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Sample records for aspiration cytology fnac

  1. Emergency Diagnosis of Giant Cell Tumour (GCT) of Spine by Image Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC)

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Manish; Singh, Amitoj

    2014-01-01

    Giant cell tumour (GCT) of spine is an extremely rare neoplasm accounting 0.5% to 1.5% of all cases. The patient usually presents with weakness of lower limbs. We describe a case of 25-year-old male who presented with sudden onset of paraplegia. On plain radiograph there was an osteolytic lesion in T9 vertebra. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed expansile lytic lesion in T9 vertebral body with involvement of posterior elements on right side with associated soft tissue mass in the extradural location extending into the spinal cord. Further Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan (T1 contrast) showed the enhancing extradural mass involving spinal cord from D 8-10 levels. A provisional radiological diagnosis of GCT was made. A CT guided FNAC of the mass was performed which revealed typical cytological features of Giant cell tumour. Role of image guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) of vertebral mass and its role in emergency situations with clear emphasis on differential diagnosis is highlighted. PMID:25177571

  2. Clinical impact of second opinion in thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC): A study of 922 interinstitutional consultations.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Jaya; Morgenstern, Nora; Sugrue, Chiara; Wasserman, Jason; Wasserman, Patricia

    2012-05-01

    Interinstitutional consultation in pathology has shown to improve patient safety by detecting interpretive errors that may significantly impact clinical management. We conducted a study of 922 cases of thyroid FNAC slides, referred to our institution over a 2-year period, to assess the magnitude of discrepancies and determine the clinical impact of second opinion. Disagreements were categorized as none, minor or major, the latter two defined as one- or two-step deviations respectively on the NCI diagnostic categories scale. There were 122 disagreements (13%), including 44 major and 78 minor. Seventy-five patients underwent a change in management based on second opinion, in conjunction with clinical and radiologic findings (age, size of nodule, family history, ultrasonographic appearance, and solitary versus multiple nodules). The second opinion was supported on follow-up in 57% of major discrepancies, and the initial diagnosis was concurrent with the surgical diagnosis in 7% cases. The remainder (36%) of major discrepancy cases did not undergo surgery, precluding tissue confirmation. Critics have alleged increased costs due to interinstitutional consultations. However, cost avoidance from lost wages, potential surgical complications, and litigation is not easily quantified. Using a simplified calculation to objectively measure the costs associated with changed diagnoses, we estimate that second opinion of these 922 cases resulted in potential cost saving of $940,166 based on current Medicare reimbursement codes. Our study indicates the need for a quality-control program of outside thyroid FNA slides, especially in "high discrepancy categories" as discussed in the article. PMID:21964957

  3. Fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed Central

    Lever, J V; Trott, P A; Webb, A J

    1985-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology is an inexpensive, atraumatic technique for the diagnosis of disease sites. This paper describes the technique and illustrates how it may be applied to the management of tumours throughout the body. The limitations of the method, the dangers of false positive reports, and the inevitability of false negative diagnoses are emphasised. In a clinical context the method has much to offer by saving patients from inappropriate operations and investigations and allowing surgeons to plan quickly and more rationally. It is an economically valuable technique and deserves greater recognition. Images PMID:2578481

  4. Fine needle aspiration cytology of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors of ovary masquerading as dysgerminoma.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sandeep Kumar; Dey, Pranab

    2013-07-01

    Herein, we described a case of a 29-year-old female with a large ovarian mass. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the mass showed discrete round to oval cells in a fatty vacuolated background. FNAC diagnosis of dysgerminoma was suggested. The histology of the tumors showed features of poorly differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors. We discussed the diagnostic pitfalls of this case on FNAC.

  5. Rosai Dorfman disease diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology in a young man with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Sall, Abibatou; Touré, Awa Oumar; Ndiaye, Fatou Samba; Sène, Abdoulaye; Sall, Fatimata Bintou; Faye, Blaise Félix; Seck, Moussa; Diop, Saliou

    2015-10-01

    RDD (Rosai Dorfman disease) is a rare and benign histiocytic proliferative disorder of unknown etiology. FNAC (Fine-needle aspiration cytology) is a useful and reliable tool for the diagnosis of RDD, and as such, biopsy is avoidable. PMID:26509029

  6. Insight to neoplastic thyroid lesions by fine needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Rangaswamy, M; Narendra, KL; Patel, S; Gururajprasad, C; Manjunath, GV

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a valuable adjunct to pre-operative screening in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules, and in most cases, it can distinguish between benign and malignant lesions. Aim: To study the cytology of neoplastic thyroid lesions to minimize surgical intervention and for confirmation of the diagnosis by histopathological study. Materials and Methods: 100 cases of thyroid FNAC smears were analyzed and cyto-histopathological correlation was done in 47 cases. Galen and Gambino's method was used to calculate the sensitivity and positive predictive value. Results: Of the 100 cases, 90 were diagnosed as neoplastic lesions by FNAC and ten cases as non-neoplastic lesions, which turned out to be neoplasms on histopathological study. Among 100 cases, 47 were biopsied and subjected to histopathological study. The sensitivity of FNAC was 75.60%, and positive predictive value was 83.78% for malignant lesions. Conclusions: FNAC is a rapid, efficient, cost-effective, relatively painless procedure with a high diagnostic accuracy. It has high rate of sensitivity and positive predictive value in diagnosing thyroid neoplastic lesions. Hence, it is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:23661936

  7. Role of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology as a Diagnostic Tool in Orbital and Adnexal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Lubna; Malukani, Kamal; Malaiya, Siddharth; Yeshwante, Prashant; Ishrat, Saba; Nandedkar, Shirish S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration (FNAC) as a diagnostic tool in cases of orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Cytological findings were correlated with histopathological diagnosis wherever possible. Methods: FNAC was performed in 29 patients of different age groups presenting with orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Patients were evaluated clinically and investigated by non-invasive techniques before fine needle aspiration of the masses. Smears were analyzed by a cytologist in all cases. Further, results of cytology were compared with the histopathological diagnosis. Results: The age of patients ranged from 1 to 68 years (mean: 29.79±19.29). There were 14 males and 15 females with a male to female ratio of 0.93:1. Out of 29 cases, 26 aspirates were cellular. Cellularity was insufficient in three (10.34%) aspirates. Out of 26 cellular aspirates, 11 were non-neoplastic while 15 were neoplastic on cytology. Subsequent histopathologic examination was done in 21/26 cases. Concordance rate of FNAC in orbital and ocular adnexal mass lesions with respect to the precise histologic diagnosis was 90%. Conclusion: When properly used in well-indicated patients (in cases where a diagnosis cannot be made by clinical and imaging findings alone), FNAC of orbital and periorbital lesions is an invaluable and suitable adjunct diagnostic technique that necessitates close cooperation between the ophthalmologist and cytologist. However, nondiagnostic aspirates may sometimes be obtained, and an inconclusive FNAC should not always be ignored. PMID:27621787

  8. Role of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology as a Diagnostic Tool in Orbital and Adnexal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Lubna; Malukani, Kamal; Malaiya, Siddharth; Yeshwante, Prashant; Ishrat, Saba; Nandedkar, Shirish S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration (FNAC) as a diagnostic tool in cases of orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Cytological findings were correlated with histopathological diagnosis wherever possible. Methods: FNAC was performed in 29 patients of different age groups presenting with orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Patients were evaluated clinically and investigated by non-invasive techniques before fine needle aspiration of the masses. Smears were analyzed by a cytologist in all cases. Further, results of cytology were compared with the histopathological diagnosis. Results: The age of patients ranged from 1 to 68 years (mean: 29.79±19.29). There were 14 males and 15 females with a male to female ratio of 0.93:1. Out of 29 cases, 26 aspirates were cellular. Cellularity was insufficient in three (10.34%) aspirates. Out of 26 cellular aspirates, 11 were non-neoplastic while 15 were neoplastic on cytology. Subsequent histopathologic examination was done in 21/26 cases. Concordance rate of FNAC in orbital and ocular adnexal mass lesions with respect to the precise histologic diagnosis was 90%. Conclusion: When properly used in well-indicated patients (in cases where a diagnosis cannot be made by clinical and imaging findings alone), FNAC of orbital and periorbital lesions is an invaluable and suitable adjunct diagnostic technique that necessitates close cooperation between the ophthalmologist and cytologist. However, nondiagnostic aspirates may sometimes be obtained, and an inconclusive FNAC should not always be ignored.

  9. Aspiration cytology of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Geisinger, K R; Weidner, N

    1986-08-01

    Although mass lesions of the salivary glands are readily accessible to examination by fine-needle aspiration, the use of this modality has been limited. In part, this may be related to the difficulty differentiating between benign and malignant neoplasms in some cytologic specimens. Marked atypia in reactive non-neoplastic epithelium also could result in a false-positive diagnosis. In addition, aspiration of hypocellular material from cystic neoplasms, eg, well-differentiated mucoepidermoid carcinoma, may lead to false-negative cytologic reports. However, the diagnostic specificities claimed by a number of authors for this method are excellent. Furthermore, aspirates of certain specific neoplasms may yield highly distinctive cellular samples, such as the uniform tumor cells and extracellular hyaline spheres in many adenoid cystic carcinomas. Another example is the characteristic transition between the epithelial and myoepithelial cells of pleomorphic adenomas, which may contain prominent myxoid matrical material. With the increasing recognition of such features, the reported levels of diagnostic accuracy are improving.

  10. Comparative analysis of detecting cervical lymph node metastasis with fine needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shakeel, Mohammed Kamran; Daniel, Mariappan Jonathan; Srinivasan, Subramaniam Vasudevan; Koliyan, Ramadoss; Kumar, Jimsha Vannathan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We correlated the results of cervical lymph node (LN) status by T-tumor size, N-nodal metastasis, M-distant metastasis (TNM) staging, and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in oral cancer patients to assess the discrepancy index (DI) between nodal metastasis (N) and FNAC results of cervicofacial LNs. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 patients (29 females and 34 males) aged from 30 to 85 years were included in our study. Cervical LN status through TNM staging and FNAC results were matched and DI was calculated. Results: DI in case of nodal status was 64.10% and 43.47% for TNMN1 and N2, respectively, indicating that tendency for observation of positive result on FNAC increased from N1 to N2. Conclusion: Hence, we suggest that relying solely on clinical examination and routine diagnostic tests like FNAC may not be appropriate and additional diagnostic imaging modalities should be considered. PMID:26604624

  11. Barr body in fine needle aspiration cytology of ovarian malignancies.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Pallavi; Dey, Pranab

    2012-11-01

    The Barr body is the inactive X chromosome in a female somatic cell. It is readily identified as plano-convex structure of 2-3 micron in diameter on the periphery of the nuclear membrane. The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of Barr body count in malignant ovarian tumors on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears. In this retrospective study, Barr body was counted in FNAC smears of 20 successive malignant ovarian lesions and expressed as percentage. Mean (±SD) Barr body score was 2.4 ± 2.58. Minimum Barr body count was 1 and maximum was 9. The gross reduction of Barr body in ovarian neoplasms is an interesting cytomorphologic finding.

  12. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of salivary glands: diagnostic pitfalls--revisited.

    PubMed

    Rajwanshi, Arvind; Gupta, Kirti; Gupta, Nalini; Shukla, Rajeev; Srinivasan, Radhika; Nijhawan, Raje; Vasishta, Rakesh

    2006-08-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of salivary gland lesions is a safe, effective diagnostic technique. Several amply illustrated reviews are available in the English literature. The reported diagnostic accuracy varies between 86% to 98%. The sensitivity ranges from 62% to 97.6% and specificity is higher from 94.3% to 100%. In this present study, we have analyzed 172 cases of salivary gland aspirates and the histopathological diagnosis was available in 45 cases. There was discordance in cytological and histopathological diagnosis in nine cases. Five cases had discrepancies in benign versus malignant diagnosis with four cases being false negative. The errors in these FNA diagnoses were due to sampling error, observational error and interpretational error. Therefore, this study illustrates high diagnostic accuracy of FNAC in salivary gland lesions and shows that FNAC offers valuable information that allows the planning of subsequent patient management.

  13. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dey, Pranab; Amir, Thasneem; Jogai, Sanjay; Al Jussar, Aisha

    2005-04-01

    In this article we described the fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of five cases of metastatic transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). There were four cases of metastatic lymph nodes and one case of metastatic skin lesion. All of the TCC cases were primarily in the urinary bladder and were high grade on histopathology (grade 3). Three cases showed bladder muscle involvement and two cases showed superficial TCC at the time of primary diagnosis. FNAC smears showed abundant cellularity. The cells were present in discrete and small syncytial clusters. Nuclear position of the cell was central to eccentric. Many cells showed prominent nucleoli. Cercariform cells (CCs) were noted in four cases. These cells are malignant cells with a nucleated globular body and a unipolar nontapering cytoplasmic process. Two cases showed intranuclear inclusions. Prominent cytoplasmic vacuoles were noted in three cases. In addition, cell cannibalism and attempted pearl formations were noted in two cases.In conclusion, clinical history along with the certain cytological features such as the presence of CCs, cells with eccentric nuclei, and intranuclear inclusions are helpful to diagnose metastatic TCC on FNAC material. PMID:15754372

  14. Fibroma of the tendon sheath: A diagnostic dilemma on fine-needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Nasit, Jitendra G; Dhruva, Gauravi

    2015-01-01

    Fibroma of the tendon sheath (FTS) is an uncommon benign soft tissue tumor (STS) of the tendon sheath. Clinical and radiological features are not distinctive enough to clinch the diagnosis preoperatively. Although histological features are well described, diagnostic cytological features of FTS are still lacking. Till date only two reports describe the fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) findings of FTS. The present case is a 50-year-old female who presented with a slow growing nodule on the right thigh over a period of 2 years. FNAC revealed low cell yield with loose clusters of fibrotic spindle cells and stellate cells intermingled with fibro-collagenous and myxoid matrix. Few cells showed mild degree of nuclear atypia. Necrosis and atypical mitoses were not seen. Cytology findings were suggestive of benign/low-grade fibroblastic or fibromyxoid lesion. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of FTS. This article discusses the diagnostic role of FNAC in FTS with its differential diagnosis PMID:26729987

  15. Fine needle aspiration cytology of chondroblastoma: A report of two cases with brief review of pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Krishnappa, Amita; Shobha, S N; Shankar, S Vijay; Aradhya, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare, giant cell-rich, benign neoplasm of bone. Since the past few decades fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has gained momentum in preoperative diagnosis of bone lesions. At cytology, other giant cell-rich tumors and tumorlike lesions such as aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), giant cell tumor, and chondromyxoid fibroma fall under the differential diagnosis of chondroblastoma. Due to the difference in the treatment protocol and prognosis, preoperative diagnosis is mandatory. We describe the cytomorphology in two cases of chondroblastoma diagnosed at FNAC and confirmed by histopathology. At cytology, the presence of giant cells, chondroid matrix, mononuclear cells with nuclear indentation, and grooving along with glassy, vacuolated cytoplasm are characteristic of chondroblastoma. In addition to this, the presence of chicken wire calcification is a useful clue to the accurate diagnosis of chondroblastoma at FNAC.

  16. Fine needle aspiration cytology of chondroblastoma: A report of two cases with brief review of pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Krishnappa, Amita; Shobha, SN; Shankar, S Vijay; Aradhya, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare, giant cell-rich, benign neoplasm of bone. Since the past few decades fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has gained momentum in preoperative diagnosis of bone lesions. At cytology, other giant cell-rich tumors and tumorlike lesions such as aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), giant cell tumor, and chondromyxoid fibroma fall under the differential diagnosis of chondroblastoma. Due to the difference in the treatment protocol and prognosis, preoperative diagnosis is mandatory. We describe the cytomorphology in two cases of chondroblastoma diagnosed at FNAC and confirmed by histopathology. At cytology, the presence of giant cells, chondroid matrix, mononuclear cells with nuclear indentation, and grooving along with glassy, vacuolated cytoplasm are characteristic of chondroblastoma. In addition to this, the presence of chicken wire calcification is a useful clue to the accurate diagnosis of chondroblastoma at FNAC. PMID:27011442

  17. Fine needle aspiration cytology of chondroblastoma: A report of two cases with brief review of pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Krishnappa, Amita; Shobha, S N; Shankar, S Vijay; Aradhya, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare, giant cell-rich, benign neoplasm of bone. Since the past few decades fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has gained momentum in preoperative diagnosis of bone lesions. At cytology, other giant cell-rich tumors and tumorlike lesions such as aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), giant cell tumor, and chondromyxoid fibroma fall under the differential diagnosis of chondroblastoma. Due to the difference in the treatment protocol and prognosis, preoperative diagnosis is mandatory. We describe the cytomorphology in two cases of chondroblastoma diagnosed at FNAC and confirmed by histopathology. At cytology, the presence of giant cells, chondroid matrix, mononuclear cells with nuclear indentation, and grooving along with glassy, vacuolated cytoplasm are characteristic of chondroblastoma. In addition to this, the presence of chicken wire calcification is a useful clue to the accurate diagnosis of chondroblastoma at FNAC. PMID:27011442

  18. Fine needle aspiration cytology and frozen section in the diagnosis of malignant parotid tumours.

    PubMed

    Fakhry, N; Santini, L; Lagier, A; Dessi, P; Giovanni, A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the value of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and frozen section (FS) in the diagnosis of malignant parotid tumours. One hundred and thirty-eight patients who underwent FNAC and FS of a parotid tumour between 2006 and 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of FNAC and FS were determined using final histological diagnosis as the gold standard. Of the 138 tumours assessed in our study, 30 were malignant and 108 benign. For FNAC, the sensitivity was 73%, specificity 87%, positive predictive value 61%, and negative predictive value 90%. For FS, the sensitivity was 80%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 92%, and negative predictive value 94%. Four false-negative results by FNAC were corrected by FS, and surgery was completed. Two false-positive results were identified by both FNAC and FS. FNAC is an important examination that provides valuable information for the preoperative diagnostic work-up and alerts the surgeon to the possible presence of malignancy. However, FNAC cannot be used alone, and FS has a very important place in the intraoperative management of parotid tumours.

  19. Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of pleomorphic adenomas.

    PubMed

    Verma, Kusum; Kapila, Kusum

    2002-04-01

    This retrospective study was carried out to review the cases diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma in major or minor salivary glands and determine the difficulties encountered on typing this tumour on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Over a 19-year period (1982-2000) 488 pleomorphic adenomas were diagnosed on FNAC from different sites (parotid - 372 cases, submandibular - 95 cases; oral cavity - 21 cases). Histology was available in 232 cases. Twenty-nine cases where a histological diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma was made but the cytological diagnosis was variable were also reviewed. In 216 of the 232 cases a good cytohistological correlation was available. On review only 4 of the 16 cases initially diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma on FNAC where the histology revealed a different tumour were categorized as pleomorphic adenoma, while 3 each were classified as adenoid cystic carcinoma and benign tumour ?type, and 2 each were diagnosed to be muco-epidermoid carcinoma, monomorphic adenoma and acinic cell carcinoma. On review of the FNAC smears from 29 cases where a histological diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma was available while the cytological diagnosis was variable, only 11 (38%) were categorized as pleomorphic adenoma. In the majority of the remaining cases the cytological diagnosis did not alter markedly, 7 of 10 cases where the tumour could not be typed on cytology initially could not be typed even on review. In conclusion, FNAC is an ideal, fairly accurate preoperative procedure for the diagnosis of pleomorphic adenomas. Certain diagnostic problems occur in differentiating pleomorphic adenomas from adenoid cystic carcinoma, monomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma is difficult to identify on FNAC and in our series all 4 such cases on histology were considered benign on cytology. PMID:11952751

  20. Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of pleomorphic adenomas.

    PubMed

    Verma, Kusum; Kapila, Kusum

    2002-04-01

    This retrospective study was carried out to review the cases diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma in major or minor salivary glands and determine the difficulties encountered on typing this tumour on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Over a 19-year period (1982-2000) 488 pleomorphic adenomas were diagnosed on FNAC from different sites (parotid - 372 cases, submandibular - 95 cases; oral cavity - 21 cases). Histology was available in 232 cases. Twenty-nine cases where a histological diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma was made but the cytological diagnosis was variable were also reviewed. In 216 of the 232 cases a good cytohistological correlation was available. On review only 4 of the 16 cases initially diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma on FNAC where the histology revealed a different tumour were categorized as pleomorphic adenoma, while 3 each were classified as adenoid cystic carcinoma and benign tumour ?type, and 2 each were diagnosed to be muco-epidermoid carcinoma, monomorphic adenoma and acinic cell carcinoma. On review of the FNAC smears from 29 cases where a histological diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma was available while the cytological diagnosis was variable, only 11 (38%) were categorized as pleomorphic adenoma. In the majority of the remaining cases the cytological diagnosis did not alter markedly, 7 of 10 cases where the tumour could not be typed on cytology initially could not be typed even on review. In conclusion, FNAC is an ideal, fairly accurate preoperative procedure for the diagnosis of pleomorphic adenomas. Certain diagnostic problems occur in differentiating pleomorphic adenomas from adenoid cystic carcinoma, monomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma is difficult to identify on FNAC and in our series all 4 such cases on histology were considered benign on cytology.

  1. Basal cell adenoma: a diagnostic dilemma on fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nalini; Bal, Amanjit; Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Rajwanshi, Arvind

    2011-12-01

    Basal cell adenoma (BCA) is a rare neoplasm which is one of the basaloid tumors of salivary gland. Basaloid tumors are the most difficult problem in salivary gland fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). There are various benign and malignant tumors such as; cellular pleomorphic adenoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, metastatic basal cell carcinoma, metastatic basaloid squamous carcinoma and small cell carcinoma in differential diagnosis. We present a case of BCA, membranous type in a 39-year-old female with right submandibular swelling misinterpreted as adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) on FNAC.

  2. Chondroid syringoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bipin

    2010-01-01

    Chondroid syringoma is a rare benign skin adnexal tumor of eccrine/apocrine origin affecting commonly the head and neck region. It used to be previously called as mixed tumor of skin because of the presence of both the epithelial and mesenchymal components. There are only few case reports describing the fine needle aspiration cytologic features of chondroid syringoma for diagnosis. We studied a 20-year-old male case from Taplejung district of Nepal came to Otorhinolaryngology out patient department with the complaints of painless, progressively enlarging swelling on the dorsum of nose. On examination, 2.0 x 2.0 cm, firm, non-tender swelling was seen on the right side of dorsum of nose. Overlying skin was normal, and the swelling was fixed to the skin but freely mobile over underlying structure. A clinical diagnosis of dermoid cyst was entertained, and the case was subjected to FNAC. FNA yielded mucoid material which on microscopy showed clusters of round cells with moderate to abundant cytoplasm embedded in chondromyxoid ground substance. The nuclei were monomorphic, centrally to eccentrically located and had fine chromatin. On the basis of these cytologic features, a diagnosis of chondroid syringoma was made. We concluded that Chondroid syringoma may be considered as a rare differential diagnosis in the swelling of head and neck region and the diagnosis can be easily confirmed or ruled out by means of fine needle aspiration cytology.

  3. Study of salivary gland lesions with fine needle aspiration cytology and histopothology along with immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Srabani; Bera, Moumita; Bhattacharya, Pranab Kumar; Chakrabarty, Debasish; Manna, Asim Kumar; Pathak, Swapan; Maiti, Krishnendu

    2010-12-01

    Salivary gland swelling is a common and important problem. Acute and chronic sialadenitis, different benign and malignant neoplasms are the common causes which present with salivary gland swelling. Imaging technique is not so helpful in pre-operative diagnosis; microscopical examination is required for diagnosis. Pre-operative core needle biopsy is hazardous and may damage facial nerve, lead to fistula formation or associated with tumour seeding. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is however virtually risk-free. The study was done to assess the utility of FNAC and its accuracy and pitfalls with respect to histopathology and advantages of immunohistochemistry. The study was done with 40 cases of salivary gland swelling. After clinical examination, FNAC and histopathological examination along with immunohistochemistry was done and the results were correlated. Out of 40 cases, 25 involved the parotid gland, most common age group affected was 20 - 40 years and male: female ratio was 5: 3. Out of 40 cases 37 cases were cytologically and histopathologically correlated and rest 3 cases were different. Among these 3 cases, 2 were adenoid cystic carcinoma which was cytologically diagnosed as benign neoplasm (monomorphic adenoma). One case of Warthin's tumour was cytologically diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma. The sensitivity of this study was found to be 71.43%, specificity 100% and accuracy was 93.10%. This study corroborates well with other studies including immunohistochemical findings. p53 expression was found to be related with nature of the neoplasm. FNAC is an important tool for early diagnosis of salivary gland lesions.

  4. Rosai Dorfman disease diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology in a young man with HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Sall, Abibatou; Touré, Awa Oumar; Ndiaye, Fatou Samba; Sène, Abdoulaye; Sall, Fatimata Bintou; Faye, Blaise Félix; Seck, Moussa; Diop, Saliou

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message RDD (Rosai Dorfman disease) is a rare and benign histiocytic proliferative disorder of unknown etiology. FNAC (Fine-needle aspiration cytology) is a useful and reliable tool for the diagnosis of RDD, and as such, biopsy is avoidable. PMID:26509029

  5. Comparative study of manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC) technique and direct smear technique (conventional) on fine-needle cytology/fine-needle aspiration cytology samples

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Prajkta Suresh; Gadkari, Rasika Uday; Swami, Sunil Y.; Joshi, Anil R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Liquid-based cytology technique enables cells to be suspended in a liquid medium and spread in a monolayer, making better morphological assessment. Automated techniques have been widely used, but limited due to cost and availability. Aim: The aim was to establish manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC) technique on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) material and compare its results with conventional technique. Materials and Methods: In this study, we examined cells trapped in needles hub used for the collection of FNAC samples. 50 cases were examined by the MLBC technique and compared with the conventional FNAC technique. By centrifugation, sediment was obtained and imprint was taken on defined area. Papanicolaou (Pap) and May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG) staining was done. Direct smears and MLBC smears were compared for cellularity, background, cellular preservation, and nuclear preservation. Slides were diagnosed independently by two cytologists with more than 5 years’ experience. Standard error of proportion was used for statistical analysis. Results: Cellularity was low in MLBC as compared with conventional smears, which is expected as remnant material in the needle hub was used. Nuclei overlap to a lesser extent and hemorrhage and necrosis was reduced, so cell morphology can be better studied in the MLBC technique. P value obtained was <0.05. Conclusion: This MLBC technique gives results comparable to the conventional technique with better morphology. In a set up where aspirators are learners, this technique will ensure adequacy due to remnant in needle hub getting processed PMID:25210235

  6. [The "gray zone" in fine needle aspiration cytology of the breast].

    PubMed

    Bak, Mihály; Szabó, Eva; Mándoky, László

    2005-02-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is an essential procedure in the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of the breast. A "gray zone" exists between benign and malignant lesions in FNAC of breast; there an unequivocal diagnosis cannot be reached. Lesions in "gray zone" are categorized as "probably benign with atypia" (C3) and "probably malignant" (C4). Authors compared the cytology with histopathology and clinical follow-up of "gray zone" breast lesions, classified either as C3 or as C4 by FNAC. Amongst the total of 1679 FNACs, 85 (5%) were diagnosed as C3, whereas 101 (6%) were diagnosed as C4. Of the C3 cases, 48 patients underwent surgical biopsy. Histology proved malignancy in 21 (44%) cases, and was benign in 27 (56%) cases. Eighty-five open biopsies were performed out of the C4 cases. The histology was malignant in 76 (89%) cases, and benign in 9 (11%) cases. Lesions belong to "gray zone" should be taken into consideration in the FNAC of the breast and patients must be informed regarding this fact.

  7. Psammoma bodies in fine needle aspiration cytology of the breast: a clinicopathological study of 30 cases.

    PubMed

    Pillai, K Raveendran; Mani, K S; Jayalal, K S; Preethi, T R; Somanathan, Thara; Jayasree, K

    2013-05-01

    Psammoma bodies (PBs) in breast lesions are rare and little is known about the role of these structures in breast pathology. This study has looked in to the diagnostic significance of PBs in fine needle aspiration (FNAC) of breast lesions. Over a 5-year period, FNACs of the breast were done in 4,563 subjects, of which 1,678 were diagnosed to be malignant. On review of all breast aspirates including non-neoplastic lesions, 30 cases showed PBs to be associated with breast carcinoma (BC). Cytological features were correlated with clinical, radiological, histological, and immunohistochemical findings. All 30 aspirates and their corresponding histological sections showed varying number of PBs and nonpsammomatous bodies (NPBs). For comparison, 31 cases of age-matched BC without PBs and NPBs in both aspirates and sections were studied. Statistical analysis using Chi-square test was done to compare BC with and without PBs. BC with PBs was characterized by papillary pattern of malignant cells, mucin in the background, infiltration by macrophages, cellular degeneration, overexpression of estrogen receptor (ER), and progesterone receptor (PR) and moderate positivity (2+) for Her2/neu. Calcium deposition has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of many degenerative diseases; hence the formation of PBs may be relevant in breast oncology. The presence of PBs in FNAC of clinically suspected breast lesions which are cytologically negative for malignancy warrants further histological confirmation. PMID:22144226

  8. [The value of fine needle aspiration cytology in suspected neoplastic salivary gland enlargement].

    PubMed

    Schoengen, A; Binder, T; Krause, H R; Stussak, G; Zeelen, U

    1995-04-01

    Imaging offers little support in the management of salivary gland masses suggestive of a neoplastic lesion. There are also contraindications for a surgical biopsy in many cases. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is not yet widely recognized as a diagnostic tool. To date, 206 FNAC were carried out from 1986 through 1993 on 181 consecutive patients and were reviewed in the present study. Histological confirmation was possible in 174 tests, while 32 were confirmed on clinical follow-up. In sum, 192 samples were sufficient for interpretation, 10 were questionable by our standards and 4 were non-diagnostic. One hundred-seventy-one samples were true-negative, 27 true-positive, 4 false-negative and 4 false-positive. Sensitivity was 87.1% and specificity 97.7%. Out of 141 primary diagnostic procedures in which a final histologic diagnosis was available, FNAC was able to determine histogenesis in 113/124 benign lesions and 9/17 malignant masses. These included 65/67 pleomorphic adenomas and 21/22 adenolymphomas. In 8 cases a diagnosis of "adenoma" was made. Difficulties in interpretation were found in lesions that were mucoepidermoid carcinomas and, in part, adenoid cystic carcinomas. No complications occurred. Provided that there was sufficient experience in performing the aspiration technique and in cytologic interpretation, FNAC was found to be a quick, reliable, low-cost, easy-to-perform method with low risk in the management of nearly all benign and most malignant salivary gland lesions.

  9. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of a primary ectopic meningioma.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Arif; Gokden, Murat; Hanna, Ehab Y

    2002-05-01

    Meningiomas are benign tumors derived from arachnoid cells. Most commonly an intracranial lesion, meningiomas may be found extracranially in various anatomic sites. A 23-yr-old white female presented with left-sided palpable mass located submucosally in the floor of the mouth. CT scan revealed no evidence of mass elsewhere in the head and neck region. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) showed loose and cohesive cellular fragments with lobular growth pattern and uniform round or ovoid cells. The diagnosis of low-grade salivary gland neoplasm, not further classified, was made. The tumor was locally excised. The differential diagnoses of an extracranial meningioma and pleomorphic adenoma were discussed at the frozen section. Based on light microscopic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic (EM) findings, the final diagnosis of an ectopic meningioma was rendered. Ectopic meningiomas may pose a diagnostic challenge to clinicians and cytopathologists. It is easily forgotten in the list of differential diagnosis at an ectopic site. Primary ectopic meningioma in a region containing salivary gland(s) may mimic benign and low-grade malignant salivary gland tumors in FNAC.

  10. Spindle cell lipoma masquerading as lipomatous pleomorphic adenoma: A diagnostic dilemma on fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, S; Nangia, A; Jyotsna, P Lalita; Pujani, M

    2013-01-01

    Spindle cell lipoma is a relatively uncommon benign adipocytic tumor that usually presents in subcutaneous fat of adult men. These are a rare form of lipoma, accounting for 1.5% of all lipomatous tumors, with a low rate of local recurrence and no risk of malignant behavior/dedifferentiation. Although few studies addressing the histological findings of spindle cell lipoma have been described, only a few descriptions of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) findings have been documented in literature. We present a case of a 55-year-old male with a nodular swelling over left cheek (in the parotid region), which due to its location as well as prominent myxoid background prompted us to include the lipomatous salivary gland lesions in differential diagnosis. Our objective is to document and delineate the characteristic cytological features of spindle cell lipoma, which may permit a confident diagnosis on FNAC smears.

  11. Limitations and value of aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M M; Hajdu, S I; Jordan, A G

    1984-03-01

    The successes of aspiration cytology have enhanced its popularity over the past few years. Now the limitations of the technique are becoming apparent. This article reviews the uses and contraindications for the detection of benign and malignant lesions in various body sites.

  12. Küttner's tumor of the submandibular glands: report of five cases with fine-needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Kaba, Sadayuki; Kojima, Masaru; Matsuda, Hazuki; Sugihara, Shiro; Masawa, Nobuhide; Kobayashi, Tadao K; Fukuda, Toshio

    2006-09-01

    Küttner's tumor (KT) is a benign tumor-like lesion of the salivary gland that mimics neoplasm clinically because of presentation as a hard mass. Recently, the histomorphological and immunohistochemical findings of this lesion have been analyzed, and differential diagnostic problems relating to salivary gland lymphoma have been discussed. However, currently there is little information on the cytological findings of those lesions. We present cytological findings from five such cases using fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). FNAC of this lesion may present a diagnostic challenge to the cytologist as lesions share some cytologic features with inflammatory process containing numerous lymphoid cells. Smears obtained from two cases contained moderate to large numbers of lymphoid cells without definite cytological atypia, scattered ductal structures, and acinar cell clusters. The remaining three cases showed low cellularity probably attributable to fibrosis that made it difficult to aspirate the cellular element. FNAC findings of scattered ductal structures surrounded by collagens and infiltrated by a mixed population of lymphoid cells, not specific for KT, are highly suggestive of the diagnosis with the appropriate clinical findings. However, a portion of cytological specimens of KT containing relatively large numbers of lymphoid cells should be differentiated from malignant lymphoma arising from the submandibular gland.

  13. Ultrasound guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration cytology of pancreas: a review of 61 cases.

    PubMed

    Das, D K; Bhambhani, S; Kumar, N; Chachra, K L; Prakash, S; Gupta, R K; Tripathi, R P

    1995-01-01

    The study includes 61 cases which were subjected to ultrasound (US) guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) to find out the utility of this technique in the diagnosis of pancreatic lesions. Age of the patients ranged from 23 to 85 years with a median of 50 years. Male to female ratio was 36:25. One or more clinical diagnoses were offered in 16 and in 9 of these, the disease was related to pancreas. Subsequent to US, the lesions were localized to pancreas in 57 and the nature of pathology in the pancreatic lesion could be diagnosed in 31. By FNAC, 31 cases (50.8%) were diagnosed to have pancreatic malignancy which included adenocarcinoma (23 cases), papillary cystic tumour (1), muco-epidermoid carcinoma (1), acinic cell carcinoma (1), islet cell tumor (1), and non Hodgkin lymphoma (4). FNAC of liver in 2 cases and retroperitoneal lymph node in a case of pancreatic adenocarcinoma revealed metastasis. During follow up, 1 case of non Hodgkin's lymphoma showed CSF involvement. Three cases (4.9%) were suspected to have epithelial malignancy of which one was confirmed as an adenocarcinoma following surgery and histology. Four (6.6%) were benign lesions which included nonspecific inflammation (2 cases), tuberculous pancreatitis (1) and pseudopancreatic cyst (1). The remaining 23 cases (37.7%) had normal or inadequate cytology. Of these, FNAC of liver showed metastasis in 2 cases and one case each were diagnosed as adenocarcinoma and pseudopancreatic cyst respectively following surgery. None of the patients had any complication following FNAC. We recommend US guided FNAC to be routinely used for diagnosis of pancreatic lesion.

  14. Does Tumor Size Influence the Diagnostic Accuracy of Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology for Thyroid Nodules?

    PubMed Central

    Song, KwangSeop

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is diagnostic standard for thyroid nodules. However, the influence of size on FNAC accuracy remains unclear especially in too small or too large thyroid nodules. The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the effect of nodule size on FNAC accuracy. Methods. All consecutive patients who underwent thyroidectomy for nodules in 2010 were enrolled. FNAC results (according to the Bethesda system) were compared to pathological diagnosis. The nodules were categorized into groups A–E on the basis of maximal diameter on ultrasound (≤0.5, >0.5–1, >1-2, >2–4, and >4 cm, resp.). Results. There were 502 cases with 690 nodules. Overall FNAC sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were 95.4%, 98.2%, 99.4%, 86.4%, and 96.0%, respectively. False-negative rates (FNRs) of groups A–E were 3.2%, 5.1%, 1.3%, 13.3%, and 50%, respectively. Accuracy rates of groups A–E were 96.8%, 94.8%, 99%, 94.7%, and 87.5%, respectively. Conclusion. Although accuracy rates of FNAC in thyroid nodules smaller than 0.5 cm are comparable to the other group, thyroid nodules larger than 4 cm with benign cytology carry a higher risk of malignancy, which suggest that those should be considered for intensive follow-up or repeated biopsy.

  15. Fine-needle aspiration cytology in fibromatoses.

    PubMed

    Zaharopoulos, P; Wong, J Y

    1992-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology was performed in seven cases of fibromatosis of variable types with tumorous clinical presentation. These included: four cases of musculoaponeurotic fibromatosis, two in posterior neck muscles, one in anterior neck muscles and one in intercostal muscles; one case of fibromatosis of the breast; and two cases of fibromatosis colli in neonates. In all cases the specimens contained connective tissue with many fibroblast-like cells, lacking features which could indicate a malignant lesion. The findings in these cases indicate that, although by FNA cytology in fibromatoses a specific diagnosis for each pathologic entity may not be easily reached, in the proper clinical setting the cytologic findings can be of sufficient relevance to offset the need for an open tissue biopsy, where there are valid reasons against a surgical intervention.

  16. Scalp Melanoma Diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in a Tertiary Health Center.

    PubMed

    Zarami, A B; Satumari, N A; Ahmed, M

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive malignant skin neoplasms worldwide with more than 20% of world melanoma seen in black Africa and Asia. Late presentation due to ignorance, poverty, and lack of adequate health facility in Nigeria is always the norms. We present this case report because of precision in diagnosis, using fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) to reemphasize that the technique is cheap, cost effective, and quick that can reduce the burden of incisional biopsy before definitive surgery and improve early detection of the disease especially in developing countries. PMID:26664783

  17. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology versus Fine Needle Capillary Sampling in Cytological Diagnosis of Thyroid Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Pinki, Pandey; Alok, Dixit; Ranjan, Aggarwal; Nanak Chand, Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is an established out- patient procedure used in primary diagnosis of palpable thyroid lesions. A modified technique fine needle capillary sampling (FNCS) obviates the need of suction, is less painful, patient friendly and reported to overcome the problem of inadequate and bloody specimens. The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy and quality of FNCS with that of conventional FNAC in the lesions of thyroid. Methods: One hundred patients, presenting between January 2011 to December 2012 at Cytopathology Department of M M Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Mullana, with diffuse and nodular thyroid lesions were enrolled with both the techniques being executed on the patients, beginning with FNA followed by FNCS. The smears were scored using five objective parameters i.e. background blood, cellular material, cellular degeneration, cellular trauma, and retention of appropriate architecture, in a single blind setting by a cyto-pathologist. The results were analyzed using Student’s test for paired data and chi- square analysis. Results: A highly significant differences (P<0.001) in favor of FNCS was observed for the background blood, cellular material and retention of architecture while total score favored FNA for cellular degeneration and degree of cellular trauma. Total scores and average score per case for FNCS was significantly better (P<0.001) than FNA. FNCS technique yielded more diagnostically superior and lesser number of unsatisfactory smears whereas greater number of diagnostically adequate samples was obtained by FNA technique. Conclusion: FNCS offers more number of diagnostically better quality smears. Both techniques could be supplementary on many occasions and substitutive on a few. Combination of the two techniques could offer better diagnostic accuracy. PMID:26516325

  18. Artificial neural network in breast lesions from fine-needle aspiration cytology smear.

    PubMed

    Subbaiah, R M; Dey, Pranab; Nijhawan, Raje

    2014-03-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are applied in engineering and certain medical fields. ANN has immense potential and is rarely been used in breast lesions. In this present study, we attempted to build up a complete robust back propagation ANN model based on cytomorphological data, morphometric data, nuclear densitometric data, and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) of ductal carcinoma and fibroadenomas of breast cases diagnosed on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We selected 52 cases of fibroadenomas and 60 cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast diagnosed on FNAC by two cytologists. Essential cytological data was quantitated by two independent cytologists (SRM, PD). With the help of Image J software, nuclear morphomeric, densitometric, and GLCM features were measured in all the cases on hematoxylin and eosin-stained smears. With the available data, an ANN model was built up with the help of Neurointelligence software. The network was designed as 41-20-1 (41 input nodes, 20 hidden nodes, 1 output node). The network was trained by the online back propagation algorithm and 500 iterations were done. Learning was adjusted after every iteration. ANN model correctly identified all cases of fibroadenomas and infiltrating carcinomas in the test set. This is one of the first successful composite ANN models of breast carcinomas. This basic model can be used to diagnose the gray zone area of the breast lesions on FNAC. We assume that this model may have far-reaching implications in future.

  19. Aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions advantages and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Kamal, M M; Dani, A A; Kotwal, M N; Kherdekar, M S

    1994-07-01

    FNAC of the major salivary glands was performed on 72 patients during a period of two and a half years. In 64 patients samples were satisfactory. The cytologic diagnosis was correlated with histology available in 36 cases. 21 out of 22 benign lesions and 12 out 4 malignant lesions were correctly identified rendering a diagnostic accuracy of 91 percent. The pitfalls of FNAC of salivary gland lesions are reflected by the overall false positive rate of 5.5 percent of false negative rate of 2.7 percent. Diagnostic pitfalls are due to variability of tumor morphology which makes sampling & interpretation difficult. Multiple sampling and increasing experience help to minimize errors.

  20. Fine-needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of non-Hodgkins lymphoma in a resource-challenged environment.

    PubMed

    Alam, Kiran; Jain, Anshu; Maheshwari, Veena; Siddiqui, Farhan Asif; Haider, Nazima; Khan, Arshad Hafiz

    2011-06-01

    To establish the role of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as a diagnostic tool for non-Hodgkins lymphoma in a resource challenged environment. This study was conducted on patients with lymphadenopathy, attending various clinics over a period of 18 months. FNAC of the enlarged lymph nodes was performed and biopsy, special stains and immunohistochemical staining was done in selected cases. Out of the total 275 cases, 42 cases (16%) were primary lymphoproliferative disorders. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma comprised of 32 cases (76.2% of all lymphomas), Hodgkin lymphoma-10 cases and the rest were metastatic carcinoma. The diagnostic accuracy for non-Hodgkin Lymphoma was 93.3%, sensitivity 95.4%, and specificity 87.5%. FNAC is a rapid, safe, easy, and nonexpensive diagnostic technique which can be used for early diagnosis of non-Hodgkins lymphoma. PMID:20857396

  1. [Fine-needle aspiration cytology of tumors of major salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Masuda, M; Shinden, S; Ogata, A; Suzuki, M

    1998-10-01

    Between 1986 and 1997, 124 patients with tumors of major salivary glands (93 parotid tumors, 31 submandibular gland tumors) were assessed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). The 124 cases included 28 cases of primary malignant tumors and 96 cases of benign lesions. The preoperative fine-needle diagnoses were compared with postoperative pathologic findings. Sensitivity for malignancy was 64%, and specificity was 99%. Overall accuracy was 91%, and the predictive value for malignancy was 95%. FNAC allowed determination of histogenesis in 13 (68%) of the 19 cases cytologically diagnosed as malignant, and in 72 (71%) of the 105 cases cytologically diagnosed as benign. The diagnostic accuracy for histologic diagnosis of malignant neoplasms, pleomorphic adenoma, and Warthin's tumor was 46%, 73%, and 82%, respectively. The predictive value for specific histologic diagnosis of malignancy, pleomorphic adenoma, and Warthin's tumor was 100%, 91%, and 100%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy and the predictive value for histologic diagnoses were relatively high (> 70%) for squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, malignant lymphoma, pleomorphic adenoma, and Warthin's tumor. Adenoid cystic carcinoma and low-grade malignancies such as mucoepidermiod carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma were the lesions most frequently misdiagnosed.

  2. Fine needle aspiration cytology of oral and pharyngeal lesions. A study of 45 cases.

    PubMed

    Das, D K; Gulati, A; Bhatt, N C; Mandal, A K; Khan, V A; Bhambhani, S

    1993-01-01

    Forty-five patients with oral or pharyngeal swellings were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the mucosal surface over eight years. The age of the patients ranged from 2 to 85 years. The male:female ratio was 25:20. The common sites of involvement were palate (16 cases), cheek (9), pharynx (7) and tonsillar/peritonsillar area (6). Tongue, maxilla, alveolus and lips were less frequently involved. FNAC played an important role in differentiating inflammatory from neoplastic lesions and also benign from malignant neoplasms. Fifteen cases were cytologically diagnosed as benign neoplasms and included pleomorphic adenoma (11 cases), schwannoma (2), odontogenic tumor (1) and benign neoplasm not otherwise specified (1). Sixteen cases were diagnosed as malignancies. There were seven cases of malignant salivary gland tumors and 6 of squamous cell carcinoma. Two cases were high grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and one was malignant odontogenic tumor. Of the 11 inflammatory or reactive lesions, 4 were found to be harboring Actinomyces. The rate of inadequate sampling was 6.7%. Histopathology reports on excised tissue were available for 10 cases only. Seven of nine cases with adequate cytology (77.88%) showed complete agreement with histology.

  3. Use of Core Needle Biopsy rather than Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology in the Diagnostic Approach of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pagni, Paola; Spunticchia, Flaminia; Barberi, Simona; Caprio, Giuliana; Paglicci, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims In the following study case, we reviewed breast ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (CNB), using Mammotome (vacuum-assisted breast biopsy) and Tru-cut, carried out on palpable and nonpalpable uncertain breast lumps or malignant large lesions to be submitted to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Material and Methods Examinations were conducted during a 4-year period of clinical activity in a highly specialized center, from December 2009 to December 2013, in 712 patients previously subjected to fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Results The results demonstrated that among the 712 breast biopsies, in many cases FNAC was not conclusive, and therefore we proceeded with the echo-guided biopsy, through which we were able to collect sufficient material for the histological examination in order to direct patients to surgery or follow-up. Conclusions CNB is far superior to FNAC, especially in cases of uncertainty, where it is preferable to proceed directly with CNB, which may also determine additional prognostic and predictive markers. Initially FNAC is less expensive, but the actual costs involved tend to be higher for FNAC as it is less accurate and a CNB is often required. In accordance with recent publications, we can confirm the full validity of CNB in the diagnostic approach of breast lesions. PMID:25120471

  4. "A fine needle aspiration cytology in time saves nine" - cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei in a renal transplant patient: Diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Prashant; Agarwal, Shipra; Singh, Geetika; Xess, Immaculata; Bhowmik, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    Infections by dematiaceous fungi are an emerging group of infectious diseases worldwide with a variety of clinical presentations. Though generally localized, they can disseminate in immunocompromised settings, therefore, early diagnosis and prompt therapy can prevent significant morbidity and mortality in these patients. Fungi of genus Exophiala are common causative organisms; however, Exophiala jeanselmei (E. jeanselmei) has not yet been reported from environmental sources in India. We present here the case of a renal transplant recipient who presented with an innocuous lesion on the foot, diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as phaeohyphomycosis, and promptly treated with excision and antifungal therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report from India of E. jeanselmei causing phaeohyphomycosis in a transplant recipient and highlights the role a cytopathologist can play in the timely management of such cases. PMID:27011447

  5. A case of matrix-producing metaplastic carcinoma of the breast exhibiting similarities to pleomorphic adenoma on fine-needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Koda, Kenji; Ishii, Yumie; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Hidetarou

    2015-01-01

    The distinction between matrix-producing metaplastic carcinoma (MPMC) and pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is sometimes unclear in breast pathology, especially on core needle biopsy. Herein, we presented a 66-year-old woman with MPMC of the breast that looked like PA on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). On FNAC, the appearance of abundant myxoid matrix along with cellular clusters composed of monotonous cellular populations looked like salivary PA, which we were familiar with owing to the frequency in routine pathological practice. Thus, the possibility of breast PA, the counterpart of salivary PA, was considered. However, the tumor location was different from where breast PA frequently occurs, i.e. the retroareolar region. Therefore, we eliminated the possibility of breast PA and avoided the erroneous cytological diagnosis. It is should be kept in mind that MPMC can look like PA on FNAC.

  6. Assessment of Hormone Receptor and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Status in Breast Carcinoma Using Thin-Prep Cytology Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology FISH Experience From China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhihui; Yuan, Peng; Guo, Huiqin; Zhao, Linlin; Ying, Jianming; Wang, Mingrong; Zhao, Huan; Pan, Qinjing; Xu, Binghe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) overexpression can be used to predict patient prognosis in breast cancer (BC). Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a reliable predictive marker in invasive breast cancer (IBC). Thin-Prep (TP) specimens are commonly utilized for immunocytochemistry (ICC) in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Thus, we sought to investigate if the incorporation of molecular diagnosis performed on TP-processed specimens is applicable in clinical practice. Hormone receptors (HRs) and HER2 immunocytochemistry was performed on 542 primary breast cancer FNAC specimens using the TP method. One hundred fourteen HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses were performed on HER2 ICC 2+ FNAC specimens and the corresponding tissue samples. HRs results of TP slides and those of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) slides were correlated well for ER (concordance rate = 93.3%, kappa value = 0.85) and PR (concordance rate = 88.6%, kappa value = 0.75). HER2 results for the TP slides and those of the matched FFPE slides also correlated well (concordance rate = 80.0%, kappa value = 0.62). The specificity of HER2 was 97.3%; however, the sensitivity was only 67.1%. Cytological specimens and histological samples showed a strong correlation (concordance rate = 99.1%, kappa value = 0.98) while being used to evaluate HER2 gene amplification. FNAC is a minimally invasive technique that can be used as an alternative method to collect tissue especially in cases where an excisional or core biopsy is difficult to obtain, or when recurrence is present. The results of ICC HRs in FNAC TP specimens may be used instead, but HER2 assessment may not be reliable enough for clinical use. FISH testing is necessary in this setting. PMID:26091472

  7. A Solid Pseudopapillary Tumour of the Head of Pancreas: A Rare Case Report Diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Archana Hemant; Chhadi, Shyam Atmaram; Kumbhalkar, Dinkar T; Raut, Waman K

    2016-01-01

    Solid Pseudopapillary Tumour (SPPT) is a distinctive tumour of low malignant potential with a striking and unexplained predilection for adolescent girls and young women. Hence it is important to distinguish this rare tumour from other pancreatic tumours with similar cytomorphologic features because an accurate preoperative diagnosis is highly desirable since these patients can have long survival with adequate surgery. We report a case of the rare SPPT of the pancreas in a young girl who presented with nonspecific pain in the abdomen. Radiological investigations revealed a solid cystic mass in relation to the uncinate process of pancreas and third part of duodenum. The mass was diagnosed to be a solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of pancreas on ultrasound guided FNAC. Surgical removal of the pancreatic tumour and detailed histologic study confirmed the cytologic diagnosis. We present this case because, to date, there are few case reports on the cytological diagnosis of this tumour, about 60 cases, diagnosed by Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) are reported in the literature. With widespread availability of high-quality imaging systems and a better understanding of its pathology, the number of cases reported in the literature has been steadily increasing in recent years. In our case, the cytological diagnosis was done even before the detailed imaging findings were available, the cytological features of this tumour are highly characteristic and it is possible to differentiate it from other pancreatic tumours with relative ease. PMID:27504299

  8. Combined applications of fine needle aspiration cytology and Flow cytometric immunphenotyping for diagnosis and classification of non Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Pranab; Amir, Thasneem; Al Jassar, Aisha; Al Shemmari, Salem; Jogai, Sanjay; Bhat M, Ganapathi; Al Quallaf, Aisha; Al Shammari, Zahia

    2006-01-01

    Aims and objectives In this present study we have evaluated the feasibility of sub-classification of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) cases according to World Health Organization's (WHO) classification on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) material along with flow cytometric immunotyping (FCI) as an adjunct. Materials and methods In this five years study, only cases suggested or confirmed as NHL by FNAC were selected and FCI was performed with a complete panel of antibodies (CD3, CD2, CD 4, CD5, CD8, CD7, CD10, CD19, CD20, CD23, CD45, κ and λ) by dual color flow cytometry. Both cytologic findings and FCI data were interpreted together to diagnose and sub-classify NHL according to WHO classification. Wherever possible the diagnoses were compared with cytology. Results There were total 48 cases included in this study. The cases were classified on FNAC as predominant small cells (12), mixed small and large cells (5) and large cells (26). In five cases a suggestion of NHL was offered on FNAC material and these cases were labeled as NHL not otherwise specified (NHL-NOS). Flow cytometry could be performed in 45 cases (93.8%) and in rest of the three cases the material was inadequate because of scanty blood mixed aspirate. Light chain restriction was demonstrated in 30 cases out of 40 cases of B-NHL (75%). There were 15 cases each of κ and λ light chain restriction in these 30 cases. With the help of combined FCI and FNAC, it was possible to sub-classify 38 cases of NHL (79%) according to WHO classification. Combined FNAC and FCI data helped to diagnose 9 cases of small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), 2 cases of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), 4 cases of follicular lymphoma (FL), 17 cases of diffuse large B lymphoma (DLBL) and 6 cases of lymphoblastic lymphoma. Histopathology diagnosis was available in 31 cases of NHL out of which there were 14 recurrent and 17 cases of primary NHL. Out of 15 DLBL cases diagnosed on FCI and FNAC, histology confirmed 14 cases and one of these

  9. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the breast. An overview.

    PubMed

    Naylor, B

    1988-01-01

    With the development of the Breast Care Center in the University of Michigan, we experienced over a 4-year period a 1,200% increase in the number of breast aspirates received annually in our cytopathology laboratory. During this period, as newcomers to breast aspiration cytology, we achieved an 81.4% positive diagnosis rate in 161 cases of breast cancer without any false positives. This article reviews our experience with fine-needle aspiration cytology of the breast with particular reference to (a) procurement of specimens, (b) cytopathology of benign lesions, (c) cytopathology of malignant lesions, and (d) advantages of the procedure.

  10. Aggressive Lymphoma in a 14 Year Old Indian Boy, Diagnosed on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Kurpad, Ramkumar; Narayanan, Manoj; Sasikumar, V K; Jadhav, S S

    2014-01-01

    Burkitt’s lymphoma(BL) is a highly aggressive B -cell Lymphoma of childhood with a doubling time of 24 to 48 h. Depending upon the clinical and epidemiological factors it is classified as Epidemic, Sporadic and Immunodeficiency associated Burkitt’s lymphoma. Sporadic Burkitt’s lymphoma has its own characteristics with few differences pertaining to specific geographical location. Here, we present a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with advanced stage disease. On examination he had cervical lymphadenopathy and CNS involvement in the form of nerve palsy.USG revealed multiple well defined solid lesions in liver, both kidneys and pancreas. However, PBS did not show the presence of lymphomatous cells. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of cervical lymph node and liver lesion showed features suggestive of Burkitt’s lymphoma, which was further confirmed on Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. PMID:25478352

  11. Aggressive lymphoma in a 14 year old Indian boy, diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Pathade, Smita C; Kurpad, Ramkumar; Narayanan, Manoj; Sasikumar, V K; Jadhav, S S

    2014-10-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma(BL) is a highly aggressive B -cell Lymphoma of childhood with a doubling time of 24 to 48 h. Depending upon the clinical and epidemiological factors it is classified as Epidemic, Sporadic and Immunodeficiency associated Burkitt's lymphoma. Sporadic Burkitt's lymphoma has its own characteristics with few differences pertaining to specific geographical location. Here, we present a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with advanced stage disease. On examination he had cervical lymphadenopathy and CNS involvement in the form of nerve palsy.USG revealed multiple well defined solid lesions in liver, both kidneys and pancreas. However, PBS did not show the presence of lymphomatous cells. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of cervical lymph node and liver lesion showed features suggestive of Burkitt's lymphoma, which was further confirmed on Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination.

  12. Schwannomas: a pitfall in the diagnosis of pleomorphic adenomas on fine-needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Kapila, Kusum; Mathur, Sandeep; Verma, Kusum

    2002-07-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is being employed with increasing frequency for the preoperative diagnostic workup of salivary gland lesions. Although most cases show morphologic features very characteristic of specific entities, few lesions, both benign and malignant, can cause problems in interpretation. We report four cases initially diagnosed on FNA as spindle-cell tumors, possibly benign nerve sheath tumors (BNST) in the salivary gland region. These cases were later diagnosed on histologic examination as schwannoma (two cases) and as pleomorphic adenoma (two cases). Review of the cytomorphology of these four cases enabled the correct diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma in the two cases misinterpreted as BNST. Benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma. A diligent search for epithelial elements is recommended prior to diagnosing BNST in the head and neck region.

  13. [The utility of aspiration cytology for the distinction of aggressive and non-aggressive papillary carcinoma of the thyroid].

    PubMed

    Caprara, G; Collina, G

    2007-06-01

    Preoperative identification of the aggressive variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) by fine needle aspiration (FNAC) has been suggested and different systems for distinguishing them from classical variant of PTC have been employed, including a point-based cytology grading system as suggested by Damiani et al., that we currently use in our Institution. The aim of this paper is to verify if distinction of PTC in aggressive or nonaggressive variants impacts on surgical treatment. In 7 years, from 1998 to 2005, 13586 cases of FNAC of thyroid have been performed; among them 156 PTC. The cytological material of thirty complete thyroidectomies with histology proven papillary thyroid carcinoma were reviewed. 11/30 cases were correctly stratified into the appropriate low or high-grade category. The cytological grading system was discordant with the final histopathological diagnosis in 9/30 cases while in 10 cases the grade was not assessed. Eight cases were downgraded and therefore the low grade papillary carcinoma diagnosed at cytological level turned to be high grade at histology. When those cases were reviewed, the histology of seven cases diagnosed as tall cell variant of PTC failed to show a percentage of tumour cells higher than 50% and therefore it would be better to diagnose them as classical variant of PTC. One case was under-graded at FNAC. The case that was cytologically upgraded was a follicular variant of PTC in Hashimoto thyroiditis with a focus of tall cells. All patients underwent thyroidectomy or thyroidectomy plus lymphadenectomy and from our results the pre-operative diagnosis did not effect the surgical treatment. No patient died of the disease.

  14. The accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology and flow cytometry in evaluation of nodal and extranodal sites in patients with suspicion of lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Senjug, Petar; Ostović, Karmen Trutin; Miletić, Zorana; Loncarić, Cedna Tomasović; Stoos-Veić, Tajana; Gizdić, Branimir; Kaić, Gordana; Aralica, Gorana; Pejsa, Vlatko; Jaksić, Ozren

    2010-03-01

    Today lymphomas are defined according to a combination of morphology, immunophenotype, genetic features and clinical presentation, so beside the pure cytomorphologic analysis in diagnosis of lymphoma ancillary techniques such as cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry, molecular diagnosis and flow cytometry (FC) are often used. Our goal was to determinate how is information given by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and FC correlated with pathohistologic diagnosis and to evaluate ability to diagnose and subclassify malignant lymphomas by FNAC and FC. This study is a retrospective chart review of patients with suspicion of lymphoma processed at University Hospital Dubrava in Zagreb. After analysis 50 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria for this study (FNAC diagnosis with or without FC and consecutive confirmatory pathohistological diagnosis). When analyzing accuracy of FNAC according to suspicion of lymphoma or NHL and differential diagnosis lymphoma sensitivity was 97.7%, specificity 85.7% and the diagnostic accuracy was 96%. When analyzing accuracy of FNAC according to the subclassification of lymphoma, sensitivity was 74.4%, specificity 85.7% and the diagnostic accuracy 76%. Combined FNAC and FC improved sensitivity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy. Sensitivity was 79.1% and the diagnostic accuracy 80%. We have shown that these methods can distinguish benign lymphadenopaties from lymphomas and also subclassify lymphomas and quickly provide clinicians with that information.

  15. Solitary thyroid metastasis from colon cancer: fine-needle aspiration cytology and molecular biology approach.

    PubMed

    Onorati, M; Uboldi, P; Bianchi, C L; Nicola, M; Corradini, G M; Veronese, S; Fascì, A I; Di Nuovo, F

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid gland is one of the most vascularized organs of the body, nevertheless clinical and surgical series report an incidence of secondary malignancies in this gland of only 3%. Colorectal carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland is not as uncommon as previously believed, infact the number of cases seems to be increased in recent years due to the more frequent use of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) guided by ultrasonography. Although kidney, breast and lung metastases to the thyroid are frequent, metastasis from colon cancer is clinically rare with 52 cases reported in the literature in the last 5 decades and three cases described as solitary thyroid metastasis from the colon cancer without any other visceral metastases. To the best of our knowledge, we report the fourth case of solitary, asymptomatic thyroid metastasis from colon cancer without involvement of other organs. We discuss the importance of FNAC to detect metastatazing process as a compulsory step of the diagnostic and therapeutic management algorithm, combined with a molecular biology approach. A review of the last 5 decades literature, to update the number of cases described to date, is also included. PMID:26946875

  16. Role of fine-needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of major salivary gland tumors: A study with histological and clinical correlation

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Archana; Geethamani, V

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Neoplastic lesions of salivary glands present an interesting subject because of their histologic diversification. Complex features exhibited by them have aroused considerable speculations concerning their histogenesis and continues to hold the interest of clinicians and pathologists. Major salivary glands are superficial and have easy accessibility for fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). These glands are generally not subjected to incisional or core needle biopsy, because of the possible risks of fistula formation and tumor seedling. FNAC diagnosis of major salivary gland neoplasms aids in proper planning of required surgery and avoidance of the same in cases of non-neoplastic lesions. Materials and Methods: Cytological features of major salivary gland tumors diagnosed on FNAC were studied over a period of one and a half years. Cytological and architectural patterns in smears were compared with histopathological features in cases where the specimens were available with a note on the age, sex and presenting complaints. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to find the significance of study parameters. Chi-square/Fisher Exact was used to find the significance of study parameters on categorical scale between two or more groups. P value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: A total of 114 salivary gland FNACs were done, 75 patients were clinically suspected to be neoplasms. The peak incidence was in the third to fourth decade of life with a female preponderance. Parotid was the most commonly affected gland (80%) with pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (10.7%) being the most common benign and malignant tumors respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of FNAC was 97.6%. Warthins tumor was misdiagnosed and was associated with a strong smoking history. Conclusion: Salivary gland neoplasms constitute a small but significant percentage of head and neck tumors. FNAC is inexpensive, quick, and aids in the

  17. [Cytologic diagnosis of salivary gland lesions by fine needle aspiration].

    PubMed

    Fu, X W

    1989-12-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology was used in diagnosis of 504 major and minor salivary gland lesions. In 180 cases with satisfactory specimens, cytologic diagnosis was contrasted with pathohistologic findings. There were 150 benign lesions (including 124 tumors and 26 cases of other lesions) and 30 malignant tumors. The total correspondence rate was 94.5%. The rate of misdiagnosis was 5.5%. Cytologic appearance of various salivary gland tumors is described and the significance of distribution of mucus is discussed. The misdiagnosed cases were mainly in the early stage.

  18. Fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, G; Verma, A K; Sood, N; Khurana, N

    1994-07-01

    247 salivary gland lesions were subjected to fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology; 179 were designated as neoplastic lesions and 68 as non-neoplastic. Based on cytomorphologic features, the neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions were subcategorised. All but 36 of the neoplastic lesions were subjected to histopathologic study. The overall diagnostic accuracy of FNA cytology for neoplastic lesions was 91%. The sensitivity rate for detecting malignant tumours was 87.8% and the specificity 98.0%. There was 100% sensitivity for cytodiagnosis of benign tumours. The high sensitivity and specificity of cytodiagnosis makes FNA cytology a valuable diagnostic modality in the evaluation of salivary gland lesions.

  19. Aspiration cytology of metastatic chordoma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Elliott, E C; McKinney, S; Banks, H; Fulks, R M

    1983-01-01

    A patient with previously diagnosed sacrococcygeal chordoma presented with multiple skin nodules. Cytologic examination of an aspirate from one of these nodules showed syncytial clusters of hyperchromatic cells surrounded by extracellular mucin. The characteristic physaliphorous cells, although present in a biopsy of the primary sacrococcygeal tumor, were not observed in the aspirate or on histopathologic examination of three excised skin metastases. That chordoma metastases may lack physaliphorous cells should be recognized.

