponding basic proteinase with a pI of approximately 9.5. Benign strains secrete a closely related, but distinct, proteinase which has the same molecular mass and N-terminal sequences as the 'virulent' basic proteinase, but a lower pI of approximately 8.6. The basic proteinases from both strains appear to interact with other proteins present in the culture medium, which results in anomalous behavior on gel filtration. Pure D. nodosus 'virulent' basic proteinase has a molecular mass of 36 kDa and showed a low solubility at I < 0.05 precipitating quantitatively from solution as microcrystals. The proteinase shows optimal activity at pH 8.0 and is stable to heating to 55 degrees C for 30 min, but at higher temperatures activity is rapidly lost. Bivalent-metal ions (e.g. Ca2+) are required to maintain the structural integrity and stability of the proteinase; in the presence of EDTA or conditions that cause protein unfolding, the proteinase undergoes rapid and complete autolysis. Cleavage of oxidized insulin A- and B-chain showed that the basic proteinase has a broad specificity, including cleavage at lysine and arginine bonds. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8172614

  16. About Fourier techniques in Spotlight SAR processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendal, Didier

    A description is given of Fourier reconstruction techniques in the Spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR) domain. The particular disposition of the Fourier data in this scanning mode does not make straightforward the fast Fourier processing and raises some fundamental interrogations. Other specific aspects are also treated, such as the consequences of a frequency shift or mixing in the Fourier plane. A Fourier data extrapolation attempt is discussed. Besides the processing descriptions and theoretic discussions, Spotlight scanning properties are emphasized by the many simulation results obtained from the convolution back-projection algorithm, adapted to the Spotlight context in harmony with the tomographic analogy of radar principles.

  17. Differential antibiosis against Helicoverpa armigera exerted by distinct inhibitory repeat domains of Capsicum annuum proteinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rakesh S; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P

    2014-05-01

    Plant defensive serine proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are known to have negative impact on digestive physiology of herbivore insects and thus have a crucial role in plant protection. Here, we have assessed the efficacy and specificity of three previously characterized inhibitory repeat domain (IRD) variants from Capsicum annuum PIs viz., IRD-7, -9 and -12 against gut proteinases from Helicoverpa armigera. Comparative study of in silico binding energy revealed that IRD-9 possesses higher affinity towards H. armigera serine proteinases as compared to IRD-7 and -12. H. armigera fed on artificial diet containing 5 TIU/g of recombinant IRD proteins exhibited differential effects on larval growth, survival rate and other nutritional parameters. Major digestive gut trypsin and chymotrypsin genes were down regulated in the IRD fed larvae, while few of them were up-regulated, this indicate alterations in insect digestive physiology. The results corroborated with proteinase activity assays and zymography. These findings suggest that the sequence variations among PIs reflect in their efficacy against proteinases in vitro and in vivo, which also could be used for developing tailor-made multi-domain inhibitor gene(s).

  18. Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors in the midgut of Phlebotomus papatasi

    PubMed Central

    Sigle, Leah Theresa; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are important disease vectors of parasites of the genus Leishmania, as well as bacteria and viruses. Following studies of the midgut transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi, the principal vector of Leishmania major, two non-classical Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors were identified (PpKzl1 and PpKzl2). Analyses of expression profiles indicated that PpKzl1 and PpKzl2 transcripts are both regulated by blood-feeding in the midgut of P. papatasi and are also expressed in males, larva and pupa. We expressed a recombinant PpKzl2 in a mammalian expression system (CHO-S free style cells) that was applied to in vitro studies to assess serine proteinase inhibition. Recombinant PpKzl2 inhibited α-chymotrypsin to 9.4% residual activity and also inhibited α-thrombin and trypsin to 33.5% and 63.9% residual activity, suggesting that native PpKzl2 is an active serine proteinase inhibitor and likely involved in regulating digestive enzymes in the midgut. Early stages of Leishmania are susceptible to killing by digestive proteinases in the sandfly midgut. Thus, characterising serine proteinase inhibitors may provide new targets and strategies to prevent transmission of Leishmania. PMID:24037187

  19. Proteinase and phospholipase activity as virulence factors in Candida species isolated from blood.

    PubMed

    Mohan das, Vinitha; Ballal, Mamatha

    2008-12-31

    The number of nosocomial blood stream infections due to Candida species has increased over the past few decades. In order to establish an infection, opportunistic pathogens have to evade the immune system, survive, divide in the host environment, and spread to other tissues. Proteinase and phospholipase secretion has been implicated as potential virulence factors for some Candida species responsible for catheter related candidemia in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with indwelling devices. We therefore have aimed at demonstrating the secretion of proteinase and phospholipase enzymes as virulent factors by Candida species isolated from blood samples collected from ICUs, dialysis units and oncology units. One hundred and fourteen isolates of Candida species were obtained from the blood samples and the isolates include 37 Candida albicans, 7 Candida glabrata, 5 Candida guilliermondii, 3 Candida kefyr, 45 Candida krusei, 5 Candida parapsilosis, and 12 Candida tropicalis. Proteinase assay was performed by using the Staib et al method. Phospholipase assay was performed by using the method of Samaranayake et al. Precipitation zone (Pz value) was determined. The percentage of isolates which produced detectable amounts of proteinase is 74.56% and 44.73% of isolates produced detectable amounts of phospholipase. We believe that production of both phospholipase and proteinase enzimes could be an important virulence factor for several Candida species.

  20. Pacifastin, a novel 155-kDa heterodimeric proteinase inhibitor containing a unique transferrin chain

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zicai; Sottrup-Jensen, Lars; Aspán, Anna; Hall, Martin; Söderhäll, Kenneth

    1997-01-01

    A 155-kDa proteinase inhibitor, pacifastin, from plasma of the freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, was found to be composed of two covalently linked subunits. The two subunits are encoded by two different mRNAs, which were cloned and sequenced. The heavy chain of pacifastin (105 kDa) is related to transferrins, containing three transferrin lobes, two of which seem to be active for iron binding. The light chain of pacifastin (44 kDa) is the inhibitory subunit, and has nine cysteine-rich inhibitory domains that are homologous to each other and to low molecular weight proteinase inhibitors isolated from the grasshopper, Locusta migratoria. The nine light chain domains and the Locusta inhibitors share a characteristic cysteine array (Cys-Xaa9–12-Cys-Xaa2-Cys-Xaa-Cys-Xaa6–8-Cys-Xaa4-Cys) distinct from any described proteinase inhibitor family, suggesting that they constitute a new family of proteinase inhibitors. Pacifastin is the first known protein that has combined properties of a transferrin-like molecule and a proteinase inhibitor. PMID:9192625

  1. [Progresses in the structure and function of Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qing-Liang; Sheng, Qing; Zhang, Yao-Zhou

    2006-09-01

    Proteinase inhibitors are widely distributed in many living organisms and play crucial roles in many biological processes, particularly in regulating the proteinase activity spatially and temporally. However, The Kazal family of serine protease inhibitors is one of the most important and extensively studied protease inhibitor families. This type of protease inhibitor normally consists of one or several domains. Every domain has a highly conserved sequence structure and molecular conformation. It is found that contact residues are hyper variable, which are responsible for the interaction of inhibitors and proteinases. Most of them are in the solvent exposed loop. But P1 residue is the key active site of the interaction between inhibitor and enzyme. The types of the amino acid at P1 site likely play an important role in causing different inhibitory activity. The substitutions at the contact residues cause significant effects on the association constant. By using the Laskowski algorithm, the Ki values of a Kazal domain against six serine proteinases can be predicted from the domain' s sequence alone. At present there are many Kazal proteinase inhibitors found in the organisms, which show important biological functions. This article gives a comprehensive review of the newer developments in the characters and the interaction of the Kazal-type inhibitors.

  2. Purification and characterization of serine proteinase 2 from Bacillus intermedius 3-19.

    PubMed

    Balaban, N P; Mardanova, A M; Sharipova, M R; Gabdrakhmanova, L A; Sokolova, E A; Rudenskaya, G N; Leshchinskaya, I B

    2004-04-01

    A proteinase secreted in the late stationary phase was isolated from the culture fluid of Bacillus intermedius 3-19 by ion-exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose followed by FPLC on a Mono S column. The enzyme was completely inhibited by the serine proteinase inhibitors diisopropyl fluorophosphate and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. The maximum proteolytic activity against the synthetic chromogenic substrate Z-Ala-Ala-Leu-pNA was observed at pH 9.0. The molecular weight of the enzyme is 28 kD and its isoelectric point is 9.2. We have also determined pH- and thermostability and Km and kcat of this proteinase. The enzyme has been classified as a thiol-dependent serine proteinase. N-Terminal amino acid sequence (10 residues) and amino acid composition of the protein were also determined. By the mode of hydrolysis of peptide bonds in the oxidized B-chain of insulin, this enzyme is similar to the thiol-dependent serine proteinase 1 from B. intermedius 3-19 secreted during vegetative growth.

  3. Taraxalisin -- a serine proteinase from dandelion Taraxacum officinale Webb s.l.

    PubMed

    Rudenskaya, G N; Bogacheva, A M; Preusser, A; Kuznetsova, A V; Dunaevsky YaE; Golovkin, B N; Stepanov, V M

    1998-10-23

    Latex of dandelion roots contains a serine proteinase that hydrolyzes a chromogenic peptide substrate Glp-Ala-Ala-Leu-pNA optimally at pH 8.0. Maximal activity of the proteinase in the roots is attained in April, at the beginning of plant development after the winter period. The protease was isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation of the root extract followed by affinity chromatography on a Sepharose-Ala-Ala-Leu-mrp and gel filtration on Superose 6R performed in FPLC regime. Pure serine proteinase named taraxalisin was inactivated by specific inhibitors of serine proteinases, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) and phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride (PMSF). Its molecular mass is 67 kDa and pI 4.5. pH stability range is 6-9 in the presence of 2 mM Ca2+, temperature optimum is at 40 degrees C; Km=0.37+/-0.06 mM. The substrate specificity of taraxalisin towards synthetic peptides and insulin B-chain is comparable with that of two other subtilisin-like serine proteinases, cucumisin and macluralisin. The taraxalisin N-terminal sequence traced for 15 residues revealed 40% coinciding residues when aligned with that of subtilisin Carlsberg.

  4. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis: influence of successive in vitro cultivation on the expression of promastigote proteinases.

    PubMed

    Rebello, Karina Mastropasqua; Britto, Constança; Pereira, Bernardo Acácio Santini; Pita-Pereira, Daniela de; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Ferreira, Anna Beatriz Robottom; Cysne-Finkelstein, Léa; Otto, Thomas Dan; Côrtes, Luzia Monteiro de Castro; da-Silva, Gabriel Gomes; Alves, Carlos Roberto

    2010-12-01

    Cysteine proteinases are an important virulence factor in Leishmania parasites. In this study we analyzed the cysteine proteinase expression of infective Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes, examining the expression induced by successive in vitro passages in culture. We observed that this parasite presents a decrease in its virulence over BALB/c macrophages, after successive passages in culture, but still they present proteinase activity, being capable of hydrolyzing the substrate pGlu-Phe-Leu-p Nitroanilide at pH 7.0. This proteinase activity also decreases in the course of the successive passages. Additionally, the decrease in the amount of CPB proteins following successive passages of promastigotes was verified by immunoblotting assays, using an anti-CPB antiserum. Real-time PCR assays were performed to assess the relative cpb expression when compared to a housekeeping gene in promastigote cDNA preparations from the first, fourth and seventh passages. Interestingly, the data indicate a relative increase in cpb gene transcripts as the promastigotes were maintained under in vitro culture: 2.2 times higher for fourth and 2.7 times higher for seventh passages when compared to the first passage. Thus, the information gathered here shows that the expression of cysteine proteinases is modified during in vitro cultivation of L. (V.) braziliensis promastigotes.

  5. Fourier Transform Methods. Chapter 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Simon G.; Quijada, Manuel A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) for accurate spectrophotometry over a wide spectral range. After a brief exposition of the basic concepts of FTS operation, we discuss instrument designs and their advantages and disadvantages relative to dispersive spectrometers. We then examine how common sources of error in spectrophotometry manifest themselves when using an FTS and ways to reduce the magnitude of these errors. Examples are given of applications to both basic and derived spectrophotometric quantities. Finally, we give recommendations for choosing the right instrument for a specific application, and how to ensure the accuracy of the measurement results..

  6. Photon-correlation Fourier spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Brokmann, Xavier; Bawendi, Moungi; Coolen, Laurent; Hermier, Jean-Pierre

    2006-06-26

    We describe a method to probe the spectral fluctuations of a transition over broad ranges of frequencies and timescales with the high spectral resolution of Fourier spectroscopy, and a temporal resolution as high as the excited state lifetime, even in the limit of very low photocounting rates. The method derives from a simple relation between the fluorescence spectral dynamics of a single radi-ating dipole and its fluorescence intensity correlations at the outputs of a continuously scanning Michelson interferometer. These findings define an approach to investigate the fast fluorescence spectral dynamics of single molecules and other faint light sources beyond the time-resolution capabilities of standard spectroscopy experiments.

  7. Fourier Transform Methods. Chapter 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Simon G.; Quijada, Manuel A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) for accurate spectrophotometry over a wide spectral range. After a brief exposition of the basic concepts of FTS operation, we discuss instrument designs and their advantages and disadvantages relative to dispersive spectrometers. We then examine how common sources of error in spectrophotometry manifest themselves when using an FTS and ways to reduce the magnitude of these errors. Examples are given of applications to both basic and derived spectrophotometric quantities. Finally, we give recommendations for choosing the right instrument for a specific application, and how to ensure the accuracy of the measurement results..

  8. Fourier-transform optical microsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, S. D.; Smith, R. L.; Gonzalez, C.; Stewart, K. P.; Hagopian, J. G.; Sirota, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and initial characterization of a miniature single-pass Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) that has an optical bench that measures 1 cm x 5 cm x 10 cm is presented. The FTS is predicated on the classic Michelson interferometer design with a moving mirror. Precision translation of the mirror is accomplished by microfabrication of dovetailed bearing surfaces along single-crystal planes in silicon. Although it is miniaturized, the FTS maintains a relatively high spectral resolution, 0.1 cm-1, with adequate optical throughput.

  9. Improved AWG Fourier optics model.

    PubMed

    Molina-Fernández, I; Wangüemert-Pérez, J

    2004-10-04

    In this paper we present an improved Fourier Optics model to calculate the transmission characteristics between any arbitrary pair of input/output ports (IOPs) of an Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG). In this model the input and output sections of the AWG are modeled using the same approximations, thus removing some reciprocity-related inconsistencies present in previously existing models. The expressions which summarize the model are compact and easily interpretable. Simple quasi-analytical expressions are also derived under the Gaussian approximation of the mode field profiles.

  10. Aperture scanning Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Xiaoze; Chung, Jaebum; Horstmeyer, Roarke; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-01-01

    Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) is implemented through aperture scanning by an LCOS spatial light modulator at the back focal plane of the objective lens. This FPM configuration enables the capturing of the complex scattered field for a 3D sample both in the transmissive mode and the reflective mode. We further show that by combining with the compressive sensing theory, the reconstructed 2D complex scattered field can be used to recover the 3D sample scattering density. This implementation expands the scope of application for FPM and can be beneficial for areas such as tissue imaging and wafer inspection. PMID:27570705

  11. Neutrophil elastase and proteinase 3 trafficking routes in myelomonocytic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kaellquist, Linda; Rosen, Hanna; Nordenfelt, Pontus; Calafat, Jero; Janssen, Hans; Persson, Ann-Maj; Hansson, Markus; Olsson, Inge

    2010-11-15

    Neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase 3 (PR3) differ in intracellular localization, which may reflect different trafficking mechanisms of the precursor forms when synthesized at immature stages of neutrophils. To shed further light on these mechanisms, we compared the trafficking of precursor NE (proNE) and precursor PR3 (proPR3). Like proNE [1], proPR3 interacted with CD63 upon heterologous co-expression in COS cells but endogenous interaction was not detected although cell surface proNE/proPR3/CD63 were co-endocytosed in myelomonocytic cells. Cell surface proNE/proPR3 turned over more rapidly than cell surface CD63 consistent with processing/degradation of the pro-proteases but recycling of CD63. Colocalization of proNE/proPR3/CD63 with clathrin and Rab 7 suggested trafficking through coated vesicles and late endosomes. Partial caveolar trafficking of proNE/CD63 but not proPR3 was suggested by colocalization with caveolin-1. Blocking the C-terminus of proNE/proPR3 by creating a fusion with FK506 binding protein inhibited endosomal re-uptake of proNE but not proPR3 indicating 'pro{sub C}'-peptide-dependent structural/conformational requirements for proNE but not for proPR3 endocytosis. The NE aminoacid residue Y199 of a proposed NE sorting motif that interacts with AP-3 [2] was not required for proNE processing, sorting or endocytosis in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells expressing heterologous Y199-deleted proNE; this suggests operation of another AP-3-link for proNE targeting. Our results show intracellular multi-step trafficking to be different between proNE and proPR3 consistent with their differential subcellular NE/PR3 localization in neutrophils.

  12. Pathway-selective antagonism of proteinase activated receptor 2

    PubMed Central

    Suen, J Y; Cotterell, A; Lohman, R J; Lim, J; Han, A; Yau, M K; Liu, L; Cooper, M A; Vesey, D A; Fairlie, D P

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Proteinase activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is a GPCR associated with inflammation, metabolism and disease. Clues to understanding how to block PAR2 signalling associated with disease without inhibiting PAR2 activation in normal physiology could be provided by studies of biased signalling. Experimental Approach PAR2 ligand GB88 was profiled for PAR2 agonist and antagonist properties by several functional assays associated with intracellular G-protein-coupled signalling in vitro in three cell types and with PAR2-induced rat paw oedema in vivo. Key Results In HT29 cells, GB88 was a PAR2 antagonist in terms of Ca2+ mobilization and PKC phosphorylation, but a PAR2 agonist in attenuating forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation, increasing ERK1/2 phosphorylation, RhoA activation, myosin phosphatase phosphorylation and actin filament rearrangement. In CHO-hPAR2 cells, GB88 inhibited Ca2+ release, but activated Gi/o and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In human kidney tubule cells, GB88 inhibited cytokine secretion (IL6, IL8, GM-CSF, TNF-α) mediated by PAR2. A rat paw oedema induced by PAR2 agonists was also inhibited by orally administered GB88 and compared with effects of locally administered inhibitors of G-protein coupled pathways. Conclusions and Implications GB88 is a biased antagonist of PAR2 that selectively inhibits PAR2/Gq/11/Ca2+/PKC signalling, leading to anti-inflammatory activity in vivo, while being an agonist in activating three other PAR2-activated pathways (cAMP, ERK, Rho) in human cells. These findings highlight opportunities to design drugs to block specific PAR2-linked signalling pathways in disease, without blocking beneficial PAR2 signalling in normal physiology, and to dissect PAR2-associated mechanisms of disease in vivo. PMID:24821440

  13. New variation on a theme: structure and mechanism of action of hydrolytic antibody 7F11, an aspartate rich relation of catalytic antibodies 17E8 and 29G11.

    PubMed

    Cross, Simon S J; Brady, Kevin; Stevenson, James D; Sackin, Jenny R; Kenward, Nigel; Dietel, Anja; Thomas, Neil R

    2002-11-01

    A computer model, based on homology, of the catalytic antibody 7F11 that catalyses the decomposition of the benzoate ester of a dioxetane resulting in chemiluminescence is reported. Antibody 7F11 has 89% identity in the V(L) domain, and 72% identity in the V(H) domain with hydrolytic antibodies 17E8 and 29G11 previously reported by Scanlan et al. These were also raised against a phosphonate containing hapten. The antigen-binding site of antibody 7F11 whilst similar to that of 17E8 has aspartic acids at positions 33H and 35H, reminiscent in position of the catalytic residues found in aspartate proteinases such as pepsin. AutoDock 3.0 has been used to identify the best binding mode for the hapten. Molecular dynamic simulations have also been undertaken to examine any major conformational changes induced by hapten binding. A mechanism for benzoate ester hydrolysis involving the aspartic acid side-chains is proposed. Construction of a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) of 7F11 is also reported.

  14. Methionine Regeneration and Aspartate Aminotransferase in Parasitic Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Louise C.; Wilson, Judith; Wood, Pamela; Berger, Bradley J.

    2001-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferases have been cloned and expressed from Crithidia fasciculata, Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Giardia intestinalis, and Plasmodium falciparum and have been found to play a role in the final step of methionine regeneration from methylthioadenosine. All five enzymes contain sequence motifs consistent with membership in the Ia subfamily of aminotransferases; the crithidial and giardial enzymes and one trypanosomal enzyme were identified as cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferases, and the second trypanosomal enzyme was identified as a mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. The plasmodial enzyme contained unique sequence substitutions and appears to be highly divergent from the existing members of the Ia subfamily. In addition, the P. falciparum enzyme is the first aminotransferase found to lack the invariant residue G197 (P. K. Mehta, T. I. Hale, and P. Christen, Eur. J. Biochem. 214:549–561, 1993), a feature shared by sequences discovered in P. vivax and P. berghei. All five enzymes were able to catalyze aspartate-ketoglutarate, tyrosine-ketoglutarate, and amino acid-ketomethiobutyrate aminotransfer reactions. In the latter, glutamate, phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and histidine were all found to be effective amino donors. The crithidial and trypanosomal cytosolic aminotransferases were also able to catalyze alanine-ketoglutarate and glutamine-ketoglutarate aminotransfer reactions and, in common with the giardial aminotransferase, were able to catalyze the leucine-ketomethiobutyrate aminotransfer reaction. In all cases, the kinetic constants were broadly similar, with the exception of that of the plasmodial enzyme, which catalyzed the transamination of ketomethiobutyrate significantly more slowly than aspartate-ketoglutarate aminotransfer. This result obtained with the recombinant P. falciparum aminotransferase parallels the results seen for total ketomethiobutyrate transamination in malarial homogenates; activity in the latter was much

  15. Characteristics of a Proteinase of a Trichosporon Species Isolated from Dungeness Crab Meat

    PubMed Central

    Groninger, Herman S.; Eklund, M. W.

    1966-01-01

    The proteinase of a Trichosporon species was partially purified by dialysis, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. A 170-fold purification of the enzyme with a 1.4% recovery of the activity was achieved. The proteinase was separated into a major component and possibly two minor components by starch gel electrophoresis. The pH optimum of the enzyme was 5.8 to 6.2. It was active against casein, hemoglobin, and crab protein substrates, but inactive against bovine serum albumin, lysozyme, and benzoylarginine ethyl ester. It was slightly activated by 10 mm cysteine, 0.1 mm ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and 0.1 mm Co++. There was slight inhibition by 10 mm Co++ and 0.1 mm phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, and total inhibition by 1 mmp-chloromercuribenzoate. The proteinase was completely inactivated by heating at 60 C for 10 min. PMID:5914489

  16. Purification and Characterization of an Extracellular Proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174

    PubMed Central

    Rattray, F. P.; Bockelmann, W.; Fox, P. F.

    1995-01-01

    An extracellular serine proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174 was purified to homogeneity. pH and temperature optima were 8.5 and 50(deg)C, respectively. The results for the molecular mass of the proteinase were 56 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 126 kDa by gel filtration, indicating that the native enzyme exists as a dimer. Mg(sup2+) and Ca(sup2+) activated the proteinase, as did NaCl; however, Hg(sup2+), Fe(sup2+), and Zn(sup2+) caused strong inhibition. The sequence of the first 20 N-terminal amino acids was NH(inf2)-Ala-Lys-Asn-Asp-Ala-Val-Gly-Gly-Met-Gly-Tyr-Leu-Ser-Met-Ile-Pro-Se r-Gln-Pro-Gly. PMID:16535130

  17. Purification and Characterization of an Extracellular Proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174.

    PubMed

    Rattray, F P; Bockelmann, W; Fox, P F

    1995-09-01

    An extracellular serine proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174 was purified to homogeneity. pH and temperature optima were 8.5 and 50(deg)C, respectively. The results for the molecular mass of the proteinase were 56 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 126 kDa by gel filtration, indicating that the native enzyme exists as a dimer. Mg(sup2+) and Ca(sup2+) activated the proteinase, as did NaCl; however, Hg(sup2+), Fe(sup2+), and Zn(sup2+) caused strong inhibition. The sequence of the first 20 N-terminal amino acids was NH(inf2)-Ala-Lys-Asn-Asp-Ala-Val-Gly-Gly-Met-Gly-Tyr-Leu-Ser-Met-Ile-Pro-Se r-Gln-Pro-Gly.

  18. Classification of microbial α-amylases for food manufacturing using proteinase digestion.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Takumi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tada, Atsuko; Ito, Yusai; Otsuki, Noriko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    Enzymes produced by microorganisms and plants are used as food additives to aid the processing of foods. Identification of the origin of these enzyme products is important for their proper use. Proteinase digestion of α-amylase products, followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, was applied to α-amylase from the mold Aspergillus species, the bacteria Bacillus species, and the actinomycetes Saccharomonospora species. Eighteen commercial products of α-amylase were digested with trypsin and endoproteinase Lys-C and HPLC analyzed. For some proteinase/sample combinations, the area of the intact α-amylase peak decreased and new peaks were detected after digestion. The presence and retention times of the novel peaks were used to group the products. The results from this method, called the proteinase digestion-HPLC method, allowed the classification of the α-amylase products into 10 groups, whereas the results from sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis allowed their classification into seven groups.

  19. Purification and partial characterization of proteinase inhibitors of equine seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, André Belico; Santos, Alexandre Martins Costa; Oliveira, Jamil Silvano; Lagares, Monique de Albuquerque; Santoro, Marcelo Matos

    2009-07-01

    The aims of the study were: 1/ to isolate and identify equine seminal plasma proteinase inhibitors, 2/ to evaluate their inhibitory potential, and 3/ to test a correlation between protein concentration in seminal plasma supernatant (obtained after precipitation with 36% ammonium sulfate) and stallion sexual maturity. Seminal plasma proteins obtained from six stallions were chromatographed in a Superose 12 (FPLC system) column followed by C(18) HPLC reverse-phase. Inhibition of trypsin amidase activity was evaluated in the collected fractions. Active proteins with a molecular mass of 6.3-7.0 KDa were identified using mass spectrometry. The older stallions showed a reduction in total seminal plasma protein concentration, but had similar concentrations of proteinase inhibitors (0.28+/-0.10 mg/ml) in seminal plasma supernatant. Different proteinase inhibitor isoforms were found in semen of all stallions which suggests that the isoforms may be used as biomarkers of individual animals.

  20. Toll-like receptors recognize distinct proteinase-resistant glycoconjugates in Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Phongsisay, Vongsavanh; Hara, Hiromitsu; Fujimoto, Shuji

    2015-03-01

    Campylobacter jejuni causes gastroenteritis and autoimmune neuropathy Guillain-Barré syndrome. The mechanism by which C. jejuni infection results in such the hyperimmunity is not completely understood. Host immunity plays an important role in the disease pathogenesis; however, little is known how immune system recognizes this human pathogen. In this study, we report that Toll-like receptors recognize distinct proteinase K-resistant glycoconjugates in C. jejuni and Escherichia coli. Lipopolysaccharide is solely proteinase-resistant glycoconjugate in E. coli. In contrast, C. jejuni possesses at least five different components that are resistant to proteinase digestion and are capable of inducing NF-κB activation through TLR2 and TLR4. Possession of multiple activators of Toll-like receptors may be the unique strategy of C. jejuni to trigger hyperimmunity.

  1. Biological roles of cysteine proteinases in the pathogenesis of Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Hilda M.; Marcet, Ricardo; Sarracent, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Human trichomonosis, infection with Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease in the world. The host-parasite interaction and pathophysiological processes of trichomonosis remain incompletely understood. This review focuses on the advancements reached in the area of the pathogenesis of T. vaginalis, especially in the role of the cysteine proteinases. It highlights various approaches made in this field and lists a group of trichomonad cysteine proteinases involved in diverse processes such as invasion of the mucous layer, cytoadherence, cytotoxicity, cytoskeleton disruption of red blood cells, hemolysis, and evasion of the host immune response. A better understanding of the biological roles of cysteine proteinases in the pathogenesis of this parasite could be used in the identification of new chemotherapeutic targets. An additional advantage could be the development of a vaccine in order to reduce transmission of T. vaginalis. PMID:25348828

  2. Biological roles of cysteine proteinases in the pathogenesis of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Hilda M; Marcet, Ricardo; Sarracent, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Human trichomonosis, infection with Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease in the world. The host-parasite interaction and pathophysiological processes of trichomonosis remain incompletely understood. This review focuses on the advancements reached in the area of the pathogenesis of T. vaginalis, especially in the role of the cysteine proteinases. It highlights various approaches made in this field and lists a group of trichomonad cysteine proteinases involved in diverse processes such as invasion of the mucous layer, cytoadherence, cytotoxicity, cytoskeleton disruption of red blood cells, hemolysis, and evasion of the host immune response. A better understanding of the biological roles of cysteine proteinases in the pathogenesis of this parasite could be used in the identification of new chemotherapeutic targets. An additional advantage could be the development of a vaccine in order to reduce transmission of T. vaginalis.

