Science.gov

Sample records for aspiration eus-fna experience

  1. The role of endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients: SEED-SEPD-AEG Joint Guideline.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Sequeiros, Enrique; González-Panizo-Tamargo, Fernando; Barturen, Ángel; Calderón, Ángel; Esteban, José Miguel; Fernández-Esparrach, Gloria; Gimeno-García, Antonio; Ginés, Angels; Lariño, José; Pérez-Carreras, Mercedes; Romero, Rafael; Súbtil, José Carlos; Vila, Juan

    2013-04-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequent neoplasms in our environment, and represents the first cause of cancer related death in western countries. Diagnostic and therapeutic approach to these patients may be complicated, with endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), classically performed by gastroenterologists, playing a very important role. As this disease is not closely related to the "digestive tract", gastroenterologists have been forced to update their knowledge on this field o adequately diagnose this significant group of patients. The recent advent of modern and promising techniques like endobronchial ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EBUS-FNA) have prompted new approaches for diagnosis and staging of this type of patients. In this clinical guideline, the "Sociedad Española de Endoscopia Digestiva" (SEED), "Sociedad Española de Patología Digestiva" (SEPD) and the "AsociaciónEspañola de Gastroenterología", have jointed efforts to update the existing knowledge on the field and provide their members with evidence based recommendations.

  2. The integration of single fiber reflectance (SFR) spectroscopy during endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirations (EUS-FNA) in pancreatic masses: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegehuis, Paulien L.; Boogerd, Leonora S. F.; Inderson, Akin; Veenendaal, Roeland A.; Bonsing, Bert A.; Amelink, Arjen; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Dijkstra, Jouke; Robinson, Dominic J.

    2016-03-01

    EUS-FNA can be used for pathological confirmation of a suspicious pancreatic mass. However, performance depends on an on-site cytologist and time between punction and final pathology results can be long. SFR spectroscopy is capable of extracting biologically relevant parameters (e.g. oxygenation and blood volume) in real-time from a very small tissue volume at difficult locations. In this study we determined feasibility of the integration of SFR spectroscopy during EUSFNA procedures in pancreatic masses. Patients with benign and malignant pancreatic masses who were scheduled for an EUS-FNA were included. The working guide wire inside the 19 gauge endoscopic biopsy needle was removed and the sterile single fiber (300 μm core and 700 μm outer diameter, wide-angle beam, NA 0.22) inserted through the needle. Spectroscopy measurements in the visiblenear infrared wavelength region (400-900 nm) and autofluorescence measurements (excitation at 405 nm) were taken three times, and subsequently cytology was obtained. Wavelength dependent optical properties were compared to cytology results. We took measurements in 13 patients with corresponding cytology results (including mucinous tumor, ductal adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumor, and pancreatitis). In this paper we show the first analyzed results comparing normal pancreatic tissue with cancerous tissue in the same patient. We found a large difference in blood volume fraction, and blood oxygenation was higher in normal tissue. Integration of SFR spectroscopy is feasible in EUS-FNA procedures, the workflow hardly requires changes and it takes little time. The first results differentiating normal from tumor tissue are promising.

  3. Endoscopic ultrasonography guided-fine needle aspiration for the diagnosis of solid pancreaticobiliary lesions: Clinical aspects to improve the diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Toru; Yabuuchi, Yohei; Imai, Kenichiro; Tanaka, Masaki; Kakushima, Naomi; Sasaki, Keiko; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has been applied to pancreaticobiliary lesions since the 1990s and is in widespread use throughout the world today. We used this method to confirm the pathological evidence of the pancreaticobiliary lesions and to perform suitable therapies. Complications of EUS-FNA are quite rare, but some of them are severe. Operators should master conventional EUS observation and experience a minimum of 20-30 cases of supervised EUS-FNA on non-pancreatic and pancreatic lesions before attempting solo EUS-FNA. Studies conducted on pancreaticobiliary EUS-FNA have focused on selection of suitable instruments (e.g., needle selection) and sampling techniques (e.g., fanning method, suction level, with or without a stylet, optimum number of passes). Today, the diagnostic ability of EUS-FNA is still improving; the detection of pancreatic cancer (PC) currently has a sensitivity of 90%-95% and specificity of 95%-100%. In addition to PC, a variety of rare pancreatic tumors can be discriminated by conducting immunohistochemistry on the FNA materials. A flexible, large caliber needle has been used to obtain a large piece of tissue, which can provide sufficient histological information to be helpful in classifying benign pancreatic lesions. EUS-FNA can supply high diagnostic yields even for biliary lesions or peri-pancreaticobiliary lymph nodes. This review focuses on the clinical aspects of EUS-FNA in the pancreaticobiliary field, with the aim of providing information that can enable more accurate and efficient diagnosis. PMID:26811612

  4. Validation of a realistic, simple, and inexpensive EUS-FNA training model using isolated porcine stomach

    PubMed Central

    Hoshi, Koki; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Yamabe, Akane; Fujisawa, Mariko; Igarashi, Ryo; Yoshida, Yoshitsugu; Abe, Yoko; Imbe, Koh

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Trainees are required to learn EUS-FNA using a model before working with a patient. The aim of the current study was to validate a new training model developed for EUS-FNA. Patients and methods: Several fresh chicken tenderloins were embedded as target lesions in the submucosal layer of an isolated porcine stomach. The stomach was fixed to a plate with nails, and was placed in a tub filled with water. The primary endpoint was feasibility of the newly developed model for EUS-FNA training, evaluated as follows: 1) visualization of the target lesion with blinding for lesion location; 2) penetrability of the needle; 3) sampling rate of macroscopic specimen; and 4) ROSE capability. Secondary endpoints were its durability and utility for multiple EUS-FNA procedures during EUS-FNA training, and the ease and cost of preparing the model. Results: Six endoscopists (1 expert, 5 trainees) attempted EUS-FNA procedures using this model. The target lesion could be identified clearly, and EUS-FNA could be performed with realistic resistance felt. In addition, rapid on-site evaluation could be easily achieved. Based on 10 needlings by each endoscopist, adequate specimens for histology could be macroscopically taken with an average 85 % success rate. Visibility and maneuverability were maintained throughout all needlings. Preparation time for this model was less than 30 minutes with a total cost of $ 22. Conclusions: An easy-to-use and inexpensive training model with a realistic feel of needling was created. This model can potentially enable beginners to practice safe and effective EUS-FNA procedures. PMID:27652292

  5. Validation of a realistic, simple, and inexpensive EUS-FNA training model using isolated porcine stomach

    PubMed Central

    Hoshi, Koki; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Yamabe, Akane; Fujisawa, Mariko; Igarashi, Ryo; Yoshida, Yoshitsugu; Abe, Yoko; Imbe, Koh

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Trainees are required to learn EUS-FNA using a model before working with a patient. The aim of the current study was to validate a new training model developed for EUS-FNA. Patients and methods: Several fresh chicken tenderloins were embedded as target lesions in the submucosal layer of an isolated porcine stomach. The stomach was fixed to a plate with nails, and was placed in a tub filled with water. The primary endpoint was feasibility of the newly developed model for EUS-FNA training, evaluated as follows: 1) visualization of the target lesion with blinding for lesion location; 2) penetrability of the needle; 3) sampling rate of macroscopic specimen; and 4) ROSE capability. Secondary endpoints were its durability and utility for multiple EUS-FNA procedures during EUS-FNA training, and the ease and cost of preparing the model. Results: Six endoscopists (1 expert, 5 trainees) attempted EUS-FNA procedures using this model. The target lesion could be identified clearly, and EUS-FNA could be performed with realistic resistance felt. In addition, rapid on-site evaluation could be easily achieved. Based on 10 needlings by each endoscopist, adequate specimens for histology could be macroscopically taken with an average 85 % success rate. Visibility and maneuverability were maintained throughout all needlings. Preparation time for this model was less than 30 minutes with a total cost of $ 22. Conclusions: An easy-to-use and inexpensive training model with a realistic feel of needling was created. This model can potentially enable beginners to practice safe and effective EUS-FNA procedures.

  6. Evaluation of S100A4 mRNA in EUS-FNA specimens for the assessment of chemosensitivity to gemcitabine from patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Guifeng; Sun, Yan; Fu, Shiwen

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Gemcitabine (GEM) is the first-line chemotherapy in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. However, the clinical outcomes of this regimen are still unsatisfactory in prolonging survival. Resistant to GEM is one of the reasons for poor prognosis. Therefore, looking for molecular biomarkers to predict chemosensitivity to GEM is important for treatment in unresectable pancreatic cancer patients. The aim of this study was to analyze S100A4 mRNA in tissues of unresectable pancreatic cancer obtained by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA), and to determine the relation between S100A4 mRNA level and chemosensitivity to GEM. Methods: The analysis was performed on samples from 36 patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer who were treated with gemcitabine alone. The patients were assigned to receive GEM at 1,000 mg/m2/wk for weeks 1 to 6, followed by 1 week rest, then for 4 weeks. mRNA was extracted for S100A4 mRNA assay from patients above by EUS-FNA before GEM-treatment. The 36 patients were divided into the following two groups. Patients with partial response and those with stable disease whose tumor markers decreased by 50% or more were classified as the effective group. The rest of patients were classified as the non effective group. The relationship between GEM efficacy and S100A4 mRNA expression was then examined by chi-squared test. Results: S100A4 mRNA showed a significant correlation with GEM efficacy. Patients in the effective group had low S100A4 mRNA expression, whereas patients in non-effective group had high S100A4 mRNA expressions (P = 0.0059). Conclusion: S100A4 mRNA level analyzed in EUS-FNA samples is an important molecular biomarker for prediction of chemosensitivity to GEM in unresectable pancreatic cancer. PMID:26722531

  7. The safety of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of pancreatic cystic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Won Jae; Brugge, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is widely used in the evaluation of various pancreatic diseases including pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs). EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of PCLs provides cyst fluid, which is used for the differentiation of PCLs. EUS-FNA of PCLs is a safe procedure with a low complication rate. Contrary to the concerns expressed by some investigators, preoperative EUS-FNA of mucinous PCLs is unlikely to increase the frequency of postoperative peritoneal seeding. PMID:26643695

  8. Repeat Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration in Patients with Suspected Pancreatic Cancer: Diagnostic Yield and Associated Change in Access to Appropriate Care.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Robert A; Stanger, Dylan; Shuster, Constantin; Telford, Jennifer; Lam, Eric; Enns, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is a high incidence of inconclusive cytopathology at initial EUS-FNA (endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration) for suspected malignant pancreatic lesions. To obtain appropriate preoperative or palliative chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer, definitive cytopathology is often required. The utility of repeat EUS-FNA is not well established. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted evaluating the yield of repeat EUS-FNA in determining a cytological diagnosis in patients who had undergone a prior EUS-FNA for diagnosis of suspected malignant pancreatic lesions with inconclusive cytopathology. The wait times to the second procedure and to decisions regarding therapy were calculated. Results. Overall, 45 repeat EUS-FNA procedures were performed over seven years for suspected malignant pancreatic lesions. Cytopathological class (I to IV) changed between first and second EUS-FNA in 32 patients (71%). Of 34 patients with an initially nonconclusive diagnosis, 20 had a conclusive diagnosis (59%) on repeat EUS-FNA. The cumulative yield after repeat EUS-FNA for definite pancreatic adenocarcinoma was 7 (16%). The median time interval between first and second EUS-FNA was 31 (7-175) days. Conclusions. A substantial number of patients had a definitive diagnosis of adenocarcinoma on repeat FNA and were, therefore, subsequently able to access appropriate care. PMID:27648440

  9. Repeat Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration in Patients with Suspected Pancreatic Cancer: Diagnostic Yield and Associated Change in Access to Appropriate Care

    PubMed Central

    Stanger, Dylan; Shuster, Constantin; Telford, Jennifer; Lam, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is a high incidence of inconclusive cytopathology at initial EUS-FNA (endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration) for suspected malignant pancreatic lesions. To obtain appropriate preoperative or palliative chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer, definitive cytopathology is often required. The utility of repeat EUS-FNA is not well established. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted evaluating the yield of repeat EUS-FNA in determining a cytological diagnosis in patients who had undergone a prior EUS-FNA for diagnosis of suspected malignant pancreatic lesions with inconclusive cytopathology. The wait times to the second procedure and to decisions regarding therapy were calculated. Results. Overall, 45 repeat EUS-FNA procedures were performed over seven years for suspected malignant pancreatic lesions. Cytopathological class (I to IV) changed between first and second EUS-FNA in 32 patients (71%). Of 34 patients with an initially nonconclusive diagnosis, 20 had a conclusive diagnosis (59%) on repeat EUS-FNA. The cumulative yield after repeat EUS-FNA for definite pancreatic adenocarcinoma was 7 (16%). The median time interval between first and second EUS-FNA was 31 (7–175) days. Conclusions. A substantial number of patients had a definitive diagnosis of adenocarcinoma on repeat FNA and were, therefore, subsequently able to access appropriate care. PMID:27648440

  10. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the pancreas: A multi-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Pannala, Rahul; Hallberg-Wallace, Karyn M.; Smith, Amber L.; Nassar, Aziza; Zhang, Jun; Zarka, Matthew; Reynolds, Jordan P.; Chen, Longwen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The increasing use of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) cytology to examine pancreatic neoplasms has led to an increase in the diagnosis of metastases to the pancreas. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common metastasis to the pancreas. Our study examines 33 cases of metastatic RCC to the pancreas sampled by EUS-FNA from four large tertiary care hospitals. Materials and Methods: We searched the cytopathology database for RCC metastatic to the pancreas diagnosed by EUS-FNA from January 2005 to January 2015. Patient age, history of RCC, nephrectomy history, follow-up postnephrectomy, radiological impression, and EUS-FNA cytologic diagnosis were reviewed. Results: Thirty-three patients were identified. The average age was 67.5 years (range, 49–84 years). Thirty-two patients had a previous documented history of RCC. One patient had the diagnosis of pancreatic metastasis at the same time of the kidney biopsy. Thirty-one patients had been treated with nephrectomy. Twenty-seven patients were being monitored annually by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-five patients had multiple masses by imaging, but 8 patients had a single mass in the pancreas at the time of EUS-FNA. EUS-FNA of 20 cases showed classic morphology of RCC. Thirteen cases had either “atypical” clinical-radiologic features or morphologic overlaps with primary pancreatic neoplasms or other neoplasms. Cell blocks were made on all 13 cases and immunochemical stains confirmed the diagnosis. Conclusions: EUS-FNA cytology is useful for the diagnosis of metastatic RCC to the pancreas. Cytomorphology can be aided with patient history, imaging analyses, cell blocks, and immunochemical stains. PMID:27761149

  11. Needle Fracture during Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of Suspicious Thoracic Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Bartosz; Manière, Thibaut; Déry, Vincent; Désilets, Étienne

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is used to make a cytopathologic diagnosis of suspicious lesions located around the gastrointestinal tract. It is a safe technique with few complications. The most common complications of EUS-FNA are related to pancreatic lesions (pancreatitis, bleeding, and abdominal pain). Rare complications have been noted such as stent malfunction, air embolism, infection, neural and vascular injuries, and tumor cell seeding. There are very few studies examining equipment malfunctions. We report a case of needle fracture during the EUS-FNA of suspicious thoracic lymph nodes in a 79-year-old man investigated for unexplained weight loss. PMID:27555874

  12. Needle Fracture during Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of Suspicious Thoracic Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Manière, Thibaut; Déry, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is used to make a cytopathologic diagnosis of suspicious lesions located around the gastrointestinal tract. It is a safe technique with few complications. The most common complications of EUS-FNA are related to pancreatic lesions (pancreatitis, bleeding, and abdominal pain). Rare complications have been noted such as stent malfunction, air embolism, infection, neural and vascular injuries, and tumor cell seeding. There are very few studies examining equipment malfunctions. We report a case of needle fracture during the EUS-FNA of suspicious thoracic lymph nodes in a 79-year-old man investigated for unexplained weight loss. PMID:27555874

  13. Efforts to improve the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for pancreatic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yamabe, Akane; Irisawa, Atsushi; Bhutani, Manoop S.; Shibukawa, Goro; Fujisawa, Mariko; Sato, Ai; Yoshida, Yoshitsugu; Arakawa, Noriyuki; Ikeda, Tsunehiko; Igarashi, Ryo; Maki, Takumi; Yamamoto, Shogo

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is widely used to obtain a definitive diagnosis of pancreatic tumors. Good results have been reported for its diagnostic accuracy, with high sensitivity and specificity of around 90%; however, technological developments and adaptations to improve it still further are currently underway. The endosonographic technique can be improved when several tips and tricks useful to overcome challenges of EUS-FNA are known. This review provides various techniques and equipment for improvement in the diagnostic accuracy in EUS-FNA. PMID:27503153

  14. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis of adrenal lesions.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rashmee; Ona, Mel A; Papafragkakis, Charilaos; Duddempudi, Sushil; Anand, Sury; Jamil, Laith H

    2016-01-01

    The use of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) appears to be a safe and feasible means of confirming or excluding malignancy in the adrenal glands. EUS-FNA with biopsy of suspicious masses in either adrenal gland allows for assessment of these lesions while keeping complications relatively rare. The main advantages of EUS-FNA are that it can be done as an outpatient procedure, with good results, minimal morbidity, and a short hospital stay. Nevertheless, EUS-FNA of adrenal masses should be indicated only in selected cases, in which there is potential to either decrease unnecessary treatment or guide therapy in cancer patients by aiding in either staging of malignancy or treatment of recurrence.v. PMID:27366030

  15. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis of adrenal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rashmee; Ona, Mel A.; Papafragkakis, Charilaos; Duddempudi, Sushil; Anand, Sury; Jamil, Laith H.

    2016-01-01

    The use of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) appears to be a safe and feasible means of confirming or excluding malignancy in the adrenal glands. EUS-FNA with biopsy of suspicious masses in either adrenal gland allows for assessment of these lesions while keeping complications relatively rare. The main advantages of EUS-FNA are that it can be done as an outpatient procedure, with good results, minimal morbidity, and a short hospital stay. Nevertheless, EUS-FNA of adrenal masses should be indicated only in selected cases, in which there is potential to either decrease unnecessary treatment or guide therapy in cancer patients by aiding in either staging of malignancy or treatment of recurrence.v PMID:27366030

  16. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of secondary tumors involving the pancreas: An institution's experience

    PubMed Central

    Alomari, Almed K.; Ustun, Berrin; Aslanian, Harry R.; Ge, Xinquan; Chhieng, David; Cai, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pancreatic masses may seldom represent a metastasis or secondary involvement by lymphoproliferative disorders. Recognition of this uncommon occurrence may help render an accurate diagnosis and avoid diagnostic pitfalls during endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). In this study, we review our experience in diagnosing secondary tumors involving the pancreas. Materials and Methods: The electronic database of cytopathology archives was searched for cases of secondary tumors involving the pancreas at our institution and a total of 31 cases were identified. The corresponding clinical presentations, imaging study findings, cytological diagnoses, the results of ancillary studies, and surgical follow-up, if available, were reviewed. Results: Nineteen of the patients were male and 12 female, with a mean age of 66 years. Twenty-three patients (74%) had a prior history of malignancy, with the latency ranging from 6 months to 19 years. The secondary tumors involving the pancreas included metastatic carcinoma (24 cases), metastatic sarcoma (3 cases), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (2 cases), and plasma cell neoplasm (2 cases). The most common metastatic tumors were renal cell carcinoma (8 cases) and lung carcinoma (7 cases). Correct diagnoses were rendered in 29 cases (94%). The remaining two cases were misclassified as primary pancreatic carcinoma. In both cases, the patients had no known history of malignancy, and no ancillary studies were performed. Conclusions: Secondary tumors involving the pancreas can be accurately diagnosed by EUS-FNA. Recognizing uncommon cytomorphologic features, knowing prior history of malignancy, and performing ancillary studies are the keys to improve diagnostic performance and avoid diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:26955395

  17. Repeat endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration after a first negative procedure is useful in pancreatic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Téllez-Ávila, Félix I.; Martínez-Lozano, Jorge Adolfo; Rosales-Salinas, Anamaría; Bernal-Méndez, Ambrosio Rafael; Guerrero-Velásquez, Camilo; Ramírez-Luna, Miguel Ángel; Valdovinos-Andraca, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: There is no consensus about the ideal method for diagnosis in patients who have already undergone endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), and the inconclusive material is often obtained. The aim was to evaluate the diagnostic yield of the second EUS-FNA of pancreatic lesions. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of patients with EUS-FNA of pancreatic lesions is performed. All patients who underwent more than one EUS-FNA for the evaluation of suspected pancreatic cancer over a 7-year period were included in the analysis. Results: A total of 296 EUS-FNAs of the pancreas were performed in 257 patients. The diagnostic yield with the first EUS-FNA was 78.6% (202/257). Thirty-nine (13.3%) FNAs were repeated in 34 patients; 17 (50%) patients were women. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) age was 58.8 ± 16.1 years. The location of the lesions in the pancreatic gland, from which the second biopsies were taken, was head of the pancreas, n = 28 (82.4%), body of the pancreas, n = 3 (8.8%), and tail, n = 3 (8.8%). The mean ± SD of the size of the lesion was 36.3 ± 14.6 mm. The second EUS-FNA was more likely to be positive for diagnosis in patients with an “atypical“ histological result in the first EUS-FNA (odds ratio [OR]: 4.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9–18.3), in contrast to patients with a first EUS-FNA reported as “normal” (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.06–0.71). Overall, the diagnostic yield of the second EUS-FNA was 58.8% (20/34) with an increase to 86.3% overall (222/257). Conclusion: Repeat EUS-FNA in pancreatic lesions is necessary in patients with a negative first EUS-FNA because it improves the diagnostic yield. PMID:27503159

  18. Accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in the suspicion of pancreatic metastases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metastases to the pancreas are rare, and usually mistaken for primary pancreatic cancers. This study aimed to describe the histology results of solid pancreatic tumours obtained by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for diagnosis of metastases to the pancreas. Methods In a retrospective review, patients with pancreatic solid tumours and history of previous extrapancreatic cancer underwent EUS-FNA from January/1997 to December/2010. Most patients were followed-up until death and some of them were still alive at the end of the study. The performance of EUS-FNA for diagnosis of pancreatic metastases was analyzed. Symptoms, time frame between primary tumour diagnosis and the finding of metastases, and survival after diagnosis were also analyzed. Results 37 patients underwent EUS-FNA for probable pancreas metastases. Most cases (65%) presented with symptoms, especially upper abdominal pain (46%). Median time between detection of the first tumour and the finding of pancreatic metastases was 36 months. Metastases were confirmed in 32 (1.6%) cases, 30 of them by EUS-FNA, and 2 by surgery. Other 5 cases were non-metastatic. Most metastases were from lymphoma, colon, lung, and kidney. Twelve (32%) patients were submitted to surgery. Median survival after diagnosis of pancreatic metastases was 9 months, with no difference of survival between surgical and non-surgical cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of EUS-FNA with histology analysis of the specimens for diagnosis of pancreatic metastases were, respectively, 93.8%, 60%, 93.8%, 60% and 89%. Conclusion EUS-FNA with histology of the specimens is a sensitive and accurate method for definitive diagnosis of metastatic disease in patients with a previous history of extrapancreatic malignancies. PMID:23578194

  19. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in the differentiation of type 1 and type 2 autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Takuya; Itoh, Akihiro; Kawashima, Hiroki; Ohno, Eizaburo; Matsubara, Hiroshi; Itoh, Yuya; Nakamura, Yosuke; Hiramatsu, Takeshi; Nakamura, Masanao; Miyahara, Ryoji; Ohmiya, Naoki; Goto, Hidemi; Hirooka, Yoshiki

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of endoscopic ultra-sound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in the differentiation of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 47 of 56 AIP patients who underwent EUS-FNA and met the Asian diagnostic criteria. On 47 EUS-FNA specimens, we evaluated the presence of adequate material and characteristic features of lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP) and idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis (IDCP) mentioned in the International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria and examined if these findings make a contribution to the differential diagnosis of type 1 and type 2 AIP. A disposable 22-gauge needle was used for EUS-FNA. RESULTS: Adequate specimens including pancreatic tissue for differentiating AIP from cancer were obtained from 43 of 47 patients who underwent EUS-FNA. EUS-FNA was performed from the pancreatic head in 21 cases, which is known to be technically difficult when performed by core biopsy; there was no significant difference in the results compared with pancreatic body-tail. Nine of 47 patients met level 1 findings of LPSP and 5 patients met level 2 findings of LPSP. No one met level 1 findings of IDCP, but 3 patients met level 2 findings of IDCP. Of 10 seronegative cases, 2 cases were diagnosed with “definitive type 1 AIP”, and 3 cases were diagnosed with “probable type 2 AIP” when considering both the level 2 histological findings and response to steroids. CONCLUSION: EUS-FNA is useful in the differentiation of type 1 and type 2 AIP, particularly in seronegative cases. PMID:22876041

  20. Resected tumor seeding in stomach wall due to endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration of pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tomonari, Akiko; Katanuma, Akio; Matsumori, Tomoaki; Yamazaki, Hajime; Sano, Itsuki; Minami, Ryuki; Sen-yo, Manabu; Ikarashi, Satoshi; Kin, Toshifumi; Yane, Kei; Takahashi, Kuniyuki; Shinohara, Toshiya; Maguchi, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is a useful and relatively safe tool for the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer. However, there have recently been several reports of tumor seeding after EUS-FNA of adenocarcinomas. A 78-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to upper gastric pain. Examinations revealed a 20 mm mass in the pancreatic body, for which EUS-FNA was performed. The cytology of the lesion was adenocarcinoma, and the stage of the cancer was T3N0M0. The patient underwent surgery with curative intent, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1. An enlarging gastric submucosal tumor was found on gastroscopy at 28 mo after surgery accompanied by a rising level of CA19-9. Biopsy result was adenocarcinoma, consistent with a pancreatic primary tumor. Tumor seeding after EUS-FNA was strongly suspected. The patient underwent surgical resection of the gastric tumor with curative intent. The pathological result of the resected gastric specimen was adenocarcinoma with a perfectly matched mucin special stain result with the previously resected pancreatic cancer. This is the first case report of tumor seeding after EUS-FNA which was surgically resected and inspected pathologically. PMID:26217099

  1. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the islet cell tumor of pancreas: a comparison between computerized axial tomography and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Jhala, Darshana; Eloubeidi, Mohammad; Chhieng, David C; Frost, Andra; Eltoum, Isam A; Roberson, Janie; Jhala, Nirag

    2002-04-01

    The objective of the present study is to compare the cytologic features of islet cell tumor (ICT) of pancreas obtained by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and computed tomography guided FNA (CT-FNA). We also describe the cytologic features associated with malignant ICT. Eleven cytology samples from 121 CT- FNA and 30 EUS- FNA of the pancreas were obtained from nine patients with ICT. Diff-Quik, Papanicolaou, and immunohistochemical stains to determine neuroendocrine differentiation and the hormonal status were evaluated. Cytologic features and specimen adequacy were compared between the two techniques. Cytologic features noted in both benign and malignant ICT were also compared. Nine patients (5 men, 4 women) ranging in age from 29 to 84 years (mean age, 53.8 years). Diagnoses consisted of benign (4) and malignant (5) ICT. EUS-FNA was superior to CT-FNA in obtaining adequate cells (2/2 v 7/9) for the diagnosis and increased cellularity to perform additional immunohistochemical stains (2/2 v 4/7). Single, plasmacytoid cells with finely granular chromatin distribution characterized ICT on cytology. Mitoses (3/5) and necrosis (1/5) were noted in malignant ICT but not in benign ICT. EUS-FNA is superior to CT- FNA for obtaining cells for the diagnosis of ICT. Detection of mitoses and or necrosis from patients with ICT should initiate a search for metastasis.

  2. Polymerase chain reaction amplifying mycobacterial DNA from aspirates obtained by endoscopic ultrasound allows accurate diagnosis of mycobacterial disease in HIV-positive patients with abdominal lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed

    Nieuwoudt, Martin; Lameris, Roeland; Corcoran, Craig; Rossouw, Theresa M; Slavik, Tomas; Du Plessis, Johannie; Omoshoro-Jones, Jones A O; Stivaktas, Paraskevi; Potgieter, Fritz; Van der Merwe, Schalk W

    2014-09-01

    Abdominal lymphadenopathy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a diagnostic challenge. We performed a prospective cohort study by recruiting 31 symptomatic HIV + patients with abdominal lymphadenopathy and assessing the diagnostic yield of endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). Mean age was 38 years; 52% were female; and mean CD4 count and viral load were 124 cells/μL and 4 log, respectively. EUS confirmed additional mediastinal nodes in 26%. The porta hepatis was the most common abdominal site. Aspirates obtained by EUS-FNA were subjected to cytology, culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Mycobacterial infections were confirmed in 67.7%, and 31% had reactive lymphadenopathy. Cytology and culture had low sensitivity, whereas PCR identified 90% of mycobacterial infections. By combining the appearance of aspirates obtained by EUS-FNA and cytologic specimens, we developed a diagnostic algorithm to indicate when analysis with PCR would be useful. PCR performed on material obtained by EUS-FNA was highly accurate in confirming mycobacterial disease and determining genotypic drug resistance.

  3. Secondary tumors of the pancreas diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration: a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Waters, Lindsay; Si, Quisheng; Caraway, Nancy; Mody, Dina; Staerkel, Gregg; Sneige, Nour

    2014-09-01

    Determining whether a pancreatic mass is a primary or secondary neoplasm is necessary for appropriate treatment. We reviewed our experience using endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for diagnosis of pancreatic tumors to identify clinical and cytopathologic characteristics of metastatic disease. We reviewed all cases of tumors metastatic to the pancreas evaluated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and The Methodist Hospital in Houston, Texas during the period from 2002 to 2012. The review included cytologic specimens, clinical history, radiologic findings, primary tumor type, and clinical follow-up. We identified 66 patients with disease metastatic to the pancreas for which cytologic material was available: 38 (58%) men and 28 (42%) women, with an average age of 63 years (range, 40-89 years). Most metastases (98%) were single lesions, and nearly half were located in the head of the pancreas (30/66). The most common site of origin for these metastases was kidney (27 [41%] cases). Follow-up information was available for 65 (98%) patients, and duration of follow-up ranged from <1 to 10 years (mean, 2.3 years). Thirty-three patients (50%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up contact. Of the 25 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, clear cell type, 19 (76%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up. It was concluded that metastases may mimic primary pancreatic carcinomas both clinically and cytologically. Ancillary studies in conjunction with clinical history are necessary for the accurate diagnosis of FNAs of secondary pancreatic tumors. PMID:24554612

  4. Evaluating the Minimal Specimens From Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration in Pancreatic Masses

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joo Kyung; Kang, Ki Joo; Oh, Cho Rong; Lee, Jong Kyun; Lee, Kyu Taek; Jang, Kee Taek; Park, Sang-Mo; Lee, Kwang Hyuck

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has become one of the most useful diagnostic modalities for the diagnosis of pancreatic mass. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of analyzing the minimal specimens obtained by EUS-FNA for the diagnosis of solid masses of pancreas. This study consisted of retrospective and prospective analyses. The retrospective study was performed on 116 patients who underwent EUS-FNA of solid masses for cytological smear, histological analysis, and combined analysis including immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. In the prospective study, 79 patients were enrolled to evaluate the quality and accuracy of EUS-FNA histological analysis and feasibility of IHC staining. The final diagnoses of all patients included pancreatic cancer (n = 126), nonpancreatic cancer (n = 21), other neoplasm (n = 27), and benign lesions (n = 21). In our retrospective study, the combined analysis was more sensitive than cytological analysis alone (P < 0.01). The overall sensitivity of cytology, histology, and combined analysis was 69.8%, 67.2%, and 81.8%, respectively. In the prospective analysis, 64.2% of all punctures were helpful for determining the diagnosis and 40.7% provided sufficient tissue for IHC staining. Histological analysis was helpful for diagnosis in 74.7% of patients. IHC staining was necessary for a definite diagnosis in 11.4% of patients, especially in the cases of nonmalignant pancreatic mass. Histological analysis and IHC study of EUS-FNA specimens was useful for the accurate diagnosis of pancreatic and peripancreatic lesions. Combined analysis showed significantly higher sensitivity than cytology alone because IHC staining was helpful for a diagnosis in some patients. PMID:27227937

  5. Usefulness of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of hepatic, gallbladder and biliary tract Lesions.

    PubMed

    Hammoud, Ghassan M; Almashhrawi, Ashraf; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2014-11-15

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the liver is a safe procedure in the diagnosis and staging of hepatobiliary malignancies with a minimal major complication rate. EUS-FNA is useful for liver lesions poorly accessible to other imaging modalities of the liver. EUS-guided FNA of biliary neoplasia and malignant biliary stricture is superior to the conventional endoscopic brushing and biopsy. PMID:25400873

  6. Usefulness of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of hepatic, gallbladder and biliary tract Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Hammoud, Ghassan M; Almashhrawi, Ashraf; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the liver is a safe procedure in the diagnosis and staging of hepatobiliary malignancies with a minimal major complication rate. EUS-FNA is useful for liver lesions poorly accessible to other imaging modalities of the liver. EUS-guided FNA of biliary neoplasia and malignant biliary stricture is superior to the conventional endoscopic brushing and biopsy. PMID:25400873

  7. A randomized controlled cross-over trial and cost analysis comparing endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration and fine needle biopsy*

    PubMed Central

    Aadam, A. Aziz; Wani, Sachin; Amick, Ashley; Shah, Janak N.; Bhat, Yasser M.; Hamerski, Christopher M.; Klapman, Jason B.; Muthusamy, V. Raman; Watson, Rabindra R.; Rademaker, Alfred W.; Keswani, Rajesh N.; Keefer, Laurie; Das, Ananya; Komanduri, Srinadh

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Techniques to optimize endoscopic ultrasound-guided tissue acquisition (EUS-TA) in a variety of lesion types have not yet been established. The primary aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic yield (DY) of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) to endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) for pancreatic and non-pancreatic masses. Patients and methods: Consecutive patients referred for EUS-TA underwent randomization to EUS-FNA or EUS-FNB at four tertiary-care medical centers. A maximum of three passes were allowed for the initial method of EUS-TA and patients were crossed over to the other arm based on on-site specimen adequacy. Results: A total of 140 patients were enrolled. The overall DY was significantly higher with specimens obtained by EUS-FNB compared to EUS-FNA (90.0 % vs. 67.1 %, P = 0.002). While there was no difference in the DY between the two groups for pancreatic masses (FNB: 91.7 % vs. FNA: 78.4 %, P = 0.19), the DY of EUS-FNB was higher than the EUS-FNA for non-pancreatic lesions (88.2 % vs. 54.5 %, P = 0.006). Specimen adequacy was higher for EUS-FNB compared to EUS-FNA for all lesions (P = 0.006). There was a significant rescue effect of crossover from failed FNA to FNB in 27 out of 28 cases (96.5 %, P = 0.0003). Decision analysis showed that the strategy of EUS-FNB was cost saving compared to EUS-FNA over a wide range of cost and outcome probabilities. Conclusions: Results of this RCT and decision analysis demonstrate superior DY and specimen adequacy for solid mass lesions sampled by EUS-FNB. PMID:27227104

  8. Interobserver agreement among cytopathologists in the evaluation of pancreatic endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology specimens*

    PubMed Central

    Mounzer, Rawad; Yen, Roy; Marshall, Carrie; Sams, Sharon; Mehrotra, Sanjana; Said, Mohamed Sherif; Obuch, Joshua C.; Brauer, Brian; Attwell, Augustin; Fukami, Norio; Shah, Raj; Amateau, Stuart; Hall, Matthew; Hosford, Lindsay; Wilson, Robert; Rastogi, Amit; Wani, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has become the standard of care in the evaluation of solid pancreatic lesions. Limited data exist on interobserver agreement (IOA) among cytopathologists in assessing solid pancreatic EUS-FNA specimens. This study aimed to evaluate IOA among cytopathologists in assessing EUS-FNA cytology specimens of solid pancreatic lesions using a novel standardized scoring system and to assess individual clinical and cytologic predictors of IOA. Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent EUS-FNA of solid pancreatic lesions at a tertiary care referral center were included. EUS-FNA slides were evaluated by four blinded cytopathologists using a standardized scoring system that assessed final cytologic diagnosis and quantitative (number of nucleated/diagnostic cells) and qualitative (bloodiness, inflammation/necrosis, contamination, artifact) cytologic parameters. Final clinical diagnosis was based on final cytology, surgical pathology, or 1-year clinical follow-up. IOA was calculated using multi-rater kappa (κ) statistics. Bivariate analyses were performed comparing cases with and without uniform agreement among the cytopathologists followed by logistic regression with backward elimination to model likelihood of uniform agreement. Results: Ninety-nine patients were included (49 % males, mean age 64 years, mean lesion size 26 mm). IOA for final diagnosis was moderate (κ = 0.45, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.4 – 0.49) with minimal improvement when combining suspicious and malignant diagnoses (κ = 0.54, 95 %CI 0.49 – 0.6). The weighted kappa value for overall diagnosis was 0.65 (95 %CI 0.54 – 0.76). IOA was slight to fair (κ = 0.04 – 0.32) for individual cytologic parameters. A final clinical diagnosis of malignancy was the most significant predictor of agreement [OR 3.99 (CI 1.52 – 10.49)]. Conclusions: Interobserver agreement among

  9. Performance characteristic of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration is unaffected by pancreatic mass size

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Jayapal; Kim, Hwasoon; Reddy, Kartika; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Despite a well-established tool for diagnosis of pancreatic masses, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) studies have shown suboptimal diagnostic performance at divergent mass sizes. Since the impact of gold standard follow-up and presence of on-site evaluation on this observation is unknown, we aimed to study the performance characteristics of EUS-FNA under these strict conditions. Patients and methods: EUS-FNA results from pancreatic mass lesions performed between July 2000 and March 2013 were evaluated. All patients with histological follow-up were then stratified into four groups: Group A ( ≤ 10 mm), Group B (11 – 20 mm), Group C (21 – 40 mm), and Group D (> 40 mm). Sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy were calculated for each group and compared. Results: A total of 612 /3832 (16 %) patients with pancreatic masses who underwent EUS-FNA had histology confirmation. Of these, 81 were excluded due to unavailable lesion size, while the rest formed the study cohort. Mean age (SD) was 65.8 years (9.3) with 51.2 % female. The mean number of passes for the entire cohort was 2.9 (SD 1.9; range 1 – 12); patients in group D had a significantly higher number of passes for on-site diagnosis (P = 0.0124). There was no significant difference between the groups for sensitivity (P = 0.1134) or diagnostic accuracy (P = 0.2111). Proportional trend analysis revealed no significant correlation between size and sensitivity (P = 0.6192). The size of lesion measured by EUS was not associated with sensitivity or specificity after adjusting for age, sex, and pancreatic location. Conclusion: In the presence of rapid on-site cytopathology and when final histology is taken as the gold standard, pancreatic mass size does not affect the performance characteristics of EUS-FNA. PMID:27092323

  10. Role of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of mass lesions

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chaoqun; Lin, Rong; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jun; Ding, Zhen; Hou, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is an accurate technique for sampling the pancreas and mediastinum; however, limited data are available for other mass lesions. The aim of this study was to explore the value of EUS-FNA in the differential diagnosis of all mass lesions. Data from patients who underwent EUS-FNA for the diagnosis of mass lesions, including pancreatic, mediastinal, celiac and retroperitoneal lesions were retrospectively analyzed. The accuracy was calculated by comparing the results of FNA with the results of pathological examination or follow-up surveillances in non-operated cases. A total of 150 cases were included. The location of the mass varied from the pancreas (n=62) to the mediastinum (n=29), gastrointestinal tract (n=36), celiac cavity and retroperitoneum (n=23). The sensitivity and Youdens index of EUS-FNA in the diagnosis of all lesions were 92.97% and 0.93 respectively. The accuracy of diagnosis of pancreatic, mediastinal, gastrointestinal, celiac and retroperitoneal lesions was 85.48, 89.66, 83.33 and 78.23%, respectively. Masses were categorized into parenchymal organs (n=66), luminal organs (n=36) and enlarged lymph nodes (n=33). Lesions in parenchymal organs were likely to be bigger than those in luminal organs (P=0.03) and enlarged lymph nodes (P=0.01). For solid and cystic masses, which constituted 63.3 and 14.7% of the total masses, no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy was observed (P=0.56); however, lesion sizes were significantly different between these two groups (P=0.04) and the majority of cystic masses were identified in women (P=0.03). Malignant lesions were more common in older (P=0.01) and male (P=0.03) patients. In conclusion, EUS-FNA is an effective tool in the diagnosis of unexplained mass lesions; it influences the management of patients by enabling the appropriate treatment to be identified. PMID:27446324

  11. 22-gauge core vs 22-gauge aspiration needle for endoscopic ultrasound-guided sampling of abdominal masses

    PubMed Central

    Sterlacci, William; Sioulas, Athanasios D; Veits, Lothar; Gönüllü, Pervin; Schachschal, Guido; Groth, Stefan; Anders, Mario; Kontos, Christos K; Topalidis, Theodoros; Hinsch, Andrea; Vieth, Michael; Rösch, Thomas; Denzer, Ulrike W

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the aspiration needle (AN) and core biopsy needle (PC) in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of abdominal masses. METHODS Consecutive patients referred for EUS-FNA were included in this prospective single-center trial. Each patient underwent a puncture of the lesion with both standard 22-gauge (G) AN (Echo Tip Ultra; Cook Medical, Bloomington, Indiana, United States) and the novel 22G PC (EchoTip ProCore; Cook Medical, Bloomington, Indiana, United States) in a randomized fashion; histology was attempted in the PC group only. The main study endpoint was the overall diagnostic accuracy, including the contribution of histology to the final diagnosis. Secondary outcome measures included material adequacy, number of needle passes, and complications. RESULTS Fifty six consecutive patients (29 men; mean age 68 years) with pancreatic lesions (n = 38), lymphadenopathy (n = 13), submucosal tumors (n = 4), or others lesions (n = 1) underwent EUS-FNA using both of the needles in a randomized order. AN and PC reached similar overall results for diagnostic accuracy (AN: 88.9 vs PC: 96.1, P = 0.25), specimen adequacy (AN: 96.4% vs PC: 91.1%, P = 0.38), mean number of passes (AN: 1.5 vs PC: 1.7, P = 0.14), mean cellularity score (AN: 1.7 vs PC: 1.1, P = 0.058), and complications (none). A diagnosis on the basis of histology was achieved in the PC group in 36 (64.3%) patients, and in 2 of those as the sole modality. In patients with available histology the mean cellularity score was higher for AN (AN: 1.7 vs PC: 1.0, P = 0.034); no other differences were of statistical significance. CONCLUSION Both needles achieved high overall diagnostic yields and similar performance characteristics for cytological diagnosis; histological analysis was only possible in 2/3 of cases with the new needle.