  20. Thyroid aspiration cytology: a "cell pattern" approach to interpretation.

    PubMed

    Nayar, R; Frost, A R

    2001-05-01

    The key to the interpretation of thyroid fine needle aspiration is largely dependent on the recognition of various morphologic patterns of epithelial cells, usually follicular cells, and background elements, such as colloid. These morphologic patterns consist of 3 parts: 1) The arrangement of cells with respect to one another, 2) The cytologic features of individual cells, and 3) The presence of background elements. The cellular arrangements generally encountered in fine needle aspiration of the thyroid include the follicular patterns (macro-/normo-follicular and micro-follicular), the papillary pattern, the syncytial pattern, the dispersed cell pattern, and the cystic pattern. This article approaches some of the differential diagnostic challenges encountered while interpreting thyroid aspiration cytology by focusing first on the overall cellular arrangement to generate a differential diagnosis and then narrowing that differential by assessing cellular features of individual cells and the presence of background elements. PMID:11403258

  1. Thyroid aspiration cytology: a "cell pattern" approach to interpretation.

    PubMed

    Nayar, R; Frost, A R

    2001-05-01

    The key to the interpretation of thyroid fine needle aspiration is largely dependent on the recognition of various morphologic patterns of epithelial cells, usually follicular cells, and background elements, such as colloid. These morphologic patterns consist of 3 parts: 1) The arrangement of cells with respect to one another, 2) The cytologic features of individual cells, and 3) The presence of background elements. The cellular arrangements generally encountered in fine needle aspiration of the thyroid include the follicular patterns (macro-/normo-follicular and micro-follicular), the papillary pattern, the syncytial pattern, the dispersed cell pattern, and the cystic pattern. This article approaches some of the differential diagnostic challenges encountered while interpreting thyroid aspiration cytology by focusing first on the overall cellular arrangement to generate a differential diagnosis and then narrowing that differential by assessing cellular features of individual cells and the presence of background elements.

  2. Fine needle aspiration cytology of atypical (C3) and suspicious (C4) categories in the breast and its histopathologic correlation

    PubMed Central

    Arul, P; Masilamani, Suresh; Akshatha, C

    2016-01-01

    Background: In 1996, National Cancer Institute (NCI) proposed five categories for the diagnosis of breast cytology in order to bring a degree of uniformity to the diagnostic reporting. Of these, categories 3 and 4 were sparsely studied. Aims: The present study was undertaken for the evaluation of the fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) categories of C3 and C4 in the breast lump and its histopathological correlation. Materials and Methods: In the retrospective study, a total number of 728 FNACs were categorized according to the NCI; of these, 28 cases of category C3 and 65 cases of category C4 were compared with histopathological diagnoses. Results: On histopathological examination of category C3, 18 (64.3%) cases showed benign lesions and 10 (35.7%) cases showed malignancy and among the C4 category, benign lesions found in nine (13.8%) and malignancy found in 56 (86.2%) cases. There was a significant statistical difference between the number of benign and malignant diagnoses for cytological categories of C3 (64.3%) and C4 (86.2%) (P < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of C4 category in the diagnoses of malignancy were 84.8%, 66.7%, 86.2%, and 64.3%, respectively. Conclusion: FNAC of the breasts is a simple, cost-effective, accurate, quick, and relatively less painful procedure, and it continues to play an integral part in the management of breast lesions. Our study concluded that there was a statistically significant difference between the number of benign and malignant diagnoses for categories of C3 and C4. PMID:27279682

  3. Comparison of FNAC smears, cytospin smears, and cellblocks of transthoracic guided FNAC of suspected lung tumor: A study of 100 cases

    PubMed Central

    Kshatriya, Ankur Singh; Santwani, Pravina M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Transthoracic guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of clinically suspected lung tumors is an increasingly common procedure in diagnosis. Cytospin Smear and Cellblock preparations of available material are helpful in subtyping and confirming the diagnosis, and they can also be used for further studies, i.e., special stain and immunohistochemistry, etc. Aims and Objectives: This research was undertaken to study the technique of guided transthoracic lung FNAC of clinically suspected lung tumors and the establish role of FNAC smears, cytospin smears, and cellblocks in the detection and typing of neoplastic lung lesions and correlation. Materials and Methods: Guided FNAC was taken from 100 cases of clinically suspected lung tumor and FNAC smears, cytospin smears, and cellblocks of aspirated material were studied over a period of 2 years from September 2011 to September 2013. Results: The material adequacies were 80% in FNAC smears, 83% in cytospin smears, and 89% in cellblocks. Additional information supported by cytospin smear and cellblock was 3% and 9%, respectively. Architectural preservation was better in FNAC smears (85%) and cellblocks (73.03%) than that in cytospin smears (31.33%). Morphological preservation was better in FNAC smears (90%) and cellblocks (75.28%) than that in cytospin smears (14.46%). Diagnostic accuracy was increased in the cellblocks and cytospin smears. Conclusion: Cytospin smear was helpful when low cellular material was obtained, and the concomitant examination of cellblocks not only confirmed the diagnosis of malignancy but also helped in classifying the obtained material and allowed further study on the same.

  4. Fine-needle aspiration study of cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma: Rare cytological findings

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Maral; Kumar, Perikala Vijayananda; Hayati, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma (CPTC) is a variant of papillary carcinoma that has many mimickers in cytological grounds. Aim: To study the cytomorphologic features of CPTC and compare them to those of other cystic thyroid lesions using fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We also aimed to identify the cytomorphologic features that distinguish CPTC from other cystic thyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: Seventy-three cases of CPTC were included in the study. The cytomorphologic features of these cases were analyzed. The FNA smears of other thyroid lesions with cystic changes (300 colloid goiters, 290 adenomatoid nodules, 11 follicular neoplasms, and 9 hurtle cell neoplasm) were also studied. Results: The smears in CPTC revealed isolated follicular cells, small groups of cells with scalloped margins, cell swirls, small clusters with a cartwheel pattern, papillary clusters, intranuclear inclusions, nuclear grooves, sticky colloid, intracellular colloids, psammoma bodies, multinucleated giant cells, and foamy and hemosiderin laden macrophages. Small groups of cells with scalloped borders, cellular swirls, and small clusters with a cartwheel pattern were seen in CPTC, but not in other cystic lesions. Interestingly, mesothelial-like cells and hemophagocytic cells were seen in five and three cases of CPTC, respectively, but not in other cystic lesions. Conclusion: Mesothelial-like cells and hemophagocytic cells were observed in five and three cases of CPTC, respectively. Similar finding have not been previously reported in the literature.

  5. Aspiration biopsy cytology of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Kline, T S; Merriam, J M; Shapshay, S M

    1981-09-01

    Aspiration biopsy by fine needle from the major salivary glands has been an under-utilized technic in the United States. To evaluate this form of biopsy, 69 patients with salivary gland enlargement were examined by this technic; 47 had confirmative histology. Characteristic ABC patterns were seen in the benign mixed tumor, the papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum, the mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and malignancy metastatic to the salivary gland. These findings are described. The method proved complication-free and accurate and is recommended for all tumors of the salivary gland.

  6. Study of benign superficial cysts by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Roy, M; Bhattacharyya, A; Sanyal, S; Dasgupta, S

    1995-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology of 213 cases of different cystic lesions from various regions of body and different superficial organs was analysed in an attempt to present the experience of the authors in the diagnosis of such lesions. The predominant lesion diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology was adnexal cyst/sebaceous cyst (41 cases) followed by vascular hamartoma (40 cases) and thyroglossal cyst (9 cases). One hundred fifty-eight (74.2%) out 213 cases were confirmed histopathologically. There was false negative diagnosis in 14 cases (6.6%). The remaining 41 (19.2%) cases did not turn up for further treatment. The fallacies that have been recorded in the diagnosis of thyroid cysts, salivary gland cysts and breast cysts in respect of papillary cystic thyroid carcinoma, muco-epidermoid carcinoma of salivary gland and intraductal carcinoma with fibrocystic disease of breast respectively have been highlighted in the present study.

  7. Fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology of major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Qizilbash, A H; Sianos, J; Young, J E; Archibald, S D

    1985-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the major salivary glands was performed on 160 patients. In 146 patients with satisfactory samples, the cytologic diagnosis was correlated with clinical follow-up and histologic findings. There were 122 benign lesions, including 47 tumors. There were 24 malignant lesions, 10 of which were primary and 14 metastatic. The overall accuracy was 98%. The sensitivity of the technique was 87.5%. There was no false-positive diagnosis. There were three false-negative diagnoses due to sampling errors and inexperience during the initial period of the study. This study documents that needle aspiration biopsy cytology of the salivary glands is accurate, simple, rapid, inexpensive, well tolerated and harmless to the patient.

  8. Fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Young, J A; Smallman, L A; Thompson, H; Proops, D W; Johnson, A P

    1990-01-01

    Eighty-eight fine needle aspirates from 79 salivary gland lesions in 77 patients were examined. The overall diagnostic sensitivity was 84% and the specificity 98.41%. When the 14 unsatisfactory specimens were excluded the sensitivity rose to 95.45%. Correct identification of the disease process was possible in nearly 80% of cases with a final benign diagnosis. The histological tumour type was correctly predicted in 75% of the malignancies. In the others the cytological diagnosis was anaplastic malignant neoplasm.

  9. “A fine needle aspiration cytology in time saves nine” — cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei in a renal transplant patient: Diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Prashant; Agarwal, Shipra; Singh, Geetika; Xess, Immaculata; Bhowmik, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    Infections by dematiaceous fungi are an emerging group of infectious diseases worldwide with a variety of clinical presentations. Though generally localized, they can disseminate in immunocompromised settings, therefore, early diagnosis and prompt therapy can prevent significant morbidity and mortality in these patients. Fungi of genus Exophiala are common causative organisms; however, Exophiala jeanselmei (E. jeanselmei) has not yet been reported from environmental sources in India. We present here the case of a renal transplant recipient who presented with an innocuous lesion on the foot, diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as phaeohyphomycosis, and promptly treated with excision and antifungal therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report from India of E. jeanselmei causing phaeohyphomycosis in a transplant recipient and highlights the role a cytopathologist can play in the timely management of such cases. PMID:27011447

  10. [The immediate interpretation for fine-needle aspiration cytology].

    PubMed

    Chang, M C; Ho, W L

    1993-11-01

    From December 1990 to November 1992, 2005 cases of immediate interpretation for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology were performed, of which 727 cases were confirmed by surgical pathology. A mobile cytologic laboratory (a cart loaded with a dual viewing microscope, Liu's staining solutions, hair dryer, and slides) can be moved to the Out-patient Department, wards and Computed Tomography room, where clinicians perform aspiration and pathologists read smears. Immediate verbal diagnoses are documented to patients' charts and listed in cytopathologic files. Immediate interpretation in this entire series yielded a sensitivity 92.5%; specificity, 98.1%; false-positive rate, 1.1%; false-negative rate, 3.2%; positive predictive value (PV), 97.3%; negative PV, 94.7% and efficiency, 95.7%. The cause of false-negative results in the 23 cases probably came from the hesitation in making an immediate diagnosis. Most of these cases were malignant lymphoma or breast carcinoma. The roles of immediate cytodiagnosis are (1) to decrease the inadequate rate of FNA specimens; (2) to render preliminary diagnosis for clinicians to make decisions; (3) to provide on-site teaching material for both clinicians and pathology residents to better understand clinicopathological correlations; (4) to act as the initial diagnostic procedure in the evaluation of a superficial palpable mass. This study shows that immediate interpretation for FNA cytology is a simple, rapid, accurate and noninvasive diagnostic procedure that can be routinely used for superficial palpable masses.

  11. Is ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of adequate value in detecting breast cancer patients with three or more positive axillary lymph nodes?

    PubMed

    Kramer, G M; Leenders, M W H; Schijf, L J; Go, H L S; van der Ploeg, T; van den Tol, M P; Schreurs, W H

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of the sonographically most suspicious axillary lymph node (US/FNAC) to select early breast cancer patients with three or more tumour-positive axillary lymph nodes. Between 2004 and 2014, a total of 2130 patients with histologically proven early breast cancer were evaluated and treated in the Noordwest Clinics Alkmaar. US/FNAC was performed preoperatively in all these patients. We analysed the results of US/FNAC retrospectively. Pathological axillary node status (sentinel node biopsy and/or axillary lymph node dissection) was used as reference standard. A total of 634 (29.8 %) of 2130 patients had axillary lymph node metastases on final histology. 248 node positive patients (11.6 %) had three or more positive lymph nodes. The accuracy of US/FNAC to detect three or more positive lymph nodes was 89.8 %, sensitivity was 44.8 %, specificity was 95.7 %, PPV was 58.1 %, and NPV was 92.9 %. This study shows a more than adequate accuracy of preoperative US/FNAC to detect three or more positive lymph nodes (89.8 %). However, when US/FNAC was chosen as the only axillary staging method, 6.4 % of all patients (false negative group) would have been undertreated and 3.8 % of all patients (false positive group) would have been overtreated according to the ACOSOG Z0011 criteria. PMID:26995283

  12. Is there still a role for thyroid scintigraphy in the workup of a thyroid nodule in the era of fine needle aspiration cytology and molecular testing?

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Kyrilli, Aglaia; Lytrivi, Maria; Bourmorck, Carole; Chami, Rayan; Corvilain, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy is now rarely used in the work-up of a thyroid nodule except in the presence of a low TSH value. Therefore, autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs) with a normal TSH value are diagnosed only in the rare medical centers that continue to use thyroid scan systematically in the presence of a thyroid nodule. In this review, we discuss the prevalence of AFTN with a normal TSH level and the possible consequences of performing fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in an undiagnosed AFTN. We also discuss the risk of malignant AFTN which may be higher than previously stated. PMID:27158470

  13. Adenomatoid tumor of testis: A rare cytological diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Makkar, M; Dayal, P; Gupta, C; Mahajan, NC

    2013-01-01

    Adenomatoid tumor is a benign neoplasm of the male and female genital tracts arising from mesothelial cells. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) plays a pivotal role in its preoperative diagnosis. Therefore, it is imperative that pathologists should be well aware of its cytological features so as to avoid erroneous diagnosis and hence prevent unnecessary surgical interventions. We hereby, present a case of adenomatoid tumor of testis in a 41 year male diagnosed by FNAC and later confirmed by histopathological examination. PMID:23661947

  14. Maxillary odontogenic myxoma: a diagnostic pitfall on aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeta; Jain, Shyama; Gupta, Sunita

    2002-08-01

    A painless, slow-growing cheek swelling in a young male clinically considered a salivary gland mass was aspirated. Cytology smears were hypocellular. The striking feature was abundant myxoid material with a few monomorphic oval cells, interpreted as myxoid variant of pleomorphic adenoma. Subsequent CT scan was suggestive of a malignant tumor but biopsy confirmed it as myxoma. Myxoma of the jaw is a rare benign tumor that has a tendency for bone destruction, invasion into surrounding structures, and a relatively high recurrence rate. Maxillary myxoma is less frequent but behaves more aggressively than in the mandible, as it spreads through the maxillary sinus. Cytologically, it should be differentiated from other tumors showing predominant myxoid change. Awareness of potential diagnostic pitfalls and careful evaluation of clinical and radiological data is necessary to narrow the differential diagnosis.

  15. Fine needle aspiration cytology: utilization in pediatric pathology.

    PubMed

    Layfield, L J; Reichman, A

    1990-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration can serve as the initial diagnostic modality for a wide variety of lesions within the pediatric age group. The utility of the technique depends on the clinical setting and histologic type of tumor under study. FNA is most valuable for staging and conformation of metastatic spread in small round cell malignancies. The use of aspiration cytology as the initial diagnostic procedure for these neoplasms is more controversial since this technique may deprive the clinician of valuable information (histologic subtype, oncogene status) now available only by examination of large tissue biopsies. Similarly, FNA can serve as a triage technique for the separation of patients harboring thyroid nodules or enlarged lymph nodes into operative candidates and non-operative candidates. As cytopathologists become more familiar with the appearance of pediatric neoplasms, this diagnostic technique will become more widely used, reducing the need for operative intervention in the diagnosis of many benign and reactive lesions.

  16. Aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of head and neck masses: the early Christchurch experience.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, D S; Allison, R S; Robertson, M S; Hamer, J W

    1989-12-13

    Fine needle aspiration cytology has been performed on patients presenting with head and neck masses in Christchurch since mid-1985. The results of an initial 120 aspirations were reviewed. Histology was available to compare with the cytology result in 58% of cases. Clinical review was used to assess the accuracy of the cytology result in the remaining cases. The majority of the masses aspirated were of benign origin (72%). The cytological diagnosis was accurate in 79% of cases. Of the remaining aspirates, 13% were inaccurate and 8% nondiagnostic. The sensitivity for malignant lesions was 100%, with 86% specificity (for benign lesions). Particular diagnostic difficulty was found in the differentiation between some salivary gland tumours, and the assessment of aspirates from neck masses after combined therapy (radiotherapy and surgery). Fine needle aspiration cytology is of considerable value in the management of head and neck masses.

  17. Next-generation sequencing for molecular diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma specimens obtained by fine needle aspiration cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian; Guo, Huiqin; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Luhua; Zhang, Zhihui

    2015-06-01

    Identification of multi-gene variations has led to the development of new targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and identification of an appropriate patient population with a reliable screening method is the key to the overall success of tumor targeted therapies. In this study, we used the Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique to screen for mutations in 89 cases of lung adenocarcinoma metastatic lymph node specimens obtained by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Of the 89 specimens, 30 (34%) were found to harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain mutations. Seven (8%) samples harbored KRAS mutations, and three (3%) samples had BRAF mutations involving exon 11 (G469A) and exon 15 (V600E). Eight (9%) samples harbored PIK3CA mutations. One (1%) sample had a HRAS G12C mutation. Thirty-two (36%) samples (36%) harbored TP53 mutations. Other genes including APC, ATM, MET, PTPN11, GNAS, HRAS, RB1, SMAD4 and STK11 were found each in one case. Our study has demonstrated that NGS using the Ion Torrent technology is a useful tool for gene mutation screening in lung adenocarcinoma metastatic lymph node specimens obtained by FNAC, and may promote the development of new targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

  18. Can we confidently diagnose pilomatricoma with fine needle aspiration cytology?

    PubMed

    Wong, Yin-Ping; Masir, Noraidah; Sharifah, Noor Akmal

    2015-01-01

    Pilomatricomas can be confidently diagnosed cytologically due to their characteristic cytomorphological features. However, these lesions are rarely encountered by cytopathologists and thus pose a diagnostic dilemma to even experienced individuals, especially when the lesions are focally sampled. We describe two cases of histologically confirmed pilomatricoma. The first case is of a 13-year-old boy with posterior cervical 'lymphadenopathy', and the second one is of a 12-year-old girl with a lower cheek swelling. Both aspirates comprised predominantly atypical basal-like cells, with prominent nucleoli. 'Ghost cells' were readily identified by cell block in case two, but cell block in case one yielded no diagnostic material. In case two, pilomatricoma was accurately diagnosed pre-operatively. A cytological suspicion of a neoplastic process was raised in case one. Despite being diagnostically challenging, pilomatricoma can be diagnosed with careful observation of two unique cytological features of the lesions: (1) pathognomonic 'ghost cells' and (2) irregular, saw-toothed, loosely cohesive basaloid cells, with prominent nucleoli. The role of thorough sampling of the lesion, with multiple passes of various sites, cannot be overemphasized. PMID:25892955

  19. Can We Confidently Diagnose Pilomatricoma with Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology?

    PubMed Central

    WONG, Yin-Ping; MASIR, Noraidah; SHARIFAH, Noor Akmal

    2015-01-01

    Pilomatricomas can be confidently diagnosed cytologically due to their characteristic cytomorphological features. However, these lesions are rarely encountered by cytopathologists and thus pose a diagnostic dilemma to even experienced individuals, especially when the lesions are focally sampled. We describe two cases of histologically confirmed pilomatricoma. The first case is of a 13-year-old boy with posterior cervical ‘lymphadenopathy’, and the second one is of a 12-year-old girl with a lower cheek swelling. Both aspirates comprised predominantly atypical basal-like cells, with prominent nucleoli. ‘Ghost cells’ were readily identified by cell block in case two, but cell block in case one yielded no diagnostic material. In case two, pilomatricoma was accurately diagnosed pre-operatively. A cytological suspicion of a neoplastic process was raised in case one. Despite being diagnostically challenging, pilomatricoma can be diagnosed with careful observation of two unique cytological features of the lesions: (1) pathognomonic ‘ghost cells’ and (2) irregular, saw-toothed, loosely cohesive basaloid cells, with prominent nucleoli. The role of thorough sampling of the lesion, with multiple passes of various sites, cannot be overemphasized. PMID:25892955

  20. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Viguer, José M; Jiménez-Heffernan, José A; López-Ferrer, Pilar; Banaclocha, Marcos; Vicandi, Blanca

    2005-04-01

    Cytological features of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were reviewed in an attempt to select cytological criteria that permit a specific recognition of metastases. For this purpose, 54 fine-needle aspiration (FNA) procedures from 43 patients with NPC were analyzed. Thirty-two (59.3%) procedures were performed before the histological diagnosis. In 25 (46.3%) procedures, smears showed many neoplastic single cells, clusters, and abundant lymphoid cells (mixed pattern). A dissociated (single cell) pattern consisting of individual neoplastic and lymphoid cells was seen in 18 (33.3%) cases. Finally, 11 (20.4%) cases showed cohesive epithelial clusters (cohesive pattern) without relevant cellular dissociation or lymphoid cells. Squamous-cell differentiation was seen in three of these cases. Most single neoplastic cells presented as large, pleomorphic naked nuclei. Other interesting findings were granulomas (n = 3), prominent eosinophilic infiltrates (n = 4), and suppurative changes (n = 5). In most smears with mixed and dissociated patterns, a nasopharyngeal origin could be suggested. On the contrary, those smears with a cohesive pattern were indistinguishable from other head and neck carcinomas. The presence (on cervical lymph nodes) of a dissociated or mixed (single cells and groups) architectural pattern of large, anaplastic cells and naked nuclei accompanied by an abundant lymphoid component is highly suggestive of undifferentiated NPC. Cytology offers a rapid diagnosis, establishes the necessity of a complete cavum examination, and helps in avoiding unnecessary and harmful biopsies. PMID:15754369

  1. Diagnostic challenges in aspiration cytology of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Schindler, S; Nayar, R; Dutra, J; Bedrossian, C W

    2001-05-01

    The main goal of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of salivary gland lesions is to assist the clinician in the management of patients who present with a mass lesion. Cytologic examination aims to determine, if a process is inflammatory and/or reactive, benign or malignant neoplasm and if possible renders a specific diagnosis. It has been argued that in the area of salivary gland tumors, surgical management relies less heavily on a specific preoperative diagnosis, because almost all neoplastic salivary gland lesions will undergo surgical excision. However, knowing beforehand if a lesion is malignant or benign, will aid in planning surgery and may prompt or postpone decisions for surgical intervention. The salivary glands are unique in their histologic complexity and morphological variability of tumors, which is reflected in the cytologic material. In addition to the overlapping morphologic patterns of salivary gland tumors, they also represent relatively rare lesions, thus making it more difficult to acquire diagnostic expertise in FNA. Other than approaching salivary gland tumors by a description of single entities in their benign and malignant categories, we favor a more practical approach to diagnosis based on the key morphologic features noted in FNAs. This article addresses differential diagnoses according to the predominant cytologic presentation with attention to the cell type and size, nature of the cytoplasm, and the smear background.

  2. Can we confidently diagnose pilomatricoma with fine needle aspiration cytology?

    PubMed

    Wong, Yin-Ping; Masir, Noraidah; Sharifah, Noor Akmal

    2015-01-01

    Pilomatricomas can be confidently diagnosed cytologically due to their characteristic cytomorphological features. However, these lesions are rarely encountered by cytopathologists and thus pose a diagnostic dilemma to even experienced individuals, especially when the lesions are focally sampled. We describe two cases of histologically confirmed pilomatricoma. The first case is of a 13-year-old boy with posterior cervical 'lymphadenopathy', and the second one is of a 12-year-old girl with a lower cheek swelling. Both aspirates comprised predominantly atypical basal-like cells, with prominent nucleoli. 'Ghost cells' were readily identified by cell block in case two, but cell block in case one yielded no diagnostic material. In case two, pilomatricoma was accurately diagnosed pre-operatively. A cytological suspicion of a neoplastic process was raised in case one. Despite being diagnostically challenging, pilomatricoma can be diagnosed with careful observation of two unique cytological features of the lesions: (1) pathognomonic 'ghost cells' and (2) irregular, saw-toothed, loosely cohesive basaloid cells, with prominent nucleoli. The role of thorough sampling of the lesion, with multiple passes of various sites, cannot be overemphasized.

  3. Fine needle aspiration cytologic findings in a benign lymphoepithelial lesion with microcalcifications. A case report.

    PubMed

    Günhan, O; Celasun, B; Doğan, N; Onder, T; Pabuşçu, Y; Finci, R

    1992-01-01

    Aspiration cytologic findings in a case of benign lymphoepithelial lesion (BLL) of the parotid gland are presented. The aspirate contained a polymorphous lymphoid population, histiocytes, myoepithelial and ductal epithelial cells and numerous bluish, calcified bodies. A cytologic diagnosis of benign nonneoplastic lesion, consistent with chronic sialadenitis and microlithiasis, was made. The clinical impression of neoplasia was inconsistent with the cytologic findings. Subsequent histologic examination showed classic BLL with microcalcifications as an unexpected feature. The value and limitations of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of nonneoplastic salivary gland lesions and the differential diagnosis of BLL are discussed.

  4. Routine audit of breast fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology specimens and aspirator inadequate rates.

    PubMed

    Snead, D R; Vryenhoef, P; Pinder, S E; Evans, A; Wilson, A R; Blamey, R W; Elston, C W; Ellis, I O

    1997-08-01

    In an attempt to improve the quality of the breast FNA specimens we instigated a continuing audit of this procedure in this hospital. All FNAs since 1990 have had the following recorded: mode of aspiration, e.g. freehand or image guided, patient presentation (screening or symptomatic), patient diagnostic category, cytological diagnosis and final histological diagnosis. Aspirator performance was assessed by means of the inadequate aspiration rate (IR) of FNAs performed on patients with a final diagnosis of cancer (FDC) and diagnostic category A patients (clinically or radiologically malignant lesions). An ongoing annual review of the performance of all the aspirators was undertaken, all of whom received individual feedback. Counselling and further training were offered where indicated by poor performance. Over the period 1990-1995 a total of 13537 FNAs were performed by 27 aspirators. The IR on category A and FDC cases over this period was 16.0% and 18.1%. The best performance achieved by an aspirator in a calendar year was an IR of 3.6% with no inadequate specimens in either FDC or category A lesions, and the best performance over the entire period was an average IR of 11.75% and 14.25% for FDC and category A groups, respectively. The overall IR on category A patients ranged from 15.9% to 23.8% and on FDC cases from 12.2% to 21.7%. There was a significant improvement in individual junior aspirator performance when their first year was compared with their last year on the unit. In some cases a deterioration in intra-aspirator performance was observed, from an IR of 6% to 33%. The overall IR rate of the unit remained stable for FDC patients, 15.5% in 1990 compared with 15.1% in 1995. This appeared to be largely due to a high proportion of the aspirations being performed by experienced personnel with consistent IRs. However, concealed within the overall rate there were some poor performers who benefited from counselling and/or further training. These results indicate

  5. A comparative study between fine needle aspiration cytology findings and histopathological report of major salivary gland neoplasm in a tertiary hospital of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Huq, A H M Z; Aktaruzzaman, M; Habib, M A; Islam, M S; Amin, A S A

    2013-08-01

    Salivary gland tumours are relatively uncommon and most of the tumours arise from parotid gland. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is advised preoperatively as diagnostic tool but sometimes found to shown both false positive and false negative results. This study was aimed to find out distribution of neoplasm of major salivary glands and also to explore the sensitivity and specificity of FNAC. The present cross sectional study was done in the Dept. of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, BSMMU from January 2007 to December 2008. A total number of 60 gender-matched patients with major salivary neoplasm, confirmed by FNAC, were recruited in the study. Operated salivary gland specimens were sent for histopathological examination, histopathological findings were compared. Overall male to female ratio was 1:1. Out of 60 cases, 47 (78.3%) patients had parotid and 13 (21.7%) patients submandibular gland neoplasm. Male to female ratio for parotid tumour was 1:1.1 and for submandibular 1.6:1. Mean age of the patients was 44.5 with range of 14-85 years. Of the total 60 cases 47 (78.3%) were benign and 13 (21.7%) malignant. Out of 47 parotid tumour 85.1% were benign and 14.9% malignant. Among the parotid tumour 97% were superficial lobe and 3.0% deep lobe. In case of submandibular gland 53.84% were benign and 46.15% tumour malignant. According to the sides of involvement, 25 (53.2%) cases of parotid neoplasm tumour were in the left and 22 (46.8%) the right. In submandibular gland the distribution was 7 (53.8%) and 6 (46.16%) respectively. Statistically incidence of parotid tumour was significantly higher than submandibular tumour (p < 0.05). Out of 60 cases in 56 (93.3%) preoperative FNAC and postoperative histopathological findings were same. There was 1.7% false positive and 5% were false negative results. Sensitivity, specificity of FNAC were 80% and 97.8% respectively. Positive predictive value was 92.3% and negative predictive 93.6% for FNAC.FNAC though cheap and

  6. Salivary gland anlage tumor: cytologic features in a case examined by fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Bondeson, L; Andreasson, L; Olsson, M; Rausing, A

    1997-06-01

    The cytologic features in fine-needle aspirates from a rare benign nasopharyngeal salivary gland anlage tumor in a newborn boy are described and commented on, regarding therapeutically important differential diagnoses.

  7. Fine needle aspiration cytology in the management of head and neck masses.

    PubMed

    Slack, R W; Croft, C B; Crome, L P

    1985-04-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology is a useful technique in the management of patients with masses in the head and neck, which is usually performed in co-operation with a specialized cytopathologist. It has not until recently been an investigation used frequently by British otolaryngologists. This study shows that an aspiration cytology service may be run with the aid of a general histopathologist and demonstrates that it is a valuable aid to diagnosis even without the services of a specialized cytopathologist. PMID:4028473

  8. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of terminal duct carcinoma of minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Frierson, H F; Covell, J L; Mills, S E

    1987-06-01

    The cytologic features of terminal duct carcinoma of the palate, as observed in a fine-needle aspiration specimen, are described and contrasted with the cytologic features reported for benign mixed tumor, basal-cell adenoma, and adenoid cystic carcinoma. Terminal duct carcinoma, at times, may be difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish from adenoid cystic carcinoma in fine-needle aspiration specimens. In most instances, this distinction may not be important.

  9. Subcutaneous Rhinosporidiosis Masquerading as Soft Tissue Tumor: Diagnosed by Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Kishan Prasad, HL; Rao, Chandrika; Girisha, BS; Shetty, Vikram; Permi, Harish S; Jayakumar, Meera; Kiran, HS

    2015-01-01

    Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous lesion caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi. It frequently involves nasopharynx and ocular region. Presenting as cutaneous and subcutaneous mass is extremely rare. This report describes the FNA cytology of rhinosporidiosis occurring as a soft tissue mass in the right mid thigh region. We present a rare case of a 71-year-old male, who presented with multiple subcutaneous soft tissue mass lesions in the posteromedial aspect of mid right thigh region since 2 weeks. Local examination revealed multiple firm to hard mass with skin over the swelling was unremarkable. CT of the right thigh showed a heterogeneous lesion with infiltrative margins in the thigh. Clinically soft tissue sarcoma was considered. Diagnostic FNAC was performed showing numerous mature and immature sporangias with giant cell reaction. Hence, an excision biopsy confirmed the rhinosporidiosis. To conclude, the FNAC diagnosis of rhinosporidiosis is specific. Preoperative diagnosis is possible even in cases with unusual clinical presentations. PMID:25814750

  10. Use of supravital toluidine blue staining to improve the efficiency of fine-needle aspiration cytology reporting in comparison to papanicolaou stain

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Kanwal; Niazi, Shahida; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain; Imam, Sardar Fakhar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To see the efficiency, adequacy and accuracy of toluidine blue stained smears of FNAC of Breast thyroid and salivary glands swelling with comparison to conventional stained FNAC smears with Papanicolaou. Methods: A total of 114 aspirates from various sites were included in the study. The smears were stained with toluidine blue and conventional Papanicolaou stain and the cytomorphology of both the smears were compared. The values were tabulated and statistical tests of significance was applied. Results: Of the 114 aspirates included in our study the diagnostic accuracy by using papanicolaou was 78%, while it was upto 100% with supravital toluidine blue stained smears. The percentage of inadequacy was reduced to just 25%. The observations were statistically significant. Breast 37/48 (77%) and Salivary glands 11/48 (23%) respectively. The most commonly used categorization of a five-tier system was used for reporting of breast cytology, with categories ranging from insufficient materials (C1), benign (C2), atypical (C3), suspicious of malignancy (C4), or (C5) frankly malignant. Most of breast lesions were benign 25 (67.56%). There were only 9 (24.32%) malignant cases followed by 2 cases of C-4 and one case of C-3. Benign thyroid lesion were more frequent comprising of 51 (72.27%) cases. One case (1.5%) of papillary carcinoma was found while 13 case were follicular lesions. There were 4 (36.4%) cases of pleomorphic adenoma and 3 (27.3) cases of non-specific sialadenitis. There was one case (9%) of each lesion for mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoidcytic carcinoma and benign cyst. Conclusion: Toluidine blue stained study of FNAC improves the diagnostic accuracy by minimizing the smearing and drying artifact, loss of cell sample during fixation and staining which influences the diagnostic accuracy. PMID:26649003

  11. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of chondroid syringoma of fore arm: Report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    Pal, Subrata; Sengupta, Sanjay; Jana, Sritanu; Bose, Kingshuk

    2014-07-01

    Chondroid syringoma is a rare benign adnexal tumor of sweat glands with microscopic resemblance to the salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma. Cytology is rarely utilized for preoperative assessment of these slow-growing, small, nodular lesions. Definitive cytological diagnosis is also quite difficult, and majority of the aspirates are evaluated as benign adnexal tumors leading to mandatory histopathological examination for pinpoint diagnosis. Here, we report a case of chondroid syringoma of forearm, which was diagnosed by cytology and also confirmed after histopathological examination. Pinpoint cytological diagnosis can help early formulation of necessary management protocol.

  12. Effectiveness of fine-needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of lateral cervical nonthyroid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Iacob, Alina; Zazgyva, Ancuta; Ormenişan, Alina; Mezei, Tibor; Sin, Anca; Tilinca, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Given that the clinical and radiological examinations of lateral cervical masses are not always sufficient for deciding on appropriate management, the cytological examination of the material obtained by fine-needle aspiration might be an efficient tool in the preoperative investigation of these lesions. In this prospective cross-sectional study we evaluated the efficacy and diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology in the assessment of lateral cervical nonthyroid tumors, by comparing its results with those of histopathology. A total of 58 patients with lateral cervical masses were included. Preoperative cytological results were compared with the histopathologic examination of surgical specimens. Both cytology and histology indicated that malignant tumors outnumbered benign lesions (62% vs 38%), with 88.9% of malignancies presenting in patients aged >50 years, but cytology was less effective at differentiating between benign and nontumor lesions. Cytology had 76.5% specificity and 78.1% sensitivity for identifying malignant lateral cervical lesions, and there was a concordance between the two diagnostic tests (McNemar test, P = 0.17, κ = 0.50, P <0.001). Fine-needle aspiration cytology is a simple, quick, and effective procedure that can aid in the preoperative evaluation of lateral cervical masses by differentiating benign tumors and inflammatory processes from malignancies and thus help in determining a subsequent therapeutic strategy. PMID:27495074

  13. Diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast using fine-needle aspiration cytology: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ilkay, Tosun M; Gozde, Kir; Ozgur, Sarica; Dilaver, Demirel

    2015-09-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the breast is a rare variant of breast malignancy and is associated with an excellent prognosis. ACC accounts for 0.1% of all breast carcinomas. It has favorable biological characteristics and an excellent prognosis. A 77-year-old woman presented with a lump in the right breast. Ultrasonography and mammography showed a 12-mm, well-defined, lobulated mass in the retroareolar region of the right breast. The lump was diagnosed as ACC on the basis of immunohistochemical staining results for c-kit (CD117), muscle-specific actin, p63, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor using a fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) specimen. This diagnosis was subsequently confirmed by excision biopsy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of ACC of the breast to date to be diagnosed on the basis of immunohistochemical staining of an FNAC cell block material. From our experience, we recommend the usage of cell block material for immunohistochemical studies to accurately diagnose ACC of the breast.

  14. Fine needle aspiration cytology of minor salivary gland tumours of the palate.

    PubMed

    Sahai, Kavita; Kapila, Kusum; Dahiya, Sonika; Verma, Kusum

    2002-10-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology of minor salivary gland tumours of the palate This retrospective study was carried out to review aspirates from minor salivary gland tumours of the palate and to assess the problems encountered in their diagnosis, especially the cytological diagnosis of newer entities such as polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA). Fifty-five cases of palatal salivary gland tumours aspirated over a period of 16 years were reviewed. Histology was available in 26 cases. Pleomorphic adenoma (27 cases) was the most common benign cytodiagnosis. Eleven aspirates were malignant tumours of which eight cases were adenoid cystic carcinoma and three cases were mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Seven cases were diagnosed on fine needle aspiration as suggestive of PLGA. However histological confirmation was available in only one of these cases. Concordance between the initial and revised typings of the tumours was seen in only 28 cases (54%) in the present study. Initially 18 of the 51 tumours (35.3%) could not be typed; and after review, only three could not be typed. Three cases of oncocytoma could be diagnosed on review only. Palatal salivary gland tumours, although relatively uncommon, are difficult to diagnose cytologically. This is more so in cases of newer entities such as PLGA, as their cytological diagnosis is still not well characterized.

  15. [Cytological investigation of needle aspiration and endoscopy samples using stain-covered glass slides (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Böttcher-Ramdohr, G; von Wichert, P; Stein, E

    1977-10-28

    Early morning sputum (n = 46), sputum and bronchial secretion obtained by aspiration (n = 87), pleural, ascitic, and pericardial fluids (n = 53), and pulmonary aspirate and gastric wash-out fluid (n = 10) were investigated cytologicallly using stain-covered glass slides (Testsimplets, Boehringer Mannheim). It was shown that the method was equal to classical cytological stains (Pappeheim and Papanicolaou) when exudates and biopsy material were investigated. The method is suitable for diagnostic purposes in hospitals and practice.

  16. Fine needle aspiration cytology of chondroblastoma of the fibula.

    PubMed

    Malukani, Kamal; Nandedkar, Shirish S; Yeshwante, Prashant; Rihal, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare benign cartilaginous tumor typically seen in long bones, especially femur, tibia and proximal humerus. Extracortical soft tissue invasion or metastasis is rarely seen. We report here a unique case of chondroblastoma of the fibula with extracortical soft tissue invasion. Differential diagnosis on cytology is discussed.

  17. Fine needle aspiration cytology of chondroblastoma of the fibula.

    PubMed

    Malukani, Kamal; Nandedkar, Shirish S; Yeshwante, Prashant; Rihal, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare benign cartilaginous tumor typically seen in long bones, especially femur, tibia and proximal humerus. Extracortical soft tissue invasion or metastasis is rarely seen. We report here a unique case of chondroblastoma of the fibula with extracortical soft tissue invasion. Differential diagnosis on cytology is discussed. PMID:25745297

  18. The Utilization of Cytologic Fine-Needle Aspirates of Lung Cancer for Molecular Diagnostic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    In this era of precision medicine, our understanding and knowledge of the molecular landscape associated with lung cancer pathogenesis continues to evolve. This information is being increasingly exploited to treat advanced stage lung cancer patients with tailored, targeted therapy. During the management of these patients, minimally invasive procedures to obtain samples for tissue diagnoses are desirable. Cytologic fine-needle aspirates are often utilized for this purpose and are important not only for rendering diagnoses to subtype patients’ lung cancers, but also for ascertaining molecular diagnostic information for treatment purposes. Thus, cytologic fine-needle aspirates must be utilized and triaged judiciously to achieve both objectives. In this review, strategies in utilizing fine-needle aspirates will be discussed in the context of our current understanding of the clinically actionable molecular aberrations underlying non-small cell lung cancer and the molecular assays applied to these samples in order to obtain treatment-relevant molecular diagnostic information. PMID:26076721

  19. Cytological diagnosis of sialadenosis, sialadenitis, and parotid cysts by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Droese, M

    1981-01-01

    This analysis permits the following conclusions: The value of punctate cytology consists in the possibility to verify the clinical diagnosis of a cyst by aspiration of fluid, and to make a preoperative assessment of the necessity of an operation and its type and extent, if proof of a benign or malignant tumor was obtained by microscopic examination. The diagnostic value of punctate cytology can be increased if after aspiration of cyst fluid also solid tissue components from the region of the cyst are included. Patients whose biopsy aspirates did not give evidence for the presence of a tumor should be reexamined 2-4 weeks later. Operative treatment will not be necessary if the follow-up examination reveals that the parotid swelling has subsided. Without this control investigation, recommended by Zajicek [80], morphological aspects always indicate an operation if tumor-negative biopsies cannot be etiologically classified even though clinical data were included in the diagnostic procedure.

  20. Fine-needle aspiration cytology: its origin, development, and present status with special reference to a developing country, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Dilip K

    2003-06-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed on a large scale at Memorial Hospital, New York, during the 1930s, but during the ensuing years, it did not gain much encouragement in United States. The technique had a resurgence in Scandinavia during the 1950s and 1960s, where it flourished before spreading to other parts of the world. It had also a revival in the United States, which contributed enormously to this tool in each and every aspect. The status of FNA during 1966-2002 was assessed through review of MEDLINE search data on FNA and its correlation with World Bank website data on classification of countries. A total of 849 journals published 5,609 articles on FNA over a period of 37 years. Both the number of publishing journals and the number of published articles on FNA were low during the 1960s (3.5 +/- 0.58 and 4.0 +/- 0.82, respectively) and 1970s (20.3 +/- 14.72 and 25.0 +/- 20.54, respectively), but their number increased sharply from the 1980s onward (78.2 +/- 25.65 and 147.2 +/- 66.89, respectively, during the 1980s, 126.2 +/- 11.94 and 301.4 +/- 35.99, respectively, during the 1990s, and 113.3 +/- 36.46 and 287.3 +/- 85.93, respectively, during the 2000s). The difference between the decades of 1960s-2000s, with respect to the number of publishing journals and published articles, was highly significant (P < 0.0001). Only 90 (10.6%) of the journals were from the arena of pathology and its branches. The remaining journals belonged to various other disciplines of medicine; a small fraction were even from the veterinary sciences. Ten journals, including three in the field of cytopathology, published 2,448 (43.6%) of the total articles on FNA. During 1987-2002, 46 (29.7%) of the 155 developing nations published articles on FNA, whereas 28 (52.8%) of the developed (high-income economies) countries did so, the difference being highly significant (P = 0.0044). The total number of publications from high-income economies was 3,124 (195.3 per year), as

  1. Aspiration cytology of adenomatoid tumor of epididymis: An important diagnostic tool

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, S; Garg, S; Agarwal, R; Sen, R

    2012-01-01

    Adenomatoid tumor is a benign mesothelial neoplasm of the paratesticular region in males but can also occur in female genital tracts. The epididymis is the most common site of involvement and constitutes 32% of paratesticular neoplasms. We diagnosed a case of adenomatoid tumor on cytopathology in 24 years old male, who presented with mass lesion right epididymis since 2 months. The diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology and immunohistochemistry after surgical excision of the nodule. FNAC is a rapid, reliable and cost effective diagnostic tool for preoperative diagnosis to take appropriate surgical decisions. Pathologists should be aware of the cytological features of such lesions so as to differentiate it from other paratesticular lesions. PMID:24960828

  2. Study of lymph node lesions with fine needle aspiration cytology and histopathology along with immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Manna, Asim Kumar; Mondal, Rajib Kumar; Pathak, Swapan

    2013-05-01

    Lymphadenopathy is one of the commonest clinical presentations of the patients attending hospital outdoor. Aetiology varies from Inflammatory process to malignant conditions. Fine needle aspiration cytology has become an integral part of the initial diagnosis. Histology remains the gold standard. But there exists some gray zones both in cytology and histology where immunohistochemistry plays a major role for final diagnosis. In this study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the importance of immunohistochemistry in this field. Fifty cases were studied. Clinical history was noted and examination done. All cases were examined both cytologically and histologically. Immunocytochemistry was done in all the cases by monoclonal antibody against p53 and Ki67. The results were tabulated and analysed according to unpaired 't' test. Reactive hyperplasia was present in maximum number followed by tuberculosis, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma. All of these lesions showed statistically significant difference in p53 and Ki67 expression both in cytology and in histology. To conclude, fine needle aspiration cytology is an adjuvant to histology for early diagnosis and immunohistochemistry can help us in the gray zones.

  3. A study of fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions with histopathological corroboration.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Anjali; Das, Tushar Kanti; Raha, Kalpana; Hati, Ganesh Chandra; Mitra, Pradip Kumar; Dasgupta, Anjali

    2005-06-01

    The diagnostic utility of fine needle aspiration cytology as initial work up of salivary gland enlargement was assessed in one hundred and eighty-five salivary gland specimens over three years period and corroborated with histopathology, whenever feasible. All smears were evaluated according to cell size, amount of cytoplasm, cytologic atypia and presence of lymphocytes. (a) Variable cytologic appearances of pleomorphic salivary adenoma were observed. (b) Cellular pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma showed basaloid cell features. (c) Tumours with intermediate size cells and bland cytology included low grade muco-epidermoid carcinoma and cystic lesions. (d) Warthin's tumour, oncocytoma, salivary duct carcinoma and high grade muco-epidermoid carcinoma revealed large cells and abundant cytoplasm with or without atypia. A major diagnostic categories were inflammatory lesions (n = 7 5), cystic lesions (n = 9), benign tumours (n = 81), malignant neoplasms (n = 1 8) and normal acinar pattern (n = 2). Malignant tumours included muco-epidermoid carcinoma (n = 5), adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 3), acinic cell carcinoma (n = 2), adenocarcinoma (n= 2), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1), undifferentiated carcinoma (n= 4) and malignant lymphoma (n = 1). Histopathological correlation was possible in 40% of benign and 80% of malignant neoplasms. The overall sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were very high. So it can be concluded that fine needle aspiration cytology can play important role in early diagnosis and subsequent therapeutic planning of salivary gland lesions.

  4. Fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology in diagnosis of salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Mondal, A; Das, M M; Mukherjee, P K

    1989-05-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology of salivary gland tumours was performed in 97 patients. Histological confirmation was available in all cases except 9 cases of sialo-adenitis which responded to antibiotics. Accuracy of cytological diagnosis in exact categorisation of benign and malignant tumours was 93.7% and 91.1% respectively. False negative was 4.1%. The overall accuracy was 95.8%. There was no false positive report. Exact classification of tumour was made in 94.1% cases, ie, 80 out of 85 tumours. No complication was encountered in this procedure.

  5. Preoperative Ultrasound Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Ovarian Lesions- Is It a Rapid and Effective Diagnostic Modality?

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Saikat; Chaudhuri, Snehamay; Paul, Prabir Chandra; Khandakar, Binny; Mandal, Sonali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The deep seated ovarian lesions unapproachable by unguided aspiration cytology were easily done under ultrasound guidance. It gave a before hand cytological diagnosis of the lesion to the surgeon determining the modality of treatment for the patient. Aim To find the diagnostic accuracy of the method of ultrasound guided cytological assessment of ovarian lesion. Materials and Methods The study was conducted as a prospective observational study over a period of one year, in hospital setting, where ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration had been used to aspirate ovarian lesions, giving a rapid cytological diagnosis. In 43 sample cases, aspiration of fluid done from ovarian lesions were followed by cyto-centrifugation and staining by May-Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG) and Papanicolaou (Pap) stain providing a cytological opinion regarding benign/malignant nature of the lesion and further categorization. Later the cytological diagnosis was compared with final histopathological diagnosis, taking it as a gold standard. Results The overall sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound guided aspiration and cytological analysis were high, 96%, 76.92% and 89.47% respectively as calculated by comparing the cytological diagnosis with histological diagnosis, taking it as gold standard. Conclusion This method has evolved as a highly sensitive, rapid, simple and effective modality for screening and as well as accurate preoperative diagnosis of ovarian lesions. PMID:27134878

  6. Sclerosing hemangioma: A diagnostic dilemma in fine needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jennifer; Zhou, Fang; Wei, Xiao-Jun; Kovacs, Sandor; Simsir, Aylin; Shi, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing hemangioma of the lung is a benign neoplasm with a widely debated histogenesis. It has a polymorphic histomorphology characterized by a biphasic cell population of “surface cells” and “round cells” arranged in four general patterns: Papillary, solid, angiomatous, and sclerotic. This variability in histomorphology makes it difficult to diagnose sclerosing hemangioma by fine needle aspiration (FNA). We present a case of sclerosing hemangioma diagnosed on FNA with immunohistochemistry performed on an accompanied cell block. The clinical presentation, cytomorphology, immunohistochemistry, and differential diagnoses are discussed. PMID:27168758

  7. Needle aspiration cytologic biopsy in head and neck masses.

    PubMed

    Young, J E; Archibald, S D; Shier, K J

    1981-10-01

    Over 500 fine (no. 22) needle aspiration biopsies were done on head and neck lesions. The total accuracy for the series was 94.5 percent. The accuracy rates for thyroid, salivary and metastatic or benign lymph node lesions were similar: approximately 95 percent. Only lymphomatous lesions gave a lower accuracy rate: 75 percent. This method of evaluating masses in the head and neck is simple, rapid, inexpensive, well-tolerated and harmless, and is very accurate when there is close cooperation between the clinician and the cytopathologist.

  8. Fine needle aspiration cytology of cervical lymph node involvement by ovarian serous borderline tumor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Longwen; Butler, Kristina A; Bell, Debra A

    2016-01-01

    Serous borderline tumor (SBT) involving a cervical lymph node is extremely rare. In addition, fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of the involved cervical lymph node shares tremendous morphologic similarity with other low-grade papillary carcinomas. Thus, it can be easily misdiagnosed as metastatic carcinoma. A 42-year-old female had a history of bilateral SBT and postbilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. She presented with left cervical lymphadenopathy 6 months later. FNA cytology showed a low-grade papillary neoplasm with psammoma bodies. Needle core biopsy along with immunostains was diagnostic of cervical lymph node involvement (LNI) of SBT. although extremely rare, cervical LNI can be found in patients with SBTs. FNA cytology, sometimes, is indistinguishable from metastatic papillary adenocarcinoma. Cell block or needle core biopsy is essential to make the correct diagnosis. PMID:27563339

  9. Fine needle aspiration cytology of cervical lymph node involvement by ovarian serous borderline tumor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Longwen; Butler, Kristina A.; Bell, Debra A.

    2016-01-01

    Serous borderline tumor (SBT) involving a cervical lymph node is extremely rare. In addition, fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of the involved cervical lymph node shares tremendous morphologic similarity with other low-grade papillary carcinomas. Thus, it can be easily misdiagnosed as metastatic carcinoma. A 42-year-old female had a history of bilateral SBT and postbilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. She presented with left cervical lymphadenopathy 6 months later. FNA cytology showed a low-grade papillary neoplasm with psammoma bodies. Needle core biopsy along with immunostains was diagnostic of cervical lymph node involvement (LNI) of SBT. although extremely rare, cervical LNI can be found in patients with SBTs. FNA cytology, sometimes, is indistinguishable from metastatic papillary adenocarcinoma. Cell block or needle core biopsy is essential to make the correct diagnosis. PMID:27563339

  10. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology vs. the Postoperative Histology - the Continuing Need for Multi-Disciplinary Approach?

    PubMed

    Gill, G; Kalyanasundaram, K; Varughese, G; Wilson, P; Varadhan, L

    2016-07-01

    We set out to investigate the concordance rates that were observed between fine needle aspiration cytology (FNA) compared with that of the post operative histology obtained for thyroid nodules over an 8 year period at a large university hospital.A retrospective analysis of 355 cases was conducted; patients operated for hyperthyroidism were excluded for the purposes of this study. We identified malignancy in a total of 101 cases (28%) The chance of malignancy with 2 Thy1 specimens was 5% in this study and 9% was observed in those with a Thy 2 FNA. On the converse, 7% of patient had malignant cytology on FNA though post-operative histology turned out to be benign.This therefore highlights the potential for discordance between thyroid FNA cytology and post-operative histology in the assessment of any thyroid nodule and thus reinforcing the need for a multidisciplinary approach in the assessment of all thyroid nodules. PMID:27223871

  11. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of hematopoietic lesions from multiple sites.

    PubMed

    Silverman, J F; McLeod, D L; Park, H K

    1990-01-01

    We reviewed 130 fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies from 118 patients with a variety of benign and malignant hematopoietic lesions. There were 74 (57%) malignant, 45 (35%) benign, and 11 (8%) atypical diagnoses. Immunocytochemistry of the aspirated material was performed in 47 (36%) and electron microscopy in 4 (3%) of the cases. FNA cytology was utilized to make a primary hematopoietic malignant diagnosis in approximately half of the cases and to confirm recurrence in the remainder. The malignant cases included non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Hodgkin's disease, medullary and extramedullary plasmacytoma, and granulocytic sarcoma. Forty-two malignant cases had either previous or follow-up surgical biopsy with no false-positive diagnoses. Of the 11 atypical cases, seven had surgical confirmation with five malignant and two benign diagnoses. The benign hematopoietic lesions correctly identified included acute and chronic lymphadenitis, granulomatous processes, and eosinophilic granuloma. Only 5 of the 45 benign FNA biopsies had surgical pathology follow-up, with no false-negative diagnoses. The most commonly aspirated sites were lymph nodes (71%), although hematopoietic lesions were correctly identified in a number of extranodal locations, including soft tissue (8%), abdominal viscera (6%), lungs (5%), mediastinum (2.5%), bone (3%), and thyroid, salivary gland, and breast (1.5% each). This study demonstrates the clinical utility and diagnostic accuracy of FNA cytology in the evaluation of benign and malignant hematopoietic disorders from multiple sites. Ancillary studies performed on the aspirated material aided in making a specific and accurate diagnosis.

  12. Review of fine-needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland neoplasms, with emphasis on differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mukunyadzi, Perkins

    2002-12-01

    The widespread use of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of salivary gland lesions in many centers is testimony to its usefulness and acceptance as a diagnostic technique. Many pertinent questions concerning a mass arising in the salivary gland can be answered by evaluation of FNA cytologic material, and these include whether the mass is truly of salivary gland origin, whether the lesion is inflammatory or neoplastic, and if neoplastic, whether benign or malignant. On diagnosis of a neoplastic salivary gland lesion, the next important issue is to correctly classify the tumor, particularly if malignant. Specific cytologic diagnoses can be achieved in the majority of cases, thus enabling the clinician and patient to make appropriate informed decisions. The cytologic evaluation of salivary gland tumors, however, is limited by the wide range and heterogeneous nature of benign and malignant tumors arising in this area, many of which share similar or show overlapping cytologic features, making the diagnosis of rare tumors problematic. In this review, the cytologic features of the major salivary gland neoplasms, the differential diagnoses, and the salient points that, if examined carefully, help achieve a specific diagnosis are discussed.

  13. Toward improving fine needle aspiration cytology by applying Raman microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker-Putsche, Melanie; Bocklitz, Thomas; Clement, Joachim; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Medical diagnosis of biopsies performed by fine needle aspiration has to be very reliable. Therefore, pathologists/cytologists need additional biochemical information on single cancer cells for an accurate diagnosis. Accordingly, we applied three different classification models for discriminating various features of six breast cancer cell lines by analyzing Raman microspectroscopic data. The statistical evaluations are implemented by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machines (SVM). For the first model, a total of 61,580 Raman spectra from 110 single cells are discriminated at the cell-line level with an accuracy of 99.52% using an SVM. The LDA classification based on Raman data achieved an accuracy of 94.04% by discriminating cell lines by their origin (solid tumor versus pleural effusion). In the third model, Raman cell spectra are classified by their cancer subtypes. LDA results show an accuracy of 97.45% and specificities of 97.78%, 99.11%, and 98.97% for the subtypes basal-like, HER2+/ER-, and luminal, respectively. These subtypes are confirmed by gene expression patterns, which are important prognostic features in diagnosis. This work shows the applicability of Raman spectroscopy and statistical data handling in analyzing cancer-relevant biochemical information for advanced medical diagnosis on the single-cell level.

  14. Accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions: routine diagnostic experience in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nguansangiam, Sudarat; Jesdapatarakul, Somnuek; Dhanarak, Nisarat; Sosrisakorn, Krittika

    2012-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is well accepted as a safe, reliable, minimal invasive and cost-effective method for diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. This study evaluated the accuracy and diagnostic performance of FNA cytology in Thailand. A consecutive series of 290 samples from 246 patients during January 2001-December 2009 were evaluated from the archive of the Anatomical Pathology Department of our institution and 133 specimens were verified by histopathologic diagnoses, obtained with material from surgical excision or biopsy. Cytologic diagnoses classified as unsatisfactory, benign, suspicious for malignancy and malignant were compared with the histopathological findings. Among the 133 satisfactory specimens, the anatomic sites were 70 (52.6%) parotid glands and 63 (47.4 %) submandibular glands. FNA cytological diagnoses showed benign lesions in 119 cases (89.5 %), suspicious for malignancy in 3 cases (2.2 %) and malignant in 11 cases (8.3%). From the subsequent histopathologic diagnoses, 3/133 cases of benign cytology turned out to be malignant lesions, the false negative rate being 2.2 % and 1/133 case of malignant cytology turned out to be a benign lesion, giving a false positive rate was 0.8%. The overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 97.0% (95% CI, 70.6%-99.4%), 81.3% (95% CI, 54.4%-96.0%), 99.1% (95% CI, 95.4%-100%), 92.9% (95% CI, 66.1%-99.8), 97.5% (95% CI, 92.8%-99.5%), respectively. This study indicated that FNA cytology of salivary gland is a reliable and highly accurate diagnostic method for diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. It not only provides preoperative diagnosis for therapeutic management but also can prevent unnecessary surgery.

  15. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland: a review of 341 cases.

    PubMed

    Stewart, C J; MacKenzie, K; McGarry, G W; Mowat, A

    2000-03-01

    Three hundred and forty-one salivary gland fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology specimens taken over a 6-yr period were reviewed and correlated with clinical and/or histological findings. The aspirates were derived from parotid gland (212 cases), submandibular gland (124 cases), and minor salivary gland (5 cases). The major diagnostic categories were unsatisfactory (10 cases), normal (100 cases), sialadenitis (74 cases), cyst (34 cases), lipoma (5 cases), pleomorphic adenoma (55 cases), Warthin's tumor (36 cases), and malignancy (27 cases). The latter included 14 primary salivary neoplasms (4 lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type, 3 adenocarcinomas, 2 squamous carcinomas, 2 adenoid cystic cacinomas, and one case each of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma), and 13 metastases, 9 of which were derived from squamous carcinomas of head and neck origin. Clinicopathological review showed that 88 of 91 (97%) benign epithelial tumors and 27 of 31 (87%) malignant neoplasms with adequate FNA sampling were accurately diagnosed cytologically. False-negative results were caused by sampling error (7 cases), most notably in cystic tumors, or were due to misinterpretation of uncommon neoplasms (3 cases). The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 92%, 100%, and 98%, respectively. FNA cytology provides accurate diagnosis of most salivary gland lesions and contributes to conservative management in many patients with nonneoplastic conditions.

  16. Subacute granulomatous (De Quervain's) thyroiditis: Fine-needle aspiration cytology and ultrasonographic characteristics of 21 cases

    PubMed Central

    Vural, Çigdem; Paksoy, Nadir; Gök, Nazlı D; Yazal, Kadri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis (SGT) is an inflammatory disease that presents with different clinical and cytological characteristics. Although the diagnosis is generally made clinically, imaging methods and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) may provide assistance, particularly in atypical cases. The objective of this study is to reveal the ultrasonographic (USG) and cytological characteristics of SGT. Materials and Methods: The clinical, USG and cytological findings of 21 cases diagnosed with SGT were reviewed. Results: Ultrasonographic data was available in 20 cases. A hypoechoic thyroid nodule with irregular margins was detected in 12 of the 20 total cases. Of these, 9 cases complained about pain in the thyroid lodge and generally had unilateral lesions, heterogeneous and hypoechoic areas with indistinct margins, rather than nodular lesions, which were seen in 7 cases. Cytologically, the multinuclear giant cells (MNGCs) found in all cases were accompanied by a dirty background containing varying numbers of granulomatous structures, including isolated epithelioid histiocytes, proliferated/regenerated follicle epithelium cells and inflammatory cells and colloid. Conclusion: Though hypoechoic and heterogeneous areas with irregular margins are strongly associated with thyroiditis, SGT may also appear as painful or painless hypoechoic, solid nodules and generate challenges in differential diagnosis. Although the most remarkable characteristic observed in FNA cytology was the presence of multiple MNGCs with cytoplasm, a dirty background accompanied by mild-moderate cellularity, degenerated-proliferated follicular epithelium cells, rare epithelioid granulomas and mixed type inflammatory cells are characteristic for SGT. The assessment of these radiological and cytological findings in conjunction with clinical findings will assist in the achievement of an accurate diagnosis. PMID:26085833

  17. Diagnostic value of liquid‐based cytology with fine needle aspiration specimens for cervical lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Takashi; Akahane, Toshiaki; Ohnuki, Natsumi; Yamaguchi, Tomomi; Kamada, Hajime; Harabuchi, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Shinya; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical lymphadenopathy is a symptom that is frequently seen among outpatients, and it is important to differentiate malignant lesions from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology has been widely used for the diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy. However, some limitations of the diagnostic accuracy using conventional smear (CS) cytology have been pointed out. The diagnostic value of liquid‐based cytology (LBC) with FNA specimens has not yet been fully proven. Methods Forty‐two patients with cervical lymphadenopathy who underwent FNA with CS cytology from 2007 to 2011 and 123 patients who underwent FNA with LBC utilizing LBCPREP2™ from 2011 to 2015 were studied. Diagnostic values were compared between the CS and the LBC groups. Results Of the total 165 patients representing the combined CS and LBC groups, 81 (49.1%) were diagnosed as benign lymph node and 84 (50.9%) were malignant diseases including 37 (22.4%) of metastatic carcinoma except for thyroid carcinoma, 30 (18.2%) of metastatic thyroid carcinoma, and 17 (10.3%) of malignant lymphoma. The overall statistical values including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of the CS were 75%, 100%, 100%, 78.9%, and 87.1%, respectively, whereas those values for LBC were 91.2%, 100%, 100%, 90.7%, and 95.3%, respectively. The sensitivity of LBC for malignant diseases tended to be higher than that of CS cytology (p = 0.081). Conclusion LBC with FNA specimens from cervical lymphadenopathy is a useful and reliable method for the diagnosis of malignant diseases, especially of metastatic carcinomas, due to its increased sensitivity compared with CS cytology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:169–176. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26748563

  18. Salivary gland masses: the diagnostic value of fine-needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Cardillo, M R

    1990-01-01

    A series of 165 needle aspirates (134 from the parotid gland, 26 from the submandibular glands, and nine from the palate) was studied. Seventeen aspirates (12.14%) were inadequate for evaluation; 25 were excluded because they came from branchial cysts. Of the remaining 123 samples from major and minor salivary glands, 107 (76.42%) were negative for malignancy and 16 (11.42%) were positive. Benign, non-neoplastic lesions were diagnosed in 53.27% of the aspirates and benign tumors in 46.72%. The cytodiagnoses were compared with the subsequent histological findings in ten of the 57 non-neoplastic lesions, 16 of the 50 benign neoplasms, and ten of the 16 malignant neoplasms. Despite problems of interpretation, in all cases where comparison was possible, the cytodiagnoses were confirmed by the histologic report. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is superior to other investigations such as scialography, computed tomography (CT) and CT scialography, commonly used in salivary gland disease. As underlined by the results of this study, aspiration biopsy cytology will identify lesions that are not clinically obvious and provide the surgeon with the required preoperative information.

  19. Cystic lesions of the salivary glands: cytologic features in fine-needle aspiration biopsies.

    PubMed

    Layfield, Lester J; Gopez, Evelyn V

    2002-10-01

    A variety of neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions of the salivary glands have a predominantly cystic architecture. Fine-needle aspirates of these lesions yield watery or mucoid material, frequently of low cellularity. Such aspirates may be obtained from mucus retention cysts, lymphoepithelial cysts, cystadenomas, Warthin's tumors, cystic pleomorphic adenomas, low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas, cystadenocarcinomas, and examples of polycystic disease of the parotid gland. The cellular component within the fluid obtained from these lesions may be exceedingly scant or absent, making cytologic diagnosis difficult and, at times, impossible. We studied a series of 56 cystic lesions of the salivary glands, including 38 Warthin's tumors, 6 benign cysts, 2 lymphoepithelial cysts, 5 low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 1 cystic pleomorphic adenoma, 2 cystadenomas, and 2 cystadenocarcinomas. Careful attention to the cellular elements present often allowed definitive cytologic diagnosis, with an overall accuracy rate of 84%. The presence of atypical squamous metaplasia in oncocytic lesions was a significant cause of false-positive diagnoses of carcinoma (4 cases, 7%). Aspirates of low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma may contain no epithelial cells and result in false-negative diagnoses (1 case, 2%).