  3. Several properties of the partially purified proteinase inhibitor in eggplant exocarp.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, M; Ibuki, F; Yamada, M; Tashiro, M; Miyoshi, M

    1975-01-01

    A proteinase inhibitor was isolated and partially purified from the exocarp of eggplant, Solanum melongena L., by means of acetate buffer extraction, heat treatment, salting-out and column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. This preparation showed inhibitory activities on various proteinases; trypsin [EC 3.4.4.4] and Pronase were strongly inhibited while alpha-chymotrypsin [EC 3.4.4.5] and Nagarse were weakly inhibited. The inhibitor was a protein substance, and, therefore, it was gradually inactivated by the long-time incubation with Pronase. The inhibition mode was non-competitive on trypsin and competitive on Pronase on the basis of Lineweaver-Burk plots. The investigations on the inhibition behavior in the co-existence of two kinds of proteinases suggested that the inhibitor was not of multi-headed type.

  4. Regulation of alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor function by rabbit alveolar macrophages. Evidence for proteolytic rather than oxidative inactivation.

    PubMed Central

    Banda, M J; Clark, E J; Werb, Z

    1985-01-01

    Rabbit alveolar macrophages were cultured in an environment conducive to the secretion of both reactive oxygen and proteinases, so that the relative importance of proteolytic and oxidative inactivation of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor by alveolar macrophages could be evaluated. The inactivation of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor was proportional to its proteolysis, and there was no detectable inactivation in the absence of proteolysis. Although the live macrophages were capable of secreting reactive oxygen, they did not inactivate alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor by oxidation. The inactivation of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor by proteolysis was proportional to the secretion of elastinolytic activity by the alveolar macrophages. The inability of the alveolar macrophages to oxidize alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor was attributed to the methionine in the macrophages, in secreted proteins, and in the culture medium competing for oxidants. The data suggest that proteolytic inactivation of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor may be important in vivo and that the methionine concentration in vivo may protect alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor from significant oxidative inactivation. Images PMID:2989330

  5. The characterization of SaPIN2b, a plant trichome-localized proteinase inhibitor from Solanum americanum.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ming; Ding, Ling-Wen; Ge, Zhi-Juan; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Hu, Bo-Lun; Yang, Xiao-Bei; Sun, Qiao-Yang; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2012-11-16

    Proteinase inhibitors play an important role in plant resistance of insects and pathogens. In this study, we characterized the serine proteinase inhibitor SaPIN2b, which is constitutively expressed in Solanum americanum trichomes and contains two conserved motifs of the proteinase inhibitor II (PIN2) family. The recombinant SaPIN2b (rSaPIN2b), which was expressed in Escherichia coli, was demonstrated to be a potent proteinase inhibitor against a panel of serine proteinases, including subtilisin A, chymotrypsin and trypsin. Moreover, rSaPIN2b also effectively inhibited the proteinase activities of midgut trypsin-like proteinases that were extracted from the devastating pest Helicoverpa armigera. Furthermore, the overexpression of SaPIN2b in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in enhanced resistance against H. armigera. Taken together, our results demonstrated that SaPIN2b is a potent serine proteinase inhibitor that may act as a protective protein in plant defense against insect attacks.

  6. Transcriptional expression profiles of the main proteinases and their regulators in coronary artery ectasia patients' mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruifeng; Wu, Wei; Chen, Lianfeng; Chen, Houzao; Zhang, Shuyang

    2016-04-01

    Proteolytic enzymes might contribute to coronary artery ectasia (CAE) through the destruction of extracellular matrix (ECM) vessel components. This study aimed to find out if peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) served as a source of those proteinases and their regulators. In this study, transcriptional expression profiles of the main proteinases and their regulators were detected in the PBMCs of CAE patients as follows: (1) matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 12 and 13; (2) the serine proteinases elastase: cathepsin G and proteinases 3; (3) the cysteine proteinases: cathepsin L and cathepsin S; (4) the main endogenous inhibitors for the above proteinases: tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP) 1 and 2, α1-antitrypsin (α1-PI) and α2-macroglobulin (A2M); (5) twelve cytokines that could regulate the above proteinases. The characteristic changes in CAE were: (1) MMP1 and MMP9 increased while the serine and cysteine families did not change; (2) the four proteinase inhibitors did not change in the CAE group; (3) among the 12 cytokines, interleukin-1 alpha (IL1A), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), interferon gamma (IFNγ) and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) were elevated. Partial correlation analysis showed that MMP1 significantly correlated with IL1A and with IFNγ, and MMP9 correlated with IFNγ and with GDF 15. PBMCs might participate in the pathological process of CAE by the increased expression of MMP1, MMP9, IL1A, IFNγ and GDF15.

  7. Molecular investigation on the interaction of spermine with proteinase K by multispectroscopic techniques and molecular simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-Koupaei, Mansoore; Shareghi, Behzad; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Davar, Fateme

    2017-01-01

    The alteration in structure, function and stability of proteinase K in the presence of spermine was investigated using spectroscopic methods and simulation techniques. The stability and enzyme activity of proteinase K-spermine complex were significantly enhanced as compared to that of the pure enzyme. The increase in the value of Vmax and the catalytic efficiency of Proteinase K in presence of spermine confirmed that the polyamine could bring the enzyme hyperactivation. UV-vis spectroscopy, intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism methods demonstrated that the binding of spermine changed the microenvironment and structure of proteinase K. The fluorescence studies, showing that spermine quenched the intensity of proteinase K with static mechanism. Thermodynamic parameters analysis suggested that hydrogen bond and van der Waals forces play a key role in complex stability which is in agreement with modeling studies. The CD spectra represented the secondary structure alteration of proteinase K with an increase in α-helicity and a decrease in β-sheet of proteinase K upon spermine conjugation. The molecular simulation results proposed that spermine could interact with proteinase K spontaneously at single binding site, which is in agreement with spectroscopic results. This agreement between experimental and theoretical results may be a worth method for protein-ligand complex studies.

  8. Trichosporon asahii secretes a 30-kDa aspartic peptidase.

    PubMed

    Valle, Roberta S; Ramos, Lívia S; Reis, Vanessa J; Ziccardi, Mariangela; Dornelas-Ribeiro, Marcos; Sodré, Cátia L; Branquinha, Marta H; Santos, André L S

    2017-12-01

    Trichosporon asahii is a fungal opportunistic pathogen that causes superficial and deep-seated infections presenting high mortality. Very little is known about the virulence attributes produced by this fungus. Herein, aspartic peptidase production was identified in Brazilian clinical isolates of T. asahii by different methodologies. Initially, T. asahii strain 250 (from skin lesion) was inoculated in both liquid and solid culture media containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the sole nitrogenous source. A translucent halo around the fungal colony was observed from the 5th day of culture. The cell-free culture supernatant revealed that soluble BSA was hydrolyzed along the growth, generating low molecular mass polypeptides as observed by electrophoresis. Subsequently, the secretions from four clinical strains of T. asahii were analyzed by BSA-SDS-PAGE and a single proteolytic band of 30-kDa was detected under acidic pH at 37°C. The secreted aspartic peptidase of T. asahii efficiently cleaved the cathepsin D peptide substrate, but not the substrates with specificity to HIV-1 peptidase and rennin. The capability to cleave either cathepsin D substrate in a fluorogenic assay or BSA immobilized within a gel matrix varied according to the T. asahii isolate. T. asahii extracellular peptidase activity was strongly inhibited by pepstatin A and HIV peptidase inhibitors, classifying it as an aspartic-type peptidase. Human serum albumin, mucin, non-immune immunoglobulin G and gelatin induced, in different levels, the secretion of this aspartic peptidase. With these results, T. asahii must be included in the list of many human fungal opportunistic pathogens able to secrete an aspartic-type peptidase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Immobilization of a proteinase from the extremely thermophilic organism Thermus Rt41A.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S A; Peek, K; Daniel, R M

    1994-02-05

    An extracellular proteinase from Thermus strain Rt41A was immobilized to controlled pore glass (CPG) beads. The properties of the free and CPG-immobilized enzymes were compared using both a large (azocasein) and a small (peptidase) substrate. The specific activity of the immobilized proteinase was 5284 azoU/mg with azocasein and 144 sucU/mg for SucAAPFpNA. The percentage recovery of enzyme activity was unaffected by pore size when it was immobilized at a fixed level of activity/g of beads, whereas it increased with increasing pore size when added at a fixed level/m(2) of support. Saturation of the CPG beads was observed at 540 azoU/m(2) of 105-nm beads. Lower levels (50 azoU/m(2) of 50-nm beads) were used in characterization experiments. The pH optimum of the immobilized Rt41A proteinase was 8.0 for azocasein and 9.5 for SucAAPFpNA, compared with the free proteinase which was 10.5 for both substrates. The immobilized enzyme retained 65% of its maximum activity against azocasein at pH 12, whereas the free proteinase retained less than 10% under the same conditions. Stability at 80 degrees C increased on immobilization at all pH values between 5 and 11, the greatest increase in half-life being approximately 12-fold at pH 7.0. Temperature-activity profiles for both the free and immobilized enzymes were similar for both substrates. The stability of the immobilized proteinase, however, was higher than that of the free enzyme in the absence and presence of CaCl(2). Overall, the results show that low levels of calcium (10 muM) protect against thermal denaturation, but that high calcium or immobilization are required to protect against autolysis. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Ethylene-regulated expression of a carnation cysteine proteinase during flower petal senescence.

    PubMed

    Jones, M L; Larsen, P B; Woodson, W R

    1995-06-01

    The senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower petals is regulated by the phytohormone ethylene and is associated with considerable catabolic activity including the loss of protein. In this paper we present the molecular cloning of a cysteine proteinase and show that its expression is regulated by ethylene and associated with petal senescence. A 1600 bp cDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using a 5'-specific primer and 3'-nonspecific primer designed to amplify a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase cDNA from reverse-transcribed stylar RNA. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned product (pDCCP1) was found to share significant homology to several cysteine proteinases rather than ACC synthase. A single open reading frame of 428 amino acids was shown to share significant homology with other plant cysteine proteinases including greater than 70% identity with a cysteine proteinase from Arabidopsis thaliana. Amino acids in the active site of cysteine proteinases were conserved in the pDCCP1 peptide. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that the expression of pDCCP1 increased substantially with the onset of ethylene production and senescence of petals. Increased pDCCP1 expression was also associated with ethylene production in other senescing floral organs including ovaries and styles. The pDCCP1 transcript accumulated in petals treated with exogenous ethylene within 3 h and treatment of flowers with 2,5-norbornadiene, an inhibitor of ethylene action, prevented the increase in pDCCP1 expression in petals. The temporal and spatial patterns of pDCCP1 expression suggests a role for cysteine proteinase in the loss of protein during floral senescence.

  11. Isolation and partial characterization of three acidic proteinases in erythrocyte membranes

    PubMed Central

    Pontremoli, Sandro; Salamino, Franca; Sparatore, Bianca; Melloni, Edon; Morelli, Alessandro; Benatti, Umberto; De Flora, Antonio

    1979-01-01

    1. The distribution of proteolytic activity in membranes from human erythrocytes and from rabbit reticulocytes and erythrocytes was investigated, after removal of leucocytes and platelets from the cell suspensions. 2. All membrane preparations displayed proteolytic activity in the acidic pH region only. Membranes from human and rabbit mature erythrocytes showed latent activity, which could be increased when extracted with a number of detergents. 3. Three active fractions were resolved either by gel chromatography of solubilized membrane extracts or by standard polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The three proteinase activities (designated proteinases I, II and III) were purified from solubilized extracts of human erythrocyte membranes. 4. The relevant mol.wts. were around 80000, 40000 and 30000, respectively, and each of the three proteinases appeared to be composed of a single polypeptide chain. 5. Distinctive pH optima (in the range pH2.8–3.9) and different saturation profiles with globin as substrate were observed for proteinases I, II and III. 6. Dithioerythritol, Hg2+ and Cu2+ inhibited each of the three human enzymes, but more selective inhibitory effects were exerted by other modifiers of proteolytic enzymes and by haemin. Similar effects were observed with the three proteinases from rabbit cells. 7. The activity of the three human proteinases seems to be restricted to naturally occurring protein substrates, although with poor specificity, and none of them was active on synthetic substrates. 8. Digestion of globin by each of the three enzymes yielded similar polypeptide fragments in all cases, this indicating an endopeptidase type of activity. ImagesFig. 7. PMID:42385

  12. Prospects for using proteinase inhibitors to protect transgenic plants against attack by herbivorous insects.

    PubMed

    Gatehouse, John A

    2011-08-01

    Proteinase inhibitors which act on the digestive enzymes of insect herbivores are a basic mechanism of plant defence. Attempts to exploit this defence mechanism in plant genetic engineering have used over-expression of both endogenous and exogenous inhibitors. While significant protection against insect pests has been routinely achieved, the engineered plants do not show levels of resistance considered commercially viable. As a result of selective pressures, insect herbivores have developed multiple mechanisms of adaptation to overcome the defensive effects of plant proteinase inhibitors. Common polyphagous crop pests are well adapted to deal with a range of different inhibitors, which have only limited effects on fitness as a result. A range of strategies have been attempted to improve effectiveness of proteinase inhibitors as antimetabolites towards insects, including selection for inhibitory activity against insect digestive enzymes, mutagenesis for novel inhibitory activity, and engineering inhibitors with multiple functions. However, proteinase inhibitor genes have only been used in transgenic crops in combination with other insecticidal genes. In Chinese genetically engineered cotton varieties which express Bt toxins as an insecticidal protein against lepidopteran larvae, the CpTI (cowpea trypsin inhibitor) gene has been employed as a second transgene to improve protection. This gene combination represents the only commercial deployment of a proteinase inhibitor transgene to date, with Bt/CpTI cotton grown on over 0.5 million hectares in 2005. Future prospects for using proteinase inhibitor genes to enhance insect resistance in transgenic crops will require reassessment of their mechanisms of action, particularly in affecting processes other than digestion, as exemplified by effects on sap-feeding hemipteran pests.

  13. Analysis of human immunoglobulin-degrading cysteine proteinases of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed Central

    Provenzano, D; Alderete, J F

    1995-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite that causes a widely distributed sexually transmitted disease (STD). Since immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to specific trichomonad immunogens are found in serum and vaginal washes (VWs) from patients with trichomoniasis, a potential mechanism of immune evasion by this parasite might be the ability of T. vaginalis proteinases to degrade human immunoglobulins (Igs). Incubation of human IgG with lysates of T. vaginalis organisms resulted in time- and concentration-dependent degradation of the heavy chain. Secretory IgA was degraded similarly. Inhibitors of cysteine proteinases, when added to trichomonal lysates, abolished IgG and IgA degradation, while EDTA, a metalloproteinase inhibitor, did not. Substrate-gel electrophoresis with human IgG, IgM, or IgA copolymerized with acrylamide revealed several distinct cysteine proteinases in both lysates and culture supernatants from logarithmically growing parasites that degraded all classes of human antibodies. Trichomonal lysates and supernatants of numerous isolates tested all had Ig-degrading activity. Finally, proteolytic activity against IgG was detected in most (26 of 33; 78%) VWs from patients with trichomoniasis. In contrast, 18 of 28 (65%) VWs from women without trichomoniasis or from patients infected with other STDs had no detectable proteinases when tested in an identical manner. The other 10 of these 28 VWs (35%) had smaller amounts of detectable Ig-degrading proteinases. These differences in Ig-degrading proteinase activity between patients with and without trichomoniasis, regardless of coinfecting STDs, were statistically significant (P = 0.001). These results illustrate that T. vaginalis is capable of degrading human Igs. PMID:7642267

  14. Serine proteinases of mast cell and leukocyte granules. A league of their own.

    PubMed

    Caughey, G H

    1994-12-01

    Serine proteinases are hydrolases that use serine's side chain hydroxyl group to attack and cleave internal peptide bonds in peptides and proteins. They reside in all mammalian tissues, including the lung and airway. As a group, they vary tremendously in form and target specificity and have a vast repertoire of functions, many of which are critical for life. A subset of these proteinases is expressed primarily in the cytosolic granules of leukocytes from bone marrow, including mast cells. Examples are elastase-related proteinases and cathepsin G of monocytes and neutrophils, the many "granzymes" of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, and the tryptases and chymases of mast cells. The pace of discovery and characterization of these granule-associated serine proteinases, fueled by technical advances in molecular biology, has accelerated rapidly in the past few years. Progress has been made in assigning possible functions to individual proteinases. However, the burgeoning numbers of these enzymes; their cell, tissue and species-dependent differences in expression; and their variety of action in vitro (despite, in many cases, shared modes of activation and recent divergence in protein evolution) have vexed and challenged those of us who are anxious to establish their roles in mammalian biology. Certainly, much remains to be discovered and clarified. The purpose of this overview is to capture the state of the art in this field, stressing the similarities as well as the differences among individual granule-associated proteinases and focusing particularly on those enzymes likely to be important in the human lung and airways.

  15. Cloning and rational mutagenesis of kexstatin I, a potent proteinaceous inhibitor of Kex2 proteinase.

    PubMed Central

    Oda, K; Oyama, H; Ito, S; Fukiharu, M; Miyagawa, Y; Takahashi, S; Hirose, M; Kikuchi, N; Nakayama, T; Shibano, Y

    2001-01-01

    Kexstatin I is a potent proteinaceous inhibitor of Kex2 proteinase (EC 3.4.21.61). In the present study we show the molecular cloning, primary structure determination and expression of the gene encoding kexstatin I. We also demonstrate its enhanced activity and specificity for Kex2 proteinase inhibition by rational mutagenesis. The cloned kexstatin I gene encoded a protein of 145 amino acid residues, including the 35-residue signal sequence for secretion. The amino acid sequence showed 52% identity with those of the Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitors (SSIs). Thus kexstatin I is the first SSI-family member that can inhibit Kex2 proteinase. The reactive site of the inhibitor was determined to be -Thr(69)-Lys(70) downward arrowGlu(71)-, where downward arrow indicates the reactive site. Because Kex2 proteinase generally shows the highest affinity for substrates with basic amino acid residues at the P(1) and P(2) sites, conversion of the Thr(69)-Lys(70) segment of the inhibitor into dibasic motifs was expected to result in enhanced inhibitory activities. Thus we constructed kexstatin I mutants, in which the Thr(69)-Lys(70) sequence was replaced by the Thr(69)-Arg(70), Lys(69)-Lys(70) and Lys(69)-Arg(70) sequences using PCR-based mutagenesis, and analysed them kinetically. Among these mutants, the Lys(69)-Arg(70) mutant was the most potent inhibitor. The K(i) for Kex2 proteinase was 3.2x10(-10) M, which was 140-fold lower than that of the inhibitor with the Thr(69)-Lys(70) sequence. Although kexstatin I could also inhibit subtilisin, the enhancement of inhibitory activity upon such mutations was specific for Kex2 proteinase inhibition. PMID:11284720

  16. Characterization of a chelator-resistant proteinase from Thermus strain Rt4A2.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, S A; Peek, K; Prescott, M; Daniel, R

    1993-01-01

    The Thermus isolate Rt4A2 was found to produce an extracellular chelator-resistant proteinase. The proteinase was purified to homogeneity by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, cation-exchange chromatography, gel-filtration chromatography, and weak anion-exchange chromatography. The Rt4A2 proteinase was found to have properties typical of an alkaline serine proteinase. It had a pH optimum of 9.0 and was specifically inhibited by phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride. Its isoelectric point was greater than 10.25. Its molecular-mass was 31.6 kDa as determined by SDS/PAGE. N-terminal sequencing has shown it to have high sequence similarity with other serine proteinases from Thermus species. The proteinase hydrolysed a number of substrates including fibrin, casein, haemoglobin, collagen, albumin and the synthetic chromogenic peptide substrate Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-NH-Np. The specific activity of the purified proteinase using azocasein as substrate was 313 units/mg. Substrate inhibition was observed above an azocasein concentration of 0.05% (w/v). Esterase activity was directed mainly towards those substrates containing the aliphatic or aromatic residues of alanine, glycine, tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine. Thermostability half-lives of greater than 7 days at 70 degrees C, 43 h at 80 degrees C and 90 min at 90 degrees C were found in the presence of 5 mM CaCl2. At 90 degrees C increasing the CaCl2 concentration 100-fold (0.5 mM to 50 mM) caused a 4.3-fold increase in the half-life of the enzyme from 30 to 130 min. Half-lives of 19.4 min at 100 degrees C and 4.4 min at 105 degrees C were found in the presence of 50 mM CaCl2. The metal chelators EGTA and EDTA reduced the stability at higher temperatures but had no effect on the activity of the proteinase. Activity was not stimulated by common metal activators such as Ca2+, Mg2+ and Zn2+. PMID:8240244

  17. Investigation of association between alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor haplotype and endometritis in the thoroughbred mare.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, A D; John, H A; Ricketts, S W; Rossdale, P D; Scott, A M

    1994-03-01

    Failure to inhibit proteinases can lead to excessive tissue damage. The possibility that the severity of endometritis in Thoroughbred mares correlates with the haplotypes of plasma alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1-PI) expressed was investigated in two groups of mares. In mares with pyometritis before treatment, the frequency of the N haplotype, which is already high in the Thoroughbred population, was significantly increased when compared with that in a large published population. In mares with acute endometritis which persisted after treatment followed by sexual rest, the absence of S and T haplotypes was significant, suggesting that, when present, they may have a protective function.

  18. A practical total synthesis of the microbial alkaline proteinase inhibitor (MAPI).

    PubMed

    Haebich, Dieter; Hillisch, Alexander; El Sheikh, Sherif

    2009-12-01

    Diverse serine and cysteine proteases as well as alkaline proteinases and elastases play a crucial role in numerous biological processes. Natural peptide aldehydes such as the "microbial alkaline proteinase inhibitor" (MAPI, 1) are valuable tools to characterize novel enzymes and to study their function in nature. Within a drug discovery program we wanted to design and explore non-natural MAPI congeners with novel biological profiles. To that end we devised a simple, practical, and scalable synthesis of MAPI 1 from readily available amino acid building blocks. The modular nature of our approach allows convenient structural modification of the MAPI backbone.

  19. Effects of E-64, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, on cowpea weevil growth, development, and fecundity

    SciTech Connect

    Murdock, L.L.; Shade, R.E.; Pomeroy, M.A.

    1988-06-01

    E-64, a specific inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, was incorporated into artificial seeds at low levels (0.01-0.25% by weight). It prolonged developmental time and increased mortality of the larval cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), in direct proportion to its concentration in the artificial seeds. The fecundity of females emerging from the artificial seeds was significantly decreased by E-64 concentrations of 0.06% and higher. These observations are compatible with the hypothesis that the midgut cysteine proteinase in C. maculatus is essential for normal growth and development.

  20. Changes in midgut endopeptidase activity of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are responsible for adaptation to soybean proteinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Paulillo, L C; Lopes, A R; Cristofoletti, P T; Parra, J R; Terra, W R; Silva-Filho, M C

    2000-06-01

    The development of transgenic maize plants expressing soybean proteinase inhibitors could reduce the economic damage of one of the major maize pests in Brazil, the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797). We examined the influence of soybean proteinase inhibitors on digestive enzyme properties and development of S. frugiperda larvae. The inhibition of trypsin and chymotrypsin activities in vitro by soybean proteinase inhibitors suggested that either Kunitz (SBTI) or Bowman-Birk (SBBI) would have a potential antimetabolic effect when ingested by insect larvae. However, chronic ingestion of semipurified soybean inhibitors did not result in a significant reduction of growth and development of fall armyworm. Therefore, digestive serine proteinase activities (trypsin and chymotrypsin) of fall armyworm larvae were characterized. The results suggest that S. frugiperda was able to physiologically adapt to dietary proteinase inhibitors by altering the complement of proteolytic enzymes in the insect midguts.

  1. Understanding and targeting a novel plant viral proteinase/substrate interaction. Final report, July 1, 1989--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, W.

    1995-10-01

    The past 3 years of funding have focused our efforts on trying to understand the molecular basis of a unique substrate interaction displayed by a viral proteinase. We have made good progress and during this funding period we have made four contributions to the scientific literature and have developed the application of the proteinase in the expression and purification of recombinant fusion proteins. A comprehensive review of virus-encoded proteinases, written during the funding period, emphazing the tremendous similarity of viral proteinases with their cellular counterparts and at the same time detail the unique characteristics which permit them to function in a cellular environment. The focus of the research effort was the tobacco etch virus (TEV) 27kDa NIa proteinase.

  2. Synthesis of 6-phosphofructose aspartic acid and some related Amadori compounds.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Alexandar L; Behrman, Edward J

    2016-08-05

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of 6-phosphofructose-aspartic acid, an intermediate in the metabolism of fructose-asparagine by Salmonella. We also report improved syntheses of fructose-asparagine itself and of fructose-aspartic acid.

  3. Identification of a novel proteinase (ameloprotease-I) responsible for the complete degradation of amelogenin during enamel maturation.

    PubMed Central

    Moradian-Oldak, J; Leung, W; Simmer, J P; Zeichner-David, M; Fincham, A G

    1996-01-01

    During enamel formation the proteins of the extracellular matrix, particularly amelogenins, are removed prior to maturation. In order to investigate this process and to improve our understanding of the function of proteinases during enamel maturation, proteinase fractions were isolated from developing pig enamel and assayed for proteolytic activity in vitro. A recombinant murine amelogenin, M179, was used as a substrate. Two major groups of enamel proteinases were defined as high-molecular-mass ['high-molecular-weight' in Moradian-Oldak, Simmer, Sarte, Zeichner-David and Fincham (1994) Arch. Oral Biol.39, 647-656] and low-molecular-mass proteinases. Here we report the characterization of one of the proteinases present in the low-molecular-mass group. We demonstrate that this proteinase is a serine proteinase capable of degradation of M179 following cleavage of the tyrosine-rich amelogenin polypeptide from the N-terminal region. A partial N-terminal sequence of the proteinase was obtained (LPHVPHRIPPGYGRPXTXNEEGXNPYFXFFXXHG). An anti-peptide antibody directed against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the first 14 amino acids of the above sequence was produced. The presence of the proteinase in the acetic acid extract was confirmed by Western blotting. Searching using the amino acid sequence determined in this study showed it to be also present in the 32 kDa and 89 kDa enamelin proteins reported by Fukae, Tanabe, Murakami and Tohi [(1996) Adv. Dent. Res., in the press]. We therefore identify the 32 kDa enamelin as an enamel proteinase ('ameloprotease-I') which is responsible for amelogenin degradation in maturing enamel. We propose that the 89 kDa enamelin is a precursor of ameloprotease-I, the first enamel protein for which a function has been defined. PMID:8836151

  4. Dual Comb Fourier Transform Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsch, T. W.; Picqué, N.

    2010-06-01

    The advent of laser frequency combs a decade ago has already revolutionized optical frequency metrology and precision spectroscopy. Extensions of laser combs from the THz region to the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray frequencies are now under exploration. Such laser combs have become enabling tools for a growing tree of applications, from optical atomic clocks to attosecond science. Recently, the millions of precisely controlled laser comb lines that can be produced with a train of ultrashort laser pulses have been harnessed for highly multiplexed molecular spectroscopy. Fourier multi-heterodyne spectroscopy, dual comb spectroscopy, or asynchronous optical sampling spectroscopy with frequency combs are emerging as powerful new spectroscopic tools. Even the first proof-of-principle experiments have demonstrated a very exciting potential for ultra-rapid and ultra-sensitive recording of complex molecular spectra. Compared to conventional Fourier transform spectroscopy, recording times could be shortened from seconds to microseconds, with intriguing prospects for spectroscopy of short lived transient species. Longer recording times allow high resolution spectroscopy of molecules with extreme precision, since the absolute frequency of each laser comb line can be known with the accuracy of an atomic clock. The spectral structure of sharp lines of a laser comb can be very useful even in the recording of broadband spectra without sharp features, as they are e.g. encountered for molecular gases or in the liquid phase. A second frequency comb of different line spacing permits the generation of a comb of radio frequency beat notes, which effectively map the optical spectrum into the radio frequency regime, so that it can be recorded with a single fast photodetector, followed by digital signal analysis. In the time domain, a pulse train of a mode-locked femtosecond laser excites some molecular medium at regular time intervals. A second pulse train of different repetition

  5. The Fourier Transform on Quantum Euclidean Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulembier, Kevin

    2011-05-01

    We study Fourier theory on quantum Euclidean space. A modified version of the general definition of the Fourier transform on a quantum space is used and its inverse is constructed. The Fourier transforms can be defined by their Bochner's relations and a new type of q-Hankel transforms using the first and second q-Bessel functions. The behavior of the Fourier transforms with respect to partial derivatives and multiplication with variables is studied. The Fourier transform acts between the two representation spaces for the harmonic oscillator on quantum Euclidean space. By using this property it is possible to define a Fourier transform on the entire Hilbert space of the harmonic oscillator, which is its own inverse and satisfies the Parseval theorem.

  6. Quantum Fourier transform in computational basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, S. S.; Loke, T.; Izaac, J. A.; Wang, J. B.