  12. Accuracy of diagnosis of solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas on fine needle aspiration: A multi-institution experience of ten cases

    PubMed Central

    Jahangir, Sidra; Loya, Asif; Siddiqui, Momin T.; Akhter, Noreen; Yusuf, Muhammed Aasim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas (SPTP) is a neoplasm of uncertain origin and indolent biologic behavior with distinctive morphological features occurring predominantly in young women. This tumor has an excellent prognosis compared to neuroendocrine and acinar cell carcinoma, which are close differential diagnoses based on morphology, hence making it crucial to diagnose SPTP correctly. Objectives: To discuss the cytomorphological features of 10 cases of SPTP reported in two institutions and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology in establishing the diagnosis of SPTP. Methods: Ten diagnosed cases of SPTP were retrieved from the computerized endoscopy and pathology databases of our two tertiary care institutions. Nine patients had subsequent histological follow-up available. Eight patients underwent EUS-FNA while one patient each had ultrasound and computed tomography-guided FNA. The rapid on-site evaluation was carried out in all 10 cases, and additional material was retained for cell block preparation. Immunohistochemical (IHC) stains ranging from synaptophysin, progesterone receptor, chromogranin, β-catenin, CD10, and NSE were applied on cell blocks. Histological sections of all resected specimens were reviewed, and findings were correlated with those obtained by FNA. Results: Adequate material was obtained in all ten cases. IHC stains helped to confirm the cytological impression of SPTP. Histological examination of resection specimens, available in 9/10 cases, confirmed the cytological diagnosis. Conclusions: FNA particularly that obtained with EUS guidance is an effective tool in the accurate diagnosis of SPTP. PMID:26884802

  13. Cytologic features of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with "vacuolated cell pattern." report of a case diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Samad, Arbaz; Conway, Andrea B; Attam, Rajeev; Jessurun, Jose; Pambuccian, Stefan E

    2014-04-01

    The "vacuolated cell pattern" has only been recently described as a distinct morphologic variant of pancreatobiliary adenocarcinoma. Herein, we report the endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) cytologic features of a case of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with "vacuolated cell pattern" occurring in a 60-year-old man. The aspirate smears and cell block sections from the EUS-FNA of a 23.5 mm hypoechoic pancreatic head mass were highly cellular, showing variably-sized crowded three-dimensional cell clusters, flat sheets, and numerous highly atypical single cells. The background was bloody and showed necrotic debris, but no discernible mucus. The most striking feature of the aspirate was the presence of numerous very large (20-50 µm) vacuoles, occupying the entire cytoplasm, pushing the nuclei to the side and indenting them, that imparted a cribriform appearance to the sheets of neoplastic cells. The non-vacuolated neoplastic cells were large, had abundant dense (squamoid) cytoplasm, irregularly contoured hyperchromatic nuclei, and prominent macronucleoli. Histologic evaluation of the pancreatectomy specimen showed a "vacuolated cell pattern" adenocarcinoma composed of poorly formed glands, solid sheets, and infiltrating single cells with pleomorphic nuclei and large cytoplasmic vacuoles. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the cytologic features of this rather uncommon morphologic variant of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Recognition of this morphologic variant of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in ESU-FNA samples allows its differentiation from primary and metastatic signet-ring cell carcinomas.

  14. Slow-pull and different conventional suction techniques in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of pancreatic solid lesions using 22-gauge needles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia-Ying; Ding, Qing-Yu; Lv, Yang; Guo, Wen; Zhi, Fa-Chao; Liu, Si-De; Cheng, Tian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the cytological diagnostic capacity and sample quality of the slow-pull technique and compare them with different suction techniques. METHODS From July 2010 to December 2015, 102 patients with pancreatic solid lesions who underwent endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) with 22-gauge needles were retrospectively evaluated. EUS-FNA diagnosis was based on a cytological examination, and final diagnosis was based on a comprehensive standard of cytological diagnosis, surgical pathology and clinical or imaging follow-up. Cytological specimens were characterized for cellularity and blood contamination. The cytological diagnostic capacity and sample quality of the slow-pull technique and suction techniques with 5-mL/10-mL/20-mL syringes were analyzed. RESULTS Of all of the EUS-FNA procedures, the slow-pull technique and suction techniques with 5-mL/10-mL/20-mL syringes were used in 31, 19, 34 and 18 procedures, respectively. There were significant differences between these four suction techniques in terms of cytological diagnostic accuracy (90.3% vs 63.2% vs 58.8% vs 55.6%, P = 0.019), sensitivity (88.2% vs 41.7% vs 40.0% vs 36.4%, P = 0.009) and blood contamination (score ≥ 2 for 29.0% vs 52.6% vs 70.6% vs 72.2%, P = 0.003). The accuracy and sensitivity of the slow-pull technique were significantly higher than those of the suction techniques using 5-mL (P = 0.03, P = 0.014), 10-mL (P = 0.005; P = 0.006) and 20-mL syringes (P = 0.01, P = 0.01). Blood contamination was significantly lower in the slow-pull technique than in the suction techniques with 10-mL (P = 0.001) and 20-mL syringes (P = 0.007). CONCLUSION The slow-pull technique may increase the cytological diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity with slight blood contamination during EUS-FNA when using 22-gauge needles for solid pancreatic masses.

  15. Differential diagnosis between pancreatic neuroendocrine and solid pseudopapillary neoplasms on endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Raddaoui, Emad M.; Almadi, Majid A.; Aljebreen, Abdulrahman M.; Alsaif, Faisal A.; AlShedoukhy, Ahlam A.; Al-Lehibi, Abed H.; Almohameed, Khalid A.; Tsolakis, Apostolos V.; AlAbbadi, Mousa A.; Almutrafi, Amna R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the role of applying a limited panel of immunohistochemical stains on the cellblock preparation from samples obtained by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in the aim of differentiating solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs) from neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Methods: We retrospectively retrieved all the EUS-FNAs of the pancreas that have a diagnosis of NET or SPN that were performed at 2 tertiary care hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from May 2004 to December 2014. Diff-Quik, Papanicolaou, and Immunohistochemistry stains on cellblock preparations were performed. Results: Twenty cases were available (16 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) and 4 SPNs). The pNETs were immunoreactive for synaptophysin, chromogranin A and CD56 while E-cadherin was diffusely to focally cytoplasmic positive. β-catenin was negative or showed focal cytoplasmic immunoreactivity. In comparison, SPNs were positive for vimentin, CD10, CD-56, focally positive for progesterone receptors and synaptophysin, and revealed nuclear immunostaining for β-catenin. They were negative for chromogranin A and E-cadherin. Conclusion: Based on EUS-FNA samples, nuclear immunoreactivity for β-catenin with loss of membranous immunostaining for E-Cadherin can potentially facilitate differentiating SPNs from pNETs. PMID:27381533

  16. Endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration and useful ancillary methods

    PubMed Central

    Tadic, Mario; Stoos-Veic, Tajana; Kusec, Rajko

    2014-01-01

    The role of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in evaluating pancreatic pathology has been well documented from the beginning of its clinical use. High spatial resolution and the close proximity to the evaluated organs within the mediastinum and abdominal cavity allow detection of small focal lesions and precise tissue acquisition from suspected lesions within the reach of this method. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is considered of additional value to EUS and is performed to obtain tissue diagnosis. Tissue acquisition from suspected lesions for cytological or histological analysis allows, not only the differentiation between malignant and non-malignant lesions, but, in most cases, also the accurate distinction between the various types of malignant lesions. It is well documented that the best results are achieved only if an adequate sample is obtained for further analysis, if the material is processed in an appropriate way, and if adequate ancillary methods are performed. This is a multi-step process and could be quite a challenge in some cases. In this article, we discuss the technical aspects of tissue acquisition by EUS-guided-FNA (EUS-FNA), as well as the role of an on-site cytopathologist, various means of specimen processing, and the selection of the appropriate ancillary method for providing an accurate tissue diagnosis and maximizing the yield of this method. The main goal of this review is to alert endosonographers, not only to the different possibilities of tissue acquisition, namely EUS-FNA, but also to bring to their attention the importance of proper sample processing in the evaluation of various lesions in the gastrointestinal tract and other accessible organs. All aspects of tissue acquisition (needles, suction, use of stylet, complications, etc.) have been well discussed lately. Adequate tissue samples enable comprehensive diagnoses, which answer the main clinical questions, thus enabling targeted therapy. PMID:25339816

  17. [Our experiences with early vacuum aspiration (miniinterruption)].

    PubMed

    Poradovský, K; Ondás, P; Posluch, J

    1982-07-01

    The authors report their experiences with 80 early vacuum aspirations (mini-interruptions) performed at the 1st Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the University Hospital in Kosice during 1980-81. The procedure was performed between days 36-42 in 15% of the women, between days 43-49 in 52.7% of the women, between days 50-56 in 27.5%, and between days 57-60 in 5% of the women. Interruption of pregnancy did not require general anesthesia or hospitalization of the patients. Complications occurred in 10% of the women, 6.25% due to residua and 2.5% to inflammation. Further experience should reduce the occurrence of complications. The authors consider the method to be advantageous and prospective. (author's modified)

  18. [Our experiences with early vacuum aspiration (miniinterruption)].

    PubMed

    Poradovský, K; Ondás, P; Posluch, J

    1982-07-01

    The authors report their experiences with 80 early vacuum aspirations (mini-interruptions) performed at the 1st Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the University Hospital in Kosice during 1980-81. The procedure was performed between days 36-42 in 15% of the women, between days 43-49 in 52.7% of the women, between days 50-56 in 27.5%, and between days 57-60 in 5% of the women. Interruption of pregnancy did not require general anesthesia or hospitalization of the patients. Complications occurred in 10% of the women, 6.25% due to residua and 2.5% to inflammation. Further experience should reduce the occurrence of complications. The authors consider the method to be advantageous and prospective. (author's modified) PMID:7127164

  19. Choose the best route: ultrasound-guided transbronchial and transesophageal needle aspiration with echobronchoscope in the diagnosis of mediastinal and pulmonary lesions.

    PubMed

    Mondoni, M; D'Adda, A; Terraneo, S; Carlucci, P; Radovanovic, D; DI Marco, F; Santus, P

    2015-10-01

    Nodal mediastinal staging is a crucial part of the diagnostic workup of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for planning optimal treatment. Transesophageal endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and real-time endobronchial ultrasounds transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) are accurate, minimally invasive and safe diagnostic techniques for mediastinal staging. Because of the different accessibility to the mediastinum, they are considered complementary and their combination increases the diagnostic yield as compared with the either alone. Recent studies have shown that endosonography represents the best initial test for invasive mediastinal evaluation in NSCLC. Endoscopic ultrasound (with bronchoscope)-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-B-FNA) is a recently introduced procedure consisting of a transesophageal needle aspiration using an ultrasound bronchoscope. It allows to perform both transbronchial and transesophageal needle sampling with the same instrument, in the same session and by one operator only, thus maximizing time and costs savings. In a recent study Oki et al. randomized 110 patients with hilar/mediastinal adenopathies or lung abnormalities adjoining both the esophagus and the bronchi, to undergo EBUS-TBNA or EUS-FNA performed by pulmonologists with an echobronchoscope. The Authors demonstrated that both procedures provide a high diagnostic yield, without any difference in the number of adverse events and a good comparable tolerance. Nevertheless, the transesophageal approach guaranteed a significantly lower dose of anesthetics and sedatives, a shorter procedural time, fewer oxygen desaturations, a significantly lower cough score and a higher operator satisfaction. In this review our aim was to discuss the findings by Oki et al. in the context of medical literature, highlighting the importance of the EUS-B needle aspiration technique in diagnosing mediastinal and lung lesions, when EBUS-TBNA is deemed less

  20. Endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration characteristics of primary adenocarcinoma versus other malignant neoplasms of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Gagovic, Veronika; Spier, Bret J; DeLee, Ryan J; Barancin, Courtney; Lindstrom, Mary; Einstein, Michael; Byrne, Siobhan; Harter, Josephine; Agni, Rashmi; Pfau, Patrick R; Frick, Terrence J; Soni, Anurag; Gopal, Deepak V

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is often used to assist in the evaluation of pancreatic lesions and may help to diagnose benign versus malignant neoplasms. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding comparative EUS characteristics of various malignant pancreatic neoplasms (primary and metastatic). OBJECTIVE: To compare and characterize primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma versus other malignant neoplasms, hereafter referred to as nonprimary pancreatic adenocarcinoma (NPPA), diagnosed by EUS-guided FNA. METHODS: The present study was a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database. The setting was a tertiary care, academic medical centre. Patients referred for suspected pancreatic neoplasms were evaluated. Based on EUS-FNA characteristics, primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma was differentiated from other malignant neoplasms. The subset of other neoplasms was defined as malignant lesions that were ‘NPPAs’ (ie, predominantly solid or solid/cystic based on EUS appearance and primary malignant lesions or metastatic lesions to the pancreas). Pancreatic masses that were benign cystic lesions (pseudocyst, simple cyst, serous cystadenoma) and focal inflammatory lesions (acute, chronic and autoimmune pancreatitis) were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 230 patients were evaluated using EUS-FNA for suspected pancreatic mass lesions. Thirty-eight patients were excluded because they were diagnosed with inflammatory lesions or had purely benign cysts. One hundred ninety-two patients had confirmed malignant pancreatic neoplasms (ie, pancreatic adenocarcinoma [n=144], NPPA [n=48]). When comparing adenocarcinoma with NPPA lesions, there was no significant difference in mean age (P=0.0675), sex (P=0.3595) or average lesion size (P=0.3801). On average, four FNA passes were necessary to establish a cytological diagnosis in both lesion subtypes (P=0.396). Adenocarcinomas were more likely to be located in the pancreatic head

  1. Diagnostic value of endobronchial and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for accessible lung cancer lesions after non-diagnostic conventional techniques: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lung cancer diagnosis is usually achieved through a set of bronchoscopic techniques or computed tomography guided-transthoracic needle aspiration (CT-TTNA). However these procedures have a variable diagnostic yield and some patients remain without a definite diagnosis despite being submitted to an extensive workup. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and cost of linear endobronchial (EBUS) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine needle aspiration (FNA), performed with one echoendoscope, for the diagnosis of suspicious lung cancer lesions after failure of conventional procedures. Methods One hundred and twenty three patients with an undiagnosed but suspected malignant lung lesion (paratracheal, parabronchial, paraesophageal) or with a peripheral lesion and positron emission tomography positive mediastinal lymph nodes who had undergone at least one diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy or CT-TTNA attempt were submitted to EBUS and EUS-FNA. Patients with endobronchial lesions were excluded. Results Of the 123 patients, 88 had a pulmonary nodule/mass and 35 were selected based on mediastinal PET positive lymph nodes. Two patients were excluded because an endobronchial mass was detected at the time of the procedure. The target lesion could be visualized in 121 cases and FNA was performed in 118 cases. A definitive diagnosis was obtained in 106 cases (87.6%). Eighty-eight patients (72.7%) had non-small cell lung cancer, 15 (12.4%) had small cell lung cancer and metastatic disease was found in 3 patients (2.5%). The remaining 15 negative cases were subsequently diagnosed by surgical procedures. Twelve patients (9.9%) had a malignant tumor and in 3 (2.5%) a benign lesion was found. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of EBUS and EUS-FNA to diagnose malignancy were 89.8%, 100%, 100% and 20.0% respectively. The diagnostic accuracy was 90.1% in a population with 97.5% prevalence of cancer. The ultrasonographic

  2. Transnational Experience, Aspiration and Family Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Zhu; Wei, Li

    2016-01-01

    Transnational and multilingual families have become commonplace in the twenty-first century. Yet relatively few attempts have been made from applied and socio-linguistic perspectives to understand what is going on "within" such families; how their transnational and multilingual experiences impact on the family dynamics and their everyday…

  3. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Salla, Charitini; Chatzipantelis, Paschalis; Konstantinou, Panagiotis; Karoumpalis, Ioannis; Pantazopoulou, Akrivi; Dappola, Victoria

    2007-10-14

    We describe the clinical, imaging and cytopathological features of solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas (SPTP) diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided (EUS-guided) fine-needle aspiration (FNA). A 17-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with complaints of an unexplained episodic abdominal pain for 2 mo and a short history of hypertension in the endocrinology clinic. Clinical laboratory examinations revealed polycystic ovary syndrome, splenomegaly and low serum amylase and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. Computed tomography (CT) analysis revealed a mass of the pancreatic tail with solid and cystic consistency. EUS confirmed the mass, both in body and tail of the pancreas, with distinct borders, which caused dilation of the peripheral part of the pancreatic duct (major diameter 3.7 mm). The patient underwent EUS-FNA. EUS-FNA cytology specimens consisted of single cells and aggregates of uniform malignant cells, forming microadenoid structures, branching, papillary clusters with delicate fibrovascular cores and nuclear overlapping. Naked capillaries were also seen. The nuclei of malignant cells were round or oval, eccentric with fine granular chromatin, small nucleoli and nuclear grooves in some of them. The malignant cells were periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-Alcian blue (+) and immunocytochemically they were vimentin (+), CA 19.9 (+), synaptophysin (+), chromogranin (-), neuro-specific enolase (-), a1-antitrypsin and a1-antichymotrypsin focal positive. Cytologic findings were strongly suggestive of SPTP. Biopsy confirmed the above cytologic diagnosis. EUS-guided FNA diagnosis of SPTP is accurate. EUS findings, cytomorphologic features and immunostains of cell block help distinguish SPTP from pancreatic endocrine tumors, acinar cell carcinoma and papillary mucinous carcinoma. PMID:17876886

  4. Prospective validation of microRNA signatures for detecting pancreatic malignant transformation in endoscopic-ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Frampton, Adam E.; Krell, Jonathan; Prado, Mireia Mato; Gall, Tamara M.H.; Abbassi-Ghadi, Nima; Del Vecchio Blanco, Giovanna; Funel, Niccola; Giovannetti, Elisa; Castellano, Leandro; Basyouny, Mohamed; Habib, Nagy A.; Kaltsidis, Harry; Vlavianos, Panagiotis; Stebbing, Justin; Jiao, Long R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal disease. Novel biomarkers are required to aid treatment decisions and improve patient outcomes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potentially ideal diagnostic biomarkers, as they are stable molecules, and tumour and tissue specific. Results Logistic regression analysis revealed an endoscopic-ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) 2-miRNA classifier (miR-21 + miR-155) capable of distinguishing benign from malignant pancreatic lesions with a sensitivity of 81.5% and a specificity of 85.7% (AUC 0.930). Validation FNA cohorts confirmed both miRNAs were overexpressed in malignant disease, while circulating miRNAs performed poorly. Methods Fifty-five patients with a suspicious pancreatic lesion on cross-sectional imaging were evaluated by EUS-FNA. At echo-endoscopy, the first part of the FNA was sent for cytological assessment and the second part was used for total RNA extraction. Candidate miRNAs were selected after careful review of the literature and expression was quantified by qRT-PCR. Validation was performed on an independent cohort of EUS-FNAs, as well as formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) and plasma samples. Conclusions We provide further evidence for using miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers for pancreatic malignancy. We demonstrate the feasibility of using fresh EUS-FNAs to establish miRNA-based signatures unique to pancreatic malignant transformation and the potential to enhance risk stratification and selection for surgery. PMID:27086919

  5. Rapid On-Site Evaluation Does Not Improve Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Adequacy in Pancreatic Masses: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tao; Deng, Xuan; Du, Yiqi; Li, Zhaoshen

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) during endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS–FNA) of pancreatic masses has been reported to be associated with improved adequacy and diagnostic yield. However, recent observational data on the impact of ROSE have reported conflicting results. A meta-analysis and systematic review was therefore conducted to evaluate the contribution of ROSE during EUS-FNA of pancreatic masses. Method A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE/Pubmed and EMBASE databases for studies comparing the efficacy of ROSE between patients in two cohorts. Outcomes considered included diagnostic adequate rate, diagnostic yield, number of needle passes, pooled sensitivity and specificity. Findings from a random-effects model were expressed as pooled risk difference (RD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of 7 studies (1299 patients) was finally included and further analyzed in the current meta-analysis. EUS-FNA with ROSE could not improve diagnostic adequacy (RD = 0.05, 95% CI: -0.01–0.11) and diagnostic yield (RD = 0.04 95%CI: -0.05, 0.13). The number of needle passes showed no statistically significant difference with and without ROSE (RD = -0.68 95%CI: -2.35, 0.98). The pooled sensitivity and specificity of ROSE group were 0.91 (95%CI: 0.87, 0.94) and 1 (95%CI: 0.94, 1.00). The pooled sensitivity and specificity of non-ROSE group were 0.85 (95%CI: 0.80, 0.89) and 1 (95%CI: 0.95, 1.00). ROSE group and non-ROSE group showed comparable sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion Compared to historical reports of its clinical efficacy in patients with pancreatic lesions, ROSE may be not associated with an improvement of diagnostic yield, adequate rate, pooled sensitivity and specificity. PMID:27657529

  6. Rapid KRAS, EGFR, BRAF and PIK3CA Mutation Analysis of Fine Needle Aspirates from Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Using Allele-Specific qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Schrumpf, Melanie; Talebian Yazdi, Mehrdad; Ruano, Dina; Forte, Giusi I.; Nederlof, Petra M.; Veselic, Maud; Rabe, Klaus F.; Annema, Jouke T.; Smit, Vincent; Morreau, Hans; van Wezel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Endobronchial Ultrasound Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and Trans-esophageal Ultrasound Scanning with Fine Needle Aspiration (EUS-FNA) are important, novel techniques for the diagnosis and staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that have been incorporated into lung cancer staging guidelines. To guide and optimize treatment decisions, especially for NSCLC patients in stage III and IV, EGFR and KRAS mutation status is often required. The concordance rate of the mutation analysis between these cytological aspirates and histological samples obtained by surgical staging is unknown. Therefore, we studied the extent to which allele-specific quantitative real-time PCR with hydrolysis probes could be reliably performed on EBUS and EUS fine needle aspirates by comparing the results with histological material from the same patient. We analyzed a series of 43 NSCLC patients for whom cytological and histological material was available. We demonstrated that these standard molecular techniques can be accurately applied on fine needle cytological aspirates from NSCLC patients. Importantly, we show that all mutations detected in the histological material of primary tumor were also identified in the cytological samples. We conclude that molecular profiling can be reliably performed on fine needle cytology aspirates from NSCLC patients. PMID:21408138

  7. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration of pulmonary artery tumors: A systematic review (with video).

    PubMed

    Harris, Kassem; Modi, Kush; Kumar, Abhishek; Dhillon, Samjot Singh

    2015-01-01

    Convex probe endobronchial ultrasound (CP-EBUS) was originally introduced as a diagnostic and staging tool for lung cancer and subsequently utilized for diagnosis of other malignant and benign mediastinal diseases such as melanoma, lymphoma, and sarcoidosis. More recently, CP-EBUS has been successfully used for the visualization and diagnosis of pulmonary emboli and other vascular lesions including primary and metastatic pulmonary artery (PA) tumors. In this review, we will underline the role of EBUS-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) for the diagnosis of pulmonary arterial tumors such as sarcomas and tumor emboli. We will concisely discuss the clinical applications of EBUS-TBNA and the types of pulmonary arterial tumors and their different diagnostic modalities. We searched the Cochrane Library and PubMed from 2004 to 2014 to provide the most comprehensive review. Only 10 cases of EBUS-TBNA for intravascular lesions were identified in the literature. Although many cases of EBUS and EUS-guided transvascular tumor biopsies were described in the literature, there were no reported cases of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for intravascular tumor biopsies. Except for one paper, all cases were published as case reports. PMID:26374576

  8. Mechanics and deformation of the nucleus in micropipette aspiration experiment.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, Ashkan; Mofrad, Mohammad R Kaazempur

    2007-01-01

    Robust biomechanical models are essential for the study of nuclear mechanics and deformation and can help shed light on the underlying mechanisms of stress transition in nuclear elements. Here, we develop a computational model for an isolated nucleus undergoing micropipette aspiration. Our model includes distinct components representing the nucleoplasm and nuclear envelope. The nuclear envelope itself comprises three layers: inner and outer nuclear membranes and one thicker layer representing the nuclear lamina. The nucleoplasm is modeled as a viscoelastic Maxwell material with a single time constant, while a modified Maxwell model, equivalent to a spring and a dashpot in series and both in parallel with a spring, is adopted for the inner and outer nuclear membranes. The nuclear envelope layer is taken as a linear elastic material. The proposed computational model, validated using experimental observations of Guilak et al. [2000. Viscoelastic properties of the cell nucleus. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 269, 781-786] and Deguchi et al. [2005, Flow-induced hardening of endothelial nucleus as an intracellular stress-bearing organelle. Journal of Biomechanics 38, 1751-1759], is employed to study nuclear mechanics and deformation in micropipette aspiration and to shed light on the contribution of individual nuclear components on the response. The results indicate that the overall response of an isolated nucleus in micropipette aspiration is highly sensitive to the apparent stiffness of the nuclear lamina. This observation suggests that micropipette aspiration is an effective technique for examining the influence of various kinds of alteration in the nuclear lamina, such as mutations in the gene encoding lamin A, and also structural remodeling due to mechanical perturbation.

  9. Mechanics and deformation of the nucleus in micropipette aspiration experiment.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, Ashkan; Mofrad, Mohammad R Kaazempur

    2007-01-01

    Robust biomechanical models are essential for the study of nuclear mechanics and deformation and can help shed light on the underlying mechanisms of stress transition in nuclear elements. Here, we develop a computational model for an isolated nucleus undergoing micropipette aspiration. Our model includes distinct components representing the nucleoplasm and nuclear envelope. The nuclear envelope itself comprises three layers: inner and outer nuclear membranes and one thicker layer representing the nuclear lamina. The nucleoplasm is modeled as a viscoelastic Maxwell material with a single time constant, while a modified Maxwell model, equivalent to a spring and a dashpot in series and both in parallel with a spring, is adopted for the inner and outer nuclear membranes. The nuclear envelope layer is taken as a linear elastic material. The proposed computational model, validated using experimental observations of Guilak et al. [2000. Viscoelastic properties of the cell nucleus. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 269, 781-786] and Deguchi et al. [2005, Flow-induced hardening of endothelial nucleus as an intracellular stress-bearing organelle. Journal of Biomechanics 38, 1751-1759], is employed to study nuclear mechanics and deformation in micropipette aspiration and to shed light on the contribution of individual nuclear components on the response. The results indicate that the overall response of an isolated nucleus in micropipette aspiration is highly sensitive to the apparent stiffness of the nuclear lamina. This observation suggests that micropipette aspiration is an effective technique for examining the influence of various kinds of alteration in the nuclear lamina, such as mutations in the gene encoding lamin A, and also structural remodeling due to mechanical perturbation. PMID:17112531

  10. Single Center Experience with the AngioVac Aspiration System

    SciTech Connect

    Salsamendi, Jason Doshi, Mehul Bhatia, Shivank; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2015-08-15

    PurposeThe AngioVac catheter system is a mechanical suction device designed for removal of intravascular material using extracorporeal veno-venous bypass circuit. The purpose of this study is to present the outcomes in patients treated with the AngioVac aspiration system and to discuss its efficacy in different vascular beds.Materials and MethodsA retrospectively review was performed of seven patients treated with AngioVac between October 2013 and December 2014. In 6/7 cases, the AngioVac cannula was inserted percutaneously and the patient was placed on veno-venous bypass. In one of the cases, the cannula was inserted directly into the Fontan circuit after sternotomy and the patient was maintained on cardiopulmonary bypass. Thrombus location included iliocaval (2), SVC (1), pulmonary arteries (1), Fontan circuit and Glenn shunt with pulmonary artery extension (1), right atrium (1), and IVC with renal vein extension (1).ResultsThe majority of thrombus (50–95 %) was removed in 5/7 cases, and partial thrombus removal (<50 %) was confirmed in 2/7 cases. Mean follow-up was 205 days (range 64–403 days). All patients were alive at latest follow-up. Minor complications included three neck hematomas in two total patients. No major complications occurred.ConclusionAngioVac is a useful tool for acute thrombus removal in the large vessels. The setup and substantial cost may limit its application in straightforward cases. More studies are needed to establish the utility of AngioVac in treatment of intravascular and intracardiac material.

  11. Internship Experiences for Aspiring Principals: Student Perceptions and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Ginger R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate East Tennessee State University graduate student perceptions on the effectiveness of internship experiences as students explored the implementation of ISLLC Standards and the role of mentor support as they prepared for the principalship. The participating university for this study is…

  12. Pipette aspiration of hyperelastic compliant materials: Theoretical analysis, simulations and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Man-Gong; Cao, Yan-Ping; Li, Guo-Yang; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2014-08-01

    This paper explores the pipette aspiration test of hyperelastic compliant materials. Explicit expressions of the relationship between the imposed pressure and the aspiration length are developed, which serve as fundamental relations to deduce the material parameters from experimental responses. Four commonly used hyperelastic constitutive models, e.g. neo-Hookean, Mooney-Rivlin, Fung, and Arruda-Boyce models, are investigated. Through dimensional analysis and nonlinear finite element simulations, we establish the relations between the experimental responses and the constitutive parameters of hyperelastic materials in explicit form, upon which inverse approaches for determining the hyperelastic properties of materials are developed. The reliability of the results given by the proposed methods has been verified both theoretically and numerically. Experiments have been carried out on an elastomer (polydimethylsiloxane, 1:50) and porcine liver to validate the applicability of the inverse approaches in practical measurements.

  13. Female leadership raises aspirations and educational attainment for girls: a policy experiment in India.

    PubMed

    Beaman, Lori; Duflo, Esther; Pande, Rohini; Topalova, Petia

    2012-02-01

    Exploiting a randomized natural experiment in India, we show that female leadership influences adolescent girls' career aspirations and educational attainment. A 1993 law reserved leadership positions for women in randomly selected village councils. Using 8453 surveys of adolescents aged 11 to 15 and their parents in 495 villages, we found that, relative to villages in which such positions were never reserved, the gender gap in aspirations closed by 20% in parents and 32% in adolescents in villages assigned a female leader for two election cycles. The gender gap in adolescent educational attainment was erased, and girls spent less time on household chores. We found no evidence of changes in young women's labor market opportunities, which suggests that the impact of women leaders primarily reflects a role model effect. PMID:22245740

  14. Female leadership raises aspirations and educational attainment for girls: a policy experiment in India.

    PubMed

    Beaman, Lori; Duflo, Esther; Pande, Rohini; Topalova, Petia

    2012-02-01

    Exploiting a randomized natural experiment in India, we show that female leadership influences adolescent girls' career aspirations and educational attainment. A 1993 law reserved leadership positions for women in randomly selected village councils. Using 8453 surveys of adolescents aged 11 to 15 and their parents in 495 villages, we found that, relative to villages in which such positions were never reserved, the gender gap in aspirations closed by 20% in parents and 32% in adolescents in villages assigned a female leader for two election cycles. The gender gap in adolescent educational attainment was erased, and girls spent less time on household chores. We found no evidence of changes in young women's labor market opportunities, which suggests that the impact of women leaders primarily reflects a role model effect.

  15. Endoscopic ultrasound-fine needle aspiration: A novel way to diagnose a solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the liver.

    PubMed

    Husney, Jack; Guttmann, Steven; Anyadike, Nnaemeka; Mayer, Ira; Rahmani, Rabin

    2016-01-01

    via EUS-guided FNA (EUS-FNA) bringing to light an alternative method to its diagnosis. PMID:27080614

  16. Endoscopic ultrasound-fine needle aspiration: A novel way to diagnose a solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Husney, Jack; Guttmann, Steven; Anyadike, Nnaemeka; Mayer, Ira; Rahmani, Rabin

    2016-01-01

    via EUS-guided FNA (EUS-FNA) bringing to light an alternative method to its diagnosis. PMID:27080614

  17. Evaluation of Fibrogenic Potential of Industrial Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Acute Aspiration Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Khaliullin, T. O.; Shvedova, A. A.; Kisin, E. R.; Zalyalov, R. R.; Fatkhutdinova, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Local inflammatory response in the lungs and fibrogenic potential of multi-walled carbon nanotubes were studied in an acute aspiration experiment in mice. The doses were chosen based on the concentration of nanotubes in the air at a workplace of the company-producer. ELISA, flow cytometry, enhanced darkfield microscopy, and histological examination showed that multi-walled carbon nanotubes induced local inflammation, oxidative stress, and connective tissue growth (fibrosis). Serum levels of TGF-β1 and osteopontin proteins can serve as potential exposure biomarkers. PMID:25778660

  18. How short- and long-run aspirations impact search and choice in decisions from experience.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Dirk U; Hills, Thomas T; Hertwig, Ralph

    2015-11-01

    To what extent do people adapt their information search policies and subsequent decisions to the long- and short-run consequences of choice environments? To address this question, we investigated exploration and exploitation policies in choice environments that involved single or multiple plays. We further compared behavior in these environments with behavior in the standard sampling paradigm. Frequently used in research on decision from experience, this paradigm does not explicitly implement the choice in terms of the short or long run. Results showed that people searched more in the multi-play environment than in the single-play environment. Moreover, the substantial search effort in the multi-play environment was conducive to choices consistent with expected value maximization, whereas the lesser search effort in the single-play environment was compatible with the goal of maximizing the chance of winning something. Furthermore, choice and search behaviors in the sampling paradigm predominantly echoed those observed in the single-play environment. This suggests that, when not instructed otherwise, participants in the sampling paradigm appear to favor search and choice strategies that embody short-run aspirations. Finally, the present findings challenge the revealed preference approach in decisions from experience, while also suggesting that information search may be an important and potentially even better signal of preference or aspirations than choice.

  19. Aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of head and neck masses: the early Christchurch experience.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, D S; Allison, R S; Robertson, M S; Hamer, J W

    1989-12-13

    Fine needle aspiration cytology has been performed on patients presenting with head and neck masses in Christchurch since mid-1985. The results of an initial 120 aspirations were reviewed. Histology was available to compare with the cytology result in 58% of cases. Clinical review was used to assess the accuracy of the cytology result in the remaining cases. The majority of the masses aspirated were of benign origin (72%). The cytological diagnosis was accurate in 79% of cases. Of the remaining aspirates, 13% were inaccurate and 8% nondiagnostic. The sensitivity for malignant lesions was 100%, with 86% specificity (for benign lesions). Particular diagnostic difficulty was found in the differentiation between some salivary gland tumours, and the assessment of aspirates from neck masses after combined therapy (radiotherapy and surgery). Fine needle aspiration cytology is of considerable value in the management of head and neck masses.

  20. Differential Experiences of Male and Female Aspirants in Public School Administration: A Closer Look at Perceptions Within the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oller, C. Sakre

    This thesis explores the idea that aspirants in the field of educational administration, particularly females, may be remiss in assessing both the capabilities they bring to the field and their individual chances of finding work there. Perceptions of the subjects were studied via survey research in three main areas: graduate school experiences,…

  1. Aspiration pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    Anaerobic pneumonia; Aspiration of vomitus; Necrotizing pneumonia; Aspiration pneumonitis ... The type of bacteria that caused the pneumonia depends on: Your ... facility, for example) Whether you were recently hospitalized ...

  2. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasound imaging: basic principles, present situation and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Sánchez, María-Victoria; Napoléon, Bertrand

    2014-11-14

    Over the last decade, the development of stabilised microbubble contrast agents and improvements in available ultrasonic equipment, such as harmonic imaging, have enabled us to display microbubble enhancements on a greyscale with optimal contrast and spatial resolution. Recent technological advances made contrast harmonic technology available for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for the first time in 2008. Thus, the evaluation of microcirculation is now feasible with EUS, prompting the evolution of contrast-enhanced EUS from vascular imaging to images of the perfused tissue. Although the relevant experience is still preliminary, several reports have highlighted contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS (CH-EUS) as a promising noninvasive method to visualise and characterise lesions and to differentiate benign from malignant focal lesions. Even if histology remains the gold standard, the combination of CH-EUS and EUS fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) can not only render EUS more accurate but may also assist physicians in making decisions when EUS-FNA is inconclusive, increasing the yield of EUS-FNA by guiding the puncture with simultaneous imaging of the vascularity. The development of CH-EUS has also opened up exciting possibilities in other research areas, including monitoring responses to anticancer chemotherapy or to ethanol-induced pancreatic tissue ablation, anticancer therapies based on ultrasound-triggered drug and gene delivery, and therapeutic adjuvants by contrast ultrasound-induced apoptosis. Contrast harmonic imaging is gaining popularity because of its efficacy, simplicity and non-invasive nature, and many expectations are currently resting on this technique. If its potential is confirmed in the near future, contrast harmonic imaging will become a standard practice in EUS.

  3. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasound imaging: Basic principles, present situation and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Sánchez, María-Victoria; Napoléon, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, the development of stabilised microbubble contrast agents and improvements in available ultrasonic equipment, such as harmonic imaging, have enabled us to display microbubble enhancements on a greyscale with optimal contrast and spatial resolution. Recent technological advances made contrast harmonic technology available for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for the first time in 2008. Thus, the evaluation of microcirculation is now feasible with EUS, prompting the evolution of contrast-enhanced EUS from vascular imaging to images of the perfused tissue. Although the relevant experience is still preliminary, several reports have highlighted contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS (CH-EUS) as a promising noninvasive method to visualise and characterise lesions and to differentiate benign from malignant focal lesions. Even if histology remains the gold standard, the combination of CH-EUS and EUS fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) can not only render EUS more accurate but may also assist physicians in making decisions when EUS-FNA is inconclusive, increasing the yield of EUS-FNA by guiding the puncture with simultaneous imaging of the vascularity. The development of CH-EUS has also opened up exciting possibilities in other research areas, including monitoring responses to anticancer chemotherapy or to ethanol-induced pancreatic tissue ablation, anticancer therapies based on ultrasound-triggered drug and gene delivery, and therapeutic adjuvants by contrast ultrasound-induced apoptosis. Contrast harmonic imaging is gaining popularity because of its efficacy, simplicity and non-invasive nature, and many expectations are currently resting on this technique. If its potential is confirmed in the near future, contrast harmonic imaging will become a standard practice in EUS. PMID:25400439

  4. Aspiration in Chinese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Huey-Ju.

    This dissertation studies aspiration in Chinese in these four areas: the temporal relationships between aspiration and the vowel of the syllable, the perception of aspiration, the correlation between pitch and aspiration, and the role of aspiration in a historical change in Chinese. Data based on 144 words with aspiration contrasts were derived from the experiments which involved production and perception by a total of 28 Chinese speakers. On the basis of the measurements of acoustical characteristics of the voice onset time and the lengths of the syllable, a constant ratio model has been proposed to describe the timing relationships among the elements within a syllable. The perceptual experiment tested the cues of aspiration by deleting the portion of the voice onset time from the syllable on the front, back, middle and both ends. The results are reported and discussed. The effects of aspiration on intrinsic tone heights in Mandarin were measured and the significance calculated. Finally some attempts are made to solve the development of aspiration from voiced obstruents under the condition of different tones from Middle Chinese to modern dialects.

  5. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy in children: experience in 70 cases.