  20. Cytology in nipple aspirate fluid during a randomized soy food intervention among premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Suzuki, Shana; Pagano, Ian S; Morimoto, Yukiko; Franke, Adrian A; Ehya, Hormoz

    2013-01-01

    Because soy food consumption may influence breast tissue activity, we examined its effect on the presence of epithelial cells in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF). In a randomized, crossover design, 82 premenopausal women completed a high-soy and a low-soy diet for 6 mo each, separated by a 1-mo washout period. They provided NAF samples at baseline, 6 mo, and 13 mo during the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Papanicolaou-stained cytology slides (for 33 women at baseline, 24 at low-soy, and 36 at high-soy) were evaluated in women with sufficient NAF. Mixed models evaluated the effect of the high-soy diet on epithelial cytology as compared to baseline and the low-soy diet. At the end of the high-soy diet, cytological subclass had decreased in 8 (24%) and increased in 3 (9%) women as compared to baseline, whereas the respective values were 3 (14%) and 6 (29%) for the low-soy diet samples (P = 0.32). Only the change in subclass indicated a trend in lower cytological class (P = 0.06). Contrary to an earlier report, the number of NAF samples with hyperplastic epithelial cells did not increase after a soy intervention in amounts consumed by Asians.

  1. Evaluation of fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary glands: an analysis of 141 cases.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, G; Dashini, M

    2001-12-01

    141 salivary gland lesions that were subjected to fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, from January 1993 to October 2000 were reviewed with a view to assess the sensitivity and utility of cytological diagnosis in diseases of salivary glands. The highest number of cases was seen in the sixth decade of life. There was no gender preponderance in salivary gland neoplasms except in Warthin's tumours that occurred predominantly in males. The parotid gland was the most frequent salivary gland needled. Seven cases (5%) presented with bilateral salivary gland enlargement. Cytological study yielded a neoplastic diagnosis in 74.5% cases. Of the neoplastic lesions, 71.4% could be definitely designated as benign and 25.7% as clearly malignant. Pleomorphic adenoma and acinic cell carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant neoplasms diagnosed respectively. 53 cases had histological correlation; of these, 49 (92.5%) were neoplastic. The overall diagnostic accuracy of FNA cytological diagnosis in salivary gland lesions was found to be 73.6%.

  2. Cytologic Diagnosis of Heterobilharzia americana Infection in a Liver Aspirate From a Dog.

    PubMed

    Le Donne, V; McGovern, D A; Fletcher, J M; Grasperge, B J

    2016-05-01

    Heterobilharzia americanais a trematode of the Schistosomatidae family that infects dogs, raccoons, and other mammals as definitive hosts. This parasite is considered endemic in the southern Atlantic and Gulf coasts; however, only a few cases are reported. A 7-year-old dog from Louisiana was referred for persistent hypercalcemia, hyperglobulinemia, and weight loss. Abdominal ultrasound revealed diffuse hyperechogenicity of the liver with several hyperechoic nodules of varying size. Cytologic examination of fine-needle aspirates of the liver revealed few ovoid to round basophilic thin-walled eggshell fragments and rare ciliated miracidia.H. americanaeggs were identified on fecal sedimentation. PMID:26272209

  3. Bacterial Pericarditis Accompanied by Sudden Cardiac Tamponade After Transbronchial Needle Aspiration Cytology.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Otsuka, Kojiro; Imai, Yukihiro; Tomii, Keisuke

    2016-04-01

    A 48-year-old man was referred for an abnormal shadow in his chest x-ray. Transbronchial needle aspiration cytology was performed at the mediastinal necrotic lymph node #7, and he was diagnosed as having small cell carcinoma. Fifteen days after bronchoscopy, sudden cardiac tamponade occurred and pericardial drainage suggested a diagnosis of bacterial pericarditis. He was successfully treated by drainage and administration of antibiotics. Complication of bacterial pericarditis associated with bronchoscopy is rare. However, physicians should watch for the appearance of this condition for up to 3 weeks after bronchoscopy, especially in cases with necrotic lymph nodes. PMID:27058720

  4. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of pleomorphic hyalinized angiectatic tumor: A case report.

    PubMed

    Lin, Oscar; Crapanzano, John P

    2005-04-01

    Pleomorphic hyalinized angiectatic tumor (PHAT) of soft parts is a neoplasm characterized by spindle and pleomorphic cells associated with an angiectatic vasculature. We describe the cytological findings of a fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) from the right medial knee of a 45-yr-old woman. The aspirate material was entirely submitted in Cytolit solution. The specimen was moderately cellular and was comprised of spindle cells in a background of fibrinous material. The cells varied from small, bland spindle cells with a fine chromatin pattern and inconspicuous nucleoli to larger pleomorphic cells with coarser chromatin and occasional intranuclear inclusions. Most of the cells were arranged singly with sporadic small cluster formation with indistinct cell borders. Rare mononuclear inflammatory cells morphologically compatible with mast cells were identified. The differential diagnosis include solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) and ancient schwannoma, which also shows fibrous-like material and spindle cells that may have intranuclear inclusions.

  5. The significance of fine needle aspiration cytology for the diagnosis and treatment of malignant lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Lopes Cardozo, P

    1980-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy of a laesion, thought to be a lymph node, is a minor procedure, which provides quick and valuable information. It should be performed with a fine needle (0.6 mM outer diameter = 23 Gauge) and a special syringe, which needs only one hand during the aspiration itself. From the experience obtained in over 6000 own patients a f.n.a.b. gives the first place information whether the laesion actually is a lymph node, or a cyst, a salivary gland, a chemodectoma or any other lesion which can mimic a lymph node, In 3000 cases a benign lymph node was found and this finding often is as important as reporting malignancy. In 2000 cases metastatic malignancy was found. In 90% of these the primary tumour could be ascertained by coupling the clinical and the cytological data. False-negatives and false-positives practically do not occur with our technique. In 1023 patients primary lymphoma was found; 523 of them being Hodgkin's disease and 500 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In fresh cases of lymphoma surgical biopsies should always be done. In relapses cytology alone will as a rule be sufficient. In case of doubt repeat the f.n.a.b. after one week and do not immediately proceed to histological biopsy.

  6. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of lymphoproliferative lesions involving the major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Chhieng, D C; Cangiarella, J F; Cohen, J M

    2000-04-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) is an accurate and cost-effective procedure for evaluating salivary gland lesions. Lymphoproliferative lesions may manifest as salivary gland enlargement. We report our experience with 43 cases of reactive and neoplastic lymphoproliferative lesions of the salivary glands evaluated by FNA, including 23 cases of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and 20 neoplastic lymphoproliferative processes. The latter included 2 multiple myelomas and 18 non-Hodgkin lymphomas (small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 1; small cleaved cell lymphoma, 1; lympho-plasmacytoid lymphoma, 1; mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, 2; mixed cell lymphoma, 4; lymphoblastic lymphoma, 1; and large cell lymphoma, 8). There were no false-negative diagnoses. Aspiration smears from 3 patients with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and 4 patients with malignant lymphoma initially were interpreted as atypical lymphoid proliferations or as suggestive of malignant lymphoma. Thus, FNA had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 87%. The majority of patients were treated medically without surgical intervention. Among the patients who underwent surgical resection of the salivary gland, 7 had an equivocal cytologic diagnosis and 2 had a benign cytologic diagnosis, but their parotid swelling failed to regress despite medical treatment. In most instances, FNA provides useful information for subsequent disease management and obviates surgical intervention.

  7. Diagnostic reliability of FNAC for salivary gland swellings: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Ameena; Shaikh, Afsar Saeed; Kamal, Farrukh; Sarfraz, Rahat; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain

    2010-07-01

    A prospective study was conducted to see the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for 100 salivary gland swellings in comparison with biopsy. These randomized samples were submitted and reported at the department of pathology, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore. The male to female ratio was 1:1.5. Ages of the patients ranged from 8.5 to 58 years with mean age 33.39 +/- 12.37 years. Maximum number of lesions was found in age group between 21 and 40 years. Parotid gland was involved in 68%, submandibular gland in 30%, and minor salivary glands in 2% patients. Sublingual gland was not involved in any of our subjects. There were 14% cases of non-neoplastic lesions and 86% cases of neoplastic lesions on biopsy. Non-neoplastic lesions included 12 cases of inflammations (three cases of granulomatous inflammation and nine cases of nonspecific chronic inflammation) and two cases of inclusion cysts. Among neoplastic lesions, biopsy revealed 68 cases of benign neoplasia and 18 cases of malignant neoplasia. Non-neoplastic lesions did not show any difference in diagnosis by both techniques. FNAC misdiagnosed four malignant and one benign lesion. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of FNAC for benign neoplastic lesions were 98.52, 87.05, 94.36, and 96.55%, respectively, whereas for malignant neoplastic lesions they were 77.77, 98.78, 93.33, and 95.29%, respectively. In conclusion, FNAC is found to be a highly sensitive and specific technique for diagnosis of most of salivary gland swellings, except for malignant neoplastic lesions where its sensitivity is intermediate. We strongly recommend that FNAC should be adopted as an initial investigation for all salivary gland swellings.

  8. Segmentation of ultrasound images of thyroid nodule for assisting fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Li; Tian, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid nodule is very high and generally increases with the age. Thyroid nodule may presage the emergence of thyroid cancer. Most thyroid nodules are asymptomatic which makes thyroid cancer different from other cancers. The thyroid nodule can be completely cured if detected early. Therefore, it is necessary to correctly classify the thyroid nodule to be benign or malignant. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a recognized early diagnosis method of thyroid nodule. There are still some limitations in the fine needle aspiration cytology, such as the difficulty in location and the insufficient cytology specimen. The accuracy of ultrasound diagnosis of thyroid nodule improves constantly, and it has become the first choice for auxiliary examination of thyroid nodular disease. If we could combine medical imaging technology and fine needle aspiration cytology, the diagnostic rate of thyroid nodule would be improved significantly. The properties of ultrasound, such as echo, shadow, and reflection, will degrade the image quality, which makes it difficult to recognize the edges for physicians. Image segmentation technique based on graph theory has become a research hotspot at present. Normalized cut (Ncut) is a representative one, whose biggest advantage is not prone to small region segmentation but suitable for segmentation of feature parts of medical image. However, how to solve the normalized cut has become a problem, which needs large memory capacity and heavy calculation of weight matrix. It always generates over segmentation or less segmentation which leads to inaccurate in the segmentation. The speckle noise produced in the formation process of B ultrasound image of thyroid tumor makes the quality of the image deteriorate. In the light of this characteristic, we combine the anisotropic diffusion model with the normalized cut in this paper. After the enhancement of anisotropic diffusion model, it removes the noise in the B ultrasound image while

  9. The experience with fine needle aspiration cytology in the management of palpable breast lumps in the University Hospital Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Yip, C H; Jayaram, G; Alhady, S F

    2000-09-01

    A total of 676 palpable breast lumps seen in the Breast Clinic, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur from August 1993 to August 1994 were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology. Fifty-four were reported as inadequate, 501 benign, 95 malignant and 26 suspicious. One hundred and eighty-seven aspirates had histological correlation, while 34 of the malignant aspirates had clinical correlation. The majority of the other 455 patients were followed up for a period of 60 to 72 months without any malignancies becoming apparent. For analysis, only the 221 cases with histological or clinical correlation were included, (the suspicious category was included into the positive group and the inadequate cases were excluded), giving a sensitivity of 91.7%, a specificity of 91.7% and a diagnostic accuracy of 91.7%. Breast cytology was an accurate and rapid method of diagnosis of breast diseases, and in a busy surgical unit with limited operating time, it allowed for the triage of patients with breast complaints in deciding which cases needed early open biopsy. A negative cytology does not exclude the possibility of cancer, as there was a false negative rate of 11%. However by utilising a diagnostic triad of clinical examination, radiological assessment and fine needle aspiration cytology, the risk of missing a malignancy is small.

  10. Incidental Diagnosis of Filariasis in Superficial Location by FNAC: A Retrospective Study of 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Pratima; Jha, Aditi; Chauhan, Nidhi; Chand, Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    Background: Filariasis, transmitted by the bite of various species of mosquito, is a common disease of tropical belt of the world. In South East Asia, including India, it is a major public health problem. The parasite is primarily confined to Lymphatic channel or lymph nodes where it can remain viable for more than two decades. The most common presentation of the disease is asymptomatic/ subclinical microfilaremia, Hydrocele, acute adeno-lymphangitis (ADL) and chronic lymphatic disease. However, the disease may rarely present as superficial swellings at unusual sites. Incidental findings of microfilaria on fine needle aspiration cytology in these situations, helps in prompt recognition of the disease. Aim: The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the incidental diagnosis of Filariasis on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), done for swellings in superficial locations over last ten years at our institute. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted over a period of 10 years from April 2003 to March 2013 on the cases where FNAC was carried out on swellings in superficial locations of the body. Twenty cases of filariasis were diagnosed on routine FNAC material obtained from various superficial sites. Their data was retrieved and analyzed. Results: Among the 20 cases diagnosed as filariasis on FNAC, six cases involved lymph nodes, six involved testiculo-scrotal region, three cases of thyroid swelling, soft tissue swelling in three cases and breast lump in two cases. On FNA smears, microfilariae were seen in all 20 cases, eggs in three cases, adult female worm in two cases and adult male worm in one case. Adherence of inflammatory cells and macrophages to microfilariae was noticed in 4 cases. Eosinophilia was present in seven cases. Microfilaremia was present in only three cases. Causative agent was Wuchereria bancrofti in all cases. Conclusion: Although not so common, filariasis should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis of

  11. Extranodal Rosai–Dorfman Disease as Isolated Lesion of the Tibia Diagnosed by Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jie; Liu, Chun-Hua; Wang, Yan-Si; Chen, Chang-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Few studies have used fine-needle aspiration cytology for the purpose of isolated skeletal Rosai–Dorfman diseases (RDDs) diagnosis. Herein, we described an extremely rare case of a 56-year-old woman who presented to our hospital with an insidious onset of pain in the right proximal tibia. The provisional cytologic diagnosis of RDDs was confirmed by a computer tomography-guided core needle biopsy of the lesion. Subsequently, curettage and autogenous iliac crest bone graft were performed successfully. At the 4th year of follow-up her clinical symptoms disappeared, and there was no clinical evidence of lesion recurrence. Our case highlighted the role of fine-needle aspiration cytology with immunohistochemical studies in the diagnosis of RDDs and the characteristic features of isolated skeletal RDDs in an unusual location, the knowledge of which would help avoid missed or delayed diagnosis in the future. PMID:26632704

  12. Primary subcutaneous inguinal hydatid cyst: diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Bagga, Permeet Kaur; Bhargava, Satish Kumar; Aggarwal, Neema; Chander, Yogesh

    2014-08-01

    Hydatid disease or human cystic echinococcosis, recognized by ancient scholars such as Hippocrates, Galen and Rhazes, is one of the oldest diseases known to man. Though hydatid cyst may develop in almost any part of the body, a solitary primary subcutaneous localization is an extremely rare entity. We herein report a case of primary subcutaneous inguinal hydatid cyst which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. Radiological examination done subsequently corroborated with the cytodiagnosis of Hydatid cyst and did not show involvement of any other organ or site. Histopathological examination of surgically removed cyst confirmed the diagnosis of Hydatid cyst. Hydatid disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all unusual swellings in soft tissues, especially in regions where the disease is endemic. PMID:25302206

  13. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of isolated skull nodule: Unfolding the clinical spectrum.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prajwala; Bhardwaj, Minakshi

    2016-01-01

    Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) has been classified as either minimally invasive or widely invasive carcinoma and shows a propensity for blood-borne metastasis. Most common sites of metastasis are lung and bone followed by brain, liver, and skin. Minimally invasive FTC (MIFTC) is characterized by limited capsular and/or vascular invasion with good long-term outcomes, some cases of which show a poor prognosis because of severe distant metastasis. Skull metastasis in adults commonly arises from the lung, breast, and prostate and uncommonly from the thyroid. In our case, fine-needle aspiration cytology of isolated skull nodule was a reliable tool in the diagnosis of metastasis and suggesting the primary in thyroid thereby prompting early workup of a patient. The case is unique since it represents the rare disseminated metastasis from MIFTC with incomplete capsular penetration alone without angioinvasion that can behave as aggressively as a widely invasive FTC. PMID:27510690

  14. Spermatic granuloma presenting as an epididymal nodule: fine needle aspiration cytological findings and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay; Gupta, Nalini; Srinivasan, Radhika; Nijhawan, Raje; Rajwanshi, Arvind

    2004-10-01

    Spermatic granuloma is a granulomatous lesion that presents clinically as a nodular lesion in the region of epididymis. There are only few documented cases of spermatic granuloma in the literature. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) reveals mixed inflammatory cells comprising of plenty of macrophages along with lymphocytes and scattered polymorphs in a fluidy background containing many spermatozoa and sperm heads. Sperm heads are also noted within macrophages. Ill formed to well-formed granulomas were seen in all the cases. FNA has an important role in the differential diagnosis of epididymal nodule as it can rule out malignancy and other benign cytological diagnosis like tuberculosis, acute and chronic epididymo-orchitis. Distinction of spermatic granulomas from the more common tuberculous granulomatous infection is important from the cytopathologist's point of view. By providing an accurate and rapid diagnosis, FNA prevents aggressive and potentially inappropriate surgical procedures. PMID:16295378

  15. [Aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions--analysis of 55 cases].

    PubMed

    Katoh, T; Takahashi, H; Ida, Y; Masuda, T; Takeda, B

    1994-06-01

    Aspiration cytology of 55 salivary gland lesions (10 cases of non-neoplastic lesions, 36 cases of benign tumors and 9 cases of malignant tumors) were reviewed with histologic examination. Accuracy of benign and malignancy was 91.8% (benign lesion 97.6%, malignant tumor 57.1%), accuracy rates was almost of satisfactory for benign lesions, but not for malignant tumors. Agreement rate with histological type was 73.5%. One case (1.8%) was false positive, basal cell adenoma with adenoid cystic like pattern was falsely taken for adenoid cystic carcinoma. Three false negative cases (5.5%) consist of 1 acinic cell carcinoma, 1 adenoid cystic carcinoma with minimum cellular atypia and 1 partial malignant change (minor area) in pleomorphic adenoma. Six cases (10.9%) belong to group of insufficient material. Technical improvement of cell sampling is expected.

  16. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of lymphangioma of the parotid gland in an adult.

    PubMed

    Henke, A C; Cooley, M L; Hughes, J H; Timmerman, T G

    2001-02-01

    Lymphangioma or cystic hygroma is an uncommon benign congenital tumor of lymphatics that is seen in children and, rarely, adults. Lymphangioma primarily involving the parotid gland is an extremely uncommon occurrence in adults. We report on the cytologic findings of a parotid lymphangioma in a 34-yr-old man which showed 13 cc of yellow fluid with red blood cells, lymphocytes, and rare fragments of benign-appearing salivary gland epithelium. The differential diagnosis of cystic parotid gland lesions in adults may include Warthin's tumor, lymphoma, benign lymphoepithelial lesions, branchial cleft cysts, chronic sialadenitis, cystic low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and cystic pleomorphic adenoma. In this case, the fine-needle aspiration findings along with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a multiloculated cystic mass in the parotid gland allowed the diagnosis of lymphangioma.

  17. Oncocytic lipoadenoma of the parotid gland: cytological findings and differential diagnosis on fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Azarpira, Negar; Anbardar, Mohammad Hossein; Hashemi, Seyed Basir

    2015-01-01

    Oncocytic lipoadenoma is a rare benign neoplastic lesion of salivary gland. To the best of our knowledge, the detailed cytomorphological findings were described only in two cases. We are reporting a 56-year-old woman who presented with 1-year history of right parotid gland mass. Cytologic examination revealed tight clusters of bland looking oncocytic ductal cells with few aggregates of mature adipose tissue in a lipoid background and a benign oncocytic tumor of parotid gland was rendered. Histologically, a tumor with islands of oncocytic epithelial cells admixed with abundant mature adipose tissue was identified. Oncocytic lipoadenoma despite its rarity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of salivary gland fine-needle aspirations containing oncocytes especially those which are accompanied by mature adipose tissue and lipoid background.

  18. Fine needle aspiration cytology of a myoepithelioma presenting as a thyroid nodule.

    PubMed

    Narick, Christina; Velosa, Claudia; Pollice, Philip; Silverman, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Myoepitheliomas are rare neoplasms that are typically found in the major and minor salivary glands and represent approximately 1.5% of all salivary gland neoplasms. We present a patient with an exophytic anterior midline neck mass, which was initially believed to be a thyroid isthmus nodule that underwent fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy. FNA cytologic evaluation reveals numerous plump spindle cells and a myxoid background, thus raising the possibility of rare benign mixed tumor of the thyroid. However, the resected specimen consists of predominately spindle cells with a minor component of chondromyxoid matrix, and no ductal epithelial cells, favoring a diagnosis of myoepithelioma. Although this lesion clinically and radiologically appeared to arise from the thyroid gland, at the time of resection, it was found to be adjacent to the thyroid isthmus and was ultimately diagnosed as a soft tissue myoepithelioma of the midneck.

  19. Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology of Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Benefits and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    1998-01-01

    Purpose. Examine the benefits and limitations of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNA) used as the definitive diagnostic method before treatment. Method. Review of the 25 year experience at a multidisciplinary musculo-skeletal centre where FNA is the primary diagnostic approach to soft tissue sarcoma in the extremities and trunk wall and the experience of various experts in the field. Results. FNA has several benefits compared with coarse needle or open surgical biopsy. The most important are rapid preliminary diagnosis, no need for hospitalization and anaesthesia, negligible complications and fear for tumour cell spread. With the collected experience gained during the years a reliable diagnosis of sarcoma is the rule in general and specific-type diagnoses are possible in many histotypes, especially when the cytologic examination is supplemented with ancillary diagnostics. The most important limitations are inability to hit small deep-seated sarcoma and some diagnostic pitfalls such as the correct diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasms, variants of benign lipomatous tumours and ‘new soft tissue tumour entities’. Discussion. Optimal use of FNA calls for certain requirements such as centralization, experience in soft tissue tumour cytology–histopathology, the FNA technique and close co-operation between the orthopaedic surgeon and cytopathologist. PMID:18521248

  20. Fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of mass lesions of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, A

    1993-03-01

    Fine needle aspiration was performed on 101 patients with mass lesions of the salivary gland. In 98 patients satisfactory material was obtained. This could be correlated with the histology done in 54 cases. There were 12 inflammatory lesions; 52 benign and 34 malignant tumors. Of the malignant tumors 32 were primary salivary tumors and one case each of lymphoma and leukemia. The overall accuracy was 97 per cent. There were no false positives but one false negative diagnosis. In two cases there was a discrepancy of tumor type between the cytology and histopathology; these were due mainly to sampling errors. This study documents that cytomorphology can characterise a wide range of histologically described lesions including the rare epithelial myoepithelial tumor. The application of stringent criteria in the diagnoses of salivary lesions, even inflammatory conditions like chronic sialadenitis, avoids over-diagnosis. Both inflammatory and neoplastic lesions may be cystic. These cystic lesions may prove to be a pitfall in cytology. Reaspiration of cystic lesions especially from residual solid areas greatly improves accuracy. We suggest that a fore-knowledge of tumor type preoperatively greatly reduces surgery in clinically questionable salivary lesions.

  1. Ag-NOR technique in fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland masses.

    PubMed

    Cardillo, M R

    1992-01-01

    Because of their complexity, salivary gland lesions are often difficult to identify correctly with fine needle aspiration cytology. To see whether the Ag-NOR staining technique for nucleolar organizer regions would be useful in this respect, we studied a series of smears from benign and malignant salivary gland lesions. The smears, previously treated with Papanicolaou and May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain, were destained and restained with Ag-NOR silver. The correlation between the cytologic-histologic diagnosis and the number of Ag-NORs in benign (sialadenitis, pleomorphic adenoma, oncocytoma and Warthin's tumor) and malignant lesions (adenoid cystic carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma and squamous carcinoma) was statistically significant (P = less than .05). The Ag-NOR technique appears useful in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. One great advantage is that previously stained slides can be reused for silver staining, thus providing an excellent guide to the diagnosis, especially in doubtful cases and when corresponding histologic specimens or extra unstained slides are unavailable.

  2. Benign chondroblastoma on fine-needle aspiration smears: A seven-case experience and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Immacolata; Zeppa, Pio; Zabatta, Assunta; Merolla, Francesco; Vetrani, Antonio; Sadile, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    We report seven cases of chondroblastoma (CB) of bone, diagnosed by Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC), and confirmed by histomorphological examination. The concurrence of some cytomorphologic findings - mononucleated cells, multinucleated cells, and intercellular chondroid substance - unequivocally suggested the cytological diagnosis of CB. We also reviewed the literature on this topic in order to discuss morphological criteria and the importance of needle size. The differential diagnosis between CB, Giant Cell Tumor of Bone, and Eosinophilic Granuloma is further discussed.

  3. Benign chondroblastoma on fine-needle aspiration smears: A seven-case experience and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Immacolata; Zeppa, Pio; Zabatta, Assunta; Merolla, Francesco; Vetrani, Antonio; Sadile, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    We report seven cases of chondroblastoma (CB) of bone, diagnosed by Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC), and confirmed by histomorphological examination. The concurrence of some cytomorphologic findings - mononucleated cells, multinucleated cells, and intercellular chondroid substance - unequivocally suggested the cytological diagnosis of CB. We also reviewed the literature on this topic in order to discuss morphological criteria and the importance of needle size. The differential diagnosis between CB, Giant Cell Tumor of Bone, and Eosinophilic Granuloma is further discussed. PMID:25914148

  4. Fibromatosis Colli - A Rare Cytological Diagnosis In Infantile Neck Swellings

    PubMed Central

    Jetley, Sujata; Jairajpuri, Zeeba; Husain, Musharraf

    2014-01-01

    Fibromatosis colli or sternocleidomastoid tumour is a rare cause of benign neck mass in infants. It is a self limiting fibroblastic lesion usually presenting with torticollis and a history of birth trauma.It is one of the few causes in which Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is indicated in a neonate to confirm the diagnosis and to differentiate it from other congenital, inflammatory and neoplastic causes. FNAC provides a rapid, cost-effective, reliable, non invasive method of diagnosis resulting in conservative management of these lesions. We present two interesting cases of neck swelling in infants where FNAC performed as the first diagnostic procedure was instrumental in establishing the diagnosis of fibromatosis colli thus avoiding unnecessary surgical intervention. PMID:25584233

  5. Clinical use of testicular fine needle aspiration cytology in oligozoospermic and azoospermic dogs.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, S; Bonaccini, P; Stelletta, C; Garolla, A; Menegazzo, M; Foresta, C; Mollo, A; Milani, C; Gelli, D

    2009-07-01

    Clinical investigation of canine testicular function is complicated by the difficulty in the evaluation of seminiferous tubules. Until recently, testicular biopsy was the only diagnostic option for dogs with persistent oligo/azoospermia. In human andrology, testicular fine needle aspiration (TFNA) is currently considered a useful method in the evaluation of azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia, and has long replaced classical biopsy to evaluate spermatogenesis. In order to verify its diagnostic efficacy for the clinical approach to canine oligo- or azoospermia, TFNA was performed in seven adult (two oligozoospermic and five azoospermic) dogs. After sedation, a fine (21-23 gauge) butterfly needle connected to a 50-ml syringe was inserted into each testicle; strong suction was applied and the aspirated fluid squirted on a glass slide, smeared out, air-dried and stained with a modified May-Grunwald-Giemsa. Under light microscopy, Sertoli cells (all those found in each investigated field) and spermatogenic cells (n = 100) were counted on each smear in order to differentiate spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, early spermatids, late spermatids and spermatozoa, and calculate their relative percentages. Cytological analysis showed the following testicular pictures: normal spermatogenesis (compatible with obstruction of the seminal ducts), hypospermatogenesis, maturative disturbances and Sertoli cell-only syndrome. Two dogs with an obstructive lesion were treated with corticosteroids; one of them recovered and sired two litters of puppies.

  6. A rare cytological diagnosis of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Biswajit; Goyal, Vasudha; Bharti, Jyotsna Naresh; Mahajan, Nidhi; Jain, Shyama

    2016-01-01

    Primary lymphoma of the parotid gland is relatively rare and constitutes about 4-5% of extranodal lymphomas. The majority of them is non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and is B cell in nature. We report a case of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the parotid gland in an elderly male. The case was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the right parotid gland as high grade B-cell NHL and confirmed on histopathology as DLBCL. In correlation with the clinicoradiological findings, the case was diagnosed as primary parotid DLBCL. The case highlights the role of FNAC as a timely and useful diagnostic tool. PMID:27279690

  7. Role of Cell Block in Guided FNAC of Abdominal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Manoli, Nandini; Shivajirao, Prathima; Manjunath; Jothady, Sunila

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) of space occupying lesions in superficial or deep anatomic sites is an increasingly common procedure, providing rapid and safe diagnosis. However, sometimes FNA does not yield sufficient information for a precise diagnosis and the risk of false negatives and indeterminate diagnosis is always present. Therefore, we attempted to obtain additional information via the preparation of Cell Block (CB) from the residual material of aspirates and thus enhance the diagnostic accuracy. Aim This study was carried out to evaluate the role of CB as a useful adjunct to smears for establishing a more definitive cytopathologic diagnosis and for its utility in special staining and Immuno-histochemistry (IHC). Materials and Methods A total of 66 cases of image-guided FNA of abdominal masses were studied. In addition to the routine smears, CBs were prepared from the residual tissues for all possible cases and its diagnostic efficacy was analysed. Further, the use of CBs for special staining and IHC was also established. Results This study included a total of 66 patients with abdominal masses who were referred for guided FNA cytology. Out of these cases, adequate material was obtained on FNAC in 64 cases (96.96%) and on CB in 45 cases (68.18%) and the diagnosis was provided. There was a good agreement between the FNA smear diagnosis and CB diagnosis. The histopathology of CB sections further helped in precise final cytopathological diagnosis. Two FNA smears were unsatisfactory for evaluation and hence the diagnosis was done on CB sections alone. With FNA cytology and CB in combination, a cytopathological diagnosis was given for all the 66 cases. The sensitivity of FNA in comparison to the histopathology of CB was 91.6% and specificity was 88.8%. The diagnostic accuracy was 62% and the discordance was 6%. Conclusions CB in addition to the routine FNA is a simple, reliable and cost-effective technique that further contributes to the final

  8. Fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of uncommon types of lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Mayall, F; Darlington, A; Harrison, B

    2003-01-01

    Aims: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is an accepted means of diagnosing and typing common forms of lymphoma, particularly small lymphocytic lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and large B cell lymphoma. However, its usefulness for diagnosing less common forms of lymphoma is not clearly established and this study was designed to examine this. Methods: The study reviewed the FNAs of suspected lymphomas collected over a period of approximately five years. Results: FNA samples were available for 138 definite lymphomas; most were common forms of B cell lymphoma. However, there was also one Burkitt lymphoma (BL), two Burkitt-like large B cell lymphomas, 15 classic Hodgkin lymphomas (HLs), two nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphomas, four mantle cell lymphomas, two mediastinal (thymic) large B cell lymphomas (MLBCLs), 11 peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCLs), and five T cell rich large B cell lymphomas (TCRLBCLs). Conclusions: FNA diagnosis of BL was possible with immunoflow cytometry (IFC), cell block immunohistochemistry (IHC), and cell block fluorescent in situ hybridisation for c-myc alteration. It was difficult to make a definite diagnosis of HL and MLBCL on FNA alone. Both tend to be sclerotic tumours and FNA tends to yield scanty neoplastic cells. The FNA diagnosis of PTCL depended on cell block IHC; IFC was not usually useful. TCRLBCL did not show light chain restriction on IFC of FNA samples, probably because of frequent reactive B cells in the tumour. Thus, HL, MLBCL, and TCRLBCL are often difficult to diagnose accurately on FNA cytology, even when using IFC and cell block IHC. PMID:14600125

  9. Cytology Specimen Management, Triage and Standardized Reporting of Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsies of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Won Jae; Bishop Pitman, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The recent advances in pancreas cytology specimen sampling methods have enabled a specific cytologic diagnosis in most cases. Proper triage and processing of the cytologic specimen is pivotal in making a diagnosis due to the need for ancillary testing in addition to cytological evaluation, which is especially true in the diagnosis of pancreatic cysts. Newly proposed terminology for pancreaticobiliary cytology offers a standardized language for reporting that aims to improve communication among patient caregivers and provide for increased flexibility in patient management. This review focuses on these updates in pancreas cytology for the optimal evaluation of solid and cystic lesions of the pancreas. PMID:26265683

  10. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of an endometrioid-like variant of yolk sac tumor.

    PubMed

    Strong, J W; Worsham, G F; Baker, A S; Hawk, J C; Austin, R M

    1992-01-01

    A 36-year-old male with a history of immature teratoma and embryonal carcinoma of the testis was admitted to the hospital for abdominal pain and fever. A CT scan revealed a large right abdominal mass. The patient's serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was 46.8 ng/ml (reference < 25 ng/ml). Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of the mass revealed malignant glandular cells. Chemotherapy was instituted, followed by resection of the large abdominal mass. The tumor was grossly encapsulated, consisting of large areas of necrotic, hemorrhagic tissue surrounded by smaller, multiloculated cysts. Microscopically, the tumor had a villoglandular pattern and variably stratified tall columnar cells. A prominent feature of the columnar cells was supranuclear and subnuclear vacuolization. Intracytoplasmic PAS-positive, diastase-resistant hyaline globules were occasionally present. AFP by immunoperoxidase was prominent within the tumor. This recurrence of the previously diagnosed testicular teratoma with embryonal carcinoma represents a yolk sac tumor with components strongly resembling endometrioid carcinoma, a variant only recently described in eight cases of ovarian origin (Clement et al.: Am J Surg Pathol 1987; 11(10):767-778). We believe this is the first reported case of an endometrioid-like variant of testicular yolk sac tumor and also the first report of the FNA cytology findings in this variant.

  11. Solitary fibrous tumor: a study of cytologic features of six cases diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Clayton, A C; Salomão, D R; Keeney, G L; Nascimento, A G

    2001-09-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a spindle-cell neoplasm most often presenting as a pleural-based tumor but increasingly recognized in other locations. Few reports have described the cytologic features of SFTs. Six cases of SFT diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (3 pleura, 2 retroperitoneum, and 1 orbit) were identified in the Mayo Clinic files. The smears (Papanicolaou-stained) and corresponding histologic specimens were reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining for CD34 was performed in all cases. The cytologic findings were similar in all cases. The tumor cells were oval to polygonal, with cellularity ranging from scant to moderate. The background contained irregular ropy fragments of collagen and a few inflammatory cells. Most cells were dispersed singly, but all cases contained irregular, loose aggregates of cells enmeshed in a collagenous matrix. The nuclei were uniformly bland, with evenly distributed, finely granular chromatin. All cases were immunoreactive for CD34. SFT has distinctive cytologic features that allow diagnosis in cytologic specimens with the help of appropriate immunocytochemical stains on accompanying tissue biopsy specimens. Distinctive cytologic findings predictive of clinical behavior were not identified.

  12. Inconclusive or erroneous fine-needle aspirates of breast with adequate and representative material: a cytologic/histologic study.

    PubMed

    Shabb, Nina S; Boulos, Fouad I; Chakhachiro, Zaher; Abbas, Jaber; Abdul-Karim, Fadi W

    2014-05-01

    Adequately cellular and representative fine-needle aspirates (FNAs) of breast have a high diagnostic accuracy. There is, however, a recognized category designated as "gray zone" where a definitive diagnosis cannot be reached. We reviewed our experience in this category to identify useful diagnostic parameters. Twenty-four such FNAs with surgical follow-up were retrieved from AUBMC files (2003-2009). Cytology slides were reviewed blindly. All cases were females, 29-73 years. There were three erroneous and 21 inconclusive diagnoses. The majority (15) was invasive adenocarcinomas: two cribriform, four tubular, one lobular, and eight not otherwise specified. The remaining cases were papillary and fibroepithelial tumors (three each), ductal carcinoma in situ, cribriform (two), and one adenomyoepithelioma (AME). Useful diagnostic features included: (1) Biphasic cell population with focal nuclear atypia and intranuclear and cytoplasmic vacuolar inclusions (AME). (2) Complex clusters of epithelial cells with cribriform architecture (cribriform carcinoma). (3) Rigid tubular epithelial structures with abrupt change in diameter, ending in pointed tips with abnormal branching (tubular carcinoma). (4) Cellular stromal fragments (fibroepithelial tumors). (5) Papillary fibrovascular cores, columnar cells, and three-dimensional papillary epithelial fragments (papillary tumors). Myoepithelial cells classically described in benign aspirates were not always a discriminatory factor. The "gray zone" in breast FNA is usually due to overlapping cytologic features of some benign and malignant lesions. Useful distinguishing cytologic features are described.

  13. Foregut duplication of the stomach diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration cytology: case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Gastric duplication cyst (GDC) with a pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium is an uncommon malformation supposed to originate from a respiratory diverticulum arising from the ventral foregut. Morphologic appearance of GDCs is variable, depending on the density of their contents. GDCs are often misdiagnosed as solid masses by imaging techniques, and as a consequence they may be wrongly overtreated. We report our case of a 56-year-old man with a 5 cm hypoechoic mass of the gastroesophageal junction, incidentally detected by transabdominal ultrasonography. Neither transabdominal ultrasonography nor magnetic resonance clearly outlined the features of the lesion. The patient underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), which showed a hypoechoic mass arising from the fourth layer of the anterior gastric wall, just below the gastroesophageal junction. According to EUS features, a diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor was suggested. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed a diagnosis of GDC with pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium. We therefore performed an endoscopically-assisted laparoscopic excision of the cyst. In conclusion, whenever a subepithelial gastric mass is found in the upper part of the gastric wall, a duplication cyst, although rare, should be considered. In this case, EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology could provide a cytological diagnosis useful to arrange in advance the more adequate surgical treatment. PMID:23374143

  14. Foregut duplication of the stomach diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration cytology: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Vincenzo; Pezzullo, Angelo M; Zeppa, Pio; Schettino, Pietro; D'Armiento, Maria; Palazzo, Antonietta; Della Pietra, Cristina; Napolitano, Salvatore; Conzo, Giovanni

    2013-02-02

    Gastric duplication cyst (GDC) with a pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium is an uncommon malformation supposed to originate from a respiratory diverticulum arising from the ventral foregut. Morphologic appearance of GDCs is variable, depending on the density of their contents. GDCs are often misdiagnosed as solid masses by imaging techniques, and as a consequence they may be wrongly overtreated. We report our case of a 56-year-old man with a 5 cm hypoechoic mass of the gastroesophageal junction, incidentally detected by transabdominal ultrasonography. Neither transabdominal ultrasonography nor magnetic resonance clearly outlined the features of the lesion. The patient underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), which showed a hypoechoic mass arising from the fourth layer of the anterior gastric wall, just below the gastroesophageal junction. According to EUS features, a diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor was suggested. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed a diagnosis of GDC with pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium. We therefore performed an endoscopically-assisted laparoscopic excision of the cyst.In conclusion, whenever a subepithelial gastric mass is found in the upper part of the gastric wall, a duplication cyst, although rare, should be considered. In this case, EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology could provide a cytological diagnosis useful to arrange in advance the more adequate surgical treatment.

  15. FINE-NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY OF HEAD AND NECK LYMPH NODES IN A TEN-YEAR PERIOD - SINGLE CENTER EXPERIENCE.

    PubMed

    Vasilj, Ankica; Katović, Sandra Kojić

    2015-09-01

    A wide spectrum of diseases including reactive processes, infections, lymphomas and metastatic tumors can cause enlargement of lymph nodes. The present study on 4062 patients with lymphadenopathy was conducted in the Department of Cytology, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Center, Zagreb, during a 10-year period. Of 4062 patients with lymphadenopathy, 1624 were males and 2438 were females, age range from several months to 85 years. Of 4062 fine needle aspiration procedures, 232/4062 (5.7%) samples were nondiagnostic. Lymph node aspirates were benign in 2640/3830 (69%) and malignant in 1190/3830 (31%) cases. Hematologic disease (Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) was diagnosed in 482/1190 (40.5%) and metastases in 708/1190 (59.5%) cases. Of 482 patients with hematologic disease, 48/482 (10%) had Hodgkin lymphomas and 434/482 (90%) non-Hodgkin lymphomas. In the group of malignant lymphadenopathy, there were 212/708 (30%) metastatic squamous cell carcinomas, 177/708 (25%) metastatic adenocarcinomas, 149/708 (21%) metastases of other carcinomas, and 170/708 (24%) metastases of other malignant tumors. The present study confirmed the fine needle aspiration cytology of enlarged head and neck lymph nodes to be an excellent first-line method to investigate the nature of the lesions. PMID:26666101

  16. Pleomorphic adenoma with predominant plasmocytoid myoepithelial cells: a diagnostic pitfall in aspiration cytology. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pusztaszeri, Marc; Braunschweig, Richard; Mihaescu, Anca

    2009-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of the salivary gland is a sensitive and specific diagnostic tool. However, diagnostic problems are sometimes encountered in interpreting some cases, not only in differentiating benign from malignant cases but also in the specific classification of these neoplasms. We report a case of a pleomorphic adenoma with predominant plasmocytoid myoepithelial cells arising in minor salivary glands from the hard palate in a 78-year-old patient, which was falsely diagnosed as a carcinoma on liquid-based cytology (ThinPrep (TP)). The differential diagnosis of salivary gland tumors with predominant myoepithelial cells on FNA biopsy is discussed.

  17. Interobserver agreement among cytopathologists in the evaluation of pancreatic endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology specimens*

    PubMed Central

    Mounzer, Rawad; Yen, Roy; Marshall, Carrie; Sams, Sharon; Mehrotra, Sanjana; Said, Mohamed Sherif; Obuch, Joshua C.; Brauer, Brian; Attwell, Augustin; Fukami, Norio; Shah, Raj; Amateau, Stuart; Hall, Matthew; Hosford, Lindsay; Wilson, Robert; Rastogi, Amit; Wani, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has become the standard of care in the evaluation of solid pancreatic lesions. Limited data exist on interobserver agreement (IOA) among cytopathologists in assessing solid pancreatic EUS-FNA specimens. This study aimed to evaluate IOA among cytopathologists in assessing EUS-FNA cytology specimens of solid pancreatic lesions using a novel standardized scoring system and to assess individual clinical and cytologic predictors of IOA. Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent EUS-FNA of solid pancreatic lesions at a tertiary care referral center were included. EUS-FNA slides were evaluated by four blinded cytopathologists using a standardized scoring system that assessed final cytologic diagnosis and quantitative (number of nucleated/diagnostic cells) and qualitative (bloodiness, inflammation/necrosis, contamination, artifact) cytologic parameters. Final clinical diagnosis was based on final cytology, surgical pathology, or 1-year clinical follow-up. IOA was calculated using multi-rater kappa (κ) statistics. Bivariate analyses were performed comparing cases with and without uniform agreement among the cytopathologists followed by logistic regression with backward elimination to model likelihood of uniform agreement. Results: Ninety-nine patients were included (49 % males, mean age 64 years, mean lesion size 26 mm). IOA for final diagnosis was moderate (κ = 0.45, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.4 – 0.49) with minimal improvement when combining suspicious and malignant diagnoses (κ = 0.54, 95 %CI 0.49 – 0.6). The weighted kappa value for overall diagnosis was 0.65 (95 %CI 0.54 – 0.76). IOA was slight to fair (κ = 0.04 – 0.32) for individual cytologic parameters. A final clinical diagnosis of malignancy was the most significant predictor of agreement [OR 3.99 (CI 1.52 – 10.49)]. Conclusions: Interobserver agreement among

  18. Salivary gland manifestations of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy: fine-needle aspiration cytology findings. A case report.

    PubMed

    Panikar, Nirupma; Agarwal, Sarla

    2005-09-01

    Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML or Rosai-Dorfman disease) is a nonneoplastic, usually self-limiting disease. Alhough it affects all age groups, it is more commonly seen in young males in their first or second decades. The disease primarily manifests as painless lymphadenopathy of cervical region, but other nodal groups and extranodal sites may also be affected. Seldom SHML may involve the salivary glands. We present the cytologic features and differential diagnoses of one such case.A 45-yr-old woman presented with an enlarged submandibular gland on the left side with ipsilateral cervical lymphadenopathy that had been persisting for 1 mo. The gland and the two enlarged nodes measured 2.5 x 2.5 cm(2) each and were firm in consistency. Clinically, tumor of the salivary glands was suspected. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) smears showed moderate cellularity, with large histiocytes dispersed in the background of intense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. These histiocytes showed lymphophagocytosis. Isolated stromal fragments consisting of fibrocytes were seen separate from salivary acinar clusters on repeat aspirations. The diagnosis of SHML involving left submandibular gland and ipsilateral lymph nodes was returned. When analyzed in the context of clinical findings (laboratory data), the cytologic features of SHML involving salivary gland could be differentiated from those of malignancies and other benign lesions, especially Kuttner's tumor of the submandibular gland, which mimics neoplasm clinically.

  19. Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology: a review of the National Cancer Institute state of the science symposium.

    PubMed

    Layfield, L J; Cibas, E S; Baloch, Z

    2010-04-01

    In October 2007, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) of the United States sponsored a conference reviewing the state of the science of thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA). Multiple issues were reviewed including pre-FNA requirements, training specifications, criteria for the selection of patients to undergo FNA, diagnostic categories and criteria, ancillary testing and post-FNA follow-up and treatment options. A summation of conclusions covering three of these topics, followed by a question and answer session, was subsequently presented at the 35th European Congress of Cytology (ECC) in Lisbon, Portugal in September of 2009. At the ECC, the findings of the NCI committee proposals regarding the indications for FNA of thyroid nodules, diagnostic categories and criteria, and post-FNA options for follow-up and treatment were discussed. Herein we review the presentations given at that conference. PMID:21054821

  20. Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosing filarial arm cysts

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Nishi; Bansal, Cherry; Sharma, Richa; Irfan, Sumaiya

    2013-01-01

    Filariasis is prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas and is endemic in regions of India. Lymphatic filariasis in India is caused mainly by two species of nematodes: Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, which invade the human lymphatic system. We report two cases of superficial cystic lesions of the upper limb revealed on fine needle aspiration (FNA) to be clinically unsuspected filariasis. Despite similar aetiologies, both cases revealed variations in aspirate nature, smear morphology and peripheral blood findings. FNA provides definitive diagnosis and is an important tool for diagnosing soft tissue swellings owing to filariasis. PMID:23687368

  1. Multilocular renal cyst: a diagnostic pitfall on fine-needle aspiration cytology: case report.

    PubMed

    Morgan, C; Greenberg, M L

    1995-07-01

    Benign renal lesions, apart from simple cysts, are rarely sampled by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and are potential diagnostic pitfalls. A complex renal mass in a 33-yr-old pregnant woman, presenting in the second trimester with haematuria, was aspirated twice, a week apart, under ultrasound guidance. The second FNAB yielded predominantly mesenchymal elements thought to represent an angiomyolipoma, but the mass was identified as a multilocular renal cyst (MLRC) on the nephrectomy specimen. Differential diagnoses of angiomyolipoma, MLRC, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are compared and discussed in relation to patient management.

  2. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Chondroid Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor of the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Aiad, Hayam; Youssef Asaad, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of tendon sheath is a localized form of tenosynovial GCT, which preferentially affects the joints of hands and feet. Chondroid metaplasia is a rare phenomenon in tenosynovial GCT either in localized or diffuse types. The current case investigates the cytological and histopathological features of chondroid GCT of tendon sheath in a 22-year-old female presenting with wrist swelling. PMID:26266013

  3. Fine needle aspiration cytology in the evaluation of head and neck masses.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, R; Chan, N H; MacFarlane, J K

    1990-05-01

    One hundred eighty-two fine needle aspirations (FNAs) of head and neck masses performed between the years 1981 and 1987 were studied retrospectively. Seventeen FNAs were unsatisfactory. Of the remaining 165, 148 (90%) were followed up with either surgery or clinical follow-up of at least 12 months' duration. Seventy-one of these aspirates were malignant. Fifty-six cases of metastatic carcinoma and 13 cases of lymphoma were diagnosed. The positive predictive value for metastatic carcinoma and lymphoma was 100%, and the sensitivities were 92% and 100%, respectively. For benign salivary gland lesions, the positive predictive value was 94%, whereas for malignant lesions it was 100%. One case of carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma was missed by FNA. No complications were associated with FNA. We conclude that FNA is a safe and accurate technique, well suited to the in-office evaluation of neck masses of differing causes.

  4. Fine-needle aspiration cytology in the management of salivary gland tumors: an Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Stow, Nicholas; Veivers, David; Poole, Alan

    2004-02-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of 104 cases of salivary gland tumors that were initially assessed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Based on subsequent histopathologic analysis of excised specimens, we found that preoperative FNAB was highly sensitive and specific for both benign and malignant tumors-including the most common, pleomorphic adenomas and squamous cell carcinomas, respectively. Despite its possible drawbacks, we conclude that preoperative FNAB is a useful tool in the management of salivary gland tumors.

  5. Potential value and disadvantages of fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Perić, Marija; Milicić, Valerija; Pajtler, Marija; Marjanović, Ksenija; Zubcić, Vedran

    2012-11-01

    Ameloblastoma is a benign, slow growing but locally aggressive tumor that is clinically manifested as swelling in a jaws. Prone to relapse (30%) even 30 years after inadequate primary operation. The most important cytological features of this tumor are small bazaloid cells in clusters, and single spindle and stellate shaped cells. We report on a case of 79-year-old patient, who was hospitalized due to tumor formation in the buccal region. FNA was performed and liquid material that contained only fagocites was collected. The conclusion was--cyst, while biopsy finding--adenoma baseo-cellulare, pointed to the salivary gland tumor. Patient refused the proposed surgical treatment. Four years later, the patient was urgently hospitalized due heavy bleeding from the tumor in the same region. It affected the crest portion of the upper jaw and a section of hard palate, and was bleeding on palpation. In second FNA we found phagocytes and a few small clusters of basaloid cells with palisade arrangement at the edges. Because of uniform and benign cytomorphological features it was concluded that it was a cystic tumor. On biopsy pattern the diagnose of ameloblastoma was determinated. The patient underwent surgery, however due to postoperative complications he died. Preoperative diagnosis is usually set on the basis of clinical and often nonspecific radiological findings. As it is very important to get the correct diagnose before planning an adequate surgical procedure, we would like to point out the potential value and disadvantages of FNA cytology in the diagnosis of ameloblastoma.

  6. Computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer using cytological images: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Saha, Monjoy; Mukherjee, Rashmi; Chakraborty, Chandan

    2016-10-01

    Cytological evaluation by microscopic image-based characterization [imprint cytology (IC) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC)] plays an integral role in primary screening/detection of breast cancer. The sensitivity of IC and FNAC as a screening tool is dependent on the image quality and the pathologist's level of expertise. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is used to assists the pathologists by developing various machine learning and image processing algorithms. This study reviews the various manual and computer-aided techniques used so far in breast cytology. Diagnostic applications were studied to estimate the role of CAD in breast cancer diagnosis. This paper presents an overview of image processing and pattern recognition techniques that have been used to address several issues in breast cytology-based CAD including slide preparation, staining, microscopic imaging, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction and diagnostic classification. This review provides better insights to readers regarding the state of the art the knowledge on CAD-based breast cancer diagnosis to date. PMID:27528421

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer using cytological images: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Saha, Monjoy; Mukherjee, Rashmi; Chakraborty, Chandan

    2016-10-01

    Cytological evaluation by microscopic image-based characterization [imprint cytology (IC) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC)] plays an integral role in primary screening/detection of breast cancer. The sensitivity of IC and FNAC as a screening tool is dependent on the image quality and the pathologist's level of expertise. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is used to assists the pathologists by developing various machine learning and image processing algorithms. This study reviews the various manual and computer-aided techniques used so far in breast cytology. Diagnostic applications were studied to estimate the role of CAD in breast cancer diagnosis. This paper presents an overview of image processing and pattern recognition techniques that have been used to address several issues in breast cytology-based CAD including slide preparation, staining, microscopic imaging, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction and diagnostic classification. This review provides better insights to readers regarding the state of the art the knowledge on CAD-based breast cancer diagnosis to date.

  8. Gaucher's Disease: A Rare Case, Diagnosed By Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Rashmi Rani; Kumar, Bipin

    2016-03-01

    Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) is a simple, inexpensive and innocuous diagnostic tool. It is increasingly accepted in daily medical practice. We report a case of Gaucher's disease diagnosed by FNA of enlarged spleen in a seven-year-old male presented with complaints of fever, on and off irregular bowel habits, abdominal distension and asymmetric gaze for four years and decreased vision in night for last one year. The diagnosis was based on the finding of large, macrophage like cells with abundant, pale, fibrillary cytoplasm and small nuclei. The patient had no family history of Gaucher's disease, and the diagnosis was not suspected clinically. PMID:27134885

  9. Fine needle aspiration cytology of lymphoepitheliomalike carcinoma of the parotid gland. A case report.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M B; Nestok, B R; Gluckman, J L

    1994-01-01

    Lymphoepitheliomalike carcinoma is a rare primary neoplasm of the salivary gland that has also been reported to occur in other primary sites. In this report we document the clinical, cytomorphologic and histologic findings of a case affecting the parotid gland. The patient was a 48-year-old, white woman with a two-month history of a swelling on the left side of the face and associated pain. Physical examination and computed tomography revealed a left parotid mass with spread to the superior cervical lymph nodes. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the parotid and upper cervical nodes revealed multiple, irregular aggregates of epithelial cells with a high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio and finely granular chromatin. Prominent, single, round nucleoli were present. Multiple chromocenters were also noted. These aggregates were found in a background of abundant, benign, small and large lymphocytes. The patient underwent parotidectomy with radical neck dissection. Histopathologic examination of the parotid showed a poorly differentiated carcinoma in a benign lymphoid background consistent with lymphoepitheliomalike carcinoma, with metastatic tumor involving two lymph nodes of the parotid compartment. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of FNA biopsy of this unusual entity. The cytomorphologic features of these neoplasms when aspirated from the salivary gland are sufficiently distinctive to allow a specific diagnosis of lymphoepitheliomalike carcinoma.

  10. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of malignant hemangiopericytoma of the salivary gland: A case report.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, K; Ogura, S; Kobayashi, T K; Kushima, R; Toyokuni, S; Iwasa, Y; Sakurai, M

    1999-12-01

    A 79-yr-old woman presented with a 5-yr history of swelling of the left cheek. The fine-needle aspiration (FNA) smear showed a spindle-cell neoplasm with capillaries and benign endothelial cells. The spindle cells possessed pleomorphic, hyperchromatic elongated nuclei and a moderate amount of ill-defined cytoplasm. They also showed papillary arcades surrounded and encased by relatively small ovoid to short spindle cells. Subsequent surgical excision confirmed the presence of malignant hemangiopericytoma (HP). Immunohistochemical studies on the histologic section using vimentin were strongly positive, consistent with HP. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second published report of FNA cellular features of malignant HP of the salivary gland. Besides delineating the FNA cellular features of HP of the salivary gland, the present case illustrates the value of using immunohistochemical approaches. Diagn. Cytopathol. 1999;21:398-401.

  11. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of primary granulosa cell tumor of the adrenal gland: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hameed, A; Coleman, R L

    2000-02-01

    Extraovarian granulosa cell tumors are extremely rare. We report on a primary granulosa cell tumor of the adrenal gland. A 69-yr-old African-American female presented with a 1-yr history of irregular uterine bleeding and a palpable right abdominal mass. CT scan showed a 9.0-cm suprarenal mass as well as an enlarged uterus. CT-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of the adrenal mass was interpreted as a malignant neoplasm. She underwent exploratory laparotomy, right nephrectomy, and hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The gross, histologic, and immunohistochemical findings of the adrenal mass were characteristic of a granulosa cell tumor. The uterus contained multiple leiomyomas. The endometrium showed simple hyperplasia. Both fallopian tubes and ovaries showed no pathologic abnormality. There was no evidence of tumor elsewhere. Although rare, extraovarian granulosa cell tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adrenal tumors in women showing the FNA features described herein, especially when there is evidence of excessive estrogen production. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2000;22:107-109.

  12. Fine-needle aspiration of a primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma: a case report with cytologic, histologic, and flow cytometric considerations.

    PubMed

    Hoda, Rana S; Picklesimer, Lee; Green, Kimberly M; Self, Sally

    2005-06-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology and immunophenotyping by flow cytometry (FCM) are increasingly being used for diagnosing and subclassifying lymphoma in the REAL/WHO classification. Herein, we report a case of primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL), a subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the WHO classification, diagnosed by FNA cytology in conjunction with FCM. This, to our knowledge, has not previously been reported. A 57-yr-old woman presented with bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy and intermittent shortness of breath. CT scan revealed a 5-cm anterior mediastinal mass and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided FNA of a 4.5-cm subcarinal lymph node showed medium to large atypical lymphocytes with scant to moderate finely vacuolated cytoplasm. Nuclei were enlarged, cleaved, noncleaved, lobulated, and hyperchromatic. The background showed lymphoglandular bodies. Malignant large cell lymphoma was cytologically diagnosed. FCM, performed on a portion of the FNA specimen, demonstrated large B cells devoid of surface immunoglobulin expression, the characteristic immunophenotype of PMBL. The histologic diagnosis was PMBL. Touch-imprint cytology of the histologic specimen showed large cells with a narrow rim of clear cytoplasm and prominent outer cell border. Nuclear features were similar to the FNA specimen. In the presence of a mediastinal mass, FNA cytology in conjunction with FCM can effectively diagnose PMBL in the appropriate clinical setting. PMID:15880713

  13. Iatrogenic calcinosis cutis: A rare cytological diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sawke, Gopal Krishna; Rai, Tina; Sawke, Nilima

    2016-01-01

    Calcinosis cutis is an uncommon condition characterized by the deposition of calcium salts in the subcutaneous tissues of the body. Calcifications can also occur in a variety of other clinical settings and can be subjected to fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Since cutaneous calcific deposits may clinically mimic a tumor, it is feasible to diagnose them by FNA cytology (FNAC). We reported a case of calcinosis cutis by FNA in a 36-year-old male who presented with a solitary subcutaneous nodule in cubital fossa. Smears showed amorphous granular material consistent with calcium and occasional histiocytes. The diagnosis was confirmed when cytosmears were subjected to a special stain such as the von Kossa stain.

  14. Two Unusual Cases of Acinic Cell Carcinoma: Role of Cytology with Histological Corelation.

    PubMed

    Das, Rumpa; Nath, Gorakh; Bohara, Sangita; Bhattacharya, Aarti Biswajit; Gupta, Vivek

    2016-08-01

    Acinic Cell Carcinoma (AcCC) is a slow growing, malignant tumour of salivary glands, predominantly found in parotid gland and rarely in submandibular gland or minor salivary glands. Rarely, the tumour can arise in Heterotopic Salivary Gland Tissue (HSGT) and can present bilaterally. Synchronous contralateral tumour or tumour arising in HSGT is easily missed clinically. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is an important preoperative diagnostic investigation in cases of AcCC. Sometimes its diagnosis on cytology is very difficult and it is easily misdiagnosed as benign, affecting the long term prognosis. Here, we present two unusual cases of AcCC. One developed in HSGT and the other was synchronous bilateral. Though the histological features of AcCC appear to be characteristic but clinical suspicion and cytological features have been described as equally important for preoperative diagnosis. Present cases highlight the importance of a cytopathologist who plays an important role in its preliminary diagnosis.

  15. Cytomorphologic spectrum of lymphocytic thyroiditis and correlation between cytological grading and biochemical parameters

    PubMed Central

    Anila, KR; Nayak, Nileena; Jayasree, K

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis [Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT)] is a common thyroid lesion diagnosed on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Apart from FNAC, various other parameters, such as clinical features, ultrasonographic findings, antithyroid antibody levels, hormone profiles, and radionuclide thyroid scan, are also taken into consideration in making a diagnosis of HT. Aims: To grade lymphocytic thyroiditis based on the cytomorphology and to correlate the cytological grades with the levels of antithyroid peroxidase antibody (ATPO), antithyroglobulin antibody (ATG), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Materials and Methods: During a period of one and half years, 1,667 cases underwent FNAC of thyroid at our tertiary care center. Of these, 128 cases had cytological evidence of lymphocytic thyroiditis. Out of these, in 60 cases the levels of ATPO, ATG, and TSH were known. The cytological grades of lymphocytic thyroiditis in these cases were correlated with these parameters. Results: Out of the 60 cases, 55 were females. Age ranged from 5 years to 70 years, with majority of patients in third decade. Diffuse enlargement of thyroid was the commonest presentation. However, 14 cases presented with nodular disease. Majority of the patients had grade 1 thyroiditis (27 cases), followed by grade 2 thyroiditis (22 cases). Cytomorphology was diagnostic of thyroiditis in all 60 cases. ATPO was elevated in 57 cases and ATG was elevated in 40 cases. Elevated level of TSH was seen in only 18 cases. In 39 cases, TSH value was normal. There was no correlation between the cytological grades of thyroiditis and the levels of antithyroid antibodies and TSH. Conclusion: Lymphocytic infiltration of thyroid follicles is pathognomonic of lymphocytic thyroiditis. Positivity for antithyroid antibodies is strongly associated with HT but no correlation was observed between the grades of thyroiditis and the levels of ATPO, ATG, and TSH.

  16. Pitfalls of fine-needle aspiration cytology of parotid membranous basal cell adenoma-A review of pitfalls in FNA cytology of salivary gland neoplasms with basaloid cell features.

    PubMed

    Jurczyk, Matthew; Peevey, Joseph F; Vande Haar, Mark A; Lin, Xiaoqi

    2015-05-01

    Membranous basal cell adenoma (MBCA) is a rare benign salivary gland neoplasm. It is difficult to diagnose MBCA based on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology due to rare reporting of its FNA cytology and overlapping of its FNA cytologic features with some benign and malignant entities. We present a case of MBCA in a 67-year-old female that was originally misinterpreted as adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) on FNA cytology. The FNA smears showed numerous uniform small basaloid epithelial cells with round or oval nuclei and inconspicuous nucleoli, and scant cytoplasm. The basaloid cells surround acellular, dense, homogenous material or are surrounded by acellular or paucicellular dense homogeneous material possibly containing bland spindle cells. The basaloid cells are present in variably sized three-dimensional clusters, acini, or sheets with variable cohesion. The dense homogenous material surrounded by basaloid cells may be interconnected. High power magnification reveals the homogeneous material to have a fibrillar texture. The edges of dense homogenous materials were well-demarcated. We describe the diagnostic pitfalls of FNA for MBCA, particularly versus ACC, basal cell adenoma, cellular pleomorphic adenoma, myoepithelioma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in hope of improving clinical management and patient treatment.

  17. Calcitonin measurement in fine-needle aspirate washouts vs. cytologic examination for diagnosis of primary or metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    de Crea, C; Raffaelli, M; Maccora, D; Carrozza, C; Canu, G; Fadda, G; Bellantone, R; Lombardi, C P

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy cytology (FNAB-C) is able to detect approximately 63% of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The measurement of calcitonin in the needle washout (FNAB-CT) could improve its accuracy. Sixty-two FNAB-C were performed in 38 patients. Serum calcitonin (sCT) was measured before performing FNAB-C. After obtaining a FNAB-C specimen, the needle was washed with 0.5 ml of saline solution to obtain the CT washouts. Receiver operating characteristic (RO C) analysis identified the cut-offs of FNAB-CT and FNAB-CT/sCT. Eighteen MTC were found at final histology. RO C analysis indicated FNAB-CT > 10.4 pg/ml and FNABCT/ sCT > 1.39 as more accurate cut-off values. Overall accuracy, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were 85%, 100 and 83%, respectively, for FNAB-C, 97%, 100%, 96% for FNAB-CT and 90%, 83% and 93% for FNAB-CT/sCT. The integration of FNAB-C and FNAB-CT resulted in 98% overall accuracy, 100% PPV and 98% NPV; the integration of FNAB-C and FNAB-CT/sCT in 90% overall accuracy, 80% PPV and 95% NPV. One of 2 false negative FNAB-CT and one of 3 false negative FNAB CT/sCT were correctly diagnosed by FNAB-C. Eight of 9 non-diagnostic FNAB-C were correctly classified by FNAB-CT and 7 by FNAB CT/sCT. FNAB-CT should integrate but not replace FNAB-C. FNAB-CT is particularly useful in the presence of non-diagnostic FNAB-C.

  18. Clinical usefulness of fine needle aspiration cytology in patients less than 20 years old: a 10-year experience at a single institution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunzoo; Jang, Eun Jeong; Jeong, Ji Yun; Park, Ji Young

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the spectrum of cytological diagnoses and evaluate the diagnostic effectiveness of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNA) in patients less than 20 years old. The subjects were selected by retrospectively reviewing records from 1999 to 2009. Selected patients less than 20 years old underwent FNA. Cytological and histological slides of samples from the subjects were reviewed. Our study included a total of 909 subjects with a mean age of 14.6 years. The majority of the FNA samples were taken from lymph nodes (n = 448, 49.3%), with the remaining aspirates obtained from the thyroid gland (n = 247, 27.2%), soft tissues of head and neck masses (n = 106, 11.7%), salivary glands (n = 75, 8.3%), breasts (n = 18, 1.9%), skins (n = 9, 1.0%) and soft tissues of extremity (n = 6, 0.7%). The majority (87.6%, n = 796) of the FNA samples were categorized as 'benign', with the remaining designated as 'atypical lesion' (n = 18, 2.0%), 'malignant' (n = 24, 2.6%), or 'inadequate specimen' (n = 71, 7.8%). FNA accuracy was 92% for diagnosing cancer. Specificity and sensitivity were 99% and 63%, respectively. Our study first revealed that FNA has a high specificity for diagnosing cancer in various anatomical locations in young patients and can be confidently used as an effective tool for diagnosing malignancies in young individuals with a clinically suspicious lesion.