    2017-03-01

    The quantum Fourier transform, with exponential speed-up compared to the classical fast Fourier transform, has played an important role in quantum computation as a vital part of many quantum algorithms (most prominently, Shor's factoring algorithm). However, situations arise where it is not sufficient to encode the Fourier coefficients within the quantum amplitudes, for example in the implementation of control operations that depend on Fourier coefficients. In this paper, we detail a new quantum scheme to encode Fourier coefficients in the computational basis, with fidelity 1 - δ and digit accuracy ɛ for each Fourier coefficient. Its time complexity depends polynomially on log (N), where N is the problem size, and linearly on 1/δ and 1/ɛ . We also discuss an application of potential practical importance, namely the simulation of circulant Hamiltonians.

  7. Poly(Aspartic Acid) Degradation by a Sphingomonas sp. Isolated from Freshwater

    PubMed Central

    Tabata, Kenji; Kasuya, Ken-Ichi; Abe, Hideki; Masuda, Kozue; Doi, Yoshiharu

    1999-01-01

    A poly(aspartic acid) degrading bacterium (strain KT-1 [JCM10459]) was isolated from river water and identified as a member of the genus Sphingomonas. The isolate degraded only poly(aspartic acid)s of low molecular masses (<5 kDa), while the cell extract hydrolyzed high-molecular-mass poly(aspartic acid)s of 5 to 150 kDa to yield aspartic acid monomer. PMID:10473451

  8. Fourier's law: insight from a simple derivation.

    PubMed

    Dubi, Y; Di Ventra, M

    2009-04-01

    The onset of Fourier's law in a one-dimensional quantum system is addressed via a simple model of weakly coupled quantum systems in contact with thermal baths at their edges. Using analytical arguments we show that the crossover from the ballistic (invalid Fourier's law) to diffusive (valid Fourier's law) regimes is characterized by a thermal length scale, which is directly related to the profile of the local temperature. In the same vein, dephasing is shown to give rise to classical Fourier's law, similarly to the onset of Ohm's law in mesoscopic conductors.

  9. 40 CFR 721.10348 - Aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi-alkanediyl)bis, tetraalkane esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aspartic acid, N,Nâ²-(iminodi... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10348 Aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi... reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi-alkanediyl)bis...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10348 - Aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi-alkanediyl)bis, tetraalkane esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aspartic acid, N,Nâ²-(iminodi... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10348 Aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi... reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi-alkanediyl)bis...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10348 - Aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi-alkanediyl)bis, tetraalkane esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aspartic acid, N,Nâ²-(iminodi... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10348 Aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi... reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as aspartic acid, N,N′-(iminodi-alkanediyl)bis...

  12. Development of poly(aspartic acid-co-malic acid) composites for calcium carbonate and sulphate scale inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mithil Kumar, N; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Jagadeesh, Dani; Kanny, K; Bux, F

    2015-01-01

    Polyaspartic acid (PSI) is suitable for the inhibition of inorganic scale deposition. To enhance its scale inhibition efficiency, PSI was modified by reacting aspartic acid with malic acid (MA) using thermal polycondensation polymerization. This reaction resulted in poly(aspartic acid-co-malic acid) (PSI-co-MA) dual polymer. The structural, chemical and thermal properties of the dual polymers were analysed by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and gel permeation chromatography. The effectiveness of six different molar ratios of PSI-co-MA dual polymer for calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate scale inhibition at laboratory scale batch experiments was evaluated with synthetic brine solution at selected doses of polymer at 65-70°C by the static scale test method. The performance of PSI-co-MA dual polymer for the inhibition of calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate precipitation was compared with that of a PSI single polymer. The PSI-co-MA exhibited excellent ability to control inorganic minerals, with approximately 85.36% calcium carbonate inhibition and 100% calcium sulphate inhibition at a level of 10 mg/L PSI-co-MA, respectively. Therefore, it may be reasonably concluded that PSI-co-MA is a highly effective scale inhibitor for cooling water treatment applications.

  13. Electrical and magnetic properties of spherical SmFeO{sub 3} synthesized by aspartic acid assisted combustion method

    SciTech Connect

    Yuvaraj, Subramanian; Layek, Samar; Vidyavathy, S. Manisha; Yuvaraj, Selvaraj; Meyrick, Danielle; Selvan, R. Kalai

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • SmFeO{sub 3} is synthesized by simple combustion method using aspartic acid as the fuel. • The particles are spherical in shape with the size ranges between 150 and 300 nm. • Cole–Cole plot infers the bulk conduction mechanism. • Room temperature VSM analysis reveal the weak ferromagnetic behaviour of SmFeO{sub 3}. • Mössbauer analysis elucidates the +3 oxidation state of Fe atoms. - Abstract: Samarium orthoferrite (SmFeO{sub 3}) is synthesized by a simple combustion method using aspartic acid as fuel. Phase purity and functional groups are analyzed via X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis, which confirms the single phase formation of orthorhombic SmFeO{sub 3}. Approximately spherical particles with size range 150–300 nm is revealed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The conductivity of the material is identified by the single semicircle obtained in the solid state impedance spectra at elevated temperatures. The calculated electrical conductivity increases with increasing temperature, inferring the semiconducting nature of SmFeO{sub 3}. A magnetic study at room temperature revealed weak ferromagnetic behaviour in SmFeO{sub 3} due to Dzyaloshinsky–Moriya antisymmetric exchange interaction mechanism. Mössbauer analysis confirmed the +3 oxidation state of iron and magnetic ordering of the sample at room temperature.

  14. Multi-armed poly(aspartate-g-OEI) copolymers as versatile carriers of pDNA/siRNA.

    PubMed

    Dong, X; Lin, L; Chen, J; Tian, H; Xiao, C; Guo, Z; Li, Y; Wei, Y; Chen, X

    2013-06-01

    To search for potential non-viral nucleic acids carriers, a series of novel cationic polymers, multi-armed poly(aspartate-graft-oligoethylenimine) (MP-g-OEI) copolymers were designed and synthesized by grafting different types of oligoethylenimine (OEI) to a multi-armed poly(l-aspartic acid) backbone. The as-synthesized MP-g-OEI copolymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography. These MP-g-OEI copolymers (MP423, MP600 and MP1800) exhibited good capacity in condensing nucleic acids (pDNA or siRNA) into nanosized particles (90-150nm) with positive surface charges. Gene transfection activity of the MP-g-OEI copolymers (especially MP1800) showed improved performance compared with PEI25k in both HeLa and CHO cell lines. The silencing efficiency of MP600/siRNA and MP1800/siRNA complexes showed a superior knockdown effect in CT26 and Huh-7 cell lines. Moreover, the MP-g-OEI copolymers exhibited much lower cytotoxicity than PEI25k. Flow cytometric analysis showed that MP-g-OEI copolymers could efficiently mediate the entry of nucleic acids into cells. These results suggest that MP-g-OEI copolymers may be potential non-viral gene carriers for the delivery of nucleic acids in future gene therapy. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High-molecular-mass multicatalytic proteinase complexes produced by the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia strain BR.

    PubMed Central

    Benoist, P; Müller, A; Diem, H G; Schwencke, J

    1992-01-01

    A major-high-molecular mass proteinase and seven latent minor proteinases were found in cell extracts and in concentrates of culture medium from Frankia sp. strain BR after nondenaturing electrophoresis in mixed gelatin-polyacrylamide gels. All of these complexes showed multicatalytic properties. Their molecular masses and their sedimentation coefficients varied from 1,300 kDa (28S) to 270 kDa (12S). The electroeluted 1,300-kDa proteinase complex dissociated into 11 low-molecular-mass proteinases (40 to 19 kDa) after sodium dodecyl sulfate activation at 30 degrees C and electrophoresis under denaturing conditions. All of these electroeluted proteinases hydrolyzed N-carbobenzoxy-Pro-Ala-Gly-Pro-4-methoxy-beta- naphthylamide, D-Val-Leu-Arg-4-methoxy-beta-naphthylamide, and Boc-Val-Pro-Arg-4-methyl-7-coumarylamide, whereas Suc-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-4-methyl-7-coumarylamide was cleaved only by the six lower-molecular-mass proteinases (27.5 to 19 kDa). Examination by electron microscopy of uranyl acetate-stained, electroeluted 1,300- and 650-kDa intracellular and extracellular proteinase complexes showed ring-shaped and cylindrical particles (10 to 11 nm in diameter, 15 to 16 nm long) similar to those of eukaryotic prosomes and proteasomes. Polyclonal antibodies raised against rat skeletal muscle proteasomes cross-reacted with all of the high-molecular-mass proteinase complexes and, after denaturation of the electroeluted 1,300-kDa band, with polypeptides of 35 to 38, 65, and 90 kDa. Electrophoresis of the activated cell extracts under denaturing conditions revealed 11 to 17 gelatinases from 40 to 19 kDa, including the 11 proteinases of the 1,300-kDa proteinase complex. The inhibition pattern of these proteinases is complex. Thiol-reactive compounds and 1-10-phenanthroline strongly inhibited all of the proteinases, but inhibitors against serine-type proteinases were also effective for most of them. Images PMID:1537794

  16. Behavior of aspartic acid as a corrosion inhibitor for steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kalota, D.J.; Silverman, D.C. )

    1994-02-01

    Corrosion inhibition of steel by aspartic acid (C[sub 4]H[sub 7]NO[sub 4]), an amino acid of low molecular weight, was found to depend strongly on pH. At a pH less than the ionization constant at [approximately]9.5 to 10 (measured at 25 C), C[sub 4]H[sub 7]NO[sub 4] appeared to accelerate corrosion. Above the pH, it acted as a corrosion inhibitor for steel. A specially constructed potential-pH diagram for iron (Fe) that incorporated C[sub 4]H[sub 7]NO[sub 4] showed the change in behavior was accompanied by the most stable thermodynamic state changing from an iron aspartate complex to iron oxide. Polymerized C[sub 4]H[sub 7]NO[sub 4] (polyaspartic acid) behaved in a similar manner. Some other amino acids of low molecular weight behaved similarly.

  17. Isolation and characterization of a subtilisin-like proteinase of Bacillus intermedius secreted by the Bacillus subtilis recombinant strain AJ73 at different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Mikhailova, E O; Mardanova, A M; Balaban, N P; Rudenskaya, G N; Sharipova, M R

    2007-02-01

    Two subtilisin-like serine proteinases of Bacillus intermedius secreted by the Bacillus subtilis recombinant strain AJ73 (pCS9) on the 28th and 48th h of culture growth (early and late proteinase, respectively) have been isolated by ion-exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose and by FPLC. Molecular weights of both proteinases were determined. The N-terminal sequences of the recombinant protein and mature proteinases of the original strain were compared. Kinetic parameters and substrate specificities of the early and late proteinase were analyzed. Physicochemical properties of the enzymes were studied.

  18. Insect and wound induced GUS gene expression from a Beta vulgaris proteinase inhibitor gene promoter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inducible gene promoters that are specifically activated by pathogen invasion or insect pest attack are needed for effective expression of resistance genes to control plant diseases. In the present study, a promoter from a serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) shown to be up-regulated in resist...

  19. Proteinase K and the structure of PrPse: the good, the bad, and the ugly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infectious proteins (prions) are, ironically, defined by their resistance to proteolytic digestion. A defining characteristic of the transmissible isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc) is its partial resistance to proteinase K (PK) digestion. Diagnosis of prion disease typically relies upon immunod...

  20. Insect resistance to sugar beet pests mediated by a Beta vulgaris proteinase inhibitor transgene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We transformed sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) hairy roots and Nicotiana benthamiana plants with a Beta vulgaris root gene (BvSTI) that codes for a serine proteinase inhibitor. BvSTI is a root gene cloned from the F1016 breeding line that has moderate levels of resistance to the sugar beet root maggot ...

  1. Detergents modify proteinase K resistance of PrPSc in different transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs)

    PubMed Central

    Breyer, Johanna; Wemheuer, Wiebke M.; Wrede, Arne; Graham, Catherine; Benestad, Sylvie L.; Brenig, Bertram; Richt, Jürgen A.; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J.

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases are diagnosed by the detection of their proteinase K-resistant prion protein fragment (PrPSc). Various biochemical protocols use different detergents for the tissue preparation. We found that the resistance of PrPSc against proteinase K may vary strongly with the detergent used. In our study, we investigated the influence of the most commonly used detergents on eight different TSE agents derived from different species and distinct prion disease forms. For a high throughput we used a membrane adsorbtion assay to detect small amounts of prion aggregates, as well as Western blotting. Tissue lysates were prepared using DOC, SLS, SDS or Triton X-100 in different concentrations and these were digested with various amounts of proteinase K. Detergents are able to enhance or diminish the detectability of PrPSc after proteinase K digestion. Depending on the kind of detergent, its concentration - but also on the host species that developed the TSE and the disease form or prion type - the detectability of PrPSc can be very different. The results obtained here may be helpful during the development or improvement of a PrPSc detection method and they point towards a detergent effect that can be additionally used for decontamination purposes. A plausible explanation for the detergent effects described in this article could be an interaction with the lipids associated with PrPSc that may stabilize the aggregates. PMID:22226540

  2. Detergents modify proteinase K resistance of PrP Sc in different transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs).

    PubMed

    Breyer, Johanna; Wemheuer, Wiebke M; Wrede, Arne; Graham, Catherine; Benestad, Sylvie L; Brenig, Bertram; Richt, Jürgen A; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J

    2012-05-25

    Prion diseases are diagnosed by the detection of their proteinase K-resistant prion protein fragment (PrP(Sc)). Various biochemical protocols use different detergents for the tissue preparation. We found that the resistance of PrP(Sc) against proteinase K may vary strongly with the detergent used. In our study, we investigated the influence of the most commonly used detergents on eight different TSE agents derived from different species and distinct prion disease forms. For a high throughput we used a membrane adsorption assay to detect small amounts of prion aggregates, as well as Western blotting. Tissue lysates were prepared using DOC, SLS, SDS or Triton X-100 in different concentrations and these were digested with various amounts of proteinase K. Detergents are able to enhance or diminish the detectability of PrP(Sc) after proteinase K digestion. Depending on the kind of detergent, its concentration - but also on the host species that developed the TSE and the disease form or prion type - the detectability of PrP(Sc) can be very different. The results obtained here may be helpful during the development or improvement of a PrP(Sc) detection method and they point towards a detergent effect that can be additionally used for decontamination purposes. A plausible explanation for the detergent effects described in this article could be an interaction with the lipids associated with PrP(Sc) that may stabilize the aggregates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Inactivation of key factors of the plasma proteinase cascade systems by Bacteroides gingivalis.

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, T; Carlsson, J; Sundqvist, G

    1985-01-01

    The effect of Bacteroides gingivalis W83 on various key components of the human plasma proteinase cascade systems was studied. When purified C1-inhibitor was incubated with the bacterium, the inhibitor was rapidly inactivated by limited proteolytic cleavage. In citrated whole plasma, C1-inhibitor, antithrombin, plasminogen, prekallikrein, prothrombinase complex, the clotting factor X, and most of the alpha 2-antiplasmin were functionally eliminated after 30 min of incubation with the bacterium. Fibrinogen disappeared from the plasma almost immediately upon mixing with the bacterial suspension. In contrast, there was no appreciable decrease in the bulk of other plasma proteins, such as various transport proteins (albumin, prealbumin, transferrin) and immunoglobulins, during 4 h of incubation with the bacterium. Most of the observed effects can be assigned to the proteolytic activity of the bacterium itself, since there was little evidence for generation of intrinsic plasma proteinase activity, despite the loss of proteinase inhibitory activities. B. gingivalis W83 thus seems to be equipped with proteolytic enzyme systems which selectively recognize and rapidly inactivate the most important proteinase inhibitors and proenzymes present in human plasma. This bacterium therefore seems to be able to efficiently paralyze the host's various defenses against invading microorganisms. Images PMID:3902645

  4. Applicability of Yeast Extracellular Proteinases in Brewing: Physiological and Biochemical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Bilinski, Carl A.; Russell, Inge; Stewart, Graham G.

    1987-01-01

    A general screening survey for expression of extracellular acid proteinase production was performed on over 100 cultures belonging to the genus Saccharomyces. Although two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed positive extracellular proteinase phenotypes in plate tests, it was not possible to demonstrate proteolytic activities in cell-free culture supernatants in assays performed at beer pH values. Of several yeasts from other genera examined, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and Torulopsis magnoliae produced extracellular proteinases with desirable properties. Proteolytic activities were detected in assays performed at beer pH values and at lower temperature. Brewer's wort served as a highly inducing medium for extracellular proteinase production, with T. magnoliae yielding enzyme of highest specific activity. In fact, commencement of enzyme production was detected shortly after the onset of exponential growth in brewer's wort. Inclusion of crude enzyme preparations in brewer's wort inoculated simultaneously with brewer's yeast reduced final ethanol yields slightly and was found to be effective in reducing chill haze formation in bottled beer. PMID:16347298

  5. Miltpain, a cysteine proteinase, from milt of Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus): purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, C; Doi, Y; Ichishima, E

    2000-04-01

    Miltpain (EC.3.4.22.-) is a cysteine proteinase that preferentially hydrolyzes basic proteins, previously found in the milt of chum salmon. Here we report a similar cysteine proteinase in the milt of the marine Pacific cod. The enzyme was isolated and purified 6900-fold and with an estimated mass of 63 kDa by gel filtration chromatography and 72 kDa by SDS/PAGE. Cod miltpain has an optimum pH of 6.0 for Z-Arg-Arg-MCA hydrolysis, and Km of 11.5 microM and kcat of 19.0 s-1 with Z-Arg-Arg-MCA. It requires a thiol-inducing reagent for activation and is inhibited by E-64, iodoacetamide, CA-074, PCMB, NEM, TLCK, TPCK, ZPCK and o-phenanthroline. This proteinase strongly hydrolyzes basic proteins such as salmine, clupeine and histone, and exhibits unique substrate specificity toward paired basic residues such as Lys-Arg, Arg-Arg on the substrates of P2-P1. The isoelectric point is 5.2 by isoelectric focusing. N-Terminal sequencing gave a sequence of < EVPVEVVRXYVTSAPEK. The cysteine proteinase from Pacific cod very closely matches the previously reported miltpain from chum salmon.

  6. Miltpain, new cysteine proteinase from the milt of chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, C; Ichishima, E

    1997-07-01

    A new cysteine proteinase, salmon miltpain, was isolated and purified from the milt of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta). Native molecular mass was estimated as 67,000 by gel filtration column chromatography (Shodex WS2003) and 22,300 by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Isoelectoric point was determined to be 3.9 by isoelectric focusing. The first 15 amino acid residues in the N-terminal region were LPSFLY-AEMVGYNIL. The cysteine proteinase, which had a pH optimum of 6.0 for Z-Arg-Arg-MCA hydrolysis, required a thiol-reducing reagent for activation and was inhibited by E-64, iodacetamide, CA-074 Me, TLCK, TPCK and ZPCK. The cysteine proteinase exhibited unique substrate specificity toward paired basic residues such as Lys-Arg, Arg-Arg at the subsites of P2-P1 and had a K(m) of 16.3 microM and kcat of 20.3 s-1 with Z-Arg-Arg-MCA as substrate and a K(m) of 52.9 microM and kcat of 1.79 s-1 with Z-Phe-Arg-MCA. This proteinase was found to considerably hydrolyze basic proteins such as histone, salmine and clupaine but not milk casein.

  7. Prevalence, susceptibility profile and proteinase production of yeasts causing vulvovaginitis in Turkish women.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Sema Keceli; Budak, Fatma; Yucesoy, Gulseren; Susever, Serdar; Willke, Ayse

    2006-02-01

    In this study the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), antifungal susceptibility and proteinase production of isolated Candida species were investigated. Vaginal swabs were collected from symptomatic women with vulvovaginitis attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic of Kocaeli University, Turkey. The relation between risk factors, such as pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, antibiotic and corticosteroid use, history of sexually transmitted diseases and contraceptive methods, was recorded. Candida spp. were identified by conventional methods, then evaluated for proteinase secretion in a medium containing casein. Antifungal susceptibility was determined according to the NCCLS microdilution method. The prevalence of women with vulvovaginitis was 35.7% (170/6080) and 16% (28/170) of them were diagnosed as VVC. Candida albicans was the dominant species: 21 (75%), followed by 4 C. glabrata (14%), 2 C. tropicalis (7%), and one C. krusei (3.5%). All isolates were susceptible to fluconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B, except one C. krusei, one C. glabrata and one C. albicans that were resistant to fluconazole. Proteinase production was determined in 19 (90.5%) C. albicans and in all C. tropicalis isolates. Proteinase activity was not associated with antifungal resistance. No association was found between risk factors and VVC.

  8. Proteinase from germinating bean cotyledons. Evidence for involvement of a thiol group in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Csoma, C; Polgár, L

    1984-09-15

    To degrade storage proteins germinating seeds synthesize proteinases de novo that can be inhibited by thiol-blocking reagents [Baumgartner & Chrispeels (1977) Eur. J. Biochem. 77, 223-233]. We have elaborated a procedure for isolation of such a proteinase from the cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris. The purification procedure involved fractionation of the cotyledon homogenate with acetone and with (NH4)2SO4 and successive chromatographies on DEAE-cellulose, activated thiol-Sepharose Sepharose and Sephacryl S-200. The purified enzyme has an Mr of 23,400, proved to be highly specific for the asparagine side chain and blocking of its thiol group resulted in loss of the catalytic activity. The chemical properties of the thiol group of the bean enzyme were investigated by acylation with t-butyloxycarbonyl-L-asparagine p-nitro-phenyl ester and by alkylations with iodoacetamide and iodoacetate. Deviations from normal pH-rate profile were observed, which indicated that the thiol group is not a simple functional group, but constitutes a part of an interactive system at the active site. The pKa value for acylation and the magnitude of the rate constant for alkylation with iodoacetate revealed that the bean proteinase possesses some properties not shared by papain and the other cysteine proteinases studied to date.

  9. Subunit structure of karatasin, the proteinase isolated from Bromelia plumieri (karatas).

    PubMed

    Montes, C; Amador, M; Cuevas, D; Cordoba, F

    1990-01-01

    Close to 15% of the karatasin proteinase activity in the fruit juice of Bromelia plumieri (karatas) is present outside dialysis Visking tubing in 7 days in 0.2 M acetate buffer (pH) 3.5 or 6.5) containing phenyl mercuric acetate. The small proteinase(s), distinct from the 85% activity in juice due to nondialysable karatasin with a reported Mr of 24,868, separates across Spectrapore (13 kDa) membranes but not across Spectrapore with 3.5 kDa average pore diameter. The dialyzed proteinase is named karatasin-D (K-D). Purified non-Dialysable karatasin can be dissociated to what seems to be K-D by incubation in a buffer solution, containing SDS and 2-mercaptoethanol with phenyl mercuric acetate, in dialysis experiments for 8 days at room temperature using Spectrapore 13 kDa tubing. Thus, native karatasin in B. plumieri fruit juice seem to be the result of association of 2 small molecular mass K-D subunits, linked together by disulfide bonds and electrostatic forces, in equilibrium with small amounts of free K-D molecules. The amino acid composition and partial sequence of karatasin up to the 14th position from the amino terminus have discrete analogies with papain and with stem bromelain.

  10. Synthesis of Extracellular Proteinase by Pseudomonas fluorescens Under Conditions of Limiting Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphate †

    PubMed Central

    McKellar, R. C.; Cholette, H.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate concentrations on growth and proteinase production by Pseudomonas fluorescens 32A was examined. In mineral salts medium containing dialyzed skim milk supernatant as an inducer, maximum growth was obtained at 1.0 and 2.5 mM orthophosphate at 20 and 5°C, respectively. At both temperatures, 5 mM orthophosphate was required for maximum proteinase production, whereas significant inhibition was found at 10 mM. Orthophosphate was the only phosphate compound able to support growth. With sodium pyruvate as the carbon source, maximum enzyme synthesis was at 100 mM carbon at both temperatures. At both 20 and 5°C maximum growth and enzyme production was found with 10 mM NH4Cl. A bioassay for available phosphate based on the growth of P. fluorescens 32A in phosphate-limited mineral salts medium showed that skim milk and skim milk supernatant contained 50 and 10 mM orthophosphate, respectively. Proteinase production in skim milk was 2.6- and 12-fold greater than that in optimal mineral salts medium at 20 and 5°C, respectively. These results suggest that proteinase production in milk does not occur as a result of nutrient limitation and may be regulated in part by milk phosphates. PMID:16346559

  11. Chemically modified tetracycline-3 (CMT-3): a novel inhibitor of the serine proteinase, elastase.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ying; Lee, Hsi-Ming; Simon, Sanford R; Golub, Lorne M

    2011-12-01

    Two classes of enzymes play an important role in connective tissue breakdown during various inflammatory diseases: serine proteinases and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Tetracyclines (TCs) exhibit important anti-inflammatory and MMP-inhibitory properties that are unrelated to their antibacterial activities. Of the various TCs and their chemically modified NON-antibiotic analogs (CMTs) tested in vitro and in vivo, CMT-3 (6-demethyl-6-deoxy 4 de-dimethylamino tetracycline) has repeatedly been shown to be the most potent inhibitor of MMP activity and cytokine production. In addition to its anti-MMP function, we have shown that among all CMTs, CMT-3 is the only CMT that can also directly inhibit both the amidolytic activity of human leukocyte elastase (HLE, a serine proteinase) and the extracellular matrix degradation mediated by HLE. In addition, CMT-3 has been found to reduce leukocyte elastase activity in vivo in gingival extracts of rats with experimental periodontal disease. Thus, CMT-3 can inhibit pathologic connective tissue breakdown by (at least) two mechanisms: direct inhibition of neutral proteinases (elastase and MMPs); and protecting their endogenous inhibitors, α(1)-PI and TIMPs, from being digested and inactivated by MMPs and HLE, respectively. The pleiotropic properties of CMT-3 including (but not limited to) inhibition of serine proteinases, MMPs, and cytokines provide impressive therapeutic potential to reduce excessive connective tissue breakdown during various pathologic processes including inflammatory diseases, cancer metastasis and metabolic bone diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. LEKTI domain 15 is a functional Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Vitzithum, Klaus; Lauber, Thomas; Kreutzmann, Peter; Schulz, Axel; Sommerhoff, Christian P; Rösch, Paul; Marx, Ute C

    2008-01-01

    The multidomain proteinase inhibitor LEKTI (lympho-epithelial Kazal-type related inhibitor) consists of 15 potential serine proteinase inhibitory domains. In various diseases such as the severe skin disorder Netherton syndrome as well as atopy, defects in the gene encoding LEKTI have been identified that generate premature termination codons of translation, suggesting a specific role of the COOH-terminal part of LEKTI in healthy individuals. We overexpressed and purified a sequence comprising the 15th domain of LEKTI for further characterisation. Here, we present a high yield expression system for recombinant production and efficient purification of LEKTI domain 15 as a highly soluble protein with a uniform disulfide pattern that is identical to that of other known Kazal-type inhibitors. Also, the expected P1P1' site was confirmed. LEKTI domain 15 is a well-structured protein as verified by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and a tight-binding and stable inhibitor of the serine proteinase trypsin. These findings confirm the designation of domain 15 as a proteinase inhibitor of the Kazal family.

  13. A new subtilisin-like proteinase from roots of the dandelion Taraxacum officinale Webb S. L.

    PubMed

    Bogacheva, A M; Rudenskaya, G N; Preusser, A; Tchikileva, I O; Dunaevsky, Y E; Golovkin, B N; Stepanov, V M

    1999-09-01

    A serine proteinase from roots of Taraxacum officinale Webb S. L. was isolated by affinity chromatography and gel-filtration on Superose 6R using FPLC. The enzyme is a 67-kD glycoprotein containing 54% carbohydrate which we have named taraxalisin. The substrate specificity of taraxalisin toward synthetic peptides and oxidized insulin B-chain is comparable with that of cucumisin from Cucumis melo and the subtilisin-like serine proteinase macluralisin from Maclura pomifera. The proteinase is inactivated by DFP and PMSF. Taraxalisin exhibits maximal activity at pH 8.0. The pH range for stability of the enzyme is narrow--6.0-9.0. The temperature optimum for the subtilisin-like activity is 40 degrees C. The N-terminal sequence of taraxalisin has 40% of its residues identical to those of subtilisin Carlsberg. Thus, the serine proteinase from dandelion roots is a member of the subtilisin family, which is evidently widespread in the plant kingdom.

  14. Isolation and Properties of Stachyrase A, a Chymotrypsin-Like Serine Proteinase from Stachybotrys chartarum

    PubMed Central

    Kordula, Tomasz; Banbula, Agnieszka; Macomson, Jeremy; Travis, James

    2002-01-01

    A strain of the common mold Stachybotrys chartarum has been isolated from the lung of a child with pulmonary hemorrhage. We report the purification of stachyrase A, a new serine chymotrypsin-like proteinase from S. chartarum. This enzyme cleaves major protease inhibitors, several biologically active peptides, and collagen, all of which are found in the lung. PMID:11748212

  15. Nutritional Requirements and Nitrogen-Dependent Regulation of Proteinase Activity of Lactobacillus helveticus CRL 1062

    PubMed Central

    Hebert, Elvira M.; Raya, Raul R.; De Giori, Graciela S.