    PubMed

    Verdeguer, A; Castel, V; Torres, V; Olagüe, R; Ferris, J; Esquembre, C; Vallcanera, A; Muro, M D

    1988-01-01

    Results of 70 fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) were evaluated retrospectively in 61 pediatric patients. Over a period of 9 months all mass lesions suspected being malignant were aspirated. Twelve of the 70 aspirations were performed in children having known tumours, in order to exclude recurrence or metastasis. The others were carried out to obtain a diagnosis. Satisfactory specimens were obtained from 58 (83%). There were 21 benign diagnoses, 36 malignant diagnoses, and 1 with suspected malignancy. Correlation of histologic and cytologic diagnoses was possible in 45 cases. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 80%, respectively. We have found FNAB more accurate in the diagnosis of malignancies than in benign lesions. The results suggest that this is a useful technique for obtaining a first diagnosis of malignancy, as well as for excluding recurrence or metastatic disease. PMID:3352542

  6. Looking toward the Blue Sky: Environmental Education Researchers' Experience, Influences, and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Nicole M.; Clark, Charlotte R.; Wojcik, Deborah J.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental education (EE) researchers hail from diverse disciplines and sociocultural contexts, work in a range of settings, and envision various outcomes. Desiring to better understand their backgrounds, interests, and aspirations for the field, we surveyed EE researchers to explore their theoretical and educational influences and what they…

  7. Confronting Issues of Gender and Ethnicity: Women's Experiences as Aspiring Urban Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperandio, Jill

    2009-01-01

    This article examines, from a female perspective, the complexities of gender and ethnicity embedded in successful urban school leadership. The authors use qualitative data, collected from female participants in two cohorts of aspiring urban principals in a yearlong experimental leadership preparation program, to discuss issues that arise during…

  8. Virtual School, Real Experience: Simulations Replicate the World of Practice for Aspiring Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Dale; Shakeshaft, Charol

    2013-01-01

    A web-enabled computer simulation program presents real-world opportunities, problems, and challenges for aspiring principals. The simulation challenges areas that are not always covered in lectures, textbooks, or workshops. For example, using the simulation requires dealing--on-screen and in real time--with demanding parents, observing…

  9. Estimation of thyroglobulin in lymph node aspirates: Pilot experience from a tertiary referral cancer center

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Subramanian; Chauhan, Subhra; Naveen; Latha, B. S.; Raju, Nalini; Chandrasekhar, Naveen Hedne; Kekatpure, Vikram; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham; Manjunath, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Assessment of cervical lymph node involvement in patients with thyroid cancer either during preoperative surgical mapping or detection of recurrences during follow-up is a crucial step in the management of differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs). In most patients, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) confirms the presence of metastasis in lymph node. However, in cases of paucicellular lymph node aspirate or discordant sonogram and cytology results, thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement in the lymph node aspirate (FNA-Tg) is useful and a value >1 ng/ml is considered consistent with metastatic disease. Context: The addition of FNAC to the US improves the specificity, but 5–10% are nondiagnostic and 6–8% rate of false-negative results. Several studies have reported that the detection of Tg in FNA-needle washes improves the evaluation of suspicious lymph nodes in patients with DTC.Data from Indian centers on FNA-Tg are limited. Aims: We piloted the utility of FNA-Tg in patients with sonographically suspicious cervical lymph node enlargement in the setting of suspicious thyroid nodule or in the follow-up of thyroid cancer. Settings and Design: Prospective data collection. Results: We measured Tg in 13 lymph node aspirates (12 patients, 10 females) among whom 4 patients had a total thyroidectomy and 1 had a hemithyroidectomy. Eight of the 13 lymph node aspirates had FNA-Tg values >150 ng/ml, all of them had unequivocal malignant cytology and four among them had proven metastatic DTC on surgical pathology. The median FNA-Tg of the patients with malignant cytology was 7550 ng/ml with a range of 162–30,000 ng/ml. Among the remaining 5 lymph node aspirate, 2 lymph nodes showed cytological features suggestive of reactive lymphadenitis (FNA-Tg <0.2 ng/ml) and were not operated, 1 had a high-grade malignancy consistent with anaplastic thyroid cancer (FNA-Tg <0.2 ng/ml), and 2 had nondiagnostic cytology (one had non-caseating granuloma on surgical pathology [FNA-Tg 1

  10. Sensory cutaneous nerve fine-needle aspiration in Hansen's disease: A retrospective analysis of our experience

    PubMed Central

    Prasoon, Dev; Mandal, Swapan Kumar; Agrawal, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leprosy affects peripheral nerves. As Mycobacterium leprae has unique tropism for Schwann cells, thickened sensory cutaneous nerves provide an easy target for the detection of lepra bacilli and other changes associated with the disease. Materials and Methods: The data of patients with sensory cutaneous nerve involvement were retrieved from our record for the period January 2006 to December 2014. The hematoxylin and eosin (H and E)- and May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG)-stained slides were screened for Schwann cells, granuloma, and necrosis. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN)-stained smears were searched for lepra bacilli and globi. Morphological index was calculated in multibacillary lesions. Result: Twenty-nine sensory cutaneous nerves were aspirated in 23 patients. While 15 cases showed skin and nerve involvement, 8 cases showed only nerve involvement. Terminal cutaneous branch of the radial nerve was most often aspirated. No motor loss was observed after aspiration. Five cytologic pictures were seen — Epithelioid cell granuloma only in 6 cases, epithelioid cell granuloma with necrosis in 1 case, epithelioid cell granuloma with lepra bacilli in 3 cases, necrosis with lepra bacilli in 1 case, and only lepra bacilli in 12 cases. Morphological index ranged from 20% to 80%. Conclusion: Sensory cutaneous nerve fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a feasible, viable, effective, and safe procedure. It adds to diagnostic FNA yield in patients with concomitant skin involvement and offers a way to evaluate patients with only nerve involvement. Calculation of morphological index allows prognostication and may have a role in assessing response to therapy and/or relapse. PMID:26729977

  11. Fine-needle aspiration cytology in the management of salivary gland tumors: an Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Stow, Nicholas; Veivers, David; Poole, Alan

    2004-02-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of 104 cases of salivary gland tumors that were initially assessed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Based on subsequent histopathologic analysis of excised specimens, we found that preoperative FNAB was highly sensitive and specific for both benign and malignant tumors-including the most common, pleomorphic adenomas and squamous cell carcinomas, respectively. Despite its possible drawbacks, we conclude that preoperative FNAB is a useful tool in the management of salivary gland tumors.

  12. [Aspiration biopsy, puncture and neurolysis of coeliac plexus with guided linear endoscopic ultrasonography--personal experience].

    PubMed

    Milinić, N

    2005-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography, as relatively new diagnostic procedure, has made a significant progress in detection and presentation of small lesions of digestive tract, as well as in other organs. By introducing linear ultrasonography in clinical practice, the possibilities of this procedure became even more apparent, anabling even more precise diagnosis and various therapeutic procedures. With endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided aspiration biopsy it is possible to obtain samples in specific, well defined layer of gastrointestinal tract wall, and also from different parts of other organs and formations, which finaly enables establishing definite patohystologic diagnosis. First linear EUS procedure in this part of south-east Europe, was performed in University Clinical Center "Bezanijska Kosa" (N. Milinic, M. Petrovic) in 1999, and first EUS guided aspiration biopsy was performed on July 4th 2000 (N. Milinic--biopsy of pancreas). Using "Pentax" FG-36UX linear echo-endoscope, until now, 40 pancreas biopsies, 34 stomach biopsies, 9 biopsies of mediastinal lymph nodes, cysts and tumors, 22 biopsies of masses in retroperitoneal region, 7 biopsies of papilla Vateri, 4 biopsies of left suprarenal gland, 2 punctures of renal cysts, 14 biopsies of focal liver lesions, 2 punctures of liver cysts, and 5 neurolyses of coeliac plexus was performed. From 134 EUS guided biopsy samples, 114 was, according to pathologist, adequate for patohystologic evaluation, and in 96 cases obtained samples was essential for obtaining definite diagnosis. The major problem in this issue was a lack of well trained and expirienced cytologist, as also is the current problem in Western countires with more expirience and practice in this field. EUS guided aspiration biopsy, as the procedure itself, was successful in all cases. There were no major complications during the procedures, mainly because of using Colour-Doppler technique in defferentiating vascular from other structures. Results so far are

  13. School Characteristics and Experiences of African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Native American Youth in Rural Communities: Relation to Educational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Reed, Karla S.; Farmer, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine differences in the school characteristics and experiences of African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Native American youth in rural high schools as well as their relation to educational aspirations. We also investigated the characteristics and experiences of students and their families given that…

  14. [Ultrasonic aspirator with controllable suction system--variable action suction adapter and clinical experience with it].

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, S; Shimano, H; Kuroiwa, T

    2000-12-01

    While the ultrasonic aspirator (UA) has been widely used as one of the indispensable tools in the field of neurosurgery, a potential risk when using the present UA is injury to the neurovascular structures due to ultrasonic pulverization and constant forceful suction power. We have devised a small variable action suction adapter that can be used in a similar manner to conventional surgical suction tubes. The UA control unit and the handpiece used in this study were the Sonopet UST-2000 and HA-01, respectively (M & M Corporation Tokyo, Japan). The handpiece is slim, with the mid-portion diameter of 13 mm, and it weighs 100 grams. A variable action suction adapter was made from polycarbonate of 15 x 12 x 13 mm in size. The adapter was connected to the suction tube using a Y-shaped connector (Fig. 2 A), which was integrated into the handpiece. The suction power is regulated by variably closing the oval-shaped hole. The adapter can be variously placed on and rotated around the handpiece (Fig. 2 B and C) so that either the right or left hand handles it in a similar fashion to conventional suction tubes. We used this UA in surgery for 8 patients with large brain tumors (meningioma in 5 cases, metastatic brain tumor in 2 cases and glioma in one case). It reduced the risk of suction-related injury to the neurovascular structures and was handled in a similar manner to conventional suction tubes. This adapter ensures the complete control of suction power, which will reduce the risk of suction injury.

  15. Accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions: routine diagnostic experience in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nguansangiam, Sudarat; Jesdapatarakul, Somnuek; Dhanarak, Nisarat; Sosrisakorn, Krittika

    2012-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is well accepted as a safe, reliable, minimal invasive and cost-effective method for diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. This study evaluated the accuracy and diagnostic performance of FNA cytology in Thailand. A consecutive series of 290 samples from 246 patients during January 2001-December 2009 were evaluated from the archive of the Anatomical Pathology Department of our institution and 133 specimens were verified by histopathologic diagnoses, obtained with material from surgical excision or biopsy. Cytologic diagnoses classified as unsatisfactory, benign, suspicious for malignancy and malignant were compared with the histopathological findings. Among the 133 satisfactory specimens, the anatomic sites were 70 (52.6%) parotid glands and 63 (47.4 %) submandibular glands. FNA cytological diagnoses showed benign lesions in 119 cases (89.5 %), suspicious for malignancy in 3 cases (2.2 %) and malignant in 11 cases (8.3%). From the subsequent histopathologic diagnoses, 3/133 cases of benign cytology turned out to be malignant lesions, the false negative rate being 2.2 % and 1/133 case of malignant cytology turned out to be a benign lesion, giving a false positive rate was 0.8%. The overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 97.0% (95% CI, 70.6%-99.4%), 81.3% (95% CI, 54.4%-96.0%), 99.1% (95% CI, 95.4%-100%), 92.9% (95% CI, 66.1%-99.8), 97.5% (95% CI, 92.8%-99.5%), respectively. This study indicated that FNA cytology of salivary gland is a reliable and highly accurate diagnostic method for diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. It not only provides preoperative diagnosis for therapeutic management but also can prevent unnecessary surgery.

  16. The Broken Pipeline for Female Midlevel Administrators in Higher Education: The Effect of Self-Efficacy and Personal Identities on Professional Experiences and Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tiffany E.

    2013-01-01

    Women's roles in higher education have increased; however, women remain underrepresented in upper-level administrative positions. This qualitative study examined how personal identities are related to self-efficacy, and subsequently, the professional experiences and aspirations of female midlevel higher education administrators. Midlevel…

  17. Positive Experiences and Life Aspirations among Adolescents with and without Hearing Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magen, Zipora

    1990-01-01

    Comparison of 79 normally hearing and 42 hearing-impaired adolescents found no differences regarding the intensity of their remembered positive experiences. Hearing-impaired subjects reported more positive interpersonal experiences, rarely experienced positive experiences "with self," and showed less desire for transpersonal commitment, even with…

  18. The STEM Pipeline: The Role of Summer Research Experience in Minority Students' Ph.D. Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pender, Matea; Marcotte, Dave E.; Sto. Domingo, Mariano R.; Maton, Kenneth I.

    2010-01-01

    Practical research experience has been seen as an important tool to enhance learning in STEM fields and shape commitment to science careers. Indeed, this was a prominent recommendation of the Boyer Commission. Further, there is evidence this is especially important for minority students. In this paper, we examine the role of practical research…

  19. The STEM Pipeline: The Role of Summer Research Experience in Minority Students' Ph.D. Aspirations

    PubMed Central

    Pender, Matea; Marcotte, Dave E.; Sto. Domingo, Mariano R.; Maton, Kenneth I.

    2011-01-01

    Practical research experience has been seen as an important tool to enhance learning in STEM fields and shape commitment to science careers. Indeed, this was a prominent recommendation of the Boyer Commission. Further, there is evidence this is especially important for minority students. In this paper, we examine the role of practical research experience during the summer for talented minority undergraduates in STEM fields. We focus on the link between summer research and STEM Ph.D. program matriculation. We examine evidence on this question using detailed data on students participating in the Meyerhoff Scholarship Program over a 14 year period at the University of Maryland Baltimore County. Our results provide evidence of strong positive effects of summer research on participation in STEM Ph.D. programs. Further, we show that the effects of summer research vary with the frequency and timing of these experiences. The evidence that educational strategies such as summer research experiences improve academic outcomes of minorities is vital, given concern about the science pipeline in the U.S. and the continuing growth in the racial/ethnic diversity of the college-age population. PMID:21841903

  20. Aspiration in head and neck cancer patients: a single centre experience of clinical profile, bacterial isolates and antibiotic sensitivity pattern.

    PubMed

    Lakshmaiah, K C; Sirsath, Nagesh T; Subramanyam, Jayshree R; Govind, Babu K; Lokanatha, D; Shenoy, Ashok M

    2013-07-01

    Most patients with head and neck cancer have dysphagia and are at increased risk of having aspiration and subsequent pneumonia. It can cause prolonged hospitalization, treatment delay and/or interruption and mortality in cancer patients. The treatment of these infections often relies on empirical antibiotics based on local microbiology and antibiotic sensitivity patterns. The aim of present study is to analyse respiratory tract pathogens isolated by sputum culture in head and neck cancer patients undergoing treatment at a tertiary cancer centre in South India who presented with features of aspiration. The study is carried out to establish empirical antibiotic policy for head and neck cancer patients who present with features of aspiration. This was a retrospective study. The study included sputum samples sent for culture and sensitivity from January 2011 to December 2012. Analysis of microbiologic species isolated in sputum specimen and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the bacterial isolates was performed. A detailed study of case files of all patients was done to find out which is the most common site prone for producing aspiration. There were 47 (31.54 %) gram positive isolates and 102 (68.45 %) gram negative isolates. The most common bacterial isolates were Klebsiella pneumoniae (25.50 %), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16.77 %) and Haemophilus influenzae (15.43 %). Levofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic with excellent activity against both gram positive and gram negative isolates. Most patients with aspiration had laryngeal cancer (34.89 %). Aspiration pneumonia was present in 14 (9.39 %) patients. Gram negative bacteria are common etiologic agents in head and neck cancer patients presenting with features of aspiration. Levofloxacin should be started as empirical antibiotic in these patients while awaiting sputum culture sensitivity report. As aspiration in head and neck cancer is an underreported event such institutional antibiotic sensitivity

  1. The experience with fine needle aspiration cytology in the management of palpable breast lumps in the University Hospital Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Yip, C H; Jayaram, G; Alhady, S F

    2000-09-01

    A total of 676 palpable breast lumps seen in the Breast Clinic, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur from August 1993 to August 1994 were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology. Fifty-four were reported as inadequate, 501 benign, 95 malignant and 26 suspicious. One hundred and eighty-seven aspirates had histological correlation, while 34 of the malignant aspirates had clinical correlation. The majority of the other 455 patients were followed up for a period of 60 to 72 months without any malignancies becoming apparent. For analysis, only the 221 cases with histological or clinical correlation were included, (the suspicious category was included into the positive group and the inadequate cases were excluded), giving a sensitivity of 91.7%, a specificity of 91.7% and a diagnostic accuracy of 91.7%. Breast cytology was an accurate and rapid method of diagnosis of breast diseases, and in a busy surgical unit with limited operating time, it allowed for the triage of patients with breast complaints in deciding which cases needed early open biopsy. A negative cytology does not exclude the possibility of cancer, as there was a false negative rate of 11%. However by utilising a diagnostic triad of clinical examination, radiological assessment and fine needle aspiration cytology, the risk of missing a malignancy is small.

  2. Re-Envisioned Contributions: Experiences of Faculty Employed at Institutional Types That Differ from Their Original Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terosky, Aimee LaPointe; Gonzales, Leslie D.

    2016-01-01

    Guided by the theory of figured worlds, this qualitative study focuses on 18 faculty members employed at community colleges, broad access liberal arts, comprehensives, and regional research universities, who have constructed professionally and personally meaningful careers at institutions that differ from their original aspirations and/or their…

  3. Aspiration syndromes: aspiration pneumonia and pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Marik, Paul E

    2010-02-01

    Aspiration pneumonia and pneumonitis are common clinical syndromes that occur in hospitalized patients. Aspiration pneumonia occurs in patients with dysphagia and usually presents as a community-acquired pneumonia with a focal infiltrate in a dependent bronchopulmonary segment. Patients with aspiration pneumonia require treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and management of the underlying dysphagia. Aspiration pneumonitis follows the aspiration of gastric contents, usually in patients with a marked decreased level of consciousness. Treatment of aspiration pneumonitis is essentially supportive; however, corticosteroids and other immunomodulating agents may have a role in these patients.

  4. Development of a device for detecting target specimens from EUS-guided FNA samples

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Kazuya; Ueki, Masaru; Takeda, Yohei; Harada, Kenichi; Onoyama, Takumi; Kawata, Soichiro; Ikebuchi, Yuichiro; Imamoto, Ryu; Horie, Yasushi; Murawaki, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Specimens collected by fine needle are microscopic and contain blood; therefore, the presence of a target specimen within a sample is often difficult to confirm. Although rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) during endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) is beneficial, many health care facilities are unable to apply this technique due to a lack of cytopathologists. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a device that detects the target specimen within pancreatic tumor EUS-FNA samples. Patients and methods: Fifty-eight consecutive patients with solid pancreatic masses were studied for a preliminary case series at a tertiary-care university hospital (Tottori University Hospital, Yonago, Japan). The material collected was checked with a target sample check illuminator (TSCI) and was evaluated by one cytopathologist. Results: The agreement rate between the TSCI and histopathology was 93.7 %. Further testing procedures were not needed in 91.4 % of patients, and the mean number of needle punctures was 1.2 after a single pass using TSCI. No adverse events were encountered with the procedure. Conclusions: With the introduction of the TSCI in EUS-FNA, it became possible to both collect the minimum necessary target samples by EUS-FNA and to end further procedures, even without performing ROSE. PMID:26716133

  5. Applications of endoscopic ultrasound in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Leticia Perondi; Al-Haddad, Mohammad Ali; Sey, Michael Sai Lai; DeWitt, John M

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), EUS has assumed a growing role in the diagnosis and management of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The objective of this review is to discuss the various applications of EUS and EUS-FNA in PDAC. Initially, its use for detection, diagnosis and staging will be described. EUS and EUS-FNA are highly accurate modalities for detection and diagnosis of PDAC, this high accuracy, however, is decreased in specific situations particularly in the presence of chronic pancreatitis. Novel techniques such as contrast-enhanced EUS, elastography and analysis of DNA markers such as k-ras mutation analysis in FNA samples are in progress and might improve the accuracy of EUS in the detection of PDAC in this setting and will be addressed. EUS and EUS-FNA have recently evolved from a diagnostic to a therapeutic technique in the management of PDAC. Significant developments in therapeutic EUS have occurred including advances in celiac plexus interventions with direct injection of ganglia and improved pain control, EUS-guided fiducial and brachytherapy seed placement, fine-needle injection of intra-tumoral agents and advances in EUS-guided biliary drainage. The future role of EUS and EUS in management of PDAC is still emerging. PMID:24976719

  6. Applications of endoscopic ultrasound in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Luz, Leticia Perondi; Al-Haddad, Mohammad Ali; Sey, Michael Sai Lai; DeWitt, John M

    2014-06-28

    Since the introduction of endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), EUS has assumed a growing role in the diagnosis and management of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The objective of this review is to discuss the various applications of EUS and EUS-FNA in PDAC. Initially, its use for detection, diagnosis and staging will be described. EUS and EUS-FNA are highly accurate modalities for detection and diagnosis of PDAC, this high accuracy, however, is decreased in specific situations particularly in the presence of chronic pancreatitis. Novel techniques such as contrast-enhanced EUS, elastography and analysis of DNA markers such as k-ras mutation analysis in FNA samples are in progress and might improve the accuracy of EUS in the detection of PDAC in this setting and will be addressed. EUS and EUS-FNA have recently evolved from a diagnostic to a therapeutic technique in the management of PDAC. Significant developments in therapeutic EUS have occurred including advances in celiac plexus interventions with direct injection of ganglia and improved pain control, EUS-guided fiducial and brachytherapy seed placement, fine-needle injection of intra-tumoral agents and advances in EUS-guided biliary drainage. The future role of EUS and EUS in management of PDAC is still emerging.

  7. Comparison of surgical and endoscopic sample collection for pancreatic cyst fluid biomarker identification.

    PubMed

    Partyka, Katie; McDonald, Mitchell; Maupin, Kevin A; Brand, Randall; Kwon, Richard; Simeone, Diane M; Allen, Peter; Haab, Brian B

    2012-05-01

    Significant efforts are underway to develop new biomarkers from pancreatic cyst fluid. Previous research has made use of cyst fluid collected from surgically removed cysts, but the clinical implementation of biomarkers would use cyst fluid collected by endoscopic ultrasound-guided, fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical applicability of cyst fluid research obtained using surgical specimens. Matched pairs of operating-room collected (OR) and EUS-FNA samples from 12 patients were evaluated for the levels of three previously described biomarkers, CA 19-9, CEA, and glycan levels detected by wheat germ agglutinin on MUC5AC (MUC5AC-WGA). CA 19-9 and MUC5AC-WGA correlated well between the sample types, although CEA was more variable between the sample types for certain patients. The variability was not due to the time delay between EUS-FNA and OR collection or differences in total protein concentrations but may be caused by contamination of the cyst fluid with blood proteins. The classification of each patient based on thresholds for each marker was perfectly consistent between sample types for CA 19-9 and MUC5AC-WGA and mostly consistent for CEA. Therefore, results obtained using OR-collected pancreatic cyst fluid samples should reliably transfer to the clinical setting using EUS-FNA samples.

  8. Benign chondroblastoma on fine-needle aspiration smears: A seven-case experience and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Immacolata; Zeppa, Pio; Zabatta, Assunta; Merolla, Francesco; Vetrani, Antonio; Sadile, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    We report seven cases of chondroblastoma (CB) of bone, diagnosed by Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC), and confirmed by histomorphological examination. The concurrence of some cytomorphologic findings - mononucleated cells, multinucleated cells, and intercellular chondroid substance - unequivocally suggested the cytological diagnosis of CB. We also reviewed the literature on this topic in order to discuss morphological criteria and the importance of needle size. The differential diagnosis between CB, Giant Cell Tumor of Bone, and Eosinophilic Granuloma is further discussed.

  9. Benign chondroblastoma on fine-needle aspiration smears: A seven-case experience and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Immacolata; Zeppa, Pio; Zabatta, Assunta; Merolla, Francesco; Vetrani, Antonio; Sadile, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    We report seven cases of chondroblastoma (CB) of bone, diagnosed by Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC), and confirmed by histomorphological examination. The concurrence of some cytomorphologic findings - mononucleated cells, multinucleated cells, and intercellular chondroid substance - unequivocally suggested the cytological diagnosis of CB. We also reviewed the literature on this topic in order to discuss morphological criteria and the importance of needle size. The differential diagnosis between CB, Giant Cell Tumor of Bone, and Eosinophilic Granuloma is further discussed. PMID:25914148

  10. FINE-NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY OF HEAD AND NECK LYMPH NODES IN A TEN-YEAR PERIOD - SINGLE CENTER EXPERIENCE.

    PubMed

    Vasilj, Ankica; Katović, Sandra Kojić

    2015-09-01

    A wide spectrum of diseases including reactive processes, infections, lymphomas and metastatic tumors can cause enlargement of lymph nodes. The present study on 4062 patients with lymphadenopathy was conducted in the Department of Cytology, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Center, Zagreb, during a 10-year period. Of 4062 patients with lymphadenopathy, 1624 were males and 2438 were females, age range from several months to 85 years. Of 4062 fine needle aspiration procedures, 232/4062 (5.7%) samples were nondiagnostic. Lymph node aspirates were benign in 2640/3830 (69%) and malignant in 1190/3830 (31%) cases. Hematologic disease (Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) was diagnosed in 482/1190 (40.5%) and metastases in 708/1190 (59.5%) cases. Of 482 patients with hematologic disease, 48/482 (10%) had Hodgkin lymphomas and 434/482 (90%) non-Hodgkin lymphomas. In the group of malignant lymphadenopathy, there were 212/708 (30%) metastatic squamous cell carcinomas, 177/708 (25%) metastatic adenocarcinomas, 149/708 (21%) metastases of other carcinomas, and 170/708 (24%) metastases of other malignant tumors. The present study confirmed the fine needle aspiration cytology of enlarged head and neck lymph nodes to be an excellent first-line method to investigate the nature of the lesions. PMID:26666101

  11. Yield of Contrast-Enhanced Power Doppler Endoscopic Ultrasonography and Strain Ratio Obtained by EUS-Elastography in the Diagnosis of Focal Pancreatic Solid Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Fátima A. F.; da Silva, Patricia M.; Monges, Genevieve; Bories, Erwan; Pesenti, Christian; Caillol, Fabrice; Delpero, Jean R.; Giovannini, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is the gold standard for diagnosing pancreatic lesions, its negative predictive value is suboptimal. Our aim was to evaluate the yield of contrast-enhanced EUS (CED-EUS) and of strain ratio EUS-elastography (SR-E-EUS) for differentiating pancreatic solid lesions. Methods: Forty-seven patients (27 men, 20 women, 70 ± 11 years) were consecutively involved in this single-center, prospective study. They were submitted to EUS, SR-E-EUS, CED-EUS with Sonovue®, and EUS-FNA. The final diagnosis was based on the histological assessment of EUS-FNA and/or surgical specimens when available, and on follow-up of at least 6 months. Results: From the 47 focal pancreatic lesions included, 13 (28%) were benign and 34 (72%) malignant. Patients with malignancy were older (70 ± 11 vs. 61 ± 8, P = 0.003), and had larger lesions (34 ± 12 mm vs. 22 ± 11 mm, P = 0.03). Malignant lesions had higher SR-E-EUS (31 ± 32 vs. 8 ± 9, P = 0.001) and more hypovascular pattern (93% vs. 33%, P < 0.001). Logistic regression determined that only hypovascularity (OR = 2.6, 95%CI: 1.5-130, P = 0.02) was independently predictive of malignancy. ROC analysis for SR-E-EUS yielded an optimal cutoff of 8 (AUC 0.91, 95%CI: 0.74-0.98) for the best power distinction for malignancy. There was no significant difference concerning sensitivity (79%, 90%, 93%) and specificity rates (85%, 75%, 67%) of EUS-FNA, SR-E-EUS, and CED-EUS, respectively. By analysis of the inconclusive EUS-FNA subset (9 patients, 19%), SR-E-EUS > 8 and hypovascularity showed sensitivity of 80% and 100%, and specificity of 67% and 67%, respectively. Conclusion: The clinical utility of CED-EUS and SR-E-EUS remains questionable. The accuracies of CED-EUS and SR-E-EUS are similar to EUS-FNA. Hypovascularity was independently predictive of malignancy. Patients with inconclusive EUS-FNA could benefit from CED-EUS due to the high sensitivity of

  12. ASPIRE - the first British student rocket programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Adam M.; Murray, J.; Osborne, R.; Macfarlane, J.

    ASPIRE is the first British programme aiming to create and develop a small scale, hybrid engine powered launch vehicle. The project is also unique because it is a wholly amateur effort, volunteer team members having little or no professional experience in launch vehicle design, manufacture and operations; and being a mix of students and young professionals. Participants have the opportunity to develop their experience in the engineering/scientific, operational and management areas which ASPIRE encompasses. This experience will then be validated through the launching of a series of test vehicles, culminating in a demonstration of the orbital insertion of a payload by the year 2000. ASPIRE aims to eventually return an independent orbital launch capability to Britain, for the first time since 1971. This paper outlines the technical details of the ASPIRE rockets, including: airframe design and manufacture, hybrid motor design and testing, avionics development, guidance and recovery techniques, range safety practise and marketing and fund-raising. It will also cover the organisation and ethos of the programme in general. A timeline for the ASPIRE programme will be detailed, from the original ASPIRE 1 construction and launch in 1991/1992, evolving through the current series of ASPIRE Development Vehicles (ADVs), to ASPIRE 2 and 3, where the hybrid motor and other engineering subsystems are to be integrated on an increasing scale. The proposed union of an ASPIRE 3 vehicle with an Australian AUSROC launcher to achieve the 2000 orbital goal will also be covered.

  13. Pathologic evaluation of a new endoscopic ultrasound needle designed to obtain core tissue samples: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Douglas G.; Witt, Benjamin; Chadwick, Barbara; Wells, Jason; Taylor, Linda Jo; Dimaio, Christopher; Schmidt, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Standard endoscopic ultrasound-fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) needles are in widespread use. Meaningful differences between the available needles have been difficult to identify. Recently, a new EUS needle (Shark Core®, Covidien, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland), has been introduced in an attempt to improve diagnostic accuracy, tissue yield, and to potentially obtain a core tissue sample. We performed a pilot study prospectively to evaluate this new needle when compared to a standard EUS-FNA needle. Materials and Methods: Analysis of the first 15 patients undergoing EUS-FNA with the Shark Core needle was performed and it was compared to EUS-FNA in 15 patients who underwent EUS-FNA with a standard needle. Results: The Shark Core needle required fewer needle passes to obtain diagnostic adequacy than the standard needle [(χ2(1) = 11.3, P < 0.001]. The Shark Core needle required 1.5 passes to reach adequacy, whereas the standard needle required three passes. For cases with cell blocks, the Shark Core needle produced diagnostic material in 85% of cases [95% confidence interval (CI): 54–98], whereas the standard needle produced diagnostic material in 38% of the cases (95% CI: 9-76). The Shark Core needle produced actual tissue cores 82% of the time (95% CI: 48–98) and the standard needle produced no tissue cores (95% CI: 0-71) (P = 0.03). Conclusion: This pilot study found that the Shark Core needle had a high rate of producing adequate cytologic material for the diagnosis of pancreatic and peri-pancreatic lesions sampled by EUS with fewer passes required to obtain a definitive diagnosis and with a high rate of tissue cores being obtained when compared to a standard FNA needle. PMID:27386475

  14. Management of Patients With Pancreatic Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Ali; Loren, David; Mertz, Howard R.; Mallat, Damien; Haddad, Nadim; Malhotra, Nidhi; Sadowski, Brett; Lybik, Mark J.; Patel, Sandeep N.; Okoh, Emuejevoke; Rosenkranz, Laura; Karasik, Michael; Golioto, Michael; Linder, Jeffrey; Catalano, Marc F.; Al-Haddad, Mohammad A.

    2016-01-01

    Goals: To examine the utility of integrated molecular pathology (IMP) in managing surveillance of pancreatic cysts based on outcomes and analysis of false negatives (FNs) from a previously published cohort (n=492). Background: In endoscopic ultrasound with fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of cyst fluid lacking malignant cytology, IMP demonstrated better risk stratification for malignancy at approximately 3 years’ follow-up than International Consensus Guideline (Fukuoka) 2012 management recommendations in such cases. Study: Patient outcomes and clinical features of Fukuoka and IMP FN cases were reviewed. Practical guidance for appropriate surveillance intervals and surgery decisions using IMP were derived from follow-up data, considering EUS-FNA sampling limitations and high-risk clinical circumstances observed. Surveillance intervals for patients based on IMP predictive value were compared with those of Fukuoka. Results: Outcomes at follow-up for IMP low-risk diagnoses supported surveillance every 2 to 3 years, independent of cyst size, when EUS-FNA sampling limitations or high-risk clinical circumstances were absent. In 10 of 11 patients with FN IMP diagnoses (2% of cohort), EUS-FNA sampling limitations existed; Fukuoka identified high risk in 9 of 11 cases. In 4 of 6 FN cases by Fukuoka (1% of cohort), IMP identified high risk. Overall, 55% of cases had possible sampling limitations and 37% had high-risk clinical circumstances. Outcomes support more cautious management in such cases when using IMP. Conclusions: Adjunct use of IMP can provide evidence for relaxed surveillance of patients with benign cysts that meet Fukuoka criteria for closer observation or surgery. Although infrequent, FN results with IMP can be associated with EUS-FNA sampling limitations or high-risk clinical circumstances. PMID:27332745

  15. Academic Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Linda

    2013-01-01

    As colleges and universities become even more complex organizations, advancement professionals need to have the skills, experience, and academic credentials to succeed in this ever-changing environment. Advancement leaders need competencies that extend beyond fundraising, alumni relations, and communications and marketing. The author encourages…

  16. Acute Intraoperative Pulmonary Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Nason, Katie S.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Acute intraoperative aspiration is a potentially fatal complication with significant associated morbidity. Patients undergoing thoracic surgery are at increased risk for anesthesia-related aspiration, largely due to the predisposing conditions associated with this complication. Awareness of the risk factors, predisposing conditions, maneuvers to decrease risk and immediate management options by both the thoracic surgeon and the anesthesia team is imperative to reducing risk and optimizing patient outcomes associated with acute intraoperative pulmonary aspiration. Based on the root-cause analyses that many of the aspiration events can be traced back to provider factors, having an experienced anesthesiologist present for high-risk cases is also critical. PMID:26210926

  17. Metastasis-Induced Acute Pancreatitis Successfully Treated with Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in a Patient with Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Okutur, Kerem; Bozkurt, Mustafa; Korkmaz, Taner; Karaaslan, Ercan; Guner, Levent; Goksel, Suha; Demir, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Although involvement of pancreas is a common finding in small cell lung cancer (SCLC), metastasis-induced acute pancreatitis (MIAP) is very rare. A 50-year-old female with SCLC who had limited disease and achieved full response after treatment presented with acute pancreatitis during her follow-up. The radiologic studies revealed a small area causing obliteration of the pancreatic duct without mass in the pancreatic neck, and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) confirmed the metastasis of SCLC. The patient was treated successfully with systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy delivered to pancreatic field. In SCLC, cases of MIAP can be encountered with conventional computed tomography with no mass image, and positron emission tomography and EUS-FNA can be useful for diagnosis of such cases. Aggressive systemic and local treatment can prolong survival, especially in patients with good performance status. PMID:26075124

  18. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided techniques for diagnosing pancreatic mass lesions: Can we do better?

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Andrew C; Lee, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    The diagnostic approach to a possible pancreatic mass lesion relies first upon various non-invasive imaging modalities, including computed tomography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Once a suspect lesion has been identified, tissue acquisition for characterization of the lesion is often paramount in developing an individualized therapeutic approach. Given the high prevalence and mortality associated with pancreatic cancer, an ideal approach to diagnosing pancreatic mass lesions would be safe, highly sensitive, and reproducible across various practice settings. Tools, in addition to radiologic imaging, currently employed in the initial evaluation of a patient with a pancreatic mass lesion include serum tumor markers, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). EUS-FNA has grown to become the gold standard in tissue diagnosis of pancreatic lesions.

  19. Bone marrow aspiration

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003658.htm Bone marrow aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps ...

  20. Clinical Experience Using the Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability for Identification of Patients at Risk for Aspiration in a Mixed-Disease Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, Marlis; Sein, Michael T.; Palmer, Jeffrey B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the clinical performance characteristics of the Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability (MASA) for predicting aspiration (determined by videofluoroscopic swallowing study [VFSS]) in a mixed population. Method: We selected 133 cases clinically evaluated using MASA and VFSS from January through June 2007. Ordinal risk rating…

  1. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography for assessment of lymph node metastases in pancreatobiliary carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Takeshi; Kitano, Masayuki; Omoto, Shunsuke; Kadosaka, Kumpei; Kamata, Ken; Imai, Hajime; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Nisida, Naoshi; Harwani, Yogesh; Murakami, Takamichi; Takeyama, Yoshifumi; Chiba, Yasutaka; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the usefulness of contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography (CH-EUS) for lymph node metastasis in pancreatobiliary carcinoma. METHODS: All patients suspected of pancreatobiliary carcinoma with visible lymph nodes after standard EUS between June, 2009 and January, 2012 were enrolled. In the primary analysis, patients with successful EUS-fine needle aspiration (FNA) were included. The lymph nodes were assessed by several standard EUS variables (short and long axis lengths, shape, edge characteristic and echogenicity), color Doppler EUS variable [central intranodal blood vessel (CIV) presence] and CH-EUS variable (heterogeneous/homogeneous enhancement patterns). The diagnostic accuracy relative to EUS-FNA was calculated. In the second analysis, N-stage diagnostic accuracy of CH-EUS was compared with EUS-FNA in patients who underwent surgical resection. RESULTS: One hundred and nine patients (143 lymph nodes) fulfilled the criteria. The short axis cut-off ≥ 13 mm predicted malignancy with a sensitivity and specificity of 72% and 85%, respectively. These values were 72% and 63% for the long axis cut-off ≥ 20 mm, 62% and 75% for the round shape variable, 81% and 30% for the sharp edge variable, 66% and 61% for the hypoechogenicity variable, 70% and 72% for the CIV-absent variable, and 83% and 91% for the heterogeneous CH-EUS-enhancement variable, respectively. CH-EUS was more accurate than standard and color Doppler EUS, except the short axis cut-off. Notably, three patients excluded because of EUS-FNA failure were correctly N-staged by CH-EUS. CONCLUSION: CH-EUS complements standard and color Doppler EUS and EUS-FNA for assessment of lymph node metastases. PMID:27022220

  2. EUS-Guided Needle-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy: A Novel Technique With Emerging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Koduru, Pramoda; Joshi, Virendra; Karstensen, John G.; Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Peter; Giovannini, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as an excellent tool for imaging the gastrointestinal tract, as well as surrounding structures. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has become the standard of care for the tissue sampling of a variety of masses and lymph nodes within and around the gut, providing further diagnostic and staging information. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is a novel endoscopic method that enables imaging at a subcellular level of resolution during endoscopy, allowing up to 1000-fold magnification of tissue and providing an optical biopsy. A new procedure that has been developed in the past few years is needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (nCLE), which involves a mini-CLE probe that can be passed through a 1 9-gauge needle during EUS-FNA. This enables the real-time visualization of tissue at a microscopic level, with the potential to further improve the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA. The device has been studied in animals as well as in humans, and the results so far have been promising. Recently, this method has also been used for the visualization of regulatory proteins and receptors in the pancreas, setting a cornerstone for nCLE in molecular imaging. The aim of this article is to review the role of EUS-guided nCLE in modern endoscopy and its implications in molecular imaging. PMID:27099595

  3. High EGFR mRNA expression is a prognostic factor for reduced survival in pancreatic cancer after gemcitabine-based adjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hayato; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Itaba, Soichi; Ito, Tetsuhide; Nakata, Kohei; Yu, Jun; Kayashima, Tadashi; Hayashi, Akifumi; Souzaki, Ryota; Tajiri, Tatsuro; Onimaru, Manabu; Manabe, Tatsuya; Ohtsuka, Takao; Tanaka, Masao

    2011-03-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) still presents a major therapeutic challenge and a phase III clinical trial has revealed that the combination of gemcitabine and a human epidermal growth factor receptor type I (HER1/EGFR) targeting agent presented a significant benefit compared to treatment with gemcitabine alone. The aim of this study was to investigate EGFR mRNA expression in resected PDAC tissues and its correlation with patient prognosis. We obtained formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from 88 patients with PDAC who underwent pancreatectomy, and measured EGFR mRNA levels by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The high-level EGFR group had significantly shorter disease-free-survival (p=0.029) and overall-survival (p=0.014) as shown by univariate analyses, although these did not reach statistical significance, as shown by multivariate analyses. However, we found that high EGFR expression was an independent prognostic factor in patients receiving gemcitabine-based adjuvant chemotherapy (p=0.023). Furthermore, we measured EGFR mRNA levels in 20 endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) cytological specimens. Altered EGFR levels were distinguishable in microdissected neoplastic cells from EUS-FNA cytological specimens compared to those in whole cell pellets. In conclusion, quantitative analysis of EGFR mRNA expression using FFPE tissue samples and microdissected neoplastic cells from EUS-FNA cytological specimens could be useful in predicting prognosis and sensitivity to gemcitabine in PDAC patients.

  4. Role of the preoperative usefulness of the pathological diagnosis of pancreatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kazuya; Takeda, Yohei; Onoyama, Takumi; Kawata, Soichiro; Kurumi, Hiroki; Ueki, Masaru; Miura, Norimasa; Isomoto, Hajime

    2016-09-15

    Pancreatic cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death and has the lowest survival rate of any solid cancer. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) is currently capable of providing a cytopathological diagnosis of pancreatic malignancies with a higher diagnostic power, with a sensitivity and specificity of 85%-89% and 98%-99%, compared to pancreatic juice cytology (PJC), whose sensitivity and specificity are only 33.3%-93% and 83.3%-100%. However, EUS-FNA is not effective in the cases of carcinoma in situ and minimally invasive carcinoma because both are undetectable by endoscopic ultrasonography, although PJC is able to detect them. As for the frequency of complications such as post endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis, EUS-FNA is safer than PJC. To diagnose pancreatic cancer appropriately, it is necessary for us to master both procedures so that we can select the best methods of sampling tissues while considering the patient's safety and condition.