  19. Estimation of thyroglobulin in lymph node aspirates: Pilot experience from a tertiary referral cancer center

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Subramanian; Chauhan, Subhra; Naveen; Latha, B. S.; Raju, Nalini; Chandrasekhar, Naveen Hedne; Kekatpure, Vikram; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham; Manjunath, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Assessment of cervical lymph node involvement in patients with thyroid cancer either during preoperative surgical mapping or detection of recurrences during follow-up is a crucial step in the management of differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs). In most patients, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) confirms the presence of metastasis in lymph node. However, in cases of paucicellular lymph node aspirate or discordant sonogram and cytology results, thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement in the lymph node aspirate (FNA-Tg) is useful and a value >1 ng/ml is considered consistent with metastatic disease. Context: The addition of FNAC to the US improves the specificity, but 5–10% are nondiagnostic and 6–8% rate of false-negative results. Several studies have reported that the detection of Tg in FNA-needle washes improves the evaluation of suspicious lymph nodes in patients with DTC.Data from Indian centers on FNA-Tg are limited. Aims: We piloted the utility of FNA-Tg in patients with sonographically suspicious cervical lymph node enlargement in the setting of suspicious thyroid nodule or in the follow-up of thyroid cancer. Settings and Design: Prospective data collection. Results: We measured Tg in 13 lymph node aspirates (12 patients, 10 females) among whom 4 patients had a total thyroidectomy and 1 had a hemithyroidectomy. Eight of the 13 lymph node aspirates had FNA-Tg values >150 ng/ml, all of them had unequivocal malignant cytology and four among them had proven metastatic DTC on surgical pathology. The median FNA-Tg of the patients with malignant cytology was 7550 ng/ml with a range of 162–30,000 ng/ml. Among the remaining 5 lymph node aspirate, 2 lymph nodes showed cytological features suggestive of reactive lymphadenitis (FNA-Tg <0.2 ng/ml) and were not operated, 1 had a high-grade malignancy consistent with anaplastic thyroid cancer (FNA-Tg <0.2 ng/ml), and 2 had nondiagnostic cytology (one had non-caseating granuloma on surgical pathology [FNA-Tg 1

  20. Utility and diagnostic accuracy of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine-needle aspiration cytology of mediastinal lesions: Saudi Arabian experience

    PubMed Central

    Raddaoui, Emad; Alhamad, Esam H; Zaidi, Shaesta Naseem; Al-Habeeb, Fatmah F; Arafah, Maha

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the cytological accuracy of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine-needle aspiration (EBUS-TFNA) of the mediastinal mass/nodular lesions. Study Design: Over 3½ years from inception at King Khalid University Hospital, a retrospective analysis of the cytological diagnoses of all the EBUS-TFNA procedures performed in 80 patients who had mediastinal mass/nodular enlargement. Cytology results were reviewed and correlated with the histologic follow-up. Results: Of the 80 patients who underwent EBUS-TFNA, 15 cases (18.75%) were positive for malignancy, 48 cases (60%) negative for malignancy and 17 cases (21.25%) unsatisfactory. Of the 48 cases, which were negative for malignancy, 24 (50%) cases were of granulomatous inflammation. The overall diagnostic yield of our EBUS-TFNA specimen was 78.75%. Forty-seven cases (58.75%) of 80 cases had histological follow-up biopsies. Among them, 32 cases (68%) had the same cytological and histological diagnosis and 15 cases (31.09%) had discordance between the cytology and the follow-up histological diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for diagnosing granulomas by EBUS-TFNA are 77%, 82%, 83%, and 75% and for diagnosing malignancy are 71%, 100%, 100%, and 82%, respectively. Conclusion: Preliminary results show that cytological samples obtained through EBUS-TFNA are accurate and specific in making a diagnosis of the mediastinal mass/nodular lesions. Its optimum use depends on the effective collaboration between the cytotechnologist, pathologist, and the bronchoscopist. PMID:25191512

  1. Scope of FNAC in the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors-A study from a tertiary cancer referral center in India

    PubMed Central

    Rekhi, Bharat; Gorad, Biru D; Kakade, Anagha C; Chinoy, RF

    2007-01-01

    Background Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) forms one of the first diagnostic tools in the evaluation of tumors. Its role in diagnosing soft tissue tumors (STT) has been fairly documented, as well as debated. Present study was aimed at evaluating its scope in diagnosing 127 cases of soft tissue tumors. Methods Conventional Pap and MGG staining was available in all the cases. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) was performed in 15 cases. Histopathological details were available in 115 cases. Results 50% cases were referred for a primary diagnosis, while 26.8% & 22.8% cases were evaluated for recurrent and metastatic lesions, respectively. Extremities were the commonest sites. On FNAC, 101 cases (79.5%) were labeled as malignant, whereas 10 cases (7.9%) were labeled as benign. The remaining 16 cases (11%) were not categorized and were labeled as 'unsure/not specified'. Histopathological confirmation in 115 cases, gave a diagnostic accuracy of 98%, with a positive predictive value of 98% in malignant cases and a negative predictive value of 100% in benign cases. Two cases were false positive. Among the various cytological categories, 60 cases (47.2%) were of spindle cell type, followed by 32 (25.2%) of round cell type and 14 cases (11%) of lipomatous type. Other 12 cases (9.4%) were of pleomorphic type; 7 (5.5%) cases of epithelioid type and remaining 2 cases were of myxoid type. All the round cell, pleomorphic and myxoid type of tumors were sarcomas, whereas 73.3% cases of spindle cell type were labeled as 'malignant'. Exact cytological sub typing was offered in 58 cases, with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) as the most frequently sub typed tumor. The two false positive malignant cases were of fibromatosis and a pigmented schwannoma, on biopsy. Out of 28 metastatic lesions, lymph nodes were the commonest site for metastasis, with epithelioid tumors that formed highest percentage of metastatic cases. Conclusion FNAC is fairly specific and sensitive in STT diagnoses for primary

  2. Cytologic features of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with "vacuolated cell pattern." report of a case diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Samad, Arbaz; Conway, Andrea B; Attam, Rajeev; Jessurun, Jose; Pambuccian, Stefan E

    2014-04-01

    The "vacuolated cell pattern" has only been recently described as a distinct morphologic variant of pancreatobiliary adenocarcinoma. Herein, we report the endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) cytologic features of a case of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with "vacuolated cell pattern" occurring in a 60-year-old man. The aspirate smears and cell block sections from the EUS-FNA of a 23.5 mm hypoechoic pancreatic head mass were highly cellular, showing variably-sized crowded three-dimensional cell clusters, flat sheets, and numerous highly atypical single cells. The background was bloody and showed necrotic debris, but no discernible mucus. The most striking feature of the aspirate was the presence of numerous very large (20-50 µm) vacuoles, occupying the entire cytoplasm, pushing the nuclei to the side and indenting them, that imparted a cribriform appearance to the sheets of neoplastic cells. The non-vacuolated neoplastic cells were large, had abundant dense (squamoid) cytoplasm, irregularly contoured hyperchromatic nuclei, and prominent macronucleoli. Histologic evaluation of the pancreatectomy specimen showed a "vacuolated cell pattern" adenocarcinoma composed of poorly formed glands, solid sheets, and infiltrating single cells with pleomorphic nuclei and large cytoplasmic vacuoles. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the cytologic features of this rather uncommon morphologic variant of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Recognition of this morphologic variant of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in ESU-FNA samples allows its differentiation from primary and metastatic signet-ring cell carcinomas.

  3. The value of fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the cytodiagnosis of salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, N; Ashim, D; Rajwanshi, A; Radhika, S; Banerjee, C K

    1989-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed on 195 cases of salivary gland lesions. The smears were technically adequate in 178 cases. Tissue examination was available for subsequent histocytologic correlation in 57 cases. The cytodiagnosis included inflammatory lesions (59) and benign (68) and malignant (51) tumors (total, 119). The accuracy of cytodiagnosis was 87.7% with a sensitivity of 80.9% and a specificity of 94.3%. Exact histologic typing was possible in 61.9% of the malignant tumors. Mucoepidermoid tumors and cellular-atypical pleomorphic adenoma posed difficulties in cytodiagnosis.

  4. Molecular Testing for miRNA, mRNA, and DNA on Fine-Needle Aspiration Improves the Preoperative Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules With Indeterminate Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shifrin, Alexander; Busseniers, Anne E.; Lupo, Mark A.; Manganelli, Monique L.; Andruss, Bernard; Wylie, Dennis; Beaudenon-Huibregtse, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Context: Molecular testing for oncogenic mutations or gene expression in fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) from thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology identifies a subset of benign or malignant lesions with high predictive value. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate a novel diagnostic algorithm combining mutation detection and miRNA expression to improve the diagnostic yield of molecular cytology. Setting: Surgical specimens and preoperative FNAs (n = 638) were tested for 17 validated gene alterations using the miRInform Thyroid test and with a 10-miRNA gene expression classifier generating positive (malignant) or negative (benign) results. Design: Cross-sectional sampling of thyroid nodules with atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) or follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm (FN/SFN) cytology (n = 109) was conducted at 12 endocrinology centers across the United States. Qualitative molecular results were compared with surgical histopathology to determine diagnostic performance and model clinical effect. Results: Mutations were detected in 69% of nodules with malignant outcome. Among mutation-negative specimens, miRNA testing correctly identified 64% of malignant cases and 98% of benign cases. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the combined algorithm was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73–97%) and 85% (95% CI, 75–92%), respectively. At 32% cancer prevalence, 61% of the molecular results were benign with a negative predictive value of 94% (95% CI, 85–98%). Independently of variations in cancer prevalence, the test increased the yield of true benign results by 65% relative to mRNA-based gene expression classification and decreased the rate of avoidable diagnostic surgeries by 69%. Conclusions: Multiplatform testing for DNA, mRNA, and miRNA can accurately classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules, increase the diagnostic yield of molecular cytology, and further improve

  5. Fine-needle aspiration and core biopsy in the diagnosis of breast lesions: A comparison and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Suvradeep; Dey, Pranab

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, the diagnosis of breast lesions has mostly become dependent on core needle biopsies (CNBs) with a gradual reduction in the rate of performing fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Both the procedures have their pros and cons and outsmart each other taking into account different parameters. Both the methods are found to be fraught with loopholes, taking into account different performance indices, diagnostic accuracy and concordance, patient benefit, and cost-effectiveness. Unlike the popular belief of an absolute superiority of CNB over FNAC, the literature review does not reveal a very distinct demarcation in many aspects. We recommend judicious use of these diagnostic modalities in resource-limited settings and screening programs taking into account parameters such as palpability and availability of an experienced cytopathologist. PMID:27651820

  6. Fine-needle aspiration and core biopsy in the diagnosis of breast lesions: A comparison and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Suvradeep; Dey, Pranab

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, the diagnosis of breast lesions has mostly become dependent on core needle biopsies (CNBs) with a gradual reduction in the rate of performing fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Both the procedures have their pros and cons and outsmart each other taking into account different parameters. Both the methods are found to be fraught with loopholes, taking into account different performance indices, diagnostic accuracy and concordance, patient benefit, and cost-effectiveness. Unlike the popular belief of an absolute superiority of CNB over FNAC, the literature review does not reveal a very distinct demarcation in many aspects. We recommend judicious use of these diagnostic modalities in resource-limited settings and screening programs taking into account parameters such as palpability and availability of an experienced cytopathologist.

  7. Fine-needle aspiration and core biopsy in the diagnosis of breast lesions: A comparison and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Suvradeep; Dey, Pranab

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, the diagnosis of breast lesions has mostly become dependent on core needle biopsies (CNBs) with a gradual reduction in the rate of performing fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Both the procedures have their pros and cons and outsmart each other taking into account different parameters. Both the methods are found to be fraught with loopholes, taking into account different performance indices, diagnostic accuracy and concordance, patient benefit, and cost-effectiveness. Unlike the popular belief of an absolute superiority of CNB over FNAC, the literature review does not reveal a very distinct demarcation in many aspects. We recommend judicious use of these diagnostic modalities in resource-limited settings and screening programs taking into account parameters such as palpability and availability of an experienced cytopathologist. PMID:27651820

  8. Discrepancy of target sites between clinician and cytopathological reports in head neck fine needle aspiration: Did I miss the target or did the clinician mistake the organ site?

    PubMed Central

    Khanlari, Mahsa; Daneshbod, Yahya; Shaterzadeh Yazdi, Hanieh; Shirian, Sadegh; Negahban, Shahrzad; Aledavood, Azita; Oryan, Ahmad; Khademi, Bijan; Daneshbod, Khosrow; Field, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of head and neck lesions is relatively high, but cytologic interpretation might be confusing if the sample is lacking typical cytologic features according to labeled site by physician. These errors may have an impact on pathology search engines, healthcare costs or even adverse outcomes. The cytology archive database of multiple institutions in southern Iran and Australia covering the period 2001–2011, were searched using keywords: salivary gland, head, neck, FNAC, and cytology. All the extracted reports were reviewed. The reports which showed discordance between the clinician's impression of the organ involved and subsequent fine needle biopsy request, and the eventual cytological diagnosis were selected. The cytological diagnosis was confirmed by histology or cell block, with assistance from imaging, clinical outcome, physical examination, molecular studies, or microbiological culture. The total number of 10,200 head and neck superficial FNAC were included in the study, from which 48 cases showed discordance between the clinicians request and the actual site of pathology. Apart from the histopathology, the imaging, clinical history, physical examination, immunohistochemical study, microbiologic culture and molecular testing helped to finalize the target organ of pathology in 23, 6, 7, 8, 2, and 1 cases respectively. The commonest discrepancies were for FNAC of “salivary gland” [total: 20 with actual final pathology in: bone (7), soft tissue (5), lymph node (3), odontogenic (3) and skin (2)], “lymph node” [total: 12 with final pathology in: soft tissue (3), skin (3), bone (1) and brain (1)], “soft tissue” [total: 11 with final pathology in: bone (5), skin (2), salivary gland (1), and ocular region (1)] and “skin” [total: 5 with final pathology in: lymph node (2), bone (1), soft tissue (1) and salivary gland (1)]. The primary physician requesting FNAC of head and neck lesions are

  9. Primary intraosseous (central) salivary gland neoplasms in jaw bones: report of a mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the mandible diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Zaharopoulos, Paul

    2004-10-01

    A case of intraosseous (central) mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the mandible diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology, with the diagnosis confirmed by surgical resection of the tumor is presented. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most common histotype of malignant and benign salivary gland tumors, which occasionally arise within the facial bones of mandible and maxilla, besides their ordinary derivation from the major and minor salivary glands of the head and neck regions. This case is unusual in that although tumors of the jaws abound, only rare reports of intraosseous salivary gland-type lesions sampled by FNA exist. The current concepts exploring the intraosseous derivation of salivary gland tumors are presented and certain points on FNA technic for adequate sampling of such lesions are related.

  10. The Cytological Grading of Malignant Neoplasms of The Breast and Its Correlation With The Histological Grading

    PubMed Central

    Vasudev, Vidya; R., Rangaswamy; V., Geethamani

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Breast carcinoma is one of the leading causes of malignancy in females. The diagnosis of breast carcinoma is often made by fine needle aspiration cytology. Nuclear grading is an important prognostic factor. It is important to grade breast carcinomas, which will provide valuable information to the treating oncologists to plan their management. The purpose of this study was to compare the cytological grading and typing with the histological grading and typing and the regional lymph node metastasis. Methodology: This retrospective and prospective study was done on 60 cases with malignant and suspicious diagnoses on FNAC, which had histopathological correlations, from January 2004 to December 2007. The cytological grading was done by Robinson's Method and the histopathological grading was done by the modified Scarff Bloom Richardson method. Cytological and histological typings were also done. The statistical analysis was done by using the SPSS software: The Chi square test was used and a contingency tale analysis (cross tabs procedure) was also done. Results: The cytohistological grading correlation was accurate in 7 cases (100%) of grade 1, 22 cases (71%) of grade 3 and 9 cases (42.9%) of grade 2 cancers. The accuracy was 62.7% (P < 0.001). A higher cytological grade was associated with a nodal metastasis. (cc : 0.399, P < .006) The cytological typing was accurate in 44 cases out of the 60 cases. Interpretation and Conclusion: The cytological grade correlated well with the histological grading accuracy (62.7%) and a higher grade was associated with a nodal metastasis (P < 0.006), Hence the cytological grading and typing should be routinely incorporated in the cytology reports and they can be of great value in guiding the choice of the treatment protocols. PMID:23905097

  11. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the pancreas: A multi-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Pannala, Rahul; Hallberg-Wallace, Karyn M.; Smith, Amber L.; Nassar, Aziza; Zhang, Jun; Zarka, Matthew; Reynolds, Jordan P.; Chen, Longwen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The increasing use of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) cytology to examine pancreatic neoplasms has led to an increase in the diagnosis of metastases to the pancreas. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common metastasis to the pancreas. Our study examines 33 cases of metastatic RCC to the pancreas sampled by EUS-FNA from four large tertiary care hospitals. Materials and Methods: We searched the cytopathology database for RCC metastatic to the pancreas diagnosed by EUS-FNA from January 2005 to January 2015. Patient age, history of RCC, nephrectomy history, follow-up postnephrectomy, radiological impression, and EUS-FNA cytologic diagnosis were reviewed. Results: Thirty-three patients were identified. The average age was 67.5 years (range, 49–84 years). Thirty-two patients had a previous documented history of RCC. One patient had the diagnosis of pancreatic metastasis at the same time of the kidney biopsy. Thirty-one patients had been treated with nephrectomy. Twenty-seven patients were being monitored annually by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-five patients had multiple masses by imaging, but 8 patients had a single mass in the pancreas at the time of EUS-FNA. EUS-FNA of 20 cases showed classic morphology of RCC. Thirteen cases had either “atypical” clinical-radiologic features or morphologic overlaps with primary pancreatic neoplasms or other neoplasms. Cell blocks were made on all 13 cases and immunochemical stains confirmed the diagnosis. Conclusions: EUS-FNA cytology is useful for the diagnosis of metastatic RCC to the pancreas. Cytomorphology can be aided with patient history, imaging analyses, cell blocks, and immunochemical stains. PMID:27761149

  12. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Salla, Charitini; Chatzipantelis, Paschalis; Konstantinou, Panagiotis; Karoumpalis, Ioannis; Pantazopoulou, Akrivi; Dappola, Victoria

    2007-10-14

    We describe the clinical, imaging and cytopathological features of solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas (SPTP) diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided (EUS-guided) fine-needle aspiration (FNA). A 17-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with complaints of an unexplained episodic abdominal pain for 2 mo and a short history of hypertension in the endocrinology clinic. Clinical laboratory examinations revealed polycystic ovary syndrome, splenomegaly and low serum amylase and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. Computed tomography (CT) analysis revealed a mass of the pancreatic tail with solid and cystic consistency. EUS confirmed the mass, both in body and tail of the pancreas, with distinct borders, which caused dilation of the peripheral part of the pancreatic duct (major diameter 3.7 mm). The patient underwent EUS-FNA. EUS-FNA cytology specimens consisted of single cells and aggregates of uniform malignant cells, forming microadenoid structures, branching, papillary clusters with delicate fibrovascular cores and nuclear overlapping. Naked capillaries were also seen. The nuclei of malignant cells were round or oval, eccentric with fine granular chromatin, small nucleoli and nuclear grooves in some of them. The malignant cells were periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-Alcian blue (+) and immunocytochemically they were vimentin (+), CA 19.9 (+), synaptophysin (+), chromogranin (-), neuro-specific enolase (-), a1-antitrypsin and a1-antichymotrypsin focal positive. Cytologic findings were strongly suggestive of SPTP. Biopsy confirmed the above cytologic diagnosis. EUS-guided FNA diagnosis of SPTP is accurate. EUS findings, cytomorphologic features and immunostains of cell block help distinguish SPTP from pancreatic endocrine tumors, acinar cell carcinoma and papillary mucinous carcinoma. PMID:17876886

  13. A Rare Case of an Epidermoid Cyst in the Parotid Gland - which was Diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Panna N; Prasad H L, Kishan; Kumar Y, Sunil; Sajitha, K; Roy, Pooja Sarda; Raju, Mary; Shetty, Vikram

    2013-03-01

    Cystic lesions are common in the head and neck. The most common are the cutaneous cysts, which are referred to as epidermal cysts. These cysts present as nodular and fluctuant subcutaneous lesions and they are seen most commonly in the acne - prone areas like the head, neck and the back. They arise following a localized inflammation of the hair follicle and occasionally after the implantation of the epithelium, following a trauma or surgery. The presence of benign cystic lesions in the salivary glands is rare.We are presenting a rare case of a 55-year-old male who presented with a soft swelling on the left side of the face. A diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst was given on cytology. A superficial parotidectomy was performed and the histopathology confirmed the above diagnosis.

  14. Report of an intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor: fine-needle aspiration cytologic findings, clinicopathological, and immunohistochemical features.

    PubMed

    Caruso, R A; LaSpada, F; Gaeta, M; Minutoli, I; Inferrera, C

    1996-02-01

    The authors describe a rare case of intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). Morphologically, the tumor showed a disorganized or "patternless" arrangement of plump to spindle cells in a collagenous stroma. Tumor cells were immunoreactive for vimentin, but not for keratin, carcinoembryonic antigen, epithelial membrane antigen, factor-VIII related antigen, S-100 protein, desmin, and actin. These immunohistochemical findings suggested fibroblastic differentiation, in keeping with the putative submesothelial origin of the tumor. The problems concerning the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) preoperative diagnosis of SFT are briefly discussed.

  15. Usefulness of conventional transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis, staging and molecular characterization of pulmonary neoplasias by thin-prep based cytology: experience of a single oncological institute

    PubMed Central

    Ramieri, Maria Teresa; Marandino, Ferdinando; Visca, Paolo; Salvitti, Tommaso; Gallo, Enzo; Casini, Beatrice; Giordano, Francesca Romana; Frigieri, Claudia; Caterino, Mauro; Carlini, Sandro; Rinaldi, Massimo; Ceribelli, Anna; Pennetti, Annarita; Alò, Pier Luigi; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Filippetti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (c-TBNA) contributed to improve the bronchoscopic examination, allowing to sample lesions located even outside the tracheo-bronchial tree and in the hilo-mediastinal district, both for diagnostic and staging purposes. Methods We have evaluated the sensitivity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the c-TBNA performed during the 2005–2015 period for suspicious lung neoplasia and/or hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy at the Thoracic endoscopy of the Thoracic Surgery Department of the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome. Data from 273 consecutive patients (205 males and 68 females) were analyzed. Results Among 158 (58%) adequate specimens, 112 (41%) were neoplastic or contained atypical cells, 46 (17%) were negative or not diagnostic. We considered in the analysis first the overall period; then we compared the findings of the first [2005–2011] and second period [2012–2015] and, finally, only those of adequate specimens. During the overall period, sensibility and accuracy values were respectively of 53% and 63%, in the first period they reached 41% and 53% respectively; in the second period sensibility and accuracy reached 60% and 68%. Considering only the adequate specimens, sensibility and accuracy during the overall period were respectively of 80% and 82%; the values obtained for the first period were 68% and 72%. Finally, in the second period, sensibility reached 86% and accuracy 89%. Carcinoma-subtyping was possible in 112 cases, adenocarcinomas being diagnosed in 50 cases; further, in 30 cases molecular predictive data could be obtained. Conclusions The c-TBNA proved to be an efficient method for the diagnosis/staging of lung neoplasms and for the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Endoscopist’s skill and technical development, associated to thin-prep cytology and to a rapid on site examination (ROSE), were able to provide by c-TBNA a

  16. Usefulness of conventional transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis, staging and molecular characterization of pulmonary neoplasias by thin-prep based cytology: experience of a single oncological institute

    PubMed Central

    Ramieri, Maria Teresa; Marandino, Ferdinando; Visca, Paolo; Salvitti, Tommaso; Gallo, Enzo; Casini, Beatrice; Giordano, Francesca Romana; Frigieri, Claudia; Caterino, Mauro; Carlini, Sandro; Rinaldi, Massimo; Ceribelli, Anna; Pennetti, Annarita; Alò, Pier Luigi; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Filippetti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (c-TBNA) contributed to improve the bronchoscopic examination, allowing to sample lesions located even outside the tracheo-bronchial tree and in the hilo-mediastinal district, both for diagnostic and staging purposes. Methods We have evaluated the sensitivity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the c-TBNA performed during the 2005–2015 period for suspicious lung neoplasia and/or hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy at the Thoracic endoscopy of the Thoracic Surgery Department of the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome. Data from 273 consecutive patients (205 males and 68 females) were analyzed. Results Among 158 (58%) adequate specimens, 112 (41%) were neoplastic or contained atypical cells, 46 (17%) were negative or not diagnostic. We considered in the analysis first the overall period; then we compared the findings of the first [2005–2011] and second period [2012–2015] and, finally, only those of adequate specimens. During the overall period, sensibility and accuracy values were respectively of 53% and 63%, in the first period they reached 41% and 53% respectively; in the second period sensibility and accuracy reached 60% and 68%. Considering only the adequate specimens, sensibility and accuracy during the overall period were respectively of 80% and 82%; the values obtained for the first period were 68% and 72%. Finally, in the second period, sensibility reached 86% and accuracy 89%. Carcinoma-subtyping was possible in 112 cases, adenocarcinomas being diagnosed in 50 cases; further, in 30 cases molecular predictive data could be obtained. Conclusions The c-TBNA proved to be an efficient method for the diagnosis/staging of lung neoplasms and for the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Endoscopist’s skill and technical development, associated to thin-prep cytology and to a rapid on site examination (ROSE), were able to provide by c-TBNA a

  17. Cytological features of cystadenocarcinoma in cyst fluid of the parotid gland: Diagnostic pitfalls and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Akihiko; Harada, Hiroshi; Mihashi, Hiroyuki; Akiba, Jun; Kage, Masayoshi

    2010-05-01

    Cystadenocarcinoma is a rare malignant tumor, with an estimated incidence of 2% of malignant salivary gland tumors. Cytological diagnosis of cystadenocarcinoma is important for differential diagnosis between benign lesions and malignant tumors with cystic growth. We report a case of cystadenocarcinoma causing difficulty in cytological diagnosis. A 23-year-old man presented with an asymptomatic mass in the left parotid gland that had been present for 2 years. The mass was elastic hard, measuring 30 x 35 mm in diameter. Preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) showed a small number of tumor cell clusters in the cystic fluid. The cluster was arranged in a ball-like structure and was cohesive with overlapping. Tumor cells had a small vacuolated, soap-bubble appearance in the cytoplasm. The papillary-cystic variant of acinic cell carcinoma (ACC-PCV) was suggested from these findings on FNAC. Histologically, the tumor was not encapsulated, but formed large cystic spaces against a background of fibrous connective tissue. The tumor cells in the cystic dilated duct showed papillary structures, which were continuous with the lining cuboidal cells. There was neither a definite double-layered arrangement in cystic ducts and solid islands nor histological findings characteristic of the papillary-cystic or follicular pattern of ACC-PCV. As tumor cells with a small vacuolated, soap-bubble appearance of the cytoplasm are common findings of both cystadenocarcinoma and ACC-PCV, they are of little use for differentiation; however, they are so characteristic that the majority of benign salivary gland lesions with cystic structures can be excluded, if enough attention is paid.

  18. Chromogenic in situ hybridization to detect EGFR gene copy number in cell blocks from fine-needle aspirates of non small cell lung carcinomas and lung metastases from colo-rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several studies demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene copy number (GCN) correlates to the response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). In the presence of lung nodules, cytology is often the only possible diagnostic approach. Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) is an alternative technique to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), but its feasibility in detecting EGFR GCN in cell blocks from fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of lung nodules has not yet been established. Methods We evaluated the feasibility of CISH on 33 FNAC from 20 primary NSCLC (5 squamous carcinomas, 8 large cell carcinomas and 7 adenocarcinomas) and 13 lung metastases from CRC. Results Of the 33 FNAC analyzed by CISH, 27 (82%) presented a balanced increase in EGFR gene and chromosome 7 number: 10 cases (30%) showed a low polysomy, 15 (45%) a high polysomy and 2 (6%) NSCLC were amplified. No significant differences between NSCLC and CRC lung metastases were found in relation to disomic or polysomic status. In addition, no correlation between EGFR GCN and EGFR immunohistochemical overexpression was found. Furthermore, we compared CISH results with those obtained by FISH on the same samples and we found 97% overall agreement between the two assays (k = 0.78, p < 0.0001). Two cases were amplified with both assays, whereas 1 case of NSCLC was amplified by FISH only. CISH sensitivity was 67%, the specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) was 100%, and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 97%. Conclusions Our study shows that CISH is a valid method to detect EGFR GCN in cell blocks from FNAC of primary NSCLC or metastatic CRC to the lung. PMID:20843314

  19. Evaluation of Fine-Needle Aspiration of Thyroid Nodules in a Series of 1,100 Patients: Correlation Between Cytology and Histopathology Original Article.

    PubMed

    Güneş, Pembegül; Demirtürk, Pelin; Aker, Fügen; Tanrıöver, Özlem; Gönültaş, Aylin; Akkaynak, Şerike

    2015-12-01

    In this study, our aim was to test the usefulness of The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) in indeterminate lesions in which cytological and histological diagnosis discordance was high and to investigate the contribution of TBSRTC in this indeterminate diagnostic group. The medical records of the patients who presented to the Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, between October of 1999 and September of 2010, for the cytological and histological diagnosis of thyroid nodules, were reviewed retrospectively. We reclassified these patients according to the Bethesda method, which features well-defined cytological criteria for each category within a six-tiered system. For each patient, the diagnosis and reasons for discordance were discussed and a final decision was made for each discordant case. The overall distribution of the cytological diagnoses using an in-house system was as follows: 811 benign (73.7 %), 87 suspicious follicular cell/follicular neoplasia (7.9 %), 52 suspicious for malignancy (4.7 %), and 45 malignant (4.1 %). We reclassified the diagnoses using the Bethesda system and the results are as follows: 797 benign (73.7 %), 48 follicular lesion of undetermined significance (4.3 %), 68 follicular neoplasia (7.9 %), 40 suspicious for malignancy (3.6 %), and 44 malignant (4 %). Our results showed that using TBRSTC for the lesions in the indeterminate category decreased the ratios of false-positive and false-negative diagnoses.

  20. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and pleural fluid cytology diagnosis of benign metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland in the lung: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaxia; Gomez-Fernandez, Carmen R; Jorda, Merce; Ganjei-Azar, Parvin

    2009-11-01

    Lesions that contain abundant benign myoepithelial cells, including pleomorphic adenomas of salivary gland origin, may present a diagnostic challenge in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens. Benign metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma is a rare neoplasm, in which the benign appearing pleomorphic adenoma, without any histological evidence of malignancy, metastasizes to distant sites including lung. In the absence of clinical history of a pre-existing myoepithelial neoplasm, the presence of myoepithelial cells in the lung or any other organs besides salivary glands may create diagnostic difficulty. Here we present the cytologic findings of such a metastatic tumor found in the lung FNA and pleural fluid specimens from a 64-year-old woman, with a history of local recurrent salivary gland pleomorphic adenomas, who presented with multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules and pleural effusion. The diagnosis of benign metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma was made based on clinical information and cytomorphology, and confirmed by immunocytochemistry.

  1. T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) with overlapping cytomorphological features with T-CLL and T-ALL: a case initially diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology and immunocytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Das, Dilip K; Pathan, Shahed K; Joneja, Munish; Al-Musawi, Fatma A; John, Bency; Mirza, Kamran R

    2013-04-01

    T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a very unusual form of chronic lymphoproliferative disorder, which has rarely been diagnosed by fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology. We report one such case with some overlapping cytomorphological features with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A 91-year-old man presented with generalized lymphadenopathy, pleural effusion, ascites, and an ulcerated growth in rectum. FNA smears from the left cervical lymph node showed a monotonous population of small lymphoid cells having small but distinct nucleoli that was initially diagnosed as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Smears from the left axillary lymph node contained both small and medium-sized lymphoid cells with frequent hand-mirror cell appearance, which has been described in acute lymphoblatic leukemia (ALL). Immunocyto/histochemical stainings on smears and cell block preparations of the aspirate showed the following immunophenotype: CD3+, CD4+, CD5+, CD7+, CD8-, CD20-, CD23-, and Tdt-. Total peripheral blood leukocyte count was 26.4 × 10(9) /L and total lymphocyte count, 8.3 × 10(9) /L with predominance of small lymphocytes. T-cell nature of the neoplasm was confirmed by biopsies from the cervical lymph node (T-cell lymphoma), bone marrow (T-cell lymphoid neoplasm/chronic lymphocytic leukemia), and the ulcerated rectal lesion (atypical T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder). The patient developed deep vein thrombosis, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and bleeding from duodenal ulcer. By the time the reports of all the investigations were ready, the patient succumbed to bronchopneumonia. To the best of our knowledge, this T-CLL/T-PLL which was diagnosed initially by FNA cytology with immunocytochemical support is first of its kind to be reported.

  2. Usefulness of Serum Calcitonin in Patients Without a Suspicious History of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma and with Thyroid Nodules Without an Indication for Fine-Needle Aspiration or with Benign Cytology.

    PubMed

    Rosario, P W; Calsolari, M R

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of serum calcitonin (Ctn) in subjects without a suspicious history of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and with nodular thyroid disease without an indication for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) or with benign cytology. This was a prospective study that evaluated 421 patients with nodular disease without an indication for FNA and 602 patients with benign cytology. Patients with basal Ctn>10 pg/ml were submitted to calcium stimulation testing. Patients with stimulated Ctn>100 pg/ml were submitted to total thyroidectomy. Basal Ctn was<10 pg/ml in 1001 patients (97.8%). Among patients with basal Ctn>10 pg/ml, 16/22 exhibited stimulated Ctn>100 pg/ml. Two of these 16 patients had MTC. The 2 patients with MTC had undetectable basal Ctn 6 months after surgery. Using a cut-off of 30 pg/ml in women and 60 pg/ml in men for basal Ctn, the 2 cases of MTC of our series would have been identified and there would have been no false-positive case. It should be noted that 14/16 patients with stimulated Ctn>100 pg/ml were false-positive cases. Although uncommon, even subjects without a suspicious history and with nodular thyroid disease without an indication for FNA or with benign cytology can have MTC. The measurement of Ctn permits the diagnosis of these cases. Our results favor the hypothesis that basal Ctn could be superior to stimulated Ctn. PMID:27203410

  3. Selection and validation of miRNAs as normalizers for profiling expression of microRNAs isolated from thyroid fine needle aspiration smears

    PubMed Central

    Titov, Sergei E.; Demenkov, Pavel S.; Ivanov, Mikhail K.; Malakhina, Ekaterina S.; Poloz, Tatiana L.; Tsivlikova, Elena V.; Ganzha, Maria S.; Shevchenko, Sergei P.; Gulyaeva, Lyudmila F.; Kolesnikov, Nikolay N.

    2016-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is currently the method of choice for malignancy prediction in thyroid nodules. Nevertheless, in some cases the interpretation of FNAC results may be problematic due to limitations of the method. The expression level of some microRNAs changes with the development of thyroid tumors, and its quantitation can be used to refine the FNAC results. For this quantitation to be reliable, the obtained data must be adequately normalized. Currently, no reference genes are universally recognized for quantitative assessments of microRNAs in thyroid nodules. The aim of the present study was the selection and validation of such reference genes. Expression of 800 microRNAs in 5 paired samples of thyroid surgical material corresponding to different histotypes of tumors was analyzed using NanoString technology and four of these (hsa-miR-151a-3p, -197-3p, -99a-5p and -214-3p) with the relatively low variation coefficient were selected. The possibility of use of the selected microRNAs and their combination as references was estimated by RT-qPCR on a sampling of cytological smears: benign (n=226), atypia of undetermined significance (n=9), suspicious for follicular neoplasm (n=61), suspicious for malignancy (n=19), medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) (n=32), papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) (n=54) and non-diagnostic material (ND) (n=34). In order to assess the expression stability of the references, geNorm algorithm was used. The maximum stability was observed for the normalization factor obtained by the combination of all 4 microRNAs. Further validation of the complex normalizer and individual selected microRNAs was performed using 5 different classification methods on 3 groups of FNAC smears from the analyzed batch: benign neoplasms, MTC and PTC. In all cases, the use of the complex classifier resulted in the reduced number of errors. On using the complex microRNA normalizer, the decision-tree method C4.5 makes it possible to distinguish between

  4. Incidental Detection Microfilaria in Subcutaneous Breast Nodule of Lactating Female Fnac: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Prashant; Yadav, Soma; Pahawa, H.S

    2014-01-01

    Filariasis is a major public health problem which is faced in tropical countries like India. Its diagnosis is made by using peripheral blood smears. However, microfilaria has been detected incidentally during FNACs of various lesions, which were done in clinically unsuspected cases. We are reporting here, an uncommon case of filariasis, which caused a nodular, subcutaneous swelling in left breast of a 30 year old lactating female. A nodular subcutaneous swelling can be caused in breast of a lactating female by lactational associated mastitis, but filaria causing a nodular swelling in a lactating breast is a rare presentation. Aspiration of the swelling demonstrated enormous pathogen presence caused by Woucheria bancrofti and the patient responded well to six weeks of daily anti-filarial treatment with diethylcarbamazine citrate. PMID:25120989

  5. [Imprint cytology. Advantages and possibilities].

    PubMed

    Müller, H A

    1976-01-01

    Imprint cytology is a special variation of applied cytology, which can be used for quite different purposes. In scientific research cytologic imprints are very apt for cytophotometric measurements of DNA contents in nuclei as well as for karyologic studies, for instance on the different distribution of chromatin in the nuclei of benign and malignant tumors. Furthermore, imprint cytology is of great importance in teaching and learning results of aspiration biopsies, as the cellular patterns obtained with both methods are looking identical and moreover every imprint can be compared with the corresponding histologic slide. Last but not least in diagnostic procedures cytologic imprints are very helpful as an adjuvant to frozen and paraffin sections: They set off also very discrete changes and make possible diagnostic statements in a shorter time than it is possible with histologic slides.

  6. To Establish Bethesda System for Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules on the Basis of Fnac with Histopathological Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Nandini J.; Mehta, Dimple; Vaishnav, Mitsu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In October 2007, “The National Cancer Institute (NCI), Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration State of the Science Conference” was held in Bethesda, Maryland hosted by the NCI with the intention of formulating internationally acceptable guidelines for reporting of thyroid cytopathology. This was because, thyroid FNAC have a reporting confusion due to multiplicity of category terminologies. To overcome this, The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) was introduced for unifying the terminology and morphologic criteria along with the corresponding risk of malignancy. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology represents a major step towards standardization, reproducibility, improved clinical significance, and greater predictive value of thyroid fine needle aspirates (FNAs). Aim The aim of this study was to elucidate the diagnostic utility of the Bethesda system in reporting thyroid FNAs and to assess the effectiveness of FNAC in the evaluation of thyroid nodules by comparing the results with histopathological evaluation. Materials and Methods The present study was carried out in our institute during the July 2012 to September 2014. In this study, 100 FNACs done which were classified according to the Bethesda system and out of them, 60 histopathological evaluations obtained from this group were evaluated. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were evaluated. Results Out of 100 FNACs, 06% were Non-diagnostic, 78% were Benign, 04% were Atypical follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AFLUS), 04% were suspicious for Follicular neoplasm (SFN), 01% were suspicious for Follicular neoplasm Hurthle cell type, 03% were suspicious for malignancy (SM), and 04% malignant. In 60 cases, data of follow-up histopathologic examination (HPE) were available. The sensitivity was 88.89% and specificity was 84.31%. The positive and negative predictive value were 50% and 97.7%, respectively. Conclusion The

  7. The cytology of giant solitary trichoepithelioma

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Jayashree; Divya, KN

    2010-01-01

    Giant solitary trichoepithelioma (GST) is a rare trichogenic tumor, which may present as a pigmented lesion. An 80-year-old man was diagnosed to have giant solitary trichoepithelioma on fine-needle aspiration cytology. The cytological findings represented the histological features. The recognition of GST is important because of its close resemblance to basal cell carcinoma and other skin adnexal tumors – clinically, cytologically and histologically. PMID:21187885

  8. Inadequate rates are lower when FNAC samples are taken by cytopathologists.

    PubMed

    Singh, N; Ryan, D; Berney, D; Calaminici, M; Sheaff, M T; Wells, C A

    2003-12-01

    Inadequate rates (IR) in FNAC from different sources were compared. The rates were lowest when FNAC was performed by a cytopathologist (12%) and highest when done by a non-cytopathologist (32%). These differences were mirrored in high IRs in breast cancer cases. IR was not significantly improved when non-cytopathologist FNAC was attended by a cytotechnician.

  9. Nontyrosine crystalloids in salivary gland lesions: report of seven cases with fine-needle aspiration cytology and follow-up surgical pathology.

    PubMed

    Nasuti, J F; Gupta, P K; Fleisher, S R; LiVolsi, V A

    2000-03-01

    We report a series of seven patients who underwent fine-needle aspiration (FNA) for clinically apparent parotid gland lesions. In all seven cases, numerous to abundant polyhedral, multifaceted (nontyrosine) crystalloids were noted in the background of scanty cellular specimens composed predominantly of oncocytic cells. Subsequent surgical excision showed that three of the seven glands revealed sialolithiasis and sialadenitis without evidence of neoplasia. The histology of the remaining four cases consisted of two Warthin's tumor, one oncocytic papillary cystadenoma, and one cellular benign mixed tumor. In all seven cases the nontyrosine crystalloids were found in highest concentrations in cystic spaces lined with oncocytic metaplastic cells. We conclude that nontyrosine cystalloids can be associated with both neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disease, and they may be a product of oncocytic cell secretion. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2000;22:167-171.

  10. Cytological diagnosis of deep-seated cellular hemangioma of the parotid gland by using cell button technique

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sonam; Mannan, Rahul; Bhasin, Tejinder

    2016-01-01

    Intraparotid hemangioma of the children is a rare neoplasm, posing diagnostic dilemma to the diagnosticians as well as treating clinicians. A 2-month-old male infant presented with a diffuse swelling in the parotid region since birth that was gradually increasing in size. The ultrasonography (USG) report was suggestive of a right intraparotid mass of uncertain etiology; whereas magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) report inclined toward a mass associated with chronic inflammatory pathology. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) suggested two differentials — a vascular neoplasm of the parotid gland and a spindle cell neoplasm with increased vascularity. The lesion was reaspirated and a cell button was constructed from the aspirated material to reach a conclusive diagnosis by histopathological evaluation and immunohistochemistry (IHC) before attempting any intervention to treat the infant. The final diagnosis after histopathological and IHC studies was given as deep cellular intraparotid hemangioma. Subsequently, the patient was treated with single sitting bleomycin sclerotherapy. A simple technique of cell button resulted in sparing of hospitalization and surgical procedure in the infant.

  11. c-erbB2/neu gene and chromosome 17 analysis in breast cancer by FISH on archival cytological fine-needle aspirates

    PubMed Central

    Mezzelani, A; Alasio, L; Bartoli, C; Bonora, M G; Pierotti, M A; Rilke, F; Pilotti, S

    1999-01-01

    The detection of specific genetic alterations in breast cancer is useful for diagnosing, predicting prognosis and planning preoperative treatment. c-erbB2/neu overexpression is usually detected by immunocytochemistry (ICC), although this technique is neither completely reproducible nor highly reliable, owing to specimen and methodologic variability and antibody sensitivity. Here, we combine two well-established techniques, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), to detect c-erbB2/neu amplification in patients candidate to primary chemotherapy and, in part, previously analysed for c-erbB2/neu overexpression. Sixty smears from FNA were used to simultaneously detect c-erbB2/neu and chromosome 17 centromere. FISH was successful in 58 cases and detected 24 amplified cases, three of which were negative by immunophenotyping, 28 negative cases, with evidence of two normal c-erbB2/neu/ signals, two cases with deletion of c-erbB2/neu, and four cases with polysomy, thus providing more reliable and informative results than ICC. This study underlines the advantages offered by the FNA and FISH combination which are two rapid, reliable, simple and informative techniques, to analyse one of the most important genetic markers for predicting prognosis and chemotherapy planning for breast carcinoma in particular in the light of the recently proposed trials of primary chemotherapy. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10408862

  12. [Cytologic diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma].

    PubMed

    Kirdan, G V; Biriukov, Iu V; Nikolaeva, E P

    1990-08-01

    The efficacy of examination of various cytologic material in patients with mesothelioma was analysed. A total of 48 studies were carried out in 24 patients. Examination of transthoracic aspiration material obtained from the tumor and pleural cavity exudate yielded the best results. When mesothelioma of the pleura is suspected, care should be taken to collect material from different areas of the tumor, bearing in mind the significance of discovering different components of the tumor in it. On grounds of study of various cytologic material, a malignant tumor or adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in 43% and mesothelioma in 48% of patients.

  13. Carcinoma in ectopic breast: a cytological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shailaja; Sehgal, Shivali; Rai, Preeti; Agarwal, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic breast carcinoma in the axillary region is rare with an incidence ranging from 0.3-6%. We report a case of infiltrating duct carcinoma in an adult female arising in aberrant breast tissue in the axilla diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. There was history of recent increase in size of the lump which was otherwise present for the past 5 years. This case highlights the role fine needle aspiration cytology can play in the early diagnosis of malignant transformation of lumps.

  14. Aspiration pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    Anaerobic pneumonia; Aspiration of vomitus; Necrotizing pneumonia; Aspiration pneumonitis ... The type of bacteria that caused the pneumonia depends on: Your ... facility, for example) Whether you were recently hospitalized ...

  15. Cytology of the Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Seethala, Raja R

    2014-03-01

    Common usage of fine-needle aspirate (FNA) for salivary gland lesions is the preoperative determination of whether a lesion is neoplastic, its lineage, and if neoplastic, whether it is low grade/benign, or high grade. Immunohistochemical stains can be performed on cell blocks to determine lineage and help refine diagnosis, although their performance is not always equivalent to that seen in surgical specimens. Several characteristic translocations have been described in various entities in these categories, and these can be evaluated using fluorescence in situ hybridization. In the future, high-throughput next-generation sequencing panels may further refine cytologic diagnosis in salivary tumors.

  16. Diagnosis of filariasis on cytology: a series of 24 cases.

    PubMed

    Handa, Uma; Kundu, Reetu; Singhal, Niti; Mohan, Harsh

    2014-04-01

    Filariasis has a worldwide distribution, with a special predilection for tropical and subtropical areas. The microfilaria wanders in lymphatics and can be accidentally trapped in the needle during fine-needle aspiration cytology, thus leading to its incidental detection. This is a retrospective study of 24 cases of microfilarial infestation diagnosed on cytology. Accurate recognition and detection of the parasite leads to the institution of specific treatment and prevents chronic manifestations of the disease.

  17. Benign dermal eccrine cylindroma. A pitfall in the cytologic diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bondeson, L; Lindholm, K; Thorstenson, S

    1983-01-01

    Aspiration cytology from four benign dermal eccrine cylindromas and five adenoid cystic carcinomas were compared. These two lesions were found to have so much in common morphologically that they may be indistinguishable on a purely cytologic basis. Accordingly, we recommend a restricted excision to obtain a histopathologic diagnosis before more extensive surgery is performed whenever a lesion is cytologically consistent with adenoid cystic carcinoma but clinically shows a picture that does not exclude dermal eccrine cylindroma.

  18. Efficacy of physical examination, ultrasound, and ultrasound combined with fine-needle aspiration for axilla staging of primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yu; Huang, Rui; He, Yingjian; Lu, Aiping; Fan, Zhaoqing; Fan, Tie; Qi, Meng; Wang, Xinguang; Cao, Wei; Wang, Xing; Xie, Yuntao; Wang, Tianfeng; Li, Jinfeng; Ouyang, Tao

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of physical examination (PE), ultrasound (US), and US combined with fine-needle cytology (US-FNAC) in evaluation of node status before sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for breast cancer patients. We performed a retrospective study of 3,781 breast cancer patients and calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy for PE, US, and US-FNAC, respectively. A total of 3,175 cases were documented as cN0 and 606 as cN1. Abnormal axillary nodes under US were detected in 1,152 cases, among which 821 were proven to have positive nodes by FNAC. The positive FNAC results enabled 11.7% of cN0 patients (373/3,175) to avoid unnecessary SLNB. All 331 cases with abnormal US but negative FNAC results, and the 2,629 cases with normal US underwent SLNB procedure for nodal staging, and metastatic nodes were identified in 745 patients. The sensitivity of PE was 32.2%, with a specificity of 95.5%, a PPV of 83.5%, a NPV of 65%, and an accuracy of 69.3%. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of axillary US alone were 58.6, 89.4, 79.6, 75.3, and 76.7%, respectively. Combining axillary US with FNAC resulted in sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of 52.4, 100, 100, 74.8, and 80.3%, respectively. Our study demonstrated that US-FNAC is a feasible and effective triage during axillary staging for newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.

  19. Cytological diagnosis of chondroblastoma: diagnostic challenge for the cytopathologist.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Kafil; Qadri, Shagufta; Sen Ray, Prasenjit; Sherwani, Rana K

    2014-05-29

    Chondroblastoma is an uncommon osseous neoplasm that accounts for less than 1% of all bone tumours. It characteristically arises in the epiphysis or epimetaphyseal region of long bones and has been reported to affect people of all ages with slight male predilection. WHO has defined chondroblastoma as 'a benign, cartilage-producing neoplasm usually arising in the epiphyses of skeletally immature patients'. The authors document the cytological features on fine-needle aspiration cytology of a chondroblastoma which appeared as a lytic lesion in the upper end of the right fibula, an uncommon site, in an 18-year-old male patient. X-ray feature combined with fine-needle aspiration cytology favoured the diagnosis of chondroblastoma, which was further confirmed by histopathological examination.

  20. Cytological diagnosis of chondroblastoma: diagnostic challenge for the cytopathologist.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Kafil; Qadri, Shagufta; Sen Ray, Prasenjit; Sherwani, Rana K

    2014-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is an uncommon osseous neoplasm that accounts for less than 1% of all bone tumours. It characteristically arises in the epiphysis or epimetaphyseal region of long bones and has been reported to affect people of all ages with slight male predilection. WHO has defined chondroblastoma as 'a benign, cartilage-producing neoplasm usually arising in the epiphyses of skeletally immature patients'. The authors document the cytological features on fine-needle aspiration cytology of a chondroblastoma which appeared as a lytic lesion in the upper end of the right fibula, an uncommon site, in an 18-year-old male patient. X-ray feature combined with fine-needle aspiration cytology favoured the diagnosis of chondroblastoma, which was further confirmed by histopathological examination. PMID:24876212

  1. Diagnosis of salivary gland tumors by fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Sismanis, A; Merriam, J M; Kline, T S; Davis, R K; Shapshay, S M; Strong, M S

    1981-01-01

    The cytologic findings of 51 smears obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy from salivary gland masses were compared with the histologic findings of permanent sections. The overall concurrence rate between cytologic and histologic findings for being and malignant lesions was 91%. The diagnostic accuracy (exact histologic diagnosis) for the benign lesions was 87% and for the malignant tumors 60%. One case showed false-positive results and 1 case false-negative results. Fine needle aspiration biopsy has been found to be safe, free of complications, and helpful in the planning of treatment.

  2. Fine needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of neck masses.

    PubMed

    Sismanis, A; Strong, M S; Merriam, J

    1980-01-01

    The cytologic findings in 107 aspiration smears obtained with the fine needle technique from head and neck masses were compared with the histologic findings in permanent sections. The overall concurrence rate between cytologic and histologic findings in benign and malignant tumors was 82.2 per cent. There was a 5.6 per cent incidence of false negative findings. There were no false positive results. Fine needle aspiration was found to be safe, complication free, and most helpful in planning treatment. We recommend the technique to others who deal with head and neck masses.

  3. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of fibromatoses.

    PubMed

    Raab, S S; Silverman, J F; McLeod, D L; Benning, T L; Geisinger, K R

    1993-01-01

    Fibromatoses form a spectrum of clinicopathologic entities characterized by the infiltrative proliferation of fibroblasts that lack malignant cytologic features. Fibromatoses present as nodular soft tissue masses almost anywhere in the body and thus are often amenable to fine needle aspiration (FNA). This report describes the FNA cytologic findings of fibromatosis in six patients ranging in age from 7 1/2 weeks to 36 years. Two of the lesions arose in the abdominal wall (musculoaponeurotic fibromatosis or extra-abdominal desmoid), and one each involved the plantar surface (Ledderhose's disease), the shoulder and the sternocleidomastoid muscle (Fibromatosis coli). The FNA of the shoulder was initially interpreted as nodular fasciitis due to the clinical presentation of a rapidly growing mass; an aspirate from the deep musculoaponeurotic region was believed to reveal a low grade sarcoma. The FNA diagnosis of musculoaponeurotic fibromatosis in a patient with familial polyposis coli suggested the diagnosis of Gardner's syndrome. Cytologically the aspirates consisted of groups of loosely cohesive, bland-appearing, spindle-shaped cells having oval to elongated nuclei and cytoplasmic tags. Individual spindle cells and rare inflammatory cells were also present. The aspirate of fibromatosis coli also contained degenerating skeletal muscle cells. Tissue confirmation was obtained in four cases. We believe that FNA is a useful procedure for the initial and recurrent diagnosis of fibromatoses and in the separation of fibromatoses from other benign and malignant soft tissue lesions. A discussion of other entities that enter into the cytologic differential diagnosis, such as mesenchymal repair, fasciitis and spindle cell types of sarcoma, is presented. From our experience we believe that the clinicopathologic features can suggest the diagnosis of fibromatosis, but histologic confirmation is recommended.

  4. Needle aspiration biopsy in salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Shaha, A R; Webber, C; DiMaio, T; Jaffe, B M

    1990-10-01

    The value of needle aspiration biopsy in the evaluation and management of salivary gland pathology is controversial. The major reasons for this controversy are the difficulty in cytologic evaluation and the fact that the extent of surgery can be easily defined based on clinical judgement. However, a preoperative diagnosis is helpful in discussions with patients regarding the extent and type of surgery. Apart from the fact that needle biopsy can distinguish benign from malignant conditions, it is also very useful in distinguishing between salivary and other nonsalivary pathology. Over the past 7 1/2 years, we have performed 160 needle aspirations of parotid, submandibular, and submucosal lesions. Adequate specimens for cytologic evaluation were obtained in 155 patients (97%). A total of 84 parotid lesions, 70 submandibular lumps, and 6 submucosal abnormalities were detected. A cytologic diagnosis of benign pathology was made in 120 patients. Twelve patients had lymphoma and the diagnosis was suspected based on needle aspiration. There were 10 patients with tuberculosis and 30 patients with hyperplastic lymph nodes or benign lymphoepithelial disease of the parotid. There were three false-positive and two false-negative reports. No complications such as hematoma, nerve injury, or infection developed. The major difficulty was in distinguishing between malignancy and obstructive sialadenitis in the submandibular region. Needle aspiration was helpful in evaluating lesions in the tail of the parotid and submandibular area. The cytologic distinction between salivary and nonsalivary pathology was useful in planning the appropriate surgery and the extent of surgical resection. From a clinical standpoint, the distinction between benign and malignant salivary and nonsalivary pathology was very helpful. Preoperative diagnosis of Warthin's tumor, lymphoma, or benign lymphoepithelial disease was essential to the correct management of these patients.

  5. Basal-cell adenoma of the salivary gland: a benign adenoma that cytologically mimics adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stanley, M W; Horwitz, C A; Henry, M J; Burton, L G; Lowhagen, T

    1988-01-01

    We describe the fine-needle aspiration cytology of two cases of basal-cell adenoma (BCA) of the parotid gland. Both consisted of groups of small uniform cells with scant cytoplasm and occasional single cells. Small amounts of metachromatic stroma were present in smears from one case. The cytologic and histologic similarities between (BCA) and the solid type of adenoid cystic carcinoma are emphasized. Unequivocal distinction between these two entities may not be possible by cytologic criteria alone.

  6. Diagnosis of bile duct cancer by bile cytology: usefulness of post-brushing biliary lavage fluid

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Shinya; Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Sasaki, Keiko; Nagata, Kaori; Ohno, Sachiyo; Uesaka, Katsuhiko; Mori, Keita; Imai, Kenichiro; Hotta, Kinichi; Takizawa, Kohei; Kakushima, Naomi; Tanaka, Masaki; Kawata, Noboru; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pathologic evidence of biliary diseases can be obtained from cytology in addition to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP); however, the diagnostic effectiveness is not satisfactory. Study aim: This retrospective, single-center study evaluated the efficacy of various sampling methods for the cytologic diagnosis of bile duct cancer. Patients and methods: Biliary samples included bile that was simply aspirated, brush smear, brush-rinsed saline, and post-brushing biliary lavage fluid. A set of samples was compared for cytologic efficacy in 76 patients with surgically proven bile duct cancer and in 50 patients with benign biliary stricture. Results: The cytologic sensitivity for diagnosing biliary cancer was 34 % with aspirated bile, 32 % with brush smear, 43 % with brush-rinsed saline, and 70 % with post-brushing biliary lavage fluid, in contrast to the null false-positive result in the benign cases. The sensitivity of cytology was significantly higher with post-brushing lavage fluid than with the other three sampling methods (P < 0.0001), and post-brushing lavage fluid improved the cumulative sensitivity by 24 % (P = 0.002). The sensitivity of biliary cytology was also associated with the amount of aspirated bile (P = 0.01) and with the aspiration site (P = 0.03). The rate of cancer positivity in a cytology set differed according to the tumor macroscopic type (85 % in the protruding type vs. 40 % in the flat type; P = 0.003), and according to the size of the cancer (87 % for tumors ≥ 50 mm vs. 66 % for tumors < 50 mm; P = 0.02). Conclusions: Post-brushing biliary lavage fluid cytology provides superior diagnostic efficacy, and its addition to ERCP procedures is recommended for obtaining cytologic evidence of bile duct cancer. PMID:26357678

  7. Comparative value of clinical, cytological, and histopathological features in feline mammary gland tumors; an experimental model for the study of human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of breast lesions is usually confirmed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or histological biopsy. Although there is increasing literature regarding the advantages and limitations of both modalities, there is no literature regarding the accuracy of these modalities for diagnosing breast lesions in high-risk patients, who usually have lesions detected by screening. Moreover, few studies have been published regarding the cytopathology of mammary tumors in cats despite widespread use of the animal model for breast cancer formation and inhibition. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic interest of cytological and histopathological analysis in feline mammary tumours (FMTs), in order to evaluate its possible value as an animal model. Methods The study was performed in 3 female cats submitted to surgical resections of mammary tumours. The mammary tumours were excised by simple mastectomy or regional mastectomy, with or without the superficial inguinal lymph nodes. Female cats were of different breeds (1 siamese and 2 persians). Before surgical excision of the tumour, FNA cytology was performed using a 0.4 mm diameter needle attached to a 8 ml syringe held in a standard metal syringe holder. The cytological sample was smeared onto a glass slide and either air-dried for May-Grünwald-stain and masses were surgically removed, the tumours were grossly examined and tissue samples were fixed in 10%-buffered-formalin and embedded in paraffin. Sections 4 μm thick were obtained from each sample and H&E stained. Results Cytologically, atypical epithelial cells coupled to giant nucleus, chromatin anomalies, mitotic figures, spindle shape cells, anisocytosis with anisokaryosis and hyperchromasia were found. Histologically, these tumors are characterized by pleomorphic and polygonal cell population together with mitotic figures, necrotic foci and various numbers inflammatory foci. Also, spindle shaped cells, haemorrhage

  8. Aspiration syndromes: aspiration pneumonia and pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Marik, Paul E

    2010-02-01

    Aspiration pneumonia and pneumonitis are common clinical syndromes that occur in hospitalized patients. Aspiration pneumonia occurs in patients with dysphagia and usually presents as a community-acquired pneumonia with a focal infiltrate in a dependent bronchopulmonary segment. Patients with aspiration pneumonia require treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and management of the underlying dysphagia. Aspiration pneumonitis follows the aspiration of gastric contents, usually in patients with a marked decreased level of consciousness. Treatment of aspiration pneumonitis is essentially supportive; however, corticosteroids and other immunomodulating agents may have a role in these patients.

  9. Techniques for cytologic sampling of pancreatic and bile duct lesions.

    PubMed

    Brugge, William; Dewitt, John; Klapman, Jason B; Ashfaq, Raheela; Shidham, Vinod; Chhieng, David; Kwon, Richard; Baloch, Zubair; Zarka, Matthew; Staerkel, Gregg

    2014-04-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy, techniques of the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing, and postbiopsy management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18-month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology website [www.papsociety.org]. This document presents the results of these discussions regarding the use of ancillary testing in the cytological diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions. This document summarizes the current state of the art for techniques in acquiring cytology specimens from the biliary tree as well as solid and cystic lesions of the pancreas.

  10. Cytologic diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Nagel, H; Hotze, H J; Laskawi, R; Chilla, R; Droese, M

    1999-06-01

    The cytomorphologic features in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies from 31 primary and 33 recurrent adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) were investigated. The correct FNA diagnosis was established in 24 of 31 primary ACC (77%). The diagnostic clue in aspirates from ACC are large globules of extracellular matrix, partially surrounded by basaloid tumor cells. In FNAs with predominance of basaloid tumor cells, but lacking characteristic globules, all other benign and malignant salivary gland tumors of epithelial-myoepithelial differentiation should be considered in the cytologic diagnosis. Pleomorphic adenoma is most frequently confused with ACC, and therefore, the cytologic findings in FNAs from 50 pleomorphic adenomas were compared with those diagnosed as ACC. Furthermore, rare neoplasms of salivary glands with epithelial-myoepithelial cell differentiation, including basal-cell adenoma and carcinoma, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, as well as some nonsalivary gland neoplasms presenting an adenoid cystic pattern, must be considered. The cytologic features of these entities are discussed in detail with respect to the cytologic diagnostic criteria of ACC.

  11. Eccrine porocarcinoma: cytologic diagnosis by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB).

    PubMed

    Kalogeraki, Alexandra; Tamiolakis, Dimitrios; Tsagatakis, Thomas; Geronatsiou, Katerina; Haniotis, Vrettos; Kafoussi, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: O porocarcinoma écrino (PE) é um tumor maligno pouco comum dos anexos cutâneos. Trata-se de um adenocarcinoma da glândula sudorípara écrina com propensão para recorrer localmente e para originar metástases ao longo dos gânglios linfáticos regionais. Este artigo apresenta um diagnóstico por citologia aspirativa com agulha fina (CAAF) de um PE, associado ao exame histológico e de imunocito/histoquímica.Caso Clínico: São descritos os achados da citologia de um porocarcinoma écrino numa doente de 76 anos de idade, bem como as características histológicas do tumor cutâneo. A citologia aspirativa revelou que o tumor se caracterizava pela presença de células atípicas malignas com citoplasma basófilo, núcleos hipercromáticos e nucléolos proeminentes. O diagnóstico citológico foi confirmado pela histologia.Conclusões: É crucial obter um diagnóstico pré-operatório preciso de modo a desencadear um plano cirúrgico curativo. A CAAF possibilita uma abordagem pouco invasiva, segura e efectiva, de modo a esclarecer um diagnóstico diferencial exigente.

  12. Cytological grading of canine cutaneous mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Scarpa, Filippo; Sabattini, Silvia; Bettini, Giuliano

    2016-09-01

    A cytological grading for mast cell tumours (MCTs) would be highly desirable, allowing to select the most appropriate therapeutic intervention prior to surgery. This study evaluates the applicability on fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) of the novel Kiupel grading system, based on number of mitoses, multinucleated cells, bizarre nuclei and presence of karyomegaly. Fifty consecutive cases with pre-operative cytological diagnosis were included. In cytological specimens, approximately 1000 cells were evaluated, and the histological grade was assessed on the corresponding resected specimens. On cytology, the above parameters were significantly different between histologically low-grade and high-grade tumours (P < 0.001). The cytograding correctly predicted the histological grade in 47 cases (accuracy, 94%; sensitivity, 84.6%; specificity, 97.3%). Two high-grade MCTs (4%) were not detected on cytology. The cytograding can provide helpful insights to assist clinical decisions in most cases. However, the risk of underestimation in a minority of patients represents a limit to the overall utility of the technique.

  13. Cytologic diagnosis of acinic-cell carcinoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Nagel, H; Laskawi, R; Büter, J J; Schröder, M; Chilla, R; Droese, M

    1997-05-01

    The cytologic findings in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies obtained from 40 primary and 18 recurrent acinic-cell carcinomas (ACC) were retrospectively analyzed. Cytomorphologically, ACC is characterized by acinar differentiated tumor cells. In addition to these diagnostic clue cells, other types of neoplastic cells including vacuolated cells, cells resembling oncocytes, and nonspecific glandular cells are encountered. A pronounced lymphocytic reaction is a hallmark in 10% of ACC aspirates. Both the variety of tumor cell differentiation and the pronounced lymphocytic reaction observed in ACC aspirates may result in confusion with other salivary gland lesions. The differential diagnosis of ACC encompasses adenocarcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, pleomorphic adenoma, Warthin tumor, sebaceous lymphadenoma, benign lymphoepithelial lesion, sialoadenosis, sialadenitis caused by radiotherapy, and lymphadenitis. Primary ACCs were correctly diagnosed in 68%; additionally, ACC was suspected or included in the differential diagnosis in 15%. Increased familiarity with the spectrum of cytomorphologic findings and the potential diagnostic pitfalls in ACC will improve the cytodiagnosis of this neoplasm.