    2000-01-01

    The nutritional requirements of Lactobacillus helveticus CRL 1062 were determined with a simplified chemically defined medium (SCDM) and compared with those of L. helveticus CRL 974 (ATCC 15009). Both strains were found to be prototrophic for alanine, glycine, asparagine, glutamine, and cysteine. In addition, CRL 1062 also showed prototrophy for lysine and serine. The microorganisms also required riboflavin, calcium pantothenate, pyridoxal, nicotinic acid, and uracil for growth in liquid SCDM. The growth rate and the synthesis of their cell membrane-bound serine proteinases, but not of their intracellular leucyl-aminopeptidases, were influenced by the peptide content of the medium. The highest proteinase levels were found during cell growth in basal SCDM, while the synthesis of this enzyme was inhibited in SCDM supplemented with Casitone, Casamino Acids, or β-casein. Low-molecular-mass peptides (<3,000 Da), extracted from Casitone, and the dipeptide leucylproline (final concentration, 5 mM) play important roles in the medium-dependent regulation of proteinase activity. The addition of the dipeptide leucylproline (5 mM) to SCDM reduced proteinase activity by 25%. PMID:11097908

  16. Bioproduction of L-Aspartic Acid and Cinnamic Acid by L-Aspartate Ammonia Lyase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Patel, Arti T; Akhani, Rekha C; Patel, Manisha J; Dedania, Samir R; Patel, Darshan H

    2016-12-17

    Aspartase (L-aspartate ammonia lyase, EC 4.3.1.1) catalyses the reversible amination and deamination of L-aspartic acid to fumaric acid which can be used to produce important biochemical. In this study, we have explored the characteristics of aspartase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (PA-AspA). To overproduce PA-AspA, the 1425-bp gene was introduced in Escherichia coli BL21 and purified. A 51.0-kDa protein was observed as a homogenous purified protein on SDS-PAGE. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 8.0 and 35 °C. PA-AspA has retained 56% activity after 7 days of incubation at 35 °C, which displays the hyperthermostablility characteristics of the enzyme. PA-AspA is activated in the presence of metal ions and Mg2+ is found to be most effective. Among the substrates tested for specificity of PA-AspA, L-phenylalanine (38.35 ± 2.68) showed the highest specific activity followed by L-aspartic acid (31.21 ± 3.31) and fumarate (5.42 ± 2.94). K m values for L-phenylalanine, L-aspartic acid and fumarate were 1.71 mM, 0.346 μM and 2 M, respectively. The catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m) for L-aspartic acid (14.18 s(-1) mM(-1)) was higher than that for L-phenylalanine (4.65 s(-1) mM(-1)). For bioconversion, from an initial concentration of 1000 mM of fumarate and 30 mM of L-phenylalanine, PA-AspA was found to convert 395.31 μM L-aspartic acid and 3.47 mM cinnamic acid, respectively.

  17. Microwave-assisted reaction of glycosylamine with aspartic acid.

    PubMed

    Real-Fernández, Feliciana; Nuti, Francesca; Bonache, M Angeles; Boccalini, Marco; Chimichi, Stefano; Chelli, Mario; Papini, Anna Maria

    2010-07-01

    The synthesis of N-protected glycosyl amino acids from amines has been investigated and it was found that, under microwave conditions, glycosylamines could be hydrolyzed leading to new products containing a glycosyl ester linkage. The efficiency of the microwave-induced glycosylation of aspartic acid was studied comparing the microwave activity between amide and ester bond formation. Different sugar moieties have been employed to demonstrate the simple and reproducible coupling methodology. New glycosyl ester compounds were further characterized by NMR spectroscopy.

  18. Explosive enantiospecific decomposition of aspartic acid on Cu surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mhatre, B S; Dutta, S; Reinicker, A; Karagoz, B; Gellman, A J

    2016-12-01

    Aspartic acid adsorbed on Cu surfaces is doubly deprotonated. On chiral Cu(643)(R&S) its enantiomers undergo enantiospecific decomposition via an autocatalytic explosion. Once initiated, the decomposition mechanism proceeds via sequential cleavage of the C3-C4 and C1-C2 bonds each yielding CO2, followed by conversion of the remaining species into N[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCH3.

  19. On the solvation of L-aspartic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxton, A. T.; Harper, J. B.

    2004-01-01

    We use molecular statics and dynamics to study the stability of L-aspartic acid both in vacuo and solvated by polar and non-polar molecules using density functional theory in the generalized gradient approximation. We find that structures stable in vacuo are unstable in aqueous solution and vice versa. From our simulations we are able to come to some conclusions about the mechanism of stabilisation of zwitterions by polar protic solvents, water and methanol.

  20. Proteinase inhibitors in severe inflammatory processes (septic shock and experimental endotoxaemia): biochemical, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects.

    PubMed

    Fritz, H

    1979-01-01

    Plasma levels of antithrombin III, alpha 2-macroglobulin and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor, as well as those of various clotting, complement and other plasma factors, were significantly decreased in 18 patients suffering from hyperdynamic septic shock. A similar statistically significant reduction of the concentrations of several plasma factors (prothrombin and antithrombin III, plasminogen and alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor, complement factor C3 and clotting factor XIII) was observed in experimental endotoxaemia. In this model the reduction in the plasma levels of these factors was considerably diminished by the intravenous injection of a granulocytic elastase--cathepsin G inhibitor of lower molecular weight from soybeans. The results of both studies indicate that consumption of plasma factors in the course of Gram-negative sepsis proceeds not only via the classical routes (by activation of the clotting, fibrinolytic and complement cascades by system-specific proteinases such as thrombokinase or the plasminogen activator) but also to an appreciable degree of unspecific degradation of plasma factors by neutral proteinases such as elastase and cathepsin G. The endotoxin-induced release of both sorts of proteinases, the system-specific ones and the unspecific lysosomal proteinases from leucocytes and other cells, is likely to be mainly responsible for the consumption of antithrombin III and alpha-2-macroglobulin via complex formation (followed by elimination of the complexes) and the increased turnover of the inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor as observed in the clinical study. The therapeutic use of an exogenous elastase--cathepsin G inhibitor in the experimental model was stimulated by the observation that human mucous secretions contain and acid-stable inhibitor of the neutral granulocytic proteinases, called HUSI-I or antileucoproteinase. This inhibitor protects mucous membranes and soluble proteins against proteolytic attack by leucocytic proteinases released in the

  1. Proteolysis of the 85-kilodalton crystalline cysteine proteinase inhibitor from potato releases functional cystatin domains.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, T A; Strickland, J A

    1993-01-01

    The protein crystals found in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber cells consist of a single 85-kD polypeptide. This polypeptide is an inhibitor of papain and other cysteine proteinases and is capable of binding several proteinase molecules simultaneously (P. Rodis, J.E. Hoff [1984] Plant Physiol 74: 907-911). We have characterized this unusual inhibitor in more detail. Titrations of papain activity with the potato papain inhibitor showed that there are eight papain binding sites per inhibitor molecule. The inhibition constant (Ki) value for papain inhibition was 0.1 nM. Treatment of the inhibitor with trypsin resulted in fragmentation of the 85-kD polypeptide into a 32-kD polypeptide and five 10-kD polypeptides. The 32-kD and 10-kD fragments all retained the ability to potently inhibit papain (Ki values against papain were 0.5 and 0.7 nM, respectively) and the molar stoichiometries of papain binding were 2 to 3:1 and 1:1, respectively. Other nonspecific proteinases such as chymotrypsin, subtilisin Carlsberg, thermolysin, and proteinase K also cleaved the 85-kD inhibitor polypeptide into functional 22-kD and several 10-kD fragments. The fragments obtained by digestion of the potato papain inhibitor with trypsin were purified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and the N-terminal amino acid sequence was obtained for each fragment. Comparison of these sequences showed that the fragments shared a high degree of homology but were not identical. The sequences were homologous to the N termini of members of the cystatin superfamily of cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Therefore, the inhibitor appears to comprise eight tandem cystatin domains linked by preteolytically sensitive junctions. We have called the inhibitor potato multicystatin (PMC). By immunoblot analysis and measurement of papain inhibitory activity, PMC was found at high levels in potato leaves (up to 0.6 microgram/g fresh weight tissue), where it accumulated under conditions that induce the

  2. Microbial aspartic proteases: current and potential applications in industry.

    PubMed

    Theron, Louwrens W; Divol, Benoit

    2014-11-01

    Aspartic proteases are a relatively small group of proteolytic enzymes that are active in acidic environments and are found across all forms of life. Certain microorganisms secrete such proteases as virulence agents and/or in order to break down proteins thereby liberating assimilable sources of nitrogen. Some of the earlier applications of these proteolytic enzymes are found in the manufacturing of cheese where they are used as milk-clotting agents. Over the last decade, they have received tremendous research interest because of their involvement in human diseases. Furthermore, there has also been a growing interest on these enzymes for their applications in several other industries. Recent research suggests in particular that they could be used in the wine industry to prevent the formation of protein haze while preserving the wines' organoleptic properties. In this mini-review, the properties and mechanisms of action of aspartic proteases are summarized. Thereafter, a brief overview of the industrial applications of this specific class of proteases is provided. The use of aspartic proteases as alternatives to clarifying agents in various beverage industries is mentioned, and the potential applications in the wine industry are thoroughly discussed.

  3. Age estimation based on aspartic acid racemization in human sclera.

    PubMed

    Klumb, Karolin; Matzenauer, Christian; Reckert, Alexandra; Lehmann, Klaus; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Age estimation based on racemization of aspartic acid residues (AAR) in permanent proteins has been established in forensic medicine for years. While dentine is the tissue of choice for this molecular method of age estimation, teeth are not always available which leads to the need to identify other suitable tissues. We examined the suitability of total tissue samples of human sclera for the estimation of age at death. Sixty-five samples of scleral tissue were analyzed. The samples were hydrolyzed and after derivatization, the extent of aspartic acid racemization was determined by gas chromatography. The degree of AAR increased with age. In samples from younger individuals, the correlation of age and D-aspartic acid content was closer than in samples from older individuals. The age-dependent racemization in total tissue samples proves that permanent or at least long-living proteins are present in scleral tissue. The correlation of AAR in human sclera and age at death is close enough to serve as basis for age estimation. However, the precision of age estimation by this method is lower than that of age estimation based on the analysis of dentine which is due to molecular inhomogeneities of total tissue samples of sclera. Nevertheless, the approach may serve as a valuable alternative or addition in exceptional cases.

  4. Characterization of the Proteinase that Initiates the Degradation of the Trypsin Inhibitor in Germinating Mung Beans (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Wilson, K A; Tan-Wilson, A L

    1987-05-01

    The proteinase (proteinase F) responsible for the initial proteolysis of the mung bean (Vigna radiata) trypsin inhibitor (MBTI) during germination has been purified 1400-fold from dry beans. The enzyme acts as an endopeptidase, cleaving the native inhibitor, MBTI-F, to produce the first modified inhibitor form, MBTI-E. The cleavage of the Asp76-Lys77 peptide bond of MBTI-F occurs at a pH optimum of 4.5, with the tetrapeptide Lys-Asp-Asp-Asp being released. Proteinase F exhibited no activity against the modified inhibitor forms MBTI-E and MBTI-C. Vicilin, the major storage protein of the mung bean, does not serve as a substrate for proteinase F between pH 4 and 7. Proteinase F is inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, chymostatin, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, and p-chlorophenylsulfonate, but not by iodoacetate and CuCl(2). It is not activated by dithiothreitol, and is stable for extended periods of time (10 months, 4 degrees C, pH 4.0) in the absence of reducing agents. An apparent molecular weight of 65,000 was found for proteinase F by gel filtration. Subcellular fractionation in glycerol suggests that greater than 85% of the proteinase F activity is found in the protein bodies of the ungerminated mung bean. The same studies indicate that at least 56% of the MBTI of the seed is also localized in the protein bodies.

  5. Enzymatic response of the eucalypt defoliator Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) to a bis-benzamidine proteinase Inhibitor. i.

    PubMed

    Marinho-Prado, Jeanne Scardini; Lourenção, A L; Guedes, R N C; Pallini, A; Oliveira, J A; Oliveira, M G A

    2012-10-01

    Ingestion of proteinase inhibitors leads to hyperproduction of digestive proteinases, limiting the bioavailability of essential amino acids for protein synthesis, which affects insect growth and development. However, the effects of proteinase inhibitors on digestive enzymes can lead to an adaptive response by the insect. In here, we assessed the biochemical response of midgut proteinases from the eucalypt defoliator Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll) to different concentrations of berenil, a bis-benzamidine proteinase inhibitor, on eucalyptus. Eucalyptus leaves were immersed in berenil solutions at different concentrations and fed to larvae of T. arnobia. Mortality was assessed daily. The proteolytic activity in the midgut of T. arnobia was assessed after feeding on plants sprayed with aqueous solutions of berenil, fed to fifth instars of T. arnobia for 48 h before midgut removal for enzymatic assays. Larvae of T. arnobia were able to overcome the effects of the lowest berenil concentrations by increasing their trypsin-like activity, but not as berenil concentration increased, despite the fact that the highest berenil concentration resulted in overproduction of trypsin-like proteinases. Berenil also prevented the increase of the cysteine proteinases activity in response to trypsin inhibition.

  6. Fourier analysis and synthesis tomography.

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Kelvin H.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Feldkuhn, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Most far-field optical imaging systems rely on a lens and spatially-resolved detection to probe distinct locations on the object. We describe and demonstrate a novel high-speed wide-field approach to imaging that instead measures the complex spatial Fourier transform of the object by detecting its spatially-integrated response to dynamic acousto-optically synthesized structured illumination. Tomographic filtered backprojection is applied to reconstruct the object in two or three dimensions. This technique decouples depth-of-field and working-distance from resolution, in contrast to conventional imaging, and can be used to image biological and synthetic structures in fluoresced or scattered light employing coherent or broadband illumination. We discuss the electronically programmable transfer function of the optical system and its implications for imaging dynamic processes. Finally, we present for the first time two-dimensional high-resolution image reconstructions demonstrating a three-orders-of-magnitude improvement in depth-of-field over conventional lens-based microscopy.

  7. Programs for high-speed Fourier, Mellin and Fourier-Bessel transforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikhabisimov, D. K.; Debabov, A. S.; Kolosov, B. I.; Usikov, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    Several FORTRAN program modules for performing one-dimensional and two-dimensional discrete Fourier transforms, Mellin, and Fourier-Bessel transforms are described along with programs that realize the algebra of high speed Fourier transforms on a computer. The programs can perform numerical harmonic analysis of functions, synthesize complex optical filters on a computer, and model holographic image processing methods.

  8. Fourier smoothing of digital photographic spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anupama, G. C.

    1990-03-01

    Fourier methods of smoothing one-dimensional data are discussed with particular reference to digital photographic spectra. Data smoothed using lowpass filters with different cut-off frequencies are intercompared. A method to scale densities in order to remove the dependence of grain noise on density is described. Optimal filtering technique which models signal and noise in Fourier domain is also explained.

  9. The multipliers of multiple trigonometric Fourier series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ydyrys, Aizhan; Sarybekova, Lyazzat; Tleukhanova, Nazerke

    2016-11-01

    We study the multipliers of multiple Fourier series for a regular system on anisotropic Lorentz spaces. In particular, the sufficient conditions for a sequence of complex numbers {λk}k∈Zn in order to make it a multiplier of multiple trigonometric Fourier series from Lp[0; 1]n to Lq[0; 1]n , p > q. These conditions include conditions Lizorkin theorem on multipliers.

  10. Activities of amylase, proteinase, and lipase enzymes from Lactococcus chungangensis and its application in dairy products.

    PubMed

    Konkit, Maytiya; Kim, Wonyong

    2016-07-01

    Several enzymes are involved in the process of converting milk to lactic acid and coagulated milk to curd and, therefore, are important in dairy fermented products. Amylase, proteinase, and lipase are enzymes that play an important role in degrading milk into monomeric molecules such as oligosaccharides, amino acids, and fatty acids, which are the main molecules responsible for flavors in cheese. In the current study, we determined the amylase, proteinase, and lipase activities of Lactococcus chungangensis CAU 28(T), a bacterial strain of nondairy origin, and compared them with those of the reference strain, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis KCTC 3769(T), which is commonly used in the dairy industry. Lactococcus chungangensis CAU 28(T) and L. lactis ssp. lactis KCTC 3769(T) were both found to have amylase, proteinase, and lipase activities in broth culture, cream cheese, and yogurt. Notably, the proteinase and lipase activities of L. chungangensis CAU 28(T) were higher than those of L. lactis ssp. lactis KCTC 3769(T), with proteinase activity of 10.50 U/mL in tryptic soy broth and 8.64 U/mL in cream cheese, and lipase activity of 100 U/mL of tryptic soy broth, and 100 U/mL of cream cheese. In contrast, the amylase activity was low, with 5.28 U/mL in tryptic soy broth and 8.86 U/mL in cream cheese. These enzyme activities in L. chungangensis CAU 28(T) suggest that this strain has potential to be used for manufacturing dairy fermented products, even though the strain is of nondairy origin. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pest protection conferred by a Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene.

    PubMed

    Smigocki, Ann C; Ivic-Haymes, Snezana; Li, Haiyan; Savić, Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors provide a means of engineering plant resistance to insect pests. A Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) was fused to the constitutive CaMV35S promoter for over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana plants to study its effect on lepidopteran insect pests. Independently derived BvSTI transgenic tobacco T2 homozygous progeny were shown to have relatively high BvSTI gene transcript levels. BvSTI-specific polyclonal antibodies cross-reacted with the expected 30 kDA recombinant BvSTI protein on Western blots. In gel trypsin inhibitor activity assays revealed a major clear zone that corresponded to the BvSTI proteinase inhibitor that was not detected in the untransformed control plants. BvSTI-transgenic plants were bioassayed for resistance to five lepidopteran insect pests. Spodoptera frugiperda, S. exigua and Manduca sexta larvae fed BvSTI leaves had significant reductions in larval weights as compared to larvae fed on untransformed leaves. In contrast, larval weights increased relative to the controls when Heliothis virescens and Agrotis ipsilon larvae were fed on BvSTI leaves. As the larvae entered the pupal stage, pupal sizes reflected the overall larval weights. Some developmental abnormalities of the pupae and emerging moths were noted. These findings suggest that the sugar beet BvSTI gene may prove useful for effective control of several different lepidopteran insect pests in genetically modified tobacco and other plants. The sugar beet serine proteinase inhibitor may be more effective for insect control because sugar beet is cropped in restricted geographical areas thus limiting the exposure of the insects to sugar beet proteinase inhibitors and build up of non-sensitive midgut proteases.

  12. Pest Protection Conferred by a Beta vulgaris Serine Proteinase Inhibitor Gene

    PubMed Central

    Smigocki, Ann C.; Ivic-Haymes, Snezana; Li, Haiyan; Savić, Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors provide a means of engineering plant resistance to insect pests. A Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) was fused to the constitutive CaMV35S promoter for over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana plants to study its effect on lepidopteran insect pests. Independently derived BvSTI transgenic tobacco T2 homozygous progeny were shown to have relatively high BvSTI gene transcript levels. BvSTI-specific polyclonal antibodies cross-reacted with the expected 30 kDA recombinant BvSTI protein on Western blots. In gel trypsin inhibitor activity assays revealed a major clear zone that corresponded to the BvSTI proteinase inhibitor that was not detected in the untransformed control plants. BvSTI-transgenic plants were bioassayed for resistance to five lepidopteran insect pests. Spodoptera frugiperda, S. exigua and Manduca sexta larvae fed BvSTI leaves had significant reductions in larval weights as compared to larvae fed on untransformed leaves. In contrast, larval weights increased relative to the controls when Heliothis virescens and Agrotis ipsilon larvae were fed on BvSTI leaves. As the larvae entered the pupal stage, pupal sizes reflected the overall larval weights. Some developmental abnormalities of the pupae and emerging moths were noted. These findings suggest that the sugar beet BvSTI gene may prove useful for effective control of several different lepidopteran insect pests in genetically modified tobacco and other plants. The sugar beet serine proteinase inhibitor may be more effective for insect control because sugar beet is cropped in restricted geographical areas thus limiting the exposure of the insects to sugar beet proteinase inhibitors and build up of non-sensitive midgut proteases. PMID:23468963

  13. A chymotrypsin-like proteinase from the midgut of Tenebrio molitor larvae.

    PubMed

    Elpidina, E N; Tsybina, T A; Dunaevsky, Y E; Belozersky, M A; Zhuzhikov, D P; Oppert, B

    2005-08-01

    A chymotrypsin-like proteinase was isolated from the posterior midgut of larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The enzyme, TmC1, was purified to homogeneity as determined by SDS-PAGE and postelectrophoretic activity detection. TmC1 had a molecular mass of 23.0 kDa, pI of 8.4, a pH optimum of 9.5, and the optimal temperature for activity was 51 degrees C. The proteinase displayed high stability at temperatures below 43 degrees C and in the pH range 6.5-11.2, which is inclusive of the pH of the posterior and middle midgut. The enzyme hydrolyzed long chymotrypsin peptide substrates SucAAPFpNA, SucAAPLpNA and GlpAALpNA and did not hydrolyze short chymotrypsin substrates. Kinetic parameters of the enzymatic reaction demonstrated that the best substrate was SucAAPFpNA, with k(cat app) 36.5 s(-1) and K(m) 1.59 mM. However, the enzyme had a lower K(m) for SucAAPLpNA, 0.5 mM. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) was an effective inhibitor of TmC1, and the proteinase was not inhibited by either tosyl-l-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) or N(alpha)-tosyl-l-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK). However, the activity of TmC1 was reduced with sulfhydryl reagents. Several plant and insect proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors were active against the purified enzyme, the most effective being Kunitz soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI). The N-terminal sequence of the enzyme was IISGSAASKGQFPWQ, which was up to 67% similar to other insect chymotrypsin-like proteinases and 47% similar to mammalian chymotrypsin A. The amino acid composition of TmC1 differed significantly from previously isolated T. molitor enzymes.

  14. Fractional Fourier processing of quantum light.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yifan; Tao, Ran; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2014-01-13

    We have extended Fourier transform of quantum light to a fractional Fourier processing, and demonstrated that a classical optical fractional Fourier processor can be used for the shaping of quantum correlations between two or more photons. Comparing the present method with that of Fourier processing, we find that fractional Fourier processing for quantum light possesses many advantages. Based on such a method, not only quantum correlations can be shaped more rich, but also the initial states can be easily identified. Moreover, the twisted phase information can be recovered and quantum states are easily controlled in performing quantum information experiments. Our findings open up new avenues for the manipulation of correlations between photons in optical quantum information processing.

  15. Propagation of biochirality: crossovers and nonclassical crystallization kinetics of aspartic acid in water.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tu; Lin, Yu Kun; Tsai, Ya Chung; Lee, Hung Lin

    2013-11-01

    All experimental procedures discussed could be treated as a screening tool for probing the existence of molecular association among the chiral molecules and the solvent system. The molecular association phases of a racemic conglomerate solution (CS) and a racemic compound solution (RCS), and the templating effect of aspartic acid solid surface were observed to minimize the chance of redissolving racemic conglomerate and racemic compound aspartic acid in water and reforming an RCS in crossovers experiments. Only 1 %wt% of l-aspartic acid was adequate enough to induce a transformation from a racemic compound aspartic acid to a racemic conglomerate aspartic acid. This would make the propagation of biochirality more feasible and sound. However, tetrapeptide, (l-aspartic acid)4 , failed to induce enantioseparation as templates purely by crystallization. Nonclassical crystallization theory was needed to take into account the existence of a CS. Fundamental parameters of the crystallization kinetics such as the induction time, interfacial energy, Gibbs energetic barrier, nucleation rate, and critical size of stable nuclei of: (i) racemic compound aspartic acid, (ii) racemic compound aspartic acid seeded with 1 %wt% l-aspartic acid, (iii) racemic conglomerate aspartic acid, and (iv) l-aspartic acid were evaluated and compared with different initial supersaturation ratios. Morphological studies of crystals grown from the crystallization kinetics were also carried out. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Class specific inhibition of house dust mite proteinases which cleave cell adhesion, induce cell death and which increase the permeability of lung epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Winton, Helen L; Wan, Hong; Cannell, Mark B; Thompson, Philip J; Garrod, David R; Stewart, Geoffrey A; Robinson, Clive

    1998-01-01

    House dust mite (HDM) allergens with cysteine and serine proteinase activity are risk factors for allergic sensitization and asthma. A simple method to fractionate proteinase activity from HDM faecal pellets into cysteine and serine class activity is described. Both proteinase fractions increased the permeability of epithelial cell monolayers. The effects of the serine proteinase fraction were inhibited by 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulphonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF) and soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI). The effects of the cysteine proteinase fraction could be inhibited by E-64. No reciprocity of action was found. Treatment of epithelial monolayers with either proteinase fraction caused breakdown of tight junctions (TJs). AEBSF inhibited TJ breakdown caused by the serine proteinase fraction, whereas E-64 inhibited the cysteine proteinase fraction. Agarose gel electrophoresis revealed that the proteinases induced DNA cleavage which was inhibited by the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor BB-250. Compound E-64 inhibited DNA fragmentation caused by the cysteine proteinase fraction, but was without effect on the serine proteinase fraction. Staining of proteinase-treated cells with annexin V (AV) and propidium iodide (PI) revealed a diversity of cellular responses. Some cells stained only with AV indicating early apoptosis, whilst others were dead and stained with both AV and PI. HDM proteinases exert profound effects on epithelial cells which will promote allergic sensitization; namely disruption of intercellular adhesion, increased paracellular permeability and initiation of cell death. Attenuation of these actions by proteinase inhibitors leads to the conclusion that compounds designed to be selective for the HDM enzymes may represent a novel therapy for asthma. PMID:9720772

  17. Induction of a heparin-stimulated serine proteinase in sex accessory gland tumors of the Lobund-Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael J; Lind, Jeremy; Sinha, Akhouri A

    2015-08-01

    Induction of new proteinase activities that may process growth factors, modify cell surface receptors, cleave extracellular matrix proteins, etc. is considered fundamental in carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to characterize a novel proteinase activity induced in sex accessory gland cancers (about 70% in seminal vesicles) of adult male Lobund-Wistar rats by a single injection of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU; 25mg/kg) followed by implanted testosterone propionate (45mg in silastic tubing every 2months) treatment for 10-14months. A 28kDa proteinase activity was detected in tumor extracts using SDS-gelatin gel zymography with incubations done without CaCl2. Its activity was stimulated 15 fold by heparin (optimal activity 1.5-3.0μg/lane) added to the tissue extract-SDS sample buffer prior to electrophoresis. No 28kDa heparin-stimulated proteinase (H-SP) was found in the dorsal, lateral and anterior (coagulating gland) prostate lobes or seminal vesicles of untreated adult rats, but there was a 26-30kDa Ca(2+)-independent proteinase activity in the ventral prostate that showed limited heparin stimulation. The 28kDa H-SP was completely inhibited by 1.0mM 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonylfluoride (AESBF) indicating that it was a serine-type proteinase. Other types of proteinase inhibitors were without effect, including serine proteinase inhibitors benzamidine, tranexamic acid and ε-aminocaproic acid. Proteinase activities of about 28kDa were found with casein, fibrinogen or carboxymethylated transferrin as substrate, however, these activities were not stimulated by heparin. Similar levels of activities of the 28kDa H-SP were found in primary tumors and their metastases, but little/no activity was detected in serum, even from rats with large tumor volume and metastases. These data demonstrate overexpression of a heparin-stimulated 28kDa serine proteinase in the primary tumors of sex accessory gland cancers and their metastases. This proteinase either does not

  18. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Manatt, Kenneth; Rider, David; Wu, Yen-Hung (James)

    2012-09-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for a geostationary orbit (GEO) earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. GEO allows GeoFTS to continuously stare at a region of the earth for frequent sampling to capture the variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental spatial scales and temporal scales from diurnal, synoptic, seasonal to interannual. The measurement strategy provides a process based understanding of the carbon cycle from contiguous maps of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) collected many times per day at high spatial resolution (~2.7km×2.7km at nadir). The CO2/CH4/CO/CF measurement suite in the near infrared spectral region provides the information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric carbon concentrations and to minimize uncertainties in the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and surface. The half meter cube size GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design that uses all high TRL components in a modular configuration to reduce complexity and cost. It is self-contained and as independent of the spacecraft as possible with simple spacecraft interfaces, making it ideal to be a "hosted" payload on a commercial communications satellite mission. The hosted payload approach for measuring the major carbon-containing gases in the atmosphere from the geostationary vantage point will affordably advance the scientific understating of carbon cycle processes and climate change.