  5. Role of the preoperative usefulness of the pathological diagnosis of pancreatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kazuya; Takeda, Yohei; Onoyama, Takumi; Kawata, Soichiro; Kurumi, Hiroki; Ueki, Masaru; Miura, Norimasa; Isomoto, Hajime

    2016-09-15

    Pancreatic cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death and has the lowest survival rate of any solid cancer. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) is currently capable of providing a cytopathological diagnosis of pancreatic malignancies with a higher diagnostic power, with a sensitivity and specificity of 85%-89% and 98%-99%, compared to pancreatic juice cytology (PJC), whose sensitivity and specificity are only 33.3%-93% and 83.3%-100%. However, EUS-FNA is not effective in the cases of carcinoma in situ and minimally invasive carcinoma because both are undetectable by endoscopic ultrasonography, although PJC is able to detect them. As for the frequency of complications such as post endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis, EUS-FNA is safer than PJC. To diagnose pancreatic cancer appropriately, it is necessary for us to master both procedures so that we can select the best methods of sampling tissues while considering the patient's safety and condition. PMID:27672423

  6. Therapeutic aspects of endoscopic ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Timothy A.

    1999-06-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a technology that had been used primarily as a passive imaging modality. Recent advances have enabled us to move beyond the use of EUS solely as a staging tool to an interventional device. Current studies suggest that interventional applications of EUS will allow for minimally invasive assessment and therapies in a cost-effective manner. Endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has been demonstrated to be a technically feasible, relatively safe method of obtaining cytologic specimens. The clinical utility of EUS- FNA appears to be greatest in the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer and in the nodal staging of gastrointestinal and pulmonary malignancies. In addition, EUS-FNA has demonstrated utility in the sampling pleural and ascitic fluid not generally appreciated or assessable to standard interventions. Interventional applications of EUS include EUS-guided pseudocyst drainage, EUS-guided injection of botulinum toxin in the treatment of achalasia, and EUS- guided celiac plexus neurolysis in the treatment of pancreatic cancer pain. Finally, EUS-guided fine-needle installation is being evaluated, in conjunction with recent bimolecular treatment modalities, as a delivery system in the treatment of certain gastrointestinal tumors.

  7. Role of the preoperative usefulness of the pathological diagnosis of pancreatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Kazuya; Takeda, Yohei; Onoyama, Takumi; Kawata, Soichiro; Kurumi, Hiroki; Ueki, Masaru; Miura, Norimasa; Isomoto, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death and has the lowest survival rate of any solid cancer. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) is currently capable of providing a cytopathological diagnosis of pancreatic malignancies with a higher diagnostic power, with a sensitivity and specificity of 85%-89% and 98%-99%, compared to pancreatic juice cytology (PJC), whose sensitivity and specificity are only 33.3%-93% and 83.3%-100%. However, EUS-FNA is not effective in the cases of carcinoma in situ and minimally invasive carcinoma because both are undetectable by endoscopic ultrasonography, although PJC is able to detect them. As for the frequency of complications such as post endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis, EUS-FNA is safer than PJC. To diagnose pancreatic cancer appropriately, it is necessary for us to master both procedures so that we can select the best methods of sampling tissues while considering the patient’s safety and condition.

  8. Role of the preoperative usefulness of the pathological diagnosis of pancreatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Kazuya; Takeda, Yohei; Onoyama, Takumi; Kawata, Soichiro; Kurumi, Hiroki; Ueki, Masaru; Miura, Norimasa; Isomoto, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death and has the lowest survival rate of any solid cancer. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) is currently capable of providing a cytopathological diagnosis of pancreatic malignancies with a higher diagnostic power, with a sensitivity and specificity of 85%-89% and 98%-99%, compared to pancreatic juice cytology (PJC), whose sensitivity and specificity are only 33.3%-93% and 83.3%-100%. However, EUS-FNA is not effective in the cases of carcinoma in situ and minimally invasive carcinoma because both are undetectable by endoscopic ultrasonography, although PJC is able to detect them. As for the frequency of complications such as post endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis, EUS-FNA is safer than PJC. To diagnose pancreatic cancer appropriately, it is necessary for us to master both procedures so that we can select the best methods of sampling tissues while considering the patient’s safety and condition. PMID:27672423

  9. EUS-Guided Needle-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy: A Novel Technique With Emerging Applications.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Manoop S; Koduru, Pramoda; Joshi, Virendra; Karstensen, John G; Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Peter; Giovannini, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as an excellent tool for imaging the gastrointestinal tract, as well as surrounding structures. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has become the standard of care for the tissue sampling of a variety of masses and lymph nodes within and around the gut, providing further diagnostic and staging information. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is a novel endoscopic method that enables imaging at a subcellular level of resolution during endoscopy, allowing up to 1000-fold magnification of tissue and providing an optical biopsy. A new procedure that has been developed in the past few years is needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (nCLE), which involves a mini-CLE probe that can be passed through a 1 9-gauge needle during EUS-FNA. This enables the real-time visualization of tissue at a microscopic level, with the potential to further improve the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA. The device has been studied in animals as well as in humans, and the results so far have been promising. Recently, this method has also been used for the visualization of regulatory proteins and receptors in the pancreas, setting a cornerstone for nCLE in molecular imaging. The aim of this article is to review the role of EUS-guided nCLE in modern endoscopy and its implications in molecular imaging.

  10. Can nature make us more caring? Effects of immersion in nature on intrinsic aspirations and generosity.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Netta; Przybylski, Andrew K; Ryan, Richard M

    2009-10-01

    Four studies examined the effects of nature on valuing intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations. Intrinsic aspirations reflected prosocial and other-focused value orientations, and extrinsic aspirations predicted self-focused value orientations. Participants immersed in natural environments reported higher valuing of intrinsic aspirations and lower valuing of extrinsic aspirations, whereas those immersed in non-natural environments reported increased valuing of extrinsic aspirations and no change of intrinsic aspirations. Three studies explored experiences of nature relatedness and autonomy as underlying mechanisms of these effects, showing that nature immersion elicited these processes whereas non-nature immersion thwarted them and that they in turn predicted higher intrinsic and lower extrinsic aspirations. Studies 3 and 4 also extended the paradigm by testing these effects on generous decision making indicative of valuing intrinsic versus extrinsic aspirations.

  11. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  12. Rising Aspirations Dampen Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Andrew E.; Kamesaka, Akiko; Tamura, Teruyuki

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly believed that education is a good thing for individuals. Yet, its correlation with subjective well-being is most often only weakly positive, or even negative, despite the many associated better individual-level outcomes. We here square the circle using novel Japanese data on happiness aspirations. If reported happiness comes from a…

  13. Hydrodynamics of micropipette aspiration.

    PubMed Central

    Drury, J L; Dembo, M

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of human neutrophils during micropipette aspiration are frequently analyzed by approximating these cells as simple slippery droplets of viscous fluid. Here, we present computations that reveal the detailed predictions of the simplest and most idealized case of such a scheme; namely, the case where the fluid of the droplet is homogeneous and Newtonian, and the surface tension of the droplet is constant. We have investigated the behavior of this model as a function of surface tension, droplet radius, viscosity, aspiration pressure, and pipette radius. In addition, we have tabulated a dimensionless factor, M, which can be utilized to calculate the apparent viscosity of the slippery droplet. Computations were carried out using a low Reynolds number hydrodynamics transport code based on the finite-element method. Although idealized and simplistic, we find that the slippery droplet model predicts many observed features of neutrophil aspiration. However, there are certain features that are not observed in neutrophils. In particular, the model predicts dilation of the membrane past the point of being continuous, as well as a reentrant jet at high aspiration pressures. PMID:9876128

  14. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow KidsHealth > For Teens > Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Risks If You Have Questions What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone ...

  15. New aspirations: the debate on aspiration pneumonia treatment guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Jason C; Howden, Benjamin P; Charles, Patrick G P

    2011-10-01

    Aspiration pneumonia occurs most commonly in patients with a predisposition to aspiration (eg, those with neurological bulbar dysfunction). There is limited evidence regarding the involvement of anaerobes in most cases of aspiration pneumonia. Most patients respond to treatment for aspiration pneumonia without specific anti-anaerobic therapy such as metronidazole. Metronidazole has adverse side effects, and widespread use where not indicated can promote carriage of multiresistant intestinal flora such as vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Use of metronidazole may be appropriate in patients with aspiration pneumonia and evidence of a lung abscess, necrotising pneumonia, putrid sputum or severe periodontal disease.

  16. Aspiration and tetracycline sclerotherapy of hydroceles.

    PubMed

    Levine, L A; DeWolf, W C

    1988-05-01

    Aspiration and sclerotherapy of hydroceles have been considered an effective outpatient procedure. We report on our experience with modification of this procedure in the treatment of 28 hydroceles. A 10 per cent solution of tetracycline hydrochloride was used as the sclerosant. In this series the mean followup was 15 months and there was an over-all 93 per cent success rate. A single treatment was successful in 75 per cent of the hydroceles. Complications included a hematoma in 2 patients and epididymitis in 1. We consider aspiration and sclerotherapy of hydroceles to be a reasonable alternative to an operation.

  17. Aspirations, Attributions, and Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, William; McNall, Sidne J.

    Self-evaluation is thought to play a major role in personality and motivation. Preliminary experience with success or failure, levels of aspiration, attributions for performance, and locus of control may all be interrelated factors in human motivation. After receiving success, failure, or no feedback on a concept formation task, subjects (N=90)…

  18. Automated micropipette aspiration of single cells.

    PubMed

    Shojaei-Baghini, Ehsan; Zheng, Yi; Sun, Yu

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a system for mechanically characterizing single cells using automated micropipette aspiration. Using vision-based control and position control, the system controls a micromanipulator, a motorized translation stage, and a custom-built pressure system to position a micropipette (4 μm opening) to approach a cell, form a seal, and aspirate the cell into the micropipette for quantifying the cell's elastic and viscoelastic parameters as well as viscosity. Image processing algorithms were developed to provide controllers with real-time visual feedback and to accurately measure cell deformation behavior on line. Experiments on both solid-like and liquid-like cells demonstrated that the system is capable of efficiently performing single-cell micropipette aspiration and has low operator skill requirements.

  19. Correlation of Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System [TI-RADS] and fine needle aspiration: experience in 1,000 nodules

    PubMed Central

    Rahal, Antonio; Falsarella, Priscila Mina; Rocha, Rafael Dahmer; Lima, João Paulo Bacellar Costa; Iani, Matheus Jorge; Vieira, Fábio Augusto Cardillo; de Queiroz, Marcos Roberto Gomes; Hidal, Jairo Tabacow; Francisco, Miguel José; Garcia, Rodrigo Gobbo; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmão

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To correlate the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) and the Bethesda system in reporting cytopathology in 1,000 thyroid nodules. Methods A retrospective study conducted from November 2011 to February 2014 that evaluated 1,000 thyroid nodules of 906 patients who underwent ultrasound exam and fine needle aspiration. Results A significant association was found between the TI-RADS outcome and Bethesda classification (p<0.001). Most individuals with TI-RADS 2 or 3 had Bethesda 2 result (95.5% and 92.5%, respectively). Among those classified as TI-RADS 4C and 5, most presented Bethesda 6 (68.2% and 91.3%, respectively; p<0.001). The proportion of malignancies among TI-RADS 2 was 0.8%, and TI-RADS 3 was 1.7%. Among those classified as TI-RADS 4A, proportion of malignancies was 16.0%, 43.2% in 4B, 72.7% in 4C and 91.3% among TI-RADS 5 (p<0.001), showing clear association between TI-RADS and biopsy results. Conclusion The TI-RADS is appropriate to assess thyroid nodules and avoid unnecessary fine needle aspiration, as well as to assist in making decision about when this procedure should be performed. PMID:27462883

  20. Clinical usefulness of fine needle aspiration cytology in patients less than 20 years old: a 10-year experience at a single institution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunzoo; Jang, Eun Jeong; Jeong, Ji Yun; Park, Ji Young

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the spectrum of cytological diagnoses and evaluate the diagnostic effectiveness of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNA) in patients less than 20 years old. The subjects were selected by retrospectively reviewing records from 1999 to 2009. Selected patients less than 20 years old underwent FNA. Cytological and histological slides of samples from the subjects were reviewed. Our study included a total of 909 subjects with a mean age of 14.6 years. The majority of the FNA samples were taken from lymph nodes (n = 448, 49.3%), with the remaining aspirates obtained from the thyroid gland (n = 247, 27.2%), soft tissues of head and neck masses (n = 106, 11.7%), salivary glands (n = 75, 8.3%), breasts (n = 18, 1.9%), skins (n = 9, 1.0%) and soft tissues of extremity (n = 6, 0.7%). The majority (87.6%, n = 796) of the FNA samples were categorized as 'benign', with the remaining designated as 'atypical lesion' (n = 18, 2.0%), 'malignant' (n = 24, 2.6%), or 'inadequate specimen' (n = 71, 7.8%). FNA accuracy was 92% for diagnosing cancer. Specificity and sensitivity were 99% and 63%, respectively. Our study first revealed that FNA has a high specificity for diagnosing cancer in various anatomical locations in young patients and can be confidently used as an effective tool for diagnosing malignancies in young individuals with a clinically suspicious lesion.

  1. Aspiration of Barium Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes Santos, Cristina; Steen, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    The aspiration of barium contrast is a rare complication that may occur during studies of the digestive tract. Barium is an inert material that can cause anywhere from an asymptomatic mechanical obstruction to serious symptoms of respiratory distress that can result in patient death. We present the case of a 79-year-old male patient in whom we observed the presence of contrast medium residue in the lung parenchyma as an incidental finding during hospitalization. When the patient's medical file was reviewed, images were found of a barium swallow study that the patient had undergone months earlier, and we were able to observe the exact moment of the aspiration of the contrast material. The patient had been asymptomatic since the test. PMID:25309769

  2. The Astrophysics Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, J.

    The Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE) is funded by the National Science Foundation as the public education and outreach (EPO) component the High Resolution Fly's Eye Cosmic Ray Research Group. Since 1997, ASPIRE has been creating some of the most engaging and interactive science lessons and lab activities on the World Wide Web. In this poster, we will present an overview of the ASPIRE project, and report on the the most recent usage statistics. In addition to creating and maintaining lessons and the website, ASPIRE provides direct outreach to local teachers and students. These contacts include, in particular, local groups that are under-represented in the scientific and technical fields. Continuing as the EPO arm of the new Telescope Array (TA/TALE) project, ASPIRE will also be conducting summer workshops for students and teachers in Millard County, where the new experiment is under construction.

  3. Fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed Central

    Lever, J V; Trott, P A; Webb, A J

    1985-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology is an inexpensive, atraumatic technique for the diagnosis of disease sites. This paper describes the technique and illustrates how it may be applied to the management of tumours throughout the body. The limitations of the method, the dangers of false positive reports, and the inevitability of false negative diagnoses are emphasised. In a clinical context the method has much to offer by saving patients from inappropriate operations and investigations and allowing surgeons to plan quickly and more rationally. It is an economically valuable technique and deserves greater recognition. Images PMID:2578481

  4. A cytopathological approach to diagnosing intrathoracic lymphadenopathy using aspirates obtained by the transbronchial needle aspiration method.

    PubMed

    Özyalvaçlı, Gülzade; Yaşar, Zehra; Çetinkaya, Erdoğan

    2016-03-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is an effective, safe and cost-effective technique that allows for sampling of the mediastinal lymph node and peribronchial lesions. It is used in bronchogenic carcinoma staging, peribronchial and submucosal lesions, diagnosis of sarcoidosis and tuberculosis, differentiating submucosal invasion, and in diagnosing mediastinal masses. From our experience at the University of Abant Izzet Baysal and from a review of the literature, we discuss the adequacy and the differential diagnosis of aspiration material obtained by TBNA and cytopathological-histopathological evaluation in intrathoracic lymphadenopathies to increase the success rate of the TBNA method. PMID:27266286

  5. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the breast. An overview.

    PubMed

    Naylor, B

    1988-01-01

    With the development of the Breast Care Center in the University of Michigan, we experienced over a 4-year period a 1,200% increase in the number of breast aspirates received annually in our cytopathology laboratory. During this period, as newcomers to breast aspiration cytology, we achieved an 81.4% positive diagnosis rate in 161 cases of breast cancer without any false positives. This article reviews our experience with fine-needle aspiration cytology of the breast with particular reference to (a) procurement of specimens, (b) cytopathology of benign lesions, (c) cytopathology of malignant lesions, and (d) advantages of the procedure.

  6. GEAR UP Aspirations Project Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Brad A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a formative evaluation of the first two years of the Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP) Aspirations Project (Aspirations) using a Context, Input, Process, and Product (CIPP) model so as to gain an in-depth understanding of the project during the middle school…

  7. Assessment of Hormone Receptor and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Status in Breast Carcinoma Using Thin-Prep Cytology Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology FISH Experience From China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhihui; Yuan, Peng; Guo, Huiqin; Zhao, Linlin; Ying, Jianming; Wang, Mingrong; Zhao, Huan; Pan, Qinjing; Xu, Binghe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) overexpression can be used to predict patient prognosis in breast cancer (BC). Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a reliable predictive marker in invasive breast cancer (IBC). Thin-Prep (TP) specimens are commonly utilized for immunocytochemistry (ICC) in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Thus, we sought to investigate if the incorporation of molecular diagnosis performed on TP-processed specimens is applicable in clinical practice. Hormone receptors (HRs) and HER2 immunocytochemistry was performed on 542 primary breast cancer FNAC specimens using the TP method. One hundred fourteen HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses were performed on HER2 ICC 2+ FNAC specimens and the corresponding tissue samples. HRs results of TP slides and those of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) slides were correlated well for ER (concordance rate = 93.3%, kappa value = 0.85) and PR (concordance rate = 88.6%, kappa value = 0.75). HER2 results for the TP slides and those of the matched FFPE slides also correlated well (concordance rate = 80.0%, kappa value = 0.62). The specificity of HER2 was 97.3%; however, the sensitivity was only 67.1%. Cytological specimens and histological samples showed a strong correlation (concordance rate = 99.1%, kappa value = 0.98) while being used to evaluate HER2 gene amplification. FNAC is a minimally invasive technique that can be used as an alternative method to collect tissue especially in cases where an excisional or core biopsy is difficult to obtain, or when recurrence is present. The results of ICC HRs in FNAC TP specimens may be used instead, but HER2 assessment may not be reliable enough for clinical use. FISH testing is necessary in this setting. PMID:26091472

  8. Utility and diagnostic accuracy of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine-needle aspiration cytology of mediastinal lesions: Saudi Arabian experience

    PubMed Central

    Raddaoui, Emad; Alhamad, Esam H; Zaidi, Shaesta Naseem; Al-Habeeb, Fatmah F; Arafah, Maha

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the cytological accuracy of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine-needle aspiration (EBUS-TFNA) of the mediastinal mass/nodular lesions. Study Design: Over 3½ years from inception at King Khalid University Hospital, a retrospective analysis of the cytological diagnoses of all the EBUS-TFNA procedures performed in 80 patients who had mediastinal mass/nodular enlargement. Cytology results were reviewed and correlated with the histologic follow-up. Results: Of the 80 patients who underwent EBUS-TFNA, 15 cases (18.75%) were positive for malignancy, 48 cases (60%) negative for malignancy and 17 cases (21.25%) unsatisfactory. Of the 48 cases, which were negative for malignancy, 24 (50%) cases were of granulomatous inflammation. The overall diagnostic yield of our EBUS-TFNA specimen was 78.75%. Forty-seven cases (58.75%) of 80 cases had histological follow-up biopsies. Among them, 32 cases (68%) had the same cytological and histological diagnosis and 15 cases (31.09%) had discordance between the cytology and the follow-up histological diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for diagnosing granulomas by EBUS-TFNA are 77%, 82%, 83%, and 75% and for diagnosing malignancy are 71%, 100%, 100%, and 82%, respectively. Conclusion: Preliminary results show that cytological samples obtained through EBUS-TFNA are accurate and specific in making a diagnosis of the mediastinal mass/nodular lesions. Its optimum use depends on the effective collaboration between the cytotechnologist, pathologist, and the bronchoscopist. PMID:25191512

  9. Usefulness of conventional transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis, staging and molecular characterization of pulmonary neoplasias by thin-prep based cytology: experience of a single oncological institute

    PubMed Central

    Ramieri, Maria Teresa; Marandino, Ferdinando; Visca, Paolo; Salvitti, Tommaso; Gallo, Enzo; Casini, Beatrice; Giordano, Francesca Romana; Frigieri, Claudia; Caterino, Mauro; Carlini, Sandro; Rinaldi, Massimo; Ceribelli, Anna; Pennetti, Annarita; Alò, Pier Luigi; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Filippetti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (c-TBNA) contributed to improve the bronchoscopic examination, allowing to sample lesions located even outside the tracheo-bronchial tree and in the hilo-mediastinal district, both for diagnostic and staging purposes. Methods We have evaluated the sensitivity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the c-TBNA performed during the 2005–2015 period for suspicious lung neoplasia and/or hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy at the Thoracic endoscopy of the Thoracic Surgery Department of the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome. Data from 273 consecutive patients (205 males and 68 females) were analyzed. Results Among 158 (58%) adequate specimens, 112 (41%) were neoplastic or contained atypical cells, 46 (17%) were negative or not diagnostic. We considered in the analysis first the overall period; then we compared the findings of the first [2005–2011] and second period [2012–2015] and, finally, only those of adequate specimens. During the overall period, sensibility and accuracy values were respectively of 53% and 63%, in the first period they reached 41% and 53% respectively; in the second period sensibility and accuracy reached 60% and 68%. Considering only the adequate specimens, sensibility and accuracy during the overall period were respectively of 80% and 82%; the values obtained for the first period were 68% and 72%. Finally, in the second period, sensibility reached 86% and accuracy 89%. Carcinoma-subtyping was possible in 112 cases, adenocarcinomas being diagnosed in 50 cases; further, in 30 cases molecular predictive data could be obtained. Conclusions The c-TBNA proved to be an efficient method for the diagnosis/staging of lung neoplasms and for the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Endoscopist’s skill and technical development, associated to thin-prep cytology and to a rapid on site examination (ROSE), were able to provide by c-TBNA a

  10. Usefulness of conventional transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis, staging and molecular characterization of pulmonary neoplasias by thin-prep based cytology: experience of a single oncological institute

    PubMed Central

    Ramieri, Maria Teresa; Marandino, Ferdinando; Visca, Paolo; Salvitti, Tommaso; Gallo, Enzo; Casini, Beatrice; Giordano, Francesca Romana; Frigieri, Claudia; Caterino, Mauro; Carlini, Sandro; Rinaldi, Massimo; Ceribelli, Anna; Pennetti, Annarita; Alò, Pier Luigi; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Filippetti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (c-TBNA) contributed to improve the bronchoscopic examination, allowing to sample lesions located even outside the tracheo-bronchial tree and in the hilo-mediastinal district, both for diagnostic and staging purposes. Methods We have evaluated the sensitivity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the c-TBNA performed during the 2005–2015 period for suspicious lung neoplasia and/or hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy at the Thoracic endoscopy of the Thoracic Surgery Department of the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome. Data from 273 consecutive patients (205 males and 68 females) were analyzed. Results Among 158 (58%) adequate specimens, 112 (41%) were neoplastic or contained atypical cells, 46 (17%) were negative or not diagnostic. We considered in the analysis first the overall period; then we compared the findings of the first [2005–2011] and second period [2012–2015] and, finally, only those of adequate specimens. During the overall period, sensibility and accuracy values were respectively of 53% and 63%, in the first period they reached 41% and 53% respectively; in the second period sensibility and accuracy reached 60% and 68%. Considering only the adequate specimens, sensibility and accuracy during the overall period were respectively of 80% and 82%; the values obtained for the first period were 68% and 72%. Finally, in the second period, sensibility reached 86% and accuracy 89%. Carcinoma-subtyping was possible in 112 cases, adenocarcinomas being diagnosed in 50 cases; further, in 30 cases molecular predictive data could be obtained. Conclusions The c-TBNA proved to be an efficient method for the diagnosis/staging of lung neoplasms and for the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Endoscopist’s skill and technical development, associated to thin-prep cytology and to a rapid on site examination (ROSE), were able to provide by c-TBNA a

  11. Malignant infiltrating intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with internal fistula: one case report and clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-Liang; Meng, Wen-Bo; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Wen-Ce; Li, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a rare tumor that originates in the pancreatic duct. The diagnosis of benign, borderline or malignant to IPMN is significant in terms of making an appropriate treatment plan and prognosis. This article summarizes our clinical experience of a case report and discussion by literature review. Methods and case report: A 73 year old male patient was admitted for an occupying lesion of the pancreas. The magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) scan considered IPMN, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) also confirmed diagnosis of IPMN. Both the biliary and pancreatic duct stents were replaced, but we did not obtain any evidence by cytological evaluation. One month later, ERCP and intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) showed infiltrating growth of the tumor. Endoscopic ultrasonography guided fine-needle aspiration was performed at the same time, and pathological diagnosis was suggested as borderline IPMN. Results: In the absence of pathological support, the patient presented with the clinical diagnosis of infiltrating intraductal papillary mucinous adenocarcinoma (IPMC) and was recommended for surgery. However, the patient and his family refused surgery, and were discharged. Subsequently, the patient died 6.5 months (197 days) following first diagnosis. Conclusions: Currently, the definition and classification of IPMN is done by specification, although there remain some difficulties in diagnosing its subtypes. For diagnostic purposes, CT, MRCP, ERCP, IDUS, EUS and EUS-FNA can all be applied. Cytological negative pathology might not completely rule out malignancy, and would still require further examination and follow-up. PMID:26885135

  12. Creative Aspirations or Pipe Dreams? Toward Understanding Creative Mortification in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ronald A.; Dilley, Anna E.

    2016-01-01

    What experiences influence the development of creativity in children and adolescents? One experience is the mortification of creative aspirations. Creative mortification (CM) refers to the loss of one's willingness to pursue a particular creative aspiration following a negative performance outcome. The purpose of this article is to introduce an…

  13. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of fibromatoses.

    PubMed

    Raab, S S; Silverman, J F; McLeod, D L; Benning, T L; Geisinger, K R

    1993-01-01

    Fibromatoses form a spectrum of clinicopathologic entities characterized by the infiltrative proliferation of fibroblasts that lack malignant cytologic features. Fibromatoses present as nodular soft tissue masses almost anywhere in the body and thus are often amenable to fine needle aspiration (FNA). This report describes the FNA cytologic findings of fibromatosis in six patients ranging in age from 7 1/2 weeks to 36 years. Two of the lesions arose in the abdominal wall (musculoaponeurotic fibromatosis or extra-abdominal desmoid), and one each involved the plantar surface (Ledderhose's disease), the shoulder and the sternocleidomastoid muscle (Fibromatosis coli). The FNA of the shoulder was initially interpreted as nodular fasciitis due to the clinical presentation of a rapidly growing mass; an aspirate from the deep musculoaponeurotic region was believed to reveal a low grade sarcoma. The FNA diagnosis of musculoaponeurotic fibromatosis in a patient with familial polyposis coli suggested the diagnosis of Gardner's syndrome. Cytologically the aspirates consisted of groups of loosely cohesive, bland-appearing, spindle-shaped cells having oval to elongated nuclei and cytoplasmic tags. Individual spindle cells and rare inflammatory cells were also present. The aspirate of fibromatosis coli also contained degenerating skeletal muscle cells. Tissue confirmation was obtained in four cases. We believe that FNA is a useful procedure for the initial and recurrent diagnosis of fibromatoses and in the separation of fibromatoses from other benign and malignant soft tissue lesions. A discussion of other entities that enter into the cytologic differential diagnosis, such as mesenchymal repair, fasciitis and spindle cell types of sarcoma, is presented. From our experience we believe that the clinicopathologic features can suggest the diagnosis of fibromatosis, but histologic confirmation is recommended.

  14. Translating obstetrics and gynaecology undergraduate experience into career aspiration: an audit of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) medical student placement standards.

    PubMed

    Bonnett, T J; Roberts, A L; Farrell, T A

    2012-11-01

    In 2006, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) published a list of undergraduate placement standards in an effort to improve the obstetrics and gynaecology (O&G) undergraduate experience and reverse declining interest in the specialty among UK graduates. We surveyed 3rd-year medical students undertaking O&G placements to investigate how appropriate they felt the RCOG placement standards were. We present the first evaluation of these standards and discuss their potential role in improving the undergraduate O&G experience. We also sought to examine the influence of undergraduate O&G exposure on interest in entering the specialty and the effect of gender on perceived learning experience. Students rated the RCOG standards as highly appropriate, and significant differences in clinical exposure and career intentions were seen between genders. Overall, students demonstrated greater interest in pursuing O&G than has previously been documented, which may represent a wider upturn in interest in the speciality.

  15. [Prevention of Perioperative Aspiration Pneumonitis].

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    To prevent perioperative aspiration pneumonitis, it is necessary to reduce the volume and acidity of gastric content. The guideline for preoperative fasting published by Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists recommends fasting from intake of clear fluids, breast milk and nonhuman milk at least 2h, 4h and 6h, respectively, before elective procedures requiring general anesthesia, regional anesthesia or sedation/analgesia. Gastrointestinal stimulants, histamine-2 receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors, antacids, antiemetics, anticholinergics are effective for reduction of the volume or acidity of gastric content. However, the routine preoperative use of these drugs to reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration in patients who have no apparent increased risk for pulmonary aspiration is not recommended. PMID:27004383

  16. Aspiration cytology of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Geisinger, K R; Weidner, N

    1986-08-01

    Although mass lesions of the salivary glands are readily accessible to examination by fine-needle aspiration, the use of this modality has been limited. In part, this may be related to the difficulty differentiating between benign and malignant neoplasms in some cytologic specimens. Marked atypia in reactive non-neoplastic epithelium also could result in a false-positive diagnosis. In addition, aspiration of hypocellular material from cystic neoplasms, eg, well-differentiated mucoepidermoid carcinoma, may lead to false-negative cytologic reports. However, the diagnostic specificities claimed by a number of authors for this method are excellent. Furthermore, aspirates of certain specific neoplasms may yield highly distinctive cellular samples, such as the uniform tumor cells and extracellular hyaline spheres in many adenoid cystic carcinomas. Another example is the characteristic transition between the epithelial and myoepithelial cells of pleomorphic adenomas, which may contain prominent myxoid matrical material. With the increasing recognition of such features, the reported levels of diagnostic accuracy are improving.

  17. Giving It the Old College Try: Understanding Degree Commitment among Division I FBS NFL Aspirants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Guadalupe Federico.

    2012-01-01

    Building on sociological studies regarding college choice and persistence, this qualitative study investigates the college and post college experiences of 15 current students with NFL aspirations and 13 former students who held NFL aspirations, all from Division I Football Bowl Series (FBS) programs. A phenomenological design is implemented to…

  18. Aspirations and Capabilities of Rural Youth in Relation to Present and Projected Labor Market Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Max F.; And Others

    A study was conducted to: determine the aspirations and capabilities of rural youth in selected low-income counties in Arkansas; relate aspirations, capabilities, and the discrepancy between the two to the experience background of the youths studied; and relate the youths' occupational plans to present and projected labor market requirements. The…

  19. OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE FOR FEMALES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JEFFS, GEORGE A.

    OCCUPATIONAL TITLES USABLE IN ASSESSING OCCUPATIONAL GOALS OFSENIOR HIGH SCHOOL FEMALES WERE SELECTED AS THE FIRST STEP IN ESTABLISHING AN OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE FOR FEMALES. A LIST OF 117 OCCUPATIONAL TITLES, COMPILED FROM THREE PREVIOUS STUDIES AND "THE DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES," WAS RATED ON A SIX-LEVEL SCALE AS TO ITS GENERAL…

  20. Aspirations of Latina Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.

    2013-01-01

    Parents' aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents' aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes…

  1. Shaping the Aspirations of Female Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streitmatter, Janice

    1983-01-01

    This study examined specific variables in relation to the level of aspiration (LOA) of American female youth. Young women with high aspiration levels achieve their goals more often than those with lower aspirations. More awareness by parents, counselors, and teachers will help younger women shape their LOA. (MD)

  2. 21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endometrial aspirator. 884.1060 Section 884.1060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.1060 Endometrial aspirator. (a) Identification. An endometrial aspirator is a device designed...

  3. 21 CFR 884.1050 - Endocervical aspirator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endocervical aspirator. 884.1050 Section 884.1050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.1050 Endocervical aspirator. (a) Identification. An endocervical aspirator is a device designed...

  4. An empirical model of human aspiration in low-velocity air using CFD investigations.

    PubMed

    Anthony, T Renée; Anderson, Kimberly R

    2015-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed to investigate the aspiration efficiency of the human head in low velocities to examine whether the current inhaled particulate mass (IPM) sampling criterion matches the aspiration efficiency of an inhaling human in airflows common to worker exposures. Data from both mouth and nose inhalation, averaged to assess omnidirectional aspiration efficiencies, were compiled and used to generate a unifying model to relate particle size to aspiration efficiency of the human head. Multiple linear regression was used to generate an empirical model to estimate human aspiration efficiency and included particle size as well as breathing and freestream velocities as dependent variables. A new set of simulated mouth and nose breathing aspiration efficiencies was generated and used to test the fit of empirical models. Further, empirical relationships between test conditions and CFD estimates of aspiration were compared to experimental data from mannequin studies, including both calm-air and ultra-low velocity experiments. While a linear relationship between particle size and aspiration is reported in calm air studies, the CFD simulations identified a more reasonable fit using the square of particle aerodynamic diameter, which better addressed the shape of the efficiency curve's decline toward zero for large particles. The ultimate goal of this work was to develop an empirical model that incorporates real-world variations in critical factors associated with particle aspiration to inform low-velocity modifications to the inhalable particle sampling criterion.

  5. ACCURATE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN A NATURALLY-ASPIRATED RADIATION SHIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzeja, R.

    2009-09-09

    Experiments and calculations were conducted with a 0.13 mm fine wire thermocouple within a naturally-aspirated Gill radiation shield to assess and improve the accuracy of air temperature measurements without the use of mechanical aspiration, wind speed or radiation measurements. It was found that this thermocouple measured the air temperature with root-mean-square errors of 0.35 K within the Gill shield without correction. A linear temperature correction was evaluated based on the difference between the interior plate and thermocouple temperatures. This correction was found to be relatively insensitive to shield design and yielded an error of 0.16 K for combined day and night observations. The correction was reliable in the daytime when the wind speed usually exceeds 1 m s{sup -1} but occasionally performed poorly at night during very light winds. Inspection of the standard deviation in the thermocouple wire temperature identified these periods but did not unambiguously locate the most serious events. However, estimates of sensor accuracy during these periods is complicated by the much larger sampling volume of the mechanically-aspirated sensor compared with the naturally-aspirated sensor and the presence of significant near surface temperature gradients. The root-mean-square errors therefore are upper limits to the aspiration error since they include intrinsic sensor differences and intermittent volume sampling differences.

  6. Aspiration pneumonia and challenges following the Samoa Tsunami in 2009.

    PubMed

    Leong-Nowell, Tamara Ah; Leavai, Foloto; Ah Ching, Lucilla; Fiu, Limbo; Wyber, Rosemary; Nisbet, Mitzi; Jones, David; Blackmore, Tim; Ioane-Cleverley, Tupu

    2012-01-20

    On 29 September 2009, a large tsunami struck the Samoan Islands in the South Pacific Ocean, causing 142 deaths and large numbers of casualties. 199 patients presented to the emergency department within the first 72 hours. Twenty-nine patients were admitted with respiratory symptoms and histories of aspirating contaminated seawater and were diagnosed with tsunami-associated aspiration pneumonia. These patients were initially treated with empiric antibiotics based on drug availability and published experience after the Asian Boxing Day Tsunami of 2006. Antibiotic treatment was subsequently modified with sputum culture information. The good outcomes of the Samoa Tsunami patients may be attributed to early initiation of appropriate antibiotics and timely coordinated management.

  7. College Aspirations and Preparation: How AVID Students Beat the Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Dana

    2013-01-01

    A study of "at risk" high school youth revealed how student participation in the Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID) program positively affected student achievement and increased college aspirations and entrance rates. The experiences of the students, teachers, and administrators were examined using a case study approach…

  8. Aspiration pneumonia in dogs: treatment, monitoring, and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Heidi M; Rahilly, Louisa J

    2012-12-01

    Aspiration pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis are associated with significant morbidity in both veterinary and human medicine. A variety of medical conditions and medications can predispose patients to aspiration. Ideally, aspiration should be prevented, but in dogs that develop aspiration pneumonia, close monitoring and supportive care are imperative. This article describes antimicrobial treatment, fluid therapy, ancillary medical therapy, oxygen therapy, and prognosis for aspiration pneumonia.

  9. Needle aspiration of peritonsillar abscess in children.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, E; Brodsky, L; Stanievich, J; Volk, M

    1993-02-01

    Needle aspiration for the treatment of peritonsillar abscess was assessed in 43 consecutive children aged 7 to 18 years (mean age, 13.9 +/- 2.5 years) during the 3-year period from 1988 through 1991. A positive aspirate was obtained in 31 (76%) of the 41 patients who cooperated for needle aspiration; a mean of 2.9 +/- 1.9 mL of pus was withdrawn. Of the 31 children with a positive aspirate, in 27 (87%) the abscess resolved, two (6%) required a second aspiration for resolution, and two (6%) underwent immediate tonsillectomy for persistent abscess. Of the 10 children (24%) with negative aspirations, in six (60%) the abscess resolved with antibiotic treatment alone, three (30%) underwent immediate (quinsy) tonsillectomy, and in one (10%) the abscess spontaneously drained. No bleeding, airway obstruction, or anesthetic complications occurred. Needle aspiration of peritonsillar abscess in children, with tonsillectomy reserved for nonresponders, appears to be an efficacious and safe method of treatment.

  10. Aspirations of Latina adolescent suicide attempters

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.