  14. Correlation of Strain Elastography with Conventional Sonography and FNAC/Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Sardessai, Sanjay; Furtado, Renny; Sardessai, Mahesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elastography is a new promising technique that can be especially helpful when used as an adjunct to conventional B-mode ultrasound in evaluating breast lesions. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic performance of four interpretation criteria for elastography and to compare the diagnostic performance of sonoelastography with that of conventional sonography in characterising breast lesions as benign or malignant with FNAC/biopsy correlation. Materials and Methods One hundred breast lesions were prospectively evaluated by ultrasound as well as by strain elastography followed by FNAC/ biopsy correlation. The criteria used were Elastography Score, Strain Ratio, Distance Ratio and Area Ratio. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated for each modality. The best cut-off point was calculated for each of the interpretation criteria using the MedCalc version 10.1 software. The diagnostic performance of the interpretation criteria was compared with that of conventional sonography by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve using SPSS software. Results The elastography score was found to have the best performance among the 4 criteria used with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 82.66%, respectively at the best cut-off point between 3 and 4. At a best cut-off point for conventional sonography between BI-RADS categories 4A and 4B, the sensitivity and specificity were found to be 96% and 92% respectively. The area under the curve value was slightly greater for conventional sonography (0.980) than for the elastography score (0.913) using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Conclusion While all interpretation criteria were able to differentiate benign and malignant lesions with statistical significance, the elastography score was found to be the most accurate. While conventional ultrasound remains the primary modality for the characterization of breast masses

  15. Diagnostic problems of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Ruchita; Dey, Pranab

    2015-06-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of salivary gland is a popular technique with high sensitivity and specificity. However, the interpretation of FNAC smear of salivary gland lesions is a great challenge to the cytologists. The cytological features of the various tumors of the salivary gland have overlapping cytological features and many other lesions in the head neck region may mimic salivary lesions. Moreover, at times it may be difficult to differentiate benign from malignant tumor of the tumor with same cell of origin. In this article, we have discussed the various problems in the diagnosis of FNAC of the salivary gland lesions.

  16. [Turning points in cytology].

    PubMed

    Scharf, J H

    1990-01-01

    There is given a concise and woodcut-like survey over the history of cytology with was born by the pioneering of Hooke, Grew, Malpighi, and van Leeuwenhoek at the end of XVIIth century and three crises of this science. The first crisis of cytology resulted from barren discussions of the so-called preformation hypothesis and the monadism of Leibniz. These philosophical speculations caused a melting away of the concrete facts during the XVIIth century. After the rebuilding of cytology by Meyen and Brown during the XIXth century's early thirties and the propounding of the early cell-theory by Schleiden and Schwann, the second crisis was provoked since Schleiden and Schwann, clearer than Meyen, kept the hypothesis of equivocal or spontaneous generation that was alive since Aristotéles. This 2nd crisis showed a belated sequel in the middle of XXth century brought about by sloppy investigations of Lepesinskaja. The third crisis concerns the question whether there is or whether there is not existent a membran enveloping every animal cell. Whereas Schwann himself presupposed the cell membran as an integral part of each cell, Max Schultze negates its existence. After the creation of the membran theory of synapse by Sherrington, the neuron theory by Ramón y Cajal, and the membran theory of narcosis by Meyer and Overton, the negation of the cell membran was being combined successively with the neovitalistic hypothesis of neuronal networks of Bethe and others. This spectre could really wiped out not before the modern histochemistry and electron microscopy were established in the fifties of our century.

  17. [Turning points in cytology].

    PubMed

    Scharf, J H

    1990-01-01

    There is given a concise and woodcut-like survey over the history of cytology with was born by the pioneering of Hooke, Grew, Malpighi, and van Leeuwenhoek at the end of XVIIth century and three crises of this science. The first crisis of cytology resulted from barren discussions of the so-called preformation hypothesis and the monadism of Leibniz. These philosophical speculations caused a melting away of the concrete facts during the XVIIth century. After the rebuilding of cytology by Meyen and Brown during the XIXth century's early thirties and the propounding of the early cell-theory by Schleiden and Schwann, the second crisis was provoked since Schleiden and Schwann, clearer than Meyen, kept the hypothesis of equivocal or spontaneous generation that was alive since Aristotéles. This 2nd crisis showed a belated sequel in the middle of XXth century brought about by sloppy investigations of Lepesinskaja. The third crisis concerns the question whether there is or whether there is not existent a membran enveloping every animal cell. Whereas Schwann himself presupposed the cell membran as an integral part of each cell, Max Schultze negates its existence. After the creation of the membran theory of synapse by Sherrington, the neuron theory by Ramón y Cajal, and the membran theory of narcosis by Meyer and Overton, the negation of the cell membran was being combined successively with the neovitalistic hypothesis of neuronal networks of Bethe and others. This spectre could really wiped out not before the modern histochemistry and electron microscopy were established in the fifties of our century. PMID:2080255

  18. Informatics applied to cytology

    PubMed Central

    Hornish, Maryanne; Goulart, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Automation and emerging information technologies are being adopted by cytology laboratories to augment Pap test screening and improve diagnostic accuracy. As a result, informatics, the application of computers and information systems to information management, has become essential for the successful operation of the cytopathology laboratory. This review describes how laboratory information management systems can be used to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. The utilization of software, electronic databases and spreadsheets to perform necessary quality control measures are discussed, as well as a Lean production system and Six Sigma approach, to reduce errors in the cytopathology laboratory. PMID:19495402

  19. Dermal mass aspirate from a Persian cat.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Feldman, Bernard; Robertson, John; Herring, Erin S; Manning, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    A 1-year-old spayed female Persian cat with alopecia and weight loss had numerous variably ulcerated dermal nodules. Cytologic examination of an aspirate of one of the nodules revealed pyogranulomatous inflammation along with septate hyphae and basophilic round bodies, 0.5-1.0 microm in diameter, surrounded by a thin clear halo (arthrospores). The cytologic diagnosis was dermatophytic pseudomycetoma. Histologically, there were dermal granulomas containing poorly staining, septate hyphae with bulbous spores embedded within abundant amorphous eosinophilic material (Splendore-Hoeppli reaction), and the histologic diagnosis was pseudomycetoma-associated chronic multifocal severe granulomatous dermatitis with lymphocytic perifolliculitis and furunculosis. Microsporum canis was cultured from the lesion. Pseudomycetomas are distinguished from fungal mycetomas, or eumycotic mycetomas, by the findings of multiple lesions, lack of a history of skin trauma, an association with dermatophytes, most commonly Microsporum canis, and, histologically, lack of true cement material and a more abundant Splendore-Hoeppli reaction in pseudomycetomas. Additionally, pseudomycetomas differ from dermatophytosis, in which lesions are restricted to epidermal structures. Persian cats have a high incidence of pseudomycetoma formation, suggesting a heritable predisposition. The prognosis is fair with systemic antifungal therapy. When examining cytologic specimens from Persian cats with single or multiple dermal nodules, especially if pyogranulomatous inflammation is present, a diagnosis of pseudomycetoma should be suspected and is warranted if arthrospores and refractile septate hyphae are present.

  20. [Comparative histological and cytological characteristics of peripheral lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Zolotarevskiĭ, V B; Kogan, E A; Ablitsov, Iu A

    1983-01-01

    Peripheral pulmonary carcinoma was analysed retrospectively histologically, histochemically, and cytologically. The examination material (smears taken at percutaneous thoracic aspirational biopsy, resected lung or lung lobe) had been obtained from 113 patients with PPC among whom 85 patients underwent pulmon- or lobe-ectomy. Cytological examination of specimens from percutaneous thoracic biopsy allowed the diagnosis of PPC to be established in 90.6% of cases and to determine correctly the histological type of cancer in 85.7%. No regular correlation between the levels of tissue and cellular differentiation in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma was found. Argyrophilic granules (Grimelius reaction) were detected in cells of combined oat cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma of transitional type. Because of the existence of combined tumors in the lungs consisting of cells of different types of differentiation it is suggested that complex histological types of pulmonary carcinoma can develop from a common polypotent precursor cell.

  1. Unexpected cytological diagnosis of two cases of echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Giuffré, G; Mondello, P; Inferrera, A; Furchì, A; Gentile, H M; Speciale, G

    1993-01-01

    The Authors report two cases of hydatid cysts localized in the soft tissues of the thigh and in para-renal region respectively. In both cases the cystic nature of the lesion was revealed by echography while the common serologic and hematologic preoperative tests did not show pathologic values. The working diagnosis was traumatic or developmental lesion and the patients were undergone to fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology which permitted to make the unexpected diagnosis of hydatid cysts. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for echinococcus, done at the time in monitoring the disease, was positive only in one case. Although the routine use of FNA cytology for the diagnosis of echinococcosis should be discouraged, this procedure may represent a real aid in the definitive diagnose of clinically unsuspected hydatid cysts.

  2. Benign and malignant neoplasms of myoepithelial cells: cytologic findings.

    PubMed

    Torlakovic, E; Ames, E D; Manivel, J C; Stanley, M W

    1993-12-01

    We report two myoepithelial cell neoplasms; a salivary gland tumor was malignant and a breast neoplasm was benign. Both were studied histologically, immunohistochemically, cytologically, and ultrastructurally. The malignant myoepithelioma recurred twice and metastasized to one regional lymph node. This tumor was infiltrative with areas of necrosis and hemorrhage. It was composed of malignant-appearing spindle and plasmacytoid cells. Both types of cells were immunoreactive to muscle specific actin, S-100 protein, cytokeratin, vimentin, and neuron-specific enolase. Ultrastructurally, features of myoepithelial cells were seen. Fine-needle aspirate smears showed spindle and plasmacytoid cells, numerous mitoses, and malignant-appearing nuclei. Spindle-cell adenomyoepithelioma of the breast, a small well-circumscribed firm nodule, featured multiple lobules of spindle cells associated with clear-cell glands at the lobular periphery. Histologically and cytologically, the lesion was cellular but appeared benign. The differential diagnosis of myoepithelial neoplasms is discussed.

  3. Necrotizing Sialometaplasia of the Hard Palate: A Rare Entity of Dilemma on Cytology, Confirmatory on Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Archana; Chowdappa, Vijaya; Devasamudra, Chidananda R; Janardhan, Jayalakshmi Valligari

    2015-12-01

    Necrotizing sialometaplasia is a rare, benign reactive necrotizing lesion, involving sites where salivary gland tissue is usually present. The importance of this lesion is that it mimics malignancy clinically leading to treatments ranging from conservative excision to total maxillectomy. Cytologically and histologically also the lesion is often confused with neoplasms. We present a case of a lady with a hard palatal swelling, which was non - ulcerative unlike typical cases of necrotizing sialometaplsia. FNAC features made us strongly suspect a low grade mucoepidermiod carcinoma, following which the swelling was excised. Histopathology came to the rescue, on which the final diagnosis of necrotizing sialometaplasia of the hard palate was made. Necrotizing siaometaplasia is often misdiagnosed by the inexperienced cytologist, with histopathological examination being confirmatory. We also emphasize the fact that lesions like necrotizing sialometaplasia need a high degree of suspicion along with clinical co relation before subjecting the patient to unnecessary surgical procedures.

  4. Intraoperative imprint cytology of ovarian transitional cell (Brenner) tumors: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rohit Inder; Rosen, Lauren; Reddy, Vijaya B; Bitterman, Pincas; Stemm, Matthew H; Gattuso, Paolo

    2014-08-01

    Literature on fine-needle aspiration of ovarian transitional cell tumor or Brenner tumors is sparse and mostly confined to isolated case reports of metastatic transitional cell tumors. We undertook a retrospective study of intraoperative imprint cytology of ovarian transitional cell tumors to better define the cytologic features of this uncommon ovarian tumor. Between 2005 and 2012, a total of 19 ovarian transitional cell tumors were recorded in our surgical pathology files, 10 of which had concomitant imprint cytologic material available for review. The 10 patients included in this study ranged in age between 43 and 73 years (mean age: 54 years). Nine neoplasms were histologically benign and one was borderline. Nine cases had satisfactory cytologic material for review. The cytologic features can be summarized as follows: the eight benign tumors showed abundant naked nuclei in the background, small and large clusters of tumor cells, abundant cytoplasm, smooth nuclear membranes, and lack of nuclear pleomorphism and mitoses. Single plasmacytoid cells with dense blue abundant cytoplasm, perinuclear vacuoles, nucleoli, microfollicle formation, nuclear grooves, binucleation/multinucleation, and extracellular eosinophilic material were some of the other features that were appreciated. The cytologic features of the one case of borderline transitional cell tumor were similar to those of the benign tumors except for the presence of rare mitoses, easily identifiable nuclear pleomorphism and irregular nuclear membranes. This study highlights some characteristic cytologic features of benign/borderline transitional cell tumors of the ovary which can be of help in recognizing this uncommon neoplasm.

  5. Multisurface Method of Pattern Separation for Medical Diagnosis Applied to Breast Cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolberg, William H.; Mangasarian, Olvi L.

    1990-12-01

    Multisurface pattern separation is a mathematical method for distinguishing between elements of two pattern sets. Each element of the pattern sets is comprised of various scalar observations. In this paper, we use the diagnosis of breast cytology to demonstrate the applicability of this method to medical diagnosis and decision making. Each of 11 cytological characteristics of breast fine-needle aspirates reported to differ between benign and malignant samples was graded 1 to 10 at the time of sample collection. Nine characteristics were found to differ significantly between benign and malignant samples. Mathematically, these values for each sample were represented by a point in a nine-dimensional space of real variables. Benign points were separated from malignant ones by planes determined by linear programming. Correct separation was accomplished in 369 of 370 samples (201 benign and 169 malignant). In the one misclassified malignant case, the fine-needle aspirate cytology was so definitely benign and the cytology of the excised cancer so definitely malignant that we believe the tumor was missed on aspiration. Our mathematical method is applicable to other medical diagnostic and decision-making problems.

  6. Acute Intraoperative Pulmonary Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Nason, Katie S.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Acute intraoperative aspiration is a potentially fatal complication with significant associated morbidity. Patients undergoing thoracic surgery are at increased risk for anesthesia-related aspiration, largely due to the predisposing conditions associated with this complication. Awareness of the risk factors, predisposing conditions, maneuvers to decrease risk and immediate management options by both the thoracic surgeon and the anesthesia team is imperative to reducing risk and optimizing patient outcomes associated with acute intraoperative pulmonary aspiration. Based on the root-cause analyses that many of the aspiration events can be traced back to provider factors, having an experienced anesthesiologist present for high-risk cases is also critical. PMID:26210926

  7. Aspiration in Chinese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Huey-Ju.

    This dissertation studies aspiration in Chinese in these four areas: the temporal relationships between aspiration and the vowel of the syllable, the perception of aspiration, the correlation between pitch and aspiration, and the role of aspiration in a historical change in Chinese. Data based on 144 words with aspiration contrasts were derived from the experiments which involved production and perception by a total of 28 Chinese speakers. On the basis of the measurements of acoustical characteristics of the voice onset time and the lengths of the syllable, a constant ratio model has been proposed to describe the timing relationships among the elements within a syllable. The perceptual experiment tested the cues of aspiration by deleting the portion of the voice onset time from the syllable on the front, back, middle and both ends. The results are reported and discussed. The effects of aspiration on intrinsic tone heights in Mandarin were measured and the significance calculated. Finally some attempts are made to solve the development of aspiration from voiced obstruents under the condition of different tones from Middle Chinese to modern dialects.

  8. The added value of using mutational profiling in addition to cytology in diagnosing aggressive pancreaticobiliary disease: review of clinical cases at a single center

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to better understand the supporting role that mutational profiling (MP) of DNA from microdissected cytology slides and supernatant specimens may play in the diagnosis of malignancy in fine-needle aspirates (FNA) and biliary brushing specimens from patients with pancreaticobiliary masses. Methods Cytology results were examined in a total of 30 patients with associated surgical (10) or clinical (20) outcomes. MP of DNA from microdissected cytology slides and from discarded supernatant fluid was analyzed in 26 patients with atypical, negative or indeterminate cytology. Results Cytology correctly diagnosed aggressive disease in 4 patients. Cytological diagnoses for the remaining 26 were as follows: 16 negative (9 false negative), 9 atypical, 1 indeterminate. MP correctly determined aggressive disease in 1 false negative cytology case and confirmed a negative cytology diagnosis in 7 of 7 cases of non-aggressive disease. Of the 9 atypical cytology cases, MP correctly diagnosed 7 as positive and 1 as negative for aggressive disease. One specimen that was indeterminate by cytology was correctly diagnosed as non-aggressive by MP. When first line malignant (positive) cytology results were combined with positive second line MP results, 12/21 cases of aggressive disease were identified, compared to 4/21 cases identified by positive cytology alone. Conclusions When first line cytology results were uncertain (atypical), questionable (negative), or not possible (non-diagnostic/indeterminate), MP provided additional information regarding the presence of aggressive disease. When used in conjunction with first line cytology, MP increased detection of aggressive disease without compromising specificity in patients that were difficult to diagnose by cytology alone. PMID:25084836

  9. Cytopathology in the diagnostic appraisal of uncommon malignant neoplastic lesions.

    PubMed

    Kalogeraki, A; Derdas, S; Karvela-Kalogeraki, I; Karvelas-Kalogerakis, M; Segredakis, G; Stathias, K; Sinatkas, V; Tamiolakis, D

    2015-03-01

    Cytology and fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology are accepted means of diagnosing and typing of common forms of malignant tumors. However, their usefulness for diagnosing less common neoplasms is not clearly established and this study was designed to examine this. We report four unusual cases of patients with malignant neoplasms in which cytology and fine needle aspiration cytology or aspiration biopsy (FNAC, FNAB) contributed significantly in establishing the diagnosis. These cases facilitate the diagnostic capabilities of cytology over a wide spectrum of neoplasms including rare lymphoproliferative disorders and carcinomas. PMID:26591631

  10. Rapid KRAS, EGFR, BRAF and PIK3CA Mutation Analysis of Fine Needle Aspirates from Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Using Allele-Specific qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Schrumpf, Melanie; Talebian Yazdi, Mehrdad; Ruano, Dina; Forte, Giusi I.; Nederlof, Petra M.; Veselic, Maud; Rabe, Klaus F.; Annema, Jouke T.; Smit, Vincent; Morreau, Hans; van Wezel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Endobronchial Ultrasound Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and Trans-esophageal Ultrasound Scanning with Fine Needle Aspiration (EUS-FNA) are important, novel techniques for the diagnosis and staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that have been incorporated into lung cancer staging guidelines. To guide and optimize treatment decisions, especially for NSCLC patients in stage III and IV, EGFR and KRAS mutation status is often required. The concordance rate of the mutation analysis between these cytological aspirates and histological samples obtained by surgical staging is unknown. Therefore, we studied the extent to which allele-specific quantitative real-time PCR with hydrolysis probes could be reliably performed on EBUS and EUS fine needle aspirates by comparing the results with histological material from the same patient. We analyzed a series of 43 NSCLC patients for whom cytological and histological material was available. We demonstrated that these standard molecular techniques can be accurately applied on fine needle cytological aspirates from NSCLC patients. Importantly, we show that all mutations detected in the histological material of primary tumor were also identified in the cytological samples. We conclude that molecular profiling can be reliably performed on fine needle cytology aspirates from NSCLC patients. PMID:21408138

  11. Fine Needle Aspiration in the Diagnosis of Childhood Malignant Disease in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Magrath, I. T.

    1973-01-01

    One hundred aspirations using a fine needle have been performed on 94 patients with a suspected diagnosis of malignant tumour, 31 of which were in patients with recurrent tumour. In 90 aspirates where histology was also available there was agreement between histological and cytological diagnosis in 81 (90%). This percentage was identical when only previously undiagnosed tumours were considered (60). In 4 aspirates no cells were obtained from tumours in which a diagnosis was made histologically and in 5 there was disagreement with histology, either regarding the presence of malignancy, or tumour type. The technique of fine needle aspiration is simple, rapid, safe and reliable. It is particularly valuable when emergency treatment is required, necessitating a very rapid diagnosis, or when the tumour is entirely intra-abdominal and the patient is unfit for laparotomy. Repeat aspirates may be performed to assess progress following treatment, or multiple suspected tumour sites may be aspirated to assist staging. The technique may be used to confirm the presence of relapsing tumour. Aspiration cytology may prove valuable as a further dimension in the interpretation of histological sections in a variety of childhood tumours, and in some circumstances may be sufficient in itself to establish a diagnosis. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4131498

  12. Hydatid cyst of parotid: Report of unusual cytological findings extending the cytomorphological spectrum.

    PubMed

    Arora, Vinod Kumar; Chopra, Neha; Singh, Poorva; Venugopal, Vasantha Kumar; Narang, Salil

    2016-09-01

    Hydatid disease is a zoonotic infestation caused by larval cestode of genus Echinococcus. Cystic form of this infection mostly involves liver and lung. Hydatid disease of the parotid gland is very rare even in endemic areas and is often clinically mistaken for parotid tumors or cysts. The presence of protoscolices, laminated membranes, and isolated hooklets are characteristic cytological features observed on fine-needle aspirate from hydatid cysts. We report unusual cytological features from a hydatid cyst of parotid in a 13-year-old girl. She presented with a slowly enlarging hard mass in left parotid. Fine-needle aspiration yielded slightly turbid fluid. Smears from the sediment revealed naked parasitic micronuclei, fragments of germinative layer (endocyst), and abortive brood capsules (buds from endocyst) seen as spherical structures with multiple parasitic nuclei. Some of these spherical structures were degenerated with recognizable nuclei and others were completely necrotic. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:770-773. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27324277

  13. Hydatid cyst of parotid: Report of unusual cytological findings extending the cytomorphological spectrum.

    PubMed

    Arora, Vinod Kumar; Chopra, Neha; Singh, Poorva; Venugopal, Vasantha Kumar; Narang, Salil

    2016-09-01

    Hydatid disease is a zoonotic infestation caused by larval cestode of genus Echinococcus. Cystic form of this infection mostly involves liver and lung. Hydatid disease of the parotid gland is very rare even in endemic areas and is often clinically mistaken for parotid tumors or cysts. The presence of protoscolices, laminated membranes, and isolated hooklets are characteristic cytological features observed on fine-needle aspirate from hydatid cysts. We report unusual cytological features from a hydatid cyst of parotid in a 13-year-old girl. She presented with a slowly enlarging hard mass in left parotid. Fine-needle aspiration yielded slightly turbid fluid. Smears from the sediment revealed naked parasitic micronuclei, fragments of germinative layer (endocyst), and abortive brood capsules (buds from endocyst) seen as spherical structures with multiple parasitic nuclei. Some of these spherical structures were degenerated with recognizable nuclei and others were completely necrotic. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:770-773. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Silicone lymphadenopathy: presentation of a further case containing asteroid bodies on fine-needle cytology sample.

    PubMed

    Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Campanile, Anna Cipolletta; Gioioso, Antonella; Fucito, Alfredo; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe; Botti, Gerardo; Fulciniti, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Silicone lymphadenopathy is a recognized complication of breast augmentation. It is thought to occur when silicone droplets migrate from breast implants to lymph nodes. We report the cytologic findings in axillary and inguinal lymph node aspirate smears from a 35-year-old Italian woman, who came to our observation 10 years after bilateral cosmetic breast augmentation. A fine-needle cytology of the axillary lymph node showed extensive granulomatous inflammation, numerous histiocytes, and multinucleated giant cells containing star-shaped structures known as "asteroid bodies." The inguinal lymph node aspirate simply showed an aspecific reactive hyperplasia. No evidence of malignancy was present in any of the smears as well as in the excised axillary lymph node. PMID:24995825

  15. Cytological artifacts masquerading interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Khushboo; Mehendiratta, Monica; Rehani, Shweta; Kumra, Madhumani; Sharma, Rashi; Kardam, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cytological artifacts are important to learn because an error in routine laboratory practice can bring out an erroneous result. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of delayed fixation and morphological discrepancies created by deliberate addition of extraneous factors on the interpretation and/or diagnosis of an oral cytosmear. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out using papanicolaou and hematoxylin and eosin-stained oral smears, 6 each from 66 volunteer dental students with deliberate variation in fixation delay timings, with and without changes in temperature, undue pressure while smear making and intentional addition of contaminants. The fixation delay at room temperature was carried out at an interval of every 30 minutes, 1 day and 1 week and was continued till the end of 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month, respectively. The temperature variations included 60 to 70°C and 3 to 4°C. Results: Light microscopically, the effect of delayed fixation at room temperature appeared first on cytoplasm followed by nucleus within the first 2 hours and on the 4th day, respectively, till complete cytoplasmic degeneration on the 23rd day. However, delayed fixation at variable temperature brought faster degenerative changes at higher temperature than lower temperature. Effect of extraneous factors revealed some interesting facts. Conclusions: In order to justify a cytosmear interpretation, a cytologist must be well acquainted with delayed fixation-induced cellular changes and microscopic appearances of common contaminants so as to implicate better prognosis and therapy. PMID:24648667

  16. Bone marrow aspiration

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003658.htm Bone marrow aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps ...

  17. Guiding thyroid nodule management by fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Morayati, S J; Freitas, J E

    1991-12-01

    To determine the clinical value and cost effectiveness of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in thyroid nodule management, a retrospective analysis of 945 consecutive patients subjected to FNA of cold nodules detected by clinical exam and Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scan between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 1987, was performed. After FNA, thyroid surgery was required in only 287 of 945 patients (30.4%). Of 87 cancers with satisfactory aspirates, 84 exhibited positive or suspicious cytology (sensitivity 96.6%). The predictive values for positive and negative cytology were 96.9% and 95.7%, respectively. Of 745 patients with known or presumed benign disease up to seven years of follow up, 642 showed benign cytologies (specificity 86.2%). The cancer removal rate (1980-1987) was higher with FNA and surgery than with surgery alone (P less than 0.001). The estimated cost saving of FNA in 1980-1987 approximates $564,000. FNA is of great value since it enables greater cancer detection in a cost-effective manner.

  18. Blue bodies in cytology specimens in a case of pulmonary talcosis.

    PubMed

    Kung, I T; Johnson, F B; So, S Y; Lam, W K; Hsu, C

    1984-05-01

    Unusual extracellular birefringent laminated ovoid structures are seen in bronchial brushing, aspiration, and washing specimens in a 28-year-old woman who had histologic evidence of pulmonary talcosis. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis and microchemical studies have identified them to be calcium carbonate. These structures are known as pulmonary blue bodies and are seen mainly in histologic paraffin sections. Their occurrence in cytologic preparations and association with talcosis have not been reported.

  19. Techniques for cytologic sampling of pancreatic and bile duct lesions: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Brugge, William R; De Witt, John; Klapman, Jason B; Ashfaq, Raheela; Shidham, Vinod; Chhieng, David; Kwon, Richard; Baloch, Zubair; Zarka, Matthew; Staerkel, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology, including indications for endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy, techniques of the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing, and postbiopsy management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18 month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology website [www.papsociety.org]. This document presents the results of these discussions regarding the use of sampling techniques in the cytological diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions. This document summarizes the current state of the art for techniques in acquiring cytology specimens from the biliary tree as well as solid and cystic lesions of the pancreas.

  20. The role of cytology in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal neoplasms: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Pablo Moura de Andrade; Oliveira, Marcelo Parente; da Silva, Hilton Justino; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira

    2012-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed the literature of the last decade on the role of cytology in the evaluation of musculoskeletal neoplasms, and its diagnostic accuracy. A search was carried out on the databases PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO, selecting articles in which cytology was used in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal neoplasms. Limits were used for English, Spanish and Portuguese, and only articles published since 2000 were selected. 757 articles were retrieved, 24 of which were selected based on criteria of inclusion and exclusion. It was concluded that although promising in the assessment of musculoskeletal neoplasms, cytology obtained by fine needle aspiration is less accurate and reliable than histological evaluation of such lesions. PMID:24453581

  1. A brief chronicle of cytology: from Janssen to Papanicolaou and beyond.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Aristides; Beloukas, Apostolos I; Kalogeraki, Alexandra M; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil

    2013-06-01

    The aim of our study was to outline and present the major hallmarks in the history of clinical cytology. For this purpose, an extensive research in modern literature and the PubMed database was undertaken. Furthermore, we studied original papers and books of the pioneers in cytopathology. The development of the first microscope by Hans and Sacharias Janssen is a hallmark in biological sciences, since the study of microcosmos was made feasible. From the discovery of single cells by Robert Hooke and the cell theory by Schleiden and Schwann till the establishment of exfoliative cytology by George Papanicolaou and the invention of fine-needle aspiration biopsy technique by Martin and Ellis, there is a three-century continuum of important discoveries and research. Today, flow cytometry and the introduction of molecular techniques have revolutionized medicine and are expected to change the face of cytology in the near future.

  2. A brief chronicle of cytology: from Janssen to Papanicolaou and beyond.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Aristides; Beloukas, Apostolos I; Kalogeraki, Alexandra M; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil

    2013-06-01

    The aim of our study was to outline and present the major hallmarks in the history of clinical cytology. For this purpose, an extensive research in modern literature and the PubMed database was undertaken. Furthermore, we studied original papers and books of the pioneers in cytopathology. The development of the first microscope by Hans and Sacharias Janssen is a hallmark in biological sciences, since the study of microcosmos was made feasible. From the discovery of single cells by Robert Hooke and the cell theory by Schleiden and Schwann till the establishment of exfoliative cytology by George Papanicolaou and the invention of fine-needle aspiration biopsy technique by Martin and Ellis, there is a three-century continuum of important discoveries and research. Today, flow cytometry and the introduction of molecular techniques have revolutionized medicine and are expected to change the face of cytology in the near future. PMID:22807413

  3. Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland: Cytological diagnosis of an uncommon tumor.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Amoolya; Rao, Madhuri; Geethamani, V; Shetty, Archana C

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell adenoma (BCA) is a rare benign epithelial tumor of the salivary gland, displaying monomorphic basaloid cells without a myxochondroid component, representing 1-3% of all salivary gland neoplasms seen predominantly in women over 50 years of age. It is uncommon in young adults. Cytodiagnosis of basaloid tumors chiefly basal cell adenoma of the salivary gland, is extremely challenging. The cytological differential diagnoses range from benign to malignant, neoplastic to non- neoplastic lesions. Histopathological examination is a must for definitive diagnosis, as these entities differ in prognosis and therapeutic aspects. We present a 22-years-old male with this uncommon diagnosis with a discussion on the role of cytological diagnosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a simple, minimally invasive method for the preoperative diagnosis of various types of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. The knowledge of its pitfalls and limitations contributes to a more effective approach to treatment.

  4. [Aberrant promoter methylation as biomarker for molecular cytological diagnosis of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Grote, H J

    2006-01-01

    Aberrant promoter methylation represents a main mechanism of tumor suppressor gene inactivation and may serve as a new source for biomarker discovery. This study investigated its applicability as a molecular tool for lung cancer diagnostics on bronchial aspirates. A methylation assay was developed applying a quantitative methylation specific real-time PCR (QMSP). A total of 552 patients with the differential diagnosis of lung cancer were investigated. The QMSP findings on bronchial aspirates were compared with the methylation status of respective genes investigated in microdissected tumor tissues (QMSP, cloning and sequencing of promoter regions after bisulfite conversion). Among the genes tested a marker panel consisting of APC, p16(INK4a) and RASSF1A proved to be the best suited for lung cancer diagnostics. This panel allowed for a correct diagnosis of lung cancer in cases with an ambiguous or false negative conventional cytology. In a cohort study on 247 patients, the combination of histology (sensitivity 59 %), cytology (sensitivity 44 %) and QMSP-assay (sensitivity 53 %) raised the sensitivity of a single bronchoscopy for the diagnosis of lung cancer up to 81%. The methylation assay yielded its major diagnostic surplus with respect to peripheral tumors representing 59 % of all primaries detected. In patients without antecedent lung cancer its specificity considering malignancy was >99 %. Therefore, the QMSP-assay is a promising technique which could enhance the sensitivity and diagnostic impact of conventional cytology. The assay is applicable to residual material of regular diagnostic cytology even in retrospect.

  5. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Download Printable Version [ ... on the topics below to get started. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer How is cancer ...

  6. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the islet cell tumor of pancreas: a comparison between computerized axial tomography and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Jhala, Darshana; Eloubeidi, Mohammad; Chhieng, David C; Frost, Andra; Eltoum, Isam A; Roberson, Janie; Jhala, Nirag

    2002-04-01

    The objective of the present study is to compare the cytologic features of islet cell tumor (ICT) of pancreas obtained by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and computed tomography guided FNA (CT-FNA). We also describe the cytologic features associated with malignant ICT. Eleven cytology samples from 121 CT- FNA and 30 EUS- FNA of the pancreas were obtained from nine patients with ICT. Diff-Quik, Papanicolaou, and immunohistochemical stains to determine neuroendocrine differentiation and the hormonal status were evaluated. Cytologic features and specimen adequacy were compared between the two techniques. Cytologic features noted in both benign and malignant ICT were also compared. Nine patients (5 men, 4 women) ranging in age from 29 to 84 years (mean age, 53.8 years). Diagnoses consisted of benign (4) and malignant (5) ICT. EUS-FNA was superior to CT-FNA in obtaining adequate cells (2/2 v 7/9) for the diagnosis and increased cellularity to perform additional immunohistochemical stains (2/2 v 4/7). Single, plasmacytoid cells with finely granular chromatin distribution characterized ICT on cytology. Mitoses (3/5) and necrosis (1/5) were noted in malignant ICT but not in benign ICT. EUS-FNA is superior to CT- FNA for obtaining cells for the diagnosis of ICT. Detection of mitoses and or necrosis from patients with ICT should initiate a search for metastasis.

  7. Fine needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M B; Fisher, P E; Holly, E A; Ljung, B M; Löwhagen, T; Bottles, K

    1990-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy is an increasingly popular method for the evaluation of salivary gland tumors. Of the common salivary gland tumors, mucoepidermoid carcinoma is probably the most difficult to diagnose accurately by this means. A series of 96 FNA biopsy specimens of salivary gland masses, including 34 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 51 other benign and malignant neoplasms, 7 nonneoplastic lesions and 4 normal salivary glands, were analyzed in order to identify the most useful criteria for diagnosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Thirteen cytologic criteria were evaluated in the FNA specimens, and a stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed. The three cytologic features selected as most predictive of mucoepidermoid carcinoma were intermediate cells, squamous cells and overlapping epithelial groups. Using these three features together, the sensitivity and specificity of accurately diagnosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma were 97% and 100%, respectively.

  8. Cytology exam of pleural fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lungs. This area is called the pleural space. Cytology means the study of cells. ... A sample of fluid from the pleural space is needed. The sample is taken using a procedure called thoracentesis . The procedure is done in the following way: You sit on a ...

  9. Selected problems in fine needle aspiration of head and neck masses.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Michael W

    2002-03-01

    A wide variety of masses in the head and neck, including those in the major salivary glands, can be approached by fine needle aspiration. In many instances, a correct definitive diagnosis con be rendered after examination of smears or cell block material. However, several significant but uncommon areas can lead to diagnostic difficulties, with the potential for clinically important diagnostic errors. Many of these occur in salivary gland lesions. The most frequent problems involve variations in the expected cytology of pleomorphic adenoma. Then, there are several benign-malignant "look-alike" pairs of lesions. The first of these is related to small-cell epithelial neoplasms of low nuclear grade; the most frequent problem is between basal cell adenomas and adenoid cystic carcinoma, particularly the solid (anaplastic) type. The next area contrasts mucoepidermoid carcinoma with its cytologic mimic, benign salivary gland duct obstruction. The final difficulty in salivary gland aspiration contrasts large-cell epithelial lesions of low nuclear grade: oncocytic proliferations and acinic cell carcinoma. The clinical implications of cytologically benign squamous cell-containing cyst aspirates from the lateral neck will be discussed. Finally, a brief consideration of methodological optimization for thyroid aspirations will be offered.

  10. Confocal microscopy and exfoliative cytology

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Shyam Prasad; Ramani, Pratibha; Nainani, Purshotam

    2013-01-01

    Context: Early detection of potentially malignant lesions and invasive squamous-cell carcinoma in the oral cavity could be greatly improved through techniques that permit visualization of subtle cellular changes indicative of the neoplastic transformation process. One such technique is confocal microscopy. Combining rapidity with reliability, an innovative idea has been put forward using confocal microscope in exfoliative cytology. Aims: The main objective of this study was to assess confocal microscopy for cytological diagnosis and the results were compared with that of the standard PAP stain. Settings and Design: Confocal microscope, acridine orange (AO) stain, PAP (Papanicolaou) stain. The study was designed to assess confocal microscopy for cytological diagnosis. In the process, smears of patients with (clinically diagnosed and/or suspected) oral squamous cell carcinoma as well as those of controls (normal people) were stained with acridine orange and observed under confocal microscope. The results were compared with those of the standard PAP method. Materials and Methods: Samples of buccal mucosa smears from normal patients and squamous cell carcinoma patients were made, fixed in 100% alcohol, followed by AO staining. The corresponding set of smears was stained with PAP stain using rapid PAP stain kit. The results obtained were compared with those obtained with AO confocal microscopy. Results: The study had shown nuclear changes (malignant cells) in the smears of squamous cell carcinoma patients as increased intensity of fluorescence of the nucleus, when observed under confocal microscope. Acridine orange confocal microscopy showed good amount of sensitivity and specificity (93%) in identifying malignant cells in exfoliative cytological smears. Conclusion: Confocal microscopy was found to have good sensitivity in the identification of cancer (malignant) cells in exfoliative cytology, at par with the PAP method. The rapidity of processing and screening a

  11. A robust biomarker of differential correlations improves the diagnosis of cytologically indeterminate thyroid cancers.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Rueda, Hugo; Palacios-Corona, Rebeca; Gutiérrez-Hermosillo, Hugo; Trevino, Victor

    2016-05-01

    The fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules and subsequent cytological analysis is unable to determine the diagnosis in 15 to 30% of thyroid cancer cases; patients with indeterminate cytological results undergo diagnostic surgery which is potentially unnecessary. Current gene expression biomarkers based on well-determined cytology are complex and their accuracy is inconsistent across public datasets. In the present study, we identified a robust biomarker using the differences in gene expression values specifically from cytologically indeterminate thyroid tumors and a powerful multivariate search tool coupled with a nearest centroid classifier. The biomarker is based on differences in the expression of the following genes: CCND1, CLDN16, CPE, LRP1B, MAGI3, MAPK6, MATN2, MPPED2, PFKFB2, PTPRE, PYGL, SEMA3D, SERGEF, SLC4A4 and TIMP1. This 15-gene biomarker exhibited superior accuracy independently of the cytology in six datasets, including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) thyroid dataset. In addition, this biomarker exhibited differences in the correlation coefficients between benign and malignant samples that indicate its discriminatory power, and these 15 genes have been previously related to cancer in the literature. Thus, this 15-gene biomarker provides advantages in clinical practice for the effective diagnosis of thyroid cancer.

  12. Metastatic Chordoma: A Diagnostic Challenge on Fine Needle Aspiration.

    PubMed

    Tranesh, Ghassan; Nassar, Aziza

    2016-01-01

    Chordomas are primary low grade malignant tumors of bone that usually arise within both ends of axial skeleton. The Notochord is a midline, ectoderm-derived structure that defines the phylum of chordates. Chordomas may pose difficult diagnostic challenges when encountered in secondary locations, such as lungs or other parenchymatous organs. We report the cytologic findings of a metastatic chordoma sampled through CT-scan guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of lower lobe lung nodule in a 54-year-old man diagnosed with recurrent chordoma involving the lumber spine and paraspinal region.

  13. Metastatic Chordoma: A Diagnostic Challenge on Fine Needle Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Tranesh, Ghassan; Nassar, Aziza

    2016-01-01

    Chordomas are primary low grade malignant tumors of bone that usually arise within both ends of axial skeleton. The Notochord is a midline, ectoderm-derived structure that defines the phylum of chordates. Chordomas may pose difficult diagnostic challenges when encountered in secondary locations, such as lungs or other parenchymatous organs. We report the cytologic findings of a metastatic chordoma sampled through CT-scan guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of lower lobe lung nodule in a 54-year-old man diagnosed with recurrent chordoma involving the lumber spine and paraspinal region. PMID:26881166

  14. Multiple pancreatic metastases from malignant melanoma: Conclusive diagnosis with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Jana, Tanima; Caraway, Nancy P; Irisawa, Atsushi; Bhutani, Manoop S

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic metastases are rare, ranging from 2% to 5% of pancreatic malignancies. Differentiating a primary pancreatic malignancy from a metastasis can be difficult due to similarities on imaging findings, but is crucial to ensure proper treatment. Although transabdominal ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging provide useful images, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine needle aspiration (FNA) is often needed to provide a cytologic diagnosis. Here, we present a unique case of malignant melanoma with pancreatic metastases. It is important for clinicians to recognize the possibility of melanoma metastasizing to the pancreas and the role of EUS with FNA in providing cytological confirmation.

  15. Multiple pancreatic metastases from malignant melanoma: Conclusive diagnosis with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Jana, Tanima; Caraway, Nancy P; Irisawa, Atsushi; Bhutani, Manoop S

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic metastases are rare, ranging from 2% to 5% of pancreatic malignancies. Differentiating a primary pancreatic malignancy from a metastasis can be difficult due to similarities on imaging findings, but is crucial to ensure proper treatment. Although transabdominal ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging provide useful images, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine needle aspiration (FNA) is often needed to provide a cytologic diagnosis. Here, we present a unique case of malignant melanoma with pancreatic metastases. It is important for clinicians to recognize the possibility of melanoma metastasizing to the pancreas and the role of EUS with FNA in providing cytological confirmation. PMID:26020050

  16. Improvization of conventional cytology by centrifuged liquid-based cytology in oral exfoliative cytology specimen

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, Shwetha; Hegde, Veda; Yadav, Nikhil; Hallikeri, Kaveri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exfoliative cytology is the microscopic examination of shed or desquamated cells from the epithelial surface. Centrifuged liquid-based cytology (CLBC) is a modified technique that was used in the current study. Aims: To compare the efficacy of CLBC with conventional cytology in apparently normal mucosa after staining with Papanicolaou (PAP) stain. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of apparently normal mucosa from healthy subjects were selected for the study. The first sample was taken and spread on the slide by the conventional technique. The second sample was flushed out in a suspending solution, centrifuged, and the cell pellet obtained was used to make the smear. The stained smears were compared for seven parameters such as adequate cellularity, clear background, uniform distribution, cellular overlapping, cellular elongation, mucus, and inflammatory cells. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis and P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between CLBC and conventional cytology with parameters such as adequate cellularity (P = 0.001), clear background (P = 0.001), uniform distribution (0.005), cellular overlapping, and cellular elongation (P = 0). The presence of mucus and inflammatory cells was minimal as the samples were collected from healthy subjects. Conclusion: CLBC has better efficacy over the conventional method in all the parameters analyzed. PMID:27756981

  17. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  18. Rising Aspirations Dampen Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Andrew E.; Kamesaka, Akiko; Tamura, Teruyuki

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly believed that education is a good thing for individuals. Yet, its correlation with subjective well-being is most often only weakly positive, or even negative, despite the many associated better individual-level outcomes. We here square the circle using novel Japanese data on happiness aspirations. If reported happiness comes from a…

  19. Hydrodynamics of micropipette aspiration.

    PubMed Central

    Drury, J L; Dembo, M

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of human neutrophils during micropipette aspiration are frequently analyzed by approximating these cells as simple slippery droplets of viscous fluid. Here, we present computations that reveal the detailed predictions of the simplest and most idealized case of such a scheme; namely, the case where the fluid of the droplet is homogeneous and Newtonian, and the surface tension of the droplet is constant. We have investigated the behavior of this model as a function of surface tension, droplet radius, viscosity, aspiration pressure, and pipette radius. In addition, we have tabulated a dimensionless factor, M, which can be utilized to calculate the apparent viscosity of the slippery droplet. Computations were carried out using a low Reynolds number hydrodynamics transport code based on the finite-element method. Although idealized and simplistic, we find that the slippery droplet model predicts many observed features of neutrophil aspiration. However, there are certain features that are not observed in neutrophils. In particular, the model predicts dilation of the membrane past the point of being continuous, as well as a reentrant jet at high aspiration pressures. PMID:9876128

  20. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow KidsHealth > For Teens > Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Risks If You Have Questions What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone ...

  1. New aspirations: the debate on aspiration pneumonia treatment guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Jason C; Howden, Benjamin P; Charles, Patrick G P

    2011-10-01

    Aspiration pneumonia occurs most commonly in patients with a predisposition to aspiration (eg, those with neurological bulbar dysfunction). There is limited evidence regarding the involvement of anaerobes in most cases of aspiration pneumonia. Most patients respond to treatment for aspiration pneumonia without specific anti-anaerobic therapy such as metronidazole. Metronidazole has adverse side effects, and widespread use where not indicated can promote carriage of multiresistant intestinal flora such as vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Use of metronidazole may be appropriate in patients with aspiration pneumonia and evidence of a lung abscess, necrotising pneumonia, putrid sputum or severe periodontal disease.

  2. The cytology of a thyroid granular cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Mei; Wei, Chang-Kuo; Tseng, Chih-En

    2009-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) of the thyroid is rare. Before this report, only four cases of thyroid GCT have been reported, none of which presented a cytopathological examination. In this paper, we report the fine needle aspiration cytology and pathological analysis of a thyroid GCT from a 12-year-old girl who presented with a painless neck mass. The tumor cells were single, in syncytial clusters, or pseudofollicles, contained small round, oval, or spindle nuclei, indistinct nucleoli, and a large amount of grayish, granular fragile cytoplasm. The background contained granular debris and naked nuclei. A differential diagnosis of thyroid GCT with more frequent thyroid lesions containing cytoplasmic granules, including Hurthle cells, macrophages, follicular cells, and cells of black thyroid syndrome, was also performed.

  3. Pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma diagnosed using endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Caraway, Nancy P; Salina, Davide; Deavers, Michael T; Morice, Rodolfo; Landon, Gene

    2015-01-01

    Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery is a rare intraluminal malignant neoplasm that has an aggressive biological behavior, and early diagnosis may improve patient outcome. We describe a case of pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma diagnosed on cytologic material obtained by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) biopsy with rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE). The aspirate showed loosely cohesive clusters of pleomorphic malignant spindled and epithelioid cells. An immunostain panel did not demonstrate any definitive mesenchymal or epithelial differentiation. The tumor's intraluminal origin was supported by radiographic imaging studies. Subsequently, the patient received preoperative chemotherapy and underwent tumor resection with reconstruction. This report describes the cytomorphologic features of this rare intravascular tumor and demonstrates how EBUS-TBNA with ROSE was instrumental in obtaining optimal cytologic sampling for ancillary studies, thus expediting the management.

  4. Pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma diagnosed using endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Caraway, Nancy P; Salina, Davide; Deavers, Michael T; Morice, Rodolfo; Landon, Gene

    2015-01-01

    Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery is a rare intraluminal malignant neoplasm that has an aggressive biological behavior, and early diagnosis may improve patient outcome. We describe a case of pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma diagnosed on cytologic material obtained by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) biopsy with rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE). The aspirate showed loosely cohesive clusters of pleomorphic malignant spindled and epithelioid cells. An immunostain panel did not demonstrate any definitive mesenchymal or epithelial differentiation. The tumor's intraluminal origin was supported by radiographic imaging studies. Subsequently, the patient received preoperative chemotherapy and underwent tumor resection with reconstruction. This report describes the cytomorphologic features of this rare intravascular tumor and demonstrates how EBUS-TBNA with ROSE was instrumental in obtaining optimal cytologic sampling for ancillary studies, thus expediting the management. PMID:25745502

  5. Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsies of the Head and Neck: The Surgical Pathologist's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Cerilli, Lisa A.; Wick, Mark R.

    2000-01-01

    Masses of the head and neck comprise a variety of benign and malignant tumors and tumor-like conditions, which may present diagnostic challenges to the surgical pathologist and surgeon. Fine needle aspiration cytology is an increasingly popular technique in the initial evaluation of such lesions. The high diagnostic accuracy of this technique makes it generally preferable to traditional surgical biopsy. It is particularly useful in the sampling of histologically uniform neoplasms of the salivary glands, identification of classical papillary carcinoma and medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, separation of colloid goiter from follicular neoplasms, and confirmation of clinically suspicious lymph node metastases in cases with already documented malignant diseases. Despite its usefulness, aspiration cytology of head and neck lesions has certain inherent pitfalls, and these are briefly examined in this review. Int J Surg Pathol 8(1):17-28, 2000

  6. Aspiration of Barium Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes Santos, Cristina; Steen, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    The aspiration of barium contrast is a rare complication that may occur during studies of the digestive tract. Barium is an inert material that can cause anywhere from an asymptomatic mechanical obstruction to serious symptoms of respiratory distress that can result in patient death. We present the case of a 79-year-old male patient in whom we observed the presence of contrast medium residue in the lung parenchyma as an incidental finding during hospitalization. When the patient's medical file was reviewed, images were found of a barium swallow study that the patient had undergone months earlier, and we were able to observe the exact moment of the aspiration of the contrast material. The patient had been asymptomatic since the test. PMID:25309769

  7. [Detection of numerical aberrations in chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization in fine needle aspirates in the preoperative diagnosis of cancer].

    PubMed

    Noguchi, S; Tsukamoto, F; Miyoshi, Y; Inaji, H; Watatani, M; Sasa, M; Inazawa, J; Takami, S

    1999-12-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) samples were obtained from 176 breast tumors suspected of malignancy, which were then subjected to conventional cytological and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses using the centromeric probes for chromosomes 1, 11, and 17. Histological examination revealed 157 breast cancers and 19 benign diseases (ten fibroadenomas, six intraductal papillomas, one intracystic papilloma, and two ADH). Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 85.4% 94.7%, and 86.4%, respectively, for cytology and 90.4%, 100%, and 91.5%, respectively, for FISH. These results demonstrate that FISH diagnosis of FNA samples has a diagnostic accuracy comparable to that of conventional cytology. PMID:10635294

  8. Cytologic study of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, T; Kanamaru, T; Shingaki, S; Mizutani, H; Nakajima, T

    1980-02-01

    Cytologic examination was performed on 22 known oral tumors of glandular origin. Cytologically, the cells of benign pleomorphic adenomas and an adenolymphoma could easily be identified as of benign tumor origin, but cytologic determination of malignancy was difficult in 11 of 14 malignant tumors due to lack of malignant features. A precise and comparative study of the morphologic details of the tumor cells with the histologic findings, however, seemed to suggest a possibility of determining the histologic type even in smear preparations.

  9. Adenomatoid mesothelioma with intranuclear inclusion bodies: a case report with cytological and histological findings.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Toshiaki; Kawashima, Katsuhiko; Serizawa, Hiromi; Miura, Hiroyuki; Kyeongil, Kim

    2014-05-01

    We report a very unusual cytologic feature, intranuclear inclusion bodies, in mesothelioma of a predominantly adenomatoid type. The patient, a 57-year-old woman, was presented with dyspnea and right pleural effusion. Pleural aspiration cytology revealed many cohesive ball-like clusters, with a tubular pattern, composed of small atypical cells displaying a high-nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio. They had a nuclear groove and irregular intranuclear inclusion bodies. Right lung partial resection with thoracoscopy revealed that a white tumor had proliferated along the pleural surface at S(8) . Histology revealed nodular tumor cells forming dilated structures mixed with small tubular or glandular structures similar to those seen in benign adenomatoid tumors. These tumor cells had invaded peripheral lung tissues. Such inclusion bodies have not been reported earlier in mesothelioma. On the basis of this observation, we propose that the adenomatoid type of malignant mesothelioma be added to the differential diagnosis of malignant effusions when tumor cells with nuclear grooves and intranuclear inclusions are found in pleural aspiration cytology.

  10. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... a diagnosis of HSIL, adenocarcinoma, or other malignant neoplasm for which histology results were available for comparison; (v) Gynecologic cases where cytology and histology are discrepant; and...

  11. Education and training in cytology in Europe.

    PubMed

    Tötsch, M

    2016-10-01

    Education and training in cytology in Europe is hampered by the fact that there is no homogenous programme across Europe. This can be observed for (Cyto)Pathologists and Cytotechnologists. However, lack of workforce and lack of a pan-European Cytology diploma are decreasing motivation among junior staff to dedicate their professional interests to cytology. Cytology and histology are complementary approaches for the diagnosis or exclusion of disease in patients and there are many individual efforts of National Societies to maintain competencies in cytology by workshops, seminars, tutorials and congresses. Furthermore, professional organizations such as the European Federation of Cytology Societies (EFCS), the European Society of Pathology (ESP) and Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) - Section Pathology are working together in order to develop a pan-European Cytology diploma. The EFCS is part supported by EU funding in this endeavour. Activities are ongoing in the fields of training (Eurocytology) and examination (QUATE Aptitude Test - Quality Assurance, Training and Examination) or both (Cy-Test). Modern techniques such as Webatlas with teaching modules in cytology and Tele(cyto)pathology are more and more integrated in daily teaching activities resulting in standardization of cytology in Europe. PMID:27650599

  12. Syphilitic lymphadenitis diagnosed via fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Jang, David W; Khan, Alifia; Genden, Eric M; Wu, Maoxin

    2011-08-01

    Syphilis is coming back in the recent a few decades especially in the gay and HIV populations. Since syphilis can be "the great mimic" clinically and pathologically, a case report with updated review can be helpful to the medical community. We report, a case of syphilitic lymphadenitis diagnosed via fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). The pitfalls associated with the diagnosis of syphilitic lymphadenitis will be discussed. The patient's medical records were reviewed. The pertinent history, clinical course, and ancillary studies including FNAB cytology with special stains are presented. In addition to the case report, we discuss the diagnosis of syphilitic lymphadenitis and the role of FNAB cytology. This was a 37-year-old man presenting with a two-month history of a growing neck mass, night sweats, and a ten pound weight loss. The patient had been treated one month earlier for primary syphilis. Examination of the head and neck revealed a 3 cm right level II mass. FNAB cytology showed heterogeneous population of lymphocytes and plasma cells suggesting reactive changes. Modified silver staining of the cell block slide was performed and revealed spirochetes, consistent with syphilis. The patient's lymphadenitis resolved with a course of antibiotic treatment. Although lymphadenopathy is a rare presentation of syphilis, it should be included in the differential diagnosis for patients who offer a suspect history. FNAB with silver staining is an effective, minimally invasive way to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:21761579

  13. Vanishing tumors of thyroid: histological variations after fine needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Parisha; Deniwar, Ahmed; Mohamed, Hossam Eldin; Sholl, Andrew; Murad, Fadi; Aslam, Rizwan

    2016-01-01

    Background Fine needle aspiration (FNA) can lead to changes that extensively replace cytological confirmed thyroid lesions. These lesions, so called “vanishing tumors” can be diagnostically challenging to pathologists and therapeutically challenging for endocrinologists and surgeons. We performed a retrospective analysis to identify these tumors. Methods Data of 656 patients referred for thyroid surgery was reviewed. Patients with suspicious lesions on neck ultrasound (US) underwent FNA. We compared FNA cytological and surgical pathological findings to identify vanishing tumors. FNA-induced changes such as cystic degeneration, hemorrhage, calcification, cholesterol crystals, fibrosis and granulation tissue were identified. Results Seventeen patients (2.5%) were identified with vanishing tumors. FNA cytology was indeterminate in seven (41.1%) and benign in ten (58.8%) patients. Surgical pathology in all nodules showed regressive changes partially or entirely replacing the tumor. The mean size of vanishing tumors was 2.4±1.5 cm in greatest dimension. Seven nodules (41.1%) were entirely replaced while remaining ten nodules showed partial replacement of tumors. Three (17.6%) nodules had focal areas of optically clear nuclei suspicious of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC); one showed an additional focus of follicular neoplasm (FN) of uncertain malignant potential. Conclusions FNA-induced changes can lead to obliteration of nodules rendering pathological diagnosis with no evidence of confirmed lesions. Pathologists and surgeons should be aware of this challenging scenario. PMID:27294033

  14. Fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Nettle, W J; Orell, S R

    1989-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of salivary glands was performed in 187 patients. In 106 patients with satisfactory FNAB smears who proceeded to surgery, the original cytologic diagnosis was compared with subsequent histopathology. There were 74 benign tumours and 25 malignant tumours. Nineteen of the latter were primary malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands, and 6 were metastatic. The cytologic diagnosis by FNAB correlated exactly with the histologic diagnosis in 95% of benign neoplasms and in 68% of malignant neoplasms, with an overall accuracy of 88%. A false negative diagnosis for malignancy was made in five cases and a false positive diagnosis in one case. Hence the sensitivity for malignancy was 80% and the specificity was 99%. The most frequently misdiagnosed lesions were pleomorphic adenoma and muco-epidermoid carcinoma. FNAB of salivary gland lesions is easy to perform and free of complications, but the cytologic patterns may be difficult to interpret, and considerable experience is necessary in order to achieve a high diagnostic accuracy.

  15. Prognostic impact of cytological fluid tumor markers in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Arthur; Hur, Jin; Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Young Jin; Hong, Sae Rom; Suh, Young Joo; Im, Dong Jin; Kim, Yun Jung; Lee, Jae Seok; Shim, Hyo Sup; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2016-03-01

    The serum tumor markers CYFRA 21-1, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) are useful in diagnosis and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Cytologic tumor markers obtained during needle aspiration biopsies (NAB) of lung lesions are useful for NSCLC diagnosis. This study investigated the incremental prognostic value of cytologic tumor markers compared to serum tumor markers. This prospective study included 253 patients diagnosed with NSCLC by NAB with cytologic tumor marker analysis. Levels of cytologic CYFRA 21-1, CEA, SCCA, and their serum counterparts were followed up for survival analysis. Optimal cutoff values for each tumor marker were obtained for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) analyses. All patients were followed up for a median of 22.8 months. Using cutoff values of 0.44 ng/ml for C-SCCA, 2.0 ng/ml for S-SCCA, and 3.3 ng/ml for S-CYFRA, a multivariate analysis revealed that high S-SCCA (hazard ratio, HR, 1.84) and high C-SCCA (HR, 1.63) were independent predictive factors of OS. The 3-year overall survival rate was 55 vs. 80 % for high and low C-SCCA, respectively. Cytologic tumor marker level detection is easily obtainable and provides prognostic information for NSCLC. Cytologic tumor markers provide comparable prognostic information relative to serum tumor markers, with C-SCCA acting as a strong prognostic factor of overall survival and PFS. PMID:26432331

  16. Fine-needle aspiration of spindle cell and mesenchymal lesions of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Chhieng, D C; Cohen, J M; Cangiarella, J F

    2000-10-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy can accurately diagnose epithelial lesions of the salivary gland. Its role in the evaluation of salivary gland lesions containing a significant spindle cell component is less clear. We describe the cytologic features of 25 spindle cell lesions of the salivary gland and discuss the differential diagnosis and potential diagnostic pitfalls. Twenty-five aspiration smears (3.0%) containing a significant spindle cell or mesenchymal component were identified out of 844 salivary gland FNAs performed over a 5-year period. These aspiration smears were from 25 patients. The smears were classified into three categories: 1) reactive or inflammatory conditions, including one granulation tissue and four granulomatous sialoadenitis; 2) benign neoplasms, including one schwannoma, one fibromatosis, four lipomas, and nine pleomorphic adenomas; 3) malignant neoplasms, including one recurrent malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), two metastatic melanomas, and two metastatic osteosarcomas. There was one false-negative biopsy. The metastatic desmoplastic malignant melanoma was initially interpreted as a reactive lymph node with fibrosis. A specific diagnosis was rendered in 21 (84%) cases. The schwannoma was diagnosed cytologically as benign spindle cell lesion, not otherwise specified (NOS), fibromatosis as an atypical cellular proliferation, and MFH as poorly differentiated malignant neoplasm. Salivary gland lesions with a significant spindle cell component are rarely encountered on FNA and constitute a heterogeneous group. A specific diagnosis can be rendered in the majority of cases by correlating clinical and cytologic findings.

  17. [Aspiration biopsy-nucleic acid diagnosis for widely used preparative testing].

    PubMed

    Takano, Toru

    2012-02-01

    Cancer is believed to be generated from normal cells via multi-step carcinogenesis. This hypothesis led researchers to perform studies utilizing genetic alternations in cancer cells in pre or post operative diagnostic tests. However, such an approach has not led to the establishment of widely used molecular-based diagnostic methods, which shows a clear contrast to conventional tumor markers. Although fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the most accurate tool for preoperative diagnosis of thyroid malignancy, differential diagnosis between thyroid follicular adenomas and follicular carcinomas is quite difficult. Thus, a preoperative diagnostic method for follicular tumor has been anticipated for a long time. We tried to find a molecular marker to distinguish benign and malignant thyroid nodules based on a gene expression which can be used in Aspiration Biopsy-Nucleic Acid Diagnosis (ABND), and found that the decreased expression of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) mRNA is a promising marker of thyroid malignancies, including follicular carcinoma. Furthermore, we established a novel method to separate thyroid tumor cells from blood cells using mesh filtration in order to avoid interference with peripheral blood cells that are aspirated simultaneously by FNAB. Using this method, we started a clinical trial and measured TFF3 mRNA in aspirates obtained from patients with a thyroid nodule. All preoperative aspirates diagnosed as malignant by cytology showed a low TFF3 mRNA expression. The preoperative aspirates diagnosed as benign by cytology showed extremely varied TFF3 mRNA expressions and about 20% showed a low TFF3 mRNA expression. Since ABND measuring TFF3 mRNA in aspirates covers the majority of thyroid malignancies and thyroid nodule is a very common clinical problem, it is expected to be the first widely used molecular-based screening test of cancer.

  18. Cytological Study of Breast Carcinoma Before and After Oncotherapy with Special Reference to Morphometry and Proliferative Activity.

    PubMed

    Koley, Sananda; Chakrabarti, Srabani; Pathak, Swapan; Manna, Asim Kumar; Basu, Siddhartha

    2015-12-01

    Our study was done to assess the cytological changes due to oncotherapy in breast carcinoma especially on morphometry and proliferative activity. Cytological aspirates were collected from a total of 32 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma both before and after oncotherapy. Morphometry was done on the stained cytological smears to assess the different morphological parameters of cell dimension by using the ocular morphometer and the software AutoCAD 2007. Staining was done with Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as proliferative markers. Different morphological parameters were compared before and after oncotherapy by unpaired Student's t test. Statistically significant differences were found in morphometric parameters, e.g., mean nuclear diameter, mean nuclear area, mean cell diameter, and mean cell area, and in the expression of proliferative markers (Ki-67 and PCNA). Statistical analysis was done by obtaining p values. There are statistically significant differences between morphological parameter of breast carcinoma cells before and after oncotherapy. PMID:26730066

  19. Cytological Study of Breast Carcinoma Before and After Oncotherapy with Special Reference to Morphometry and Proliferative Activity.

    PubMed

    Koley, Sananda; Chakrabarti, Srabani; Pathak, Swapan; Manna, Asim Kumar; Basu, Siddhartha

    2015-12-01

    Our study was done to assess the cytological changes due to oncotherapy in breast carcinoma especially on morphometry and proliferative activity. Cytological aspirates were collected from a total of 32 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma both before and after oncotherapy. Morphometry was done on the stained cytological smears to assess the different morphological parameters of cell dimension by using the ocular morphometer and the software AutoCAD 2007. Staining was done with Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as proliferative markers. Different morphological parameters were compared before and after oncotherapy by unpaired Student's t test. Statistically significant differences were found in morphometric parameters, e.g., mean nuclear diameter, mean nuclear area, mean cell diameter, and mean cell area, and in the expression of proliferative markers (Ki-67 and PCNA). Statistical analysis was done by obtaining p values. There are statistically significant differences between morphological parameter of breast carcinoma cells before and after oncotherapy.

  20. Preoperative cytological diagnosis of papillary cystic variant of acinic cell carcinoma: A key consideration in patient management.

    PubMed

    Datar, Sonali S; Poflee, Sandhya V; Pande, Nandu P; Umap, Pradeep S

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative diagnosis of malignant salivary gland tumors is difficult as radiological imaging procedures have low sensitivity rate for detecting malignancy in parotid gland tumors. With careful and detailed analysis of cytological features, guided fine needle aspiration cytology can prove to be a reliable diagnostic modality that can help in differential diagnosis of cystic parotid malignancies from cystic benign tumors and non-neoplastic lesions. Papillary cystic variant of acinic cell carcinoma is a rare, cystic, primary neoplasm of salivary gland that occurs commonly in parotid. The tumor shows high local recurrence rate and has poorer prognosis compared to classic acinic cell carcinoma. Preoperative cytological diagnosis of papillary cystic variant of acinic cell carcinoma of parotid, in the case described here was the basis for adequate and timely surgical management with good results.