  19. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Manatt, Ken; Rider, David; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for a geostationary orbit (GEO) earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. GEO allows GeoFTS to continuously stare at a region of the earth for frequent sampling to capture the variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental spatial scales and temporal scales from diurnal, synoptic, seasonal to interannual. The measurement strategy provides a process based understanding of the carbon cycle from contiguous maps of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) collected many times per day at high spatial resolution (2.7kmx2.7km at nadir). The CO2/CH4/CO/CF measurement suite in the near infrared spectral region provides the information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric carbon concentrations and to minimize uncertainties in the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and surface. The half meter cube size GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design that uses all high TRL components in a modular configuration to reduce complexity and cost. It is self-contained and as independent of the spacecraft as possible with simple spacecraft interfaces, making it ideal to be a "hosted" payload on a commercial communications satellite mission. The hosted payload approach for measuring the major carbon-containing gases in the atmosphere from the geostationary vantage point will affordably advance the scientific understating of carbon cycle processes and climate change.

  20. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Miller, Charles; Frankenberg, Christian; Natra, Vijay; Rider, David; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for an earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. The GeoFTS instrument is a half meter cube size instrument designed to operate in geostationary orbit as a secondary "hosted" payload on a commercial geostationary satellite mission. The advantage of GEO is the ability to continuously stare at a region of the earth, enabling frequent sampling to capture the diurnal variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental scales. The science goal is to obtain a process-based understanding of the carbon cycle from simultaneous high spatial resolution measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) many times per day in the near infrared spectral region to capture their spatial and temporal variations on diurnal, synoptic, seasonal and interannual time scales. The GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design with a number of advanced features incorporated. Two of the most important advanced features are the focal plane arrays and the optical path difference mechanism. A breadboard GeoFTS instrument has demonstrated functionality for simultaneous measurements in the visible and IR in the laboratory and subsequently in the field at the California Laboratory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (CLARS) observatory on Mt. Wilson overlooking the Los Angeles basin. A GeoFTS engineering model instrument is being developed which will make simultaneous visible and IR measurements under space flight like environmental conditions (thermal-vacuum at 180 K). This will demonstrate critical instrument capabilities such as optical alignment stability, interferometer modulation efficiency, and high throughput FPA signal processing. This will reduce flight instrument development risk and show that the Geo

  1. Synthesis and release of platelet-activating factor is inhibited by plasma alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor or alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and is stimulated by proteinases

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    TNF and IL-1 stimulate the synthesis and release of platelet-activating factor (PAF) by neutrophils and vascular endothelial cells. Serum inhibits PAF production even after inactivation of an acetylhydrolase that degrades PAF. Human plasma was fractionated by gel filtration chromatography, and two inhibitory fractions were detected, one containing PAF-acetylhydrolase activity and the other alpha 1- proteinase inhibitor. Low concentrations of this antiproteinase and of human plasma alpha 1-antichymotrypsin inhibited TNF-induced PAF synthesis in neutrophils, macrophages, and vascular endothelial cells. Both antiproteinases also inhibited PAF production stimulated by phagocytosis in macrophages and induced with IL-1 in neutrophils or with TNF in vascular endothelial cells. These results suggest that a proteinase activated on the plasma membrane or secreted by these cells is involved in promoting PAF synthesis. Indeed, addition of elastase to macrophages, neutrophils, and endothelial cells stimulated synthesis and release of PAF much faster than TNF. A similar stimulation was observed in incubations with cathepsin G. To identify a proteinase activated in TNF-treated cells, neutrophils and endothelial cells were incubated with specific chloromethyl ketone inhibitors of elastase and cathepsin G. Synthesis of PAF was significantly inhibited by low concentrations of the cathepsin G inhibitor. The finding that antiproteinases are inhibitory at concentrations 100-fold lower than those present in plasma raises questions as to the ability of TNF and IL-1 to stimulate neutrophils in circulation or endothelial cells to synthesize PAF. We propose that PAF production is limited to zones of close contact between cells, which exclude antiproteinases. PMID:3049910

  2. Rotational-translational fourier imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Jonathan W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    This invention has the ability to create Fourier-based images with only two grid pairs. The two grid pairs are manipulated in a manner that allows (1) a first grid pair to provide multiple real components of the Fourier-based image and (2) a second grid pair to provide multiple imaginary components of the Fourier-based image. The novelty of this invention resides in the use of only two grid pairs to provide the same imaging information that has been traditionally collected with multiple grid pairs.

  3. [Expression of Chinese sturgeon cystatin in yeast Pichia pastoris and its proteinase inhibitory activity analysis].

    PubMed

    Ma, Dong-Mei; Bai, Jun-Jie; Jian, Qing; Lao, Hai-Hua; Ye, Xing; Luo, Jian-Ren

    2003-09-01

    Cystatin, which widely distributed in both tissues and body fluids of animal and plant, was a superfamily of cysteine proteinase inhibitors. It could form activity-inhibitor complexes with cysteine proteinases to inhibit the hydrolytic activity of proteinases. Cystatin played important roles not only in the inhibition of the proteolytic degradation of fish muscle, but also in biological defense systems against invaders. To explore the functions of fish cystatin and the potential values in fish disease prevention and cure, as well as seafood processing, the recombinant yeast strains which could express Chinese sturgeon cystatin were constructed. First, the cystatin cDNA of Chinese sturgeon, which had been PCR modified, was subcloned into yeast integrated vector pPICZaA. After extracted and purified, the recombinant plasmids were linearized by Sac I. The yeast Pichia pastoris GS115 strain was transformed by use of the Lithium Chloride transformation method, and the recombinant cystatin yeast strains got. After 0.5% methanol induction, SDS-PAGE analysis of the culture supernatant indicated that the yield of recombinant cystatin was about 215mg x L(-1) with the percentage about 73.6%. The recombinant cystatin was purified through Q-Sepharose anion-exchange chromatography, and the purity reached about 94.2%. The inhibitory activity of recombinant cystatin was measured by inhibiting the proteinase activity of papain. The results showed that about 1 microg recombinant cystatin could inhibit the activity of 15 microg papain. Heat stability assay results showed that there was a decrease in inhibitory activity of cystatin with the increasing of temperature. When solution of recombinant cystatin was kept at 70 degrees C for 5min, the inhibitory activity reduced fast. While the recombinant cystatin was heated to 90 degrees C for 5min, the inhibitory activity of recombinant cystatin was undetected. The inhibitory activity for recombinant Chinese sturgeon cystatin was higher

  4. Comparative studies of the Spi1 proteins of three equine alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor haplotypes following isolation by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, A D; Miller, H R; John, H A; Scudamore, C L

    1993-09-01

    1. Antiproteinase deficiency can result in excessive proteinase-induced tissue damage. The major anti-elastase (Spi1) protein of equine alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1-PI) was isolated from the plasma/serum of three common haplotypes (I, L and U). 2. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the three inhibitors were identical, but were only approx 65-77% homologous with two other published equine Spi1 sequences. 3. All three inhibitors complexed quickly and irreversibly with equine leucocyte proteinase 2A (kass = 2 x 10(7) M-1 sec-1). They were also efficient inhibitors of chymase (rat mast cell proteinase-II; kass = 2 x 10(5) M-1 sec-1; Ki = 2 x 10(-10) M). There was therefore no evidence of deficient inhibition in the Spi1 variants of the I,L and U haplotypes.

  5. Crystal structure of viral serpin crmA provides insights into its mechanism of cysteine proteinase inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Simonovic, M.; Gettins PGW; Volz, K.

    2000-01-01

    CrmA is an unusual viral serpin that inhibits both cysteine and serine proteinases involved in the regulation of host inflammatory and apoptosis processes. It differs from other members of the serpin superfamily by having a reactive center loop that is one residue shorter, and by its apparent inability to form SDS-stable covalent complexes with cysteine proteinases. To obtain insight into the inhibitory mechanism of crmA, we determined the crystal structure of reactive center loop-cleaved crmA to 2.9 A resolution. The structure, which is the first of a viral serpin, suggests that crmA can inhibit cysteine proteinases by a mechanism analogous to that used by other serpins against serine proteinases. However, one striking difference from other serpins, which may be significant for in vivo function, is an additional highly charged antiparallel strand for b sheet A, whose sequence and length are unique to crmA. PMID:10975564

  6. Origins of hydration differences in homochiral and racemic crystals of aspartic acid.

    PubMed

    Juliano, Thomas R; Korter, Timothy M

    2015-02-26

    The propensity for crystalline hydrates of organic molecules to form is related to the strength of the interactions between molecules, including the chiral composition of the molecular solids. Specifically, homochiral versus racemic crystalline samples can exhibit distinct differences in their ability to form energetically stable hydrates. The focus of the current study is a comparison of the crystal structures and intermolecular forces found in solid-state L-aspartic acid, DL-aspartic acid, and L-aspartic acid monohydrate. The absence of experimental evidence for the DL-aspartic acid monohydrate is considered here in terms of the enhanced thermodynamic stability of the DL-aspartic acid anhydrate crystal as compared to the L-aspartic acid anhydrate as revealed through solid-state density functional theory calculations and terahertz spectroscopic measurements. The results indicate that anhydrous DL-aspartic acid is the more stable solid, not due to intermolecular forces alone but also due to the improved conformations of the molecules within the racemic solid. Hemihydrated and monohydrated forms of DL-aspartic acid have been computationally evaluated, and in each case, the hydrates produce destabilized aspartic acid conformations that prevent DL-aspartic acid hydrate formation from occurring.

  7. Structure and mechanisms of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, William N; Kantrowitz, Evan R

    2012-03-20

    Enzymes catalyze a particular reaction in cells, but only a few control the rate of this reaction and the metabolic pathway that follows. One specific mechanism for such enzymatic control of a metabolic pathway involves molecular feedback, whereby a metabolite further down the pathway acts at a unique site on the control enzyme to alter its activity allosterically. This regulation may be positive or negative (or both), depending upon the particular system. Another method of enzymatic control involves the cooperative binding of the substrate, which allows a large change in enzyme activity to emanate from only a small change in substrate concentration. Allosteric regulation and homotropic cooperativity are often known to involve significant conformational changes in the structure of the protein. Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) is the textbook example of an enzyme that regulates a metabolic pathway, namely, pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis, by feedback control and by the cooperative binding of the substrate, L-aspartate. The catalytic and regulatory mechanisms of this enzyme have been extensively studied. A series of X-ray crystal structures of the enzyme in the presence and absence of substrates, products, and analogues have provided details, at the molecular level, of the conformational changes that the enzyme undergoes as it shifts between its low-activity, low-affinity form (T state) to its high-activity, high-affinity form (R state). These structural data provide insights into not only how this enzyme catalyzes the reaction between l-aspartate and carbamoyl phosphate to form N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate and inorganic phosphate, but also how the allosteric effectors modulate this activity. In this Account, we summarize studies on the structure of the enzyme and describe how these structural data provide insights into the catalytic and regulatory mechanisms of the enzyme. The ATCase-catalyzed reaction is regulated by nucleotide binding some 60

  8. Specificity of an extracellular proteinase from Conidiobolus coronatus and its inhibition by an inhibitor from insect hemolymph.

    PubMed

    Bania, Jacek; Samborski, Jaroslaw; Bogus, Mieczyslawa; Polanowski, Antoni

    2006-08-01

    The relatively little-investigated entomopathogen Conidiobolus coronatus secretes several proteinases into culture broth. Using a combination of ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography, we purified to homogeneity a serine proteinase of Mr 30,000-32,000, as ascertained by SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme showed subtilisin-like activity. It very effectively hydrolyzed N-Suc-Ala(2)-Pro-Phe-pNa with a Km-1.36 x 10(-4) M and Kcat-24 s(-1), and N-Suc-Ala(2)-Pro-Leu-pNa with Km-6.65 x 10(-4) M and Kcat-11 s(-1). The specificity index k(cat)/K(m) for the tested substrates was calculated to be 176,340 s(-1) M(-1) and 17,030 s(-1) M(-1), respectively. Using oxidized insulin B chain as a substrate, the purified proteinase exhibited specificity to aromatic and hydrophobic amino-acid residues, such as Phe, Leu, and Gly at the P1 position, splitting primarily the peptide bonds: Phe(1)-Val(2), Leu(15)-Tyr(16), and Gly(23)-Phe(24). The proteinase appeared to be sensitive to the specific synthetic inhibitors of the serine proteinases DFP (diisopropyl flourophosphate) and PMSF (phenyl-methylsulfonyl fluoride) as well as to some naturally occurring protein inhibitors of chymotrypsin. It is worth noting that the enzyme exhibited the highest sensitivity to inhibition by AMCI-1 (with an association constant of 3 x 10(10) M(-1)), an inhibitor of cathepsin G/chymotrypsin from the larval hemolymph of Apis mellifera, reinforcing the possibility of involvement of inhibitors from hemolymph in insect innate immunity. The substrate specificity and proteinase inhibitor effects indicate that the purified proteinase from the fermentation broth of Conidiobolus coronatus is a subtilisin-like serine proteinase.

  9. Increased expression of Candida albicans secretory proteinase, a putative virulence factor, in isolates from human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Ollert, M W; Wende, C; Görlich, M; McMullan-Vogel, C G; Borg-von Zepelin, M; Vogel, C W; Korting, H C

    1995-01-01

    The increased prevalence and the severity of oropharyngeal candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients are attributed exclusively to the virus-induced immune deficiency of the host. The present study was aimed at answering the question of whether Candida albicans secretory proteinase, a putative virulence factor of the opportunistic C. albicans yeast, has any potential influence on the clinical manifestation of oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-positive patients. We measured the secretory proteinase activities of clinical C. albicans isolates from the oropharynges of either HIV-positive individuals (n = 100) or a control group (n = 122). The mean secretory proteinase activity of C. albicans isolates from the HIV-positive group (4,255 +/- 2,372 U/liter) was significantly higher compared with that of isolates from the control group (2,324 +/- 1,487 U/liter) (P < 0.05). The higher level of secretory proteinase activity in the culture supernatants of individual C. albicans isolates correlated with the increased level of proteinase expression on the cell surface, as revealed by cytofluorometry, and with higher levels of secretion of the immunodetectable protein, as shown by Western blotting (immunoblotting). Proteinase activity within the population of C. albicans isolates from HIV-positive individuals was independent of the patient's clinical disease stage and the CD4+/CD8+ cell numbers. Furthermore, no correlation of the proteinase activities with the C. albicans serotype was found, although C. albicans serotype B was significantly more frequent in the HIV-positive group (40%) compared with that in the control group (12%). However, a positive correlation of proteinase activity to antifungal susceptibility was evident.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8567880

  10. A Short-Segment Fourier Transform Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    defined sampling of the continuous-valued discrete-time Fourier transform, superresolution in the frequency domain and allowance of Dirac delta functions associated with pure sinusoidal input data components.

  11. Fourier-Bessel rotational invariant eigenimages.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhizhen; Singer, Amit

    2013-05-01

    We present an efficient and accurate algorithm for principal component analysis (PCA) of a large set of two-dimensional images and, for each image, the set of its uniform rotations in the plane and its reflection. The algorithm starts by expanding each image, originally given on a Cartesian grid, in the Fourier-Bessel basis for the disk. Because the images are essentially band limited in the Fourier domain, we use a sampling criterion to truncate the Fourier-Bessel expansion such that the maximum amount of information is preserved without the effect of aliasing. The constructed covariance matrix is invariant to rotation and reflection and has a special block diagonal structure. PCA is efficiently done for each block separately. This Fourier-Bessel-based PCA detects more meaningful eigenimages and has improved denoising capability compared to traditional PCA for a finite number of noisy images.

  12. Content adaptive illumination for Fourier ptychography.

    PubMed

    Bian, Liheng; Suo, Jinli; Situ, Guohai; Zheng, Guoan; Chen, Feng; Dai, Qionghai

    2014-12-01

    Fourier ptychography (FP) is a recently reported technique, for large field-of-view and high-resolution imaging. Specifically, FP captures a set of low-resolution images, under angularly varying illuminations, and stitches them together in the Fourier domain. One of FP's main disadvantages is its long capturing process, due to the requisite large number of incident illumination angles. In this Letter, utilizing the sparsity of natural images in the Fourier domain, we propose a highly efficient method, termed adaptive Fourier ptychography (AFP), which applies content adaptive illumination for FP, to capture the most informative parts of the scene's spatial spectrum. We validate the effectiveness and efficiency of the reported framework, with both simulated and real experiments. Results show that the proposed AFP could shorten the acquisition time of conventional FP, by around 30%-60%.

  13. A trypsin-like proteinase in the midgut of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): purification, characterization, and host plant inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Mina; Zibaee, Arash; Sendi, Jalal Jalali

    2014-01-01

    A trypsin-like proteinase was purified and characterized in the midgut of Ectomyelois ceratoniae. A purification process that used Sepharyl G-100 and DEAE-cellulose fast flow chromatographies revealed a proteinase with specific activity of 66.7 μmol/min/mg protein, recovery of 27.04 and purification fold of 23.35. Molecular weight of the purified protein was found to be 35.8 kDa. Optimal pH and temperature were obtained 9 and 20°C for the purified trypsin proteinase, respectively. The purified enzyme was significantly inhibited by PMSF, TLCK, and SBTI as specific inhibitors of trypsins in which TLCK showed the highest inhibitory effect. Trypsin proteinase inhibitors were extracted from four varieties of pomegranate including Brait, Torsh-Sabz, May-Khosh, and Shirin by ion exchange chromatography. It was found that fractions 17-20 of Brait; fractions 18 and 21-26 of Torsh-Sabz; fractions 1-7, 11-17, and 19-21 of May-Khosh and fraction 8 for Shirin showed presence of trypsin inhibitor in these host. Comparison of their inhibitory effects on the purified trypsin proteinase of E. ceratoniae demonstrated that fractions from May-khosh variety had the highest effect on the enzyme among other extracted fractions. Characterization of serine proteinases of insects mainly trypsins is one of the promising methods to decrease population and damages via extracting their inhibitors and providing resistant varieties.

  14. Differential operator approach for Fourier image processing.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Ismael; Ferrari, José A

    2007-08-01

    We present a differential operator approach for Fourier image processing. We demonstrate that when the mask in the processor Fourier plane is an analytical function, it can be described by means of a differential operator that acts directly on the input field to give the processed output image. In many cases (e.g., Schlieren imaging) this approach simplifies the calculations, which usually involve the evaluation of convolution integrals, and gives a new insight into the image-processing procedure.

  15. Fourier Analysis on GL(n,R)

    PubMed Central

    Gelbart, Stephen S.

    1970-01-01

    Two problems of Fourier analysis on GL(n,R) are studied. The first concerns the decomposition of the additive Fourier operator in terms of the group representation theory of G. The second concerns the analytic continuation of certain zeta-functions defined on G. It is found that the generalized Gamma functions of Gelfand and Graev arise naturally in the solution of both these problems. PMID:16591814

  16. Molecular cloning of Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor of the shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hee Jeong; Cho, Hyun Kook; Park, Eun-Mi; Hong, Gyeong-Eun; Kim, Young-Ok; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kim, Woo-Jin; Lee, Sang-Jun; Han, Hyon Sob; Jang, In-Kwon; Lee, Chang Hoon; Cheong, Jaehun; Choi, Tae-Jin

    2009-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors play important roles in host defence systems involving blood coagulation and pathogen digestion. We isolated and characterized a cDNA clone for a Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor (KPI) from a hemocyte cDNA library of the oriental white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The KPI gene consists of three exons and two introns. KPI cDNA contains an open reading frame of 396 bp, a polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA, and a poly (A) tail. KPI cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 131 amino acids with a putative signal peptide of 21 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of KPI contains two homologous Kazal domains, each with six conserved cysteine residues. The mRNA of KPI is expressed in the hemocytes of healthy shrimp, and the higher expression of KPI transcript is observed in shrimp infected with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), suggesting a potential role for KPI in host defence mechanisms.

  17. Enhanced Response of a Proteinase K-Based Conductometric Biosensor Using Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Nouira, Wided; Maaref, Abderrazak; Elaissari, Abdelhamid; Vocanson, Francis; Siadat, Maryam; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Proteinases are involved in a multitude of important physiological processes, such as protein metabolism. For this reason, a conductometric enzyme biosensor based on proteinase K was developed using two types of nanoparticles (gold and magnetic). The enzyme was directly adsorbed on negatively charged nanoparticles and then deposited and cross-linked on a planar interdigitated electrode (IDE). The biosensor was characterized with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a standard protein. Higher sensitivity was obtained using gold nanoparticles. The linear range for BSA determination was then from 0.5 to 10 mg/L with a maximum response of 154 μs. These results are greater than that found without any nanoparticles (maximum response of 10 μs). The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.3 mg/L. An inter-sensor reproducibility of 3.5% was obtained. PMID:25057139

  18. On the modeling of snake venom serine proteinase interactions with benzamidine-based thrombin inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Elsa S.; Fonseca, Nelson; Ramos, Maria João

    2004-01-01

    Pit viper venoms contain a number of serine proteinases that exhibit one or more thrombin-like activities on fibrinogen and platelets, this being the case for the kinin-releasing and fibrinogen-clotting KN-BJ from the venom of Bothrops jararaca. A three-dimensional structural model of the KN-BJ2 serine proteinase was built by homology modeling using the snake venom plasminogen activator TSV-PA as a major template and porcine kallikrein as additional structural support. A set of intrinsic buried waters was included in the model and its behavior under dynamic conditions was molecular dynamics simulated, revealing a most interesting similarity pattern to kallikrein. The benzamidine-based thrombin inhibitors α-NAPAP, 3-TAPAP, and 4-TAPAP were docked into the refined model, allowing for a more insightful functional characterization of the enzyme and a better understanding of the reported comparatively low affinity of KN-BJ2 toward those inhibitors. PMID:15322279

  19. Antimetastatic activity of adriamycin in combinations with proteinase inhibitors in mice.

    PubMed

    Leto, G; Tumminello, F M; Gebbia, N; Woynarowska, B; Bernacki, R J

    1990-01-01

    The antimetastatic activity of adriamycin in combination with proteinase inhibitors was investigated in mice bearing the metastatic tumors L1210 leukemia, Lewis lung carcinoma or M5076 sarcoma. Leupeptin, a cathepsin B inhibitor, when administered as a single agent was devoid of antimetastatic activity but some therapeutic activity was noted in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma when the agent was administered in combination with adriamycin. Pepstatin A, a cathepsin D inhibitor, had no effect as a single agent in mice with L1210 leukemia but displayed some antimetastatic activity in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma. In mice with M5076 sarcoma the combination of pepstatin A and adriamycin resulted in antimetastatic activity significantly greater than that observed with each agent alone. These results suggest that combinations of proteinase inhibitors with antitumor drugs such as adriamycin, might result in more effective antimetastatic treatment.

  20. Precursor processing for plant peptide hormone maturation by subtilisin-like serine proteinases.

    PubMed

    Schardon, Katharina; Hohl, Mathias; Graff, Lucile; Pfannstiel, Jens; Schulze, Waltraud; Stintzi, Annick; Schaller, Andreas

    2016-12-23

    Peptide hormones that regulate plant growth and development are derived from larger precursor proteins by proteolytic processing. Our study addressed the role of subtilisin-like proteinases (SBTs) in this process. Using tissue-specific expression of proteinase inhibitors as a tool to overcome functional redundancy, we found that SBT activity was required for the maturation of IDA (INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION), a peptide signal for the abscission of floral organs in Arabidopsis We identified three SBTs that process the IDA precursor in vitro, and this processing was shown to be required for the formation of mIDA (the mature and bioactive form of IDA) as the endogenous signaling peptide in vivo. Hence, SBTs act as prohormone convertases in plants, and several functionally redundant SBTs contribute to signal biogenesis. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Inactivation of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor by Cu(II) and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Kwon, N S; Chan, P C; Kesner, L

    1990-03-01

    When alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor was treated with 1-5 microM CuSO4 in the presence of H2O2 (250-1000 microM), its elastase inhibitory capacity was markedly decreased. Several other metal ions tested had either very little or no effect. The Cu(II)-catalyzed decreased in the inhibition of elastase activity can also be demonstrated in dialyzed plasma. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that in several pathological conditions in which extracellular copper levels are elevated, Cu(II)-catalyzed peroxidation of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor may occur at sites of inflammation where H2O2 is secreted as a major product by activated phagocytes.

  2. The Role of Cysteine Proteinases and their Inhibitors in the Host-Pathogen Cross Talk

    PubMed Central

    Kopitar-Jerala, Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Proteinases and their inhibitors play essential functional roles in basic biological processes in both hosts and pathogens. Endo/lysosomal cathepsins participate in immune response in pathogen recognition and elimination. They are essential for both antigen processing and presentation (host adaptive immune response) and activation of endosomal Toll like receptors (innate immune response). Pathogens can produce proteases and also natural inhibitors to subvert the host immune response. Several pathogens are sensed through the intracellular pathogen recognition receptors, but only some of them use the host proteolytic system to escape into the cytosol. In this review, I provide an update on the most recent developments regarding the role of proteinases and their inhibitors in the initiation and regulation of immune responses. PMID:23305363

  3. Purification and Characterization of a Keratinolytic Serine Proteinase from Streptomyces albidoflavus

    PubMed Central

    Bressollier, Philippe; Letourneau, François; Urdaci, Maria; Verneuil, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Streptomyces strain K1-02, which was identified as a strain of Streptomyces albidoflavus, secreted at least six extracellular proteases when it was cultured on feather meal-based medium. The major keratinolytic serine proteinase was purified to homogeneity by a two-step procedure. This enzyme had a molecular weight of 18,000 and was optimally active at pH values ranging from 6 to 9.5 and at temperatures ranging from 40 to 70°C. Its sensitivity to protease inhibitors, its specificity on synthetic substrates, and its remarkably high level of NH2-terminal sequence homology with Streptomyces griseus protease B (SGPB) showed that the new enzyme, designated SAKase, was homologous to SGPB. We tested the activity of SAKase with soluble and fibrous substrates (elastin, keratin, and type I collagen) and found that it was very specific for keratinous substrates compared to SGPB and proteinase K. PMID:10347045

  4. Purification and characterization of a keratinolytic serine proteinase from Streptomyces albidoflavus.

    PubMed

    Bressollier, P; Letourneau, F; Urdaci, M; Verneuil, B

    1999-06-01

    Streptomyces strain K1-02, which was identified as a strain of Streptomyces albidoflavus, secreted at least six extracellular proteases when it was cultured on feather meal-based medium. The major keratinolytic serine proteinase was purified to homogeneity by a two-step procedure. This enzyme had a molecular weight of 18,000 and was optimally active at pH values ranging from 6 to 9.5 and at temperatures ranging from 40 to 70 degrees C. Its sensitivity to protease inhibitors, its specificity on synthetic substrates, and its remarkably high level of NH2-terminal sequence homology with Streptomyces griseus protease B (SGPB) showed that the new enzyme, designated SAKase, was homologous to SGPB. We tested the activity of SAKase with soluble and fibrous substrates (elastin, keratin, and type I collagen) and found that it was very specific for keratinous substrates compared to SGPB and proteinase K.

  5. A Kunitz proteinase inhibitor from corms of Xanthosoma blandum with bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Lima, Thaís B; Silva, Osmar N; Migliolo, Ludovico; Souza-Filho, Carlos R; Gonçalves, Eduardo G; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Oliveira, José T A; Amaral, André C; Franco, Octávio L

    2011-05-27

    Bacterial infections directly affect the world's population, and this situation has been aggravated by indiscriminate use of antimicrobial agents, which can generate resistant microorganisms. In this report, an initial screening of proteins with antibacterial activity from corms of 15 species of the Xanthosoma genus was conducted. Since Xanthosoma blandum corms showed enhanced activity toward bacteria, a novel protein with bactericidal activity was isolated from this particular species. Edman degradation was used for protein N-termini determination; the primary structure showed similarities with Kunitz inhibitors, and this protein was named Xb-KTI. This protein was further challenged against serine proteinases from different sources, showing clear inhibitory activities. Otherwise, no hemolytic activity was observed for Xb-KTI. The results demonstrate the biotechnological potential of Xb-KTI, the first proteinase inhibitor with antimicrobial activity described in the Xanthosoma genus.

  6. Degradation of immunoglobulins, protease inhibitors, and interleukin-1 by a secretory proteinase of Acanthamoeba castellanii

    PubMed Central

    Na, Byoung-Kuk; Cho, Jong-Hwa; Song, Chul-Yong; Kim, Tong-Soo

    2002-01-01

    The effect of a secretory proteinase from the pathogenic amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii on host's defense-oriented or regulatory proteins such as immunoglobulins, interleukin-1, and protease inhibitors was investigated. The enzyme was found to degrade secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), IgG, and IgM. It also degraded interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and IL-1β. Its activity was not inhibited by endogenous protease inhibitors, such as α2-macroglobulin, α1-trypsin inhibitor, and α2-antiplasmin. Furthermore, the enzyme rapidly degraded those endogenous protease inhibitors as well. The degradation of host's defense-oriented or regulatory proteins by the Acanthamoeba proteinase suggested that the enzyme might be an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba infection. PMID:12073735

  7. Analysis of the autoproteolytic activity of the recombinant helper component proteinase from zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Boonrod, Kajohn; Füllgrabe, Marc W; Krczal, Gabi; Wassenegger, Michael

    2011-10-01

    The multifunctional helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) of potyviruses contains an autoproteolytic function that, together with the protein 1 (P1) and NIa proteinase, processes the polyprotein into mature proteins. In this study, we analysed the autoproteolytic active domain of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) HC-Pro. Several Escherichia coli-expressed MBP:HC-Pro:GFP mutants containing deletions or point mutations at either the N- or C-terminus of the HC-Pro protein were examined. Our results showed that amino acids essential for the proteolytic activity of ZYMV HC-Pro are distinct from those of the tobacco etch virus HC-Pro, although the amino acid sequences in the proteolytic active domain are conserved among potyviruses.