    2013-01-01

    Parents’ aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents’ aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes in youths’ behavior can be deleterious, such as when adolescents manifest suicidal behaviors. We examined aspirations expressed by 12 Latina adolescent suicide attempters and their parents and compared them to 12 non-suicidal Latinas and parents. Qualitative analyses revealed that incongruence of aspirations between girls and their parents were greater among suicidal teens. Suicidal and non-suicidal Latinas presented contrasting aspirations: the former on gaining independence and the latter on completing their education and pursuing careers. Findings may inform developmental research and ways in which clinicians and policymakers can help Latinas achieve their own and their parents’ aspirations. PMID:24013464

  11. Contrast enhancement and elastography in endoscopic ultrasound: an update of clinical applications in pancreatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Serrani, Marta; Lisotti, Andrea; Caletti, Giancarlo; Fusaroli, Pietro

    2016-08-01

    It is well established that endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is fundamental in the characterization of many diseases concerning different organs, i.e. pancreaticobiliary diseases, gastrointestinal pathologic conditions, and lymph nodes of unknown origin. It is also well known that many factors can hamper the accuracy of EUS, i.e. biliary stents, chronic pancreatitis, poor operator's expertise. These factors can also lead to suboptimal accuracy when cytological confirmation through EUS-fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is indicated. In recent years, new technological tools have rapidly increased their clinical impact improving the diagnostic power of EUS and EUS-FNA. Among these new tools, the most investigated and useful ones are represented by contrast harmonic-EUS (CH-EUS) and EUS-elastography (EUS-E). The purpose of this paper is to provide, through a review of the literature, an update of the applications of CH-EUS and EUS-E in the routine clinical practice in pancreatic diseases. We discussed the first reports and applications of these techniques in our previous review published in Minerva Medica. The applications of CH-EUS and EUS-E to the study of pancreatic diseases appear feasible and safe. The use of both techniques is very simple and does not require any relevant additional workload for the endoscopic personnel. CH-EUS is now considered an important and accurate tool in the diagnosis of solid pancreatic masses and in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic cystic lesions. CH-EUS targeted FNA is an active field of research. However the available studies show that CH-EUS increases FNA accuracy by a little extent, without statistical significance; moreover, CH-EUS FNA showed a trend toward being more efficient vs. simple EUS FNA (less needle passes and more abundance in cytological material) but this trend did not reach statistical significance. On the other hand, the clinical impact of EUS-E in terms of differential diagnosis of pancreatic masses is still under

  12. Transbronchial aspiration of subcarinal lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Blainey, A D; Curling, M; Green, M

    1988-04-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration of subcarinal lymph nodes has been undertaken in 60 consecutive patients with pulmonary malignancies undergoing routine fibreoptic bronchoscopy. Four aspirates from the subcarinal nodes contained malignant cells; three squamous cell carcinoma and one adenocarcinoma. Four of 40 (10%) of patients with non-small-cell carcinoma of the lung had a positive aspirate. We have not confirmed the high positive rate previously reported, but nevertheless transbronchial needle aspiration provided useful staging information in some patients. The technique is rapid, safe and simple, and can easily be applied in a routine bronchoscopy service for all patients with suspected cancer, or selected patients under active consideration for surgery. PMID:3166928

  13. Thrombus aspiration catheter is a Dottering balloon.

    PubMed

    Sheshagiri Rao, D; Barik, Ramachandra; Prasad, Akula Siva

    2016-01-01

    Coronary angiogram in a young man with history of STEMI with delayed presentation revealed subtotal occlusion of left anterior descending artery (LAD) with large thrombotic filling defect distal to the critical lesion. PCI was preferred without delay because of ongoing chest pain. Several runs of thrombus aspiration failed to detect any visible thrombus. However, the immediate angiogram after thrombus aspiration showed complete distal embolization of the thrombus which could have been achieved by Dottering or balloon dilatation. In contrary to the general perception, does thrombus aspiration push more thrombus than it can aspirate? PMID:27543477

  14. Neglected foreign body aspiration mimicking bronchial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Afghani, Reza; Khandashpour Ghomi, Mahmoud; Khandoozi, Seyed Reza; Yari, Behrouz

    2016-07-01

    Foreign body aspiration can occur in any age group, but it is more commonly seen in children. In adults, there is usually a predisposing condition that poses a risk of aspiration. If aspiration occurs, prompt diagnosis and extraction of the foreign body is needed to prevent early and late complications. We report a rare case of neglected foreign body aspiration in a 45-year-old schizophrenic opium addicted patient, which resulted in an occlusive lesion in the bronchus, mimicking bronchial carcinoma. PMID:27273232

  15. Aspiration

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosis of benign lesions. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... patient with liver disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  16. High Aspirations but Low Progression: The Science Aspirations-Careers Paradox amongst Minority Ethnic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jennifer; Archer, Louise; Osborne, Jonathan; Dillon, Justin; Willis, Beatrice; Wong, Billy

    2011-01-01

    Students' interest in studying science and their aspirations to pursue science-related careers is a topic of global concern. In this paper, a set of data gathered for the initial phase of the 5-year study of Science Aspirations and Careers: Age 10-14 (the ASPIRES project) is presented. In the initial phase of this project, a questionnaire…

  17. The internet, adolescent males, and homemade blowgun darts: a recipe for foreign body aspiration.

    PubMed

    Walz, Patrick C; Scholes, Melissa A; Merz, Meredith N; Elmaraghy, Charles A; Jatana, Kris R

    2013-08-01

    We describe our experience with blowgun dart aspiration via an illustrative case series and review the resources available to teach children how to construct these objects. A 15-year-old boy presented with cough, wheeze, and eventually admitted to aspiration of a homemade blowgun dart. This instance heightened the awareness of our experience with blowgun dart aspiration as 3 cases presented within a 3-month period. Patients uniformly presented with cough and reported aspiration, and wheezing was noted in 2 of the 3. Although all ultimately admitted their behavior, 2 were initially reluctant to admit aspirating the blowgun dart. Radiographic findings of a needle-shaped metallic airway foreign body were consistent in all patients. Each admitted to finding instructions for blowgun dart construction on the Internet. Emergent rigid bronchoscopy with blowgun dart removal resulted in symptom resolution in all without complication. This represents the largest series of blowgun dart aspiration to date. During deep inhalation, when preparing to propel a blowgun dart, the vocal folds maximally abduct, leading to increased risk for aspiration. Twenty websites were identified providing instructions for the construction of homemade blowgun darts. With the accessibility of the Internet and number of instructional websites, this clinical entity may become more common in the future. Unfortunately, only a few of the websites provide any safety warnings. Certainly, prompt treatment can result in good outcomes; however, serious potential complications, including death, could occur especially given the hesitance our patients showed in divulging the truth of the inciting event. PMID:23878050

  18. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid An ultrasound-guided thyroid biopsy ... Thyroid? What is Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? During a fine needle aspiration ...

  19. Assessment of an Aspiring Leaders Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alao, Solomon; Wright, Henrietta; Newton, Vera

    This paper describes a program designed to support aspiring educational leaders' leadership competence, autonomy, relatedness, and leadership motivation. It also discusses the New Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards. To assess the extent to which the program achieved its goals, 27 aspiring leaders, all of whom are…

  20. Undergraduate Women's Gender Awareness and Status Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yukiko

    A study was conducted to determine women's realization toward the quality of life, identifying their status aspirations. The study's primary purpose was to achieve a better understanding of how undergraduate women of Guam and Japan would aspire to their academic and social goals and how they would become aware of their gender equality. The…

  1. Educational Aspirations in Inner City Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve; Winston, Joe

    2008-01-01

    This research aimed to assess the nature and level of pupils' educational aspirations and to elucidate the factors that influence these aspirations. A sample of five inner city comprehensive secondary schools were selected by their local authority because of poor pupil attendance, below-average examination results and low rates of continuing in…

  2. Gendered Trends in Student Teachers' Professional Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on a small-scale, exploratory study investigating the professional aspirations of a cohort of student teachers at a UK university. Questionnaires and interviews sought insights into the students' perceptions of leadership, future aspirations and self-perceptions as potential leaders. Whilst there was commonality in male and…

  3. Capital, Agency, Family and the Diaspora: An Exploration of Boys' Aspirations towards Higher Education in Urban Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockfelt, Shawanda

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses factors impacting on boys' educational aspirations at two case-study schools in urban Jamaica. It focuses on boys' experience of their educational environment in relation to social, cultural and economic factors, which shapes the nature of their aspirations towards higher education. The study utilised Bourdieu's…

  4. Primary stentriever versus combined stentriever plus aspiration thrombectomy approaches: in vitro stroke model comparison

    PubMed Central

    Mokin, Maxim; Ionita, Ciprian N; Nagesh, Swetadri Vasan Setlur; Rudin, Stephen; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2014-01-01

    Background Artificial stroke models can be used for testing various thrombectomy devices. Objective To determine the value of combined stentriever–aspiration thrombectomy compared with the stentriever-alone approach. Methods We designed an in vitro model of the intracranial circulation with a focus on the middle cerebral artery (MCA) that closely resembles the human intracranial circulation. After introducing fresh clot in the MCA, we used conventional biplane angiography and microangiographic fluoroscopy to compare recanalization rates and occurrence of emboli in new, unaffected territory for thrombectomy approaches in which a stentriever (Solitaire flow restoration stentriever, Covidien) was used alone or in combination with continuous manual aspiration through a Navien catheter (Covidien). Results In a total of 22 experiments (11 for each approach), successful clot delivery to the MCA was achieved in all cases. Successful angiographic recanalization (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score of 2b–3) was achieved more frequently with the combined stentriever–aspiration approach than with the stentriever-alone approach (in 10 vs 4 experiments, p=0.023). Emboli in new territory occurred in three experiments with the stentriever-alone approach, and none were seen with the combined approach (p=0.21). Conclusions The combined stentriever–aspiration approach to thrombectomy leads to better angiographic recanalization rates than use of the stentriever alone. Further experiments are needed to test the value of balloon-guide catheters and aspiration performed using other types of catheters and modes of aspiration. PMID:24789594

  5. Aspiration pneumonia in dogs: pathophysiology, prevention, and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Heidi M; Rahilly, Louisa J

    2012-12-01

    Aspiration pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis are associated with significant morbidity in veterinary and human medicine. A variety of medical conditions and medications can predispose patients to aspiration, and every precaution should be taken to prevent aspiration from occurring. For dogs that aspirate oral or gastric contents and subsequently develop pneumonia, monitoring and supportive care are imperative. This article discusses the pathophysiology, prevention, and diagnosis of aspiration pneumonia.

  6. Deep high-resolution fluorescence microscopy of full organs: the benefit of ultraminiature confocal miniprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, France; Le Nevez, Arnaud; Genet, Magalie; Osdoit, Anne; Lacombe, François

    2009-02-01

    Background: Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (CLE) based on ultraminiature miniprobes (Cellvizio®, Mauna Kea Technologies, Paris, France) is able to image the inner microstructure of retroperitoneal full organs punctured during EUS-FNA procedures, such as pancreas, liver or lymph nodes. Therefore, pCLE can provide an easy-to-use and precise adjunct tool to ultrasonographic interventions in order to target suspicious areas for biopsies in EUS-FNA. Material and Methods: Probe-based CLE (pCLE) was performed on ex-vivo surgically resected specimens after topical application of fluorophores in standard 19G and 22G needles. Two prototype miniprobes ("S-probe" 300 microns diameter, field of view 400*280 microns, and "S-probe" 650 microns diameter, field of view 500*600 microns) were then inserted into the needles and enabled visualization of the inner microstructures of uterus, lung, kidney, stomach and esophagus, in both healthy and cancerous conditions. Then, pCLE was performed in-vivo on four pigs during three NOTES and one EUS-FNA procedures after intravenous injection of 2-7mL fluorescein 1-10% using the prototype "S-probe" 350 microns diameter inserted in 19G FNA needles. Liver, pancreas and spleen were imaged. Results: During the ex-vivo experiments, pCLE made it possible to distinguish microstructures, such as alveoli and macrophages in the lungs. During the in-vivo experiments, Cellvizio® video sequences showed hepatic lobules and the portal vein in the liver, and red and white pulp in the spleen. Conclusion: pCLE provides in vivo cellular information about full organs. It has the potential to help target biopsies during EUSFNA, which suffers from a high rate of false negatives, thus increasing its sensitivity.

  7. Increasing faculty diversity: How institutions matter to the PhD aspirations of undergraduate students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deangelo, Linda Teresa

    This study used a Hierarchical Generalized Linear Model (HGLM) to investigate how the experiences a student has in college and the college they attend affects the likelihood that they will aspire to the PhD at the completion of college. This study was particularly interested in ascertaining in what ways postsecondary institutions support or thwart the PhD aspirations of underrepresented racial minority students, and how institutions might improve PhD aspiration outcomes for underrepresented racial minority students, thereby increasing faculty diversity. A three-pronged theoretical lens was used. Status attainment was used to examine how students background characteristics and significant others such as faculty influence PhD aspirations. Relative deprivation and anticipatory socialization were used to explore how institutional characteristics affect PhD aspirations. The longitudinal data came from the Higher Education Research Institute's (HERI) 1994 freshmen and 1998 follow-up survey. Five sample groups -- All Students, underrepresented racial minority students, Caucasian students, initial PhD aspirants, and other initial degree aspirants -- were derived from this dataset. Frequent faculty encouragement for graduate study was the single most important determinant of who aspires to the PhD for all of the student groups, but was particularly important to underrepresented racial minority students and students who begin college as PhD aspirants. Underrepresented racial minority students are more likely to be encouraged frequently at low selectivity institutions, and the encouragement for graduate study they receive at low selectivity institutions is a sort of equalizer that makes up for effects of attending this institutional type. The mean level of initial degree aspirations was the strongest factor at the institutional level for all of the student groups, and the magnitude of the effect was largest for underrepresented racial minority students. Attending a high

  8. ASPIRE outreach and informal education - high impact outreach on a budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Julie; Christiansen, Peter; Sims, Pace

    2010-10-01

    The Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research & Education (ASPIRE) provides hands-on activities for K-12 students and teachers to use in the classroom through immersive Flash activities as well as traveling kits. These projects and techniques are a successful way to contact groups of people either in the classroom or in an informal situation. The ASPIRE team presents information about the development of Flash activities and creating hands-on experiments that have the potential to reach large audiences with minimal finances.

  9. Rare case of Helicobacter pylori-positive multiorgan IgG4-related disease and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Zhou, Qiang; Yang, Kun; Brigstock, David R; Zhang, Lu; Xiu, Ming; Sun, Li; Gao, Run-Ping

    2015-01-01

    A 61-year-old male from Northeast China presented with a 2-mo history of abdominal distension, pruritus and jaundice. Laboratory testing revealed an elevated serum IgG4 level. A computed tomography scan showed a typical feature of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and cholecystocholangitis. Early gastric cancer was incidentally discovered when endoscopic untrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of the pancreas was carried out. The patient underwent radical subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer combined with cholecystectomy. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and IgG4-positive plasmacytes were detected in gastric cancer tissue, pancreatic EUS-FNA sample and resected gallbladder specimen by immunohistochemistry. The patient was diagnosed with H. pylori-positive IgG4-related AIP and sclerosing cholecystocholangitis as well as H. pylori-positive gastric cancer. He responded well to steroid therapy and remains healthy with no signs of recurrence at one year follow-up. We speculate that H. pylori might act as a trigger via direct or indirect action in the initiation of onset of gastric cancer and multiorgan IgG4-related disease. PMID:25805956

  10. Successful mucosal incision-assisted biopsy for the histological diagnosis of duodenal lymphoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    MORISHITA, ASAHIRO; MORI, HIROHITO; KOBARA, HIDEKI; NISHIYAMA, NORIKO; FUJIHARA, SHINTARO; YACHIDA, TATSUO; AYAKI, MAKI; MATSUNAGA, TAE; SAKAMOTO, TEPPEI; MAEDA, EMIKO; NOMURA, TAKAKO; TANI, JOJI; MIYOSHI, HISAAKI; YONEYAMA, HIROHITO; HIMOTO, TAKASHI; KAGAWA, SEIKO; HABA, REIJI; MASAKI, TSUTOMU

    2016-01-01

    Tissue sampling of primary duodenal lymphoma is essential for its histological diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), which is frequently used for submucosal tumor (SMT)-like duodenal tumors, is adequate for cytological diagnosis, but not for histological diagnosis. Therefore, in the present study, a mucosal incision-assisted biopsy (MIAB) was performed in an 81-year-old woman for the diagnosis of an SMT-like duodenal mass, as tissue sampling for histological analysis using a regular endoscopic biopsy had failed to establish a definite diagnosis of malignant lymphoma. EUS-FNA had also led to poor tissue sampling due to the difficult location of the duodenal tumor. The pathological examination of biopsy samples using MIAB revealed the presence of a diffuse proliferation of atypical lymphocytes, and the expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)20 and CD79a, but no expression of CD3 in the tumor specimens. The patient was diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. To the best of knowledge, this is first report of a case using MIAB as a sampling method for the histological diagnosis of SMT-like primary duodenal lymphoma. This case suggests that MIAB may be an essential method for obtaining tissue samples from SMT-like duodenal tumors. PMID:26870243

  11. Rare case of Helicobacter pylori-positive multiorgan IgG4-related disease and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zhou, Qiang; Yang, Kun; Brigstock, David R; Zhang, Lu; Xiu, Ming; Sun, Li; Gao, Run-Ping

    2015-03-21

    A 61-year-old male from Northeast China presented with a 2-mo history of abdominal distension, pruritus and jaundice. Laboratory testing revealed an elevated serum IgG4 level. A computed tomography scan showed a typical feature of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and cholecystocholangitis. Early gastric cancer was incidentally discovered when endoscopic untrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of the pancreas was carried out. The patient underwent radical subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer combined with cholecystectomy. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and IgG4-positive plasmacytes were detected in gastric cancer tissue, pancreatic EUS-FNA sample and resected gallbladder specimen by immunohistochemistry. The patient was diagnosed with H. pylori-positive IgG4-related AIP and sclerosing cholecystocholangitis as well as H. pylori-positive gastric cancer. He responded well to steroid therapy and remains healthy with no signs of recurrence at one year follow-up. We speculate that H. pylori might act as a trigger via direct or indirect action in the initiation of onset of gastric cancer and multiorgan IgG4-related disease.

  12. Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasm of Pancreas; A Case Series and Review Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mirminachi, Babak; Farrokhzad, Solmaz; Sharifi, Amir Houshang; Nikfam, Sepideh; Nikmanesh, Arash; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Information regarding solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas is limited in Iran. We aimed to review the clinicocytopathological features and follow-up of patients with SPN of pancreas who were diagnosed in a single center in Iran. METHODS Seven patients with SPN of the pancreas were diagnosed during January 2010 to March 2015 at the Digestive Disease Research Institute of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The patients were reviewed prospectively. RESULTS Six out of the 7 patients were female and the mean age of all the patients was 29.4 years ranging from 15 to 61 years. The most common clinical presentation was nonspecific abdominal pain (N=6). The tumors were located mostly in head and neck of the pancreas. SPN was diagnosed in all patients by fine needle aspiration through endosonography (EUS-FNA). All patients underwent surgery. Histological findings of surgical tissues were consistent with EUS-FNA. The postoperative follow-up period of about 14 months was uneventful. CONCLUSION SPN of the pancreas is a rare pancreatic tumor which affects primarily young women. EUS-guided FNA could play an important role in preoperative diagnosis of SPN of the pancreas. PMID:27252816

  13. [Prophylaxis of Pulmonary Aspiration during General Anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Mori, Yosuke; Sumikura, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary aspiration of gastric or esophageal contents is uncommon; however, it is one of the most severe complications in the perioperative period. The aspiration is associated with possible clinical outcomes, ranging from mild asymptomatic limited episodes of bronchial injury up to the development of a severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. To reduce the incidence of pulmonary aspiration, rapid sequence induction and intubation and awake tracheal intubation are commonly chosen anesthetic techniques for the management of patients at risk of aspiration of gastric or esophageal contents. Although there have been innumerable reports that describe prophylaxis of pulmonary aspiration, currently, there is insufficient evidence to prevent passive regurgitation in at-risk anesthetized patients. Some techniques to prevent pulmonary aspiration entered medical practice on a limited evidence base, but with common sense supporting its use. Properly applied techniques are probably effective at preventing regurgitation in the perioperative period although more randomized controlled trials are awaited to confirm this. Pulmonary aspiration should be prevented using multidisciplinary techniques and considerations that have been shown to improve effectiveness of prophylaxes. However, further research is necessary to support this strategy. PMID:27004384

  14. Navigational transbronchial needle aspiration, percutaneous needle aspiration and its future

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Sixto; Yarmus, Lonny

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral lung nodule evaluation represents a clinical challenge. Given that many nodules will be incidentally found with lung cancer screening following the publication of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), the goal is to find an accurate, safe and minimally-invasive diagnostic modality to biopsy the concerning lesions. Unfortunately, conventional bronchoscopic techniques provide a poor diagnostic yield of 18–62%. In recent years advances in technology have led to the introduction of electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB) as a tool to guide sampling of peripheral lung nodules. The same principle has also recently been expanded and applied to the transthoracic needle biopsy, referred to as electromagnetic transthoracic needle aspiration (E-TTNA). An improved diagnostic yield has afforded this technology a recommendation by the 2013 3rd Edition ACCP Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Lung Cancer which state that “in patients with peripheral lung lesions difficult to reach with conventional bronchoscopy, ENB is recommended if the equipment and the expertise are available (Grade 1C)”. In this review we will discuss the technology, devices that are available, techniques and protocols, diagnostic yield, safety, cost effectiveness and more. PMID:26807280

  15. Study of benign superficial cysts by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Roy, M; Bhattacharyya, A; Sanyal, S; Dasgupta, S

    1995-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology of 213 cases of different cystic lesions from various regions of body and different superficial organs was analysed in an attempt to present the experience of the authors in the diagnosis of such lesions. The predominant lesion diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology was adnexal cyst/sebaceous cyst (41 cases) followed by vascular hamartoma (40 cases) and thyroglossal cyst (9 cases). One hundred fifty-eight (74.2%) out 213 cases were confirmed histopathologically. There was false negative diagnosis in 14 cases (6.6%). The remaining 41 (19.2%) cases did not turn up for further treatment. The fallacies that have been recorded in the diagnosis of thyroid cysts, salivary gland cysts and breast cysts in respect of papillary cystic thyroid carcinoma, muco-epidermoid carcinoma of salivary gland and intraductal carcinoma with fibrocystic disease of breast respectively have been highlighted in the present study.

  16. Aspiration pneumonia in children: an iconographic essay.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Antonio; Pessanha, Laís Bastos; Guerra, Luiz Felipe Alves; Martins, Diego Lima Nava; Rondina, Ronaldo Garcia; Silva, Jamine Ronacher Passos

    2015-01-01

    In most cases of aspiration pneumonia in children, the disease is specific to this age group. Clinical and radiological correlation is essential for the diagnosis. The present pictorial essay is aimed at showing typical images of the most common etiologies.

  17. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid nodule fine needle aspirate biopsy; Biopsy - thyroid - skinny-needle; Skinny-needle thyroid biopsy ... cleaned. A thin needle is inserted into the thyroid, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

  18. Healthcare-associated Pneumonia and Aspiration Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Komiya, Kosaku; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kadota, Jun-Ichi

    2015-02-01

    Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is a new concept of pneumonia proposed by the American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America in 2005. This category is located between community-acquired pneumonia and hospital-acquired pneumonia with respect to the characteristics of the causative pathogens and mortality, and primarily targets elderly patients in healthcare facilities. Aspiration among such patients is recognized to be a primary mechanism for the development of pneumonia, particularly since the HCAP guidelines were published. However, it is difficult to manage patients with aspiration pneumonia because the definition of the condition is unclear, and the treatment is associated with ethical aspects. This review focused on the definition, prevalence and role of aspiration pneumonia as a prognostic factor in published studies of HCAP and attempted to identify problems associated with the concept of aspiration pneumonia.

  19. Creative Aspirations or Pipe Dreams? Toward Understanding Creative Mortification in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Beghetto, Ronald A; Dilley, Anna E

    2016-01-01

    What experiences influence the development of creativity in children and adolescents? One experience is the mortification of creative aspirations. Creative mortification (CM) refers to the loss of one's willingness to pursue a particular creative aspiration following a negative performance outcome. The purpose of this article is to introduce an empirically testable model of CM. Specifically, the model highlights how CM can result from interpreting a negative performance outcome through the lens of internal attributions, fixed ability beliefs, and the experience of shame. The model further posits that young people's level of aspirational commitment, the feedback they receive, and their sociocultural context can moderate their interpretations and experiences of negative performance outcomes and CM. PMID:26994727

  20. Clear ovarian cyst aspiration guided by vaginal ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Ron-El, R; Herman, A; Weinraub, Z; Golan, A; Langer, R; Caspi, E; Bukovsky, I

    1991-11-01

    Thirty patients with clear ovarian cysts underwent aspiration guided by vaginal ultrasound. In 23 cases a complete aspiration was accomplished. In 4 only partial aspiration was possible, and in the remaining 3 failed aspiration led to surgery. Histological findings correspond to retroperitoneal lipoma and mucinous cystadenoma (2 cases). Malignant cells were not detected in the fluid of any of the 27 aspirates. Eight of the ten patients presenting with abdominal pain experienced a relief following aspiration. Recurrence of the cyst occurred in 12 cases (40%) with significantly smaller dimensions (P less than 0.01). Vaginal ultrasound aspiration of clear cyst is easy and safe and can be considered as an outpatient procedure.

  1. Common aspirations of world women.

    PubMed

    Huang, B

    1996-02-01

    The comments of the Director of Foreign Affairs for the China State Family Planning Commission reflect satisfaction with the achievements at the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing. It is posited that the historic documents from the conference reflect the common aspirations of all women in the world for equality, development, and peace. The conference's focus on social development for women has been translated in China into a "vigorous" IEC campaign. China is developing integrated approaches to family planning in rural areas. The approach aims to help rural women to become economically independent before achieving equality within the family and society. A National Conference on Integrated Programs was held in Sichuan province. Examples of integrated programs in Sichuan, Jilin, and Jiangsu were described for conference participants. The example is given of how poor rural women in Deyang Prefecture, Sichuan province, have received credit for income generation and access to skill development and literacy classes. Continuous economic and social development are important for achieving "poverty eradication and the liberation of women." Sustainable development involves use of resources, environmental protection, the reasonable change in consumption patterns, and transitional changes in modes of production. The concept of reproductive health means Chinese family planning workers must meet higher standards. Future plans include intensifying the IEC program in meeting the comprehensive biological, psychological, and social reproductive health needs of women. Respect must be given to the fertility intentions and reproductive rights of wives and husbands. "In China, voluntary choice of childbearing should be guided by the fertility policy formulated by the government." Training of family planning workers should be intensified to include training in public health, reproductive theory, contraception, and the techniques of interpersonal communication. Some provinces

  2. Modified aspirated internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.E.

    1993-06-01

    An internal combustion engine is described, comprising: an engine block; at least one cylinder; at least one piston, each piston being reciprocally movable in the cylinder; a head connected with the engine block so as to form a combustion chamber above each piston; aspiration means for providing gas entry into and gas exit from the combustion chamber of each cylinder; valves for controlling gas entry and exit; ignition for initiating and timing combustion in each combustion chamber; a crankshaft rotatably mounted to the engine block, the crankshaft having at least one crank arm; connecting rod between each piston and the crank arm for translating reciprocation of each piston into rotation of each crankshaft; mounting means for rotatably mounting crankshaft to the engine block, the mounting means at each mounting location comprising: a crankshaft journal located on the crankshaft, the crankshaft journal having a crankshaft cross-section and an off-set portion, the off-set portion having a maximum which is equal to a predetermined off-set, the maximum off-set being located on a predetermined side of the crankshaft, the off-set portion smoothly decreasing from the maximum to a minimum from each side of the maximum, the minimum being equal to a zero off-set, the minimum off-set being located on the crankshaft opposite maximum off-set; and an engine block bearing connected with the engine block, wherein the crankshaft rotates in relation to the engine block about an eccentric centerline passing axially through the crankshaft journal cross-section, the eccentric centerline being displaced from a true centerline passing axially through said crankshaft cross-section by a distance equal to one-half the off-set, wherein the crank arm has a predetermined radial length centered on the eccentric centerline, and wherein the modified crankshaft has at least one output shaft portion axially aligned with the eccentric centerline.

  3. Astrobiology explorer mission concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennico, K. A.; Sandford, S. A.; ABE/ASPIRE Science Teams

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) and the Astrobiology SPace InfraRed Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions (1) "Where do we come from?" and (2) "Are we alone?" as outlined in NASA's Origins Program. Both concepts use infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity, abundance, and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe. The ABE mission's observational program is focused on investigating the evolution of ice and organics in all phases of the lifecycle of carbon in the universe, from stellar birth through stellar death and exogenous delivery of these compounds to planetary systems. The ASPIRE mission's observational program expands upon ABE's core mission and also addresses the role of silicates and gas-phase materials in interstellar organic chemistry. ABE (ASPIRE) achieves these goals using a highly sensitive, cryogenically-cooled telescope in an Earth drift-away heliocentric orbit, armed with a suite of infrared spectrometers that cover the 2.5-20 (40) micron spectral region at moderate spectral resolution ( R > 2000). ASPIRE's spectrometer complement also includes a high-resolution ( R > 25,000) module over the 4-8 micron spectral region. Both missions' target lists are chosen to observe a statistically significant sample of a large number of objects of varied types in support of the tasks outlined above. The ABE and ASPIRE mission lifetimes are designed to be 14 months and 3 years, respectively, both with significant cryogen and propellant lifetime margins to support an extended observing campaign. The ABE/ASPIRE Science Operations will be carried out at NASA's Ames Research Center, and the ABE/ASPIRE database will be archived at Caltech/IPAC.

  4. Aspirations and Actions: Early Childhood from Policy to Practice in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Aline-Wendy

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores early childhood experience in Scotland in terms of how readily the aspirations of policy convert to day-to-day practices. Ambitions to improve the lives of children and families have been high on the political agenda. Policy may be understood as a tool that aims to influence childhood experience in positive ways. If this is to…

  5. Characterizing Cell Adhesion by Using Micropipette Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Brenna; Babataheri, Avin; Hwang, Yongyun; Barakat, Abdul I.; Husson, Julien

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a technique to directly quantify cell-substrate adhesion force using micropipette aspiration. The micropipette is positioned perpendicular to the surface of an adherent cell and a constant-rate aspiration pressure is applied. Since the micropipette diameter and the aspiration pressure are our control parameters, we have direct knowledge of the aspiration force, whereas the cell behavior is monitored either in brightfield or interference reflection microscopy. This setup thus allows us to explore a range of geometric parameters, such as projected cell area, adhesion area, or pipette size, as well as dynamical parameters such as the loading rate. We find that cell detachment is a well-defined event occurring at a critical aspiration pressure, and that the detachment force scales with the cell adhesion area (for a given micropipette diameter and loading rate), which defines a critical stress. Taking into account the cell adhesion area, intrinsic parameters of the adhesion bonds, and the loading rate, a minimal model provides an expression for the critical stress that helps rationalize our experimental results. PMID:26200857

  6. Evaluation of ventilatory therapy for acid aspiration.

    PubMed

    Flint, L; Gosdin, G; Carrico, C J

    1975-10-01

    Aspiration of hydrochloric acid in experimental animals results in severe, progressive hypoxia which is due to intrapulmonary shunting and depressed cardiac output. This preparation is useful therefore in studying the therapy of hypoxia. Mongrel dogs were subjected to acid aspiration and the effects of several ventilatory patterns on intrapulmonary shunt fractions and lung water accumulation observed. The combination of large tidal volumes (30 c.c. per kilogram) with positive end-expiratory pressure was effective in preventing intrapulmonary shunting and other ventilatory patterns were ineffective. Pulmonary edema uniformly followed acid aspiration and was not affected by ventilatory therapy. When ventilatory therapy was delayed for 4 hours, the progression of shunting apparently was limited, but the existing shunt was not reduced.

  7. [Patient's Risk Factors for Perioperative Aspiration Pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Isono, Shiroh

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews patient's own risk factors for perioperative aspiration pneumonia. Maintaining the function of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the airway protective reflex, and the oral hygiene are the most important to prevent the pneumonia. The LES is adversely affected by excessive stomach distention, some medication given in perioperative periods, and habitual smoking, as well as pathological status such as esophageal hiatus hernia and achalasia. Postapoplectic patients may have insufficient airway protective reflex including swallowing and laryngeal reflex. It is emphasized that the perioperative oral care is increasing in its importance for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:27004381

  8. [Patient's Risk Factors for Perioperative Aspiration Pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Isono, Shiroh

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews patient's own risk factors for perioperative aspiration pneumonia. Maintaining the function of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the airway protective reflex, and the oral hygiene are the most important to prevent the pneumonia. The LES is adversely affected by excessive stomach distention, some medication given in perioperative periods, and habitual smoking, as well as pathological status such as esophageal hiatus hernia and achalasia. Postapoplectic patients may have insufficient airway protective reflex including swallowing and laryngeal reflex. It is emphasized that the perioperative oral care is increasing in its importance for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia.

  9. The Astrobiology Space Infrared Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Sandford, S. A.; Roellig, T. L.; ASPIRE Team

    2009-01-01

    The Astrobiology Space Infrared Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission is one of the Origins Probe Mission Concepts that is currently being studied in preparation for inputs to the upcoming Decadal Survey. The mission is a cooled 1-m class telescope optimized to efficiently obtain high quality infrared spectra in the 2.5-36 micron wavelength region. The principal goal of the mission is to detect, identify, and determine the abundance of molecular species, particularly organics, throughout the universe. This will be done by obtaining spectra for a comprehensive range of Solar System, galactic, and extra-galactic environments and the interfaces between them. ASPIRE will be capable of obtaining continuous moderate resolution spectra from 2.5-36 microns at spectral resolutions of about 2500 (2.5-20 microns) and 900 (20-36 microns). ASPIRE will also be able to obtain high resolution spectra (resolutions of 25,000) over selected windows in the 3.1-18 micron region. The ASPIRE suite of instruments provides the ability to study both gas-phase and solid-state materials in space. The PI for the mission is Scott Sandford and major mission partners include NASA-Ames, JPL, and Ball Aerospace.

  10. Aspiring Girls: Great Expectations or Impossible Dreams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gill; Posnett, Carol

    2012-01-01

    This study explores girls' aspirations for their future. The context was an ex-coalmining area where concerns had been raised by the local authority about the levels of girls' achievement. The focus of the research was the views of Year 6 girls as they prepared for their transition to secondary school and Year 11 girls as they prepared for their…

  11. Aspiration pneumonia in children: an iconographic essay*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Antonio; Pessanha, Laís Bastos; Guerra, Luiz Felipe Alves; Martins, Diego Lima Nava; Rondina, Ronaldo Garcia; Silva, Jamine Ronacher Passos

    2015-01-01

    In most cases of aspiration pneumonia in children, the disease is specific to this age group. Clinical and radiological correlation is essential for the diagnosis. The present pictorial essay is aimed at showing typical images of the most common etiologies. PMID:26811557

  12. Another Opinion No Inspiration, No Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Donna W.

    2004-01-01

    School library media specialists are the first to witness the malaise that permeates American schools threatening the future of our society. Believing that personal lack of aspirations, our failure to encourage reading for pure enjoyment, and society's disrespect toward education has left a void in our children that is filled with apathy.

  13. SOME DEVELOPMENTAL ANTECEDENTS OF LEVEL OF ASPIRATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROWNE, DOUGLAS P.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY REPORTS CHILDREARING PRACTICES AND CHILD BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH A SUBSEQUENT LEVEL OF ASPIRATION (LOA). ANTECEDENT MEASURES WERE CHILDREARING ATTITUDES REPORTED BY 379 MOTHERS OF FIVE-YEAR OLDS IN AN EARLIER STUDY. AT THE TIME OF THIS STUDY, THE 83 SUBJECTS WERE 18 YEARS OLD. THEY WERE ADMINISTERED TWO PERSONALITY SCALES AND THE…

  14. Level of Occupational Aspiration: An Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Archibald; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Data from 34,118 American high school students were used to determine patterns of responses to an indicator of level of occupational aspiration (LOA). LOA was found to be a general dimension composed of idealistic-realistic goal-region aspects and of short-and long-term temporal aspects. LOA response patterns were essentially the same for both…

  15. The Gap between Aspiration and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckett, Alan

    2013-01-01

    At the time of the fifth UNESCO international conference on adult education (CONFINTEA V) in Hamburg in 1997, it seemed that a resilient alliance of governments and civil society organizations had been created. This alliance would have the commitment and cooperation needed to pursue the ambitious aspirations captured in the 10 themes of the…

  16. Women's Aspirations for Graduate Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Meng-Jie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates female undergraduates' aspirations for master's and doctoral degree programs in Taiwan's universalized and stratified higher education system. It considers the potential effects of economic prospects, parental attitudes, and gender values. First, graduate education is perceived as a means to enhance one's comparative…

  17. A Forlorn Aspiration? The Story of SUCSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, John

    2003-01-01

    In 1971 the Scottish Universities Council for Studies in Education (SUCSE) was formally constituted as a representative voice of the Scottish university departments of education. One aspiration was to coordinate degree courses across the universities as a distinctive Scottish MEd degree with credit transfer to promote mobility. However, the…

  18. Tracking Student Aspirations: A Work in Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Doug; Nevard, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on a study that is concerned with surveying the aspirations of some students in an Australian Technical and Further Education (TAFE) College and developing strategies to address issues arising from the surveys. The study is essentially a series of surveys, thought it has an action learning aspect because of its developmental…

  19. Occupational Aspirations and Expectations of Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Wendy; Creed, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents across the five years of high school (169 females and 164 males) completed a survey that identified occupational status aspirations and expectations coded into six types-- realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, or conventional--according to the RIASEC model (Holland, 1997). As the focus of the study was to explore…

  20. Methods, Interpretations, and Different Views of Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Paul

    1986-01-01

    The author praises Ellen Brantlinger's article "What Low-Income Parents Want from Schools: A Different View of Aspirations" (v16 n4 1985) and her method. This article is followed by a criticism by Weir and a response to both articles by Brantlinger. (MT)

  1. A Conversation on Mobility, Aspiration and Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Critical Studies in Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    On 11 and 12 October 2010, the National Centre for Student Equity in Higher Education held its second annual "Student Equity in Higher Education National Conference" in Melbourne, Australia. The conference theme was "Aspiration, Mobility, Voice". During the conference the three keynote speakers--Gareth Parry (University of Sheffield, UK), Jane…

  2. Limitations and value of aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M M; Hajdu, S I; Jordan, A G

    1984-03-01

    The successes of aspiration cytology have enhanced its popularity over the past few years. Now the limitations of the technique are becoming apparent. This article reviews the uses and contraindications for the detection of benign and malignant lesions in various body sites.

  3. Employment, Academic and Extracurricular Contributors to College Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaha, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Jacki

    2010-01-01

    Although there have been many studies on college entrance and aspirations, little attention has been paid to post-high school adults (who enter the workworld rather than college). it is possible that post-high school adults still have college aspirations, and it would be valuable to identify the factors that foster such aspirations. This study…

  4. The "Placetimemattering" of Aspiration in the Blacktown Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore aspiration in contemporary urban locations in the context of almost universal policy initiatives to raise aspirations of young people to participate in higher education. The article is based on a study of how children's career and further education aspirations are shaped over time in five schools in…

  5. Science Dual Enrollment: An Examination of High School Students' Post-Secondary Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Chelsia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if participation in science dual enrollment courses influenced African American high school students' post-secondary aspirations that will lead to college attendance. The investigation examined the relationship between African American students' learning experiences and how their self-efficacy and outcome…

  6. There's No Place Like Home? The Effects of Childhood Themes on Women's Aspirations toward Leadership Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtalik, Janet R.; Breckenridge, Mary B.; Gibson Hancox, Melissa K.; Sobehart, Helen C.

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the impact of childhood themes on women's aspirations toward leadership as suggested by the Eccles Model of Achievement Related Choices. Using intensity sampling, the research solicits childhood gender-related experiences of women in leadership and non-leadership roles through interviews, focus groups, check lists,…

  7. Curriculum and Aspirations as Elements of Transition Patterns between Schooling and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Paul B.

    A study focused on determination of the tenability of competing hypotheses about the effect of curriculum pathway in high school upon occupational aspirations. Data were provided by a sample of respondents in the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience--New Youth Cohort (NLS Youth), supplemented by their high school transcripts.…

  8. Place-Based Stewardship Education: Nurturing Aspirations to Protect the Rural Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallay, Erin; Marckini-Polk, Lisa; Schroeder, Brandon; Flanagan, Constance

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed-methods study, we examine the potential of place-based stewardship education (PBSE) for nurturing rural students' community attachment and aspirations to contribute to the preservation of the environmental "commons." Analyzing pre- and post-experience surveys (n = 240) and open-ended responses (n = 275) collected from…

  9. Bright Futures in Malawi’s New Dawn: Educational Aspirations as Assertions of Identity1

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Imagined futures, once a vital topic of theoretical inquiry within the sociology of culture, have been sidelined in recent decades. Rational choice models cannot explain the seemingly irrational optimism of youth aspirations, pointing to the need to explore other alternatives. This article incorporates insights from pragmatist theory and cognitive sociology to examine the relationship between imagined futures and present actions and experiences in rural Malawi, where future optimism appears particularly unfounded. Drawing from in-depth interviews and archival sources documenting ideological campaigns promoting schooling, the author shows that four elements are understood to jointly produce educational success: ambitious career goals, sustained effort, unflagging optimism, and resistance to temptation. Aspirations should be interpreted not as rational calculations, but instead as assertions of a virtuous identity, claims to be “one who aspires.” PMID:23645932

  10. A Finite Element Study of Micropipette Aspiration of Single Cells: Effect of Compressibility

    PubMed Central

    Jafari Bidhendi, Amirhossein; Korhonen, Rami K.

    2012-01-01

    Micropipette aspiration (MA) technique has been widely used to measure the viscoelastic properties of different cell types. Cells experience nonlinear large deformations during the aspiration procedure. Neo-Hookean viscohyperelastic (NHVH) incompressible and compressible models were used to simulate the creep behavior of cells in MA, particularly accounting for the effect of compressibility, bulk relaxation, and hardening phenomena under large strain. In order to find optimal material parameters, the models were fitted to the experimental data available for mesenchymal stem cells. Finally, through Neo-Hookean porohyperelastic (NHPH) material model for the cell, the influence of fluid flow on the aspiration length of the cell was studied. Based on the results, we suggest that the compressibility and bulk relaxation/fluid flow play a significant role in the deformation behavior of single cells and should be taken into account in the analysis of the mechanics of cells. PMID:22400045

  11. MDCT-Guided Transthoracic Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Lung Using the Transscapular Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, Umberto G. Seitun, Sara; Ferro, Carlo

    2011-02-15

    The purpose of this study is to report our preliminary experience using MDCT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration biopsy using the transscapular approach in the upper posterolateral lung nodules, an area that it is difficult or hazardous to reach with the conventional approach. Five patients underwent CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration biopsy of the lung via the transscapular approach. A coaxial needle technique was used in all patients. Biopsy was successful in all patients. No major complications were encountered. One patient developed a minimal pneumothorax next to the lesion immediately after biopsy, which resolved spontaneously. MDCT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration biopsy of the lung via the transscapular approach is an effective and safe procedure that reduces the risk of pneumothorax in selected patients.

  12. Effects of needle tip bevel and aspiration procedure on the morphology and developmental capacity of bovine compact cumulus oocyte complexes.