  1. Cytology Findings in Pancreatic Heterotopia, a Potential Pitfall For Malignancy: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Raddaoui, Emad; Al-Sharabi, Abdulsalam; Almadi, Majid A.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic heterotopia is a rare congenital disorder occurring at a variety of sites in the gastrointestinal tract. It is rarely symptomatic. Despite advances in diagnostic techniques, it still remains a challenge to the clinician to differentiate it from a neoplasm. Cytologic characteristics of pancreatic heterotopia in general are rarely described in the literature. We report the cytologic characteristics of heterotopic pancreatic tissue at the gastric outlet in a 48-year-old female. The patient underwent surgical excision due to symptoms related to the lesion. Endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration is increasingly used for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal tumors, which makes the recognition of certain endoscopically unreachable lesions an important step in optimal patient management. PMID:25843199

  2. Guidelines for pancreaticobiliary cytology from the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology: A review.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Martha B; Layfield, Lester J

    2014-06-01

    The newest installment on state-of-the-art standards of practice in cytopathology from the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology (PSC) focuses on the pancreaticobiliary system. Similar to the National Cancer Institute recommendations for aspiration cytology of the thyroid, the PSC guidelines for pancreaticobiliary cytology addresses indications, techniques, terminology and nomenclature, ancillary studies, and postprocedure management. Each committee was composed of a multidisciplinary group of experts in diagnosing, managing, and treating patients with pancreaticobiliary disease. Draft documents were posted on an interactive Web-based forum hosted by the PSC Web site (www.papsociety.org) and the topics of terminology, ancillary testing, and management were presented at national and international meetings over an 18-month period for discussion and feedback from practicing pathologists around the world. This review provides a synopsis of these guidelines.

  3. Cytological patterns of primary malignant uterine fibrous histiocytoma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Torrisi, A; Giorgino, F; Onnis, G L; Minucci, D

    1990-01-01

    The Authors have reported the cytological patterns of malignant primitive uterine fibrous histiocytoma of a 57 year old woman. The endometrial cytological sampling was performed by an aspiration technique using a feeding-tube; a necrotic-haemorrhagic background filled with hymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and a mixture of highly anaplastic histiocytic and fibroblastic type cells, associated with undifferentiated small round cells, has been described. The result of the histological examination performed on the surgical specimen was the following: polymorphic malignant neoplasia characterized by spindle-like and giant plurinucleated cells, phagocytosis features, endoluminal polypoid growth, wide infiltration of the miometrium two thirds deep, vascular space invasion of the uterine wall and the hilus of the ovaries. The histological features and immunohistochemical analysis were consistent with malignant fibrous histiocytoma in the pleomorphic variety. PMID:1965802

  4. Cytology in the otorhinolaryngologist's domain - a study of 150 cases, emphasizing diagnostic utility and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Abrari, Andleeb; Ahmad, S Shamshad; Bakshi, Vandana

    2002-04-01

    150 patients with mass lesions in the head and neck area, excluding the CNS and thyroid gland were subjected to FNA cytodiagnosis. II out of 150 smears were considered unsatisfactory for diagnostic evaluation. Out of the 139 patients who yielded satisfactory smears, cytodiagnosis led to the following broad categories - inflammatory and non- neoplastic (24/139, 17.3%), benign neoplasm (60/139, 43.2%), suspicious for malignancy (14/139. 10%) and malignant neoplasms (41/139, 29.5%). Histopathologic follow- up was available in 120 cases. 15/24 with inflammatory lesions were not subjected to biopsy, rest 4 were lost to follow up (I had a suspicious smear and 3 the diagnosis of benign neoplasm). Correlation of cytodiagnoses with histopathology yielded the following results - 52 out of 57 patients with the cytodiagnosis of benign neoplasm and having, histologic follow up had concordance, while 39 out of 41 cytologic diagnoses of malignancy, correlated with histopathology.Out of surgically sampled 9 patients, with inflammatory smears, 8 were benign and 1 malignant. In the suspicious category 2 out of 13 surgically sampled patients had malignancy. Thus, excluding the suspicious smears the accuracy of diagnosis by FNAC in this study came to 93% and a sensitivity for cancer detection of 95%. We encountered a false negative rate of 9.0% and a false positive rate of 4.9%.The results are discussed, especially in the light of the misdiagnoses and ways at avoiding diagnostic : error.

  5. Management of ovarian cysts with percutaneous aspiration and methotrexate injection

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pratiksha; Huria, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate ultrasonographic-guided cyst aspiration and methotrexate injection in the management of simple and endometriotic ovarian cysts in selected patients. Subjects and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, from November 2007 to October 2009. It included 132 female patients (age range, 15–72 years; mean, 38.7 years) with simple or endometriotic ovarian cysts (3.0–10.6 cm) at ultrasonic examinations. We performed puncture and aspiration followed by methotrexate injection into the cyst. All patients were followed for 12 months. None was lost to follow-up. Results: At follow-up ultrasonography, cysts had disappeared in 120 patients (90.90%) and persisted in 12 patients (9%). No major complications were observed in our study population during or after the procedure. Only 10 patients reported mild pelvic pain, and four others reported dizziness or nausea during or after the procedure. Malignant cells were not found in any of the cases at cytologic examination. We did not observe any cases of infection after the procedure. Conclusion: Ultrasonography-guided transabdominal aspiration of cyst fluid and subsequent methotrexate injection appears to be an alternative treatment for both simple and endometriotic ovarian cysts in selected cases. PMID:27185974

  6. Painless giant cell thyroiditis diagnosed by fine needle aspiration and associated with intense thyroidal uptake of gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, L.R.; Moreno, A.J.; Pittman, D.L.; Jones, J.D.; Spicer, M.J.; Tracy, K.P.

    1986-05-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with fever, goiter, and no evidence of pain or tenderness in the thyroid. A diagnosis of silent thyroiditis was made after obtaining evidence of biochemical thyrotoxicosis, intense gallium-67 citrate thyroidal localization, and cytologic thyroiditis. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid revealed numerous giant cells in all areas of the thyroid, typical of subacute thyroiditis. This is believed to be the first time painless thyroiditis is reported with the classic cytologic feature of painful subacute thyroiditis.

  7. A Case of Significant Endobronchial Injury due to Recurrent Iron Pill Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Joo-Hee; Koo, Gun Woo; Chung, Sung Jun; Park, Dong Won; Kwak, Hyun Jung; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Jang Won; Yoon, Ho Joo; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Soo; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young-Ha

    2015-01-01

    Gastric mucosal damage by iron pills is often reported. However, iron pill aspiration is uncommon. Oxidation of the impacted iron pill causes bronchial mucosal damage that progresses to chronic bronchial inflammation, necrosis, endobronchial stenosis and rarely, perforation. We reported a case of a 92-year-old woman with chronic productive cough and significant left-sided atelectasis. Bronchoscopy revealed substantial luminal narrowing with exudative inflammation of the left main bronchus. Bronchial washing cytology showed necroinflammatory exudate and a small amount of brown material. Mucosal biopsy showed diffuse brown pigments indicative of ferrous pigments, crystal deposition, and marked tissue degeneration. After vigorous coughing, she expectorated dark sediments and her symptoms and radiological abnormalities improved. There are a few such reports worldwide; however, this was the first case reported in Korea. Careful observation of aspiration-prone patients and early detection of iron pill aspiration may prevent iron pill-induced bronchial injury. PMID:26508942

  8. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy in children: experience in 70 cases.

    PubMed

    Verdeguer, A; Castel, V; Torres, V; Olagüe, R; Ferris, J; Esquembre, C; Vallcanera, A; Muro, M D

    1988-01-01

    Results of 70 fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) were evaluated retrospectively in 61 pediatric patients. Over a period of 9 months all mass lesions suspected being malignant were aspirated. Twelve of the 70 aspirations were performed in children having known tumours, in order to exclude recurrence or metastasis. The others were carried out to obtain a diagnosis. Satisfactory specimens were obtained from 58 (83%). There were 21 benign diagnoses, 36 malignant diagnoses, and 1 with suspected malignancy. Correlation of histologic and cytologic diagnoses was possible in 45 cases. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 80%, respectively. We have found FNAB more accurate in the diagnosis of malignancies than in benign lesions. The results suggest that this is a useful technique for obtaining a first diagnosis of malignancy, as well as for excluding recurrence or metastatic disease. PMID:3352542

  9. GEAR UP Aspirations Project Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Brad A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a formative evaluation of the first two years of the Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP) Aspirations Project (Aspirations) using a Context, Input, Process, and Product (CIPP) model so as to gain an in-depth understanding of the project during the middle school…

  10. [The role of fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules].

    PubMed

    Marrazzo, Antonio; Casà, Luigi; David, Massimo; Lo Gerfo, Domenico; Noto, Antonio; Taormina, Piera

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules. From January 1978 to December 2003, 497 patients underwent fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules and then thyroidectomy. Fine-needle aspiration was performed with a fine 23-25 gauge and the aspirate was fixed and dyed with May-Grounwald-Giemsa method. The results of cytology were divided into four groups: positive for malignancy (77 patients), negative for malignancy (370 patients), suspect for malignancy (34 patients) and not diagnostic (16 patients). Suspect specimens also included follicular neoplasm and Hürthle cell neoplasm. Fine-needle aspiration results were compared with histopathologic analysis after thyroidectomy. There were 2 false-positive (0.5%) and 5 false-negative patients (1%). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were respectively 94.7%, 99% and 98.4%. This study confirms that fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules can be performed easily with high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. PMID:15832740

  11. Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori in gastric brushing cytology.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, P R; Carrozza, M J; Ruggiero, F M; Calafati, S A; Jann, R C

    1992-01-01

    Helicobacter (formerly Campylobacter) pylori is frequently associated with chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer and has been implicated as an etiologic agent. Identification of H. pylori is important for specific treatment with antibiotics and bismuth compounds. We studied 27 patients who presented with symptoms of gastritis or peptic ulcer on whom paired gastric biopsies and gastric brushings for cytology had been performed. Biopsies were stained with H & E and Warthin-Starry or Giemsa for H. pylori. Previously, Papanicolaou-stained brushings were restained with Giemsa and reviewed blindly by two cytologists. Cytologic examination revealed the characteristic 1-3 mu curved or spiral gram-negative bacilli embedded in mucus in 12 of 27 (44%) of cases. Biopsies showed H. pylori in 13 of 27 (48%) of cases. Cytology and histology were concordant in 22 of 27 (81%) of cases. Three cases were positive on biopsy, negative on cytology; two of these were unsatisfactory cytology specimens. Two cases were positive on cytology, negative on biopsy, apparently sampling artifacts. Papanicolaou-stained slides were scored for several morphologic parameters; numbers of acute and chronic inflammatory cells and degree of cytologic atypia. None of these were predictive of the presence of H. pylori. We conclude that Giemsa-stained gastric brushings are a useful complement to gastric biopsies in establishing the diagnosis of H. pylori.

  12. The importance of intracytoplasmic DPAS positivity in fine needle aspirates of breast lesions

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, S; Wadehra, V

    2001-01-01

    Aims—For many years the presence of strong intracytoplasmic periodic acid Schiff (PAS) positive, diastase resistant (DPAS) staining within atypical cells has been used in this laboratory as a marker for carcinoma in fine needle aspirates from breast lesions. The aim of the current study was to document such DPAS positivity across the spectrum from benign to malignant breast disease and assess its value in the upgrading of cytology reports. Methods—Over a six month period, 315 aspirates were studied, each having sufficient cellular material for DPAS staining to be carried out on one whole slide. DPAS staining was recorded semiquantitatively as negative, equivocal, or positive (+, ++, or +++). The cytology results were correlated with any subsequent histology performed on these patients. Results—DPAS positive material was seen in both intracellular and extracellular locations. Care was needed in its interpretation. Occasional cells with apparently genuine intracytoplasmic positivity (+) were found in both benign and malignant cases. Frequent or particularly strong intracellular DPAS positivity (++, +++) correlated best with malignancy. Two cases were reliably upgraded from immediate reports suspicious of malignancy to final reports diagnostic of malignancy on the basis of the intracytoplasmic DPAS staining. Conclusion—Strict criteria are required for the interpretation of intracytoplasmic DPAS positivity and routine cytological appearances should also be taken into account. Weak positivity in occasional cells, especially in flat epithelial sheets, may be seen in benign lesions and is not reliable as a marker of malignancy. DPAS positivity with internal structure and producing nuclear indentation, especially in dissociated or atypical cells, correlates well with malignant histology and can be reassuring in the cytological diagnosis of malignancy. Key Words: fine needle aspiration of breast • mucin positivity • periodic acid Schiff positive, diastase

  13. [Information technologies in clinical cytology (a lecture)].

    PubMed

    Shabalova, I P; Dzhangirova, T V; Kasoian, K T

    2010-07-01

    The lecture is devoted to the urgent problem that is to increase the quality of cytological diagnosis, by diminishing the subjectivism factor via introduction of up-to-date computer information technologies into a cytologist's practice. Its main lines from the standardization of cytological specimen preparation to the registration of a cytologist's opinion and the assessment of the specialist's work quality at the laboratories that successfully use the capacities of the current information systems are described. Information technology capabilities to improve the interpretation of the cellular composition of cytological specimens are detailed. PMID:20799410

  14. Cytological analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana meiotic chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Susan J; Sanchez-Moran, Eugenio; Franklin, F Chris H

    2009-01-01

    Advances in molecular biology and in the genetics of Arabidopsis thaliana have led to this organism becoming an important model for the analysis of meiosis in plants. Cytogenetic investigations are pivotal to meiotic studies and a number of technological improvements for Arabidopsis cytology have provided a range of tools to investigate chromosome behaviour during meiosis. This chapter includes protocols on basic cytology, FISH analysis, immunocytology, a procedure for a meiotic time course and electron microscopy.

  15. Diagnostic assessment of enlarged superficial lymph nodes by fine needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Pilotti, S; Di Palma, S; Alasio, L; Bartoli, C; Rilke, F

    1993-01-01

    Two hundred eighty-five consecutive outpatients with enlarged superficial lymph node either clinically suspicious (152) or with a previous diagnosis of a malignant tumor (133) underwent fine needle aspiration (FNA) followed by excisional biopsy. Cytologic and/or cytologic-immunophenotypic diagnoses made on direct smears were compared with subsequent histologic findings. The comparison demonstrated (1) a high rate of conclusive cytologic diagnoses in the assessment of metastatic malignancies, with an overall accuracy rate of 99.1% and a typing accuracy rate of 96.5%; (2) a high rate of conclusive diagnoses in the assessment of high grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and Hodgkin's disease, with the exception of the lymphocytic predominance variant of the latter; and (3) significant limitations in the assessment of low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas because of the high rate of false-negative diagnoses in cases with a substantial nonmalignant cell component. This was particularly evident in follicular centroblastic-centrocytic lymphomas. Immunocytochemistry appeared to be of limited value in the distinction between centroblastic-centrocytic follicular lymphomas and reactive follicular hyperplasia. The results confirmed the diagnostic value of fine needle aspiration as the first step in the workup of patients with nodal enlargement suspicious for malignancy. In the area of low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, morphologic and immunocytochemical methods need to be supplemented by molecular techniques in order to achieve conclusive diagnoses.

  16. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the salivary gland: problem cases.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, C B; Frable, W J

    1993-01-01

    Among 582 fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies of major and minor salivary glands performed between 1974 and 1990, lack of cytological histologic correlation was noted in 21 cases. Of these, the cause in 10 FNAs was inadequate cytological sampling of the lesion. [One case of malignant hemangiopericytoma was tentatively diagnosed as a monomorphic adenoma on FNA, a polymorphic T-cell lymphoma was diagnosed as granulomatous inflammation on aspiration biopsy, a benign lymphoepithelial lesion was diagnosed as a reactive lymph node, a branchial cleft cyst was called benign mixed tumor (BMT), one case of chronic sialoadenitis was called BMT by FNA, two cases of benign lymphoepithelial lesion (BLEL) were diagnosed as cystic Warthin's tumor, two low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas were called BMT, and a BMT was cytologically diagnosed as a Warthin's tumor with squamous metaplasia versus low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma. One case of low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma was diagnosed only as a "cyst."] Review of these cases identifies constant features that permit differentiation between Warthin's tumor and BLEL, and among BMT, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and chronic sialoadenitis. Despite a few problem cases, FNA of the salivary gland is accurate in the preoperative diagnosis and classification of salivary gland neoplasms.

  17. Fine-needle aspirate CYFRA 21-1, an innovative new marker for diagnosis of axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Soo; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung

    2015-05-01

    To compare the value of cytokeratin fragment 21-1 (CYFRA 21-1) concentration in the fine-needle biopsy aspirates (fine needle aspirate [FNA] CYFRA 21-1) with cytopathology of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA cytology) and to assess whether CYFRA 21-1 concentrations from ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNAB) specimens (FNA CYFRA 21-1) is not inferior to FNA cytology in the diagnosis of axillary lymph node (ALN) metastasis of breast cancer patients.This study received institutional review board approval, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. US-FNAB was performed in 373 ALNs from 358 patients with invasive breast cancer. Concentrations of CYFRA 21-1 were measured from washouts of the syringe used during US-FNAB (FNA CYFRA 21-1), and ALN metastasis was determined using a cutoff value of 1.93 ng/mL. FNA cytology, intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy, and surgical pathology results were reviewed and analyzed. The noninferiority margin for the difference in accuracies between FNA cytology and FNA CYFRA 21-1 was set as 5%.Among 373 ALNs, 136 (36.5%) were benign, and 237 (63.5%) were metastatic. The mean FNA CYFRA 21-1 was significantly higher in metastatic ALNs compared to that in benign ALNs (P = 0.001). For the diagnosis of ALN metastasis, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of FNA CYFRA 21-1 (cutoff value 1.93 ng/mL) were not significantly different from those of FNA cytology (P > 0.05). FNA CYFRA 21-1 reached statistical noninferiority to FNA cytology in terms of diagnostic accuracy for ALN metastasis. Of the 20 ALNs (8 metastasis, 12 benign) that showed insufficient results on FNA cytology, FNA CYFRA 21-1 accurately diagnosed 15 ALNs (4 metastasis, 11 benign).The diagnostic performance of FNA CYFRA 21-1 is comparable with that of FNA cytology for breast cancer ALN metastasis. Our results indicate that FNA CYFRA 21-1, using an US-FNAB specimen

  18. Cytopathologic diagnosis of fine needle aspiration biopsies of thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Misiakos, Evangelos P; Margari, Niki; Meristoudis, Christos; Machairas, Nickolas; Schizas, Dimitrios; Petropoulos, Konstantinos; Spathis, Aris; Karakitsos, Petros; Machairas, Anastasios

    2016-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is an important diagnostic tool in patients with thyroid lesions. Several systems have been proposed for the cyropathologic diagnosis of the thyroid nodules. However cases with indeterminate cytological findings still remain a matter of debate. In this review we analyze all literature regarding Thyroid Cytopathology Reporting systems trying to identify the most suitable methodology to use in clinical practice for the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules. A review of the English literature was conducted, and data were analyzed and summarized and integrated from the authors’ perspective. The main purpose of thyroid FNA is to identify patients with higher risk for malignancy, and to prevent unnecessary surgeries for benign conditions. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology is the most widely used system for the diagnosis of thyroid FNA specimens. This system also contains guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of indeterminate or suspicious for malignancy cases. In conclusion, patients who require repeated FNAs for indeterminate diagnoses will be resolved by repeat FNA in a percentage of 72%-80%. PMID:26881190

  19. All lesions great and small, part 1: diagnostic cytology in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Leslie C; Seelig, Davis M; Overmann, Jed

    2014-06-01

    Cytopathology is a minimally invasive, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic modality with broad utilization in veterinary medicine. Primary care clinicians often screen common cutaneous and subcutaneous aspirates, with other samples most frequently evaluated by board certified veterinary clinical pathologists in reference laboratories. Wright-Giemsa stains are frequently utilized with the application of ancillary diagnostics such as cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostic techniques complicated by the need to develop and validate species specific reagents and protocols. The interpretation of veterinary cytology samples must be undertaken with extensive knowledge of the breadth of animal species, which includes familiarity with the frequency and biological behavior of inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic lesions that are influenced by species, breed, and husbandry conditions. This review is the first of two parts that focus on the most common domestic companion animal species (dog, cat, and horse), taking an organ system approach to survey important lesions that may be unique to veterinary species or have interesting correlates in human medicine. The first of the two-part series covers skin and subcutaneous tissue, the musculoskeletal system, and lymphoid organs. The cytologic features and biological behavior of similar lesions are compared, and selected molecular mechanisms of disease and ancillary diagnostics are reviewed when characterized. Supporting figures illustrate a subset of lesions. While not a comprehensive catalog of veterinary cytology, the goal is to give cytopathologists working in human medicine a general impression of correlates in veterinary practice.

  20. When Morphology Meets Somatic Mutations: The New Possible Scenario in Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Esther Diana; Schmitt, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This study points to the analysis of the morphological features suggestive of somatic mutations, mostly the BRAFV600E mutation, on cytological samples of thyroid carcinomas. According to the literature, the application of ancillary techniques on cytology comes in handy as a challenging aid in ruling out a malignant outcome on both conventional and liquid-based cytological preparations. However, the evaluation of somatic mutations, including BRAFV600E, usually performed by DNA techniques, may have some limitations in a worldwide diffusion. In this perspective, few authors emphasized the morphological search for BRAFV600E mutations harbored in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and characterized by specific architectural and cellular findings (i.e. eosinophilic cells defined as 'plump cells' and sickle-shaped nuclei). Hence, the detection of eosinophilic cytoplasm of mutated PTC cells seems to suggest the possible involvement of the 'Warburg effect' pioneering the ability of cancer cells to convert glucose into lactic acid. The recent yields of immunohistochemical expression of monocarboxylate transporters in mutated PTCs may suggest the accumulation of lactate in these plump cells. Equally importantly, the detection of these morphological findings using fine-needle aspiration cytology may be helpful in triaging thyroid lesions and limiting costs. Additionally, it may lead to the stratification of the malignant risk and personalized management in cases with multifocal lesions. PMID:27288325

  1. The diagnosis of cancer in thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy. Surgery, repeat biopsy or specimen consultation?

    PubMed

    Stanek-Widera, A; Biskup-Frużyńska, M; Zembala-Nożyńska, E; Śnietura, M; Lange, D

    2016-03-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) is the only diagnostic method that allows a preoperative diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. An unequivocal diagnosis of a malignant change is achievable only in cases in which all cytological criteria of carcinoma are met. The aim of the study was to evaluate the necessity of repeat thyroid FNA in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma verified on consultative examination (CE). We analyzed cytology reports of thyroid FNA and CE that resulted in the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma. Evaluation of the correlation of the cytological diagnosis with the histopathology report was based on data obtained after the surgery. Between 2010 and 2015 in the Institute of Oncology (IO) there were 184 cancers diagnosed on CE or in thyroid FNA performed primarily in IO. Additionally, 74 patients were subjected to repeat biopsy after confirmation of cancer in CE. Histopathological diagnosis of cancer was obtained in 62 (100%) cases that were doubly confirmed with cytological examination. The remaining 12 patients were operated on outside the institute. From 110 FNA primarily performed in the IO, histopathological verification was achievable in 92 cases, from which 92 (100%) provided a confirmation of cancer, and the remaining 18 patients were operated on outside the institute. High (100%) specificity of cancer diagnosis in FNA established primarily and verified on CE (second independent assessment) indicates that repeat FNA in order to confirm the diagnosis is unnecessary. PMID:27179270

  2. Squash smear cytology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Nahm, Ji Hae; Yoon, Gun; Do, Sung-Im; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Squash smear cytology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) has rarely been reported. We described squash cytological findings of cranial LCH. Additionally, based on recent data that suggests an association of LCH with either viral infection or genetic alteration, we investigated the presence of several viruses or mutation of TP53 and BRAF in LCH tissue samples. Intraoperative squash smears of a small tissue fragment excised from the lesion demonstrated a mixed population of eosinophils, neutrophils, small lymphocytes and a high content of histiocytes. The histiocytes possessed abundant dense cytoplasm with round cell shape and eccentrically located nuclei with fine chromatin, delicate nuclear membranes and prominent nuclear grooves, indentations and pseudoinclusions. The cytologic features were consistent with Langerhans cells (LCs). Subsequent histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of LCH. Immunohistochemically, the LCs were positive for S-100, CD1a and langerin, but negative for adenovirus, CMV, EBV, HHV-8, HPV, HSV, SV 40 and p53. BRAF V600E mutation was absent. Our findings did not support the role of viruses and genetic abnormalities in the pathogenesis of LCH. In summary, the presence of a mixed population of inflammatory cells and a high content of histiocytes with characteristic cytomorphology, along with radiologic evidence and appropriate clinical findings, is highly suggestive of LCH on the intraoperative squash smears. Awareness of characteristic cytological features of LCH is necessary for rapid and accurate diagnosis. Squash smear cytology is a potentially useful tool in the intraoperative diagnosis of LCH. PMID:26339366

  3. In vivo cytological observation of liver and spleen by using high-resolution microendoscopy system under endoscopic ultrasound guidance: A preliminary study using a swine model

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Rei; Shin, Dongsuk; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Coghlan, Lezlee; Bhutani, Manoop S.

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is useful to obtain specimens from lesions underlying deep parts of the liver and spleen. However, the development of novel ancillary techniques must be explored to reduce the number of needle passes and potential adverse effects during this procedure. We conducted an animal study using a swine to demonstrate technical feasibility of in vivo cytological observation of liver and spleen using the high-resolution microendoscopy (HRME) system under EUS guidance. We successfully performed the study. No significant acute adverse events occurred during the procedure. The HRME system could obtain clear images representing cytology-level morphology of spleen and liver. Hence, it is found out that in vivo cytological observation of liver and spleen using the HRME system under EUS guidance is technically feasible. PMID:27503155

  4. Metastases to the Pancreas Encountered on Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided, Fine-Needle Aspiration.

    PubMed

    Pang, Judy C; Roh, Michael H

    2015-10-01

    Metastatic lesions in the pancreas are very uncommon and may be difficult to differentiate from the more commonly encountered primary neoplasms derived from the exocrine and endocrine pancreas because of the significant overlap in clinical presentation, imaging, and cytologic features. Metastasis to the pancreas may occur years after treatment of the primary neoplasm and is often not considered on initial evaluation because of the rarity of such events. The possibility of a metastasis to the pancreas should be entertained in patients with any prior history of malignancy because a proper diagnosis is essential in identifying surgical candidates, or avoiding potentially unnecessary surgery and facilitating triage to more appropriate nonoperative therapy. Herein, we describe intrapancreatic metastases secondary to renal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and lung carcinoma, as documented by cytologic examination of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of the pancreatic masses.

  5. THE CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF GASTRIC CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Charles D.; Johnson, William D.; Wilbur, Richard S.; Lack, Arthur J.

    1961-01-01

    Established centers find that cytological study of gastric washings with saline or chymotrypsin, adequately performed, is a valuable diagnostic tool in the detection of early and curable gastric carcinoma. Our experience with a small series of 150 patients, studied by saline gastric washing, has emphasized the difficulties of collection and the particular importance of obtaining, by repeated washings if necessary, an adequate specimen of gastric epithelial cells for diagnosis, before an opinion is given. It seems likely that the cytological method will be of future value in study of the natural history of gastric malignant disease and in detection of its surface lesions in their earliest form in asymptomatic, known-susceptible persons. Further, it should become a complementary part of the “stomach profile” in gastric diagnostic problems, where roentgenologic and gastroscopic studies may be expected to reveal the older, necrotic, or infiltrative lesions; cytological study, the earlier and more superficial stages of disease. PMID:13862364

  6. A Genomic Alternative to Identify Medullary Thyroid Cancer Preoperatively in Thyroid Nodules with Indeterminate Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, Robert J.; Traweek, S. Thomas; Lanman, Richard B.; Kennedy, Giulia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of calcitonin screening for the rare medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is controversial due to questions of efficacy, accuracy, and cost-effectiveness. This study reports the results of a large prospective validation using a machine-trained algorithm (MTC Classifier) to preoperatively identify MTC in fine-needle aspiration biopsies in lieu of calcitonin measurements. Methods: Cytology analysis on a prospective consecutive series of 50,430 thyroid nodule biopsies yielded a total of 7815 indeterminate (Bethesda categories III/IV) cases, which were tested with the MTC classifier. A prospective, consecutively submitted series of 2673 Bethesda III–VI cases with cytology determined locally was also evaluated. RNA was isolated and tested for the MTC Classifier using microarrays. Results: Forty-three cases were positive by the MTC Classifier among 10,488 tested nodules (0.4%), consistent with the low prevalence of MTC. Of these, all but one was histologically or biochemically confirmed as MTC, yielding a positive predictive value (PPV) of 98%. Of the positive cases, only 19 (44%) had been specifically suspected of MTC by cytology, highlighting the limitations of light microscopy to detect this disease. Three surgically confirmed MTC cases that were detected by the MTC Classifier had low basal serum calcitonin values, indicating these would have been missed by traditional calcitonin screening methods. A pooled analysis of three independent validation sets demonstrates high test sensitivity (97.9%), specificity (99.8%), PPV (97.9%), and negative predictive value (99.8%). Conclusions: A clinical paradigm is proposed, whereby cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules being tested for common malignancies using gene expression can be simultaneously tested for MTC using the same genomic assay at no added cost. PMID:26992356

  7. Utility of Thyroglobulin measurement in fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens of lymph nodes in the diagnosis of recurrent thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Baloch, Zubair W; Barroeta, Julieta E; Walsh, Janet; Gupta, Prabodh K; LiVolsi, Virginia A; Langer, Jill E; Mandel, Susan J

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The most common site for the metastasis of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid (PTC) is regional lymph nodes. Ultrasound (US) imaging may identify abnormal appearing lymph nodes, suspicious for PTC recurrence. Although fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of abnormal lymph nodes is often diagnostic of recurrence, small or cystic lymph nodes may be non-diagnostic due to lack of tumor cells. The measurement of thyroglobulin (TG) levels in FNAB specimens from lymph nodes suspicious for recurrent PTC can serve as an adjunct to the cytologic diagnosis. Materials and methods 115 abnormal appearing lymph nodes were aspirated under ultrasound guidance in 89 patients with history of thyroid carcinoma. In addition to obtaining material for cytologic interpretation, an additional aspirate was obtained by FNAB and rinsed in 1 ml of normal saline for TG level measurements. Results The cytologic diagnoses included: 35 (30%) reactive lymph node, no tumor seen (NTS), 39 (34%) PTC, 23 (20%) inadequate for evaluation due to lack of lymphoid or epithelial cells (NDX) 15 (13%) atypical/suspicious for PTC, and 3 (3%) other (e.g. paraganglioma, poorly differentiated carcinoma and carcinoma not otherwise specified). TG levels were markedly elevated (median 312 ng/ml; normal < 10 ng/ml) in 28 (72%) cases of PTC lymph node recurrence identified on cytology. TG measurements were also elevated in 5 lymph nodes classified as NTS and 4 NDX on cytology which resulted in 5 and 3 carcinoma diagnoses respectively on histological follow-up. Of the 9 atypical/suspicious cases with elevated TG levels all resulted in carcinoma diagnoses on follow-up. Conclusion The measurement of TG in FNAB specimens from lymph node in patients with history of PTC is useful in detecting recurrent disease, especially in cases when the specimen is known to be or likely to be inadequate for cytologic evaluation. PMID:18237420

  8. Acinic-cell carcinoma, papillary-cystic variant: a diagnostic dilemma in salivary gland aspiration.

    PubMed

    Ali, Syed Z

    2002-10-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) plays a pivotal role as the initial diagnostic modality of choice when dealing with salivary gland (SG) lesions. Due to the heterogeneous nature of most SG neoplasms, cytologic interpretation on FNA can be quite challenging. This is particularly valid when dealing with rare tumor types, such as the papillary-cystic variant of acinic-cell carcinoma (ACC-PCV), resulting in a high rate of false-negative cytologic diagnoses. Seven cases of ACC-PCV diagnosed on tissue resection with a prior FNA performed in cytology were studied. Material consisted of Diff-Quik and Papanicolaou stained cytologic smears, as well as hematoxylin-eosin stained cell block and histopathologic sections. In no case did the FNA performed prior to the surgical resection eventuate in a cytopathologic diagnosis of cancer. A retrospective morphologic review of the smears disclosed several characteristics common to all 7 cases, i.e., mostly tightly cohesive fragments of neoplastic epithelium seen as monolayered sheets or with a prominent papillary architecture, high nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio ductal-type epithelium, cystic material and degenerated cellular debris, histiocytes, cells with squamoid and metaplastic oncocytic changes, vacuolated and pigmented histiocyte-like tumor cells, and lack of a predominant single-cell component or naked neoplastic cell nuclei. ACC-PCV represents a rare yet significant cause of false-negative results for cancer on SG aspirations. An erroneous interpretation may occur due to lack of experience in dealing with this tumor type, the rarity of published literature on ACC-PCV, and a predominantly cystic, somewhat variegated appearance of the tumor mimicking other benign and malignant SG lesions.

  9. Preanalytic parameters in epidermal growth factor receptor mutation testing for non-small cell lung carcinoma: A review of cytologic series.

    PubMed

    da Cunha Santos, Gilda; Saieg, Mauro Ajaj

    2015-11-01

    The results from molecular assays can be affected significantly by the preanalytic condition of cytologic samples. The authors review current knowledge on the use of cytologic samples for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing in non-small cell lung cancer with a focus on preanalytic parameters. A systematic electronic search of the MEDLINE database was performed to identify original articles that reported the use of cytologic samples for EGFR molecular analysis and included a minimum of 100 samples. The information collected included author(s), journal, and year of publication; number of patients and samples; sampling method; type of preparation; type of fixative; staining techniques; mutation analysis techniques; tumor cellularity; the percentage of tumor cells; data on DNA quantity, quality, and concentration; failed assays; and the mutation rate. EGFR mutation analysis was conducted on 4999 cytologic samples from 22 studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Fine-needle aspirates and pleural effusions were the most common types of specimens used. DNA was mainly extracted from cell blocks and smears, and the most commonly reported fixatives included formalin, ethanol, and CytoLyt. Cellularity assessments and DNA yields were available from 5 studies each. The average success rate for the assays that used cytologic specimens was 95.87% (range, 85.2%-100%). The mutation rate ranged from 6% to 50.46%, and a higher mutation detection rate and lower numbers of insufficient cases were reported for pleural effusions and lymph node samples from endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration compared with histologic specimens. Low cellularity and a low percentage of tumor cells were associated with higher test failure rates. Future guidelines should consider the current data for specific recommendations regarding cytologic samples.

  10. Preanalytic parameters in epidermal growth factor receptor mutation testing for non–small cell lung carcinoma: A review of cytologic series

    PubMed Central

    Saieg, Mauro Ajaj

    2015-01-01

    The results from molecular assays can be affected significantly by the preanalytic condition of cytologic samples. The authors review current knowledge on the use of cytologic samples for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing in non–small cell lung cancer with a focus on preanalytic parameters. A systematic electronic search of the MEDLINE database was performed to identify original articles that reported the use of cytologic samples for EGFR molecular analysis and included a minimum of 100 samples. The information collected included author(s), journal, and year of publication; number of patients and samples; sampling method; type of preparation; type of fixative; staining techniques; mutation analysis techniques; tumor cellularity; the percentage of tumor cells; data on DNA quantity, quality, and concentration; failed assays; and the mutation rate. EGFR mutation analysis was conducted on 4999 cytologic samples from 22 studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Fine‐needle aspirates and pleural effusions were the most common types of specimens used. DNA was mainly extracted from cell blocks and smears, and the most commonly reported fixatives included formalin, ethanol, and CytoLyt. Cellularity assessments and DNA yields were available from 5 studies each. The average success rate for the assays that used cytologic specimens was 95.87% (range, 85.2%‐100%). The mutation rate ranged from 6% to 50.46%, and a higher mutation detection rate and lower numbers of insufficient cases were reported for pleural effusions and lymph node samples from endobronchial ultrasound‐guided transbronchial needle aspiration compared with histologic specimens. Low cellularity and a low percentage of tumor cells were associated with higher test failure rates. Future guidelines should consider the current data for specific recommendations regarding cytologic samples. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2015;123:633–643. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:26288231

  11. [Prevention of Perioperative Aspiration Pneumonitis].

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    To prevent perioperative aspiration pneumonitis, it is necessary to reduce the volume and acidity of gastric content. The guideline for preoperative fasting published by Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists recommends fasting from intake of clear fluids, breast milk and nonhuman milk at least 2h, 4h and 6h, respectively, before elective procedures requiring general anesthesia, regional anesthesia or sedation/analgesia. Gastrointestinal stimulants, histamine-2 receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors, antacids, antiemetics, anticholinergics are effective for reduction of the volume or acidity of gastric content. However, the routine preoperative use of these drugs to reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration in patients who have no apparent increased risk for pulmonary aspiration is not recommended. PMID:27004383

  12. Nasseem Husain: homage to a pioneer of cytology automation.

    PubMed

    Kocjan, G; Herbert, A

    2015-08-01

    Dr Oliver Anthony Nasseem Husain, who died on 22 September 2014, aged 90 years, was one of the great names of European cytology, a pioneer of automated cervical screening and a founding member of both the British Society for Clinical Cytology (BSCC) and the European Federation of Cytology Societies (EFCS). The life of this one remarkable man involved much of the pioneering work, which is reviewed in this article, that has brought conventional cytology to the complex multimodal discipline it is today.

  13. Primary Pancreatic Malignant Lymphoma Diagnosed from Endoscopic Ultrasound-guided Fine-needle Aspiration Findings.

    PubMed

    Fukuba, Nobuhiko; Moriyama, Ichiro; Ishihara, Shunji; Sonoyama, Hiroki; Yamashita, Noritsugu; Tada, Yasumasa; Oka, Akihiko; Oshima, Naoki; Yuki, Takafumi; Kawashima, Kousaku; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    A 60-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with upper abdominal pain and jaundice. Computed tomography showed a 9-cm mass that was penetrated by the common hepatic artery in the pancreatic head area. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography revealed no stenosis or obstruction of the main pancreatic duct, and a cytologic examination of the patient's pancreatic juice was negative. Next, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration was performed. The immunohistological findings of the specimen revealed a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The size of the tumor was significantly reduced after 8 cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone). PMID:26726082

  14. Fine-needle aspiration of salivary gland lesions. Comparison with frozen sections and histologic findings.

    PubMed

    Layfield, L J; Tan, P; Glasgow, B J

    1987-04-01

    The results of 171 salivary gland fine-needle aspirates, with subsequent histologic correlation, were compared with those from previous head and neck series and analyzed for diagnostic accuracy. Cytologically, 118 cases were diagnosed as benign; 51, malignant; and two, insufficient for diagnosis. The false-negative rate was 4.7%, and the false-positive rate was 3.5%. Pleomorphic adenoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, chronic sialadenitis, and malignant lymphoma were the lesions most frequently misdiagnosed. Corresponding frozen sections (available in 38 cases) showed an exact correlation with the final surgical pathologic diagnosis in 58% of the cases, with no false-positive diagnoses but an 11% false-negative rate.

  15. Analysis of estrogen and progesterone receptors on preoperative fine-needle aspirates.

    PubMed

    Frigo, B; Pilotti, S; Zurrida, S; Ermellino, L; Manzari, A; Rilke, F

    1995-01-01

    For 56 cases of carcinoma of the breast, results of the immunocytochemical assay for estrogen and progesterone receptors performed on preoperative fine-needle aspirates were compared with those obtained on scraping material from the same tumors. The value and usefulness of this last analysis was demonstrated in a previous study. The level of agreement between the two cytological techniques was assessed by the k statistic. A high level of agreement was found, with k values of 0.909 and 0.889 for estrogen and progesterone receptors, respectively. The results reported here revealed the reliability of steroid receptor determination on fine-needle aspiration biopsies, provided that sufficient cellularity was available. This technique can replace the open biopsy procedure, in as much as it represents a rapid, almost painless, and easily repeated method for the assessment of the receptor status, and is useful for treatment decisions at any time during the course of the disease.

  16. Nonpalpable breast tumors: diagnosis with stereotaxic localization and fine-needle aspiration

    SciTech Connect

    Dowlatshahi, K.; Gent, H.J.; Schmidt, R.; Jokich, P.M.; Bibbo, M.; Sprenger, E.

    1989-02-01

    Modern mammography is the most effective means of detecting nonpalpable breast cancers, but correct diagnosis for malignancy is made in only 20%-30% of the cases. The conventional method of lesion localization usually results in approximate placement of the hookwire in the breast. The authors report the results of stereotaxic localization, combined with fine-needle aspiration and cytologic study, performed in 528 cases. Clinically occult breast lesions were localized precisely (within 2 mm 96% of the time), sampled by means of a 23-gauge needle, and marked with either methylene blue or a hookwire for subsequent open excisional biopsy. The results indicate a sensitivity of 95%, specificity of 91%, and accuracy of 92% for the fine-needle aspiration procedure. This technique offers a significantly improved preoperative method of diagnosing small breast lesions with minimal pain, no complications, reduced cost, and no disfigurement or scar interfering with subsequent mammographic follow-up.

  17. Adult filarial worm from the breast aspirate of a young man.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Hilda; Thomas, Beena Mary; Putran, Indira

    2016-06-01

    Microfilariae and adult filarial worm have been incidentally detected in fine needle aspirates of various lesions in clinically unsuspected cases. Here we report a male patient who presented with a tender breast nodule and single enlarged lymph node. Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) yielded 1 ml of yellow coloured fluid and single thread like worm measuring 6 × 0.2 cm. A diagnosis of breast abscess with a worm morphologically consistent with filariasis was offered. A follow up visit after 2 months showed regression of the breast lesion and the lymph node. Filariasis of the breast is an uncommon condition and can cause a diagnostic dilemma at times. FNA cytology appears to be a more convenient and effective diagnostic tool in patients with mass lesions. Demonstration and identification of the parasite in smears helps in avoiding surgical excision and early institution of prompt therapy especially in young patients. PMID:27413335

  18. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of metastatic malignant mesothelioma with myxoid change and signet ring cells: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Manisha M.; Farver, Carol F.; Chute, Deborah J.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare neoplasm, which is most commonly encountered in cytology through effusion specimens. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of MM, particularly the epithelioid subtype, can be a source of diagnostic difficulty and may mimic sampling of an adenocarcinoma. This is the first case report to demonstrate abundant extracellular myxoid material and numerous intracellular vacuoles, including signet ring cells, in a fine needle aspirate of metastatic MM. A review of the literature for myxoid change and vacuoles in fine needle aspiration biopsies of MM discloses that vacuoles are found in up to 35% of aspirates of MM, but myxoid change is very rare, reported in <5% of the cases. Cytologists should be aware of this rare morphologic pattern of metastatic epithelioid MM. PMID:27014364

  19. [Who performs gynecological cytology and how?].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, D; Neumann, H H

    2015-11-01

    Since 1971 German women aged 20 years and older can annually participate in the gynecological cancer screening program free of charge. As part of this program a cervical smear is taken for testing. The Federal Joint Committee (Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss, GBA) is planning to change this system so that women aged over 30 years can either choose to continue with annual cytological screening using a cervical smear or can primarily opt for a human papillomavirus (HPV) test every 5 years. Women who are HPV positive will receive a supplementary cytological examination as a triage method. In Germany classification of the cytological results is based on the third revision of the Munich nomenclature (Münchner Nomenklatur, MN III), which has been in operation since 1 January 2015. The number of accredited cytology institutions and of cytologists has changed considerably since 2008. There has been a marked increase in the number of pathologists by 28.4%, which is a promising trend. The number of tests carried out has remained relatively constant; however, an increasing number of tests are now being performed in large laboratories.

  20. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Human papillomavirus (HPV)/mild dysplasia/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN 1). (C) HSIL... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard: Cytology. 493.1274 Section 493.1274 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  1. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Human papillomavirus (HPV)/mild dysplasia/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN 1). (C) HSIL... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard: Cytology. 493.1274 Section 493.1274 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Human papillomavirus (HPV)/mild dysplasia/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN 1). (C) HSIL... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard: Cytology. 493.1274 Section 493.1274 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  3. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Human papillomavirus (HPV)/mild dysplasia/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN 1). (C) HSIL... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard: Cytology. 493.1274 Section 493.1274 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  4. OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE FOR FEMALES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JEFFS, GEORGE A.

    OCCUPATIONAL TITLES USABLE IN ASSESSING OCCUPATIONAL GOALS OFSENIOR HIGH SCHOOL FEMALES WERE SELECTED AS THE FIRST STEP IN ESTABLISHING AN OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE FOR FEMALES. A LIST OF 117 OCCUPATIONAL TITLES, COMPILED FROM THREE PREVIOUS STUDIES AND "THE DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES," WAS RATED ON A SIX-LEVEL SCALE AS TO ITS GENERAL…

  5. Aspirations of Latina Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.

    2013-01-01

    Parents' aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents' aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes…

  6. Shaping the Aspirations of Female Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streitmatter, Janice

    1983-01-01

    This study examined specific variables in relation to the level of aspiration (LOA) of American female youth. Young women with high aspiration levels achieve their goals more often than those with lower aspirations. More awareness by parents, counselors, and teachers will help younger women shape their LOA. (MD)

  7. 21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endometrial aspirator. 884.1060 Section 884.1060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.1060 Endometrial aspirator. (a) Identification. An endometrial aspirator is a device designed...

  8. 21 CFR 884.1050 - Endocervical aspirator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endocervical aspirator. 884.1050 Section 884.1050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.1050 Endocervical aspirator. (a) Identification. An endocervical aspirator is a device designed...

  9. Measurement of TFF3 mRNA in aspirates from thyroid nodules using mesh filtration: the first clinical trial in 130 cases.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroya; Takano, Toru; Kihara, Minoru; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Mikio; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hidaka, Yoh; Miyauchi, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of gene expression levels in thyroid tumor cells in aspirates was difficult because it is interfered with peripheral blood cells or infiltrating lymphocytes. In this study, we established a novel method to separate thyroid tumor cells from blood cells efficiently with mesh filtration. The expression level of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) mRNA was estimated using LGALS3 mRNA as an internal control (T/G ratio) in 148 preoperative thyroid aspirates. Intra-assay coefficients of variation (CV) of T/G ratio for high, moderate, and low samples were 6.5%, 2.5%, and 9.7%, respectively, and inter-assay CV for high, moderate, and low samples were 27.7%, 21.9%, and 38.2%, respectively. Nondiagnostic samples in terms of T/G ratio and cytology were 12.2% and 16.9%, respectively. We observed no interference with the data by contaminating blood cells. Among these patients, 12 patients received more than two repeated aspirations. We did not observe a marked day-to-day variation except in two cases. All 13 preoperative aspirates diagnosed as malignant by cytology showed an extremely low T/G ratio, whereas 93 aspirates diagnosed as benign by cytology showed extremely varied T/G ratios and 21.5% of them showed a T/G ratio below the cut-off value. Eleven cases underwent surgery. All nodules showing a low T/G ratio were diagnosed as papillary carcinoma by pathological diagnosis. However, one nodule diagnosed as follicular adenoma after surgery showed a high T/G ratio. Our present method may be a promising preoperative test for measuring mRNAs in thyroid aspirates.

  10. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of cystic lesions of the head and neck, excluding the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Dejmek, A; Lindholm, K

    1990-01-01

    The occurrence of cystic lesions of the head and neck region (excluding the thyroid gland) and their diagnosis by fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy were reviewed for a two-year period. Of the 967 total aspirates of the region, 98 were cystic. The frequency of cysts was thus 10% in the total material, including 23% in parotid gland aspirates and 3% in lymph node aspirates. Salivary gland cysts occurred more often on the right side. The overall malignancy rate was the same for cysts and solid lesions (16%); however, 81% of cystic lymph node lesions were malignant. There was no difference in the frequency of nondiagnostic FNA material between solid and cystic lesions. A histologically correct diagnosis of benign or malignant was rendered by cytology in 85% of the cystic cases, with 4% false negatives and 2% false positives. This diagnostic accuracy was similar to that of the solid lesions. The FNA diagnostic problems were concentrated in the salivary gland lesions, with the false diagnoses illustrating the difficulties of interpreting atypical oxyphilic epithelium. The results suggest that a true neoplastic lesion should be seriously considered when a single population of oxyphilic epithelium is identified, even at the risk of overdiagnosing benign lesions.

  11. Aspiration pneumonia in dogs: treatment, monitoring, and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Heidi M; Rahilly, Louisa J

    2012-12-01

    Aspiration pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis are associated with significant morbidity in both veterinary and human medicine. A variety of medical conditions and medications can predispose patients to aspiration. Ideally, aspiration should be prevented, but in dogs that develop aspiration pneumonia, close monitoring and supportive care are imperative. This article describes antimicrobial treatment, fluid therapy, ancillary medical therapy, oxygen therapy, and prognosis for aspiration pneumonia.

  12. Needle aspiration of peritonsillar abscess in children.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, E; Brodsky, L; Stanievich, J; Volk, M

    1993-02-01

    Needle aspiration for the treatment of peritonsillar abscess was assessed in 43 consecutive children aged 7 to 18 years (mean age, 13.9 +/- 2.5 years) during the 3-year period from 1988 through 1991. A positive aspirate was obtained in 31 (76%) of the 41 patients who cooperated for needle aspiration; a mean of 2.9 +/- 1.9 mL of pus was withdrawn. Of the 31 children with a positive aspirate, in 27 (87%) the abscess resolved, two (6%) required a second aspiration for resolution, and two (6%) underwent immediate tonsillectomy for persistent abscess. Of the 10 children (24%) with negative aspirations, in six (60%) the abscess resolved with antibiotic treatment alone, three (30%) underwent immediate (quinsy) tonsillectomy, and in one (10%) the abscess spontaneously drained. No bleeding, airway obstruction, or anesthetic complications occurred. Needle aspiration of peritonsillar abscess in children, with tonsillectomy reserved for nonresponders, appears to be an efficacious and safe method of treatment.

  13. Aspirations of Latina adolescent suicide attempters

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.

    2013-01-01

    Parents’ aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents’ aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes in youths’ behavior can be deleterious, such as when adolescents manifest suicidal behaviors. We examined aspirations expressed by 12 Latina adolescent suicide attempters and their parents and compared them to 12 non-suicidal Latinas and parents. Qualitative analyses revealed that incongruence of aspirations between girls and their parents were greater among suicidal teens. Suicidal and non-suicidal Latinas presented contrasting aspirations: the former on gaining independence and the latter on completing their education and pursuing careers. Findings may inform developmental research and ways in which clinicians and policymakers can help Latinas achieve their own and their parents’ aspirations. PMID:24013464

  14. Low interobserver agreement in cytology grading of mucinous pancreatic neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Sigel, Carlie; Edelweiss, Marcia; Tong, Leung Chu; Magda, Joanna; Oen, Handy; Sigel, Keith; Zakowski, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background Identifying high grade features in pancreatic mucinous neoplasms (MN) is important for patient management. It is not clear if MNs can be graded with reproducibility in routine practice. We evaluated interobserver variability in grading MNs and identification of neoplastic mucin in endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspirations (EUS-FNA). Methods We created a 54 case grading set from histologically confirmed MNs (N=44) and nonmucinous lesions (NML) with abundant gastrointestinal contamination (N=10). Six observers received a tutorial, reviewed pre-screened slides, and recorded: 1) a diagnosis according to a 6-tiered system (TS) (nondiagnostic (NDX), atypical (ATP), mucinous cyst low grade (LG), mucinous cyst high grade (HG), suspicious for adenocarcinoma (SSPA), positive for adenocarcinoma (PA)); 2) a diagnosis with cyst fluid CEA (CEADX); and 3) the presence of neoplastic mucin. Interobserver agreement (IOA ) was evaluated by calculation of Kappa coefficients. Diagnostic accuracy was not evaluated. Results IOA was lowest for 6-TS (K=0.13, P<.001). CEADX was available for 18 (33%) cases, including 6/24 (25%) of LG. CEADX modestly improved IOA for combined tiers of the 6-TS with ATP and LG as separate categories. The highest IOA was with a 3-TS (NDX, ATP/LG, HG/SSPA/PA; K=0.28, P<.001) and various 4-TS (K=0.22-0.23). IOA was low for neoplastic mucin (K=0.15, P<.001). Conclusions In a study using simulated cytology practice, observers showed fair IOA for grading MNs and low IOA for identifying neoplastic mucin. Knowledge of cyst fluid CEA level modestly improved IOA for low grade lesions. PMID:25355052

  15. Value of quantitative nucleolar features in the preoperative cytological diagnosis of follicular neoplasias of the thyroid.

    PubMed Central

    Montironi, R; Braccischi, A; Scarpelli, M; Matera, G; Alberti, R

    1991-01-01

    Nucleolar prevalence, size, and outline were investigated on cytological material from cold thyroid nodules obtained by fine needle aspiration. The percentage of nucleolated nuclei in follicular adenoma (32 cases) was less than in follicular carcinoma (26 cases). In adenoma most nuclei contained one nucleolus, and nuclei with two or more nucleoli were less common than in carcinoma where most cases showed the highest nucleolar diameter values. There was some overlap between adenomas and carcinomas, however, when the mean of the 10 largest values of the major nucleolar diameter was considered. In follicular carcinoma the percentage of marginated nucleoli--that is, those touching the nuclear membrane--was, in general, greater than 20%; in adenoma the values were equal to or lower than 16%. The overlap index showed that the percentages of marginated nucleoli and nucleolated nuclei are the two best discriminatory features between adenoma and carcinoma. PMID:2066431

  16. From cytology to histology: diagnosis of a relapsed mediastinal lymphoma by endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial histological needle.

    PubMed

    Ariza-Prota, Miguel Angel; Bango Álvarez, Antonio; Pérez, Liliana; Pando-Sandoval, Ana; Fuentes, Nelson; Casan, Pere

    2015-06-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is highly accurate in diagnosing mediastinal lymphadenopathies of lung cancer and benign disorders, with the advantage that it is a minimally invasive technique, unlike open surgery and mediastinoscopy. However, the diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA for the diagnosis of lymphoma in patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy is not well defined. The lack of tissue architecture obtained by cytological needles decreases the diagnostic accuracy for diagnosis and subtyping of de novo and relapsed mediastinal lymphomas. We present the first described case in the literature of an anaplastic large cell lymphoma relapsed, diagnosed on tissue fragments obtained by EBUS-TBNA with the particularity of using a histological needle. PMID:26090115

  17. Interpretation of negative results in fine needle aspiration of discrete pulmonary lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Winning, A J; McIvor, J; Seed, W A; Husain, O A; Metaxas, N

    1986-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was carried out on a consecutive series of 181 percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsies of discrete pulmonary lesions, in which the outcome was established in 95%. In primary bronchial carcinoma the technique had a sensitivity of 86%. There was no relationship between the size, location, or radiological appearance of the lesion and the incidence of false negative results. The principal reason for failure to diagnose malignancy was inadequacy of the material provided for cytological examination. For metastatic neoplasms of non-bronchial origin the procedure had a sensitivity of 42% and a significantly greater false negative rate than for primary bronchial malignancy. For the entire series 72 (40%) of the procedures failed to produce a definite diagnosis, 29 (40%) of these cases subsequently proving to be malignant. A positive diagnosis was established in only 16% of patients with benign conditions. Review of published reports and consideration of the role of this and other biopsy techniques in the investigation of discrete pulmonary lesions lead to the conclusion that needle aspiration biopsy seems particularly appropriate in the investigation of inoperable patients with probable bronchial carcinoma in whom sputum cytology and bronchoscopy do not yield a diagnosis. PMID:3824273

  18. Comparison of Efficacy in Abnormal Cervical Cell Detection between Liquid-based Cytology and Conventional Cytology.

    PubMed

    Tanabodee, Jitraporn; Thepsuwan, Kitisak; Karalak, Anant; Laoaree, Orawan; Krachang, Anong; Manmatt, Kittipong; Anontwatanawong, Nualpan

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to 1206 women who had cervical cancer screening at Chonburi Cancer Hospital. The spilt-sample study aimed to compare the efficacy of abnormal cervical cells detection between liquid-based cytology (LBC) and conventional cytology (CC). The collection of cervical cells was performed by broom and directly smeared on a glass slide for CC then the rest of specimen was prepared for LBC. All slides were evaluated and classified by The Bethesda System. The results of the two cytological tests were compared to the gold standard. The LBC smear significantly decreased inflammatory cell and thick smear on slides. These two techniques were not difference in detection rate of abnormal cytology and had high cytological diagnostic agreement of 95.7%. The histologic diagnosis of cervical tissue was used as the gold standard in 103 cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false positive, false negative and accuracy of LBC at ASC-US cut off were 81.4, 75.0, 70.0, 84.9, 25.0, 18.6 and 77.7%, respectively. CC had higher false positive and false negative than LBC. LBC had shown higher sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy than CC but no statistical significance. In conclusion, LBC method can improve specimen quality, more sensitive, specific and accurate at ASC-US cut off and as effective as CC in detecting cervical epithelial cell abnormalities. PMID:26514540

  19. Routine Treatment of Cervical Cytological Cell Changes

    PubMed Central

    Huber, J.; Pötsch, B.; Gantschacher, M.; Templ, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Diagnosis and treatment of vaginal and cervical cytological cell changes are described in European and national guidelines. The aim of this data collection was to evaluate the remission rates of PAP III and PAP III D cytological findings in patients over a period of 3–4 months. Method: The current state of affairs in managing suspicious and cytological findings (PAP III, and III D) in gynecological practice was assessed in the context of a data collection survey. An evaluation over a period of 24 months was conducted on preventative measures, the occurrence and changes to normal/suspect/pathological findings and therapy management (for suspicious or pathological findings). Results: 307 female patients were included in the analysis. At the time of the survey 186 patients (60.6 %) had PAP III and 119 (38.8 %) had PAP III D findings. The spontaneous remission rate of untreated PAP III patients was 6 % and that of untreated PAP III D patients was 11 %. The remission rates of patients treated with a vaginal gel were 77 % for PAP III and 71 % for PAP III D. Conclusion: A new treatment option was used in gynecological practice on patients with PAP III and PAP III D findings between confirmation and the next follow-up with excellent success. PMID:27761030

  20. Impression Cytology of the Lid Wiper Area.

    PubMed

    Muntz, Alex; van Doorn, Kevin; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Jones, Lyndon W

    2016-01-01

    Few reports on the cellular anatomy of the lid wiper (LW) area of the inner eyelid exist and only one report makes use of cytological methods. The optimization of a method of collecting, staining and imaging cells from the LW region using impression cytology (IC) is described in this study. Cells are collected from the inner surface of the upper eyelid of human subjects using hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes, and stained with cytological dyes to reveal the presence of goblet cells, mucins, cell nuclei and various degrees of pre- and para-keratinization. Immunocytochemical dyes show cell esterase activity and compromised cell membranes by the use of a confocal scanning laser microscope. Up to 100 microscopic digital images are captured for each sample and stitched into a high-resolution, large scale image of the entire IC span. We demonstrate a higher sensitivity of IC than reported before, appropriate for identifying cellular morphologies and metabolic activity in the LW area. To our knowledge, this is the first time this selection of fluorescent dyes was used to image LW IC membranes. This protocol will be effective in future studies to reveal undocumented details of the LW area, such as assessing cellular particularities of contact lens wearers or patients with dry eye or lid wiper epitheliopathy. PMID:27584693

  1. Diagnosis of Follicular Lesions of Undetermined Significance in Fine-Needle Aspirations of Thyroid Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Ratour, J.; Polivka, M.; Dahan, H.; Hamzi, L.; Kania, R.; Dumuis, M. L.; Cohen, R.; Laloi-Michelin, M.; Cochand-Priollet, B.

    2013-01-01

    Aim. We aimed to analyze the diagnostic criteria proposed by the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology for follicular lesions of undetermined significance (FLUS), the risk of cancer and diagnostic improvement with use of immunocytochemistry. Methods. For each FLUS diagnosis, we analyzed the cytological criteria (9 Bethesda criteria), secondary fine-needle aspiration (FNA) results, surgical procedures, contribution of immunocytochemistry with the antibodies cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and monoclonal anti-human mesothelial cell (HBME1). Results. Among patients with 2,210 thyroid FNAs, 244 lesions (337 nodules) were classified as FLUS (11% of all thyroid FNAs). The 3 criteria most often applied were cytological atypia suggesting papillary carcinoma (36%), microfollicular architecture but sparse cellularity (23.1%), cytological atypia (21.5%). With secondary FNA, 48.8% of nodules were reclassified as benign. For about half of all cases (41.4% for the first FNA, 57.6% for the second FNA), immunocytochemistry helped establishing a diagnosis favoring malignant or benign. No benign immunocytochemistry results were associated with a malignant lesion. In all, 22.5% of the 39 removed nodules were malignant. Conclusion. The FLUS category is supported by well-described criteria. The risk of malignancy in our series was 22.5%. Because we had no false-negative immunocytochemistry results, immunocytochemistry could be helpful in FLUS management. PMID:23634318

  2. Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Uma; Kundu, Reetu; Punia, Rajpal Singh; Mohan, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare intricate pediatric neoplasm with varied clinical manifestations and multiple treatment modalities. Aim: To study the cytological features of LCH and the differential diagnoses on fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Materials and Methods: FNA was performed using a 23-gauge needle fitted to a 10 mL syringe mounted on syringe holder. LCH was diagnosed on FNA smears in seven cases confined to the head and neck region, which included three cases of lymphadenopathy, three cases of scalp swelling, and one case of orbital swelling. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 25 days to 11 years and male-to-female ratio was 1:1.3. Clinically, the diagnoses suggested were tuberculosis, inflammatory lesion, abscess, and malignancy. The cytologic findings included high cellularity, isolated Langerhans cells (LCs) with prominent nuclear indentation, grooves and abundant vacuolated cytoplasm, multinucleated giant cells, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. Areas of necrosis were noted in one case. Histopathology, along with positive S-100 immunohistochemistry, confirmed the diagnosis of LCH. Conclusions: LCH is a rare disease occurring predominantly in children and can be diagnosed with ease on FNA cytology by the presence of characteristic Langerhans cells. The S-100 positivity aids in suggesting a diagnosis of LCH. PMID:26811572

  3. Polymerase chain reaction amplifying mycobacterial DNA from aspirates obtained by endoscopic ultrasound allows accurate diagnosis of mycobacterial disease in HIV-positive patients with abdominal lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed

    Nieuwoudt, Martin; Lameris, Roeland; Corcoran, Craig; Rossouw, Theresa M; Slavik, Tomas; Du Plessis, Johannie; Omoshoro-Jones, Jones A O; Stivaktas, Paraskevi; Potgieter, Fritz; Van der Merwe, Schalk W

    2014-09-01

    Abdominal lymphadenopathy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a diagnostic challenge. We performed a prospective cohort study by recruiting 31 symptomatic HIV + patients with abdominal lymphadenopathy and assessing the diagnostic yield of endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). Mean age was 38 years; 52% were female; and mean CD4 count and viral load were 124 cells/μL and 4 log, respectively. EUS confirmed additional mediastinal nodes in 26%. The porta hepatis was the most common abdominal site. Aspirates obtained by EUS-FNA were subjected to cytology, culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Mycobacterial infections were confirmed in 67.7%, and 31% had reactive lymphadenopathy. Cytology and culture had low sensitivity, whereas PCR identified 90% of mycobacterial infections. By combining the appearance of aspirates obtained by EUS-FNA and cytologic specimens, we developed a diagnostic algorithm to indicate when analysis with PCR would be useful. PCR performed on material obtained by EUS-FNA was highly accurate in confirming mycobacterial disease and determining genotypic drug resistance.

  4. Evaluation of EGFR mutation status in cytology specimens: an institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Aisner, D L; Deshpande, C; Baloch, Z; Watt, C D; Litzky, L A; Malhotra, B; Sepulveda, A R; Langer, C; Evans, T; Van Deerlin, V M

    2013-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status has been shown to predict response to anti-EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In patients with advanced-stage NSCLC, evaluation of mutational status is increasingly requested on biopsy or fine-needle aspiration specimens, which often have limited material. There are limited data on the suitability of cytology cell blocks (CB) for EGFR mutation testing. In this study, we report our institutional experience with cytology cell block material for EGFR mutation testing. We retrospectively reviewed EGFR mutation analyses performed on 234 surgical (SP) and cytology (CB) from October 2007 to May 2010. One hundred ninety-two SP specimens and 42 CB specimens were evaluated for EGFR mutation. CB specimens were evaluated for overall specimen size based on aggregate cellularity in comparison to small biopsy specimens, and percent tumor. Of the 192 SP and 42 CB specimens, 31 (16.1%) and 11 (26.2%) were positive for EGFR mutation, respectively; there does not appear to be an association between mutation detection rate and the source of the specimen (P = 0.124). Limited DNA was obtained from 70.0% (29/42), including 81.8% (9/11) of those which were mutation positive. Additionally, 45.4% (5/11) of mutation positive specimens had extremely low DNA yields. Although 16.6% (7/42) of CB specimens had <10% tumor, all 11 mutation positive CB cases had >10% tumor. These data indicate that CB specimens provide an alternative source for molecular evaluation of NSCLC, and that tumor percentage may be more important than specimen size and/or DNA yield in determining the suitability of these specimens for testing.