  8. Bead-Fourier path integral molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Sergei D; Lyubartsev, Alexander P; Laaksonen, Aatto

    2003-06-01

    Molecular dynamics formulation of Bead-Fourier path integral method for simulation of quantum systems at finite temperatures is presented. Within this scheme, both the bead coordinates and Fourier coefficients, defining the path representing the quantum particle, are treated as generalized coordinates with corresponding generalized momenta and masses. Introduction of the Fourier harmonics together with the center-of-mass thermostating scheme is shown to remove the ergodicity problem, known to pose serious difficulties in standard path integral molecular dynamics simulations. The method is tested for quantum harmonic oscillator and hydrogen atom (Coulombic potential). The simulation results are compared with the exact analytical solutions available for both these systems. Convergence of the results with respect to the number of beads and Fourier harmonics is analyzed. It was shown that addition of a few Fourier harmonics already improves the simulation results substantially, even for a relatively small number of beads. The proposed Bead-Fourier path integral molecular dynamics is a reliable and efficient alternative to simulations of quantum systems.

  9. WWW Database of Variable Star Fourier Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Siobahn M.

    2003-10-01

    Fourier coefficients are a valuable tool in the study of a wide variety of pulsating stars. In the case of RR Lyrae stars they, can be used to estimate various physical parameters, such as mass, luminosity, metallicity, and effective temperature. They are frequently used to discriminate between different pulsation modes for both RR Lyrae stars and Cepheids. Fourier coefficients have been published for stars based on many different photometric systems as well as for radial velocity measurements. With the release of coefficients from large-scale surveys and the availability of these data on the Internet, the number of Fourier coefficients available for study has significantly increased, and it is difficult to obtain all available data for individual stars or a given subset of stars. To assist researchers in obtaining and making use of Fourier coefficients, an on-line archive of published values of Fourier coefficients has been established. Users can search the database using a variety of tools, and the data sets extend beyond the Milky Way to include extragalactic variables. The archive is located at the Web site http://nitro9.earth.uni.edu/fourier/.

  10. Bead-Fourier path integral molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Sergei D.; Lyubartsev, Alexander P.; Laaksonen, Aatto

    2003-06-01

    Molecular dynamics formulation of Bead-Fourier path integral method for simulation of quantum systems at finite temperatures is presented. Within this scheme, both the bead coordinates and Fourier coefficients, defining the path representing the quantum particle, are treated as generalized coordinates with corresponding generalized momenta and masses. Introduction of the Fourier harmonics together with the center-of-mass thermostating scheme is shown to remove the ergodicity problem, known to pose serious difficulties in standard path integral molecular dynamics simulations. The method is tested for quantum harmonic oscillator and hydrogen atom (Coulombic potential). The simulation results are compared with the exact analytical solutions available for both these systems. Convergence of the results with respect to the number of beads and Fourier harmonics is analyzed. It was shown that addition of a few Fourier harmonics already improves the simulation results substantially, even for a relatively small number of beads. The proposed Bead-Fourier path integral molecular dynamics is a reliable and efficient alternative to simulations of quantum systems.

  11. The substituted aspartate analogue L-beta-threo-benzyl-aspartate preferentially inhibits the neuronal excitatory amino acid transporter EAAT3.

    PubMed

    Esslinger, C Sean; Agarwal, Shailesh; Gerdes, John; Wilson, Paul A; Davis, Erin S; Awes, Alicia N; O'Brien, Erin; Mavencamp, Teri; Koch, Hans P; Poulsen, David J; Rhoderick, Joseph F; Chamberlin, A Richard; Kavanaugh, Michael P; Bridges, Richard J

    2005-11-01

    The excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) play key roles in the regulation of CNS L-glutamate, especially related to synthesis, signal termination, synaptic spillover, and excitotoxic protection. Inhibitors available to delineate EAAT pharmacology and function are essentially limited to those that non-selectively block all EAATs or those that exhibit a substantial preference for EAAT2. Thus, it is difficult to selectively study the other subtypes, particularly EAAT1 and EAAT3. Structure activity studies on a series of beta-substituted aspartate analogues identify L-beta-benzyl-aspartate (L-beta-BA) as among the first blockers that potently and preferentially inhibits the neuronal EAAT3 subtype. Kinetic analysis of D-[(3)H]aspartate uptake into C17.2 cells expressing the hEAATs demonstrate that L-beta-threo-BA is the more potent diastereomer, acts competitively, and exhibits a 10-fold preference for EAAT3 compared to EAAT1 and EAAT2. Electrophysiological recordings of EAAT-mediated currents in Xenopus oocytes identify L-beta-BA as a non-substrate inhibitor. Analyzing L-beta-threo-BA within the context of a novel EAAT2 pharmacophore model suggests: (1) a highly conserved positioning of the electrostatic carboxyl and amino groups; (2) nearby regions that accommodate select structural modifications (cyclopropyl rings, methyl groups, oxygen atoms); and (3) a unique region L-beta-threo-BA occupied by the benzyl moieties of L-TBOA, L-beta-threo-BA and related analogues. It is plausible that the preference of L-beta-threo-BA and L-TBOA for EAAT3 and EAAT2, respectively, could reside in the latter two pharmacophore regions.

  12. Digestion of human immunoglobulin G by the major cysteine proteinase (cruzipain) from Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Bontempi, E; Cazzulo, J J

    1990-08-01

    The major cysteine proteinase (cruzipain) from Trypanosoma cruzi was able to digest human IgG, as shown by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of SDS, and by gel filtration on a Superose 12 column, in a FPLC system. The Fab fragment of IgG was only slightly degraded, but Fc was extensively hydrolyzed to small peptides. The results suggest that cruzipain might be involved in the defense mechanisms of the parasite against the immune response of the host.

  13. Modelling, synthesis and biological activity of a BLV proteinase, made of (only) 116 amino acids.

    PubMed

    Précigoux, G; Geoffre, S; Léonard, R; Llido, S; Dautant, A; d'Estaintot, B L; Picard, P; Ménard, A; Guillemain, B; Hospital, M

    1993-07-12

    Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is the aetiological agent of Leukosis enzootica bovis [Viral Oncology (1980), G. Klein (Ed.) Raven Press, New York, pp. 231-238], a widely spread disease in cattle. BLV is reported as the animal model of human T-cell leukaemia virus (HLTV) which is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukaemia and tropical spastic paraparesis. Like the viruses themselves, the two retroviral proteinases (PR) are very closely related [Virology 142 (1985) 357-377]. BLV and HTLV-I PR are reported as putative proteins made of 126 [J. Virol. 57 (1986) 826-832] and 125 [FEBS Lett. 293 (1991) 106-110] amino acids, respectively (long sequences), belonging to the aspartyl proteinase family [Nature 329 (1987) 351-354], with the aid of molecular modelling, we show that BLV and HTLV-I proteinases made of only 116 and 115 amino acids, respectively (short sequences), display three-dimensional structures similar to that observed for other retroviral aspartyl proteinases. The models are based on three-dimensional structures of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV PR) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 PR). We used solid phase peptide synthesis to produce the putative proteolytic enzyme of BLV (116 amino acids). In this study, we show that the folded synthetic protease accurately hydrolyzes a decapeptide corresponding to the sequence of the Matrice-Capside (MA/CA) cleavage site of the gag polyprotein. In addition, the proteolytic activity is inhibited by a statine ((4S,3S)-4-amino-3-hydroxyl-6-methylheptanoic acid) containing an analogous sequence.

  14. Effect of acute ozone exposure on the proteinase-antiproteinase balance in the rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, J.A.; Gregory, R.E.; Cole, D.J.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.

    1987-04-01

    Lung disease may result from a persisting proteinase excess or a depletion of antiproteinase in pulmonary parenchyma. We investigated the in vivo effect of a 48-hr exposure to ozone at 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 ppm on proteinase and antiproteinase activity of rat lungs. Elastase inhibitory capacities of serum, lung tissue, and airway washings were measured as indicators of antielastase activity. Trypsin inhibitory capacity was measured using an esterolytic procedure. Proteinase was measured as radioactive release from a /sup 14/C-globin substrate. The 48-hr exposures to O/sub 3/ at levels up to 1 ppm produced concentration-dependent decreases of 35-80% of antiproteinase activities in serum and in lung tissue. However, exposure to 1.5 ppm O/sub 3/ resulted in no decrease in antiproteinase activities. Acid proteinase activities (pH 4.2) were increased 65-120% by exposure to 1 or 1.5 ppm O/sub 3/, which correlated with inflammatory cells noted histologically. At 1.5 ppm O/sub 3/, pulmonary edema and hemorrhage were noted in histologic sections. These changes led to a flooding of the alveoli with up to 40 times normal protein levels and a greater than fivefold increase in airway antiproteinase. These data suggest that serum and soluble lung tissue antiproteinase activity decreased upon exposure to low levels of ozone. However, if O/sub 3/ exposure is high enough to produce pulmonary hemorrhage, antiproteinase may increase following serum exudation. These changes may be important in the development of ozone-induced lung diseases, especially emphysema.

  15. SARS CoV main proteinase: The monomer-dimer equilibrium dissociation constant.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Vito; McGrath, William J; Yang, Lin; Mangel, Walter F

    2006-12-12

    The SARS coronavirus main proteinase (SARS CoV main proteinase) is required for the replication of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS CoV), the virus that causes SARS. One function of the enzyme is to process viral polyproteins. The active form of the SARS CoV main proteinase is a homodimer. In the literature, estimates of the monomer-dimer equilibrium dissociation constant, KD, have varied more than 65,0000-fold, from <1 nM to more than 200 microM. Because of these discrepancies and because compounds that interfere with activation of the enzyme by dimerization may be potential antiviral agents, we investigated the monomer-dimer equilibrium by three different techniques: small-angle X-ray scattering, chemical cross-linking, and enzyme kinetics. Analysis of small-angle X-ray scattering data from a series of measurements at different SARS CoV main proteinase concentrations yielded KD values of 5.8 +/- 0.8 microM (obtained from the entire scattering curve), 6.5 +/- 2.2 microM (obtained from the radii of gyration), and 6.8 +/- 1.5 microM (obtained from the forward scattering). The KD from chemical cross-linking was 12.7 +/- 1.1 microM, and from enzyme kinetics, it was 5.2 +/- 0.4 microM. While each of these three techniques can present different, potential limitations, they all yielded similar KD values.

  16. A heat-stable serine proteinase from the extreme thermophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    PubMed

    Burlini, N; Magnani, P; Villa, A; Macchi, F; Tortora, P; Guerritore, A

    1992-08-21

    A proteinase was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from crude extracts of the thermoacidophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus. Molecular mass values assessed by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration were 54 and 118 kDa, respectively, which points to a dimeric structure of the molecule. An isoelectric point of 5.6 was also determined. The enzyme behaved as a chymotrypsin-like serine proteinase, as shown by the inhibitory effects exerted by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride, 3,4-dichloroisocoumarin, tosylphenylalaninechloromethyl ketone and chymostatin. Consistently with the inhibition pattern, the enzyme cleaved chromogenic substrates at the carboxyl side of aromatic or bulky aliphatic amino acids; however, it effectively attacked only a small number of such substrates, thus, displaying a specificity much narrower than and clearly different from that of chymotrypsin. This was confirmed by its inability to digest a set of natural substrate proteins, as well as insulin chains A and B; only after alkylation casein was degraded to some extent. Proteinase activity was significantly stimulated by Mn2+ which acted as a mixed-type nonessential activator. The enzyme also displayed a broad pH optimum in the range 6.5-8.0. Furthermore, it was completely stable up to 90 degrees C; above this temperature it underwent first-order thermal inactivation with half-lives ranging from 342 min (92 degrees C) to 7 min (101 degrees C). At 50 degrees C it could withstand 6 M urea and, to some extent, different organic solvents; however, at 95 degrees C it was extensively inactivated by all of these compounds. None of the chemical physical properties of the enzyme, including amino-acid analysis, provided evidence of a possible relation to other well-known microbial serine proteinases.

  17. SARS CoV Main Proteinase: The Monomer-Dimer Equilibrium Dissociation Constant

    SciTech Connect

    Graziano,V.; McGrath, W.; Yang, L.; Mangel, W.

    2006-01-01

    The SARS coronavirus main proteinase (SARS CoV main proteinase) is required for the replication of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS CoV), the virus that causes SARS. One function of the enzyme is to process viral polyproteins. The active form of the SARS CoV main proteinase is a homodimer. In the literature, estimates of the monomer-dimer equilibrium dissociation constant, K{sub D}, have varied more than 650000-fold, from <1 nM to more than 200 {mu}M. Because of these discrepancies and because compounds that interfere with activation of the enzyme by dimerization may be potential antiviral agents, we investigated the monomer-dimer equilibrium by three different techniques: small-angle X-ray scattering, chemical cross-linking, and enzyme kinetics. Analysis of small-angle X-ray scattering data from a series of measurements at different SARS CoV main proteinase concentrations yielded K{sub D} values of 5.8 {+-} 0.8 {mu}M (obtained from the entire scattering curve), 6.5 {+-} 2.2 {mu}M (obtained from the radii of gyration), and 6.8 {+-} 1.5 {mu}M (obtained from the forward scattering). The K{sub D} from chemical cross-linking was 12.7 {+-} 1.1 {mu}M, and from enzyme kinetics, it was 5.2 {+-} 0.4 {mu}M. While each of these three techniques can present different, potential limitations, they all yielded similar K{sub D} values.

  18. Positive role of cell wall anchored proteinase PrtP in adhesion of lactococci.

    PubMed

    Habimana, Olivier; Le Goff, Carine; Juillard, Vincent; Bellon-Fontaine, Marie-Noëlle; Buist, Girbe; Kulakauskas, Saulius; Briandet, Romain

    2007-05-02

    The first step in biofilm formation is bacterial attachment to solid surfaces, which is dependent on the cell surface physico-chemical properties. Cell wall anchored proteins (CWAP) are among the known adhesins that confer the adhesive properties to pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria. To investigate the role of CWAP of non-pathogen Gram-positive bacteria in the initial steps of biofilm formation, we evaluated the physico-chemical properties and adhesion to solid surfaces of Lactococcus lactis. To be able to grow in milk this dairy bacterium expresses a cell wall anchored proteinase PrtP for breakdown of milk caseins. The influence of the anchored cell wall proteinase PrtP on microbial surface physico-chemical properties, and consequently on adhesion, was evaluated using lactococci carrying different alleles of prtP. The presence of cell wall anchored proteinase on the surface of lactococcal cells resulted in an increased affinity to solvents with different physico-chemical properties (apolar and Lewis acid-base solvents). These properties were observed regardless of whether the PrtP variant was biologically active or not, and were not observed in strains without PrtP. Anchored PrtP displayed a significant increase in cell adhesion to solid glass and tetrafluoroethylene surfaces. Obtained results indicate that exposure of an anchored cell wall proteinase PrtP, and not its proteolytic activity, is responsible for greater cell hydrophobicity and adhesion. The increased bacterial affinity to polar and apolar solvents indicated that exposure of PrtP on lactococcal cell surface could enhance the capacity to exchange attractive van der Waals interactions, and consequently increase their adhesion to different types of solid surfaces and solvents.

  19. Crystal structure of 2A proteinase from hand, foot and mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Mu, Zhixia; Wang, Bei; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Gao, Xiaopan; Qin, Bo; Zhao, Zhendong; Cui, Sheng

    2013-11-15

    EV71 is responsible for several epidemics worldwide; however, the effective antiviral drug is unavailable to date. The 2A proteinase (2A(pro)) of EV71 presents a promising drug target due to its multiple roles in virus replication, inhibition of host protein synthesis and evasion of innate immunity. We determined the crystal structure of EV71 2A(pro) at 1.85Å resolution, revealing that the proteinase maintains a chymotrypsin-like fold. The active site is composed of the catalytic triads C110A, H21 and D39 with the geometry similar to that in other picornaviral 2A(pro), 3C(pro) and serine proteinases. The cI-to-eI2 loop at the N-terminal domain of EV71 2A(pro) adopts a highly stable conformation and contributes to the hydrophilic surface property, which are strikingly different in HRV2 2A(pro) but are similar in CVB4 2A(pro). We identified a hydrophobic motif "LLWL" followed by an acidic motif "DEE" at the C-terminus of EV71 2A(pro). The "LLWL" motif is folded into the β-turn structure that is essential for the positioning of the acidic motif. Our structural and mutagenesis study demonstrated that both the negative charging and the correct positioning of the C-terminus are essential for EV71 replication. Deletion of the "LLWL" motif abrogated the proteolytic activity, indicating that the motif is critical for maintaining the active proteinase conformation. Our findings provide the structural and functional insights into EV71 2A(pro) and establish a framework for structure-based inhibitor design.

  20. Isolation and characterization of two forms of an acidic bromelain stem proteinase.

    PubMed

    Harrach, T; Eckert, K; Maurer, H R; Machleidt, I; Machleidt, W; Nuck, R

    1998-05-01

    Two forms of an acidic bromelain proteinase isolated from crude bromelain, an extract from pineapple stem, were found by a two-step FPLC purification procedure. The basic main components were removed by cation exchange chromatography and the breakthrough fraction was further resolved by anion exchange chromatography into 15 protein fractions, only two of which, called SBA/a and SBA/b, were proteolytically active. These components were characterized by electrospray mass spectroscopy (ESMS), isoelectric focusing, N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis, monosaccharide analysis, and enzymatic parameters. The molecular masses of SBA/a and SBA/b were determined by ESMS to be 23,550 and 23,560, respectively. The isoelectric points (pI) of the two bands of SBA/a were 4.8 and 4.9; SBA/b focused as a single band at pI = 4.8. Partial N-terminal amino acid sequences (11 residues) were identical to SBA/a and SBA/b and identical with those of stem bromelain, the basic main proteinase of the pineapple stem, and fruit bromelain, the acidic main proteinase of the pineapple fruit. Both components are highly glycosylated; hydrolysis of SBA/a yielded about twofold more monosaccharide per protein than SBA/b. The comparison of the catalytic properties of SBA/a with those of SBA/b revealed no relevant differences in the hydrolysis of three peptidyl-NH-Mec substrates and in the inhibition profiles using chicken cystatin and E-64, indicating that these components can be considered as two forms of a single enzyme. Both forms are scarcely inhibited by chicken cystatin and slowly inactivated by E-64, hence are nontypical cysteine proteinases of the papain superfamily.

  1. Plastidic aspartate aminotransferases and the biosynthesis of essential amino acids in plants.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Fernando; Cañas, Rafael A; Pascual, M Belén; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2014-10-01

    In the chloroplasts and in non-green plastids of plants, aspartate is the precursor for the biosynthesis of different amino acids and derived metabolites that play distinct and important roles in plant growth, reproduction, development or defence. Aspartate biosynthesis is mediated by the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.1), which catalyses the reversible transamination between glutamate and oxaloacetate to generate aspartate and 2-oxoglutarate. Plastids contain two aspartate aminotransferases: a eukaryotic-type and a prokaryotic-type bifunctional enzyme displaying aspartate and prephenate aminotransferase activities. A general overview of the biochemistry, regulation, functional significance, and phylogenetic origin of both enzymes is presented. The roles of these plastidic aminotransferases in the biosynthesis of essential amino acids are discussed.

  2. Identification of monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors in birds, reptiles, amphibians and mammals, and purification and characterization of a monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitor from the American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana.

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, D S; Thøgersen, I B; Pizzo, S V; Enghild, J J

    1993-01-01

    The alpha-macroglobulins are classified as broad-spectrum inhibitors because of their ability to entrap proteinases of different specificities and catalytic class. Tetrameric and dimeric alpha-macroglobulins have been identified in a wide variety of organisms including those as primitive as the mollusc Octopus vulgaris; however, monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors have been previously identified only in rodents. The monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors are believed to be analogous to the evolutionary precursor of the multimeric members of this family exemplified by the tetrameric human alpha 2-macroglobulin. Until now, monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors have only been identified in rodents and have therefore been considered an evolutionary anomaly. However, in this report we have utilized several sensitive assays to screen various plasmas and sera for the presence of monomeric alpha-macroglobulins, and our results suggest that monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors are present in organisms belonging to the avian, reptilian, amphibian and mammalian classes of the chordate phylum. This indicates that these proteins are more widespread than previously recognized and that their presence in rodents is not an anomaly. To demonstrate further that the identified proteins were indeed monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors, we purified the monomeric alpha-macroglobulin from the American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. We conclude that this protein is a monomer of 180 kDa on the basis of its behaviour on (i) pore-limit gel electrophoresis, (ii) non-reducing and reducing SDS/PAGE and (iii) gel-filtration chromatography. In addition, we demonstrate that this protein is an alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitor by virtue of (i) its ability to inhibit proteinases of different catalytic class, (ii) the presence of a putative internal beta-cysteinyl-gamma-glutamyl thioester and (iii) an inhibitory mechanism

  3. Identification of monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors in birds, reptiles, amphibians and mammals, and purification and characterization of a monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitor from the American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, D S; Thøgersen, I B; Pizzo, S V; Enghild, J J

    1993-02-15

    The alpha-macroglobulins are classified as broad-spectrum inhibitors because of their ability to entrap proteinases of different specificities and catalytic class. Tetrameric and dimeric alpha-macroglobulins have been identified in a wide variety of organisms including those as primitive as the mollusc Octopus vulgaris; however, monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors have been previously identified only in rodents. The monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors are believed to be analogous to the evolutionary precursor of the multimeric members of this family exemplified by the tetrameric human alpha 2-macroglobulin. Until now, monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors have only been identified in rodents and have therefore been considered an evolutionary anomaly. However, in this report we have utilized several sensitive assays to screen various plasmas and sera for the presence of monomeric alpha-macroglobulins, and our results suggest that monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors are present in organisms belonging to the avian, reptilian, amphibian and mammalian classes of the chordate phylum. This indicates that these proteins are more widespread than previously recognized and that their presence in rodents is not an anomaly. To demonstrate further that the identified proteins were indeed monomeric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors, we purified the monomeric alpha-macroglobulin from the American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. We conclude that this protein is a monomer of 180 kDa on the basis of its behaviour on (i) pore-limit gel electrophoresis, (ii) non-reducing and reducing SDS/PAGE and (iii) gel-filtration chromatography. In addition, we demonstrate that this protein is an alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitor by virtue of (i) its ability to inhibit proteinases of different catalytic class, (ii) the presence of a putative internal beta-cysteinyl-gamma-glutamyl thioester and (iii) an inhibitory mechanism

  4. Neuronal death enhanced by N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy; Stefovska, Vanya; Turski, Lechoslaw

    2000-01-01

    Glutamate promotes neuronal survival during brain development and destroys neurons after injuries in the mature brain. Glutamate antagonists are in human clinical trials aiming to demonstrate limitation of neuronal injury after head trauma, which consists of both rapid and slowly progressing neurodegeneration. Furthermore, glutamate antagonists are considered for neuroprotection in chronic neurodegenerative disorders with slowly progressing cell death only. Therefore, humans suffering from Huntington's disease, characterized by slowly progressing neurodegeneration of the basal ganglia, are subjected to trials with glutamate antagonists. Here we demonstrate that progressive neurodegeneration in the basal ganglia induced by the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionate or in the hippocampus by traumatic brain injury is enhanced by N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists but ameliorated by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate antagonists. These observations reveal that N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists may increase neurodestruction in mature brain undergoing slowly progressing neurodegeneration, whereas blockade of the action of glutamate at α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors may be neuroprotective. PMID:11058158

  5. Aspartic acid substitutions affect proton translocation by bacteriorhodopsin.

    PubMed Central

    Mogi, T; Stern, L J; Marti, T; Chao, B H; Khorana, H G

    1988-01-01

    We have substituted each of the aspartic acid residues in bacteriorhodopsin to determine their possible role in proton translocation by this protein. The aspartic acid residues were replaced by asparagines; in addition, Asp-85, -96, -115, and -112 were changed to glutamic acid and Asp-212 was also replaced by alanine. The mutant bacteriorhodopsin genes were expressed in Escherichia coli and the proteins were purified. The mutant proteins all regenerated bacteriorhodopsin-like chromophores when treated with a detergent-phospholipid mixture and retinal. However, the rates of regeneration of the chromophores and their lambda max varied widely. No support was obtained for the external point charge model for the opsin shift. The Asp-85----Asn mutant showed not detectable proton pumping, the Asp-96----Asn and Asp-212----Glu mutants showed less than 10% and the Asp-115----Glu mutant showed approximately equal to 30% of the normal proton pumping. The implications of these findings for possible mechanisms of proton translocation by bacteriorhodopsin are discussed. PMID:3288985

  6. Aspartate and glutamate mimetic structures in biologically active compounds.

    PubMed

    Stefanic, Peter; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2004-04-01

    Glutamate and aspartate are frequently recognized as key structural elements for the biological activity of natural peptides and synthetic compounds. The acidic side-chain functionality of both the amino acids provides the basis for the ionic interaction and subsequent molecular recognition by specific receptor sites that results in the regulation of physiological or pathophysiological processes in the organism. In the development of new biologically active compounds that possess the ability to modulate these processes, compounds offering the same type of interactions are being designed. Thus, using a peptidomimetic design approach, glutamate and aspartate mimetics are incorporated into the structure of final biologically active compounds. This review covers different bioisosteric replacements of carboxylic acid alone, as well as mimetics of the whole amino acid structure. Amino acid analogs presented include those with different distances between anionic moieties, and analogs with additional functional groups that result in conformational restriction or alternative interaction sites. The article also provides an overview of different cyclic structures, including various cycloalkane, bicyclic and heterocyclic analogs, that lead to conformational restriction. Higher di- and tripeptide mimetics in which carboxylic acid functionality is incorporated into larger molecules are also reviewed. In addition to the mimetic structures presented, emphasis in this article is placed on their steric and electronic properties. These mimetics constitute a useful pool of fragments in the design of new biologically active compounds, particularly in the field of RGD mimetics and excitatory amino acid agonists and antagonists.

  7. The bioactive acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif peptide.

    PubMed

    Minamizaki, Tomoko; Yoshiko, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    The organic component of the bone matrix comprises 40% dry weight of bone. The organic component is mostly composed of type I collagen and small amounts of non-collagenous proteins (NCPs) (10-15% of the total bone protein content). The small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein (SIBLING) family, a NCP, is considered to play a key role in bone mineralization. SIBLING family of proteins share common structural features and includes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif and acidic serine- and aspartic acid-rich motif (ASARM). Clinical manifestations of gene mutations and/or genetically modified mice indicate that SIBLINGs play diverse roles in bone and extraskeletal tissues. ASARM peptides might not be primary responsible for the functional diversity of SIBLINGs, but this motif is suggested to be a key domain of SIBLINGs. However, the exact function of ASARM peptides is poorly understood. In this article, we discuss the considerable progress made in understanding the role of ASARM as a bioactive peptide.

  8. Comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1α.

    PubMed

    Steinberger, Jutta; Kontaxis, Georg; Rancan, Chiara; Skern, Tim

    2013-09-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (Lb(pro)) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. NMR studies on the monomeric variant Lb(pro) L200F provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. (15)N-HSQC measurements of Lb(pro) L200F showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant sLb(pro), lacking six C-terminal residues. This indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal extension (CTE) of one molecule and its own active site. Contrastingly, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader proteinase nsp1α, with a papain-like fold like Lb(pro), stably binds its own CTE. Parts of the β-sheet domains but none of the α-helical domains of Lb(pro) and nsp1α superimpose; consequently, the α-helical domain of nsp1α is oriented differently relative to its β-sheet domain. This provides a large interaction surface for the CTE with the globular domain, stabilising the intramolecular complex. Consequently, self-processing inactivates nsp1α but not Lb(pro).