    PubMed

    Bols, P E; Ysebaert, M T; Van Soom, A; de Kruif, A

    1997-04-15

    Effects of the needle tip bevel and the aspiration procedure on the morphology of cumulusoocyte-complexes (COCs) and the developmental capacity of the oocytes after IVF were studied in 2 in vitro oocyte pick-up (OPU) simulations using a disposable ovum pick-up needle guidance system. In Experiment 1, the influence of the length of the needle bevel was investigated using a short and a long bevelled 20-g disposable needle. After being aspirated from slaughterhouse ovaries, the retrieved COCs were divided into 3 categories: 1) oocytes surrounded by a compact cumulus, 2) oocytes with an expanded cumulus, 3) partially naked oocytes. In Experiment 2, the influence of 5 different levels of aspiration vacuum for 3 different needle diameters (18-g, 19-g, 20-g) and 2 different needle bevels (long, short) was tested on the recovery and on the morphology of the cumulus investment of a fixed number of previously scored compact cumulus oocytes complexes (CCOCs), retrieved after slicing slaughterhouse ovaries. The re-retrieved COCs were allocated to Categories 1 and 3. The results show that the length of the needle bevel has a significant effect on oocyte recovery, in favor of the long-bevelled needle. As soon as higher aspiration vacua are used, a decrease of the number of CCOCs can be observed, which is less prominent for the short-bevelled needle compared to the long-bevelled one. The final number of blastocysts is similar for both needle types. In Experiment 2, the disposable needle system proved to be highly effective since nearly 80% of the CCOCs were retrieved. At low aspiration vacuum, up to 90% of the CCOCs withstand the aspiration procedure undamaged. Increasing the aspiration vacuum results in a decrease of the number of CCOCs, which is less pronounced using thinner needles. Averaged over all needle types, the prevalence of blastocysts expressed relative to the number of recovered oocytes decreases with higher aspiration vacuum. PMID:16728071

  13. Routine audit of breast fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology specimens and aspirator inadequate rates.

    PubMed

    Snead, D R; Vryenhoef, P; Pinder, S E; Evans, A; Wilson, A R; Blamey, R W; Elston, C W; Ellis, I O

    1997-08-01

    In an attempt to improve the quality of the breast FNA specimens we instigated a continuing audit of this procedure in this hospital. All FNAs since 1990 have had the following recorded: mode of aspiration, e.g. freehand or image guided, patient presentation (screening or symptomatic), patient diagnostic category, cytological diagnosis and final histological diagnosis. Aspirator performance was assessed by means of the inadequate aspiration rate (IR) of FNAs performed on patients with a final diagnosis of cancer (FDC) and diagnostic category A patients (clinically or radiologically malignant lesions). An ongoing annual review of the performance of all the aspirators was undertaken, all of whom received individual feedback. Counselling and further training were offered where indicated by poor performance. Over the period 1990-1995 a total of 13537 FNAs were performed by 27 aspirators. The IR on category A and FDC cases over this period was 16.0% and 18.1%. The best performance achieved by an aspirator in a calendar year was an IR of 3.6% with no inadequate specimens in either FDC or category A lesions, and the best performance over the entire period was an average IR of 11.75% and 14.25% for FDC and category A groups, respectively. The overall IR on category A patients ranged from 15.9% to 23.8% and on FDC cases from 12.2% to 21.7%. There was a significant improvement in individual junior aspirator performance when their first year was compared with their last year on the unit. In some cases a deterioration in intra-aspirator performance was observed, from an IR of 6% to 33%. The overall IR rate of the unit remained stable for FDC patients, 15.5% in 1990 compared with 15.1% in 1995. This appeared to be largely due to a high proportion of the aspirations being performed by experienced personnel with consistent IRs. However, concealed within the overall rate there were some poor performers who benefited from counselling and/or further training. These results indicate

  14. A radial basis classifier for the automatic detection of aspiration in children with dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joon; Blain, Stefanie; Casas, Mike; Kenny, Dave; Berall, Glenn; Chau, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Background Silent aspiration or the inhalation of foodstuffs without overt physiological signs presents a serious health issue for children with dysphagia. To date, there are no reliable means of detecting aspiration in the home or community. An assistive technology that performs in these environments could inform caregivers of adverse events and potentially reduce the morbidity and anxiety of the feeding experience for the child and caregiver, respectively. This paper proposes a classifier for automatic classification of aspiration and swallow vibration signals non-invasively recorded on the neck of children with dysphagia. Methods Vibration signals associated with safe swallows and aspirations, both identified via videofluoroscopy, were collected from over 100 children with neurologically-based dysphagia using a single-axis accelerometer. Five potentially discriminatory mathematical features were extracted from the accelerometry signals. All possible combinations of the five features were investigated in the design of radial basis function classifiers. Performance of different classifiers was compared and the best feature sets were identified. Results Optimal feature combinations for two, three and four features resulted in statistically comparable adjusted accuracies with a radial basis classifier. In particular, the feature pairing of dispersion ratio and normality achieved an adjusted accuracy of 79.8 ± 7.3%, a sensitivity of 79.4 ± 11.7% and specificity of 80.3 ± 12.8% for aspiration detection. Addition of a third feature, namely energy, increased adjusted accuracy to 81.3 ± 8.5% but the change was not statistically significant. A closer look at normality and dispersion ratio features suggest leptokurticity and the frequency and magnitude of atypical values as distinguishing characteristics between swallows and aspirations. The achieved accuracies are 30% higher than those reported for bedside cervical auscultation. Conclusion The proposed aspiration

  15. Dysphagia, dystussia, and aspiration pneumonia in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Ebihara, Satoru; Sekiya, Hideki; Miyagi, Midori; Ebihara, Takae; Okazaki, Tatsuma

    2016-03-01

    Despite the development and wide distribution of guidelines for pneumonia, death from pneumonia is increasing due to population aging. Conventionally, aspiration pneumonia was mainly thought to be one of the infectious diseases. However, we have proven that chronic repeated aspiration of a small amount of sterile material can cause the usual type of aspiration pneumonia in mouse lung. Moreover, chronic repeated aspiration of small amounts induced chronic inflammation in both frail elderly people and mouse lung. These observations suggest the need for a paradigm shift of the treatment for pneumonia in the elderly. Since aspiration pneumonia is fundamentally based on dysphagia, we should shift the therapy for aspiration pneumonia from pathogen-oriented therapy to function-oriented therapy. Function-oriented therapy in aspiration pneumonia means therapy focusing on slowing or reversing the functional decline that occurs as part of the aging process, such as "dementia → dysphagia → dystussia → atussia → silent aspiration". Atussia is ultimate dysfunction of cough physiology, and aspiration with atussia is called silent aspiration, which leads to the development of life-threatening aspiration pneumonia. Research pursuing effective strategies to restore function in the elderly is warranted in order to decrease pneumonia deaths in elderly people.

  16. Spatially correlated heterogeneous aspirations to enhance network reciprocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Nakata, Makoto; Hagishima, Aya; Ikegaya, Naoki

    2012-02-01

    Perc & Wang demonstrated that aspiring to be the fittest under conditions of pairwise strategy updating enhances network reciprocity in structured populations playing 2×2 Prisoner's Dilemma games (Z. Wang, M. Perc, Aspiring to the fittest and promoted of cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma game, Physical Review E 82 (2010) 021115; M. Perc, Z. Wang, Heterogeneous aspiration promotes cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma game, PLOS one 5 (12) (2010) e15117). Through numerical simulations, this paper shows that network reciprocity is even greater if heterogeneous aspirations are imposed. We also suggest why heterogeneous aspiration fosters network reciprocity. It distributes strategy updating speed among agents in a manner that fortifies the initially allocated cooperators' clusters against invasion. This finding prompted us to further enhance the usual heterogeneous aspiration cases for heterogeneous network topologies. We find that a negative correlation between degree and aspiration level does extend cooperation among heterogeneously structured agents.

  17. Endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration: a hybrid method

    PubMed Central

    Ben, Suqin

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (cTBNA) was first performed approximately 30 years ago; however TBNA was not widely adopted until the development of endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). Current EBUS-TBNA needle sizes are limited to 21- and 22-gauge. In order to determine whether a 19-gauge (19G) needle in EBUS-TBNA can further improve the diagnostic yield and simplify the methodology of EBUS-TBNA we developed a hybrid method. Here we report our initial experience in assessing the feasibility of performing EBUS-TBNA using a conventional 19G TBNA needle. Methods Ten patients with diagnosed or suspected lung cancer with or without lymphadenopathy (LAD) were sampled for diagnostic and/or staging purposes. Patients with suspected benign processes were sampled only for diagnosis. A 19G cTBNA needle was deployed through the working channel of the EBUS bronchoscope. Samples obtained were evaluated for cyto- and histopathologic adequacy. Results All 10 patients successfully underwent hybrid 19G EBUS-TBNA. All samples were considered adequate for cyto- and histopathologic evaluation. Conclusions Hybrid EBUS-TBNA utilizing a 19G cTBNA needle through an EBUS scope is feasible and may be able to reliably acquire histologic specimens. PMID:26807276

  18. "I Was Told It Was Going to Be Hard Work but I Wasn't Told It Was Going to Be This Much Work": The Experiences and Aspirations of Undergraduate Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Emma; Cooke, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The recruitment and training of scientists is an area of international concern. Much of the research and policy focus around this issue in the UK has been on how science is taught in schools and in particular on the structure of the school science curriculum. Much less attention has been devoted to the undergraduate student experience and the…

  19. Fine needle aspiration of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Shintani, S; Matsuura, H; Hasegawa, Y

    1997-08-01

    The usefulness of fine needle aspiration (FNA) as a preoperative diagnostic procedure was studied in 43 patients with salivary gland tumors. Nine of the tumors were malignant and 34 benign. The diagnostic sensitivity of FNA was 88.9% (8/9), the specificity 94.1% (32/34) and the accuracy 93.0% (40/43). These results indicate that FNA is a highly sensitive and specific screening procedure.

  20. Needle aspiration biopsy in salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Shaha, A R; Webber, C; DiMaio, T; Jaffe, B M

    1990-10-01

    The value of needle aspiration biopsy in the evaluation and management of salivary gland pathology is controversial. The major reasons for this controversy are the difficulty in cytologic evaluation and the fact that the extent of surgery can be easily defined based on clinical judgement. However, a preoperative diagnosis is helpful in discussions with patients regarding the extent and type of surgery. Apart from the fact that needle biopsy can distinguish benign from malignant conditions, it is also very useful in distinguishing between salivary and other nonsalivary pathology. Over the past 7 1/2 years, we have performed 160 needle aspirations of parotid, submandibular, and submucosal lesions. Adequate specimens for cytologic evaluation were obtained in 155 patients (97%). A total of 84 parotid lesions, 70 submandibular lumps, and 6 submucosal abnormalities were detected. A cytologic diagnosis of benign pathology was made in 120 patients. Twelve patients had lymphoma and the diagnosis was suspected based on needle aspiration. There were 10 patients with tuberculosis and 30 patients with hyperplastic lymph nodes or benign lymphoepithelial disease of the parotid. There were three false-positive and two false-negative reports. No complications such as hematoma, nerve injury, or infection developed. The major difficulty was in distinguishing between malignancy and obstructive sialadenitis in the submandibular region. Needle aspiration was helpful in evaluating lesions in the tail of the parotid and submandibular area. The cytologic distinction between salivary and nonsalivary pathology was useful in planning the appropriate surgery and the extent of surgical resection. From a clinical standpoint, the distinction between benign and malignant salivary and nonsalivary pathology was very helpful. Preoperative diagnosis of Warthin's tumor, lymphoma, or benign lymphoepithelial disease was essential to the correct management of these patients.

  1. Skin resurfacing using an ultrasonic surgical aspirator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawes, Kate; Thomsen, Sharon L.; Nolan, Kathy; Carr, Jan; Kennedy, Jenifer S.

    1998-07-01

    The ultrasonic aspirator is essentially a vibrating tip whose ultrasonic frequencies fragment soft tissues, before aspirating it away from the surgical field. In the case of skin, the softer epidermis absorbs the vibrating tip's impact force so as to fragment it, whereas the more elastic and collagenous dermis reflects it. Understanding this, a chronic study to compare a skin resurfacing laser (Coherent, Palo Alto, CA) and an ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA) (Valleylab Inc., Boulder, CO) as a skin resurfacing tool was performed using an in-vivo pigmented porcine model. Gross and histopathologic evaluations were made of the lesions removed at 0, 1, 3, 6, 11, 21, and 56 days post procedure. The laser parameters utilized constant power (60 W) and spot size but the number of passes was varied from 1 to 4 passes. This simulated typical minimal to maximal clinical laser treatments. CUSA parameters were then chosen so as to imitate the various laser passes. On sacrifice gross evaluations showed similar levels of healing, using lesion color and scab formation as the method of evaluation. Histological analysis showed evidence of thermal effects with both devices and that some but not all CUSA settings were comparable to the laser. In short, ultrasonic technology may have the potential to provide a controlled method of selectively removing the epidermal skin layer during resurfacing.

  2. Percutaneous gallbladder aspiration for acute cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Rassameehiran, Supannee; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Early cholecystectomy for patients with acute cholecystitis may not be possible in some clinical settings. Percutaneous gallbladder aspiration (PGBA) offers an alternative approach, but the benefits and risks of this procedure are unclear. We synthesized data on the outcomes of PGBA in acute cholecystitis patients using data sources from online databases, including MEDLINE and EMBASE, and bibliographies of included studies from January 2000 through December 2015. Two reviewers independently reviewed and critiqued the quality of each study. Seven eligible studies met our criteria. The success rates in single PGBA and repetitive PGBA (2–4 times) were 50% to 93% and 76% to 96%, respectively. Complication rates were 0% to 8% and were unrelated to the size of needle gauge used for aspiration and the number of aspirations. Salvage percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) and urgent surgery were required in 0% to 43% of patients and 0% to 4% of patients, respectively. Two studies with antibiotic instillation had clinical success rates of 95% and 96%. In conclusion, repetitive PGBA combined with antibiotic instillation and salvage PC are useful alternatives to early cholecystectomy in patients with acute cholecystitis. PMID:27695167

  3. Percutaneous gallbladder aspiration for acute cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Rassameehiran, Supannee; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Early cholecystectomy for patients with acute cholecystitis may not be possible in some clinical settings. Percutaneous gallbladder aspiration (PGBA) offers an alternative approach, but the benefits and risks of this procedure are unclear. We synthesized data on the outcomes of PGBA in acute cholecystitis patients using data sources from online databases, including MEDLINE and EMBASE, and bibliographies of included studies from January 2000 through December 2015. Two reviewers independently reviewed and critiqued the quality of each study. Seven eligible studies met our criteria. The success rates in single PGBA and repetitive PGBA (2–4 times) were 50% to 93% and 76% to 96%, respectively. Complication rates were 0% to 8% and were unrelated to the size of needle gauge used for aspiration and the number of aspirations. Salvage percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) and urgent surgery were required in 0% to 43% of patients and 0% to 4% of patients, respectively. Two studies with antibiotic instillation had clinical success rates of 95% and 96%. In conclusion, repetitive PGBA combined with antibiotic instillation and salvage PC are useful alternatives to early cholecystectomy in patients with acute cholecystitis.

  4. Integration of single-fiber reflectance spectroscopy into ultrasound-guided endoscopic lung cancer staging of mediastinal lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanick, Stephen Chad; van der Leest, Cor; Aerts, Joachim G. J. V.; Hoogsteden, Henk C.; Kaščáková, Slávka; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Amelink, Arjen

    2010-01-01

    We describe the incorporation of a single-fiber reflectance spectroscopy probe into the endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) procedure utilized for lung cancer staging. A mathematical model is developed to extract information about the physiological and morphological properties of lymph tissue from single-fiber reflectance spectra, e.g., microvascular saturation, blood volume fraction, bilirubin concentration, average vessel diameter, and Mie slope. Model analysis of data from a clinical pilot study shows that the single-fiber reflectance measurement is capable of detecting differences in the physiology between normal and metastatic lymph nodes. Moreover, the clinical data show that probe manipulation within the lymph node can perturb the in vivo environment, a concern that must be carefully considered when developing a sampling strategy. The data show the feasibility of this novel technique; however, the potential clinical utility has yet to be determined.

  5. A report of three cases of surgical removal of esophageal schwannomas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiankai; Li, Yin; Liu, Xianben; Fu, Huaiping; Sun, Haibo; Zhang, Ruixiang; Wang, Zongfei; Zheng, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Esophageal schwannomas are rarely observed, and the most frequent presenting symptom is dysphagia. In such cases, esophageal endoscopy shows a mucosal protrusion with normal esophageal mucosa. Esophagography shows a protruding smooth mass in the middle thoracic esophagus. Both fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and endoscopic ultrasonography-fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) are limited for diagnosing the case. Diagnosis of this condition before surgery is difficult. The most common and effective treatment is enucleation through surgery or endoscopy. Thoracoscopic surgery is gradually becoming used more often, and the prognosis is particularly good. In comparison, thoracoscopy surgery is less invasive, with a shorter length of hospital stay, and reduced pain at the surgical wound site. Extended lymph node dissection was not performed. The positive expression of S-100 on immunohistochemistry examination indicates the nature of the schwannoma. In the present cases, the postoperative course was uneventful, and no evidence of recurrence has been noted. PMID:27162699

  6. In vivo cytological observation of liver and spleen by using high-resolution microendoscopy system under endoscopic ultrasound guidance: A preliminary study using a swine model

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Rei; Shin, Dongsuk; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Coghlan, Lezlee; Bhutani, Manoop S.

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is useful to obtain specimens from lesions underlying deep parts of the liver and spleen. However, the development of novel ancillary techniques must be explored to reduce the number of needle passes and potential adverse effects during this procedure. We conducted an animal study using a swine to demonstrate technical feasibility of in vivo cytological observation of liver and spleen using the high-resolution microendoscopy (HRME) system under EUS guidance. We successfully performed the study. No significant acute adverse events occurred during the procedure. The HRME system could obtain clear images representing cytology-level morphology of spleen and liver. Hence, it is found out that in vivo cytological observation of liver and spleen using the HRME system under EUS guidance is technically feasible. PMID:27503155

  7. Dynamic telecytopathology of on site rapid cytology diagnoses for pancreatic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Burton; Chhieng, David C; Crowe, David R; Jhala, Darshana; Jhala, Nirag; Winokur, Thomas; Eloubeidi, Mohamad A; Eltoum, Isam E

    2006-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of pancreatic lesions can be accurately performed by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) with onsite cytopathologists to assess specimen adequacy and to determine a preliminary diagnosis. Considerable time is needed to perform on-site assessments. This takes away work time of cytopathologists and prohibits them from serving remote locations. It is therefore logical to ask if real-time telecytopathology could be used to assess specimen adequacy and if telecytopathology diagnosis has the same level of agreement to the final diagnosis as that of onsite evaluation. In this study, we compare agreement between cytodiagnoses rendered using telecytopathology with onsite and final interpretations. Method 40 Diff-Quik-stained EUS-FNA were re-evaluated retrospectively (patient ages 31–62, 19:21 male:female, 15 non-malignant lesions, 25 malignant lesions as classified by final diagnosis). Each previously assessed by a cytopathologist and finally reviewed by the same or different cytopathologist. Blinded to the final diagnosis, a resident pathologist re-screened all slides for each case, selected a slide and marked the diagnostic cells most representative of the lesion. Blinded to the diagnosis, one cytopathologist assessed the marked cells through a real time remotely operated telecytopathology system (MedMicroscopy). Diagnosis and time spent were recorded. Kappa statistic was used to compare agreements between telecytopathology vs. original onsite vs. final diagnoses. Results Time spent for prescreening ranged from 1 to 5 minutes (mean 2.6 +/- 1.3 minutes) and time spent for telecytopathology diagnosis ranged from 2–20 minutes (mean 7.5 +/- 4.5 minutes). Kappa statistics, K, was as follows: telecytopathology versus onsite diagnosis K, 95% CI = 0.65, 0.41–0.88, for telecytopathology versus final K, 95% CI = 0.61, 0.37–0.85 and for onsite diagnosis versus final K, 95% CI = 0.79, 0.61–0.98. There is no significant

  8. ASPIRE - Cloud Chambers as an Introduction to Cosmic Ray Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Julie; Matthews, John; Jui, Charles

    2012-03-01

    ASPIRE is the K12 - Education & Public Outreach program for the Telescope Array ultra-high energy cosmic ray research project in Utah. The Telescope Array experiment studies ultra-high energy cosmic rays with an array of ˜500 surface scintillator detectors and three fluorescence telescope stations observing over 300 square miles in the West Desert of Utah. Telescope Array is a collaboration of international institutions from the United States, Japan, Korea, Russia and Belgium. Cloud chambers are an inexpensive and easy demonstration to visually observe evidence of charged particles and cosmic ray activity both for informal events as well as for K12 classroom activities. Join us in building a cloud chamber and observe cosmic rays with these table-top demonstrations. A brief overview of the Telescope Array project in Millard County, Utah will also be presented.

  9. When Aspirations Exceed Expectations: Quixotic Hope Increases Depression among Students

    PubMed Central

    Cruwys, Tegan

    2015-01-01

    A paradox exists in modern schooling: students are simultaneously more positive about the future and more depressed than ever. We suggest that these two phenomena may be linked. Two studies demonstrated that students are more likely to be depressed when educational aspirations exceed expectations. In Study 1 (N = 85) aspiring to a thesis grade higher than one expected predicted greater depression at the beginning and end of the academic year. In Study 2 (N = 2820) aspiring to a level of education (e.g., attending college) higher than one expected to achieve predicted greater depression cross-sectionally and five years later. In both cases the negative effects of aspiring high while expecting low persisted even after controlling for whether or not students achieved their educational aspirations. These findings highlight the danger of teaching students to aspire higher without also investing time and money to ensure that students can reasonably expect to achieve their educational goals. PMID:26352151

  10. When Aspirations Exceed Expectations: Quixotic Hope Increases Depression among Students.

    PubMed

    Greenaway, Katharine H; Frye, Margaret; Cruwys, Tegan

    2015-01-01

    A paradox exists in modern schooling: students are simultaneously more positive about the future and more depressed than ever. We suggest that these two phenomena may be linked. Two studies demonstrated that students are more likely to be depressed when educational aspirations exceed expectations. In Study 1 (N = 85) aspiring to a thesis grade higher than one expected predicted greater depression at the beginning and end of the academic year. In Study 2 (N = 2820) aspiring to a level of education (e.g., attending college) higher than one expected to achieve predicted greater depression cross-sectionally and five years later. In both cases the negative effects of aspiring high while expecting low persisted even after controlling for whether or not students achieved their educational aspirations. These findings highlight the danger of teaching students to aspire higher without also investing time and money to ensure that students can reasonably expect to achieve their educational goals.

  11. Beyond Access: How the First Semester Matters for Community College Students' Aspirations and Persistence. Policy Brief 07-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Anne K.

    2007-01-01

    This report provides evidence that the first semester in community college is a pivotal point in students' academic careers. Students whose first academic experience in college is positive and successful are more likely to remain in school, and to sustain their aspiration to transfer to a four-year college. Those whose first experiences are less…

  12. Effects of aspiration on fundamental frequency in Taiwanese syllables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yuwen; Jongman, Allard

    2005-04-01

    The perturbation effect on vowel fundamental frequency (F0) by voiceless aspirated and unaspirated prevocalic obstruents is investigated in Taiwanese. It is well known that F0 is significantly higher after voiceless than voiced stops. However, the perturbation effect caused by aspiration has received much less attention. Twenty-eight minimal pairs contrasting in prevocalic aspiration across three different places of articulation from seven tonal categories in Taiwanese were recorded from two male and two female speakers. An acoustic study was conducted on a total of 1120 syllables. Onset, offset, and mean F0 as well as contours of the tones after the aspirated and unaspirated obstruents were compared. Results indicate that the onset and mean F0 are significantly higher when following aspirated obstruents but no difference was found in offset F0. Tonal contour comparison shows that the F0 raising effect triggered by aspirated obstruents disappears at 50-60% of the tone. Higher larynx and faster airflow rate are posited as the major factors for the higher F0 after voiceless aspirated obstruents. The present results warrant a reconsideration of the traditional theory of aspiration-induced tonal split according to which a tonal split resulted from the lowering of F0 due to aspiration.

  13. Role of aspiration-induced migration in cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2010-06-01

    Both cooperation and migration are ubiquitous in human society and animal world. In this Rapid Communication, we propose an aspiration-induced migration in which individuals will migrate to new sites provided that their payoffs are below some aspiration level. It is found that moderate aspiration level can best favor cooperative behavior. In particular, moderate aspiration level enables cooperator clusters to maintain and expand whereas induces defector clusters to disintegrate, thus promoting the diffusion of cooperation among population. Our results provide insights into understanding the role played by migration in the emergence of cooperative behavior.

  14. Chiari malformations: An important cause of pediatric aspiration.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Jennifer C; Sinha, Sumi; Caruso, Paul A; Hersh, Cheryl J; Butler, William E; Krishnamoorthy, Kalpathy S; Hartnick, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    Chronic aspiration poses a major health risk to the pediatric population. We describe four cases in which work up for chronic aspiration with a brain MRI revealed a Chiari I malformation, a poorly described etiology of pediatric aspiration. All patients had at least one non-specific neurologic symptom but had swallow studies more characteristic of an anatomic than a neurologic etiology. Patients were referred to neurosurgery and underwent posterior fossa decompression with symptom improvement. A high index of suspicion for Chiari malformation should be maintained when the standard work up for aspiration is non-diagnostic, particularly when non-specific neurologic symptoms are present. PMID:27497399

  15. Evolution of transbronchial needle aspiration technique

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing-Hua; Ben, Su-Qin; Xia, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is an established technique to collect cell and tissue specimens from lesions outside the airway wall, generally guided by flexible bronchoscope under the direct visualization of the puncture site. TBNA has been utilized for 30 years, and now there is renewed interest in utilizing it in conjunction with endobronchial ultrasound. Although the basic operational principles have remained the same, conventional TBNA (cTBNA) and endobronchial ultrasound-guided TBNA (EBUS-TBNA) have been greatly improved over the years with the increased application in clinic and the advance of new technology. In this article we briefly discussed the evolution of TBNA technique and its future. PMID:26807269

  16. Foreign Body Aspiration in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Matos, Cátia; Sousa, Manuel Mário

    2016-05-01

    Foreign body aspiration is common in children and in the elderly, who may present with subtle symptoms. Clinical suspicion is crucial and bronchoscopy is the main diagnostic and therapeutic procedure available. This is the case of a man, 78 years old, with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, who presented with respiratory distress following oral intake of tablets. History taking and physical examination raised suspicion. The diagnosis was confirmed with flexible bronchoscopy and rigid bronchoscopy was carried out for treatment. The patient's condition is stable and he is under investigations for dysphagia.

  17. Aspiration biopsy cytology of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Kline, T S; Merriam, J M; Shapshay, S M

    1981-09-01

    Aspiration biopsy by fine needle from the major salivary glands has been an under-utilized technic in the United States. To evaluate this form of biopsy, 69 patients with salivary gland enlargement were examined by this technic; 47 had confirmative histology. Characteristic ABC patterns were seen in the benign mixed tumor, the papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum, the mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and malignancy metastatic to the salivary gland. These findings are described. The method proved complication-free and accurate and is recommended for all tumors of the salivary gland.

  18. Aspirations langagieres: Negociation et apprentissage du francais (Language Aspirations: Negotiation and Learning French).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepetit, Daniel; Cichocki, Wladyslaw

    1990-01-01

    A survey of 130 beginning French students at the University of Windsor (Canada) focused on their second language aspirations, expectations, and anticipated needs. Interpersonal relations appear to be the primary motivator, with travel and instrumental motivation secondary. (20 references) (Author/MSE)

  19. A novel pneumatic micropipette aspiration method using a balance pressure model.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qili; Wu, Ming; Cui, Maosheng; Qin, Yanding; Yu, Jin; Sun, Mingzhu; Zhao, Xin; Feng, Xizeng

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a novel micropipette aspiration (MA) method based on a common pneumatic micro-injection system. This method is the first to quantify the influence of capillary effect on aspiration pressure using a balance pressure model, and in return, uses the capillary effect to quantify the aspiration pressure. Subsequently, the seal between the cell and the micropipette is detected to judge and exclude the ineffective MA attempts. The rationality of the balance pressure model is validated by the designed micropipette-filling experiments. Through applied to elasticity-determination of the cells with different sizes, the feasibility and versatility of this MA method are proved. With abilities to quantify aspiration pressures and detect the seam between the cell and the micropipette, our method is expected to advance the application of the commercial pneumatic injector in the MA of cells. Moreover, with the quantified volume of the liquid entering into the micropipette during MA process, our method also has a potential applicability to the study of the permeability of the cell membrane in the future.

  20. A novel pneumatic micropipette aspiration method using a balance pressure model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qili; Wu, Ming; Cui, Maosheng; Qin, Yanding; Yu, Jin; Sun, Mingzhu; Zhao, Xin; Feng, Xizeng

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a novel micropipette aspiration (MA) method based on a common pneumatic micro-injection system. This method is the first to quantify the influence of capillary effect on aspiration pressure using a balance pressure model, and in return, uses the capillary effect to quantify the aspiration pressure. Subsequently, the seal between the cell and the micropipette is detected to judge and exclude the ineffective MA attempts. The rationality of the balance pressure model is validated by the designed micropipette-filling experiments. Through applied to elasticity-determination of the cells with different sizes, the feasibility and versatility of this MA method are proved. With abilities to quantify aspiration pressures and detect the seam between the cell and the micropipette, our method is expected to advance the application of the commercial pneumatic injector in the MA of cells. Moreover, with the quantified volume of the liquid entering into the micropipette during MA process, our method also has a potential applicability to the study of the permeability of the cell membrane in the future.

  1. Academic performance, educational aspiration and birth outcomes among adolescent mothers: a national longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal educational attainment has been associated with birth outcomes among adult mothers. However, limited research explores whether academic performance and educational aspiration influence birth outcomes among adolescent mothers. Methods Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used. Adolescent girls whose first pregnancy occurred after Wave I, during their adolescence, and ended with a singleton live birth were included. Adolescents’ grade point average (GPA), experience of ever skipping a grade and ever repeating a grade, and their aspiration to attend college were examined as predictors of birth outcomes (birthweight and gestational age; n = 763). Univariate statistics, bivariate analyses and multivariable models were run stratified on race using survey procedures. Results Among Black adolescents, those who ever skipped a grade had higher offspring’s birthweight. Among non-Black adolescents, ever skipping a grade and higher educational aspiration were associated with higher offspring’s birthweight; ever skipping a grade was also associated with higher gestational age. GPA was not statistically significantly associated with either birth outcome. The addition of smoking during pregnancy and prenatal care visit into the multivariable models did not change these associations. Conclusions Some indicators of higher academic performance and aspiration are associated with better birth outcomes among adolescents. Investing in improving educational opportunities may improve birth outcomes among teenage mothers. PMID:24422664

  2. Early mechanical ventilation is deleterious after aspiration-induced lung injury in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hermon, Michael M; Wassermann, Esther; Pfeiler, Claudia; Pollak, Arnold; Redl, Heinz; Strohmaier, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    We investigated whether mechanical ventilation after aspiration is deleterious when started before surfactant therapy. Gas exchange and lung mechanics were measured in rabbits after aspiration either mechanically ventilated before or after lavage with diluted surfactant or Ringer's solution. Lung injury was induced by intratracheal instillation of 2 mL/kg of a betain/HCl pepsin mixture. After 30 min of spontaneous breathing, ventilation was started in 12 rabbits, which were then treated by lavage with diluted surfactant (15 mL/kg body weight; 5.3 mg/mL, group MVpre S) or with Ringer's solution (1 mL/kg; group MVpre R). Another 12 rabbits were treated by lavage while spontaneously breathing and were then connected to the ventilator (MVpost S and MVpost R). Sham control rabbits were mechanically ventilated for 4 h. At the end of experiment, PaO2/FiO2 ratio in MVpost S was five times higher than in MVpre S (P=0.0043). Lung mechanics measurements showed significant difference between MVpre S and MVpost S (P=0.0072). There was histopathologic evidence of decreased lung injury in MVpost S. Immediate initiation of ventilation is harmful when lung injury is induced by aspiration. Further investigations are needed to clarify whether the timing of lavage with diluted surfactant has an impact on the treatment of patients with aspiration or comparable types of direct lung injury. PMID:15614133

  3. Influences to post-graduation career aspirations and attainment in STEM doctoral candidates and recipients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Deborah S.

    As the realities of the academic job market have forced some PhD recipients to accept less-preferable position types, there has been increasing concerns that these students are not prepared for their careers, especially in STEM fields. However, aside from the labor market, few studies have explored the influences on career aspiration and attainment among doctoral degree holders. This study utilized the socialization theory framework to identify aspects of the doctoral education process that are predictive of the likelihood of certain career aspirations among science and engineering doctoral candidates and career attainment among STEM doctoral recipients by utilizing nationally representative datasets: The National Research Council's Assessment of Research Doctorate Programs student questionnaire and the National Science Foundation's Survey of Earned Doctorates. This study identified field of study, research productivity rank of doctoral programs, primary type of finding doctoral students received, level of satisfaction with research experiences, and their sense of belonging within their doctoral program as factors that predict the likelihood of certain career aspirations compared with a career in education. Doctoral candidates' background characteristics that were significant predictors of career aspirations were gender, marital status, dependent status, race, age, and citizenship status. Further, this study identified participant's field of study, the Carnegie Rank of institutions attended, primary type of funding received, length of time to PhD, gender, marital status, dependent status, race, citizenship stats, and age as factors that predict the likelihood of the career outcomes investigated in this study, including doctoral recipients' employment field and primary work activity.

  4. The role of fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis and management of palpable masses.

    PubMed

    Crosby, J H

    1996-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a safe and economical biopsy technique that is widely applicable to palpable masses as a first-line procedure. However, successful FNA demands high specimen quality and experience on the part of both the aspirator and the pathologist. The best diagnostic yield is achieved by examining the aspirate on site with a microscope and making repeat passes if needed. Studies from several organ sites show generally high specificity for FNA in the diagnosis of cancer but slightly lower sensitivity. The accuracy and proper role of FNA vary among organ sites and different disease categories. FNA often makes a clear cut diagnosis but sometimes assumes more of a screening role. In cases of breast cancer, FNA can usually make a definitive diagnosis in the outpatient setting and greatly facilitate further management. Breast FNA reduces the need for open biopsies in women with benign aspirates, provided clinical and mammographic findings are also benign. Salivary gland FNA separates neoplasm from inflammatory lesions and reduces the need for surgery by as much as a third. Thyroid FNA greatly improves selection of patients for surgery and increases the percentage of cancers in nodules that are excised. However, follicular adenomas resemble carcinomas on FNA and must usually be excised. The accuracy and role of lymph node FNA is greatest with metastatic cancers. Its accuracy is somewhat lower in the primary diagnosis of lymphomas, which usually requires excision and histologic study for full characterization.

  5. Fatal outcome of a sand aspiration.

    PubMed

    Kettner, M; Ramsthaler, F; Horlebein, B; Schmidt, P H

    2008-11-01

    Although extensive deep aspiration of sand, gravel, or dirt is a very rare incident, its consequences may be severe ranging from the necessity of immediate intensive care to death. Cases reported so far were due to external causes such as cave-ins, near drowning, or being buried under sand masses. We report a case of a 2 1/2-year-old boy who ingested sand while playing in a sandbox with his older brother. Despite early resuscitation and endotracheal intubation efforts, he died subsequently showing clinical signs of asphyxia due to airway obstruction. Autopsy revealed sand masses obstructing the trachea and lobar bronchi of both lungs as well as brain edema, while no signs of blunt trauma, forced sand ingestion, or preexisting medical conditions were found. This case demonstrates that fatal self-administered sand aspiration may occur in early childhood. The pathophysiology of the lethal outcome with regard to the physical properties of sand and implications for the clinical assessment of emergency situations are discussed.

  6. Sociological Theory and Youth Aspiration Research: A Critical Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, J. Steven; Wells, Richard H.

    Reviewing sociological theories relative to youth aspiration research, the following thesis was presented: "pre-path analysis aspiration research was characterized by a person-centered, middle-range functionalist approach which eventually shifted to a person-centered, functionalist-system approach with the introduction of the path model…

  7. Rural Aspirations, Rural Futures: From "Problem" to Possibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieken, Mara Casey; San Antonio, Donna M.

    2016-01-01

    Young people aspire, make choices, and develop within a particular place and historical context. Recently, federal and state governments, policy and research institutes, and advocacy organizations have shown a growing interest in the aspirations and transitions of rural youth--and, in particular, the role that schools play in shaping and…

  8. Relationships of Teenage Smoking to Educational Aspirations and Parents' Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Ingrid; Lye, Diane

    Past research has shown that teenagers with less educated parents and teenagers with lower academic aspirations are more likely than their peers to smoke. This study was conducted to provide additional descriptive data concerning the relationships of smoking to parents' education and students' educational aspirations and to provide preliminary…

  9. THE OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE--THEORY, STRUCTURE AND CORRELATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HALLER, ARCHIBALD O.; MILLER, IRWIN W.

    A SCALE TO MEASURE THE LEVEL OF OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION (LOA) OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS AS A PREDICTIVE TOOL IN FUTURE OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE IS PRESENTED AND EXTENSIVELY EVALUATED IN THIS MONOGRAPH. THE OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE IS AN EASILY ADMINISTERED INSTRUMENT WHICH FOCUSES ON IDEALISTIC AND REALISTIC EXPRESSION LEVELS AS WELL AS ON…

  10. Career Aspirations of Women in the 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenico, Desirae M.; Jones, Karen H.

    2006-01-01

    Women have increasingly become more involved in the workforce following World War II. Paid employment of women has shifted from primarily traditional female-oriented jobs to more non-traditional, and previously male-oriented careers. Women's participation in the workforce has lead to the study of career aspirations of women. Career aspirations are…

  11. Study of Educational Aspirations of Preparatory School Students in Yemen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, Everett D.

    To identify causes for low enrollment in secondary agricultural schools in Yemen, the United States Agency for International Development and the Yemen Ministry of Education surveyed 990 preparatory (junior high) students, examining their educational aspirations, differences between rural and urban youth, major influences on student aspirations,…

  12. Cognitive Correlates of Adolescents' Aspirations to Leadership: A Developmental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Ming

    1990-01-01

    Examined age and gender differences in leadership aspirations among adolescents (N=130) by measuring overall leadership aspirations, valence-instrumentality expectancies for leadership outcomes, self-efficacy perceptions, and attributions of effective leadership. Found significant gender differences in valence scores and age differences in…

  13. Factors Related to Postgraduate Educational Aspirations of Women College Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wolf, Virginia A.

    This study compared 105 women university baccalaureates intending graduate study the year following graduation with women graduates matched by age and major who did not intend such study. Aspirers had significantly higher GPAs than non-aspirers, were more satisfied with their undergraduate major, had more often selected their major as preparation…

  14. Students' Aspirations, Expectations and School Achievement: What Really Matters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khattab, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    Using the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE), this study examines how different combinations of aspirations, expectations and school achievement can influence students' future educational behaviour (applying to university at the age of 17-18). The study shows that students with either high aspirations or high expectations have…

  15. Calculating Student Aspiration: Bourdieu, Spatiality and the Politics of Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Trevor; Parker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a recent study of aspirations for higher education by secondary school students from disadvantaged backgrounds in regional Australia. At the same time, it goes in search of explanations that transcend a Bourdieuian account of aspirations as produced by and reproductive of cultural histories and dominance, given the apparent…

  16. A tale of three aspirations: foreign bodies in the airway.

    PubMed

    Pritt, B; Harmon, M; Schwartz, M; Cooper, K

    2003-10-01

    Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration is a serious medical problem, with clinical manifestations ranging from acute asphyxiation to insidious lung damage, as demonstrated by the three presented cases. Patient 1 aspirated during dinner, emergency bronchoscopy retrieved pieces of food, and she fully recovered the following day. Patient 2 presented with recurrent pneumonia and a right lower lobe lung abscess. After right lower lobectomy, pathology revealed a foreign object in the right main stem bronchus, a peanut aspirated one year earlier. Patient 3 became unresponsive several days after spinal surgery. The differential diagnosis included myocardial infarction, stroke, and foreign body aspiration. The patient died and necropsy revealed a foreign body in the right main stem bronchus (cooked meat). Thus, foreign body aspiration is not always suspected clinically, and the pathologist may play an important role in making the diagnosis. Histological identification of the aspirated material may be necessary for definitive diagnosis. Therefore, sections of commonly aspirated foods are presented, together with a 10 year history of aspirated objects received by this institution's surgical pathology department.

  17. Occupational Aspirations of State FFA Contest and Award Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Blannie E.; Doerfert, David L.

    1989-01-01

    A study explored the occupational aspirations of 300 (of 503) students with high levels of participation in Future Farmers of America's (FFA) Computers in Agriculture (CIA), Proficiency Award (PA), and Prepared and Extemporaneous Speaking (PES) contests. CIA and PES winners aspired to professional occupations more than PA winners. PES winners…

  18. The Relationship between Gender and Aspirations to Senior Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litzky, Barrie; Greenhaus, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship of gender, work factors, and non-work factors with aspirations to positions in senior management. A process model of senior management aspirations was developed and tested. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected via an online survey that resulted in a sample of 368 working…

  19. Life Chances, Lifestyle and Everyday Aspirational Strategies and Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Hickey-Moody, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The notion of raising the aspirations of socially disadvantaged students is a key policy strategy in for enhancing such students' participation in higher education. However, this strategy runs the risk of being simplistic and ineffective unless it is informed by research on the links between aspirations and such students' changing life experiences…

  20. Aspiration pneumonia associated with a double fracture of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Seigo; Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Shinpei; Sano, Kazuo

    2014-11-01

    Aspiration pneumonia is one of the most life-threatening diseases in the elderly. A 73-year-old woman was diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia after a mandibular fracture. Because her persistent aspiration pneumonia was accompanied by a diminished swallowing function that was believed to be due to a double fracture of the mandible, the patient underwent an open reduction while having pneumonia. Her symptoms of aspiration pneumonia improved immediately after the surgery. The hyoid bone was repositioned to its original position, and the movements of the hyoid bone and mandible were recovered after the surgery. In cases in which the medial bone segment of the mandible moves inside because of a double fracture and the movement of the hyoid bone declines, we strongly suggest that an open reduction should be performed as soon as possible to prevent aspiration pneumonia caused by a swallowing dysfunction.