  5. An immunohistochemical study of bizarre neoplastic cells in pleomorphic adenoma: its cytological nature and proliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Y

    1999-11-01

    The cytological nature and proliferative activity of bizarre neoplastic cells, widely scattered in pleomorphic adenomas of salivary gland origin were studied. Pleomorphic adenomas containing numerous bizarre neoplastic cells were found in four cases, and were equal to 2.9% of all pleomorphic adenomas examined. All four cases presented as well-circumscribed, firm masses measuring less than 1.5 cm in size, located in the palate, and were of 7 months to 4 years duration. Histopathologically, these pleomorphic adenomas were cell rich type, and were well demarcated from surrounding tissues, although their fibrous capsules were partially defective. In addition to characteristic histopathological findings of pleomorphic adenoma, numerous neoplastic cells with bizarre appearance were scattered throughout the lesion, excepting for tubuloductal structures. These bizarre neoplastic cells had irregular-shaped and large nuclei with or without hyperchromatism, although their nucleoli were small and mitotic figures were few. Furthermore, there were many multinucleated giant cells, some of which showed multilobulated nuclei. Neither necrosis nor infarct was seen in the tumors. Immunohistochemically, bizarre neoplastic cells scattered in solid-proliferating areas and myxoid areas were neoplastic myoepithelial cells in nature. There was no statistical significance of MIB-1 labeling indices between pleomorphic adenomas with bizarre neoplastic cells and usual pleomorphic adenomas. The p53 labeling indices were quite low. Although the benign nature of pleomorphic adenomas with numerous bizarre neoplastic cells and hypercellularity, distinguishing such pleomorphic adenomas from various stages of malignant transformation in pleomorphic adenomas and other carcinomas should be made by histological section of submitted biopsy specimen or aspirated content for cytological diagnosis. The present paper suggests that the term 'bizarre cell pleomorphic adenoma' is an appropriate name for this

  6. Cytological features of carcinoma of the collecting ducts of Bellini in voided urine cytology.

    PubMed

    Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Hirakawa, Eiichiro; Kushida, Yoshio; Kadota, Kyuichi; Ishikawa, Masashi; Haba, Reiji

    2009-09-01

    Carcinoma of the collecting ducts of Bellini (CCDB) is a rare histological type of renal cell carcinoma. This article describes the cytological features of CCDB in voided urine, confirmed on the basis of the histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The CCDB cells occurred singly in loose aggregates and in small clusters, occasionally in a rosette-like structure. There were various types of cancer cells, including round to oval, spindle, and tadpole-like cells. The nuclei usually showed coarse chromatin, inconspicuous nucleoli, and lacy to vacuolated cytoplasm. CCDB of the kidney is a rare cytodiagnostic challenge in voided urine cytology alone. When the cytological diagnosis is considered, it is necessary to perform immunocytochemistry and correlate the clinical history and imaging studies.

  7. Role of Needle Aspiration in Diagnosis and Management of Suppurative Bacille Calmette–Guerin Adenitis: An Institutional Study of 30 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Subrata; Chakarabarti, Srabani; Phukan, Jyoti Prakash; Biswas, Sudhanya; Sinha, Anuradha; Sinha, Rajani

    2015-01-01

    Context: Regional lymphadenitis is the most common complication of bacille Calmette–Guerin (BCG) vaccination. Most of the BCG lymphadenitis cases are nonsuppurative, but some suppurate and follow abscess formation, rupture, ulceration and cicatrization. Needle aspiration is the rapid, safe and cost-effective method for diagnosis as well as management of suppurative BCG adenitis. Aims: The aims of the present study were to assess the clinical and cytological spectrum of BCG lymphadenitis and to evaluate the role of needle aspiration in the management of suppurative BCG lymphadenitis. Settings and Design: We have approached every cases of ipsilateral axillary lymphadenopathy having history of BCG vaccination. We designed to aspirate the suppurative axillary lymph nodes and follow-up of nonsuppurative cases. Subjects and Methods: 30 cases of BCG adenitis were studied during a period of 2 years. 12 cases of suppurative lymphadenitis were approached by needle aspiration and cytologically evaluated, and all the cases were followed-up for 12 weeks after diagnosis. Anti-tubercular drugs were not applied, and surgical excision was reserved for nonhealing lesions. Statistical Analysis Used: Data tables. Results: Ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes were commonest site and none had constitutional symptoms. Acid-fast bacilli were detected in 11 (91.67%) cases of suppurative BCG lymphadenitis. On follow-up all nonsuppurative adenitis were resolved spontaneously, and 8 suppurative lymphadenitis cases were resolved after 4 weeks of needle aspiration. Four cases needed repeat aspiration among which 3 resolved in 8 weeks, and one needed surgical excision. Conclusions: We recommend needle aspiration as a simple, safe, chief and effective modality, which helps in diagnosis as well as in management of suppurative BCG lymphadenitis. PMID:25949055

  8. Cytology training in the UK: a training centre prospective.

    PubMed

    Dudding, N

    2016-10-01

    Training in both cervical and non-gynaecological cytology in the UK has never faced a more challenging environment. A national reconfiguration of cervical cytology services has focussed resources on large centres and damaged the traditional links and overlapping roles within non-gynaecological cytology. The UK is now at significant risk of falling behind most European countries in the use of non-gynaecological cytology. The UK currently has five training centres which are approved by the NHS Screening programme for training in cervical cytology; the planned introduction of HPV primary screening and the subsequent dramatic reduction in cervical cytology workload will increase pressure on the remaining training schools. Funding is variable across the country as is the degree of diversification that training schools have undertaken to try to ensure a viable future. It is vital for the future of cytology in the UK that the strong network of training schools remain to ensure the quality of the laboratory service as the UK moves towards HrHPV primary screening. There is no doubt that the training school roles will change and new technology embraced to deliver training fit for the changing role of cytology in healthcare but this will require funding and recognition of the vital role the training centres play in the delivery of high quality training in both cervical and non-gynaecological cytology. PMID:27650600

  9. ASPIRE - the first British student rocket programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Adam M.; Murray, J.; Osborne, R.; Macfarlane, J.

    ASPIRE is the first British programme aiming to create and develop a small scale, hybrid engine powered launch vehicle. The project is also unique because it is a wholly amateur effort, volunteer team members having little or no professional experience in launch vehicle design, manufacture and operations; and being a mix of students and young professionals. Participants have the opportunity to develop their experience in the engineering/scientific, operational and management areas which ASPIRE encompasses. This experience will then be validated through the launching of a series of test vehicles, culminating in a demonstration of the orbital insertion of a payload by the year 2000. ASPIRE aims to eventually return an independent orbital launch capability to Britain, for the first time since 1971. This paper outlines the technical details of the ASPIRE rockets, including: airframe design and manufacture, hybrid motor design and testing, avionics development, guidance and recovery techniques, range safety practise and marketing and fund-raising. It will also cover the organisation and ethos of the programme in general. A timeline for the ASPIRE programme will be detailed, from the original ASPIRE 1 construction and launch in 1991/1992, evolving through the current series of ASPIRE Development Vehicles (ADVs), to ASPIRE 2 and 3, where the hybrid motor and other engineering subsystems are to be integrated on an increasing scale. The proposed union of an ASPIRE 3 vehicle with an Australian AUSROC launcher to achieve the 2000 orbital goal will also be covered.

  10. Transbronchial aspiration of subcarinal lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Blainey, A D; Curling, M; Green, M

    1988-04-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration of subcarinal lymph nodes has been undertaken in 60 consecutive patients with pulmonary malignancies undergoing routine fibreoptic bronchoscopy. Four aspirates from the subcarinal nodes contained malignant cells; three squamous cell carcinoma and one adenocarcinoma. Four of 40 (10%) of patients with non-small-cell carcinoma of the lung had a positive aspirate. We have not confirmed the high positive rate previously reported, but nevertheless transbronchial needle aspiration provided useful staging information in some patients. The technique is rapid, safe and simple, and can easily be applied in a routine bronchoscopy service for all patients with suspected cancer, or selected patients under active consideration for surgery. PMID:3166928

  11. Thrombus aspiration catheter is a Dottering balloon.

    PubMed

    Sheshagiri Rao, D; Barik, Ramachandra; Prasad, Akula Siva

    2016-01-01

    Coronary angiogram in a young man with history of STEMI with delayed presentation revealed subtotal occlusion of left anterior descending artery (LAD) with large thrombotic filling defect distal to the critical lesion. PCI was preferred without delay because of ongoing chest pain. Several runs of thrombus aspiration failed to detect any visible thrombus. However, the immediate angiogram after thrombus aspiration showed complete distal embolization of the thrombus which could have been achieved by Dottering or balloon dilatation. In contrary to the general perception, does thrombus aspiration push more thrombus than it can aspirate? PMID:27543477

  12. Neglected foreign body aspiration mimicking bronchial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Afghani, Reza; Khandashpour Ghomi, Mahmoud; Khandoozi, Seyed Reza; Yari, Behrouz

    2016-07-01

    Foreign body aspiration can occur in any age group, but it is more commonly seen in children. In adults, there is usually a predisposing condition that poses a risk of aspiration. If aspiration occurs, prompt diagnosis and extraction of the foreign body is needed to prevent early and late complications. We report a rare case of neglected foreign body aspiration in a 45-year-old schizophrenic opium addicted patient, which resulted in an occlusive lesion in the bronchus, mimicking bronchial carcinoma. PMID:27273232

  13. Aspiration

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosis of benign lesions. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... patient with liver disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  14. Evaluating the Minimal Specimens From Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration in Pancreatic Masses

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joo Kyung; Kang, Ki Joo; Oh, Cho Rong; Lee, Jong Kyun; Lee, Kyu Taek; Jang, Kee Taek; Park, Sang-Mo; Lee, Kwang Hyuck

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has become one of the most useful diagnostic modalities for the diagnosis of pancreatic mass. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of analyzing the minimal specimens obtained by EUS-FNA for the diagnosis of solid masses of pancreas. This study consisted of retrospective and prospective analyses. The retrospective study was performed on 116 patients who underwent EUS-FNA of solid masses for cytological smear, histological analysis, and combined analysis including immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. In the prospective study, 79 patients were enrolled to evaluate the quality and accuracy of EUS-FNA histological analysis and feasibility of IHC staining. The final diagnoses of all patients included pancreatic cancer (n = 126), nonpancreatic cancer (n = 21), other neoplasm (n = 27), and benign lesions (n = 21). In our retrospective study, the combined analysis was more sensitive than cytological analysis alone (P < 0.01). The overall sensitivity of cytology, histology, and combined analysis was 69.8%, 67.2%, and 81.8%, respectively. In the prospective analysis, 64.2% of all punctures were helpful for determining the diagnosis and 40.7% provided sufficient tissue for IHC staining. Histological analysis was helpful for diagnosis in 74.7% of patients. IHC staining was necessary for a definite diagnosis in 11.4% of patients, especially in the cases of nonmalignant pancreatic mass. Histological analysis and IHC study of EUS-FNA specimens was useful for the accurate diagnosis of pancreatic and peripancreatic lesions. Combined analysis showed significantly higher sensitivity than cytology alone because IHC staining was helpful for a diagnosis in some patients. PMID:27227937

  15. High Aspirations but Low Progression: The Science Aspirations-Careers Paradox amongst Minority Ethnic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jennifer; Archer, Louise; Osborne, Jonathan; Dillon, Justin; Willis, Beatrice; Wong, Billy

    2011-01-01

    Students' interest in studying science and their aspirations to pursue science-related careers is a topic of global concern. In this paper, a set of data gathered for the initial phase of the 5-year study of Science Aspirations and Careers: Age 10-14 (the ASPIRES project) is presented. In the initial phase of this project, a questionnaire…

  16. Cytodiagnosis of secretory carcinoma of the breast: a report on two cases.

    PubMed

    Jena, Madhusmita; Shariff, Shameem

    2010-12-01

    Secretory carcinoma of the breast is a rare (<1%) low grade breast carcinoma which shows distinct features at histology. Diagnosis of this carcinoma at fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is difficult. Two cases of secretory carcinoma of the breast presenting as a breast mass, one in a 24-year-old female and the other in a 40-year-old female are reported, highlighting their appearance at FNAC. In both the cases the aspirates were cellular and consisted of clusters and single cells with uniform round nuclei showing minimal nuclear atypia. Most of the cells had moderate to abundant cytoplasm with prominent intracytoplasmic vacuoles. Many cells showed a plasmacytoid appearance and others were binucleate. A typical amphophilic bubbly cytoplasm of the tumor cells was observed. Both cases were confirmed as secretory carcinoma on histology. The differences in cell morphology at FNAC of secretory carcinoma of the breast from other breast carcinomas, and its utility of making a preoperative diagnosis are discussed.

  17. Cytological evaluation and significance of cell cannibalism in effusions and urine cytology.

    PubMed

    Ahmed Wani, Farooq; Bhardwaj, Subhash

    2015-12-01

    Cell cannibalism is believed to be an indicator of high-grade aggressive cancers with increased metastatic potential. It denotes both anaplastic grade and invasiveness and is valuable in assessing tumor behavior. The present study was a 2-year retrospective and 1-year prospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Jammu. PAP and MGG stained smears of effusions and urinary cytology were evaluated for cannibalism. Cannibalism was assessed by parameters like cellularity of cannibalism, diameter of cannibalistic cells, chromatin pattern and background of the smears. Of 350 cases evaluated, 260 (74.2%) were benign and 90 (25.8%) were malignant. Cannibalism was absent in all benign cases. Cannibalism was present in 14 ascitic fluids, 7 pleural fluids, 1 pericardial fluid and 3 cases of urine cytology. Comparison of distribution of cannibalism in effusions and urine did not yield statistically significant result (X2=0.8678 and p>0.05). Comparison of other parameters between effusions and urine samples also did not yield significant results. We conclude that cytological parameters of cellular cannibalism are better observed in malignant effusions than in urine cytology but did not reach statistical significance. Cannibalism can be assessed morphologically in malignant body fluids and is an indicator of increased tumour growth. PMID:26712673

  18. Raman spectroscopy and oral exfoliative cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Aditi; Shah, Nupur; Mahimkar, Manoj; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Nair, Sudhir; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Early detection of oral cancers can substantially improve disease-free survival rates. Ex vivo and in vivo Raman spectroscopic (RS) studies on oral cancer have demonstrated the applicability of RS in identifying not only malignant and premalignant conditions but also cancer-field-effects: the earliest events in oral carcinogenesis. RS has also been explored for cervical exfoliated cells analysis. Exfoliated cells are associated with several advantages like non-invasive sampling, higher patient compliance, transportation and analysis at a central facility: obviating need for on-site instrumentation. Thus, oral exfoliative cytology coupled with RS may serve as a useful adjunct for oral cancer screening. In this study, exfoliated cells from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits, premalignant lesions (leukoplakia and tobacco-pouch-keratosis) and their contralateral mucosa were collected using a Cytobrush. Cells were harvested by vortexing and centrifugation at 6000 rpm. The cellular yield was ascertained using Neubauer's chamber. Cell pellets were placed on a CaF2 window and Raman spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe (40X objective) coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Approximately 7 spectra were recorded from each pellet, following which pellet was smeared onto a glass slide, fixed in 95% ethanol and subjected to Pap staining for cytological diagnosis (gold standard). Preliminary PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross validation indicate delineation of cells from healthy and all pathological conditions. A tendency of classification was also seen between cells from contralateral, healthy tobacco and site of premalignant lesions. These results will be validated by cytological findings, which will serve as the basis for building standard models of each condition.

  19. [Clinical importance of thyroid gland cytology].

    PubMed

    Ting, S; Synoracki, S; Bockisch, A; Führer, D; Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The cytological evaluation of fine needle biopsies (FNB) of the thyroid gland crucially depends on a close cooperation between clinicians and cytopathologists. Scintigraphy, sonography as well as clinical data and patient history are necessary for a correct interpretation of the indications for FNB; moreover, these data are of outstanding importance for cytopathologists for the correct interpretation of the cytomorphological findings. This overview describes the present standards in the acquisition, technical workup and cytopathological interpretation of thyroid gland tissue obtained by FNB, particularly focusing on the rapidly growing relevance of additional molecular pathological investigations to increase the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid FNB.

  20. Tracheal Endoscopic and Cytological Findings and Blood Examination Results in Thoroughbred Racehorses Suspected to have Lower Respiratory Tract Disease

    PubMed Central

    KUSANO, Kanichi; HOBO, Seiji; ODE, Hirotaka; ISHIKAWA, Yuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Cytology of tracheal aspirates, tracheal endoscopic and blood tests were carried out to 86 Thoroughbred racehorses presenting coughs or poor performance which were suspected to have lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) to assess the conditions of the disorders. Racehorses were classified into coughing (66 horses) and non-coughing (20 horses) groups based on clinical symptoms. Nine Thoroughbred racehorses without respiratory abnormality were used as controls. Assessment of grades of airway mucus, cytology of tracheal aspirates and serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen (Fbg) and pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D) measurements were performed. Relationships between age, gender and racing careers were also investigated to understand the characteristics of LRTD in racehorses. Mean age was significantly higher in non-coughing group compared to coughing group. Existence of racing career and number of starts were significantly greater in non-coughing group compared to coughing group. On the other hand, grades of airway mucus were significantly higher in coughing group compared to control group. Percentages of neutrophils in tracheal aspirates were significantly higher in coughing group compared to non-coughing and control groups. SAA, Fbg and SP-D were higher in coughing group compared to non-coughing and control groups indicating that condition of coughing group is in the acute phase. Positive rate of inflammatory airway disease was significantly higher in coughing and non-coughing groups compared to control group. It was concluded that carrying out comprehensive evaluation including investigation on SAA, Fbg and SP-D analysis with airway assessment to Thoroughbred racehorses which were suspected to have LRTD are useful procedure to understand the pathological condition which aid to initiate appropriate treatment, prognosis judgment or to advise trainers to consider altering training regimen. PMID:24833960

  1. Comparison of bone marrow aspiration and bone marrow biopsy in neoplastic diseases.

    PubMed

    Hamid, G A; Hanbala, N

    2009-07-01

    Naturally trephine biopsies have definitive advantages over aspirates in case of dry tap bone marrow aspirates as a result of fibrosis or densely packed bone marrow by tumour cells and may be informative independent of cytology especially in bone marrow involvement by lymphomas and carcinomas. In this prospective descriptive study we aimed to compare between the bone marrow trephine biopsy (BMTB) and bone marrow aspirates (BMAs) regarding the detection rate of solid tumours, lymphoma and myeloma involvement of the bone marrow. The study was carried out in the department of pathology and Haematology-Oncology of Al-Gamhouria Teaching Hospital/Aden during the period between Jan 2005 to Dec 2005. A total of 32 patients with suspected or confirmed malignancy undergone both BMTB and BMA from the posterior superior iliac crest and both results were compared. We divided them into three groups: those with solid tumours (21) patients, lymphoma (7) patients and with MM (4) patients. Our results showed that BMA had a 47.6% sensitivity, 100.0% specificity, with positive predictive value (100%), and negative predictive value (50.0%). In solid tumours alone it had a sensitivity of (40.0%), 100% specificity, with positive predictive value (100%), and negative predictive value (64.7%). This gives the BMA a lower sensitivity in detecting solid tumour metastasis and lymphoma involvement in comparison to BMTB. In conclusion, any patient with suspected or confirmed cancer should undergo BMTB because of its high sensitivity compared to BMA. PMID:20194084

  2. Ciliated cells in abdominal or pelvic fine needle aspirations: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Perry, Kyle D; Cheng, Ning Li; Eberts, Paul; Yang, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Ciliated cells encountered outside of an expected anatomical location (e.g., the respiratory tract, fallopian tube, etc) can represent a diagnostic difficulty for the cytopathologist, especially during preliminary assessment of a fine needle aspiration (FNA) for adequacy or malignancy. We present the cytologic and histologic features of a FNA and needle core biopsy, respectively, of an abdominal mass, likely from a gastrointestinal duplication cyst, foregut cyst or a bronchogenic cyst. We also briefly review the differential diagnosis for ciliated cells encountered in abdominal or pelvic FNAs.

  3. Odontogenic tumor with prominent clear cell component misdiagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma by fine-needle aspiration. A case report.

    PubMed

    Tamiolakis, D; Thomaidis, V; Tsamis, J; Lambropoulou, M; Alexiadis, G; Venizelos, J; Papadopoulos, N

    2003-10-01

    Clear cell tumors in the maxillofacial region, are usually originated in salivary or odontogenic tissues, or may be metastatic. They include calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors, ameloblastoma and odontogenic carcinoma. Clear cell odontogenic tumor has been classified in the last WHO classification as a benign tumor, but current opinion is that it should be designated as a carcinoma. We report a case of clear cell odontogenic tumor documented by histology, in a 82 year-old female, misinterpreted as pleomorphic adenoma by fine-needle aspiration cytology.

  4. Cytodiagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent individual with molluscum contagiosum-like skin lesions and lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Prajwala; Bhardwaj, Minakshi

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated histoplasmosis is caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum (H. capsulatum). The early clinical manifestations are nonspecific, often lead to diagnostic difficulty, and is misdiagnosed as tuberculosis and seen usually in immunosuppressed states. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a simple, safe, and quick technique to establish the initial diagnosis of H. capsulatum, thereby prompting early treatment. The skin involvement is rare in disseminated disease and we describe a case of disseminated histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent patient with unusual molluscum contagiosum like umbilicated skin lesions and FNAC of the cervical lymph node was the only tool for rapid and early confirmatory diagnosis.

  5. Cytodiagnosis of Epidermoid Cyst of the Upper Lip: A Common Lesion in an Uncommon Site

    PubMed Central

    Phukan, Jyoti Prakash; Sinha, Anuradha; Pal, Subrata; Jalan, Shilpa

    2014-01-01

    Epidermoid cyst and dermoid cysts are developmental pathologies thought to derive from aberrant ectodermal tissue. They are uncommon in the head and neck region. Rarely, they can be found in the oral cavity and buccal mucosa. However, epidermoid cyst is extremely uncommon in the upper lip and is rarely reported. In this study, we report an uncommon case of epidermoid cyst occurring in the upper lip diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We present this case because of its extremely rare site of presentation and also to highlight the role of FNAC to in the pre-operative diagnosis of this benign lesion. PMID:24696565

  6. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid An ultrasound-guided thyroid biopsy ... Thyroid? What is Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? During a fine needle aspiration ...

  7. Assessment of an Aspiring Leaders Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alao, Solomon; Wright, Henrietta; Newton, Vera

    This paper describes a program designed to support aspiring educational leaders' leadership competence, autonomy, relatedness, and leadership motivation. It also discusses the New Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards. To assess the extent to which the program achieved its goals, 27 aspiring leaders, all of whom are…

  8. Undergraduate Women's Gender Awareness and Status Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yukiko

    A study was conducted to determine women's realization toward the quality of life, identifying their status aspirations. The study's primary purpose was to achieve a better understanding of how undergraduate women of Guam and Japan would aspire to their academic and social goals and how they would become aware of their gender equality. The…

  9. Educational Aspirations in Inner City Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve; Winston, Joe

    2008-01-01

    This research aimed to assess the nature and level of pupils' educational aspirations and to elucidate the factors that influence these aspirations. A sample of five inner city comprehensive secondary schools were selected by their local authority because of poor pupil attendance, below-average examination results and low rates of continuing in…

  10. Gendered Trends in Student Teachers' Professional Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on a small-scale, exploratory study investigating the professional aspirations of a cohort of student teachers at a UK university. Questionnaires and interviews sought insights into the students' perceptions of leadership, future aspirations and self-perceptions as potential leaders. Whilst there was commonality in male and…

  11. A case of papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid with abundant colloid (masquerading as colloid goiter with papillary hyperplasia): Cytological evaluation with histopathological correlation.

    PubMed

    Muthalagan, Elancheran; Subashchandrabose, Priya; Sivasubramanian, Priya Banthavi; Venkateswaran, Sarada

    2015-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the thyroid. On fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology smears of conventional PTC, the background usually shows scanty, bubble gum-like colloid. But the macrofollicular variant and papillary microcarcinoma reveals abundant thin colloid in the background. We report a case of papillary carcinoma of thyroid in a 37-year-old female with abundant thin colloid, obscuring the nuclear morphology in many clusters, along with the presence of typical nuclear features within occasional clusters in FNA cytology and hence, masquerading as colloid goiter with papillary hyperplasia. Histopathological examination of the total thyroidectomy specimen revealed papillary microcarcinomatous focus in a background of nodular hyperplasia. The differential diagnosis of PTC should be entertained even in colloid-rich FNA smears if the typical nuclear features are present. Hence, a meticulous search for any fragment with nuclear features of PTC is mandatory before labeling the smears as benign nodular hyperplasia. PMID:26811580

  12. A case of papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid with abundant colloid (masquerading as colloid goiter with papillary hyperplasia): Cytological evaluation with histopathological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Muthalagan, Elancheran; Subashchandrabose, Priya; Sivasubramanian, Priya Banthavi; Venkateswaran, Sarada

    2015-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the thyroid. On fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology smears of conventional PTC, the background usually shows scanty, bubble gum-like colloid. But the macrofollicular variant and papillary microcarcinoma reveals abundant thin colloid in the background. We report a case of papillary carcinoma of thyroid in a 37-year-old female with abundant thin colloid, obscuring the nuclear morphology in many clusters, along with the presence of typical nuclear features within occasional clusters in FNA cytology and hence, masquerading as colloid goiter with papillary hyperplasia. Histopathological examination of the total thyroidectomy specimen revealed papillary microcarcinomatous focus in a background of nodular hyperplasia. The differential diagnosis of PTC should be entertained even in colloid-rich FNA smears if the typical nuclear features are present. Hence, a meticulous search for any fragment with nuclear features of PTC is mandatory before labeling the smears as benign nodular hyperplasia. PMID:26811580

  13. Benign metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma of salivary gland: diagnosis of bone lesions by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Pitman, M B; Thor, A D; Goodman, M L; Rosenberg, A E

    1992-01-01

    Two cases of benign salivary gland pleomorphic adenomas metastatic to bone (benign-metastasizing pleomorphic adenomas) diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy are presented. Both primary tumors were slightly atypical cytologically but neither case demonstrated features of carcinoma. The metastatic lesions contained benign epithelial, myoepithelial, and stromal components. In both cases the clinical history was either not known by the radiologist or not communicated to the cytopathologist interpreting the case, and a primary tumor of bone was the leading clinical diagnosis. Obtaining pertinent clinical history and comparing the cytomorphology of the bone aspirate with the primary parotid tumor allowed for an accurate diagnosis in both cases. The differential diagnosis with primary bone tumors is discussed and the importance of clinical history is emphasized.

  14. Aspiration pneumonia in dogs: pathophysiology, prevention, and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Heidi M; Rahilly, Louisa J

    2012-12-01

    Aspiration pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis are associated with significant morbidity in veterinary and human medicine. A variety of medical conditions and medications can predispose patients to aspiration, and every precaution should be taken to prevent aspiration from occurring. For dogs that aspirate oral or gastric contents and subsequently develop pneumonia, monitoring and supportive care are imperative. This article discusses the pathophysiology, prevention, and diagnosis of aspiration pneumonia.

  15. The presence of diatom algae in a tracheal wash from a German Wirehaired Pointer with aspiration pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Benson, Catherine J; Edlund, Mark B; Gray, Sarah; Powell, Lisa; Paulin-Curlee, Geisa; Armien, Anibal; Overmann, Jed A

    2013-06-01

    A 7-year-old spayed female German Wirehaired Pointer was presented with difficulty breathing after being found seizing in a water-filled drainage ditch while out hunting. Aspirates from a tracheal wash contained numerous degenerate neutrophils, fewer macrophages, some of which contained basophilic debris, low numbers of extracellular diatoms, and a single intracellular short bacterial rod. As the dog continued to clinically decline and could not be weaned from oxygen support, the owners chose euthanasia. The major necropsy finding was a severe granulomatous bronchopneumonia that was likely due to aspiration of foreign material based on the microscopic presence of plant-like material, bi-refringent crystalline material, non-cellular debris, and occasional fungal structures. Diatoms are a class of algae that live primarily in water. Diatom analysis has been used, with some controversy, in human forensics to assist in documenting drowning as the cause of death. In this case, given the clinical history, the presence of diatoms and inflammation in the tracheal wash were interpreted as a likely result of the aspiration of surface water. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of diatoms observed in a cytologic specimen in a nonhuman mammal with aspiration pneumonia.

  16. [Prophylaxis of Pulmonary Aspiration during General Anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Mori, Yosuke; Sumikura, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary aspiration of gastric or esophageal contents is uncommon; however, it is one of the most severe complications in the perioperative period. The aspiration is associated with possible clinical outcomes, ranging from mild asymptomatic limited episodes of bronchial injury up to the development of a severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. To reduce the incidence of pulmonary aspiration, rapid sequence induction and intubation and awake tracheal intubation are commonly chosen anesthetic techniques for the management of patients at risk of aspiration of gastric or esophageal contents. Although there have been innumerable reports that describe prophylaxis of pulmonary aspiration, currently, there is insufficient evidence to prevent passive regurgitation in at-risk anesthetized patients. Some techniques to prevent pulmonary aspiration entered medical practice on a limited evidence base, but with common sense supporting its use. Properly applied techniques are probably effective at preventing regurgitation in the perioperative period although more randomized controlled trials are awaited to confirm this. Pulmonary aspiration should be prevented using multidisciplinary techniques and considerations that have been shown to improve effectiveness of prophylaxes. However, further research is necessary to support this strategy. PMID:27004384

  17. Sensory cutaneous nerve fine-needle aspiration in Hansen's disease: A retrospective analysis of our experience

    PubMed Central

    Prasoon, Dev; Mandal, Swapan Kumar; Agrawal, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leprosy affects peripheral nerves. As Mycobacterium leprae has unique tropism for Schwann cells, thickened sensory cutaneous nerves provide an easy target for the detection of lepra bacilli and other changes associated with the disease. Materials and Methods: The data of patients with sensory cutaneous nerve involvement were retrieved from our record for the period January 2006 to December 2014. The hematoxylin and eosin (H and E)- and May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG)-stained slides were screened for Schwann cells, granuloma, and necrosis. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN)-stained smears were searched for lepra bacilli and globi. Morphological index was calculated in multibacillary lesions. Result: Twenty-nine sensory cutaneous nerves were aspirated in 23 patients. While 15 cases showed skin and nerve involvement, 8 cases showed only nerve involvement. Terminal cutaneous branch of the radial nerve was most often aspirated. No motor loss was observed after aspiration. Five cytologic pictures were seen — Epithelioid cell granuloma only in 6 cases, epithelioid cell granuloma with necrosis in 1 case, epithelioid cell granuloma with lepra bacilli in 3 cases, necrosis with lepra bacilli in 1 case, and only lepra bacilli in 12 cases. Morphological index ranged from 20% to 80%. Conclusion: Sensory cutaneous nerve fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a feasible, viable, effective, and safe procedure. It adds to diagnostic FNA yield in patients with concomitant skin involvement and offers a way to evaluate patients with only nerve involvement. Calculation of morphological index allows prognostication and may have a role in assessing response to therapy and/or relapse. PMID:26729977

  18. Navigational transbronchial needle aspiration, percutaneous needle aspiration and its future

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Sixto; Yarmus, Lonny

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral lung nodule evaluation represents a clinical challenge. Given that many nodules will be incidentally found with lung cancer screening following the publication of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), the goal is to find an accurate, safe and minimally-invasive diagnostic modality to biopsy the concerning lesions. Unfortunately, conventional bronchoscopic techniques provide a poor diagnostic yield of 18–62%. In recent years advances in technology have led to the introduction of electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB) as a tool to guide sampling of peripheral lung nodules. The same principle has also recently been expanded and applied to the transthoracic needle biopsy, referred to as electromagnetic transthoracic needle aspiration (E-TTNA). An improved diagnostic yield has afforded this technology a recommendation by the 2013 3rd Edition ACCP Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Lung Cancer which state that “in patients with peripheral lung lesions difficult to reach with conventional bronchoscopy, ENB is recommended if the equipment and the expertise are available (Grade 1C)”. In this review we will discuss the technology, devices that are available, techniques and protocols, diagnostic yield, safety, cost effectiveness and more. PMID:26807280

  19. [Tamoxifen and cervico-vaginal cytology].

    PubMed

    Ayoubi, J M; Monrozies, X; Ayoubi, F; Charasson, T; Reme, J M

    1994-04-01

    The impact of tamoxifen on the genital tract was assessed by cervico-vaginal cytology. Fifty two post-menopausal patients treated with tamoxifen for breast cancer were regularly monitored, with a pre-treatment reference smear showing a profoundly menopausal status, followed by an anual smear. Smears returned to a functional status in 44% of patients after 2 to 5 years treatment. The agonist effect of tamoxifen appears to be beyond any doubt, and responsible for certain adverse reactions. This should not bring into question the usefulness of the drug, but indicates the need for regular monitoring and, in the presence of a functional smear, further investigation by vaginal ultrasonography is essential in order to evaluate the status of the endometrium. PMID:8036383

  20. Ultrasoundelastography: Can it provide valid information for differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules?

    PubMed

    Raggiunti, B; Capone, F; Franchi, A; Fiore, G; Filipponi, S; Colagrande, V; Di Nicola, M; Mangifesta, R; Ballone, E

    2011-09-01

    Ultrasoundelastography (USE) is a new imaging technique that is performed with a normal ultrasound transducer. It provides improved characterization of a tissue or nodule based on the latter's elasticity and stiffness. The aim of the present, prospective study was to assess the validity of USE in characterizing thyroid nodules. USE patterns were analyzed in light of nodule cytology (British Thyroid Association classification) to determine whether these patterns can be used to decide whether or not fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is indicated. We examined a consecutive series of 617 thyroid nodules in patients referred for the first time to the Endocrinology Unit of Atri Hospital (Atri, [TE]). Patients underwent ultrasonographic and USE examinations of their thyroid nodules, which were then subjected to FNAC. All nodules with Thy 1 cytology were excluded, leaving 567 nodules for analysis. USE findings were classified on the basis of the degree and distribution of elasticity within the lesion: four patterns were identified (1, 2, 3a, 3b, or 4).None of the nodules with Thy 4 cytology (malignant) had USE pattern 1 or 2; patterns 3 and 4 were associated with higher cytologic grades. In conclusion, USE provides additional information on thyroid nodules, which can be used with ultrasound features of the nodules, to decide whether FNAC is indicated. In fact, patterns 1 and 2 do not seem to be associated with Thy 4 cytology.

  1. Mediastinal Abscess Following Endobronchial Ultrasound Transbronchial Needle Aspiration in a Patient With Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    McGovern Murphy, Frederic; Grondin-Beaudoin, Brian; Poulin, Yannick; Boileau, Robert; Dumoulin, Elaine

    2015-10-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a minimally invasive procedure with a low rate of complications. It is used in the diagnosis of malignant and benign disease such as sarcoidosis. We report a case a 42-year-old man who had undergone EBUS-TBNA for diagnosis of mediastinal and hilar lymph node enlargement. Sarcoidosis was diagnosed on cytologic examination. Three weeks after the procedure, he developed a mediastinal abscess secondary to EBUS-TBNA. Sarcoidosis may be a risk factor for mediastinal infection complication. A local immune defect related to sarcoidosis may explain this risk. Our case underlines the importance of considering and recognizing this complication, and its possibility should be taken into account when undertaking the procedure for benign disease.

  2. Determination of oestrogen receptors with monoclonal antibodies in fine needle aspirates of breast carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Marrazzo, A.; La Bara, G.; Taormina, P.; Bazan, P.

    1989-01-01

    Fifty patients with operable breast carcinoma underwent fine needle aspiration for cytological examination. The smears were prepared by means of the immunocytochemical method using monoclonal antibodies for the determination of the oestrogen receptors (ER). After surgery the contents of the ER were determined with the traditional biochemical technique. The results of the immunocytochemical method showed 31 positives, two of which disagreed with the biochemical results, 15 negatives and four cases which could not be assessed due to the absence of adequate numbers of cells. The ICA staining for ER was expressed on a semiquantitative basis; there was a significant correlation between this and the values expressed by the biochemical technique, with a coefficient of 0.83, P less than 0.000006. PMID:2930709

  3. Chondroid syringoma of the axilla: An unusual tumor diagnosed by fine needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Robert; Zhou, Fang; Grunes, Dianne; Shapiro, Richard L; Bannan, Michael; Simsir, Aylin; Leung, Allen

    2016-04-01

    Chondroid syringoma (CS) is a rare benign adnexal tumor of the skin with a resemblance to pleomorphic adenoma of salivary gland, most commonly involving the head and neck region. In the present literature, reports of the cytologic appearance of CS are scarce as it is rarely encountered by fine needle aspiration (FNA). A 67-year-old woman presented with a 1 year history of a 1 cm subcutaneous nodule in the right axilla. FNA biopsy was performed revealing an epithelial-mesenchymal biphasic neoplasm suggesting CS. Surgical excision confirmed the diagnosis and demonstrated extensive ossification, an extremely rare feature, with only seven reported cases, all located on the head. CS is a rare benign adnexal tumor of the skin, often overlooked due to its unremarkable clinical presentation. FNA is a reliable tool for the diagnosis of CS and helps guide optimal surgical management.

  4. Polyploidy in pleomorphic adenomas with cytological atypia.

    PubMed

    Thunnissen, F B; Peterse, J L; Buchholtz, R; Van der Beek, J M; Bosman, F T

    1992-01-01

    Occasionally, in fine-needle aspirates of pleomorphic salivary gland adenomas, considerable cytonuclear atypia is present, which may give rise to a false-positive diagnosis. In this study DNA cytophotometry was performed on Feulgen restained smears prepared from material obtained by needle aspirates of normal salivary glands (n = 4), pleomorphic adenomas with (n = 5) and without (n = 4) atypia and a carcinoma in a pleomorphic adenoma. The results showed a clear diploid DNA histogram in the specimens of normal salivary gland and pleomorphic adenomas without atypia. In contrast, in the pleomorphic adenomas with atypia a distinct polyploid pattern was present in three out of the five DNA histograms with DNA values in 2c, 4c and 8c ranges. In two of these cases a 16c peak was also present and in the two remaining cases tetraploidy was demonstrated. In the carcinoma a main stemline at 4c was found. This report once more emphasizes the possible atypia which may be present in FNA of pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary gland. The atypia is due to polyploidy in a histologically benign tumour.

  5. Diagnostic value of cytological analysis of tumours and tumour-like lesions of the oral cavity in dogs and cats: a prospective study on 114 cases.

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, U; Bertazzolo, W; Gracis, M; Roccabianca, P; Romanelli, G; Palermo, G; Zini, E

    2015-08-01

    Neoplastic or non-neoplastic masses are common findings in the oral cavity of cats and dogs. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the results of cytological examinations of lesions of the oral cavity following fine-needle aspiration (FNA), fine-needle insertion (FNI), and impression smear (IS) with histopathological results being considered as the diagnostic gold standard. In total, 85 dogs and 29 cats were included in the study. Cases were included when histology and cytology (FNA, FNI, and/or IS) were available from the same lesion; κ-agreement and accuracy between cytological and histopathological results were calculated. Eighteen cytological specimens were excluded, with a retrieval rate of 84.2%. Of the 96 samples analysed, FNA, FNI, and IS were available from 80, 76, and 73 animals, respectively. Overall, 60/67 (89.6%) and 21/29 (72.4%) lesions were neoplastic in dogs and cats, respectively, with the remaining being non-neoplastic. For all lesions, κ-values obtained by FNA, FNI, and IS were in dogs 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77-0.90), 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81-0.93) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.67-0.84), respectively, and in cats 0.92 (95% CI: 0.87-0.96), 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88-0.97) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.79-0.92), respectively. The diagnostic accuracies of FNA, FNI, and IS in dogs with neoplasia were 98.2%, 98.1%, and 91.8%, respectively, and in cats with neoplasia were 95.6%, 95.6% and 95.8%, respectively. In conclusion, the high agreement with histopathology suggests that cytological examinations by FNI, FNA, and IS are all appropriate methods to correctly diagnose lesions of the oral cavity in dogs and cats.

  6. Aspiration pneumonia in children: an iconographic essay.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Antonio; Pessanha, Laís Bastos; Guerra, Luiz Felipe Alves; Martins, Diego Lima Nava; Rondina, Ronaldo Garcia; Silva, Jamine Ronacher Passos

    2015-01-01

    In most cases of aspiration pneumonia in children, the disease is specific to this age group. Clinical and radiological correlation is essential for the diagnosis. The present pictorial essay is aimed at showing typical images of the most common etiologies.

  7. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid nodule fine needle aspirate biopsy; Biopsy - thyroid - skinny-needle; Skinny-needle thyroid biopsy ... cleaned. A thin needle is inserted into the thyroid, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

  8. Healthcare-associated Pneumonia and Aspiration Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Komiya, Kosaku; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kadota, Jun-Ichi

    2015-02-01

    Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is a new concept of pneumonia proposed by the American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America in 2005. This category is located between community-acquired pneumonia and hospital-acquired pneumonia with respect to the characteristics of the causative pathogens and mortality, and primarily targets elderly patients in healthcare facilities. Aspiration among such patients is recognized to be a primary mechanism for the development of pneumonia, particularly since the HCAP guidelines were published. However, it is difficult to manage patients with aspiration pneumonia because the definition of the condition is unclear, and the treatment is associated with ethical aspects. This review focused on the definition, prevalence and role of aspiration pneumonia as a prognostic factor in published studies of HCAP and attempted to identify problems associated with the concept of aspiration pneumonia.

  9. Ultrasound Guided Core Biopsy versus Fine Needle Aspiration for Evaluation of Axillary Lymphadenopathy in Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ganott, Marie A.; Zuley, Margarita L.; Abrams, Gordon S.; Lu, Amy H.; Kelly, Amy E.; Chivukula, Mamatha; Carter, Gloria; Austin, R. Marshall; Bandos, Andriy I.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives. To compare the sensitivities of ultrasound guided core biopsy and fine needle aspiration (FNA) for detection of axillary lymph node metastases in patients with a current diagnosis of ipsilateral breast cancer. Materials and Methods. From December 2008 to December 2010, 105 patients with breast cancer and abnormal appearing lymph nodes in the ipsilateral axilla consented to undergo FNA of an axillary node immediately followed by core biopsy of the same node, both with ultrasound guidance. Experienced pathologists evaluated the aspirate cytology without knowledge of the core histology. Cytology and core biopsy results were compared to sentinel node excision or axillary dissection pathology. Sensitivities were compared using McNemar's test. Results. Of 70 patients with axillary node metastases, FNA was positive in 55/70 (78.6%) and core was positive in 61/70 (87.1%) (P = 0.18). The FNA and core results were discordant in 14/70 (20%) patients. Ten cases were FNA negative/core positive. Four cases were FNA positive/core negative. Conclusion. Core biopsy detected six (8.6%) more cases of metastatic lymphadenopathy than FNA but the difference in sensitivities was not statistically significant. Core biopsy should be considered if the node is clearly imaged and readily accessible. FNA is a good alternative when a smaller needle is desired due to node location or other patient factors. This trial is registered with NCT01920139. PMID:24649373

  10. Clear ovarian cyst aspiration guided by vaginal ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Ron-El, R; Herman, A; Weinraub, Z; Golan, A; Langer, R; Caspi, E; Bukovsky, I

    1991-11-01

    Thirty patients with clear ovarian cysts underwent aspiration guided by vaginal ultrasound. In 23 cases a complete aspiration was accomplished. In 4 only partial aspiration was possible, and in the remaining 3 failed aspiration led to surgery. Histological findings correspond to retroperitoneal lipoma and mucinous cystadenoma (2 cases). Malignant cells were not detected in the fluid of any of the 27 aspirates. Eight of the ten patients presenting with abdominal pain experienced a relief following aspiration. Recurrence of the cyst occurred in 12 cases (40%) with significantly smaller dimensions (P less than 0.01). Vaginal ultrasound aspiration of clear cyst is easy and safe and can be considered as an outpatient procedure.

  11. Cysticercosis of tongue: Cytohistologic approach to diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Koteeswaran, Govindaswamy; Mangala, Goneppanavar; Kotasthane, Dhanajay Srikant; Tirou, Aroul T

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis is continuing to be a major health problem in developing countries. Radiological and serological techniques are routinely used for pre-operative diagnosis of cysticercosis. But fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is cost effective and simple procedure, so it is important to be aware of diagnostic pitfalls in the cytomorphologic diagnosis of cysticercosis. We present a case of cysticercosis of tongue, which accounts for only 34 cases in the world literature. PMID:24574684

  12. Giant Bilateral Juvenile Fibroadenoma of the Breast in Prepubescent Girl.

    PubMed

    Khan, Salma; Khan, Momna; Rafique, Sadia

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile fibroadenoma accounts for 4% of the total fibroadenomas. Giant juvenile fibroadenoma is found in only 0.5% of all fibroadenomas. The authors report a 10-year girl presenting with progressive enlargement of both breasts for one year. Based on clinical findings and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC), a diagnosis of bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas of breast was made. She underwent bilateral lumpectomy with breast conservation and made uneventful postoperative recovery. PMID:26522216

  13. Predictive value of fine needle aspiration biopsy of axillary lymph nodes in preoperative breast cancer staging

    PubMed Central

    Akıncı, Muzaffer; Bulut, Serap Pamak; Erözgen, Fazilet; Gürbüzel, Mihriban; Gülşen, Gökçe; Kocakuşak, Ahmet; Gülen, Mehmet; Kaplan, Rafet

    2016-01-01

    Objective Diagnosis of axillary nodal involvement is significant in the management of breast cancer as well as in predicting prognosis. In this prospective study, we evaluated the efficiency of US-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in preoperative axillary staging of early breast cancer. Material and Methods Between January 2011 and July 2013, 46 women were prospectively enrolled in the study. Ultrasound guided-FNABs for axillary assessment were performed preoperatively. Cytology results were compared with histopathology reports to determine its sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive value and accuracy. Results Nineteen cases that had malignant cytology on FNAB also had axillary involvement in axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) without any false-positive results. The sensitivity and specificity of US-guided FNAB were 63.3% and 100%, respectively. US-guided FNAB was accurate in predicting the status of the axilla in 76.1% of patients. Conclusion Although this technique is favorable due to its minimally invasive nature, it is not as effective as sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in terms of detecting axillary metastasis preoperatively. The low sensitivity and low accuracy rates decrease the usefulness of the technique. Therefore, it seems that US-guided FNAB alone could not replace SLNB. Nevertheless, combining some other molecular studies may be useful in increasing the technique’s sensitivity. These issues should be determined by comprehensive clinical trials. PMID:27528822

  14. Common aspirations of world women.

    PubMed

    Huang, B

    1996-02-01

    The comments of the Director of Foreign Affairs for the China State Family Planning Commission reflect satisfaction with the achievements at the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing. It is posited that the historic documents from the conference reflect the common aspirations of all women in the world for equality, development, and peace. The conference's focus on social development for women has been translated in China into a "vigorous" IEC campaign. China is developing integrated approaches to family planning in rural areas. The approach aims to help rural women to become economically independent before achieving equality within the family and society. A National Conference on Integrated Programs was held in Sichuan province. Examples of integrated programs in Sichuan, Jilin, and Jiangsu were described for conference participants. The example is given of how poor rural women in Deyang Prefecture, Sichuan province, have received credit for income generation and access to skill development and literacy classes. Continuous economic and social development are important for achieving "poverty eradication and the liberation of women." Sustainable development involves use of resources, environmental protection, the reasonable change in consumption patterns, and transitional changes in modes of production. The concept of reproductive health means Chinese family planning workers must meet higher standards. Future plans include intensifying the IEC program in meeting the comprehensive biological, psychological, and social reproductive health needs of women. Respect must be given to the fertility intentions and reproductive rights of wives and husbands. "In China, voluntary choice of childbearing should be guided by the fertility policy formulated by the government." Training of family planning workers should be intensified to include training in public health, reproductive theory, contraception, and the techniques of interpersonal communication. Some provinces

  15. Modified aspirated internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.E.

    1993-06-01

    An internal combustion engine is described, comprising: an engine block; at least one cylinder; at least one piston, each piston being reciprocally movable in the cylinder; a head connected with the engine block so as to form a combustion chamber above each piston; aspiration means for providing gas entry into and gas exit from the combustion chamber of each cylinder; valves for controlling gas entry and exit; ignition for initiating and timing combustion in each combustion chamber; a crankshaft rotatably mounted to the engine block, the crankshaft having at least one crank arm; connecting rod between each piston and the crank arm for translating reciprocation of each piston into rotation of each crankshaft; mounting means for rotatably mounting crankshaft to the engine block, the mounting means at each mounting location comprising: a crankshaft journal located on the crankshaft, the crankshaft journal having a crankshaft cross-section and an off-set portion, the off-set portion having a maximum which is equal to a predetermined off-set, the maximum off-set being located on a predetermined side of the crankshaft, the off-set portion smoothly decreasing from the maximum to a minimum from each side of the maximum, the minimum being equal to a zero off-set, the minimum off-set being located on the crankshaft opposite maximum off-set; and an engine block bearing connected with the engine block, wherein the crankshaft rotates in relation to the engine block about an eccentric centerline passing axially through the crankshaft journal cross-section, the eccentric centerline being displaced from a true centerline passing axially through said crankshaft cross-section by a distance equal to one-half the off-set, wherein the crank arm has a predetermined radial length centered on the eccentric centerline, and wherein the modified crankshaft has at least one output shaft portion axially aligned with the eccentric centerline.

  16. Endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration and useful ancillary methods

    PubMed Central

    Tadic, Mario; Stoos-Veic, Tajana; Kusec, Rajko

    2014-01-01

    The role of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in evaluating pancreatic pathology has been well documented from the beginning of its clinical use. High spatial resolution and the close proximity to the evaluated organs within the mediastinum and abdominal cavity allow detection of small focal lesions and precise tissue acquisition from suspected lesions within the reach of this method. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is considered of additional value to EUS and is performed to obtain tissue diagnosis. Tissue acquisition from suspected lesions for cytological or histological analysis allows, not only the differentiation between malignant and non-malignant lesions, but, in most cases, also the accurate distinction between the various types of malignant lesions. It is well documented that the best results are achieved only if an adequate sample is obtained for further analysis, if the material is processed in an appropriate way, and if adequate ancillary methods are performed. This is a multi-step process and could be quite a challenge in some cases. In this article, we discuss the technical aspects of tissue acquisition by EUS-guided-FNA (EUS-FNA), as well as the role of an on-site cytopathologist, various means of specimen processing, and the selection of the appropriate ancillary method for providing an accurate tissue diagnosis and maximizing the yield of this method. The main goal of this review is to alert endosonographers, not only to the different possibilities of tissue acquisition, namely EUS-FNA, but also to bring to their attention the importance of proper sample processing in the evaluation of various lesions in the gastrointestinal tract and other accessible organs. All aspects of tissue acquisition (needles, suction, use of stylet, complications, etc.) have been well discussed lately. Adequate tissue samples enable comprehensive diagnoses, which answer the main clinical questions, thus enabling targeted therapy. PMID:25339816

  17. Intranodal Palisaded Myofibroblastoma: Radiological and Cytological Overview

    PubMed Central

    Altinbas, Namik Kemal; Oz, Ilker; Ustuner, Evren; Gulpinar, Basak; Peker, Elif; Akkaya, Zehra; Peker, Ahmet; Ceyhan, Koray; Yagci, Cemil

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma is a benign and very rare mesenchymal neoplasm of the lymph nodes originating from differentiated smooth muscle cells and myofibroblasts. Case Report We report a case of intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma in an 84-year-old woman with Parkinson’s disease that presented as a left inguinal mass. The diagnosis was made using ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy and consequent cytopathological examination that included immunohistochemical analysis. Herein, we discuss the presentation of a rare intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma with emphasis on its ultrasonographic and cytopathologic features. Conclusions Intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of inguinal lymphadenopathy and the diagnosis is possible with cytopathologic exam and immunohistochemical analysis using ultrasound-guided FNA biopsy, guiding the clinician to nodal excision rather than aggressive measures. PMID:27504146

  18. Astrobiology explorer mission concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennico, K. A.; Sandford, S. A.; ABE/ASPIRE Science Teams

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) and the Astrobiology SPace InfraRed Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions (1) "Where do we come from?" and (2) "Are we alone?" as outlined in NASA's Origins Program. Both concepts use infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity, abundance, and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe. The ABE mission's observational program is focused on investigating the evolution of ice and organics in all phases of the lifecycle of carbon in the universe, from stellar birth through stellar death and exogenous delivery of these compounds to planetary systems. The ASPIRE mission's observational program expands upon ABE's core mission and also addresses the role of silicates and gas-phase materials in interstellar organic chemistry. ABE (ASPIRE) achieves these goals using a highly sensitive, cryogenically-cooled telescope in an Earth drift-away heliocentric orbit, armed with a suite of infrared spectrometers that cover the 2.5-20 (40) micron spectral region at moderate spectral resolution ( R > 2000). ASPIRE's spectrometer complement also includes a high-resolution ( R > 25,000) module over the 4-8 micron spectral region. Both missions' target lists are chosen to observe a statistically significant sample of a large number of objects of varied types in support of the tasks outlined above. The ABE and ASPIRE mission lifetimes are designed to be 14 months and 3 years, respectively, both with significant cryogen and propellant lifetime margins to support an extended observing campaign. The ABE/ASPIRE Science Operations will be carried out at NASA's Ames Research Center, and the ABE/ASPIRE database will be archived at Caltech/IPAC.

  19. Cervical cytology service in Nigeria: providers' perspective.

    PubMed

    Adesina, O A; Babarinsa, I A; Fawole, O A; Oladokun, A; Adeniji, A R; Adewole, I F

    2003-07-01

    It has been noted that efforts to organise an effective screening programme in developing countries will have to find adequate financial resources, develop the infrastructure, train the necessary manpower and elaborate surveillance mechanisms. In our study, we set out to determine (a) just how frequent is cervical cancer, to warrant the investment of funds in screening programmes; (b) what proportion of surveyed health facilities offer a cervical cytology screening programme; and (c) what basic facilities are currently available where such programmes exist? A pretested, self-completed questionnaire was sent to heads of department of obstetrics and gynaecology in public tertiary and secondary care hospitals in Nigeria as well as major mission hospitals. The response rate was 63%, monthly consultations included a mean of 114 (+/-11.7) new gynaecological patients and an average of 5 (4.7+/-0.8) cervical cancer cases. One-half of the institutions had a hospital-based cervical screening programme with an average of 27 patients being screened monthly. Finance was the main difficulty encountered in maintaining a screening service. Only four had a certified gynaecological oncologist. In conclusion, there is dismal utilisation of available services and a dearth of trained specialists should any cervical cancer screening programme be considered. PMID:12881085

  20. Role of micronucleus in oral exfoliative cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shashikala, R.; Indira, A. P.; Manjunath, G. S.; rao, K. Arathi; Akshatha, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, the interest for oral cytology as a diagnostic and prognostic methodology, for monitoring patients in oral potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer has re-emerged substantially. In 1983, buccal mucosal micronuclei assay was first proposed to evaluate genetic instability. There are biomarkers that predict if a potentially malignant disorder is likely to develop into an aggressive tumor. These genotoxic and carcinogenic chemicals have been reported to be potent clastogenic and mutagenic agents which are thought to be responsible for the induction of chromatid/chromosomal aberrations resulting in the production of micronuclei. Various studies have concluded that the gradual increase in micronucleus (MN) counts from normal oral mucosa to potentially malignant disorders to oral carcinoma suggested a link of this biomarker with neoplastic progression. MN scoring can be used as a biomarker to identify different preneoplastic conditions much earlier than the manifestations of clinical features and might specifically be exploited in the screening of high-risk population for a specific cancer. Hence, it can be used as a screening prognostic and educational tool in community centers of oral cancer. PMID:26538888

  1. Conjunctival impression cytology: bright hope of children.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    A practical method of screening for pre-clinical xerophthalmia due to vitamin A deficiency, called conjunctival impression cytology (CIC), is described as it is being used in a training stage in the Philippines. The noninvasive technic consists of touching the conjunctiva with a filter paper disc, and fixing and staining the disc on a slide for histology. Normally goblet cells with mucin spots are seen among sheets of epithelial cells. In abnormal conjunctiva from vitamin A deficient individuals, the epithelial cells are enlarged, and goblet cells are lacking. These specimens may be obtained from areas of the conjunctiva that appear clinically normal. The equipment needed is millipore paper, a hand-held suction pump with 5 feet of tubing, tissue or gauze, screw-top vials, labels, fixative, Papanicolaou stain, and a microscope. Vitamin A supplements can be given to affected children, or to the whole population at risk. With CIC training materials donated by International Center for Epidemiologic and Preventive Ophthalmology (ICEPO) at the Wilmer Institute, and the School of Hygiene and Public Health of the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, the 1st training class was certified by the Nutrition Center of the Philippines. Twice yearly training of physicians and technologists has been recommended.

  2. Urine: beyond cytology for detection of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Pattari, Sanjib Kumar; Dey, Pranab

    2002-09-01

    In the present review we discuss various ancillary modalities for detection of malignancies in urine samples, with an emphasis on urothelial carcinomas. Flow cytometry, bladder tumor antigen (BTA), nuclear matrix protein (NMP), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), human chorionic gonadotrophic (HCG), telomerase, and other techniques are discussed. DNA FCM is a relatively costly and sophisticated technique. It has a practical application in the diagnosis of bladder cancer among subjects at high risk and is of value in monitoring the course of the disease and anticipating recurrence following conservative treatment. The BTA test is a simple, rapid, and inexpensive adjunct to cystoscopy and the results of the test are equivalent or superior to those of voided urinary cytology. NMP-22 immunoassay is a useful diagnostic test for predicting recurrence of urothelial malignancy. It is also a cost-effective and sensitive screening test for detecting tumor in patients with urothelial carcinoma. Beta-HCG estimation in urine samples appears to be an efficient diagnostic marker for the assessment of distant metastasis in bladder carcinoma rather than a screening test. Other ancillary techniques such as detection of expression of cytokeratin 20 by RT-PCR, MMP-9 estimation, and fluorescent in situ hybridization and telomerase activity are rarely applied clinically in routine urinary samples and are not cost-effective.

  3. Cervical cytology screening convenient for the workforce.

    PubMed

    Andren, S M

    1991-01-01

    The study describes the demographic details and smear results of women attending a Well Woman Clinic in an Occupational Health setting over a two year period. The clinic is located close to the place of work, run during working hours, and operated by a doctor and nurse. Charging fees acceptable to women attending or their employers, the service has made a modest profit and offers scope for increasing the income against fixed costs. The age range attending is older than commonly found at screening clinics. The abnormal smear detection rate, 115 per 1000 is high while the proportion of inadequate results at 50 per 1000 compares favourably with other clinics. In an area with 13 per cent Asian population, only 5 per cent of attenders were Asian but of these one fifth had abnormal smears. A cervical cytology screening facility timed and located for the convenience of the working woman is found to attract a group of women in the older age range who have a high abnormal smear rate, and those who fail to attend elsewhere. PMID:1779673

  4. Computer-aided diagnosis system for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules in multi-stained FNAB cytological images.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Balasubramanian; Shanthi, Natesan

    2013-06-01

    An automated computer-aided diagnosis system is developed to classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules using multi-stained fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytological images. In the first phase, the image segmentation is performed to remove the background staining information and retain the appropriate foreground cell objects in cytological images using mathematical morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. Subsequently, statistical features are extracted using two-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposition, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor filter based methods. The classifiers k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), Elman neural network (ENN) and support vector machine (SVM) are tested for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The combination of watershed segmentation, GLCM features and k-NN classifier results a lowest diagnostic accuracy of 60 %. The highest diagnostic accuracy of 93.33 % is achieved by ENN classifier trained with the statistical features extracted by Gabor filter bank from the images segmented by morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. It is also observed that SVM classifier results its highest diagnostic accuracy of 90 % for DWT and Gabor filter based features along with morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. The experimental results suggest that the developed system with multi-stained thyroid FNAB images would be useful for identifying thyroid cancer irrespective of staining protocol used.

  5. Parotid gland tumors: correlation between routine cytology and cytomorphometry by digital image analysis using conventional and newly introduced cytomorphometric parameters.

    PubMed

    Obad-Kovačević, Dragica; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Jelić-Puškarić, Biljana; Vidjak, Vinko; Blašković, Darko

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare qualitative cytomorphology and morphometric characteristics of parotid gland tumor cells, with the aid of a computer-assisted system of image analysis. Routine qualitative cytologic and quantitative morphometric results from 64 parotid gland tumors were compared. Ultrasound (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens were taken from 54 patients. Eleven conventionally used morphometric parameters were studied: area, perimeter, convex area, convexity, maximal and minimal radius, length, breadth, form factor (FF), elongation factor, and nuclear- cytoplasmatic (N/C) ratio. Two newly introduced nuclear form factors were also measured: area symmetry factor and perimeter symmetry factor. The following nuclear morphometric parameters were significantly different between malignant and benign tumors: area, perimeter, convex area, convexity, maximal and minimal radius, length, breadth, FF, elongation factor, area symmetry factor, and perimeter symmetry factor. Comparing the cutoff values and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves the following nuclear morphometric parameters were found most useful in separating benign from malignant tumors: area, perimeter, convex area, maximal radius, length, and FF. The following whole cell morphometric parameters were significantly different between malignant and benign tumors: minimal and maximal radius, convexity, breadth, FF, and elongation factor. N/C ratio was significantly higher in malignant tumors. The quantitative morphometric analysis is a useful tool in the cytological differentiation between benign and malignant parotid gland tumors. Computerized image analysis may add to morphological evaluation by turning qualitative data into quantitative values.

  6. Human papillomavirus status of head and neck cancer as determined in cytologic specimens using the hybrid-capture 2 assay

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David F.; Maleki, Zahra; Coughlan, Diarmuid; Gooi, Zhen; Akpeng, Belinda; Ogawa, Takenori; Bishop, Justin A.; Frick, Kevin D.; Agrawal, Nishant; Gourin, Christine G.; Ha, Patrick K.; Koch, Wayne M.; Richmon, Jeremy D.; Westra, William H.; Pai, Sara I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective A standardized assay to determine the HPV status of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) specimens has not yet been established, particularly for cytologic samples. The goal of this study was to determine whether the hybrid capture-2 (HC-2) assay, already widely used for the detection of high risk HPV in cervical brushings, is applicable to cytologic specimens obtained from patients with suspected HNSCCs. Materials and methods Fine needle aspirates (FNA) of cervical lymph nodes were pre-operatively obtained from patients with suspected HNSCCs and evaluated for the presence of HPV using the HC-2 assay. HPV analysis was performed on the corresponding resected tissue specimens using p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and HR-HPV in situ hybridization (ISH). A cost analysis was performed using the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Results HPV status of the cervical lymph node metastases was correctly classified using the HC-2 assay in 84% (21/25) of cases. Accuracy was improved to 100% when cytologic evaluation confirmed the presence of cancer cells in the test samples. The estimated cost savings to CMS using the HC-2 assay ranged from $113.74 to $364.63 per patient. Conclusions HC-2 is a reliable method for determining the HPV status of HNSCCs. Its application to HNSCCs may reduce costs by helping to localize the primary site during the diagnostic work-up as well as decrease the interval time of determining the HPV status which would be relevant for providing prognostic information to the patient as well as determining eligibility for clinical trials targeting this unique patient population. PMID:24630260

  7. Urine cytology. It is still the gold standard for screening?

    PubMed

    Brown, F M

    2000-02-01

    Urine cytology remains the gold standard for bladder cancer screening. It is the test against which all others are compared when evaluating potential bladder tumor markers. The answer to whether urine cytology possess the optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity to retain consideration as the best screening device depends on the goals of the clinical practice. Urine cytology has excellent specificity with few false-positive cases. Its overall sensitivity is poor, but this drawback is explained for the most part by poor criteria for identifying well-differentiated, low-grade TCC. The natural history of such lesions is the occurrence of multiple superficial recurrences in 70% to 80% of patients, with only a minority (10% to 15%) progressing to muscle invasive or metastatic disease. Because patients with low-grade TCC are at low risk for progression, they are monitored primarily for the development of a subsequent tumor. One might argue that the detection of new low-grade lesions is of secondary importance to the early detection of disease progression. The performance characteristics of urine cytology in this regard are much improved. Urine cytology often results in the identification of high-grade malignant cells even before a cystoscopically distinguishable gross lesion is present. Routinely diagnosing grade I TCC may be clinically irrelevant. Ancillary techniques to improve the sensitivity of urine cytology have been insufficiently additive to have much clinical value. Several promising bladder tumor markers have been investigated as potential screening tools and are summarized in Table 3. BTA, nuclear matrix proteins, and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products share lower specificities than urine cytology and may have high rates of false positivity. Telomerase is highly sensitive and highly specific but is not readily available as a point-of-service test. Hyaluronidase and hyaluronic acid are promising prognostic markers, but hyaluronidase does not

  8. Cytomorphological findings and histological correlation of low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma of salivary gland in fine-needle aspiration: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ko, Young Sin; Koo, Ja Seung

    2013-12-01

    Low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma (LGCCC) of the salivary gland is a rare tumor. We report the cytologic features and histologic correlation of a patient with LGCCC. A 57-year-old man had a hardly palpable, nontender mass in the right cheek area followed over nine months. Radiologic analysis revealed a 1.2 cm multiseptated, cystic, solid nodule in an anterior superficial lobe of the right parotid gland. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed many irregular overlapping sheets or clusters of ductal epithelial cells forming solid, pseudopapillary, and cribriform architectures. Nuclei of the tumor cells revealed inconspicuous atypia with minimal size variation. On the basis of these findings, we confirmed a diagnosis of ductal epithelial proliferative lesion, favoring neoplasm, with uncertain malignant potential. Tumor excision was performed, revealing a tiny multicystic nodule (0.7 cm). Histopathologically, this tumor showed the characteristic morphology of LGCCC. This is the first report of cytomorphological findings of LGCCC in Korea. PMID:24421856

  9. Massive retroperitoneal cyst during pregnancy: case report managed conservatively by percutaneous aspiration and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Koji; Eno, Michele L; Walker, Treasure; Im, Dwight D; Rosenshein, Neil B

    2009-03-01

    Retroperitoneal cyst is an extremely rare complication of pregnancy. The management of this rare clinical entity is not well understood. An 18-year-old primigravid woman at 11 weeks of gestation with twins presented with complaints of severe nausea and vomiting. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging showed a 25 x 18 x 10-cm retroperitoneal cyst reaching up to the level of xiphoid processes. No solid component or ascites was seen. She underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous aspiration of the cyst and 2 L of fluid was removed. The cytology was negative for malignant cells. There was no recurrence of retroperitoneal cyst during the subsequent pregnancy. At 37 (0)/ (7) weeks' gestation, the patient spontaneously delivered the female fetuses in cephalic and breech presentation. There were only seven cases reported in the literature of retroperitoneal cysts during pregnancy between 1955 and 2008. Retroperitoneal cyst during pregnancy is characterized by its extremely rare incidence and its massive cyst size. Because of the difficulty in surgery due to the gravid uterus and close proximity to major organs and blood vessels, percutaneous aspiration of cyst could be an option during pregnancy.