  9. Activation of intracellular serine proteinase in Bacillus subtilis cells during sporulation.

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, T J; Shankweiler, G W; Hageman, J H

    1986-01-01

    Cells of Bacillus subtilis 168 (trpC2) growing and sporulating in a single chemically defined medium carried out intracellular protein degradation and increased their levels of intracellular serine protease-1 in a manner very similar to what had previously been reported for cells sporulating in nutrient broth. The results were interpreted to mean that these processes are intrinsic to sporulation rather than medium dependent. To determine the cause of these increases in specific activity of proteinases, we purified the protease, prepared rabbit immunoglobulins directed against it, and monitored changes in protease antigen levels by performing rocket immunoelectrophoresis. In cells sporulating in nutrient broth, the protease antigen levels increased about 7-fold, whereas the specific activity increased about 150-fold, for an activation of about 20-fold. In cells sporulating in the single chemically defined sporulation medium, the protease antigen increased about 10-fold, whereas the specific activity increased at least 400-fold, for an activation of about 40-fold. These results were interpreted to mean that a posttranslational event activated the protease in vivo; a previously described endogenous proteinase inhibitor was confirmed to be present in the strain used. Chloramphenicol added to the cultures inhibited both the increases in antigen levels and in the specific activity of the proteinase. PMID:3079745

  10. Gastric proteinase digestion of caseins in newborn pups of the mouse.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, M; Shiraishi, J; Kuraishi, T; Aoki, F; Imakawa, K; Sakai, S

    2001-08-01

    Casein micelles of mouse milk consist of alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and kappa-caseins. By digestion with alkaline phosphatase, they were separated as an independent band by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The compositions of alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and kappa-caseins were 24.3, 25.1, 9.4, and 41.2% in colostrum, and 36.8, 15.6, 11.9, and 35.7% in mature milk, respectively. Zero-day-old pups were allowed to access either colostrum or mature milk, and the aggregated milk in the stomach was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Caseins in colostrum were digested more rapidly and efficiently than those in mature milk. Among the seven peptides present in the aggregated caseins, four peptides were colostrum-specific and derived from alpha- and gamma-caseins. It was expected that colostrum-specific and soluble peptides were generated from alpha- and gamma-caseins through gastric proteinase digestion. Amino acid sequence analysis and the pH of the aggregated milk suggested that caseins in the stomach were digested by a chymotrypsin-like proteinase. Caseins in colostrum were different from those in mature milk, with respects to the casein composition as well as the gastric proteinase sensitivity. It is concluded that the lactating mice on the day of parturition supply particular caseins to their young.

  11. Roles of the Picornaviral 3C Proteinase in the Viral Life Cycle and Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Di; Chen, Shun; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu

    2016-03-17

    The Picornaviridae family comprises a large group of non-enveloped viruses that have a major impact on human and veterinary health. The viral genome contains one open reading frame encoding a single polyprotein that can be processed by viral proteinases. The crucial 3C proteinases (3C(pro)s) of picornaviruses share similar spatial structures and it is becoming apparent that 3C(pro) plays a significant role in the viral life cycle and virus host interaction. Importantly, the proteinase and RNA-binding activity of 3C(pro) are involved in viral polyprotein processing and the initiation of viral RNA synthesis. In addition, 3C(pro) can induce the cleavage of certain cellular factors required for transcription, translation and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to modulate cell physiology for viral replication. Due to interactions between 3C(pro) and these essential factors, 3C(pro) is also involved in viral pathogenesis to support efficient infection. Furthermore, based on the structural conservation, the development of irreversible inhibitors and discovery of non-covalent inhibitors for 3C(pro) are ongoing and a better understanding of the roles played by 3C(pro) may provide insights into the development of potential antiviral treatments. In this review, the current knowledge regarding the structural features, multiple functions in the viral life cycle, pathogen host interaction, and development of antiviral compounds for 3C(pro) is summarized.

  12. Proteolytic activity and fatal gram-negative sepsis in burned mice: effect of exogenous proteinase inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Neely, A N; Miller, R G; Holder, I A

    1994-01-01

    Circulating proteolytic activity (PA) increases following burn or surgical trauma. Challenging traumatized mice with the yeast Candida albicans further increases PA. Once a PA threshold has been passed, mortality increases as PA increases. The purposes of this study were to determine (i) if gram-negative bacterial challenge affects circulating PA and mortality as Candida challenge does and (ii) if proteinase inhibitor treatment with aprotinin, antithrombin III, and alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor decreases circulating PA and increases the survival of burned mice infected with a bacterium. For all bacteria tested (Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae), burn plus challenge significantly elevated PA and mortality above levels in mice that were only burned or only challenged. Quantitative culture counts indicated that the mice died of sepsis. Proteinase inhibitor treatment of mice burned and challenged with K. pneumoniae significantly decreased circulating PA, decreased the hepatic microbial load, and increased survival. Hence, in traumatized mice challenged with either C. albicans or gram-negative bacteria, a relationship exists between proteolytic load and subsequent septic death. Parallels between these animal studies and human studies are discussed. PMID:8188336

  13. [Conditions of the biosynthesis of an extracellular subtilisin-like proteinase by Bacillus pumilus KMM 62].

    PubMed

    Malikova, L A; Mardanova, A M; Sokolova, O V; Balaban, N P; Rudenskaia, G N; Sharipova, M R

    2007-01-01

    The influence of the cultivation conditions on Bacillus pumilus KMM 62 growth and effectiveness of the production of a subtilisin-like serine proteinase were investigated. Enzyme accumulation in the culture fluid reached the maximum value after 32 and 46-48 h of growth; it depends on the composition of the nutrient medium. The ratio of the concentrations of two main components of the medium, peptone and inorganic phosphate, which was optimal for enzyme biosynthesis was determined by multifactor experiments. Ammonium salts, when introduced as an additional nitrogen source, had different effects on the proteinase biosynthesis at different growth stages: they suppress enzyme production at the early stationary growth phase and stimulate the biosynthesis of the enzyme after 46-48 h of growth. Complex organic substrates (albumin, casein, hemoglobin, and gelatin) have a repressive effect on the biosynthesis of the enzyme. The effect of amino acids on culture growth and enzyme biosynthesis during the early and late stationary growth phase is different. Hydrophilic amino acids, glutamine, and glutamic acid exhibit the most pronounced repressive action on biosynthesis. The activity of different regulatory mechanisms for the synthesis of this proteinase is assumed at the early and late stationary stages of growth.

  14. Molecular cloning of a mitogenic proteinase from Carica candamarcensis: its potential use in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Natássia C R; Mendes, Isabela C; Gomes, Marco Túlio R; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Chagas, Brisa C A; Lopes, Miriam T P; Salas, Carlos E

    2011-11-01

    Cysteine proteinases from the Caricaceae belong to the C1 family of the CA clan and display papain-like structured, the archetype enzyme for this group of proteins. Carica candamarcensis, also named Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis, a member of Caricaceae family common to many areas in South America, contains cysteine proteinases with proteolytic activity five to eight-fold higher than those from latex of Carica papaya. The cysteine protease CMS2MS2 from C. candamarcensis latex has been shown to enhance proliferation of L929 fibroblast and to activate the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK). In this study, the cDNA cloning, expression and evaluation of biological activity of a CMS2MS2-like protein from C. candamarcensis is reported. The 650 bp fragment was cloned in bacteria and the DNA sequence confirmed a cysteine-proteinase similar to CMS2MS2. The recombinant protein is 30 kDa, induces a mitogenic response, and enhances ERK1/2 phosphorylation, like the non-recombinant enzyme, but lacks either amidase or caseinolytic activity. The mitogenic activity of this protein and its lack of proteolytic activity underscore a potential for use in wound healing treatment.

  15. Cloning and characterization of an Eimeria acervulina sporozoite gene homologous to aspartyl proteinases.

    PubMed

    Laurent, F; Bourdieu, C; Kaga, M; Chilmonczyk, S; Zgrzebski, G; Yvoré, P; Péry, P

    1993-12-01

    A lambda ZapII cDNA library was constructed using mRNA from Eimeria acervulina sporulated oocysts and screened with monoclonal antibodies raised against Eimeria tenella sporulated oocytes. Monoclonal antibody N3C8B12 identified a clone (6S2) potentially encoding an aspartyl proteinase since significant homology with cathepsin D, pepsin and renin proteinases was revealed by sequence comparisons. The 1500-bp cDNA fragment containing the coccidial gene was subcloned into pGEX-FA expression vector, leading to the production of an 80-kDa fusion protein (FA6S2) which was used to immunize rabbits. The anti-FA6S2 rabbit sera revealed a single 43-kDa protein present in Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria tenella, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria falciformis sporulated oocyst antigens. Indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy with mAb N3C8B12 localized the putative aspartyl proteinase in the refractile bodies of Eimeria tenella sporozoites.

  16. Characterization of the mature cell surface proteinase of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Josefina M; Brown, Lucía; Savoy de Giori, Graciela; Hebert, Elvira M

    2015-05-01

    The cell envelope-associated proteinase (CEP) of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581 (PrtL) has an essential role in bacterial growth, contributes to the flavor and texture development of fermented products, and can release bioactive health-beneficial peptides during milk fermentation. The genome of L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581 possesses only one gene that encodes PrtL, which consists of 1924 amino acids and is a multidomain protein anchored to the cell via its W domain. PrtL was extracted from the cell under high ionic strength conditions using NaCl, suggesting an electrostatic interaction between the proteinase and the cell envelope. The released PrtL was purified and biochemically characterized; its activity was maximal at temperatures between 37 and 40 °C and at pH between 7 and 8. Under optimal conditions, PrtL exhibited higher affinity for succinyl-alanyl-alanyl-prolyl-phenylalanine-p-nitroanilide than for succinyl-alanyl-glutamyl-prolyl-phenylalanine-p-nitroanilide, while methoxy-succinyl-arginyl-prolyl-tyrosyl-p-nitroanilide was not degraded. A similar α- and β-casein degradation pattern was observed with the purified and the cell envelope-bound proteinase. Finally, on the basis of its specificity towards caseins and the unique combination of amino acids at residues thought to be involved in substrate specificity, PrtL can be classified as a representative of a new group of CEP.

  17. Preparation and characterization of novel substrates of insulin proteinase (EC 3.4.99.45).

    PubMed Central

    Werlen, R C; Offord, R E; Rose, K

    1994-01-01

    The specificity of insulin proteinase (EC 3.4.99.45) has been difficult to categorize using only its natural substrates. By exploiting the fact that two substrates competing for the same enzyme inhibit one another, we have found some new substrates of the insulin proteinase from porcine muscle. Two of these substrates, a tryptic fragment of BSA and a fragment of cytochrome c, have been shown to be cleaved at a single site. The albumin fragment, as well as another fragment of cytochrome c., have susceptibilities (Vmax/Km) comparable with that of insulin. In a second aspect of the study, the porcine-muscle enzyme was shown to be related to other members of its superfamily in that it was immunoprecipitated by a monoclonal antibody raised against the insulin-degrading enzyme from human red blood cells and has the same cleavage sites on insulin as has the rat skeletal-muscle insulin proteinase. We note, however, a possible discrepancy between our results and those of another group regarding the subunit size (110 kDa) of the immunoprecipitated material. PMID:7945219

  18. Neutrophil Elastase, Proteinase 3, and Cathepsin G as Therapeutic Targets in Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Marshall S.; Jenne, Dieter E.; Gauthier, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils are the first cells recruited to inflammatory sites and form the earliest line of defense against invading microorganisms. Neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3, and cathepsin G are three hematopoietic serine proteases stored in large quantities in neutrophil cytoplasmic azurophilic granules. They act in combination with reactive oxygen species to help degrade engulfed microorganisms inside phagolysosomes. These proteases are also externalized in an active form during neutrophil activation at inflammatory sites, thus contributing to the regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. As multifunctional proteases, they also play a regulatory role in noninfectious inflammatory diseases. Mutations in the ELA2/ELANE gene, encoding neutrophil elastase, are the cause of human congenital neutropenia. Neutrophil membrane-bound proteinase 3 serves as an autoantigen in Wegener granulomatosis, a systemic autoimmune vasculitis. All three proteases are affected by mutations of the gene (CTSC) encoding dipeptidyl peptidase I, a protease required for activation of their proform before storage in cytoplasmic granules. Mutations of CTSC cause Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome. Because of their roles in host defense and disease, elastase, proteinase 3, and cathepsin G are of interest as potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we describe the physicochemical functions of these proteases, toward a goal of better delineating their role in human diseases and identifying new therapeutic strategies based on the modulation of their bioavailability and activity. We also describe how nonhuman primate experimental models could assist with testing the efficacy of proposed therapeutic strategies. PMID:21079042

  19. Three low molecular weight cysteine proteinase inhibitors of human seminal fluid: purification and enzyme kinetic properties.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vikash Kumar; Chhikara, Nirmal; Gill, Kamaldeep; Dey, Sharmistha; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2013-08-01

    The cystatins form a superfamily of structurally related proteins with highly conserved structural folds. They are all potent, reversible, competitive inhibitors of cysteine proteinases (CPs). Proteins from this group present differences in proteinase inhibition despite their high level of structural similarities. In this study, three cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CPIs) of low molecular weight were isolated from human seminal fluid (HSF) by affinity chromatography on carboxymethyl (CM)-papain-Sepharose column, purified using various chromatographic procedures and checked for purity on sodium-dodecyl PAGE (SDS-PAGE). Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time-of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) identified these proteins as cystatin 9, cystatin SN, and SAP-1 (an N-terminal truncated form of cystatin S). All three CPIs suppressed the activity of papain potentially and showed remarkable heat stability. Interestingly SAP-1 also inhibits the activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin, and PSA (prostate specific antigen) and acts as a cross-class protease inhibitor in in vitro studies. Using Surface Plasmon Resonance, we have also observed that SAP-1 shows a significant binding with all these proteases. These studies suggest that SAP-1 is a cross-class inhibitor that may regulate activity of various classes of proteases within the reproductive systems. To our knowledge, this is the first report about purification of CPIs from HSF; the identification of such proteins could provide better insights into the physiological processes and offer intimation for further research.

  20. Proteinase K enhanced immunoreactivity of the prion protein-specific monoclonal antibody 2A11.

    PubMed

    Brun, Alejandro; Castilla, Joaquín; Ramírez, Miguel A; Prager, Kai; Parra, Beatriz; Salguero, Francisco J; Shiveral, Diane; Sánchez, Carmen; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José M; Douglas, Alastair; Torres, Juan M

    2004-01-01

    Here, we report the development and further characterisation of a novel PrP-specific monoclonal antibody: 2A11. By Western blot analysis, 2A11 reacts with PrPC from a variety of species including cow, sheep, pig, hamster, rabbit, cat, dog, deer and mouse but fails to react with human, chicken and turtle PrP. Reactivity to PrPC in Western blot was found to be dependent on the redox state of the protein since binding of mAb 2A11 to its epitope was more effective in reducing conditions. 2A11 binding site was mapped within a region comprised by residues 171-179 (six octarepeats bovine PrP notation; 163-171 for the ovine PrP notation). Interestingly, in immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis, immunoreactivity was greatly enhanced after proteinase K (PK) sample treatment, while little or no reaction was observed in non-PK-treated BSE samples and samples from healthy animals. Quantitative differences in reactivity to BSE prions after PK treatment were also observed, to a lesser extent, by Western blot analysis. Since definitive diagnosis of prion diseases rely on IHC assays of proteinase K-treated samples, the use of mAb 2A11 might contribute to reduce the occurrence of false positive detection due to incomplete proteinase K digestion.

  1. Roles of the Picornaviral 3C Proteinase in the Viral Life Cycle and Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Di; Chen, Shun; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu

    2016-01-01

    The Picornaviridae family comprises a large group of non-enveloped viruses that have a major impact on human and veterinary health. The viral genome contains one open reading frame encoding a single polyprotein that can be processed by viral proteinases. The crucial 3C proteinases (3Cpros) of picornaviruses share similar spatial structures and it is becoming apparent that 3Cpro plays a significant role in the viral life cycle and virus host interaction. Importantly, the proteinase and RNA-binding activity of 3Cpro are involved in viral polyprotein processing and the initiation of viral RNA synthesis. In addition, 3Cpro can induce the cleavage of certain cellular factors required for transcription, translation and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to modulate cell physiology for viral replication. Due to interactions between 3Cpro and these essential factors, 3Cpro is also involved in viral pathogenesis to support efficient infection. Furthermore, based on the structural conservation, the development of irreversible inhibitors and discovery of non-covalent inhibitors for 3Cpro are ongoing and a better understanding of the roles played by 3Cpro may provide insights into the development of potential antiviral treatments. In this review, the current knowledge regarding the structural features, multiple functions in the viral life cycle, pathogen host interaction, and development of antiviral compounds for 3Cpro is summarized. PMID:26999188

  2. Norovirus proteinase-polymerase and polymerase are both active forms of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Belliot, Gaël; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Babu, Vijay; Uche, Uzo; Arnold, Jamie J; Cameron, Craig E; Green, Kim Y

    2005-02-01

    In vitro mapping studies of the MD145 norovirus (Caliciviridae) ORF1 polyprotein identified two stable cleavage products containing the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains: ProPol (a precursor comprised of both the proteinase and polymerase) and Pol (the mature polymerase). The goal of this study was to identify the active form (or forms) of the norovirus polymerase. The recombinant ProPol (expressed as Pro(-)Pol with an inactivated proteinase domain to prevent autocleavage) and recombinant Pol were purified after synthesis in bacteria and shown to be active RdRp enzymes. In addition, the mutant His-E1189A-ProPol protein (with active proteinase but with the natural ProPol cleavage site blocked) was active as an RdRp, confirming that the norovirus ProPol precursor could possess two enzymatic activities simultaneously. The effects of several UTP analogs on the RdRp activity of the norovirus and feline calicivirus Pro(-)Pol enzymes were compared and found to be similar. Our data suggest that the norovirus ProPol is a bifunctional enzyme during virus replication. The availability of this recombinant ProPol enzyme might prove useful in the development of antiviral drugs for control of the noroviruses associated with acute gastroenteritis.

  3. Norovirus Proteinase-Polymerase and Polymerase Are Both Active Forms of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Belliot, Gaël; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Babu, Vijay; Uche, Uzo; Arnold, Jamie J.; Cameron, Craig E.; Green, Kim Y.

    2005-01-01

    In vitro mapping studies of the MD145 norovirus (Caliciviridae) ORF1 polyprotein identified two stable cleavage products containing the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains: ProPol (a precursor comprised of both the proteinase and polymerase) and Pol (the mature polymerase). The goal of this study was to identify the active form (or forms) of the norovirus polymerase. The recombinant ProPol (expressed as Pro−Pol with an inactivated proteinase domain to prevent autocleavage) and recombinant Pol were purified after synthesis in bacteria and shown to be active RdRp enzymes. In addition, the mutant His-E1189A-ProPol protein (with active proteinase but with the natural ProPol cleavage site blocked) was active as an RdRp, confirming that the norovirus ProPol precursor could possess two enzymatic activities simultaneously. The effects of several UTP analogs on the RdRp activity of the norovirus and feline calicivirus Pro−Pol enzymes were compared and found to be similar. Our data suggest that the norovirus ProPol is a bifunctional enzyme during virus replication. The availability of this recombinant ProPol enzyme might prove useful in the development of antiviral drugs for control of the noroviruses associated with acute gastroenteritis. PMID:15681440

  4. Structurally unique recombinant Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor retains activity when terminally extended and glycosylated.

    PubMed

    Kludkiewicz, Barbara; Kodrík, Dalibor; Grzelak, Krystyna; Nirmala, Xavier; Sehnal, Frantisek

    2005-10-01

    Recombinant derivatives of the Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor GmSPI2 (36 amino acid residues), which is a component of insect silk, were prepared in the expression vector Pichia pastoris. The rhSPI2 had a C-terminal hexahistidine tag attached to the GmSPI2 sequence, rtSPI2 was extended with GluAlaAla at the N-terminus, and rfSPI2 included this N-terminal extension and a C-terminal tail of 22 residues (myc epitope and hexahistidine). A portion of the secreted rfSI2 was O-glycosylated with a trimannosyl or hexamannosyl. The native inhibitor was active slightly on trypsin and highly on subtilisin and proteinase K. The extended C-terminus in rhSPI2 and rfSPI2 enhanced activity on the two latter enzymes and rendered rfSPI2 active on elastase and pronase, but abolished the inhibition of trypsin. The glycosylation of rfSPI2 reduced its inhibitory activity to a level comparable with the native inhibitor. The rtSPI2 with tripeptide extension at the N-terminus and no C-terminal modification was clearly less active than the native inhibitor. None of the tested compounds inhibited alpha-chymotrypsin and the non-serine proteinases.

  5. Implantation Serine Proteinases heterodimerize and are critical in hatching and implantation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Navneet; Liu, Shiying; Tang, Lin; Irwin, Jackie; Meng, Guoliang; Rancourt, Derrick E

    2006-01-01

    Background We have recently reported the expression of murine Implantation Serine Proteinase genes in pre-implantation embryos (ISP1) and uterus (ISP1 and ISP2). These proteinases belong to the S1 proteinase family and are similar to mast cell tryptases, which function as multimers. Results Here, we report the purification and initial characterization of ISP1 and 2 with respect to their physico-chemical properties and physiological function. In addition to being co-expressed in uterus, we show that ISP1 and ISP2 are also co-expressed in the pre-implantation embryo. Together, they form a heterodimer with an approximate molecular weight of 63 kD. This complex is the active form of the enzyme, which we have further characterized as being trypsin-like, based on substrate and inhibitor specificities. In addition to having a role in embryo hatching and outgrowth, we demonstrate that ISP enzyme is localized to the site of embryo invasion during implantation and that its activity is important for successful implantation in vivo. Conclusion On the basis of similarities in structural, chemical, and functional properties, we suggest that this ISP enzyme complex represents the classical hatching enzyme, strypsin. Our results demonstrate a critical role for ISP in embryo hatching and implantation. PMID:17156484

  6. Interaction Between Some Monosaccharides and Aspartic Acid in Dilute Aqueous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Kulikova, Galina A.

    2008-01-01

    Interaction between aspartic acid and d-glucose, d-galactose, and d-fructose has been studied by isothermal titration calorimetry, calorimetry of dissolution, and densimetry. It has been found that d-glucose and d-fructose form thermodynamically stable associates with aspartic acid, in contrast to d-galactose. The selectivity in the interaction of aspartic acid with monosaccharides is affected by their stereochemical structures. PMID:19669542

  7. Growth and characterization of KDP crystals doped with L-aspartic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, R.; Rajasekaran, R.; Samuel, Bincy Susan

    2013-03-01

    Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP) doped with L-aspartic acid has been grown by solvent slow evaporation technique from a mixture of aqueous solution of KDP and 0.7% of L-aspartic acid at room temperature. The grown crystals were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, UV-visible, FTIR analysis. The doping of aspartic acid was confirmed by FTIR spectrum. The Nonlinear optical property (SHG) of L-aspartic acid doped KDP has been confirmed. Microhardness studies were carried out on the grown crystal.

  8. Growth and characterization of KDP crystals doped with L-aspartic acid.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, R; Rajasekaran, R; Samuel, Bincy Susan

    2013-03-01

    Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP) doped with L-aspartic acid has been grown by solvent slow evaporation technique from a mixture of aqueous solution of KDP and 0.7% of L-aspartic acid at room temperature. The grown crystals were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, UV-visible, FTIR analysis. The doping of aspartic acid was confirmed by FTIR spectrum. The Nonlinear optical property (SHG) of L-aspartic acid doped KDP has been confirmed. Microhardness studies were carried out on the grown crystal.

  9. Oral administration of D-aspartate, but not L-aspartate, depresses rectal temperature and alters plasma metabolites in chicks.

    PubMed

    Erwan, Edi; Chowdhury, Vishwajit Sur; Nagasawa, Mao; Goda, Ryosei; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2014-07-25

    L-Aspartate (L-Asp) and D-aspartate (D-Asp) are physiologically important amino acids in mammals and birds. However, the functions of these amino acids have not yet been fully understood. In this study, we therefore examined the effects of L-Asp and D-Asp in terms of regulating body temperature, plasma metabolites and catecholamines in chicks. Chicks were first orally administered with different doses (0, 3.75, 7.5 and 15 mmol/kg body weight) of L- or D-Asp to monitor the effects of these amino acids on rectal temperature during 120 min of the experimental period. Oral administration of D-Asp, but not of L-Asp, linearly decreased the rectal temperature in chicks. Importantly, orally administered D-Asp led to a significant reduction in body temperature in chicks even under high ambient temperature (HT) conditions. However, centrally administered D-Asp did not significantly influence the body temperature in chicks. As for plasma metabolites and catecholamines, orally administered D-Asp led to decreased triacylglycerol and uric acid concentrations and increased glucose and chlorine concentrations but did not alter plasma catecholamines. These results suggest that oral administration of D-Asp may play a potent role in reducing body temperature under both normal and HT conditions. The alteration of plasma metabolites further indicates that D-Asp may contribute to the regulation of metabolic activity in chicks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Proteinase A, a storage-globulin-degrading endopeptidase of vetch (Vicia sativa L.) seeds, is not involved in early steps of storage-protein mobilization.

    PubMed

    Becker, C; Senyuk, V I; Shutov, A D; Nong, V H; Fischer, J; Horstmann, C; Müntz, K

    1997-09-01

    Proteinase A is a papain-like cysteine endopeptidase of vetch (Vicia sativa L.) which was assumed to initiate storage-globulin breakdown just after the onset of seed germination. This enzyme was purified from cotyledons of vetch seedlings. On gelatin-containg SDS gels, active proteinase A migrated with an apparent molecular mass of 21 kDa, whereas after heat denaturation its molecular size on SDS/PAGE was 29 kDa. Although proteinase A is capable of hydrolyzing storage globulins in vitro it could not be localized in the protein-body fraction of cotyledons from germinating seeds. cDNA clones encoding proteinase A precursor have been obtained by PCR. The precursor is composed of an N-terminal signal sequence followed by a propeptide, the region encoding mature proteinase A, and a C-terminal KDEL sequence. Mature proteinase A with a derived molecular mass of 25,244 Da does not have the KDEL sequence. The derived amino acid sequence of the proteinase A precursor is 78.2% identical to sulfhydryl-endopeptidase (SH-EP), a cysteine endopeptidase from germinating Vigna mungo seedlings. Northern blot analysis indicated that proteinase A mRNA appears de novo in cotyledons of 1-day-germinated vetch seeds, where its amount increases up to day 6. No proteinase A mRNA was detected in other vetch organs, not even in the embryo axis, which contains stored globulins. By means of antibodies raised against the purified and against recombinantly produced proteinase A, the 29-kDa bands of mature proteinase A were detected in cotyledon extracts of 6-day-germinated seeds when globulin degradation has already far proceeded. The reported data do not agree with the proposed triggering role of proteinase A in storage-globulin breakdown during germination.

  11. [Phospholipase and proteinase production by Malassezia pachydermatis isolated in dogs with and without otitis].

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Gustavo; Martín, M Carmen; Carrillo-Muñoz, Alfonso J; Payá, M Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis is part of the skin microbiota of dogs and cats. M. pachydermatis has been associated with external otitis and seborrhoeic dermatitis, reported more often in dogs than in cats. When the physical, chemical or immunological mechanisms of the skin are altered, M. pachydermatis could act as a pathogen. Thus, several virulence factors, such as the ability to produce esterase, lipase, lipoxygenase, protease, chondroitin sulphatase, and hyaluronidase, have been studied. In the present study, we aim to identify the phospholipase activity measured at pH 6.3, and the proteinase activity measured at pH 6.3 and pH 6.8 (pH from ears of dogs with external otitis) of M. pachydermatis strains isolated from dogs with and without external otitis. The phospholipase activity was measured using a semi-quantitative method with egg yolk, and the proteinase activity with a semi-quantitative method using bovine serum albumin agar. The study was performed on 96 isolates of M. pachydermatis, 43 isolated from dogs without clinical symptoms of otitis, and 52 isolated from dogs with otitis. In our study, 75.8% of the isolates showed phospholipase activity at pH 6.3, and 81 and 97.9% of them showed proteinase activity measured at pH 6.3 and 6.8, respectively. A higher phospholipase activity was detected in strains isolated from dogs with otitis. The proteinase activity was increased at a pH of 6.8 (97.9%) in comparison to a pH of 6.3 (81%). Our results suggest that the phospholipase activity may play an important role in the invasion of host tissues in chronic canine otitis cases. The proteinase activity results obtained in this study suggest that a reduction in the pH of the treatment may improve its efficacy in the resolution of M. pachydermatis otitis. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Ethylene-regulated expression of a tomato fruit ripening gene encoding a proteinase inhibitor I with a glutamic residue at the reactive site.