  1. Knowledge Transformation and Impact: Aspirations and Experiences from TLRP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the intentions and strategies adopted by the UK's Teaching and Learning Research Programme (TLRP) in its attempts to maximise the impact of its research portfolio. The Programme's early commitment to user engagement and to an 'interactive, iterative, constructive, distributed and transformative' impact strategy is described. The…

  2. Acid aspiration-induced airways hyperresponsiveness in mice.

    PubMed

    Allen, Gilman B; Leclair, Timothy R; von Reyn, Jessica; Larrabee, Yuna C; Cloutier, Mary E; Irvin, Charles G; Bates, Jason H T

    2009-12-01

    The role of gastroesophageal reflux and micro-aspiration as a trigger of airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in patients with asthma is controversial. The role of acid reflux and aspiration as a direct cause of AHR in normal subjects is also unclear. We speculated that aspiration of a weak acid with a pH (1.8) equivalent to the upper range of typical gastric contents would lead to AHR in naive mice. We further speculated that modest reductions in aspirate acidity to a level expected during gastric acid suppression therapy (pH 4.0) would impede aspiration-induced AHR. BALB/c female mice were briefly anesthetized with isoflurane and allowed to aspirate 75 microl of saline with HCl (pH 1.8, 4.0, or 7.4) or underwent sham aspiration. Mice were re-anesthetized 2 or 24 h later, underwent tracheostomy, and were coupled to a mechanical ventilator. Forced oscillations were used to periodically measure respiratory impedance (Zrs) following aerosol delivery of saline and increasing doses of methacholine to measure for AHR. Values for elastance (H), airways resistance (R(N)), and tissue damping (G) were derived from Zrs. Aspirate pH of 1.8 led to a significant overall increase in peak R(N), G, and H compared with pH 4.0 and 7.4 at 2 and 24 h. Differences between pH 7.4 and 4.0 were not significant. In mice aspirating pH 1.8 compared with controls, airway lavage fluid contained more neutrophils, higher protein, and demonstrated higher permeability. We conclude that acid aspiration triggers an acute AHR, driven principally by breakdown of epithelial barrier integrity within the airways. PMID:19797689

  3. Pneumonia caused by diesel fuel aspiration.

    PubMed

    Haciomeroglu, Osman; Ekinci, Gulbanu Horzum; Ongel, Esra Akkutuk; Kavas, Murat; Burunsuzoglu, Bunyamin; Ozel, Yasemin; Yilmaz, Adnan

    2014-11-01

    An 18 years old Turkish boy was admitted to hospital due to cough, chest pain and shortness of breath for 4 days. Twentyfour hours before the onset of symptoms, the patient had accidentally aspirated diesel while siphoning from the fuel tank of a car. On admission, he was febrile and tachypnoeic. There were fine crackles on auscultation of the lungs. Chest X-ray revealed bilateral infiltration in the lower lung zones. Arterial blood gas analysis showed pH of 7.42, PaO2 of 45.6 mmHg, PaCO2 of 41.3 mmHg and oxygen saturation of 85.2%. He was treated with course of corticosteroid, antibiotic and oxygen supplementation. Chest X-ray showed near-complete resolution 2 weeks after discharge. PMID:25518800

  4. Religiosity and Migration Aspirations among Mexican Youth

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Ayers, Stephanie L.

    2014-01-01

    International migration has become an important topic of discussion from a policy and humanitarian perspective. Part of the debate includes a renewed interest in understanding the factors that influence decisions about migration to the US among Mexican youth still residing in their country of origin. The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge specifically about internal and external religiosity and their influence on youths' migration aspirations. The data for this study were collected in 2007 from students enrolled in an alternative high school program located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico. The findings indicated that as external religiosity increases, the desire to work or live in the USA decreases. Furthermore, as internal religiosity increases, the desire to work or live in the USA and plans to migrate increase. The results are interpreted and discussed in light of previous research on religious and cultural norm adherence. PMID:25663825

  5. Fine-needle aspiration cytology in fibromatoses.

    PubMed

    Zaharopoulos, P; Wong, J Y

    1992-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology was performed in seven cases of fibromatosis of variable types with tumorous clinical presentation. These included: four cases of musculoaponeurotic fibromatosis, two in posterior neck muscles, one in anterior neck muscles and one in intercostal muscles; one case of fibromatosis of the breast; and two cases of fibromatosis colli in neonates. In all cases the specimens contained connective tissue with many fibroblast-like cells, lacking features which could indicate a malignant lesion. The findings in these cases indicate that, although by FNA cytology in fibromatoses a specific diagnosis for each pathologic entity may not be easily reached, in the proper clinical setting the cytologic findings can be of sufficient relevance to offset the need for an open tissue biopsy, where there are valid reasons against a surgical intervention.

  6. Pneumonia caused by diesel fuel aspiration.

    PubMed

    Haciomeroglu, Osman; Ekinci, Gulbanu Horzum; Ongel, Esra Akkutuk; Kavas, Murat; Burunsuzoglu, Bunyamin; Ozel, Yasemin; Yilmaz, Adnan

    2014-11-01

    An 18 years old Turkish boy was admitted to hospital due to cough, chest pain and shortness of breath for 4 days. Twentyfour hours before the onset of symptoms, the patient had accidentally aspirated diesel while siphoning from the fuel tank of a car. On admission, he was febrile and tachypnoeic. There were fine crackles on auscultation of the lungs. Chest X-ray revealed bilateral infiltration in the lower lung zones. Arterial blood gas analysis showed pH of 7.42, PaO2 of 45.6 mmHg, PaCO2 of 41.3 mmHg and oxygen saturation of 85.2%. He was treated with course of corticosteroid, antibiotic and oxygen supplementation. Chest X-ray showed near-complete resolution 2 weeks after discharge.

  7. Preventing aspiration in the nursing home: the role of biofilm and data from the ICU.

    PubMed

    Drinka, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Two aspiration syndromes have been identified: Aspiration pneumonia is infectious caused by micro-aspiration of oral bacteria secondary to neurogenic dysphagia or sedation. Infectious bacteria may also be aspirated from the stomach. Aspiration pneumonitis classically follows large bolus aspiration of food, acid, or digestive enzymes and is initially noninfectious. Large bolus gastric aspiration events may have an acute/dramatic onset. This article discusses (1) prevention of recurrent aspiration events caused by 2 common motility disorders: neurogenic dysphagia and gastro esophageal reflux; (2) mechanical source control (debridement/drainage) of sites that may harbor large collections of bacteria protected from antibiotics in biofilm including dental plaque, coated tongue, and chronic sinusitis.

  8. How clinicians develop confidence in their competence in performing aspiration abortion.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Lori; Levi, Amy

    2014-01-01

    In this article we explore how nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and nurse midwives in California (collectively referred to as clinicians) developed confidence while learning to provide vacuum aspiration abortion. We interviewed clinicians (n = 30) who worked in reproductive health care settings and had participated in a large abortion-training study. Although the training had moral and political significance for the trainees, in this article we focus on their experience of skill development and how they gained confidence and competence in aspiration abortion, a procedure typically performed by physicians. We argue that confidence is not one dimensional. Understanding the diverse ways in which clinicians arrive at confidence might inform health care training and education generally. By examining attained competency from the clinicians' perspectives, we continue the discussion within the social science of health care and medicine about how clinicians know what they know and what expertise feels like to them.

  9. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy with a vacuum test tube.

    PubMed

    Fornage, B D

    1988-11-01

    A simple, low-cost, automatic aspiration system that makes use of vacuum test tubes designed for the drawing of venous blood has been used for real-time ultrasound (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of 13 cysts (breast), an abscess (liver), and five solid (breast, liver, thyroid) masses. Because it allows the operator to perform aspiration with one hand while holding the real-time US transducer with the other, and because creation of the suction is associated with no significant displacement of the needle, this approach has allowed sampling of lesions less than 1 cm in diameter. No complications have occurred.

  10. Pediatric foreign body aspiration: A nidus for Aspergillus colonization.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Candace A; Kreiger, Portia; Goff, Christopher; Shah, Udayan K

    2015-06-01

    We describe an immunocompetent child with bronchial fungus following foreign body aspiration. A two-year-old male presented with cough. Workup revealed air trapping and bronchoscopy showed aspirated foreign material in the right mainstem bronchus. Histopathology revealed fungal organisms suggestive of Aspergillus within an ulcer of the adjacent bronchial mucosa. Foreign body aspiration has been posited as a nidus for aspergilloma formation but is not yet described in the available English-language pediatric literature. Here, the foreign body provided a site for fungal growth in the bronchus of an otherwise healthy child. This case suggests that bronchial foreign body may pose risk of fungal colonization even in immunocompetent children.

  11. Cross-Lagged Relationships between Career Aspirations and Goal Orientation in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter; Tilbury, Clare; Buys, Nick; Crawford, Meegan

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed 217 students (145 girls; average age = 14.6 years) on two occasions, twelve months apart, on measures of career aspirations (job aspirations, job expectations, educational aspirations) and goal orientation (learning, performance-prove, performance-avoid), and tested the causal relationship between goal orientation and aspirations. We…

  12. From Educational Aspirations to College Enrollment: A Road with Many Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lu

    2009-01-01

    Educational aspiration is one of the most important factors influencing an individual's educational attainment. Although students' aspirations are changeable and the stability of their aspirations is important for their goal reaching, previous studies are rather limited in their ability to capture aspiration changes due to their incomplete…

  13. Forced Aspiration of bubbles into a capillary tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durth, Melanie; Clanet, Christophe; Fernandez, Juan

    2009-11-01

    One way to remove lodged bubbles in small vena is to force the bubble to be completely aspirated into a fine needle. We study the aspiration of a bubble into a vertical capillary tube, for different bubble size relative to the capillary diameter (i.e. bubble confinement) and low Bond numbers (pipette diameter << capillary length). In this case, there is a critical condition of flow rate depending on the bubble confinement and the capillary number Ca beyond which the bubble is aspirated completely into the capillary. Below this value, the bubble breaks-up forming a liquid slug at the entrance of the tube. A simple model which takes into account the draining time of the annular liquid thin film and the characteristic time of the capillary instability, explains the observed experimental results and establish the characteristic time to aspirate completely the bubble.

  14. Ultrasound-guided needle aspiration of amoebic liver abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, A.; Ramani, R.; Kumar, M. S.; Lakhkar, B. N.; Kundaje, G. N.

    1993-01-01

    This prospective study was carried out on 200 patients with clinically, ultrasonographically and serologically confirmed amoebic liver abscess. The role of ultrasound-guided needle aspiration in addition to medications was evaluated compared to drug treatment alone. Both the groups were monitored clinically and sonographically for up to 6 months after diagnosis. The initial response (after 15 days) was better in the aspirated group (P < 0.05) but resolution of abscess after 6 months were similar. There was a more rapid clinical response in the aspirated group, particularly in those with larger (> 6 cm) abscesses and there were no complications. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided needle aspiration is a safe diagnostic and therapeutic approach which enhances clinical recovery, accelerates resolution, especially in large abscesses, and prevents complications. PMID:8346134

  15. Dermal mass aspirate from a Persian cat.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Feldman, Bernard; Robertson, John; Herring, Erin S; Manning, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    A 1-year-old spayed female Persian cat with alopecia and weight loss had numerous variably ulcerated dermal nodules. Cytologic examination of an aspirate of one of the nodules revealed pyogranulomatous inflammation along with septate hyphae and basophilic round bodies, 0.5-1.0 microm in diameter, surrounded by a thin clear halo (arthrospores). The cytologic diagnosis was dermatophytic pseudomycetoma. Histologically, there were dermal granulomas containing poorly staining, septate hyphae with bulbous spores embedded within abundant amorphous eosinophilic material (Splendore-Hoeppli reaction), and the histologic diagnosis was pseudomycetoma-associated chronic multifocal severe granulomatous dermatitis with lymphocytic perifolliculitis and furunculosis. Microsporum canis was cultured from the lesion. Pseudomycetomas are distinguished from fungal mycetomas, or eumycotic mycetomas, by the findings of multiple lesions, lack of a history of skin trauma, an association with dermatophytes, most commonly Microsporum canis, and, histologically, lack of true cement material and a more abundant Splendore-Hoeppli reaction in pseudomycetomas. Additionally, pseudomycetomas differ from dermatophytosis, in which lesions are restricted to epidermal structures. Persian cats have a high incidence of pseudomycetoma formation, suggesting a heritable predisposition. The prognosis is fair with systemic antifungal therapy. When examining cytologic specimens from Persian cats with single or multiple dermal nodules, especially if pyogranulomatous inflammation is present, a diagnosis of pseudomycetoma should be suspected and is warranted if arthrospores and refractile septate hyphae are present.

  16. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Arda, I; Yildirim, S; Demirhan, B; Firat, S

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) is a routine diagnostic technique for evaluating thyroid nodules. Many reports in adults consider that FNA is superior to thyroid ultrasonography (USG) and radionuclide scanning (RS). Only five studies have been published on FNA of childhood thyroid nodules.
AIMS—To investigate the reliability of FNA in the evaluation and management of thyroid nodules, and compare the results of FNA, USG, and RS with regard to final histopathological diagnosis.
METHODS—FNA was performed in 46 children with thyroid nodules after USG and RS examination. We investigated the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of USG, RS, and FNA in their management.
RESULTS—Six patients who had malignant or suspicious cells on FNA examination underwent immediate surgery. The other 40 patients received medical treatment according to their hormonal status. Fifteen of these nodules either disappeared or decreased in number and/or size. Surgery was performed in 25 patients who did not respond to therapy. Statistical analysis revealed sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values respectively as follows: 60%, 59%, 59%, 15%, and 92% for USG; 30%, 42%, 39%, 12%, and 68% for SC; 100%, 95%, 95%, 67%, and 100% for FNAB.
CONCLUSION—FNAB is as reliable in children as in adults for definitive diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Using this technique avoids unnecessary thyroid surgery in children.

 PMID:11567941

  17. Hollow needle cataract aspiration in antiquity.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J; Ascaso, Francisco J; Diab, Fathi; Alzamora-Rodríguez, Antonio; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    The dislocation of the crystalline lens or couching technique was the predominant procedure to surgically remove cataracts until the 18th century A.D. However, in the Middle Ages, some Arab physicians tried to aspirate the opaque lens by means of a glass tube following a paracentesis. Some literary sources attributed the origins of this technique to Antyllus of Alexandria, a Greek surgeon who lived in the 2nd century A.D. in the Roman Empire. Nevertheless, this statement remains unclear and is probably the consequence of posterior interpretations or incorrect translations of the manuscripts. In recent years, the discovery of the hollow needles from Montbellet (France) and Viladamat (Spain), in archaeological settlements dated between the 1st century and 3rd century A.D., has reopened the possibility of cataract extraction as an option in the surgical management of soft cataracts in the antiquity. In any case, these findings are exceptional, and thus, probably this technique was not widely practised and very likely disparaged by the medical community. PMID:26385516

  18. Prevention of suicide: aspirations and evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Gunnell, D.; Frankel, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Health of the Nation white paper set a target for 15% reduction in overall suicide rates by the year 2000. If the targets are to be achieved interventions must be identified which are of proved effectiveness. This paper examines the evidence on the available interventions and points of access to the population at risk. No single intervention has been shown in a well conducted randomised controlled trial to reduce suicide. The greatest potential seems to arise from limiting the availability of methods. In particular it is likely that the introduction of the catalytic convertor will lead to reduced lethality of care exhausts and reductions in suicide using this method. General practitioner education programmes, the effectiveness of lithium and maintenance antidepressants, and limits on the quantity of medicines available over the counter or on prescription should all be evaluated. Particular high risk groups include people recently discharged from psychiatric hospitals and those with a history of parasuicide. Many social processes affect suicide rates and these rather than specific interventions may help or hinder the ability to realise the Health of the Nation targets. Well conducted trials are essential to distinguish complex social processes from the effects of specific interventions for suicide prevention. This review of the available evidence offers little support for the aspiration that the posited targets can be achieved on the basis of current knowledge and current policy. Images p1229-a p1233-a PMID:8080520

  19. Hollow needle cataract aspiration in antiquity.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J; Ascaso, Francisco J; Diab, Fathi; Alzamora-Rodríguez, Antonio; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    The dislocation of the crystalline lens or couching technique was the predominant procedure to surgically remove cataracts until the 18th century A.D. However, in the Middle Ages, some Arab physicians tried to aspirate the opaque lens by means of a glass tube following a paracentesis. Some literary sources attributed the origins of this technique to Antyllus of Alexandria, a Greek surgeon who lived in the 2nd century A.D. in the Roman Empire. Nevertheless, this statement remains unclear and is probably the consequence of posterior interpretations or incorrect translations of the manuscripts. In recent years, the discovery of the hollow needles from Montbellet (France) and Viladamat (Spain), in archaeological settlements dated between the 1st century and 3rd century A.D., has reopened the possibility of cataract extraction as an option in the surgical management of soft cataracts in the antiquity. In any case, these findings are exceptional, and thus, probably this technique was not widely practised and very likely disparaged by the medical community.

  20. Survey of Foreign Body Aspiration in Airways and Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Samarei, R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Foreign body aspiration is a very serious problem and the diversity of clinical protests in each geographic region has its own characteristics and common problems of childhood that is an important cause of mortality and morbidity. No area is separate from this problem and conducting this research is due to achieve basic information regarding foreign body aspiration. Materials and Methods: This was performed as descriptive - cross sectional study on 200 cases that has been hospitalized in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Urmia due to foreign body aspiration problem from 2009 to 2011. And all cases of foreign body aspiration records extracted and analyzed using SPSS 16 software. Results: Foreign body aspiration under 4 years was 57% and was more common in males than females; approximately 74% of patients were hospitalized in the first 10 days and 13% of patients did not remember the initial incident that led to the aspiration. Cough and shortness of breath and reduced lung sounds and wheezing were common symptoms. Chest radiographic findings are not specific and can be normal of a high percentage. The most common aspirated foreign body was food especially sunflower seeds. Right bronchus with 55% of cases was more common than the left bronchus and all patients were treated with rigid bronchoscopy, 24% of patients had complications, 15% had hospitalized with pneumonia. Totally, 75% of patients were urban residents. Discussion: We need to understand all the aspects related to foreign body aspiration and education to the community, to recognize symptoms and type of foreign body in terms of geographical area and to create a strong clinical suspicion in physicians and awareness of its prevalence that by reducing the incidence and early detecting and treatment can reduce the mortality and morbidity and prevent additional expenses. PMID:25363168

  1. [Aspiration in a specialised weaning unit--an underestimated problem].

    PubMed

    Zenner, M; Meurer, D; Baumann-Emmel, S; Brand, M; Berndt, U; Rheinbay, G; Kienast, K H

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective case series shows that 45 % of patients aspirated straight after removal of the tracheal cannula. The present case series includes 82 patients with long-term mechanical ventilation (LTMV) admitted to a specialised weaning unit. Aspiration was proven after patients sipped water coloured with patent blue V. Colour was detected with a bronchoscope after passing through the tracheostoma and directed toward the VC. The aspiration rate in this study is in good agreement with other reports in the literature.We could find no significant statistical differences concerning age (p = 0.97), gender (47 % vs. 49), number of bronchoscopies (p = 0.91) and comorbidities (p = 0.326) between patients with and without aspiration. The duration of the stay at the ward and the duration of ventilation as well as the parameter Hb at the time of admission (p = 0.566), CO2(p = 0.288/p = 0.716), HCO3 (p = 0.915/p = 0.612) and CRP (p = 0.402/p = 0.523) at the time of admission and discharge also showed no significant differences.The Kaplan Meier curves show a considerable divergence between patients with and without aspiration. However, the Log Rank Test (p = 0.348) and the univariate Cox Regression (HR 1.4, 95 % CI 0.689 - 2.849) were not significant. We believe that this can be attributed to the event rate, which was too low in our collective. This trend to a higher mortality of patients with aspiration might be due to weakness of the respiratory muscles when there is reduced coughing. Proof of aspiration in these patients is only one aspect of a multidimensional problem. Larger, prospective cohort studies are needed to show whether aspiration can serve as a prognostic marker. PMID:25599139

  2. Aspiration dynamics of multi-player games in finite populations

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jinming; Wu, Bin; Altrock, Philipp M.; Wang, Long

    2014-01-01

    On studying strategy update rules in the framework of evolutionary game theory, one can differentiate between imitation processes and aspiration-driven dynamics. In the former case, individuals imitate the strategy of a more successful peer. In the latter case, individuals adjust their strategies based on a comparison of their pay-offs from the evolutionary game to a value they aspire, called the level of aspiration. Unlike imitation processes of pairwise comparison, aspiration-driven updates do not require additional information about the strategic environment and can thus be interpreted as being more spontaneous. Recent work has mainly focused on understanding how aspiration dynamics alter the evolutionary outcome in structured populations. However, the baseline case for understanding strategy selection is the well-mixed population case, which is still lacking sufficient understanding. We explore how aspiration-driven strategy-update dynamics under imperfect rationality influence the average abundance of a strategy in multi-player evolutionary games with two strategies. We analytically derive a condition under which a strategy is more abundant than the other in the weak selection limiting case. This approach has a long-standing history in evolutionary games and is mostly applied for its mathematical approachability. Hence, we also explore strong selection numerically, which shows that our weak selection condition is a robust predictor of the average abundance of a strategy. The condition turns out to differ from that of a wide class of imitation dynamics, as long as the game is not dyadic. Therefore, a strategy favoured under imitation dynamics can be disfavoured under aspiration dynamics. This does not require any population structure, and thus highlights the intrinsic difference between imitation and aspiration dynamics. PMID:24598208

  3. Aspiration cytology of metastatic chordoma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Elliott, E C; McKinney, S; Banks, H; Fulks, R M

    1983-01-01

    A patient with previously diagnosed sacrococcygeal chordoma presented with multiple skin nodules. Cytologic examination of an aspirate from one of these nodules showed syncytial clusters of hyperchromatic cells surrounded by extracellular mucin. The characteristic physaliphorous cells, although present in a biopsy of the primary sacrococcygeal tumor, were not observed in the aspirate or on histopathologic examination of three excised skin metastases. That chordoma metastases may lack physaliphorous cells should be recognized.

  4. [Interaction nurse-newborn during orotracheal aspiration and blood collection].

    PubMed

    Rolim, Karla Maria Carneiro; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão

    2006-12-01

    Reflecting on our experience as nurses in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), as well as on the urgency in the assistance to hospitalized newborns (NB), we aimed at describing the interaction between nurses and NBs during the practice of care in the oral tracheal aspiration and in the blood collection for laboratory exams, with emphasis on the physiological and behavioral responses. This is an exploratory and descriptive research, in which we used the Paterson and Zderad Theory (1976). It was conducted in a public maternity ward in Fortaleza, State of Ceará, with six nurses and 21 babies at risk. The data was collected in the period from April to June, 2003. The results showed that, when interacting with nurses, NBs show increased heart rate, decreased oxygen saturation, weeping expression, agitation, tranquility, calmness. Most of the times nurses used the technical touch, but, as we could observe, the relations I-Thou, and I-It, based on the Humanistic Theory, which can be applied in the babies' everyday care.

  5. Fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Nettle, W J; Orell, S R

    1989-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of salivary glands was performed in 187 patients. In 106 patients with satisfactory FNAB smears who proceeded to surgery, the original cytologic diagnosis was compared with subsequent histopathology. There were 74 benign tumours and 25 malignant tumours. Nineteen of the latter were primary malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands, and 6 were metastatic. The cytologic diagnosis by FNAB correlated exactly with the histologic diagnosis in 95% of benign neoplasms and in 68% of malignant neoplasms, with an overall accuracy of 88%. A false negative diagnosis for malignancy was made in five cases and a false positive diagnosis in one case. Hence the sensitivity for malignancy was 80% and the specificity was 99%. The most frequently misdiagnosed lesions were pleomorphic adenoma and muco-epidermoid carcinoma. FNAB of salivary gland lesions is easy to perform and free of complications, but the cytologic patterns may be difficult to interpret, and considerable experience is necessary in order to achieve a high diagnostic accuracy.

  6. Science-related Aspirations Across the Primary-Secondary Divide: Evidence from two surveys in England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWitt, Jennifer; Archer, Louise; Osborne, Jonathan

    2014-07-01

    Students' engagement with science and the numbers pursuing further study of science continue to be a concern among policy-makers, particularly in Western countries. Previous research reflects that most children have positive attitudes to science at age 10 but that, by age 14, attitudes towards and interest in further pursuit of science have declined. The Science Aspirations and Career Choice (ASPIRES) project, a 5-year longitudinal study, seeks to trace and track changes in students' interest in science and in scientific careers over the key period of ages 10-14. Building on an initial survey (consisting primarily of Likert-type items) of over 9,000 children in their last year of primary school, we explore shifts in attitudes and aspirations in science as reflected in a second survey of students from this cohort (over 5,600 students), completed when children were in their second year of secondary school (ages 12-13). Survey findings are supplemented by longitudinal interview data from 85 children. Contrary to previous research, descriptive, multivariate and multi-level modelling (MLM) analyses of the data indicate that the majority of our sample enjoy school science in secondary school and hold positive views of scientists. However, as with the primary school data, these positive attitudes also continue not to translate into an interest in 'being' a scientist. Attention is drawn to the importance of families and student experiences of school science in helping to explain this gap.

  7. 17β-Estradiol administration attenuates seawater aspiration-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qixin; Zhao, Pengtao; Li, Jiahuan; Xie, Xiaoyan; Xu, Min; Zhang, Yong; Mu, Deguang; Li, Wangping; Sun, Ruilin; Liu, Wei; Nan, Yandong; Zhang, Bo; Jin, Faguang; Li, Zhichao

    2011-12-01

    There is very little evidence on the value of administering estrogen in cases of seawater drowning which can induce acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether 17β-estradiol (E2) treatment can attenuate seawater aspiration-induced ALI in rats. In the experiment, ALI was induced by endotracheal instillation of seawater (4mL/kg) and the rats were then given intraperitoneal injection of E2 (5mg/kg) 20min after seawater instillation. Finally, the changes of arterial blood gases which contained hydrogen ion concentration (pH), arterial oxygen tension (PaO(2)) and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2)) were measured and the measurement of extravascular lung water (EVLW) was observed. The pulmonary histological changes were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin stain. The expression of aquaporins (AQPs) 1, AQP5, and estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) was measured by western blotting and immunohistochemical methods. The results showed that compared with normal saline water, seawater aspiration induced more serious ALI in rats which was markedly alleviated by E2 treatment. Meanwhile, the ERβ in lung tissues was activated after E2 administration. The seawater aspiration group also presented with severe pulmonary edema which was paralleled with over expressed AQP1 and AQP5. However, the up-regulation of AQP1 and AQP5 was suppressed by the administration of E2, resulting in an attenuation of lung edema. In conclusion, E2 treatment could effectively attenuate seawater aspiration-induced acute lung injury in rats by the down-regulation of AQP1 and AQP5.

  8. Where are the women? Campus climate and the degree aspirations of women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Phyllis

    Women remain underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) at all levels of higher education, which has become a concern in the competitive global marketplace. Using both quantitative and qualitative analysis, this dissertation sought to learn more about how the campus climate and self-concept influence the degree aspirations of female undergraduate students majoring in STEM programs. Using the Beginning Post-Secondary dataset, regression analyses showed that a student's initial degree aspirations, SAT scores, and interactions with faculty were all positively related to their degree aspirations three years later. Interviews with seven current STEM undergraduates confirmed the importance of interaction with faculty and suggested undergraduate research and classroom experiences also play a role in the degree aspirations of STEM students. Three of the seven students interviewed began their undergraduate educations as non-STEM majors, suggesting that the traditional STEM pipeline may no longer be the norm. These findings suggest that both future research and current practitioners should focus on undergraduate STEM classroom and research experiences. Additionally, the characteristics of students who switch into STEM majors should be explored so that we may continue to expand the number of students pursuing STEM degrees.

  9. Meconium aspiration syndrome: do we know?

    PubMed

    Yurdakök, Murat

    2011-01-01

    Meconium is a common finding in amniotic fluid and placental specimens, particularly in the term or post-term pregnancy. The most important consequence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) is meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), and at least 5% of infants born through MSAF develop MAS. MAS continues to be a threat to many newborns throughout the world, with a case fatality rate of 5% (as much as 40%), in addition to short- and long-term pulmonary and neurodevelopmental sequelae. The exact pathophysiology of meconium passage into the amniotic fluid and consequences of meconium aspiration are unknown. There are three prevailing and possibly compatible theories for mechanisms of meconium release. Firstly, meconium passage is probably related with the maturation of the gastrointestinal tract, because meconium passage in the preterm third trimester fetus has been reported to be a rare event, as typically it occurs near or post-term. Secondly, an alternate hypothesis for in utero meconium passage is that pathologic processes, such as stress via hypoxia or infection, can trigger meconium passage. However, the predictive values of MSAF for fetal distress and acidosis at birth are poor and controversial. Thirdly, an alternative route for the presence of MSAF in the presence of fetal hypoxia is reduced clearance of defecated meconium due to impaired fetal swallowing or unidentified placental dysfunction in addition to or instead of an increase in its passage. The pathophysiology of MAS is multifactorial and extremely complex. Meconium causes mechanical obstruction and pulmonary air leak, induces surfactant inactivation, causes pulmonary inflammation, and induces apoptosis. Preventing prolonged pregnancy by labor induction might reduce the risk of MSAF. Labor induction with prostaglandins appears to be associated with the occurrence of MSAF. Amnioinfusion for suspected umbilical cord compression has no clear effect on the occurrence of MSAF. Intrapartum suctioning of the

  10. Micro and macro factors affecting childbearing aspirations.

    PubMed

    He, Y

    1992-01-01

    The conclusion of the discussion of factors affecting childbearing aspirations is that both a micro and a macro perspective must be included in an empirical analysis which would be useful for policy decisions. Micro factors tend to the economic function of the family, the economic value of children, cost of labor training, women's occupation, social security, household consumption, and education level. Attention to micro factors is important in the link between individual interests and state family planning (FP) policy. Macro factors tend to be ignored, but also impact on childbearing decisions. Macro factors are economic conditions, social and political factors, culture, and environmental factors such as ecology, natural resources, employment, economic development, and education. Macro factors affect the population as a whole and indirectly impact on individuals and the family. China's achievements in FP policy have been identified as a reduction of 200 million people, a shift in the population reproduction cycle downwards, increased standard of living, reduction in the burden of working people, and stabilization of macro factors. Successful policy should not rely on forced implementation. The past and present policies were successful not because of forced implementation, but because of awareness of macro and micro factors and voluntary use of FP. The voluntary nature of acceptance of FP suggests support for the FP policies. The current focus is on rural areas, and farmers in particular who are only aware of their needs and may feel state policy may interfere with their own interests. Implementation of FP among the rural population would be enhanced with an emphasis on their concerns such as social security in old age, the practical issues of having only daughters, and educational status. Educational campaigns promoting awareness of population pressure are needed and will benefit all the people. Social democratic doctrines can be introduced only from the outside

  11. Micro and macro factors affecting childbearing aspirations.

    PubMed

    He, Y

    1992-01-01

    The conclusion of the discussion of factors affecting childbearing aspirations is that both a micro and a macro perspective must be included in an empirical analysis which would be useful for policy decisions. Micro factors tend to the economic function of the family, the economic value of children, cost of labor training, women's occupation, social security, household consumption, and education level. Attention to micro factors is important in the link between individual interests and state family planning (FP) policy. Macro factors tend to be ignored, but also impact on childbearing decisions. Macro factors are economic conditions, social and political factors, culture, and environmental factors such as ecology, natural resources, employment, economic development, and education. Macro factors affect the population as a whole and indirectly impact on individuals and the family. China's achievements in FP policy have been identified as a reduction of 200 million people, a shift in the population reproduction cycle downwards, increased standard of living, reduction in the burden of working people, and stabilization of macro factors. Successful policy should not rely on forced implementation. The past and present policies were successful not because of forced implementation, but because of awareness of macro and micro factors and voluntary use of FP. The voluntary nature of acceptance of FP suggests support for the FP policies. The current focus is on rural areas, and farmers in particular who are only aware of their needs and may feel state policy may interfere with their own interests. Implementation of FP among the rural population would be enhanced with an emphasis on their concerns such as social security in old age, the practical issues of having only daughters, and educational status. Educational campaigns promoting awareness of population pressure are needed and will benefit all the people. Social democratic doctrines can be introduced only from the outside

  12. Thermal hydraulic performance of naturally aspirated control rod housing assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, G.T.; Randolph, H.W.; Paik, I.K.; Foti, D.J.

    1992-08-01

    Savannah River Site reactors are comprised of heat generating fuel/target assemblies, control rods which regulate reactor power, and heavy water which acts as the coolant and as a moderator. The fuel/target assemblies are cooled by the downflow of heavy water while the control rods are cooled via upflow. Five control rods are grouped with two safety rods in seven-channel assemblies called septifoils. Under normal operating conditions, the reactor power level, radial shape flux and axial power flux are regulated by the positioning of the control rods. The control rods are solid rods of a lithium-aluminum alloy with an thin aluminum outer sheath. Lithium is a good absorber of neutrons and, thus control rod temperatures rise with reactor power. At conditions of sufficiently high reactor power and degraded coolant flow, the control rods could heat sufficiently to cause a metallurigical failure of the sheath leading to molten material coming in contact with water and the possibility of a steam explosion. An accident has been postulated as part of the analysis involving the safety upgrade of Savannah River Site reactors in which the housing is not seated on the pin. Coolant from the upflow pin would not be directed into the housing but, into the moderator space surrounding the housing. Only naturally aspirated cooling due to buoyancy effects would be available to cool the control rods and the coolant mass flow rate would drop significantly from its nominal value. In this study, the mechanisms and limits of cooling heated rods housed in an unseated septifoil are addressed. Experiments were conducted on a shortened, prototypic housing with electrically heated rods to gain an understanding of the phenomena governing the cooling in such a case and develop data which can be used to evaluate predictive models. These experiments are described, their results discussed, and the predictions of current models is presented.

  13. Thermal hydraulic performance of naturally aspirated control rod housing assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, G.T.; Randolph, H.W.; Paik, I.K. ); Foti, D.J. )

    1992-01-01

    Savannah River Site reactors are comprised of heat generating fuel/target assemblies, control rods which regulate reactor power, and heavy water which acts as the coolant and as a moderator. The fuel/target assemblies are cooled by the downflow of heavy water while the control rods are cooled via upflow. Five control rods are grouped with two safety rods in seven-channel assemblies called septifoils. Under normal operating conditions, the reactor power level, radial shape flux and axial power flux are regulated by the positioning of the control rods. The control rods are solid rods of a lithium-aluminum alloy with an thin aluminum outer sheath. Lithium is a good absorber of neutrons and, thus control rod temperatures rise with reactor power. At conditions of sufficiently high reactor power and degraded coolant flow, the control rods could heat sufficiently to cause a metallurigical failure of the sheath leading to molten material coming in contact with water and the possibility of a steam explosion. An accident has been postulated as part of the analysis involving the safety upgrade of Savannah River Site reactors in which the housing is not seated on the pin. Coolant from the upflow pin would not be directed into the housing but, into the moderator space surrounding the housing. Only naturally aspirated cooling due to buoyancy effects would be available to cool the control rods and the coolant mass flow rate would drop significantly from its nominal value. In this study, the mechanisms and limits of cooling heated rods housed in an unseated septifoil are addressed. Experiments were conducted on a shortened, prototypic housing with electrically heated rods to gain an understanding of the phenomena governing the cooling in such a case and develop data which can be used to evaluate predictive models. These experiments are described, their results discussed, and the predictions of current models is presented.

  14. Laryngeal Elevation Velocity and Aspiration in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Yun; Wei, Na; Yang, Bo; Wang, Anxin; Zhou, Hai; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Liping; Ouyoung, Melody; Villegas, Brenda; Groher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Aspiration after stroke has been associated with aspiration pneumonia, which contributes to increased mortality of stroke. Laryngeal elevation is a core mechanism for protection from aspiration. Few studies have explored the predictive value of laryngeal elevation velocity for aspiration after stroke. This study aimed to explore the ability of laryngeal elevation velocity to predict aspiration in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods This was a prospective cohort study that included consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients treated at a teaching hospital during a 10-month period. Patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to confirm the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke. Patients who were at risk of aspiration and could swallow 5 ml of diluted barium (40%, w/v) for a videofluoroscopic swallowing (VFS) study were included. The association between abnormal indices in the oral and pharyngeal phase of the VFS study and aspiration was examined using univariate analyses. These indices included the lip closure, tongue movement and control, laryngeal elevation velocity and range, the latency of pharyngeal swallowing, pharyngeal transit time (PTT), abnormal epiglottis tilt, residual barium in the pharynx, and the duration of upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening. The laryngeal elevation velocity (%/s) was calculated as the range of laryngeal elevation (%) from the resting position to the maximum superior position or to the position where the laryngeal vestibule is fully closed divided by the corresponding duration of laryngeal elevation. The range of laryngeal elevation (%) was the percentage calculated as the distance between the resting laryngeal position and the maximum superior excursion position or position where the laryngeal vestibule is fully closed divided by the distance between the resting laryngeal position and the lowest edge of the mandible. A logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictive value for aspiration

  15. Predictors of aspiration pneumonia: how important is dysphagia?

    PubMed

    Langmore, S E; Terpenning, M S; Schork, A; Chen, Y; Murray, J T; Lopatin, D; Loesche, W J

    1998-01-01

    Aspiration pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among the elderly who are hospitalized or in nursing homes. Multiple risk factors for pneumonia have been identified, but no study has effectively compared the relative risk of factors in several different categories, including dysphagia. In this prospective outcomes study, 189 elderly subjects were recruited from the outpatient clinics, inpatient acute care wards, and the nursing home care center at the VA Medical Center in Ann Arbor, Michigan. They were given a variety of assessments to determine oropharyngeal and esophageal swallowing and feeding status, functional status, medical status, and oral/dental status. The subjects were followed for up to 4 years for an outcome of verified aspiration pneumonia. Bivariate analyses identified several factors as significantly associated with pneumonia. Logistic regression analyses then identified the significant predictors of aspiration pneumonia. The best predictors, in one or more groups of subjects, were dependent for feeding, dependent for oral care, number of decayed teeth, tube feeding, more than one medical diagnosis, number of medications, and smoking. The role that each of the significant predictors might play was described in relation to the pathogenesis of aspiration pneumonia. Dysphagia was concluded to be an important risk for aspiration pneumonia, but generally not sufficient to cause pneumonia unless other risk factors are present as well. A dependency upon others for feeding emerged as the dominant risk factor, with an odds ratio of 19.98 in a logistic regression model that excluded tube-fed patients.

  16. Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents during routine endoscopy

    SciTech Connect

    La France, N.D.; Cole, P.; Wolfe, E.; Giardello, F.; Wagner, H.N.

    1985-05-01

    Radioactive tracer studies are a sensitive means to detect occult pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. A complication of diagnostic endoscopy is aspiration of contents even in fasted patients. The authors have studied 21 hospitalized patients who underwent elective endoscopy (END) for suspected UGI pathology. Fifteen minutes before END, and prior to pharygeal anesthesia, 1 mCi Tc-99m-sulfur colloid, added to the usual 30cc of simethicone routinely administered before END, was given orally. END was performed as usual and 2 hours later anterior 100,000 count images of the chest were obtained. All the studies were interpreted without history or clinical information. Fever developed within 24 hours (and septic shock in 1) in both patients with positive studies while no fever occurred in the remaining patients with negative studies (rho<.001). The authors conclude that oral radionuclide pulmonary aspiration studies may; detect aspiration not recognized by the endoscopist, reveal evidence of aspiration that preceeds adverse clinical signs and symptoms, and be influenced by systemic pre-END drugs known to affect GI secretions and motility.

  17. Determination of the Poisson's ratio of the cell: recovery properties of chondrocytes after release from complete micropipette aspiration.

    PubMed

    Trickey, Wendy R; Baaijens, Frank P T; Laursen, Tod A; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G; Guilak, Farshid

    2006-01-01

    Chondrocytes in articular cartilage are regularly subjected to compression and recovery due to dynamic loading of the joint. Previous studies have investigated the elastic and viscoelastic properties of chondrocytes using micropipette aspiration techniques, but in order to calculate cell properties, these studies have generally assumed that cells are incompressible with a Poisson's ratio of 0.5. The goal of this study was to measure the Poisson's ratio and recovery properties of the chondrocyte by combining theoretical modeling with experimental measures of complete cellular aspiration and release from a micropipette. Chondrocytes isolated from non-osteoarthritic and osteoarthritic cartilage were fully aspirated into a micropipette and allowed to reach mechanical equilibrium. Cells were then extruded from the micropipette and cell volume and morphology were measured throughout the experiment. This experimental procedure was simulated with finite element analysis, modeling the chondrocyte as either a compressible two-mode viscoelastic solid, or as a biphasic viscoelastic material. By fitting the experimental data to the theoretically predicted cell response, the Poisson's ratio and the viscoelastic recovery properties of the cell were determined. The Poisson's ratio of chondrocytes was found to be 0.38 for non-osteoarthritic cartilage and 0.36 for osteoarthritic chondrocytes (no significant difference). Osteoarthritic chondrocytes showed an increased recovery time following full aspiration. In contrast to previous assumptions, these findings suggest that chondrocytes are compressible, consistent with previous studies showing cell volume changes with compression of the extracellular matrix.