  10. Is fine needle aspiration biopsy of salivary gland masses really necessary?

    PubMed

    Candel, A; Gattuso, P; Reddy, V; Matz, G; Castelli, M

    1993-07-01

    The use of fine needle aspirate biopsies (FNAB's) in the outpatient setting has progressively escalated, particularly in the area of head and neck pathology. An increasing percentage of these are for salivary gland masses. We present our experience with salivary gland FNAB's at our institution for four years, from 1988-1992. One thousand and twenty-two (1,022) FNAB's of superficial masses were performed by two pathologists. One hundred sixty-three (15.9%) were salivary gland biopsies. Of these 163 cases, 21 (12.9%) were normal tissue, 77 (47.2%) were inflammatory processes, 50 (30.7%) were benign tumors, and 15 (9.2%) were malignant tumors. None of the aspirates were unsatisfactory. Tissue correlation was possible in 47 (28.8%) cases. Two false negative cases (4.3%) were identified; these were a Warthin's tumor diagnosed as chronic sialoadenitis by FNAB; and a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed as adenocarcinoma by FNAB. There were no false positive cases. Overall sensitivity was 95.7% and specificity was 100%. Our experience indicates that FNAB of salivary glands is an effective screening procedure in evaluating salivary gland masses. The cytologic diagnosis may assist the clinician in allaying patients' anxieties, as well as in further collateral workup prior to definitive therapy.

  11. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy findings in sclerosing polycystic adenosis of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Etit, Demet; Pilch, Ben Z; Osgood, Rebecca; Faquin, William C

    2007-07-01

    Sclerosing polycystic adenosis (SPA) is a recently described, rare lesion of the salivary gland analogous to fibrocystic disease of the breast. Recognition of this benign entity is important since the differential diagnosis includes other more common benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms, particularly mucoepidermoid carcinoma and tumors with cystic and oncocytic features. While the histomorphology of SPA is well documented, there is only one other cytologic description of SPA in the English-language literature. Here we describe the fine-needle aspiration biopsy findings in a case of SPA of the parotid gland in an 84-year-old woman. The aspirate was characterized by flat cohesive sheets of epithelial cells with moderate amounts of finely granular oncocytic cytoplasm and enlarged round nuclei with indistinct nucleoli. Some epithelial groups formed glandular structures with lumens, and the background contained small amounts of delicate mucoproteinaceous material. Occasional markedly vacuolated cells were present as well as many cells with apocrine change manifested by well-defined apical snouting. Familiarity with the cytomorphologic features of SPA, including its characteristic apocrine changes, is important for distinguishing it from other more clinically significant salivary gland lesions.

  12. Characterizing Cell Adhesion by Using Micropipette Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Brenna; Babataheri, Avin; Hwang, Yongyun; Barakat, Abdul I.; Husson, Julien

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a technique to directly quantify cell-substrate adhesion force using micropipette aspiration. The micropipette is positioned perpendicular to the surface of an adherent cell and a constant-rate aspiration pressure is applied. Since the micropipette diameter and the aspiration pressure are our control parameters, we have direct knowledge of the aspiration force, whereas the cell behavior is monitored either in brightfield or interference reflection microscopy. This setup thus allows us to explore a range of geometric parameters, such as projected cell area, adhesion area, or pipette size, as well as dynamical parameters such as the loading rate. We find that cell detachment is a well-defined event occurring at a critical aspiration pressure, and that the detachment force scales with the cell adhesion area (for a given micropipette diameter and loading rate), which defines a critical stress. Taking into account the cell adhesion area, intrinsic parameters of the adhesion bonds, and the loading rate, a minimal model provides an expression for the critical stress that helps rationalize our experimental results. PMID:26200857

  13. Automated micropipette aspiration of single cells.

    PubMed

    Shojaei-Baghini, Ehsan; Zheng, Yi; Sun, Yu

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a system for mechanically characterizing single cells using automated micropipette aspiration. Using vision-based control and position control, the system controls a micromanipulator, a motorized translation stage, and a custom-built pressure system to position a micropipette (4 μm opening) to approach a cell, form a seal, and aspirate the cell into the micropipette for quantifying the cell's elastic and viscoelastic parameters as well as viscosity. Image processing algorithms were developed to provide controllers with real-time visual feedback and to accurately measure cell deformation behavior on line. Experiments on both solid-like and liquid-like cells demonstrated that the system is capable of efficiently performing single-cell micropipette aspiration and has low operator skill requirements.

  14. Evaluation of ventilatory therapy for acid aspiration.

    PubMed

    Flint, L; Gosdin, G; Carrico, C J

    1975-10-01

    Aspiration of hydrochloric acid in experimental animals results in severe, progressive hypoxia which is due to intrapulmonary shunting and depressed cardiac output. This preparation is useful therefore in studying the therapy of hypoxia. Mongrel dogs were subjected to acid aspiration and the effects of several ventilatory patterns on intrapulmonary shunt fractions and lung water accumulation observed. The combination of large tidal volumes (30 c.c. per kilogram) with positive end-expiratory pressure was effective in preventing intrapulmonary shunting and other ventilatory patterns were ineffective. Pulmonary edema uniformly followed acid aspiration and was not affected by ventilatory therapy. When ventilatory therapy was delayed for 4 hours, the progression of shunting apparently was limited, but the existing shunt was not reduced.

  15. Comparison of 19-gauge eXcelon and WANG MW-319 transbronchial aspiration needles.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Li-Han; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Ko, Jen-Sheng; Feng, An-Chen; Chu, Nei-Min

    2016-03-01

    Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) using 19-gauge needles can obtain larger histological specimens for hilar-mediastinal diagnosis. A new 19-gauge eXcelon needle was introduced in Taiwan in July 2012. We prospectively enrolled patients with hilar-mediastinal lesions and pathology results of suspected benign origin or lymphoproliferative processes, to perform TBNA using a 19-gauge eXcelon needle, between July 2012 and December 2012. The results were compared with historical control of TBNA using a WANG MW-319 needle between January 2011 and June 2012. The procedure was performed by the same pulmonologist, and rapid on-site cytologic evaluation was used. The 19-gauge eXcelon needle was used in nine patients with 15 lymph nodes aspirated, with a mean diameter of 23.3 ± 10.7 mm. The mean number of needle passes was 2.7 ± 1.4, with a diagnostic accuracy of 77.8%. The MW-319 needle was used in 12 patients with 18 lymph nodes aspirated, with a mean diameter of 21.3 ± 5.7 mm. The mean number of needle passes was 2.2 ± 0.4, with a diagnostic accuracy of 75.0%. Neither technical nor major clinical complications were noted in either group. We concluded that the 19-gauge eXcelon needle was as safe and effective as the MW-319 needle. A more adequate specimen could be obtained and fewer needle passes were required with the MW-319 needle, although the difference did not reach significance. PMID:27042234

  16. [Clinical Research of EGFR and KRAS Mutation in Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology Specimens of Non-small Cell Lung Carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihui; Wu, Xilan; Ying, Jianming; Li, Junling; Qiu, Tian; Guo, Huiqin; Zhao, Huan; Shan, Ling; Ling, Yun

    2015-04-01

    背景与目的 肺癌患者靶向药物治疗前,需要检测表皮生长因子受体(epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR)和KRAS基因是否突变。本研究旨在探讨细针吸取悬浮液标本检测非小细胞肺癌EGFR、KRAS基因突变的意义。方法 细胞学悬浮液标本,Real-time PCR法检测EGFR 18-21号外显子,KRAS 2号外显子12、13密码子突变。结果 检测85例肺癌转移淋巴结针吸标本,EGFR突变率37.3%,KRAS突变率7.2%。19例组织切片标本,与细胞学结果一致(kappa=1.0)。13例有EGFR突变,临床分期IV期患者, 使用酪氨酸激酶抑制剂治疗,2例完全缓解(complete remission, CR)(16.7%);8例部分缓解(partial remission, PR)(66.7%);3例最佳稳定疾病(stable disease, SD)(25.0%)。结论 细针吸取标本检测EGFR、KRAS基因突变,标本取材容易、简单、方便,具有较高的临床实用性。.

  17. [Patient's Risk Factors for Perioperative Aspiration Pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Isono, Shiroh

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews patient's own risk factors for perioperative aspiration pneumonia. Maintaining the function of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the airway protective reflex, and the oral hygiene are the most important to prevent the pneumonia. The LES is adversely affected by excessive stomach distention, some medication given in perioperative periods, and habitual smoking, as well as pathological status such as esophageal hiatus hernia and achalasia. Postapoplectic patients may have insufficient airway protective reflex including swallowing and laryngeal reflex. It is emphasized that the perioperative oral care is increasing in its importance for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:27004381

  18. Aspiration and tetracycline sclerotherapy of hydroceles.

    PubMed

    Levine, L A; DeWolf, W C

    1988-05-01

    Aspiration and sclerotherapy of hydroceles have been considered an effective outpatient procedure. We report on our experience with modification of this procedure in the treatment of 28 hydroceles. A 10 per cent solution of tetracycline hydrochloride was used as the sclerosant. In this series the mean followup was 15 months and there was an over-all 93 per cent success rate. A single treatment was successful in 75 per cent of the hydroceles. Complications included a hematoma in 2 patients and epididymitis in 1. We consider aspiration and sclerotherapy of hydroceles to be a reasonable alternative to an operation.

  19. [Patient's Risk Factors for Perioperative Aspiration Pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Isono, Shiroh

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews patient's own risk factors for perioperative aspiration pneumonia. Maintaining the function of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the airway protective reflex, and the oral hygiene are the most important to prevent the pneumonia. The LES is adversely affected by excessive stomach distention, some medication given in perioperative periods, and habitual smoking, as well as pathological status such as esophageal hiatus hernia and achalasia. Postapoplectic patients may have insufficient airway protective reflex including swallowing and laryngeal reflex. It is emphasized that the perioperative oral care is increasing in its importance for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia.

  20. Clinical evaluation of cytological diagnosis of nasopharyngeal malignancies.

    PubMed

    Molinari, R; Pilotti, S; Rilke, F

    1978-01-01

    Between 1970 and 1975 cytological examination was applied to the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal malignancies in a series of 216 consecutive patients who had either a tumour in the nasopharynx or clinical signs of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, or who were locally asymptomatic but had enlarged cervical lymph nodes. Smears were taken by introducing a small rough pad of compressed gauze through the mouth into the nasopharynx with an upward-angled forceps. In each case the cytological smear was taken immediately before biopsy; often, a lymph node was removed subsequently. When morphological diagnoses were doubtful and histological findings were at variance with positive cytological findings, the patients were reexamined clinically, and diagnosis was postponed. The case material was made up of 90 nasopharyngeal carcinomas, 24 lymphomas, one malignant melanoma, one adenoid cystic carcinoma and 100 patients without malignancies. Cytological findings from the first smear were positive in 77.8% of nasopharyngeal carcinomas, in 66.6% of lymphomas and in the cases of melanoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. There were no false-positive results. When the nasopharyngeal carcinomas were subdivided into undifferentiated carcinomas of the nasopharyngeal type and squamous-cell carcinomas, cytological findings were positive in ,0% and 73%, respectively. Positivity of histological findings was distributed as follows: 91.7% for malignant lymphomas, 86.6% for undifferentiated carcinomas and 86.6% for squamous-cell carcinomas. With respect to clinical suspicion of malignancy, positive cytological findings were obtained in 50% of clinically occult cases and in 84.6% of patients with obvious malignancies; intermediate figures were found for clinically doubtful (64.3%) and for highly suspicious (77.8%) cases. Cyto-histological concordance was shown in 70% of cases; false-negative histological results were obtained in 7.8% and false-negative cytological results in 16.6% of cases. Combined cyto

  1. The role of intraoperative scrape cytology in vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Inuganti, Renuka Venkata; Mettu, Rami Reddy; Surath, Harsha Vardhan; Surath, Amarnath

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To assess the adequacy of intraoperative scrape cytology during percutaneous vertebroplasty by correlating results with corresponding histopathology. Settings and Design: Vertebroplasty is a procedure increasingly used to treat painful vertebral compression fractures. The history and presentation of osteoporotic fractures are straightforward, but difficulty arises in differentiating infective from neoplastic lesions, especially in cases where the magnetic resonance imaging is equivocal. The procedure involves injection of polymethyl methacrylate (bone cement) into the pathological vertebral body and gives dramatic pain relief. It is indicated in osteoporotic and neoplastic lesions but contraindicated in infections. Hence, intraoperative evaluation of a specimen is essential to aid in the decision of performing vertebroplasty. Subjects and Methods: A total of 128 patients with vertebral lesions underwent core biopsy and scrape cytology from June 2006 to June 2015. Based on the findings of cytological examination, malignant lesions were subjected to vertebroplasty. In lesions with infective etiology, vertebroplasty was abandoned and antibiotic or antituberculous therapy started. Results: The overall diagnostic accuracy of scrape cytology was excellent with 97.58% cases correlating with the final histopathological diagnosis. Specificity was 100%, positive predictive value was 100% and negative predictive value was 33.33%. Conclusion: Scrape cytology is a simple, rapid, accurate cytodiagnostic technique and should be routinely utilized in vertebral lesions for intraoperative consultation and decision making during vertebroplasty. PMID:27298628

  2. CD-ROM transnational training program in cervical cytology (CYTOTRAIN).

    PubMed

    Marsan, C; Coleman, D V; Branca, M; Cochand-Priollet, B; Molinié, V

    2001-01-01

    The Transnational Training Programme in Cervical Cytology (CYTOTRAIN) is a 3-yr project funded by the European Commission to harmonize training and quality standards in cervical screening across the European Union. The aim of the program is to develop new approaches in initial and continuing vocational training, particularly in the area of life-long learning with the aim of meeting national, regional, and local needs. We present a new approach to training in cervical cytology, using an interactive program of cytological images. The method used to prepare the program and the problems encountered are described. The authors have the feeling that giving details of the organizational and management structure adopted for the project implementation might help other pathologists realize more or less similar CD-ROM training programs in their own field of activity.

  3. [Cytological changes in patients with diabetes mellitus and corneal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Raica, D; Turlea, M; Ciocmăreanu, M; Haidar, A; Demian, C; Jinga, F

    1999-01-01

    There were studied 11 diabetic patients, insulin dependents, from 4 were with juvenile diabetes mellitus. These were hospitalized in the Dept. Ophthalm. of the City Hospital of Arad, during 1996-1998, admitted with the diagnosis of corneal ulcer. There were made samples of the gathered secretion from the level of conjunctiva and of the grataj material, gathered at the level of the edges of the corneal ulcer. All samples were stained with the BPT-Drăgan method. There are described cytologic alterations, insisting on details that indicate the severity of the corneal disease. There are taken into consideration cytologic aspects in relationship with the clinical outcome of the disease, pointing out the cellular alterations which announce a nonfavourable prognosis. Cytologic results can improve the diagnosis and they are involved in therapeutic schedule. PMID:10641114

  4. The Astrobiology Space Infrared Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Sandford, S. A.; Roellig, T. L.; ASPIRE Team

    2009-01-01

    The Astrobiology Space Infrared Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission is one of the Origins Probe Mission Concepts that is currently being studied in preparation for inputs to the upcoming Decadal Survey. The mission is a cooled 1-m class telescope optimized to efficiently obtain high quality infrared spectra in the 2.5-36 micron wavelength region. The principal goal of the mission is to detect, identify, and determine the abundance of molecular species, particularly organics, throughout the universe. This will be done by obtaining spectra for a comprehensive range of Solar System, galactic, and extra-galactic environments and the interfaces between them. ASPIRE will be capable of obtaining continuous moderate resolution spectra from 2.5-36 microns at spectral resolutions of about 2500 (2.5-20 microns) and 900 (20-36 microns). ASPIRE will also be able to obtain high resolution spectra (resolutions of 25,000) over selected windows in the 3.1-18 micron region. The ASPIRE suite of instruments provides the ability to study both gas-phase and solid-state materials in space. The PI for the mission is Scott Sandford and major mission partners include NASA-Ames, JPL, and Ball Aerospace.

  5. Aspiring Girls: Great Expectations or Impossible Dreams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gill; Posnett, Carol

    2012-01-01

    This study explores girls' aspirations for their future. The context was an ex-coalmining area where concerns had been raised by the local authority about the levels of girls' achievement. The focus of the research was the views of Year 6 girls as they prepared for their transition to secondary school and Year 11 girls as they prepared for their…

  6. Aspiration pneumonia in children: an iconographic essay*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Antonio; Pessanha, Laís Bastos; Guerra, Luiz Felipe Alves; Martins, Diego Lima Nava; Rondina, Ronaldo Garcia; Silva, Jamine Ronacher Passos

    2015-01-01

    In most cases of aspiration pneumonia in children, the disease is specific to this age group. Clinical and radiological correlation is essential for the diagnosis. The present pictorial essay is aimed at showing typical images of the most common etiologies. PMID:26811557

  7. Another Opinion No Inspiration, No Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Donna W.

    2004-01-01

    School library media specialists are the first to witness the malaise that permeates American schools threatening the future of our society. Believing that personal lack of aspirations, our failure to encourage reading for pure enjoyment, and society's disrespect toward education has left a void in our children that is filled with apathy.

  8. SOME DEVELOPMENTAL ANTECEDENTS OF LEVEL OF ASPIRATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROWNE, DOUGLAS P.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY REPORTS CHILDREARING PRACTICES AND CHILD BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH A SUBSEQUENT LEVEL OF ASPIRATION (LOA). ANTECEDENT MEASURES WERE CHILDREARING ATTITUDES REPORTED BY 379 MOTHERS OF FIVE-YEAR OLDS IN AN EARLIER STUDY. AT THE TIME OF THIS STUDY, THE 83 SUBJECTS WERE 18 YEARS OLD. THEY WERE ADMINISTERED TWO PERSONALITY SCALES AND THE…

  9. Level of Occupational Aspiration: An Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Archibald; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Data from 34,118 American high school students were used to determine patterns of responses to an indicator of level of occupational aspiration (LOA). LOA was found to be a general dimension composed of idealistic-realistic goal-region aspects and of short-and long-term temporal aspects. LOA response patterns were essentially the same for both…

  10. The Gap between Aspiration and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckett, Alan

    2013-01-01

    At the time of the fifth UNESCO international conference on adult education (CONFINTEA V) in Hamburg in 1997, it seemed that a resilient alliance of governments and civil society organizations had been created. This alliance would have the commitment and cooperation needed to pursue the ambitious aspirations captured in the 10 themes of the…

  11. Women's Aspirations for Graduate Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Meng-Jie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates female undergraduates' aspirations for master's and doctoral degree programs in Taiwan's universalized and stratified higher education system. It considers the potential effects of economic prospects, parental attitudes, and gender values. First, graduate education is perceived as a means to enhance one's comparative…

  12. Aspirations, Attributions, and Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, William; McNall, Sidne J.

    Self-evaluation is thought to play a major role in personality and motivation. Preliminary experience with success or failure, levels of aspiration, attributions for performance, and locus of control may all be interrelated factors in human motivation. After receiving success, failure, or no feedback on a concept formation task, subjects (N=90)…

  13. A Forlorn Aspiration? The Story of SUCSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, John

    2003-01-01

    In 1971 the Scottish Universities Council for Studies in Education (SUCSE) was formally constituted as a representative voice of the Scottish university departments of education. One aspiration was to coordinate degree courses across the universities as a distinctive Scottish MEd degree with credit transfer to promote mobility. However, the…

  14. Tracking Student Aspirations: A Work in Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Doug; Nevard, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on a study that is concerned with surveying the aspirations of some students in an Australian Technical and Further Education (TAFE) College and developing strategies to address issues arising from the surveys. The study is essentially a series of surveys, thought it has an action learning aspect because of its developmental…

  15. Occupational Aspirations and Expectations of Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Wendy; Creed, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents across the five years of high school (169 females and 164 males) completed a survey that identified occupational status aspirations and expectations coded into six types-- realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, or conventional--according to the RIASEC model (Holland, 1997). As the focus of the study was to explore…

  16. Methods, Interpretations, and Different Views of Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Paul

    1986-01-01

    The author praises Ellen Brantlinger's article "What Low-Income Parents Want from Schools: A Different View of Aspirations" (v16 n4 1985) and her method. This article is followed by a criticism by Weir and a response to both articles by Brantlinger. (MT)

  17. A Conversation on Mobility, Aspiration and Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Critical Studies in Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    On 11 and 12 October 2010, the National Centre for Student Equity in Higher Education held its second annual "Student Equity in Higher Education National Conference" in Melbourne, Australia. The conference theme was "Aspiration, Mobility, Voice". During the conference the three keynote speakers--Gareth Parry (University of Sheffield, UK), Jane…

  18. Using cytology to increase small animal practice revenue.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Joanne

    2013-11-01

    Diagnostic cytology is a useful, noninvasive test with practical foundations in high-quality medicine and applications to practice building. Cytology will generate practice revenue whether assessed in-house or sent to a clinical pathologist. Thorough in-house evaluation is adequate in some cases, but expert opinion is important in many cases. Specimen slides should at least be reviewed in-house for assessment of cellularity and potential artifacts before submission to a reference laboratory. Reference laboratories also provide special stains and advanced molecular diagnostics to help further characterize many neoplastic processes, search for organisms, identify pigments, and address other important aspects of the lesion. PMID:24144097

  19. Employment, Academic and Extracurricular Contributors to College Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaha, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Jacki

    2010-01-01

    Although there have been many studies on college entrance and aspirations, little attention has been paid to post-high school adults (who enter the workworld rather than college). it is possible that post-high school adults still have college aspirations, and it would be valuable to identify the factors that foster such aspirations. This study…

  20. The "Placetimemattering" of Aspiration in the Blacktown Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore aspiration in contemporary urban locations in the context of almost universal policy initiatives to raise aspirations of young people to participate in higher education. The article is based on a study of how children's career and further education aspirations are shaped over time in five schools in…

  1. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland of adults.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Heffernan, José A; Bárcena, Carmen; Agra, Carolina; Asunción, Alfonso

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that the histology of normal pineal gland may resemble not only pineal tumors but also gliomas, owing to its cellularity which is much greater than that of normal white or gray matter. Our recent experience with a case in which part of a normal gland was submitted for intraoperative consultation, together with the scarcity of cytologic descriptions, led us to perform a cyto-histologic correlation study. In addition to the intraoperative case, we collected five pineal glands from consecutive adult autopsies. During the squash procedure, we often noted the presence of calcified grains. Smears were hypercellular, distributed in tissue fibrillary fragments and as numerous single cells, with crystalline structures. Pineal gland cells (pineocytes) were large, round, epithelioid with ill-defined cytoplasms and moderate nuclear pleomorphism. Spindle cells with greater fibrillary quality were less common. One of the most remarkable findings seen in all cases was the presence of cytoplasmic pigment. Histological evaluation and immunohistochemical staining confirmed that the tissue was normal pineal gland. The histology showed a characteristic lobular aspect and frequent corpora arenacea. The pigment seen cytologically was also encountered in histology and corresponded to lipofuscin. Cytologic features of the pineal gland are peculiar when compared to other normal structures of the central nervous system. These features correlate closely with what is seen on histology. In an adequate clinical context, and in combination with frozen sections, cytology allows a specific recognition of the pineal gland during intraoperative pathologic consultations.

  2. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland on squash preparations.

    PubMed

    Murro, Diana; Alsadi, Alaa; Nag, Sukriti; Arvanitis, Leonidas; Gattuso, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    As primary pineal lesions are extremely rare, many surgical pathologists are unfamiliar with normal pineal cytologic features. We describe cytologic features of the normal pineal gland in patients of varying ages and identify common diagnostic pitfalls. We performed a retrospective review of pineal gland biopsies performed at our institution, where approximately 30,000 surgical specimens are accessioned yearly, for the last 23 years. Only two pineal gland biopsies were found. Although both cases were initially diagnosed as low-grade gliomas on frozen section, the final diagnosis was benign pineal tissue based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry results. Additionally, we performed squash preparations of five normal pineal gland autopsy specimens with Papanicolaou and Diff-Quik® (Dade Behring, Newark, DE) stains. Infant preparations were highly cellular smears composed of numerous, uniform, single cells with indistinct cytoplasm, small round-to-oval nuclei, fine chromatin, and absent nucleoli and calcifications. The vague microfollicular pattern mimicked a pineocytoma and the fine fibrillary background mimicked a glial neoplasm. Young adult smears were similar; however, microcalcifications were present with fewer background single cells. Older patients had much less cellular smears composed of small clusters of cells with fusiform-to-spindle nuclei, a fine chromatin pattern, and indistinct cytoplasmic borders. There were fewer background single cells and more microcalcifications. The cytologic features of the native pineal gland vary with age. Normal pineal tissue can be confused with a pineocytoma or low-grade glioma. Familiarity with normal pineal gland cytological features will help to avoid a potential misdiagnosis.

  3. Cytological and molecular characterization of three gametoclones of citrus clementina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidizat...

  4. Intraoperative Squash Cytologic Features of Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Nasit, Jitendra; Vaghsiya, Viren; Hiryur, Srilaxmi; Patel, Smita

    2016-01-01

    Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is a low grade (WHO Grade I) tumor, usually seen in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and commonly occurs at a lateral ventricular location. Intraoperative squash cytologic features can help in differentiating SEGA from gemistocytic astrocytoma (GA), giant cell glioblastoma and ependymoma, in proper clinical context and radiological findings, which may alter the surgical management. Here, we present a case of SEGA with squash cytologic findings and a review of cytology findings of SEGA presently available in the literature. Loose cohesive clusters of large polygonal cells containing an eccentric nucleus, evenly distributed granular chromatin, distinct to prominent nucleoli, and moderate to the abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm in a hair-like fibrillar background are the key cytologic features of SEGA. Other important features are moderate anisonucleosis and frequent binucleation and multinucleation. The absence of mitoses, necrosis, and vascular endothelial proliferation are important negative features. Other consistent features are cellular smears, few dispersed cells, few spindly strap-like cells, rare intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusion, and perivascular pseudorosettes. PMID:27013816

  5. Intraoperative Squash Cytologic Features of Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Nasit, Jitendra; Vaghsiya, Viren; Hiryur, Srilaxmi; Patel, Smita

    2016-01-01

    Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is a low grade (WHO Grade I) tumor, usually seen in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and commonly occurs at a lateral ventricular location. Intraoperative squash cytologic features can help in differentiating SEGA from gemistocytic astrocytoma (GA), giant cell glioblastoma and ependymoma, in proper clinical context and radiological findings, which may alter the surgical management. Here, we present a case of SEGA with squash cytologic findings and a review of cytology findings of SEGA presently available in the literature. Loose cohesive clusters of large polygonal cells containing an eccentric nucleus, evenly distributed granular chromatin, distinct to prominent nucleoli, and moderate to the abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm in a hair-like fibrillar background are the key cytologic features of SEGA. Other important features are moderate anisonucleosis and frequent binucleation and multinucleation. The absence of mitoses, necrosis, and vascular endothelial proliferation are important negative features. Other consistent features are cellular smears, few dispersed cells, few spindly strap-like cells, rare intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusion, and perivascular pseudorosettes. PMID:27013816

  6. Cytological characterization of anther development in Panax ginseng Meyer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Jin; Jang, Moon-Gi; Zhu, Lu; Silva, Jeniffer; Zhu, Xiaolei; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Yang, Deok-Chun; Zhang, Dabing

    2016-07-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng), a valued medicinal herb, is a slow-growing plant that flowers after 3 years of growth with the formation of a solitary terminal umbel inflorescence. However, little is known about cytological events during ginseng reproduction, such as the development of the male organ, the stamen. To better understand the mechanism controlling ginseng male reproductive development, here, we investigated the inflorescence and flower structure of ginseng. Moreover, we performed cytological analysis of anther morphogenesis and showed the common and specialized cytological events including the formation of four concentric cell layers surrounding male reproductive cells followed by subsequent cell differentiation and degeneration of tapetal cells, as well as the formation of mature pollen grains via meiosis and mitosis during ginseng anther development. Particularly, our transverse section and microscopic observations showed that the ginseng tapetal layer exhibits obvious nonsynchronous cell division evidenced by the observation of one or two tapetal layers frequently observed in one anther lobe, suggesting the unique control of cell division. To facilitate the future study on ginseng male reproduction, we grouped the anther development into 10 developmental stages according to the characterized cytological events.

  7. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., negative or within normal limits. (2) Infection other than Human Papillomavirus (HPV) (e.g., Trichomonas... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section 493.945 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  8. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... limits. (2) Infection other than Human Papillomavirus (HPV) (e.g., Trichomonas vaginalis, changes or... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section 493.945 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  9. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... limits. (2) Infection other than Human Papillomavirus (HPV) (e.g., Trichomonas vaginalis, changes or... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section 493.945 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  10. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... limits. (2) Infection other than Human Papillomavirus (HPV) (e.g., Trichomonas vaginalis, changes or... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section 493.945 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  11. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing by Specialty and... participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap smears... enrolled in a proficiency testing program approved by CMS by January 1, 1995, if available in the State...

  12. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing by Specialty and... participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap smears... enrolled in a proficiency testing program approved by CMS by January 1, 1995, if available in the State...

  13. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing by Specialty and... participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap smears... enrolled in a proficiency testing program approved by CMS by January 1, 1995, if available in the State...

  14. Dysphagia, dystussia, and aspiration pneumonia in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Ebihara, Satoru; Sekiya, Hideki; Miyagi, Midori; Ebihara, Takae; Okazaki, Tatsuma

    2016-03-01

    Despite the development and wide distribution of guidelines for pneumonia, death from pneumonia is increasing due to population aging. Conventionally, aspiration pneumonia was mainly thought to be one of the infectious diseases. However, we have proven that chronic repeated aspiration of a small amount of sterile material can cause the usual type of aspiration pneumonia in mouse lung. Moreover, chronic repeated aspiration of small amounts induced chronic inflammation in both frail elderly people and mouse lung. These observations suggest the need for a paradigm shift of the treatment for pneumonia in the elderly. Since aspiration pneumonia is fundamentally based on dysphagia, we should shift the therapy for aspiration pneumonia from pathogen-oriented therapy to function-oriented therapy. Function-oriented therapy in aspiration pneumonia means therapy focusing on slowing or reversing the functional decline that occurs as part of the aging process, such as "dementia → dysphagia → dystussia → atussia → silent aspiration". Atussia is ultimate dysfunction of cough physiology, and aspiration with atussia is called silent aspiration, which leads to the development of life-threatening aspiration pneumonia. Research pursuing effective strategies to restore function in the elderly is warranted in order to decrease pneumonia deaths in elderly people.

  15. Spatially correlated heterogeneous aspirations to enhance network reciprocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Nakata, Makoto; Hagishima, Aya; Ikegaya, Naoki

    2012-02-01

    Perc & Wang demonstrated that aspiring to be the fittest under conditions of pairwise strategy updating enhances network reciprocity in structured populations playing 2×2 Prisoner's Dilemma games (Z. Wang, M. Perc, Aspiring to the fittest and promoted of cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma game, Physical Review E 82 (2010) 021115; M. Perc, Z. Wang, Heterogeneous aspiration promotes cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma game, PLOS one 5 (12) (2010) e15117). Through numerical simulations, this paper shows that network reciprocity is even greater if heterogeneous aspirations are imposed. We also suggest why heterogeneous aspiration fosters network reciprocity. It distributes strategy updating speed among agents in a manner that fortifies the initially allocated cooperators' clusters against invasion. This finding prompted us to further enhance the usual heterogeneous aspiration cases for heterogeneous network topologies. We find that a negative correlation between degree and aspiration level does extend cooperation among heterogeneously structured agents.

  16. Slow-pull and different conventional suction techniques in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of pancreatic solid lesions using 22-gauge needles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia-Ying; Ding, Qing-Yu; Lv, Yang; Guo, Wen; Zhi, Fa-Chao; Liu, Si-De; Cheng, Tian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the cytological diagnostic capacity and sample quality of the slow-pull technique and compare them with different suction techniques. METHODS From July 2010 to December 2015, 102 patients with pancreatic solid lesions who underwent endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) with 22-gauge needles were retrospectively evaluated. EUS-FNA diagnosis was based on a cytological examination, and final diagnosis was based on a comprehensive standard of cytological diagnosis, surgical pathology and clinical or imaging follow-up. Cytological specimens were characterized for cellularity and blood contamination. The cytological diagnostic capacity and sample quality of the slow-pull technique and suction techniques with 5-mL/10-mL/20-mL syringes were analyzed. RESULTS Of all of the EUS-FNA procedures, the slow-pull technique and suction techniques with 5-mL/10-mL/20-mL syringes were used in 31, 19, 34 and 18 procedures, respectively. There were significant differences between these four suction techniques in terms of cytological diagnostic accuracy (90.3% vs 63.2% vs 58.8% vs 55.6%, P = 0.019), sensitivity (88.2% vs 41.7% vs 40.0% vs 36.4%, P = 0.009) and blood contamination (score ≥ 2 for 29.0% vs 52.6% vs 70.6% vs 72.2%, P = 0.003). The accuracy and sensitivity of the slow-pull technique were significantly higher than those of the suction techniques using 5-mL (P = 0.03, P = 0.014), 10-mL (P = 0.005; P = 0.006) and 20-mL syringes (P = 0.01, P = 0.01). Blood contamination was significantly lower in the slow-pull technique than in the suction techniques with 10-mL (P = 0.001) and 20-mL syringes (P = 0.007). CONCLUSION The slow-pull technique may increase the cytological diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity with slight blood contamination during EUS-FNA when using 22-gauge needles for solid pancreatic masses.

  17. Hybrid Intercalated Duct Lesion of the Parotid: Diagnostic Challenges of a Recently Described Entity with Fine Needle Aspiration Findings.

    PubMed

    Mok, Yingting; Pang, Yin Huei; Teh, Ming; Petersson, Fredrik

    2016-06-01

    Intercalated duct lesions (IDL) of the salivary glands are recently described, and encompass both hyperplasia and benign neoplasms that remain incompletely understood. IDLs have been linked to various benign and low-grade malignant salivary gland neoplasms. We herein present a case of a 77 year old woman with an IDL of the parotid composed of both a hyperplastic and an adenomatous component and report, for the first time, the fine needle aspiration findings of such a lesion. This case illustrates the morphologic spectrum of an IDL, as well as challenges in rendering an accurate cytological and histologic diagnosis. The potential diagnostic pitfalls presented by the hybrid pattern of this lesion are also discussed. PMID:26477034

  18. CT-Guided Percutaneous Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Inferior Vena Cava Wall: A Posterior Coaxial Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kos, Sebastian Bilecen, Deniz; Baumhoer, Daniel; Guillaume, Nicolas; Jacob, Augustinus L.

    2010-02-15

    A 72-year-old man was referred to our department with an incidentally diagnosed bronchogenic carcinoma of the right upper lobe. Positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (PET-CT) revealed an unexpected hot spot in the ventral wall of the infrarenal segment of the inferior vena cava (IVC). Diagnostic biopsy of this lesion was performed under CT guidance with semiautomated 20G fine-needle aspiration (FNA) through a 19G coaxial needle. Cytology revealed few carcinoma cells, which led to the remarkable diagnosis of a distant metastasis to the IVC wall. Both the immediate postinterventional CT control and the further surveillance period of the patient were unremarkable; in particular, no signs of bleeding complications were detected. We conclude that coaxial FNA of an IVC wall lesion is technically feasible and may even help diagnose distant metastasis.

  19. Pancreatic Hepatoid Carcinoma Mimicking a Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasm: A Challenging Case on Endoscopic Ultrasound-guided Fine-needle Aspiration.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Yutaka; Kato, Hironari; Matsumoto, Kazuyuki; Harada, Ryo; Oda, Shinsuke; Fushimi, Soichiro; Mizukawa, Shou; Yabe, Shuntaro; Uchida, Daisuke; Seki, Hiroyuki; Tomoda, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Horiguchi, Shigeru; Tsutsumi, Koichiro; Yagi, Takahito; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    A 59-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for treatment of a 45 mm pancreatic mass found during a medical examination. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology showed polygonal cells with pseudopapillary structures. The tumor cells were positive for nuclear/cytoplasmic β-catenin and CD10, and negative for chromogranin A. After a tentative diagnosis of a solid pseudopapillary neoplasm, middle pancreatectomy was performed. Histologically, polygonal cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm formed in the trabeculae and were immunohistochemically positive for HepPar1 and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II. The tumor was finally diagnosed to be pancreatic hepatoid carcinoma. No recurrence occurred for 12 months, even without adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:27580541

  20. Hybrid Intercalated Duct Lesion of the Parotid: Diagnostic Challenges of a Recently Described Entity with Fine Needle Aspiration Findings.

    PubMed

    Mok, Yingting; Pang, Yin Huei; Teh, Ming; Petersson, Fredrik

    2016-06-01

    Intercalated duct lesions (IDL) of the salivary glands are recently described, and encompass both hyperplasia and benign neoplasms that remain incompletely understood. IDLs have been linked to various benign and low-grade malignant salivary gland neoplasms. We herein present a case of a 77 year old woman with an IDL of the parotid composed of both a hyperplastic and an adenomatous component and report, for the first time, the fine needle aspiration findings of such a lesion. This case illustrates the morphologic spectrum of an IDL, as well as challenges in rendering an accurate cytological and histologic diagnosis. The potential diagnostic pitfalls presented by the hybrid pattern of this lesion are also discussed.

  1. Fine needle aspiration of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Shintani, S; Matsuura, H; Hasegawa, Y

    1997-08-01

    The usefulness of fine needle aspiration (FNA) as a preoperative diagnostic procedure was studied in 43 patients with salivary gland tumors. Nine of the tumors were malignant and 34 benign. The diagnostic sensitivity of FNA was 88.9% (8/9), the specificity 94.1% (32/34) and the accuracy 93.0% (40/43). These results indicate that FNA is a highly sensitive and specific screening procedure.

  2. Skin resurfacing using an ultrasonic surgical aspirator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawes, Kate; Thomsen, Sharon L.; Nolan, Kathy; Carr, Jan; Kennedy, Jenifer S.

    1998-07-01

    The ultrasonic aspirator is essentially a vibrating tip whose ultrasonic frequencies fragment soft tissues, before aspirating it away from the surgical field. In the case of skin, the softer epidermis absorbs the vibrating tip's impact force so as to fragment it, whereas the more elastic and collagenous dermis reflects it. Understanding this, a chronic study to compare a skin resurfacing laser (Coherent, Palo Alto, CA) and an ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA) (Valleylab Inc., Boulder, CO) as a skin resurfacing tool was performed using an in-vivo pigmented porcine model. Gross and histopathologic evaluations were made of the lesions removed at 0, 1, 3, 6, 11, 21, and 56 days post procedure. The laser parameters utilized constant power (60 W) and spot size but the number of passes was varied from 1 to 4 passes. This simulated typical minimal to maximal clinical laser treatments. CUSA parameters were then chosen so as to imitate the various laser passes. On sacrifice gross evaluations showed similar levels of healing, using lesion color and scab formation as the method of evaluation. Histological analysis showed evidence of thermal effects with both devices and that some but not all CUSA settings were comparable to the laser. In short, ultrasonic technology may have the potential to provide a controlled method of selectively removing the epidermal skin layer during resurfacing.

  3. Percutaneous gallbladder aspiration for acute cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Rassameehiran, Supannee; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Early cholecystectomy for patients with acute cholecystitis may not be possible in some clinical settings. Percutaneous gallbladder aspiration (PGBA) offers an alternative approach, but the benefits and risks of this procedure are unclear. We synthesized data on the outcomes of PGBA in acute cholecystitis patients using data sources from online databases, including MEDLINE and EMBASE, and bibliographies of included studies from January 2000 through December 2015. Two reviewers independently reviewed and critiqued the quality of each study. Seven eligible studies met our criteria. The success rates in single PGBA and repetitive PGBA (2–4 times) were 50% to 93% and 76% to 96%, respectively. Complication rates were 0% to 8% and were unrelated to the size of needle gauge used for aspiration and the number of aspirations. Salvage percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) and urgent surgery were required in 0% to 43% of patients and 0% to 4% of patients, respectively. Two studies with antibiotic instillation had clinical success rates of 95% and 96%. In conclusion, repetitive PGBA combined with antibiotic instillation and salvage PC are useful alternatives to early cholecystectomy in patients with acute cholecystitis. PMID:27695167

  4. Percutaneous gallbladder aspiration for acute cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Rassameehiran, Supannee; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Early cholecystectomy for patients with acute cholecystitis may not be possible in some clinical settings. Percutaneous gallbladder aspiration (PGBA) offers an alternative approach, but the benefits and risks of this procedure are unclear. We synthesized data on the outcomes of PGBA in acute cholecystitis patients using data sources from online databases, including MEDLINE and EMBASE, and bibliographies of included studies from January 2000 through December 2015. Two reviewers independently reviewed and critiqued the quality of each study. Seven eligible studies met our criteria. The success rates in single PGBA and repetitive PGBA (2–4 times) were 50% to 93% and 76% to 96%, respectively. Complication rates were 0% to 8% and were unrelated to the size of needle gauge used for aspiration and the number of aspirations. Salvage percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) and urgent surgery were required in 0% to 43% of patients and 0% to 4% of patients, respectively. Two studies with antibiotic instillation had clinical success rates of 95% and 96%. In conclusion, repetitive PGBA combined with antibiotic instillation and salvage PC are useful alternatives to early cholecystectomy in patients with acute cholecystitis.

  5. Immunocytochemistry versus nucleic acid amplification in fine needle aspirates and tissues of extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Madhu Mati; Budhwar, Puja; Jain, Amita

    2012-01-01

    Background: Immunocytochemistry (ICC) is an established routine diagnostic adjunct to cytology and histology for tumor diagnosis but has received little attention for diagnosis of tuberculosis. Aims: To have an objective method of direct visualization of mycobacteria or their products in clinical extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) specimens, immunocytochemical localization of M. tuberculosis antigen by staining with species specific monoclonal antibody to 38-kDa antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Materials and Methods: Immunostaining with specific monoclonal antibody to 38-kDa antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was done in fresh and archival fine needle aspirates and tissue granulomata of 302 cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and was compared with the molecular diagnostic i.e., nucleic amplification and conventional [Cytomorphology, Ziehl Neelsen (ZN) staining and culture] tests and 386 controls. Results: Diagnostic indices by Bayesian analysis for all types of archival and fresh material varied from 64 to 76% in nucleic acid amplification (NAA) and 96 to 98% in ICC. There was no significant difference in the diagnostic indices of ZN staining and/ or ICC in fresh or archival material whereas the sensitivity of NAA differed significantly in fresh versus archival material both in cytology (71.4% vs 52.1%) and histology (51.1% vs 38.8%). ICC can be easily used on archival smears and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections with almost equal sensitivity and specificity as with fresh material, in contrast to NAA which showed significant difference in test results on archival and fresh material. Conclusions: Low detection sensitivity of MTB DNA in archival material from known tuberculous cases showed the limitation of in-house NAA-based molecular diagnosis. ICC was found to be sensitive, specific and a better technique than NAA and can be used as an adjunct to conventional morphology and ZN staining for the diagnosis of EPTB in tissue

  6. Impact of Endobronchial Ultrasound Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration on Diagnostic Yield of Bronchoscopy in Patients with Mediastinal Lymph Node Enlargement.

    PubMed

    Osinka, K; Zielińska-Krawczyk, M; Korczyński, P; Górnicka, B; Krenke, R

    2016-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) had an enormous impact on the current advancement in diagnostic bronchoscopy. The aims of the present study were: (1) to evaluate the added value of EBUS-TBNA to routine diagnostic bronchoscopy performed in patients with mediastinal lymph node enlargement and (2) to identify factors that affect the diagnostic yield of EBUS-TBNA. We retrospectively analyzed 712 EBUS-TBNA procedures out of the 4081 bronchoscopies performed in the years 2009-2014. The number of EBUS-TBNA procedures increased from 61 (8.8 % of all bronchoscopies) in 2009 to 160 (21.4 %) in 2014. In 625 (87.8 %) patients adequate cytological material was obtained. Based on cytological examination of EBUS-TBNA aspirates, specific diagnosis was made in 367 (51.5 %) patients. The forceps biopsy of endobronchial lesions provided specific diagnosis in only 204 (28.6 %) patients. The percentage of patients with EBUS-TBNA based diagnosis increased steadily from 34.4 % in 2009 to 65.0 % in 2014 (p < 0.0001). The median lymph node diameter in patients with positive EBUS-TBNA findings was 20 (IQR 15-30) mm and was significantly larger than that in patients with negative EBUS-TBNA results (15 (IQR 10-20) mm, p = 0.0001). The highest diagnostic yield (78.5 %) was found in patients with lymph node dimension between 31 mm and 40 mm. We conclude that EBUS-TBNA is a valuable diagnostic method in an unselected group of patients with mediastinal lymph node enlargement. The percentage of positive EBUS-TBNA diagnoses is related to lymph node dimensions. The overall efficacy of EBUS-TBNA improves with increasing years of experience. PMID:26987324

  7. The bone marrow aspirate and biopsy in the diagnosis of unsuspected nonhematologic malignancy: A clinical study of 19 cases

    PubMed Central

    Ozkalemkas, Fahir; Ali, Rıdvan; Ozkocaman, Vildan; Ozcelik, Tulay; Ozan, Ulku; Ozturk, Hulya; Kurt, Ender; Evrensel, Turkkan; Yerci, Omer; Tunali, Ahmet

    2005-01-01

    Background Although bone marrow metastases can be found commonly in some malignant tumors, diagnosing a nonhematologic malignancy from marrow is not a usual event. Methods To underscore the value of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy as a short cut in establishing a diagnosis for disseminated tumors, we reviewed 19 patients with nonhematologic malignancies who initially had diagnosis from bone marrow. Results The main indications for bone marrow examination were microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA), leukoerythroblastosis (LEB) and unexplained cytopenias. Bone marrow aspiration was not diagnostic due to dry tap or inadequate material in 6 cases. Biopsy results were parallel to the cytological ones in all cases except one; however a meticulous second examination of the biopsy confirmed the cytologic diagnosis in this patient too. The most common histologic subtype was adenocarcinoma, and after all the clinical and laboratory evaluations, the primary focus was disclosed definitively in ten patients (5 stomach, 3 prostate, 1 lung, 1 muscle) and probably in four patients (3 gastrointestinal tract, 1 lung). All work up failed in five patients and these cases were classified as tumor of unknown origin (TUO). Conclusion Our series showed that anemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated red cell distribution width (RDW) and hypoproteinemia formed a uniform tetrad in patients with disseminated tumors that were diagnosed via bone marrow examination. The prognosis of patients was very poor and survivals were only a few days or weeks (except for 4 patients whose survivals were longer). We concluded that MAHA, LEB and unexplained cytopenias are strong indicators of the necessity of bone marrow examination. Because of the very short survival of many patients, all investigational procedures should be judged in view of their rationality, and should be focused on treatable primary tumors. PMID:16262899

  8. The importance of team work of cytologist and surgeon in preoperative diagnosis of intraoral minor salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Ostović, Karmen Trutin; Luksić, Ivica; Virag, Miso; Macan, Darko; Müllers, Danko; Manojlović, Spomenka

    2012-11-01

    Tumours arising from oral minor salivary glands may exhibit an overlap of clinical and morphological features that may produce diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. The aim of this study is to asses the value of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in differentiation of benign and malignant tumours and to render a specific diagnosis. We evaluated the team work of surgeon and cytologist to improve diagnostic accuracy. Two steps are important for accuracy: sampling aspirate that should be done together by surgeon and cytologist and cytological microscopic analysis of the smears that should be performed by an experienced cytologist. The study included 132 patients with intraoral minor salivary gland tumours between 2002 and 2011. Adequate material was obtained from 121 (91.7%) patients. FNAC was usually performed by cytologist in a team with maxillofacial surgeon at cytology department that is more convenient for preparing the samples and especially for ROSE procedure (rapid-on site evaluation) of smears. In such a way the cytologist checked the adequacy of samples and decided whether some ancillary techniques should be used and therefore repeat FNAC. A total of 82 patients underwent surgery, 40 with malignant and 42 with benign tumours. Preoperative cytological diagnoses were compared with histopathological ones using histopathology as a gold standard. The most common benign tumour was pleomorphic adenoma and among malignant tumours adenoid cystic carcinoma. The most commonly affected site was the palate. The team work of surgeon and cytologist achieved specificity of 95.1%, sensitivity of 97.6% and diagnostic accuracy of 96.3%. We can conclude that although subclassification of some tumour types of salivary glands remains poor, FNAC is invaluable in patient triage and therefore should be considered in the first line investigations of these lesions by the cytologist and surgeon.

  9. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above.

    PubMed

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥ 30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30-65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected more ≥ CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥ CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results (positive test results without ≥ CIN3) varied between 3.3% with cytology and 14.9% with cobas. All HPV assays led to significantly more false-positive tests, whereas compared to HC2 cobas and CLART were associated with a significantly higher and APTIMA with a significantly lower proportion. Detection of CIN1 was particularly increased for the three DNA assays. With APTIMA combined with cytological triage, about 20% more women were referred for colposcopy than with cytology screening. With the three DNA assays, the increase was ≥ 50%. The number of women with repeated testing was twice as high with APTIMA and almost five times as high with cobas compared to cytology. To our knowledge, Horizon was the only study set in routine practice that compared more than two HPV assays in the same women while also ascertaining the histological status of women with normal cytology/HPV-positive test results. HPV-based screening of Danish women aged 30-65 detected more high-grade CIN but decreased the screening specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:26789267

  10. Solitary fibrous tumor of the lung: a case report with a study of the aspiration biopsy, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and autopsy findings.

    PubMed

    Baliga, Mithra; Flowers, Rhyne; Heard, Ken; Siddiqi, Anwer; Akhtar, Israh

    2007-04-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm of ubiquitous location. In addition to its classic presentation as a pleural-based mass, it can be encountered in a variety of other sites. A pleural-based lung lesion can be easily accessed by radiologic guidance for cytologic study. Several reports have described the cytologic findings of SFT at various locations, including the lung. However, diagnostic difficulties can occur due to unusual clinical, radiologic, atypical cytomorphologic, and histologic features. We describe a case of intrapulmonary SFT in which a false-positive malignant diagnosis was rendered on fine-needle aspiration biopsy and concurrent surgical core biopsy prior to radiofrequency ablation. The patient died of procedural complications, and an autopsy was performed. Retrospective study of the case, especially correlation of cytologic, histologic, autopsy findings, and immunohistochemistry results were helpful in correctly diagnosing the case as SFT. We are reporting this case with emphasis on avoiding diagnostic pitfalls by being familiar with the accepted cytohistologic features and appropriate immunohistochemical results.

  11. BRAF p.Val600Glu (V600E) mutation detection in thyroid fine needle aspiration cell block samples: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Connull; Grieu-Iacopetta, Fabienne; Richter, Anna; Platten, Michael; Murray, Jack; Frost, Felicity A; Amanuel, Benhur; Kumarasinghe, M Priyanthi

    2015-08-01

    Assessing BRAF mutation status in thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology samples by both immunohistochemistry (IHC) and molecular methods has been documented in recent literature. We aim to highlight issues relating to quality and quantity of cellular material and DNA extracted from cell block samples.BRAF mutation status was assessed by both molecular and IHC methods in cell block material from thyroid FNA samples over a range of diagnostic categories, and correlated with available follow-up resection specimens.Of 39 samples there were 14 cases with 'inconclusive' cytology (Bethesda diagnostic categories 3, 4 or 5) and 25 cases with malignant cytology. Follow-up information was available in 38 of 39 cases and resection material for comparison in 18 of 39 case. Detection of BRAF mutation in cell block samples by combined molecular and IHC methods showed 100% specificity and 71.4% sensitivity compared to subsequent histologically confirmed BRAF mutated papillary thyroid carcinoma. IHC detected BRAF mutation in two (8.2%) cases which were negative by molecular methods and confirmed mutation positive by IHC and molecular methods on subsequent histology. Low extracted DNA concentration did not appear to preclude detection of BRAF mutation, although cell blocks with lower tumour cell content were over-represented in cases that were wild-type on FNA material and BRAF mutant on subsequent histology.BRAF mutation detection in cell block material is feasible and highly specific for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Best results are obtained by a combination of molecular and IHC methods.

  12. Accuracy of diagnosis of solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas on fine needle aspiration: A multi-institution experience of ten cases

    PubMed Central

    Jahangir, Sidra; Loya, Asif; Siddiqui, Momin T.; Akhter, Noreen; Yusuf, Muhammed Aasim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas (SPTP) is a neoplasm of uncertain origin and indolent biologic behavior with distinctive morphological features occurring predominantly in young women. This tumor has an excellent prognosis compared to neuroendocrine and acinar cell carcinoma, which are close differential diagnoses based on morphology, hence making it crucial to diagnose SPTP correctly. Objectives: To discuss the cytomorphological features of 10 cases of SPTP reported in two institutions and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology in establishing the diagnosis of SPTP. Methods: Ten diagnosed cases of SPTP were retrieved from the computerized endoscopy and pathology databases of our two tertiary care institutions. Nine patients had subsequent histological follow-up available. Eight patients underwent EUS-FNA while one patient each had ultrasound and computed tomography-guided FNA. The rapid on-site evaluation was carried out in all 10 cases, and additional material was retained for cell block preparation. Immunohistochemical (IHC) stains ranging from synaptophysin, progesterone receptor, chromogranin, β-catenin, CD10, and NSE were applied on cell blocks. Histological sections of all resected specimens were reviewed, and findings were correlated with those obtained by FNA. Results: Adequate material was obtained in all ten cases. IHC stains helped to confirm the cytological impression of SPTP. Histological examination of resection specimens, available in 9/10 cases, confirmed the cytological diagnosis. Conclusions: FNA particularly that obtained with EUS guidance is an effective tool in the accurate diagnosis of SPTP. PMID:26884802

  13. Lung adenocarcinoma and its thyroid metastasis characterized on fine-needle aspirates by cytomorphology, immunocytochemistry, and next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Bellevicine, Claudio; Vigliar, Elena; Malapelle, Umberto; Carelli, Emanuele; Fiorelli, Alfonso; Vicidomini, Giovanni; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Santini, Mario; Troncone, Giancarlo

    2015-07-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) share a number of microscopic and immunophenotypical features. Thus, patients presenting with thyroid and lung synchronous neoplasms may be difficult on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples to define the site of origin of the malignancy. In the case reported here, inherent to a 57-years-old man presenting with a right lung mass and a large (44 mm) thyroid nodule, an integrated cytological, immunocytochemical and molecular approach enabled to clarify the primary nature of the neoplasm. FNA cytology showed in both sites papillary structures and nuclear changes reminiscent of PTC. The lung origin of the neoplasm was suggested on cell-block immunocytochemistry showing thyroid transcription factor-1 positive and PAX8 and TGB negative neoplastic cells. Next generation sequencing performed on the Ion Torrent platforms by the Ion Ampliseq Colon and Lung Cancer panel showed a similar genomic profile in both neoplastic sites with a concurrent KRAS G12C mutation. An integrated approach on FNA biospecimen is safe, cost effective, and may be coupled effectively with modern ancillary molecular techniques that may be useful, besides their predictive value, as a adjunctive diagnostic tool when the synchronous occurrence of lesions featuring overlapping morphologies challenge the cytopathologist.

  14. Secondary tumors of the pancreas diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration: a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Waters, Lindsay; Si, Quisheng; Caraway, Nancy; Mody, Dina; Staerkel, Gregg; Sneige, Nour

    2014-09-01

    Determining whether a pancreatic mass is a primary or secondary neoplasm is necessary for appropriate treatment. We reviewed our experience using endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for diagnosis of pancreatic tumors to identify clinical and cytopathologic characteristics of metastatic disease. We reviewed all cases of tumors metastatic to the pancreas evaluated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and The Methodist Hospital in Houston, Texas during the period from 2002 to 2012. The review included cytologic specimens, clinical history, radiologic findings, primary tumor type, and clinical follow-up. We identified 66 patients with disease metastatic to the pancreas for which cytologic material was available: 38 (58%) men and 28 (42%) women, with an average age of 63 years (range, 40-89 years). Most metastases (98%) were single lesions, and nearly half were located in the head of the pancreas (30/66). The most common site of origin for these metastases was kidney (27 [41%] cases). Follow-up information was available for 65 (98%) patients, and duration of follow-up ranged from <1 to 10 years (mean, 2.3 years). Thirty-three patients (50%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up contact. Of the 25 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, clear cell type, 19 (76%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up. It was concluded that metastases may mimic primary pancreatic carcinomas both clinically and cytologically. Ancillary studies in conjunction with clinical history are necessary for the accurate diagnosis of FNAs of secondary pancreatic tumors. PMID:24554612

  15. Role of radiological-assisted cytology in intra-abdominal lesions: A 3 years’ experience in a tertiary care center

    PubMed Central

    Dosi, Shilpi; Gupta, Garima; Kawatra, Mallika; Chakrabarti, Preeti Rihal; Agrawal, Purti; Jain, Mukul Raj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) with assistance of radiological tools such as ultrasonography (USG) and computed tomography (CT) is an effective and safe technique for diagnosing intra-abdominal neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions. Aims and Objectives: (1) To assess the utility of image-guided cytology in the diagnosis of intra-abdominal lesions. (2) To categorize various intra-abdominal lesions according to their site of occurrence and study their cytomorphological features. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Pathology between January 2012 and January 2015. A total of 174 cases with intra-abdominal lesions were included in the study. Results: In our study, diagnostic yield was 84.5%. The mean age was found to be 52 years with M: F ratio 1.1:1. We found that 92 (52.87%) cases were in hepatobiliary region, 33 (18.96%) in adnexa, 13 (7.47%) in pancreatic-ampullary region, 14 (8.04%) in unknown abdominal lumps, 8 (4.6%) in lymph nodes, 6 (3.4%) in renal, 5 (2.87%) in retroperitoneum, 2 (1.1%) in omental nodules, and 1 (0.5%) in splenic mass. Of total 174 cases, 106 (61%) cases were malignant, 10 (5.7%) benign, 16 (9.1%) inflammatory, 27 (15.5%) inadequate, and 15 (8.7%) suspicious for malignancy. Conclusion: Ultrasound and CT-guided FNA cytology had a significant role in diagnosis of palpable and nonpalpable intra-abdominal lesions. Being a relatively quick and safe method, it also avoids invasive diagnostic procedures. PMID:27127738

  16. A cytopathological approach to diagnosing intrathoracic lymphadenopathy using aspirates obtained by the transbronchial needle aspiration method.

    PubMed

    Özyalvaçlı, Gülzade; Yaşar, Zehra; Çetinkaya, Erdoğan

    2016-03-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is an effective, safe and cost-effective technique that allows for sampling of the mediastinal lymph node and peribronchial lesions. It is used in bronchogenic carcinoma staging, peribronchial and submucosal lesions, diagnosis of sarcoidosis and tuberculosis, differentiating submucosal invasion, and in diagnosing mediastinal masses. From our experience at the University of Abant Izzet Baysal and from a review of the literature, we discuss the adequacy and the differential diagnosis of aspiration material obtained by TBNA and cytopathological-histopathological evaluation in intrathoracic lymphadenopathies to increase the success rate of the TBNA method. PMID:27266286

  17. Fine needle aspiration of salivary gland masses in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Michelow, Pam; Dezube, Bruce J; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-08-01

    Salivary gland disease is an important manifestation of HIV-infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytologic findings of salivary gland fine needle aspiration (FNA) in South African human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. A retrospective review was performed on confirmed HIV-positive patients who underwent FNA of various body sites, including salivary glands, over a 5-year period. There were 495 (14.1%) salivary gland FNAs out of a total of 3,501 HIV-positive patients. This included 260 (52.5%) parotid, 226 (45.7%) submandibular, 2 (0.4%) sublingual, and 7 (1.4%) specimens labeled as a salivary gland aspirate, exact site not provided. Patients were of average age 34 years (range 9 months to 63 years) with a female: male ratio of 1:0.6. There were 37 (7.5%) inadequate FNAs and 22 (4.4%) that contained normal gland constituents only. Most diagnoses were benign and comprised 168 (33.9%) reactive lymphadenopathy, 115 (23.2%) benign lymphoepithelial cysts, 62 (12.5%) mycobacterial infections, and 52 (10.5%) abscesses, of which 10 had associated mycobacterial infections. Neoplasms accounted for 31 (6.7%) diagnoses including 11 pleomorphic adenomas, 13 lymphoma, 3 Kaposi sarcoma, 1 squamous cell carcinoma, 1 metastatic carcinoma, and 1 rhabdomyosarcoma. There were four epidermoid inclusion cysts, three non-specific sialadenitis, one mucocele, and one spindle cell lesion not able to be further characterized. FNA is a useful procedure to evaluate salivary gland lesions in an HIV-infected population, allowing prompt management to be undertaken and obviating the need for surgery in many instances, an important consideration in an underfunded public health care system.

  18. When Aspirations Exceed Expectations: Quixotic Hope Increases Depression among Students

    PubMed Central

    Cruwys, Tegan

    2015-01-01

    A paradox exists in modern schooling: students are simultaneously more positive about the future and more depressed than ever. We suggest that these two phenomena may be linked. Two studies demonstrated that students are more likely to be depressed when educational aspirations exceed expectations. In Study 1 (N = 85) aspiring to a thesis grade higher than one expected predicted greater depression at the beginning and end of the academic year. In Study 2 (N = 2820) aspiring to a level of education (e.g., attending college) higher than one expected to achieve predicted greater depression cross-sectionally and five years later. In both cases the negative effects of aspiring high while expecting low persisted even after controlling for whether or not students achieved their educational aspirations. These findings highlight the danger of teaching students to aspire higher without also investing time and money to ensure that students can reasonably expect to achieve their educational goals. PMID:26352151

  19. When Aspirations Exceed Expectations: Quixotic Hope Increases Depression among Students.

    PubMed

    Greenaway, Katharine H; Frye, Margaret; Cruwys, Tegan

    2015-01-01

    A paradox exists in modern schooling: students are simultaneously more positive about the future and more depressed than ever. We suggest that these two phenomena may be linked. Two studies demonstrated that students are more likely to be depressed when educational aspirations exceed expectations. In Study 1 (N = 85) aspiring to a thesis grade higher than one expected predicted greater depression at the beginning and end of the academic year. In Study 2 (N = 2820) aspiring to a level of education (e.g., attending college) higher than one expected to achieve predicted greater depression cross-sectionally and five years later. In both cases the negative effects of aspiring high while expecting low persisted even after controlling for whether or not students achieved their educational aspirations. These findings highlight the danger of teaching students to aspire higher without also investing time and money to ensure that students can reasonably expect to achieve their educational goals.

  20. Differential diagnosis between adenoid cystic carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma of the minor salivary glands of palate.

    PubMed

    Cerulli, Giulio; Renzi, Giancarlo; Perugini, Maurizio; Becelli, Roberto

    2004-11-01

    Tumors arising from minor salivary glands of the palate may exhibit an overlap of clinical and biologic features that may produce diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. Surgical treatment can be very different, depending on the dimensions and malignant or benign nature of the tumors, and therefore should be planned on the basis of an accurate differential diagnosis. A retrospective analysis in 24 patients with pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma of minor salivary glands of the palate was performed to investigate the accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and biopsy with histology in the preoperative diagnosis. Preoperative diagnoses obtained with FNAC and biopsy were compared with findings of the definitive histopathologic examination performed on the resected mass. Correspondence between the preoperative diagnoses determined by FNACs and the definitive histopathologic results was observed in 22 of 24 cases, whereas a complete equivalence was found with regards to histology. In the analysis, FNAC was associated with 91.6% accuracy and an error rate of 8.4% in the diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the palate. From the results of the analysis, histologic examination is still the most accurate diagnostic tool in such tumors. FNAC can be considered in tumors of the head and neck regions that are difficult to reach by means of a common biopsy.