    PubMed Central

    Margossian, L J; Federman, A D; Giovannoni, J J; Fischer, R L

    1988-01-01

    We report the isolation from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) of an ethylene-responsive member of the proteinase inhibitor gene family. DNA sequence analysis of a full-length cDNA clone indicates that the ethylene-responsive gene is distantly related to the tomato proteinase inhibitor I gene, having 53% sequence identity. The predicted amino acid sequence reveals 47% and 45% sequence identity with the tomato and potato proteinase inhibitor I polypeptides, respectively. Additionally, the ethylene-responsive inhibitor has evolved a completely different pattern of gene expression and inhibitory specificity than other members of the inhibitor I family. Gel blot hybridization experiments show that, unlike the tomato proteinase inhibitor I gene, it is not induced in wounded leaves. In contrast, it is activated by the plant hormone ethylene in leaves and during fruit ripening. Furthermore, the ethylene-responsive inhibitor exhibits a novel reactive site, having glutamic acid as the P1 residue. This suggests that the ethylene-responsive proteinase inhibitor does not react with chymotrypsin, as does proteinase inhibitor I, but that it reacts with proteolytic enzymes that cleave at glutamic residues, such as the Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase, for which no inhibitors are known. Finally, isolation and analysis of a genomic clone reveals that the ethylene-responsive proteinase inhibitor gene is tightly linked to another, yet unidentified, coordinately expressed gene. We discuss these results with regard to the function and evolution of proteinase inhibitor genes in tomato. Images PMID:2903499

  13. Increase in net activity of serine proteinases but not gelatinases after local endotoxin exposure in the peripheral airways of healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Smith, Margaretha E; Bozinovski, Steven; Malmhäll, Carina; Sjöstrand, Margareta; Glader, Pernilla; Venge, Per; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Anderson, Gary P; Lindén, Anders; Qvarfordt, Ingemar

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that activation of the innate immune response induces an imbalance in the proteolytic homeostasis in the peripheral airways of healthy subjects, towards excess serine or gelatinase proteinase activity. During bronchoscopy, 18 healthy human subjects underwent intra-bronchial exposure to endotoxin and contra-lateral exposure to vehicle. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were harvested 24 or 48 hours (h) later. We quantified archetype proteinases, anti-proteinases, inflammatory BAL cells, and, importantly, total plus net proteinase activities using functional substrate assays. As expected, endotoxin exposure increased the concentrations of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN's) and macrophages, of proteinases and the anti-proteinases tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, α-1-antitrypsin and, to a lesser extent, secretory leukoproteinase inhibitor, at both time points. Notably, at these time points, endotoxin exposure substantially increased the quantitative NE/SLPI ratio and the net serine proteinase activity corresponding to neutrophil elastase (NE). Endotoxin exposure also increased the total gelatinase activity corresponding to matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9; an activity dominating over that of MMP-2. However, endotoxin exposure had no impact on net gelatinolytic activity at 24 or 48 h after exposure. Thus, local activation of the innate immune response induces an imbalance towards increased net serine proteinase activity in the proteolytic homeostasis of the peripheral airways in healthy subjects. Hypothetically, this serine proteinase activity can contribute to tissue remodelling and hypersecretion via NE from PMN's, if it is triggered repeatedly, as might be the case in chronic inflammatory airway disorders.

  14. Experimental evidence for a chiral symmetry-breaking mechanism in aspartic acid: Lattice and sub-lattice matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teschke, Omar; Soares, David Mendez

    2017-10-01

    A mother crystal formed from a transient molecular structure of (D+L) aspartic acid in solution is reported. Hexagonal structures with a lattice constant of 1.04 nm were crystallized from a solution in which three aspartic acid species coexist: right- and left-handed enantiomorphs, denoted D-aspartic and L-aspartic, respectively, and transitory (D+L) aspartic acid specie. Atomic force microscopy images of the crystalline deposits reveal domains of the transitory (D+L) aspartic acid crystal forming the substrate deposit on silicon wafers, and on top of this hexagonal lattice only L-aspartic acid is observed to conform and crystallize. A preferential crystallization mechanism is then observed for (D+L) aspartic acid crystals that seed only L-aspartic deposits by the geometrical matching of their multiple hexagonal lattice structures with periodicities of 1.04 nm and 0.52 nm, respectively.

  15. Masked object registration in the Fourier domain.

    PubMed

    Padfield, Dirk

    2012-05-01

    Registration is one of the most common tasks of image analysis and computer vision applications. The requirements of most registration algorithms include large capture range and fast computation so that the algorithms are robust to different scenarios and can be computed in a reasonable amount of time. For these purposes, registration in the Fourier domain using normalized cross-correlation is well suited and has been extensively studied in the literature. Another common requirement is masking, which is necessary for applications where certain regions of the image that would adversely affect the registration result should be ignored. To address these requirements, we have derived a mathematical model that describes an exact form for embedding the masking step fully into the Fourier domain so that all steps of translation registration can be computed efficiently using Fast Fourier Transforms. We provide algorithms and implementation details that demonstrate the correctness of our derivations. We also demonstrate how this masked FFT registration approach can be applied to improve the Fourier-Mellin algorithm that calculates translation, rotation, and scale in the Fourier domain. We demonstrate the computational efficiency, advantages, and correctness of our algorithm on a number of images from real-world applications. Our framework enables fast, global, parameter-free registration of images with masked regions.

  16. Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular characterization and transcriptional response upon immune stimulation.

    PubMed

    Wickramaarachchi, W D Niroshana; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Wan, Qiang; Lee, Jehee

    2013-09-01

    Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors are involved in several biological and physiological processes in all multicellular organisms. Proteinase inhibitors play a key role in regulating the activity of the respective proteinases. Among serine proteinase inhibitors, kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs) are widely found in mammals, avians, and a variety of invertebrates. In this study, we describe the identification of a kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor (Ab-KPI) from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus, which is presumably involved in innate immunity. The full-length cDNA of Ab-KPI includes 600 bp nucleotides with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 143 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ab-KPI contains a putative 17-amino acid signal peptide and two tandem kazal domains with high similarity to other kazal-type SPIs. Each kazal domain consists of reactive site (P1) residue containing a leucine (L), and a threonine (T) located in the second amino acid position after the second conserved cysteine of each domain. Temporal expression of Ab-KPI was assessed by real time quantitative PCR in hemocytes and mantle tissue following bacterial and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) challenge, and tissue injury. At 6 h post-bacterial and -VHSV challenge, Ab-KPI expression in hemocytes was increased 14-fold and 4-fold, respectively, compared to control samples. The highest up-regulations upon tissue injury were shown at 9 h and 12 h in hemocytes and mantle, respectively. The transcriptional modulation of Ab-KPI following bacterial and viral challenges and tissue injury indicates that it might be involved in immune defense as well as wound healing process in abalone.

  17. Purification and characterization of a 39,000-Da serine proteinase from the hemolymph of a solitary ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi.

    PubMed

    Shishikura, F; Abe, T; Ohtake, S; Tanaka, K

    1997-09-01

    A new endogenous serine proteinase from the cell-free hemolymph of a solitary ascidian, Halocythia roretzi, was purified by a combination of ammonium sulfate fractionation, hydrophobic interaction chromatography on TSKgel Toyopearl HW 65 F, ion exchange chromatography on TSKgel DEAE-Toyopearl 650 M, affinity chromatography on Arginine-Sepharose 4B, gel filtration on TSKgel Toyopearl HW 65F and hydroxyapatite chromatography on Bio-Gel HT. The serine proteinase is a single polypeptide chain whose molecular weight and isoelectric point are 39 kDa and about 7.6 pI, respectively. The most susceptible substrate was Boc-Leu-Gly-Arg-4-methyl-coumaryl-7-amide (MCA), and activity was optimal at pH 8. The enzyme was relatively stable at high temperatures; about 50% activity was retained even at 60 degrees C for 30 min in 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, containing 0.5 M NaCl, and 0.05% Brij-35. The enzyme was characterized by the inhibitory effects of synthetic or natural inhibitors, substrate specificity toward 26 peptidyl-MCAs, proteinase activity toward natural proteins and complex formation with a serine proteinase inhibitor (58 kDa) previously found in H. roretzi hemolymph, indicating that the enzyme was a member of serine proteinases and strongly inhibited by the 58 kDa serine proteinase inhibitor as well as human antithrombin III. We also demonstrated the clotting enzyme activity of the purified serine proteinase toward bovine fibrinogen and Limulus coagulogen, a fibrinogen-like clottable protein of horseshoe crabs.

  18. A Trypanosoma cruzi-secreted 80 kDa proteinase with specificity for human collagen types I and IV.

    PubMed Central

    Santana, J M; Grellier, P; Schrével, J; Teixeira, A R

    1997-01-01

    Specific interactions between parasites and extracellular matrix components are an important mechanism in the dissemination of Chagas' disease. Binding of the extracellular matrix proteins to Trypanosoma cruzi receptors has been described as a significant step in this phenomenon. In this study, a specific proteinase activity was identified in cell-free extracts of amastigote, trypomastigote and epimastigote forms of T. cruzi using the collagenase fluorogenic substrate N-Suc-Gly-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin. Isolation of this activity was achieved by a four-step FPLC procedure. Optimal enzyme activity was found to occur at pH 8.0 and was associated with a single T. cruzi 80 kDa protein (Tc 80 proteinase) on SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions. An internal peptide sequence of Tc 80 proteinase was obtained (AGDNYTPPE), and no similarity was found to previously described proteinases of T. cruzi. This enzyme activity is strongly inhibited by HgCl2, tosyl-lysylchloromethane ('TLCK') p-chloromercuribenzoate and benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Ala-diazomethane. The purified enzyme was able to hydrolyse purified human [14C]collagen types I and IV at neutral pH, but not 14C-labelled BSA, rat laminin, rabbit IgG or small proteins such as insulin or cytochrome c. In addition, Tc 80 proteinase activity was found to be secreted by T. cruzi forms infective to mammalian cells. Furthermore we demonstrated that purified Tc 80 proteinase mediates native collagen type I hydrolysis in rat mesentery. This feature is compared with that of Clostridium histolyticum collagenase. These findings suggest that Tc 80 proteinase may facilitate T. cruzi host-cell infection by degrading the collagens of the extracellular matrix and could represent a good target for Chagas' disease chemotherapy. PMID:9224638

  19. Phospholipase and Aspartyl Proteinase Activities of Candida Species Causing Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bassyouni, Rasha H; Wegdan, Ahmed Ashraf; Abdelmoneim, Abdelsamie; Said, Wessam; AboElnaga, Fatma

    2015-10-01

    Few research had investigated the secretion of phospholipase and aspartyl proteinase from Candida spp. causing infection in females with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in diabetic versus non-diabetic women and compare the ability of identified Candida isolates to secrete phospholipases and aspartyl proteinases with characterization of their genetic profile. The study included 80 females with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 100 non-diabetic females within the child-bearing period. Candida strains were isolated and identified by conventional microbiological methods and by API Candida. The isolates were screened for their extracellular phospholipase and proteinase activities by culturing them on egg yolk and bovine serum albumin media, respectively. Detection of aspartyl proteinase genes (SAP1 to SAP8) and phospholipase genes (PLB1, PLB2) were performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Our results indicated that vaginal candidiasis was significantly higher among the diabetic group versus nondiabetic group (50% versus 20%, respectively) (p = 0.004). C. albicans was the most prevalent species followed by C. glabrata in both groups. No significant association between diabetes mellitus and phospholipase activities was detected (p = 0.262), whereas high significant proteinase activities exhibited by Candida isolated from diabetic females were found (82.5%) (p = 0.000). Non-significant associations between any of the tested proteinase or phospholipase genes and diabetes mellitus were detected (p > 0.05). In conclusion, it is noticed that the incidence of C. glabrata causing VVC is increased. The higher prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among diabetics could be related to the increased aspartyl proteinase production in this group of patients.

  20. A Trypanosoma cruzi-secreted 80 kDa proteinase with specificity for human collagen types I and IV.

    PubMed

    Santana, J M; Grellier, P; Schrével, J; Teixeira, A R

    1997-07-01

    Specific interactions between parasites and extracellular matrix components are an important mechanism in the dissemination of Chagas' disease. Binding of the extracellular matrix proteins to Trypanosoma cruzi receptors has been described as a significant step in this phenomenon. In this study, a specific proteinase activity was identified in cell-free extracts of amastigote, trypomastigote and epimastigote forms of T. cruzi using the collagenase fluorogenic substrate N-Suc-Gly-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin. Isolation of this activity was achieved by a four-step FPLC procedure. Optimal enzyme activity was found to occur at pH 8.0 and was associated with a single T. cruzi 80 kDa protein (Tc 80 proteinase) on SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions. An internal peptide sequence of Tc 80 proteinase was obtained (AGDNYTPPE), and no similarity was found to previously described proteinases of T. cruzi. This enzyme activity is strongly inhibited by HgCl2, tosyl-lysylchloromethane ('TLCK') p-chloromercuribenzoate and benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Ala-diazomethane. The purified enzyme was able to hydrolyse purified human [14C]collagen types I and IV at neutral pH, but not 14C-labelled BSA, rat laminin, rabbit IgG or small proteins such as insulin or cytochrome c. In addition, Tc 80 proteinase activity was found to be secreted by T. cruzi forms infective to mammalian cells. Furthermore we demonstrated that purified Tc 80 proteinase mediates native collagen type I hydrolysis in rat mesentery. This feature is compared with that of Clostridium histolyticum collagenase. These findings suggest that Tc 80 proteinase may facilitate T. cruzi host-cell infection by degrading the collagens of the extracellular matrix and could represent a good target for Chagas' disease chemotherapy.

  1. Injectable dopamine-modified poly(α,β-aspartic acid) nanocomposite hydrogel as bioadhesive drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chu; Lu, Caicai; Li, Bingqiang; Shan, Meng; Wu, Guolin

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogel systems based on cross-linked polymeric materials with adhesive properties in wet environments have been considered as promising candidates for tissue adhesives. The 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) is believed to be responsible for the water-resistant adhesive characteristics of mussel adhesive proteins. Under the inspiration of DOPA containing adhesive proteins, a dopamine-modified poly(α,β-aspartic acid) derivative (PDAEA) was successfully synthesized by successive ring-opening reactions of polysuccinimide (PSI) with dopamine and ethanolamine, and an injectable bioadhesive hydrogel was prepared via simply mixing PDAEA and FeCl3 solutions. The formation mechanism of the hydrogel was investigated by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopic, Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic, visual colorimetric measurements and EDTA immersion methods. The study demonstrated that the PDAEA-Fe(3+) hydrogel is a dual cross-linking system composed of covalent and coordination crosslinks. The PDAEA-Fe(3+) hydrogel is suitable to serve as a bioadhesive agent according to the rheological behaviors and the observed significant shear adhesive strength. The slow and sustained release of the model drug curcumin from the hydrogel in vitro demonstrated the hydrogel could also be potentially used for drug delivery. Moreover, the cytotoxicity tests in vitro suggested the prepared polymer and hydrogel possessed excellent cytocompatibility. All the results indicated that the dopamine modified poly(α,β-aspartic acid) derivative based hydrogel was a promising candidate for bioadhesive drug delivery system. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1000-1008, 2017.

  2. A Potent, Versatile Disulfide-Reducing Agent from Aspartic Acid

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dithiothreitol (DTT) is the standard reagent for reducing disulfide bonds between and within biological molecules. At neutral pH, however, >99% of DTT thiol groups are protonated and thus unreactive. Herein, we report on (2S)-2-amino-1,4-dimercaptobutane (dithiobutylamine or DTBA), a dithiol that can be synthesized from l-aspartic acid in a few high-yielding steps that are amenable to a large-scale process. DTBA has thiol pKa values that are ∼1 unit lower than those of DTT and forms a disulfide with a similar E°′ value. DTBA reduces disulfide bonds in both small molecules and proteins faster than does DTT. The amino group of DTBA enables its isolation by cation-exchange and facilitates its conjugation. These attributes indicate that DTBA is a superior reagent for reducing disulfide bonds in aqueous solution. PMID:22353145

  3. Analysis of the aspartic acid metabolic pathway using mutant genes.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, R A

    2002-01-01

    Amino acid metabolism is a fundamental process for plant growth and development. Although a considerable amount of information is available, little is known about the genetic control of enzymatic steps or regulation of several pathways. Much of the information about biochemical pathways has arisen from the use of mutants lacking key enzymes. Although mutants were largely used already in the 60's, by bacterial and fungal geneticists, it took plant research a long time to catch up. The advance in this area was rapid in the 80's, which was followed in the 90's by the development of techniques of plant transformation. In this review we present an overview of the aspartic acid metabolic pathway, the key regulatory enzymes and the mutants and transgenic plants produced for lysine and threonine metabolism. We also discuss and propose a new study of high-lysine mutants.

  4. Allostery and cooperativity in Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase.

    PubMed

    Kantrowitz, Evan R

    2012-03-15

    The allosteric enzyme aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) from Escherichia coli has been the subject of investigations for approximately 50 years. This enzyme controls the rate of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis by feedback inhibition, and helps to balance the pyrimidine and purine pools by competitive allosteric activation by ATP. The catalytic and regulatory components of the dodecameric enzyme can be separated and studied independently. Many of the properties of the enzyme follow the Monod, Wyman Changeux model of allosteric control thus E. coli ATCase has become the textbook example. This review will highlight kinetic, biophysical, and structural studies which have provided a molecular level understanding of how the allosteric nature of this enzyme regulates pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis.

  5. Pleiotropic aspartate taxis and serine taxis mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Reader, R W; Tso, W W; Springer, M S; Goy, M F; Adler, J

    1979-04-01

    Mutants that at one time were thought to be specifically defective in taxis toward aspartate and related amino acids (tar mutants) or specifically defective in taxis toward serine and related amino acids (tar mutants) are now shown to be pleiotropic in their defects. The tar mutants also lack taxis toward maltose and away from Co2+ and Ni2+. The tsr mutants are altered in their response to a variety of repellents. Double mutants (tar tsr) fail in nearly all chemotactic responses. The tar and tsr mutants provide evidence for two complementary, converging pathways of information flow: certain chemoreceptors feed information into the tar pathway and others into the tsr pathway. The tar and tsr products have been shown to be two different sets of methylated proteins.

  6. AGC1/2, the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carriers.

    PubMed

    Amoedo, N D; Punzi, G; Obre, E; Lacombe, D; De Grassi, A; Pierri, C L; Rossignol, R

    2016-10-01

    In this review we discuss the structure and functions of the aspartate/glutamate carriers (AGC1-aralar and AGC2-citrin). Those proteins supply the aspartate synthesized within mitochondrial matrix to the cytosol in exchange for glutamate and a proton. A structure of an AGC carrier is not available yet but comparative 3D models were proposed. Moreover, transport assays performed by using the recombinant AGC1 and AGC2, reconstituted into liposome vesicles, allowed to explore the kinetics of those carriers and to reveal their specific transport properties. AGCs participate to a wide range of cellular functions, as the control of mitochondrial respiration, calcium signaling and antioxydant defenses. AGC1 might also play peculiar tissue-specific functions, as it was found to participate to cell-to-cell metabolic symbiosis in the retina. On the other hand, AGC1 is involved in the glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity in neurons and AGC gene or protein alterations were discovered in rare human diseases. Accordingly, a mice model of AGC1 gene knock-out presented with growth delay and generalized tremor, with myelinisation defects. More recently, AGC was proposed to play a crucial role in tumor metabolism as observed from metabolomic studies showing that the asparate exported from the mitochondrion by AGC1 is employed in the regeneration of cytosolic glutathione. Therefore, given the central role of AGCs in cell metabolism and human pathology, drug screening are now being developed to identify pharmacological modulators of those carriers. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Channels edited by Pierre Sonveaux, Pierre Maechler and Jean-Claude Martinou.

  7. A resource-efficient adaptive Fourier analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdu, C. F.; Zamantzas, C.; Dabóczi, T.

    2016-10-01

    We present a resource-efficient frequency adaptation method to complement the Fourier analyzer proposed by Péceli. The novel frequency adaptation scheme is based on the adaptive Fourier analyzer suggested by Nagy. The frequency adaptation method was elaborated with a view to realizing a detector connectivity check on an FPGA in a new beam loss monitoring (BLM) system, currently being developed for beam setup and machine protection of the particle accelerators at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN). The paper summarizes the Fourier analyzer to the extent relevant to this work and the basic principle of the related frequency adaptation methods. It then outlines the suggested new scheme, presents practical considerations for implementing it and underpins it with an example and the corresponding operational experience.

  8. Spectrally-spatial fourier-holography.

    PubMed

    Kalenkov, S G; Kalenkov, G S; Shtanko, A E

    2013-10-21

    We propose a novel method to obtain non-lens holographic images of micro-objects in white light with diffraction limit quality, based on fourier-spectroscopy principles. We developed a simple method for numerical acquisition of digital holograms of micro-objects at any spectral component from the set of two-dimensional interferograms, registered by fourier-spectrometer. In our experiments we used spectrally-spatial holographic fourier-spectrometer (SSHFS), equipped with supercontinuum light source and CCD camera for registration. Holographic images of several test objects acquired experimentally at different spectral components are presented. Visualization of local spatially-spectral inhomogeneities of micro-objects is discussed through the example of silver berry scaly hair sample.

  9. Interaction of aspartate and aspartate-derived antimetabolites with the enzymes of the threonine biosynthetic pathway of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shames, S L; Ash, D E; Wedler, F C; Villafranca, J J

    1984-12-25

    The five enzymes responsible for the conversion of L-aspartate to L-threonine in Escherichia coli were purified to homogeneity and subsequently reconstituted in vitro in ratios approximating those found in vivo. 31P NMR was used to conveniently monitor the rates of consumption of the substrates ATP and NADPH, the accumulation of the intermediates beta-aspartyl phosphate and homoserine phosphate, and the formation of the products ADP, NADP+, and Pi in a single experiment. By this method, the flux of aspartic acid through the enzymes of the pathway was monitored in the absence and in the presence of several alternative substrates and inhibitors. Several known antimetabolites were found to be alternative substrates that ultimately became inhibitors of pathway flux. L-threo-3-Hydroxyaspartic acid was converted to 3-hydroxyhomoserine phosphate by the first four enzymes of the pathway. The antimetabolite L-threo-3-hydroxyhomoserine was found to bind to and inhibit aspartokinase-homoserine dehydrogenase I in a cooperative fashion (I 0.5 = 3 mM, nH = 2.5), similar to the action of the allosteric end product inhibitor L-threonine (I 0.5 = 0.36 mM, nH = 2.4). In the presence of the remaining enzymes of the pathway, however, L-threo-3-hydroxyhomoserine was phosphorylated to the apparent ultimate antimetabolite L-threo-3-hydroxyhomoserine phosphate that was a potent inhibitor of threonine synthase and consequently of L-threonine biosynthesis. When aspartic acid alone was examined as a substrate of the enzymes of the pathway, no accumulation of the beta-aspartyl phosphate and homoserine phosphate intermediates was observed. However, in the presence of either 5 mM L-threo-3-hydroxyhomoserine or 5 mM L-threo-3-hydroxyhomoserine phosphate, homoserine phosphate was found to accumulate. In contrast to the homoserine phosphate and 3-hydroxyhomoserine phosphate intermediates, both of which were very stable, the acylphosphate intermediates beta-aspartyl phosphate and beta-3

  10. Structured illumination fluorescence Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiu, Peng; Chen, Youhua; Kuang, Cuifang; Fang, Yue; Wang, Yifan; Fan, Jiannan; Xu, Yingke; Liu, Xu

    2016-12-01

    We apply a Fourier ptychographic algorithm for fluorescent samples using structured illumination. The samples are illuminated with structured light patterns and the raw imaging data using traditional structured illumination fluorescence microscopy (SIM) are acquired. We then extract equivalent oblique illuminated images of fluorescent samples from the SIM images. An optimized Fourier ptychography algorithm is proposed, which ensures the fidelity of the reconstructed the super-resolution results. This method can break the diffraction limit to a resolution of λ/4, and has a better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) than SIM, especially when the background noise is high.

  11. Convergence of Fourier series in classical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galoyan, L. N.; Grigoryan, M. G.; Kobelyan, A. Kh

    2015-07-01

    The following results are proved:there exists an integrable function such that any subsequence of the Cesàro means of negative order of the Fourier series of this function diverges almost everywhere; the values of an arbitrary integrable function can be changed on a set (independent of this function) of arbitrarily small measure so that the Fourier series with respect to both the Franklin system and the Haar system of the 'modified' function will be absolutely convergent almost everywhere on [ 0,1 ] there exists a continuous function which features an unremovable absolute divergence. Bibliography: 47 titles.

  12. Fast Fourier Transform algorithm design and tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamin, Ray A., III; Adams, George B., III

    1988-01-01

    The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is a mainstay of certain numerical techniques for solving fluid dynamics problems. The Connection Machine CM-2 is the target for an investigation into the design of multidimensional Single Instruction Stream/Multiple Data (SIMD) parallel FFT algorithms for high performance. Critical algorithm design issues are discussed, necessary machine performance measurements are identified and made, and the performance of the developed FFT programs are measured. Fast Fourier Transform programs are compared to the currently best Cray-2 FFT program.

  13. Quantum transport efficiency and Fourier's law.

    PubMed

    Manzano, Daniel; Tiersch, Markus; Asadian, Ali; Briegel, Hans J

    2012-12-01

    We analyze the steady-state energy transfer in a chain of coupled two-level systems connecting two thermal reservoirs. Through an analytic treatment we find that the energy current is independent of the system size, hence violating Fourier's law of heat conduction. The classical diffusive behavior in Fourier's law of heat conduction can be recovered by introducing decoherence to the quantum systems constituting the chain. We relate these results to recent discussions of energy transport in biological light-harvesting systems, and discuss the role of quantum coherence and entanglement.

  14. Quantum arithmetic with the quantum Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Perez, Lidia; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos

    2017-06-01

    The quantum Fourier transform offers an interesting way to perform arithmetic operations on a quantum computer. We review existing quantum Fourier transform adders and multipliers and comment some simple variations that extend their capabilities. These modified circuits can perform modular and non-modular arithmetic operations and work with signed integers. Among the operations, we discuss a quantum method to compute the weighted average of a series of inputs in the transform domain. One of the circuits, the controlled weighted sum, can be interpreted as a circuit to compute the inner product of two data vectors.

  15. Electro-optic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Znod, Hanying (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (EOIFTS) for Hyperspectral Imaging is described. The EOIFTS includes an input polarizer, an output polarizer, and a plurality of birefringent phase elements. The relative orientations of the polarizers and birefringent phase elements can be changed mechanically or via a controller, using ferroelectric liquid crystals, to substantially measure the spectral Fourier components of light propagating through the EIOFTS. When achromatic switches are used as an integral part of the birefringent phase elements, the EIOFTS becomes suitable for broadband applications, with over 1 micron infrared bandwidth.

  16. Fourier filtering grows much better with age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2011-10-01

    Since VanderLugt's famous 1964 paper showing that complex valued filters for optical matched filters could be made, an extremely large number of papers have been written - some by me and some by Professor Goodman, and many more by others. Yet optical Fourier transform filtering is almost never used for anything but university research. The reasons are fairly well known but seldom stated. We have found one new approach to pattern recognition that solves most of the problems and introduces a totally new and very useful thing that can be done with Fourier filtering.

  17. Illustrative EDOF topics in Fourier optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Nicholas; Chen, Xi; Chi, Wanli

    2011-10-01

    In this talk we present a series of illustrative topics in Fourier Optics that are proving valuable in the design of EDOF camera systems. They are at the level of final examination problems that have been made solvable by a student or professoi having studied from one of Joseph W. Goodman's books---our tribute for his 75fr year. As time permits, four illustrative topics are l) Electromagnetic waves and Fourier optics;2) The perfect lens; 3) Connection between phase delay and radially varying focal length in an asphere and 4) tailored EDOF designs.

  18. A Fourier approach to cloud motion estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arking, A.; Lo, R. C.; Rosenfield, A.

    1977-01-01

    A Fourier technique is described for estimating cloud motion from pairs of pictures using the phase of the cross spectral density. The method allows motion estimates to be made for individual spatial frequencies, which are related to cloud pattern dimensions. Results obtained are presented and compared with the results of a Fourier domain cross correlation scheme. Using both artificial and real cloud data show that the technique is relatively sensitive to the presence of mixtures of motions, changes in cloud shape, and edge effects.

  19. Implementation of quantum and classical discrete fractional Fourier transforms.

    PubMed

    Weimann, Steffen; Perez-Leija, Armando; Lebugle, Maxime; Keil, Robert; Tichy, Malte; Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Nolte, Stefan; Moya-Cessa, Hector; Weihs, Gregor; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; Szameit, Alexander

    2016-03-23

    Fourier transforms, integer and fractional, are ubiquitous mathematical tools in basic and applied science. Certainly, since the ordinary Fourier transform is merely a particular case of a continuous set of fractional Fourier domains, every property and application of the ordinary Fourier transform becomes a special case of the fractional Fourier transform. Despite the great practical importance of the discrete Fourier transform, implementation of fractional orders of the corresponding discrete operation has been elusive. Here we report classical and quantum optical realizations of the discrete fractional Fourier transform. In the context of classical optics, we implement discrete fractional Fourier transforms of exemplary wave functions and experimentally demonstrate the shift theorem. Moreover, we apply this approach in the quantum realm to Fourier transform separable and path-entangled biphoton wave functions. The proposed approach is versatile and could find applications in various fields where Fourier transforms are essential tools.

  20. Implementation of quantum and classical discrete fractional Fourier transforms

    PubMed Central

    Weimann, Steffen; Perez-Leija, Armando; Lebugle, Maxime; Keil, Robert; Tichy, Malte; Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Nolte, Stefan; Moya-Cessa, Hector; Weihs, Gregor; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Szameit, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Fourier transforms, integer and fractional, are ubiquitous mathematical tools in basic and applied science. Certainly, since the ordinary Fourier transform is merely a particular case of a continuous set of fractional Fourier domains, every property and application of the ordinary Fourier transform becomes a special case of the fractional Fourier transform. Despite the great practical importance of the discrete Fourier transform, implementation of fractional orders of the corresponding discrete operation has been elusive. Here we report classical and quantum optical realizations of the discrete fractional Fourier transform. In the context of classical optics, we implement discrete fractional Fourier transforms of exemplary wave functions and experimentally demonstrate the shift theorem. Moreover, we apply this approach in the quantum realm to Fourier transform separable and path-entangled biphoton wave functions. The proposed approach is versatile and could find applications in various fields where Fourier transforms are essential tools. PMID:27006089