  18. Project ASPIRE: an Interactive, Multimedia Smoking Prevention and Cessation curriculum for culturally diverse high school students.

    PubMed

    Prokhorov, Alexander V; Kelder, Steven H; Shegog, Ross; Conroy, Jennifer L; Murray, Nancy; Peters, Ronald; Cinciripini, Paul M; De Moor, Carl; Hudmon, Karen S; Ford, Kentya H

    2010-05-01

    A Smoking Prevention Interactive Experience (ASPIRE) is an innovative, computer-based smoking prevention and cessation intervention delivered to a culturally diverse population of high school students. Founded in the Transtheoretical Model of Change, five main and two "booster" sessions comprise the interactive intervention. Here we describe the intervention and the baseline characteristics from our study sample of 1,574 10th graders from 16 high schools in Houston, Texas. Environmental and behavioral smoking risk factors were assessed, and the two intervention groups were comparable with respect to most measured variables. The intervention program holds considerable promise in its ability to reduce smoking among teens.

  19. Small magnet aspiration as a pediatric emergency: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiajian; Liu, Dabo; Huang, Zhenyun; Ke, Kengjian

    2015-01-01

    Tracheobronchial airway foreign body aspiration (FBA) in children is a common and serious pediatric medical emergency. With the increasing use of small magnets in home offices, in toys and the kitchen, inhalation of small magnets has become an increasing risk to children. We present a case of a 9-year-old boy who presented with cough and dyspnea three days following inhalation of an 3 cm-sized oval magnet. The history and the chest radiograph were important in planning for the removal of the aspirated foreign body. In this case, we removed the inhaled magnet using rigid bronchoscopy under general anesthetic. We herein reviewed the recent reports on the incidence and management of small foreign body aspiration as a pediatric emergency. PMID:26770610

  20. UNCERTAINTY IN EARLY OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATIONS: ROLE EXPLORATION OR AIMLESSNESS?

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Jeremy; Harris, Angel; Sabates, Ricardo; Briddell, Laine

    2014-01-01

    Many youth in the United States lack clear occupational aspirations. This uncertainty in achievement ambitions may benefit socioeconomic attainment if it signifies “role exploration,” characterized by career development, continued education, and enduring partnerships. By contrast, uncertainty may diminish attainment if it instead leads to “aimlessness,” involving prolonged education without the acquisition of a degree, residential dependence, and frequent job changes. We use nationally representative data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) to examine how uncertainty in occupational aspirations in adolescence (age 16) affects wage attainments in young adulthood (age 26). Results suggest that youth with uncertain career ambitions earn significantly lower hourly wages in young adulthood than youth with professional and non-professional aspirations, supporting the view that uncertainty heightens the risk of labor-market problems. PMID:25540465

  1. Thyroid aspiration cytology: a "cell pattern" approach to interpretation.

    PubMed

    Nayar, R; Frost, A R

    2001-05-01

    The key to the interpretation of thyroid fine needle aspiration is largely dependent on the recognition of various morphologic patterns of epithelial cells, usually follicular cells, and background elements, such as colloid. These morphologic patterns consist of 3 parts: 1) The arrangement of cells with respect to one another, 2) The cytologic features of individual cells, and 3) The presence of background elements. The cellular arrangements generally encountered in fine needle aspiration of the thyroid include the follicular patterns (macro-/normo-follicular and micro-follicular), the papillary pattern, the syncytial pattern, the dispersed cell pattern, and the cystic pattern. This article approaches some of the differential diagnostic challenges encountered while interpreting thyroid aspiration cytology by focusing first on the overall cellular arrangement to generate a differential diagnosis and then narrowing that differential by assessing cellular features of individual cells and the presence of background elements. PMID:11403258

  2. Thyroid aspiration cytology: a "cell pattern" approach to interpretation.

    PubMed

    Nayar, R; Frost, A R

    2001-05-01

    The key to the interpretation of thyroid fine needle aspiration is largely dependent on the recognition of various morphologic patterns of epithelial cells, usually follicular cells, and background elements, such as colloid. These morphologic patterns consist of 3 parts: 1) The arrangement of cells with respect to one another, 2) The cytologic features of individual cells, and 3) The presence of background elements. The cellular arrangements generally encountered in fine needle aspiration of the thyroid include the follicular patterns (macro-/normo-follicular and micro-follicular), the papillary pattern, the syncytial pattern, the dispersed cell pattern, and the cystic pattern. This article approaches some of the differential diagnostic challenges encountered while interpreting thyroid aspiration cytology by focusing first on the overall cellular arrangement to generate a differential diagnosis and then narrowing that differential by assessing cellular features of individual cells and the presence of background elements.

  3. Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination

    SciTech Connect

    Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

  4. Powder aspiration in children. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Pfenninger, J; D'Apuzzo, V

    1977-02-01

    Two cases of powder aspiration are reported. A 7 1/2-month-old girl showed a classical course with an asymptomatic period of 3-4 hours, then severe respiratory distress developed. Acute respiratory insufficiency made tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation necessary for 10 days. Complications included insufficient alveolar ventilation, atelectasis, pneumothorax, and superinfection. But the baby recovered with some residual radiological changes in the lungs. A 13-month-old boy was treated immediately after massive powder aspiration by tracheal intubation and bronchial wash-out. The postoperative course was unevetful and no respiratory distress developed. Powder aspiration leads to severe bronchiolar obstruction with a delay of several hours and has a high mortality rate. The best results in treatment are obtained by immediate intubation and bronchial wash-out, even in the absence of respiratory symptoms. Artifical ventilation may be necessary with the special problem of overcoming very high airway resistance. Corticosteroids and bronchodilators may be helpful. PMID:836067

  5. Small magnet aspiration as a pediatric emergency: a case report.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiajian; Liu, Dabo; Huang, Zhenyun; Ke, Kengjian

    2015-01-01

    Tracheobronchial airway foreign body aspiration (FBA) in children is a common and serious pediatric medical emergency. With the increasing use of small magnets in home offices, in toys and the kitchen, inhalation of small magnets has become an increasing risk to children. We present a case of a 9-year-old boy who presented with cough and dyspnea three days following inhalation of an 3 cm-sized oval magnet. The history and the chest radiograph were important in planning for the removal of the aspirated foreign body. In this case, we removed the inhaled magnet using rigid bronchoscopy under general anesthetic. We herein reviewed the recent reports on the incidence and management of small foreign body aspiration as a pediatric emergency. PMID:26770610

  6. Bladder outlet obstruction treated with transurethral ultrasonic aspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Terrence R.

    1991-07-01

    Fifty-nine males with bladder outlet obstruction were treated with transurethral ultrasonic aspiration of the prostate. Utilizing a 26.5 French urethral sheath, surgery was accomplished with a 10 French, 0-700 micron vibration level ultrasonic tip with an excursion rate of 39 kHz. Complete removal of the adenoma was accomplished, followed by transurethral electrocautery biopsies of both lateral lobes to compare pathologic specimens. One-year follow-up revealed satisfactory voiding patterns in 57 of 59 men (96%). Two men developed bladder neck contractures. Pathologic comparisons showed 100% correlation between aspirated and TUR specimens (56 BPH, 3 adeno-carcinoma). Forty-sevel men were active sexually preoperatively (6 with inflatable penile prostheses). Post ultrasonic aspiration, 46 men had erectile function similar to preoperative levels with one patient suffering erectile dysfunction. Forty men (85%) had antegrade ejaculation while 7 (15%) experienced retrograde or retarded ejaculation. No patients were incontinent.

  7. Needle aspiration biopsy of major salivary gland tumors. Its value.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, P; Farrar, W B; James, A G; Finkelmeier, W; McCabe, D P

    1986-02-01

    Three hundred forty-one needle aspiration biopsies (NAB) of major salivary gland tumors were performed over a 32-year period. Eighty percent of tumors were benign, and 20% were malignant. Preoperative NAB findings were compared with pathologic diagnosis of the surgically resected specimen in all cases. Forty-six of 63 aspirates from malignant tumors were correctly diagnosed by NAB, establishing a sensitivity at 73%. Two hundred forty-nine of 265 aspirates from benign tumors were correctly diagnosed by NAB, establishing a specificity at 94%. Overall accuracy was 90%. Diagnostic error or difficulty in clinically localizing the tumor to the salivary gland was encountered in 64 patients with parotid tumors and 12 patients with submandibular tumors. NAB correctly localized over 85% of these tumors to the salivary gland, thus enabling both immediate and correct decision-making concerning subsequent management to be undertaken.

  8. Fine needle aspiration biopsy in salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Lau, T; Balle, V H; Bretlau, P

    1986-04-01

    Of 105 tumours of the major salivary glands, 90 were benign and 15 malignant. In benign tumours a correct preoperative diagnosis was made by fine needle aspiration biopsy in 84%, and none were falsely classed as malignant. In the malignant tumours, only 8 out of 15 (53%) were correctly diagnosed as malignant while 7 were misdiagnosed as benign. It is concluded that in benign salivary gland tumours there is good accordance between fine needle aspiration biopsy and the final histological report, in contrast to the malignant tumours where this is less convincing. Fine needle aspiration biopsy is a valuable diagnostic tool, but the result should be carefully evaluated, regarded as only part of the clinical picture and not solely relied on.

  9. Project ASPIRE: Incorporating Integrative Medicine Into Residency Training.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Haq; Via, Christina M; Ali, Ather; Rosenberger, Lisa D

    2015-11-01

    Griffin Hospital, a community hospital affiliated with Yale School of Public Health and Yale School of Medicine, received Health Resources and Services Administration funding to strengthen and improve its combined internal medicine and general preventive medicine residency program by incorporating an integrative medicine curriculum. The purpose of project ASPIRE (Advancing Skills of Preventive medicine residents through Integrative medicine Education, Research and Evaluation) was to create, implement, and evaluate a needs-based, innovative training curriculum in integrative medicine. Through this robust new training, the authors aimed to produce preventive medicine-trained physicians with competencies in integrative medicine to collaboratively work with other integrative medicine practitioners in interdisciplinary teams to provide holistic, patient-centered care. The multifaceted collaborative curriculum was composed of didactics, grand rounds, journal club, objective structured clinical examinations, and two new practicum rotations in integrative medicine. The new practicum rotations included block rotations at the Integrative Medicine Center at Griffin Hospital and the Yale Stress Center. Between 2012 and 2014, three cohorts participated in the curriculum; two of these cohorts included three advanced preventive medicine residents each and the fourth included four residents. Project faculty conducted 14 lectures and journal clubs, and two grand rounds. Six of the ten participating residents (60%) completed integrative medicine clinical rotations. Residents' attitudes toward integrative medicine were evaluated through self-assessment using the Complementary, Alternative, and Integrative Medicine Attitudes Questionnaire; data were analyzed in 2015. This article describes the results of this prospective observational study based on single-institution experience over the course of the 2-year project period.

  10. Project ASPIRE: Incorporating Integrative Medicine Into Residency Training

    PubMed Central

    Nawaz, Haq; Via, Christina M.; Ali, Ather; Rosenberger, Lisa D.

    2016-01-01

    Griffin Hospital, a community hospital affiliated with Yale School of Public Health and Yale School of Medicine, received Health Resources and Services Administration funding to strengthen and improve its combined internal medicine and general preventive medicine residency program by incorporating an integrative medicine curriculum. The purpose of project ASPIRE (Advancing Skills of Preventive medicine residents through Integrative medicine Education, Research and Evaluation) was to create, implement, and evaluate a needs-based, innovative training curriculum in integrative medicine. Through this robust new training, the authors aimed to produce preventive medicine-trained physicians with competencies in integrative medicine to collaboratively work with other integrative medicine practitioners in interdisciplinary teams to provide holistic, patient-centered care. The multifaceted collaborative curriculum was composed of didactics, grand rounds, journal club, objective structured clinical examinations, and two new practicum rotations in integrative medicine. The new practicum rotations included block rotations at the Integrative Medicine Center at Griffin Hospital and the Yale Stress Center. Between 2012 and 2014, three cohorts participated in the curriculum; two of these cohorts included three advanced preventive medicine residents each and the fourth included four residents. Project faculty conducted 14 lectures and journal clubs, and two grand rounds. Six of the ten participating residents (60%) completed integrative medicine clinical rotations. Residents’ attitudes toward integrative medicine were evaluated through self-assessment using the Complementary, Alternative, and Integrative Medicine Attitudes Questionnaire; data were analyzed in 2015. This article describes the results of this prospective observational study based on single-institution experience over the course of the 2-year project period. PMID:26477907

  11. Project ASPIRE: Incorporating Integrative Medicine Into Residency Training.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Haq; Via, Christina M; Ali, Ather; Rosenberger, Lisa D

    2015-11-01

    Griffin Hospital, a community hospital affiliated with Yale School of Public Health and Yale School of Medicine, received Health Resources and Services Administration funding to strengthen and improve its combined internal medicine and general preventive medicine residency program by incorporating an integrative medicine curriculum. The purpose of project ASPIRE (Advancing Skills of Preventive medicine residents through Integrative medicine Education, Research and Evaluation) was to create, implement, and evaluate a needs-based, innovative training curriculum in integrative medicine. Through this robust new training, the authors aimed to produce preventive medicine-trained physicians with competencies in integrative medicine to collaboratively work with other integrative medicine practitioners in interdisciplinary teams to provide holistic, patient-centered care. The multifaceted collaborative curriculum was composed of didactics, grand rounds, journal club, objective structured clinical examinations, and two new practicum rotations in integrative medicine. The new practicum rotations included block rotations at the Integrative Medicine Center at Griffin Hospital and the Yale Stress Center. Between 2012 and 2014, three cohorts participated in the curriculum; two of these cohorts included three advanced preventive medicine residents each and the fourth included four residents. Project faculty conducted 14 lectures and journal clubs, and two grand rounds. Six of the ten participating residents (60%) completed integrative medicine clinical rotations. Residents' attitudes toward integrative medicine were evaluated through self-assessment using the Complementary, Alternative, and Integrative Medicine Attitudes Questionnaire; data were analyzed in 2015. This article describes the results of this prospective observational study based on single-institution experience over the course of the 2-year project period. PMID:26477907

  12. Frontal sinus osteoma removal with the ultrasonic bone aspirator.

    PubMed

    Ehieli, Eric; Chu, Jaemi; Gordin, Eli; Pribitkin, Edmund A

    2012-04-01

    Osteomas, the most common skull tumors, are typically excised through either an open or endoscopic ostectomy using a high-speed drill, a technically challenging procedure that can result in injury to adjacent soft tissue structures. Osteoma removal through ultrasonic bone emulsification and aspiration (UBA) offers the advantages of decreased blood loss, preservation of adjacent soft tissue structures, and precise bone removal. UBA was used to successfully remove a forehead osteoma without injury to adjacent nerves and with a satisfactory cosmetic outcome. We describe skull osteoma removal with an ultrasonic bone aspirator, which offers potential advantages over conventional bone removal techniques.

  13. Foreign body aspiration – Sometimes a tough nut to crack

    PubMed Central

    Sandhofer, Michael J.; Salzer, Hans; Kulnig, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a dangerous and potentially life-threatening event. We report the case of a 24-month old boy, who was initially presented with an episode of obstructive bronchitis to the family pediatrician. Then, while being treated with empiric antibiotics, he aspirated a peanut. Although resulting in a coughing episode, the mother did initially not ascribe any relevancy to it. Since the diagnosis of obstructive bronchitis had already been established, only an in-depth history taking session with the mother could help figure out, why the boy's symptoms got worse instead of better. This article underlines the importance of accurate history taking and clinical examination. PMID:26236592

  14. AstroBiology Explorer Mission Concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott; Ennico, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) and the Astrobiology Space InfraRed Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions (1) Where do we come from? and (2) Are we alone? as outlined in NASA s Origins Program using infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity, abundance, and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe. The ABE mission s observational program is focused on six tasks to: (1) Investigate the evolution of ice and organics in dense clouds and star formation regions, and the young stellar/planetary systems that form in them; (2) Measure the evolution of complex organic molecules in stellar outflows; (3) Study the organic composition of a wide variety of solar system objects including asteroids, comets, and the planets and their satellites; (4) Identify organic compounds in the diffuse interstellar medium and determine their distribution , abundance, and change with environment; (5) Detect and identify organic compounds in other galaxies and determine their dependence on galactic type; and (6) Measure deuterium enrichments in interstellar organics and use them as tracers of chemical processes. The ASPIRE mission s observational program expands upon ABE's core mission and adds tasks that (7) Address the role of silicates in interstellar organic chemistry; and (8) Use different resolution spectra to assess the relative roles and abundances of gas- and solid-state materials. ABE (ASPIRE) achieves these goals using a highly sensitive, cryogenically-cooled telescope in an Earth drift-away heliocentric orbit, armed with a suite of infrared spectrometers that cover the 2.5-20(40) micron spectral region at moderate spectral resolution (R>2000). ASPIRE's spectrometer complement also includes a high-resolution (R>25,000) module over the 4-8 micron spectral region. Both missions target lists are chosen to observe a statistically significant sample of a large number of objects of varied types in

  15. Diagnosis of salivary gland tumors by fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Sismanis, A; Merriam, J M; Kline, T S; Davis, R K; Shapshay, S M; Strong, M S

    1981-01-01

    The cytologic findings of 51 smears obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy from salivary gland masses were compared with the histologic findings of permanent sections. The overall concurrence rate between cytologic and histologic findings for being and malignant lesions was 91%. The diagnostic accuracy (exact histologic diagnosis) for the benign lesions was 87% and for the malignant tumors 60%. One case showed false-positive results and 1 case false-negative results. Fine needle aspiration biopsy has been found to be safe, free of complications, and helpful in the planning of treatment.

  16. Fine needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of neck masses.

    PubMed

    Sismanis, A; Strong, M S; Merriam, J

    1980-01-01

    The cytologic findings in 107 aspiration smears obtained with the fine needle technique from head and neck masses were compared with the histologic findings in permanent sections. The overall concurrence rate between cytologic and histologic findings in benign and malignant tumors was 82.2 per cent. There was a 5.6 per cent incidence of false negative findings. There were no false positive results. Fine needle aspiration was found to be safe, complication free, and most helpful in planning treatment. We recommend the technique to others who deal with head and neck masses.

  17. Structure of a micropipette-aspirated vesicle determined from the bending-energy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jeff Z. Y.

    2012-10-01

    The structure of the system consisting of an aspirating pipette and an aspirated vesicle is investigated with fixed total vesicle volume, total vesicle surface area, and aspirated volume fraction, based on the bending-energy model. Through an energetic consideration, the usage of an aspirated volume fraction can be converted to the aspirating pressure for the determination of a phase diagram; the procedure identifies a first-order transition, between a weakly aspirated state and the strongly aspirated state, as the pressure increases. The physical properties of the system are obtained from minimization of the bending energy by an implementation of the simulated annealing Monte Carlo procedure, which searches for a minimum in a multivariable space. An analysis of the hysteresis effects indicates that the experimentally observed aspirating and releasing critical pressures are related to the location of the spinodal points.

  18. Does aspiration of bones and joints affect results of later bone scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Canale, S.T.; Harkness, R.M.; Thomas, P.A.; Massie, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    To determine the effect, if any, of needle aspiration on /sup 99m/Tc bone scanning, three different areas of 15 dogs were first aspirated and then imaged with technetium bone scintigraphy. The hip joint was aspirated, the distal femoral metaphysis was drilled and aspirated, and the tibial periosteum was scraped with an 18- or 20-gauge needle. Varying amounts of trauma were inflicted to simulate varying difficulties at aspiration. /sup 99m/Tc bone scans were obtained from 5 h to 10 days later. There was no evidence of focal technetium uptake after any hip joint aspiration. This was consistent regardless of the amount of trauma inflicted or the time from aspiration to bone scanning. Metaphyseal cortical drilling and tibial periosteal scraping occasionally caused some focal uptake when scanning was delayed greater than 2 days. When osteomyelitis or pyarthrosis is clinically suspected, joint aspiration can be performed without fear of producing a false- positive bone scan.

  19. The Path Taken: Consequences of Attaining Intrinsic and Extrinsic Aspirations in Post-College Life

    PubMed Central

    Niemiec, Christopher P.; Ryan, Richard M.; Deci, Edward L.

    2009-01-01

    Life goals, or aspirations, organize and direct behavior over extended periods of time. The present study, guided by self-determination theory, examined the consequences of pursuing and attaining aspirations over a one-year period in a post-college sample. Results indicated that placing importance on either intrinsic or extrinsic aspirations related positively to attainment of those goals. Yet, whereas attainment of intrinsic aspirations related positively to psychological health, attainment of extrinsic aspirations did not; indeed, attainment of extrinsic aspirations related positively to indicators of ill-being. Also as predicted, the association between change in attainment of intrinsic aspirations and change in psychological health was mediated by change in the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Discussion focuses on the idea that not all goal attainment is beneficial; rather, attainment of aspirations with different contents relates differentially to psychological health. PMID:20161160

  20. Failing Young People? Education and Aspirations in a Deprived Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, S.; McKendrick, J. H.; Scott, G.

    2010-01-01

    Recent UK government statements and education policies have emphasized the need to instil a "culture of aspiration" among young people in deprived communities to address social exclusion. Specific proposals include raising the school leaving age to 18 and extending compulsory employment training. These statements and measures express the…

  1. Who Wants a Job in Biology? Student Aspirations and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Danielle; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a questionnaire survey of UK Year 3 biology undergraduates' career aspirations, and their perceptions of employment in teaching, research and conservation. Although most students sought material benefits in their potential careers, even more wished to gain job satisfaction. None of the careers in biology was…

  2. Parents' Roles in Shaping Early Adolescents' Occupational Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jodl, Kathleen M.; Michael, Alice; Malanchuk, Oksana; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Sameroff, Arnold

    2001-01-01

    Examined relations among parenting dimensions and adolescents' occupational aspirations related to academics and sports. Found that parents' values predicted youths' values directly in the academic domain. Fathers' behaviors mediated the relation between parents' and youths' sports values. Identification was directly related to adolescents'…

  3. Black Women: Their Commitment to Marriage and Career Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Narviar Cathcart

    For some black women, future careers are extremely important; for others, distinct alternatives take precedence. Relationships between the importance a black women places upon her career and her needs for personal and professional aspirations, marriage, and family were examined. All married (N=171) and single (N=92) black women enrolled in…

  4. Adolescents' Attainability and Aspiration Beliefs for Famous Musician Role Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivaldi, Antonia; O'Neill, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the role that adolescents' competence beliefs and subjective task values for music have in relation to their aspirations and expectations for becoming like their musician role models. A total of 381 adolescents (aged 13-14) completed a questionnaire about their competence beliefs and values for music, the musicians they admired…

  5. Aspiring Principal Development Programme Evaluation in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen; Youngs, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The New Zealand Ministry of Education has constructed a wide-ranging "Professional Development Plan" providing a four-stage national pathway for progression to principalship; the first stage has been the conduction of the National Aspiring Principals Pilot (NAPP) programme in five regional locations. The purpose of this paper is to…

  6. Infrared Thermal Imaging During Ultrasonic Aspiration of Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotter, D. J.; Woodworth, G.; Gupta, S. V.; Manandhar, P.; Schwartz, T. H.

    Ultrasonic surgical aspirator tips target removal of bone in approaches to tumors or aneurysms. Low profile angled tips provide increased visualization and safety in many high risk surgical situations that commonly were approached using a high speed rotary drill. Utilization of the ultrasonic aspirator for bone removal raised questions about relative amount of local and transmitted heat energy. In the sphenoid wing of a cadaver section, ultrasonic bone aspiration yielded lower thermal rise in precision bone removal than rotary mechanical drills, with maximum temperature of 31 °C versus 69 °C for fluted and 79 °C for diamond drill bits. Mean ultrasonic fragmentation power was about 8 Watts. Statistical studies using tenacious porcine cranium yielded mean power levels of about 4.5 Watts to 11 Watts and mean temperature of less than 41.1 °C. Excessively loading the tip yielded momentary higher power; however, mean thermal rise was less than 8 °C with bone removal starting at near body temperature of about 37 °C. Precision bone removal and thermal management were possible with conditions tested for ultrasonic bone aspiration.

  7. Uncertainty in Early Occupational Aspirations: Role Exploration or Aimlessness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staff, Jeremy; Harris, Angel; Sabates, Ricardo; Briddell, Laine

    2010-01-01

    Many youth in the United States lack clear occupational aspirations. This uncertainty in achievement ambitions may benefit socio-economic attainment if it signifies "role exploration," characterized by career development, continued education and enduring partnerships. By contrast, uncertainty may diminish attainment if it instead leads to…

  8. Career Aspirations of Undergraduate Mathematics Majors: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris; Hemasinha, Rohan

    2012-01-01

    There has been much research attention on ability level, motivation, and self-efficacy of students at schools of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). However, there is scant research on vocational choice, career development and aspirations of these students. The current study addresses this gap in the literature by asking…

  9. The Evolution of Roles and Aspirations: Burgeoning Choices for Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert A.

    Traditional female status, roles, and aspirations and changes that have occurred in American society are traced. While women were barred from colleges and universities in the 1800's, they now account for more than 50 percent of college students. It is projected that by the year 2000, women will represent an even larger percentage of the college…

  10. Parental Involvement, Children's Aspirations, and Achievement in New Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Eunjoo; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationships among multiple aspects of parental involvement (English proficiency, school involvement, control and monitoring of children), children's aspirations, and achievement in new immigrant families in the United States. They used data on immigrant parents and school-age children (N = 1,255) from the New…

  11. Understanding Graduate School Aspirations: The Effect of Good Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Jana M.; Paulsen, Michael B.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of good teaching practices on post-baccalaureate degree aspirations using logistic regression techniques on a multi-institutional, longitudinal sample of students at 4-year colleges and universities in the USA. We examined whether eight good teaching practices (non-classroom interactions with faculty, prompt…

  12. Women Teachers' Aspirations to School Leadership in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperandio, Jill; Kagoda, Alice Merab

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The under-representation of women in the leadership of secondary schooling is a problem common to many developing countries, raising issues of social justice and sustainable development. It has its roots in societal understandings about leadership, the schooling and career aspirations of girls, the organizational characteristics of the…

  13. Aspirations for a Master's-Level Teaching Profession in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates aspirations for a master's-level teaching profession in England, providing key stakeholder perceptions in one densely populated region within a multiple case study. Although this intended move to a master's-level profession represented a major shift in teachers' professional development in England, only limited…

  14. Level of Aspiration: A Behavioral Expression of Self-Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Richard S.; Felker, Donald W.

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of expectations in self-concept and level of aspiration (LOA) behavior. Specifically, the focus was to investigate self-concept and LOA as covariates and to describe the nature of the relationship if, in fact, one existed. A sample of 80 third and fourth grade students was selected from three…

  15. Educational and Career Aspirations: Views of Business School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris; Cox, John Lew

    2004-01-01

    A sizeable percentage of undergraduate students enroll in U.S. business schools; yet, there is sparse published research on the educational aspirations and career goals of this select student body. To address this gap in the literature, a survey of undergraduate business students at The University of West Florida was conducted in the Fall semester…

  16. ECONOMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENTS AND ASPIRATIONS OF FARM YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOORE, E.J.; AND OTHERS

    IN 1962 A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED BY SURVEYING 756,000 FARM FAMILIES IN 30 STATES, WITH CHILDREN 15 THROUGH 21 YEARS OLD. THE OBJECTIVES WERE TO--(1) EXAMINE THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF ECONOMIC RESOURCES AVAILABLE TO FARM YOUTH FOR SECURING POST HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATION, (2) DETERMINE THE EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT AND ASPIRATIONS OF THESE FARM YOUTH FOR…

  17. Searching for Autonomy: Young Black Men, Schooling and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Ian; Finney, Sarah; Swann, Sarah Jane

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationships between being young and black, and educational and career aspirations, drawing on new research evidence from two recent studies carried out in two urban locations in Northern England. The first of these studies forms part of a wider research project concerned with analysing the connections between aspects of…

  18. Experimental Investigation of a High Pressure Ratio Aspirated Fan Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merchant, Ali; Kerrebrock, Jack L.; Adamczyk, John J.; Braunscheidel, Edward

    2004-01-01

    The experimental investigation of an aspirated fan stage designed to achieve a pressure ratio of 3.4:1 at 1500 ft/sec is presented in this paper. The low-energy viscous flow is aspirated from diffusion-limiting locations on the blades and flowpath surfaces of the stage, enabling a very high pressure ratio to be achieved in a single stage. The fan stage performance was mapped at various operating speeds from choke to stall in a compressor facility at fully simulated engine conditions. The experimentally determined stage performance, in terms of pressure ratio and corresponding inlet mass flow rate, was found to be in good agreement with the three-dimensional viscous computational prediction, and in turn close to the design intent. Stage pressure ratios exceeding 3:1 were achieved at design speed, with an aspiration flow fraction of 3.5 percent of the stage inlet mass flow. The experimental performance of the stage at various operating conditions, including detailed flowfield measurements, are presented and discussed in the context of the computational analyses. The sensitivity of the stage performance and operability to reduced aspiration flow rates at design and off design conditions are also discussed.

  19. Aspire Public Schools: Building the Organizational Capacity for Healthy Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxton, Amy; Perigo, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Two years into an aggressive expansion plan, Aspire Public Schools was on track in terms of school openings, but behind on its goals to add a layer of management. The schools were performing well, but the nonprofit's leaders were stretched paper thin and concerned about the organization's ability to perform in the face of more growth. Determined…

  20. Equipping Aspiring Principals for the Principalship in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Shun Wing

    2013-01-01

    The quality of school principals is of paramount importance for quality education. This article examines the leadership capacities of a group of 228 aspiring principals who participated in a training programme for the principalship in four cohorts. A questionnaire consisting of 24 questions in six core areas of leadership was constructed and…

  1. Aspiration and injection of the knee joint: approach portal.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Robert J

    2014-03-01

    Aspiration and injection of the knee joint is a commonly performed medical procedure. Injection of corticosteroid for the treatment of osteoarthritis is the most common reason for knee joint injection, and is performed as an office procedure. Debate exists among practitioners as to the 'best' approach portal for knee injection. This paper examines the various approach portals for injection and/or aspiration of the knee joint, as well as the accuracy of each approach. Searches were made of electronic databases, and appropriate papers were identified and hand-searched. Although there is some evidence that particular approach portals may be more efficacious in the presence of specific knee joint pathologies, generally, in experienced hands, it is of no clinical consequence as to which approach portal is utilised for aspiration or injection of the knee joint. No approach portal is 100% accurate, and the accuracy of injection of the knee joint may be enhanced by the use of techniques such as ultrasound. Practitioners are reminded that they should continuously refine and practice their preferred technique. Knee joint aspiration and injection is a common, simple, and generally safe office procedure.

  2. Bacteriology of aspiration pneumonia in patients with acute coma.

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Enise; Voss, Frederik; Gerigk, Roland; Lauterbach, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Loss of protective airway reflexes in patients with acute coma puts these patients at risk of aspiration pneumonia complicating the course of the primary disease. Available data vary considerably with regard to bacteriology, role of anaerobic bacteria, and antibiotic treatment. Our objective was to research the bacteriology of aspiration pneumonia in acute coma patients who were not pre-treated with antibiotics or hospitalized within 30 days prior to the event. We prospectively analyzed 127 patient records from adult patients admitted, intubated and ventilated to a tertiary medical intensive care unit with acute coma. Bacteriology and antibiotic resistance testing from tracheal aspirate sampled within 24 h after admission, blood cultures, ICU scores (APACHE II, SOFA), hematology, and clinical chemistry were assessed. Patients were followed up until death or hospital discharge. The majority of patients with acute coma suffered from acute cardiovascular disorders, predominantly myocardial infarction, followed by poisonings, and coma of unknown cause. In a majority of our patients, microaspiration resulted in overt infection. Most frequently S. aureus, H. influenzae, and S. pneumoniae were isolated. Anaerobic bacteria (Bacteroides spec., Fusobacteria, Prevotella spec.) were isolated from tracheal aspirate in a minority of patients, and predominantly as part of a mixed infection. Antibiotic monotherapy with a 2nd generation cephalosporin, or a 3rd generation gyrase inhibitor, was most effective in our patients regardless of the presence of anaerobic bacteria.

  3. The Hierarchical Personality Structure of Aspiring Creative Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslej, Marta M.; Rain, Marina; Fong, Katrina; Oatley, Keith; Mar, Raymond A.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies of personality traits in creative writers have demonstrated mixed findings, perhaps due to issues of sampling, measurement, and the reporting of statistical information. The goal of this study is to quantify the personality structure of aspiring creative writers according to a modern hierarchal model of trait personality. A…

  4. Work in Progress: Narratives of Aspiration from the New Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George

    2006-01-01

    Central to the discourses of the new economy is the model of the flexible, adaptive, ambitious and individualistic worker. This article considers the subjective purchase of that model by analysing interviews with three young women living and working in urban Australia. Their respective narratives of aspiration illustrate contrasting responses to…

  5. First-Year Student Aspirations: A Multinodal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grellier, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the aspirations of first-year university students in a particular socio-geographic context, by juxtaposing this context with those of Western universities in the 1970s. The rhizomatic analysis enables student voices and personal narratives to complement, extend and undercut the words of published researchers and of the…

  6. Aspiration Levels and Educational Choices: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Lionel; Garboua, Louis Levy; Montmarquette, Claude

    2007-01-01

    The explanation of social inequalities in education is still a debated issue in economics. Recent empirical studies tend to downplay the potential role of credit constraint. This article tests a different potential explanation of social inequalities in education, specifically that social differences in aspiration level result in different…

  7. Fine-needle aspiration of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Zarka, M A

    1996-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration is increasingly used in community practices for the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions, and it often renders an unequivocal diagnosis. This chapter discusses in detail the technical considerations of FNA, non-neoplastic and inflammatory conditions, benign neoplasms, common malignant neoplasms, and rare malignant neoplasms.

  8. Adolescent Boys' Science Aspirations: Masculinity, Capital, and Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise; DeWitt, Jennifer; Willis, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    There is widespread international concern about post-16 participation rates in science, with women's under-representation constituting a particular issue. This paper contributes to these debates through a novel, critical examination of the role of masculinity within boys' negotiations of science aspirations. Drawing on a UK longitudinal…

  9. Latino Males Degree Aspirations in Community College: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorame, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Latino males are the least likely to attend, persist, and attain a baccalaureate degree compared to other male groups in higher education. Moreover, they tend to have the lowest degree aspirations of any major race or ethnic group (Saenz & Ponjuan, 2009; Driscoll, 2007; Swail, Cabrera, & Lee, 2004; Laanan, 2000; Kao & Tienda, 1998). To…

  10. Is fine needle aspiration biopsy of salivary gland masses really necessary?

    PubMed

    Candel, A; Gattuso, P; Reddy, V; Matz, G; Castelli, M

    1993-07-01

    The use of fine needle aspirate biopsies (FNAB's) in the outpatient setting has progressively escalated, particularly in the area of head and neck pathology. An increasing percentage of these are for salivary gland masses. We present our experience with salivary gland FNAB's at our institution for four years, from 1988-1992. One thousand and twenty-two (1,022) FNAB's of superficial masses were performed by two pathologists. One hundred sixty-three (15.9%) were salivary gland biopsies. Of these 163 cases, 21 (12.9%) were normal tissue, 77 (47.2%) were inflammatory processes, 50 (30.7%) were benign tumors, and 15 (9.2%) were malignant tumors. None of the aspirates were unsatisfactory. Tissue correlation was possible in 47 (28.8%) cases. Two false negative cases (4.3%) were identified; these were a Warthin's tumor diagnosed as chronic sialoadenitis by FNAB; and a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed as adenocarcinoma by FNAB. There were no false positive cases. Overall sensitivity was 95.7% and specificity was 100%. Our experience indicates that FNAB of salivary glands is an effective screening procedure in evaluating salivary gland masses. The cytologic diagnosis may assist the clinician in allaying patients' anxieties, as well as in further collateral workup prior to definitive therapy.

  11. Structural and Socio-Psychological Influences on Adolescents' Educational Aspirations and Subsequent Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothon, Catherine; Arephin, Muna; Klineberg, Emily; Cattell, Vicky; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Previous literature indicates that educational aspirations are an important predictor of achievement at school and beyond. This paper examines the factors that are associated with high educational aspirations. It also looks at the relationship between aspirations and achievement at the General Certificate of Secondary Education in a deprived area…

  12. Intrinsic Aspirations and Personal Meaning across Adulthood: Conceptual Interrelations and Age/Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jessica; Robinson, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined adult age and sex differences in self-reported aspirations and personal meaning. Young, midlife, and older adults (N = 2,557) from the United Kingdom or United States completed an online survey of their aspiration striving, aspiration importance, and personal meaning (subscales of Purposeful Life, Exciting Life,…

  13. Mobility Channel Preference and Educational Aspirations in a Sponsored Mobility System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yogev, Abraham; Schrift, Ruth

    1983-01-01

    Used path analysis to study the educational aspirations of secondary school students in Costa Rica (N=346) and a second combined sample of students and dropouts (N=202). Results showed that preference for the Educational Mobility Channel mainly affects academic aspirations for males. Females' aspirations appear related to sex role socialization.…

  14. Swiss Adolescents' Career Aspirations: Influence of Context, Age, and Career Adaptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschi, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the content, realism, stability, and coherence of the career aspirations of 262 students in seventh grade in Switzerland (ages 13-15 years). The content analysis revealed that 82% of the participants named at least one realistic career aspiration, and aspirations showed clear resemblance to existing opportunities in the…

  15. The Role of Aspirations in Young Children's Emotional and Behavioural Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Vanessa; Flouri, Eirini; Joshi, Heather; Sullivan, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Using data from a large UK cohort (n = 11,656), we investigated the determinants of 7-year-old children's aspirations, and the role of these aspirations in emotional and behavioural problems, as reported by both parents and teachers. Aspirations were classified to reflect their occupational status, masculinity/femininity and intrinsic/extrinsic…

  16. Parental Influence on Mainland Chinese Children's Career Aspirations: Child and Parental Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jianwei; McMahon, Mary; Watson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Career aspirations developed in childhood may impact on future career development in adolescence and adulthood. Family is an important context in which children develop their career aspirations. This study examined how parents influence children's career aspirations in mainland China from both the parents' and children's perspectives. Eight…

  17. Percutaneous aspiration of fluid for management of peritonitis in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Nicolaou, S.; Campbell, M. R.; Sargsyan, A. E.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Melton, S.; Beck, G.; Dawson, D. L.; Billica, R. D.; Johnston, S. L.; Hamilton, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a medical emergency that can affect even well-screened, healthy individuals, peritonitis developing during a long-duration space exploration mission may dictate deviation from traditional clinical practice due to the absence of otherwise indicated surgical capabilities. Medical management can treat many intra-abdominal processes, but treatment failures are inevitable. In these circumstances, percutaneous aspiration under sonographic guidance could provide a "rescue" strategy. Hypothesis: Sonographically guided percutaneous aspiration of intra-peritoneal fluid can be performed in microgravity. METHODS: Investigations were conducted in the microgravity environment of NASA's KC-135 research aircraft (0 G). The subjects were anesthetized female Yorkshire pigs weighing 50 kg. The procedures were rehearsed in a terrestrial animal lab (1 G). Colored saline (500 mL) was introduced through an intra-peritoneal catheter during flight. A high-definition ultrasound system (HDI-5000, ATL, Bothell, WA) was used to guide a 16-gauge needle into the peritoneal cavity to aspirate fluid. RESULTS: Intra-peritoneal fluid collections were easily identified, distinct from surrounding viscera, and on occasion became more obvious during weightless conditions. Subjectively, with adequate restraint of the subject and operators, the procedure was no more demanding than during the 1-G rehearsals. CONCLUSIONS: Sonographically guided percutaneous aspiration of intra-peritoneal fluid collections is feasible in weightlessness. Treatment of intra-abdominal inflammatory conditions in spaceflight might rely on pharmacological options, backed by sonographically guided percutaneous aspiration for the "rescue" of treatment failures. While this risk mitigation strategy cannot guarantee success, it may be the most practical option given severe resource limitations.

  18. Cultural Knowledge: A Foundation for Educational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Josephine

    2009-01-01

    This story describes how my immigrant parents from Mexico City transmitted their Mexican cultural knowledge to their U.S. born children to inspire us to understand the wealth of our culture. Their experiences and stories helped us to navigate as bilingual and bicultural Chicanos. We were a family that was very proud of our Mexican heritage; we…

  19. Hippocampal aspiration lesions fail to impair performance of a delayed alternation GO/NO-GO task.

    PubMed

    Foster, J K; Rawlins, J N

    1992-03-15

    Rats with hippocampal aspiration lesions (HIPP), cortical control lesions (CORT) or sham operations (SHAM) were trained on a delayed alternation GO/NO-GO task, in which responding was reinforced on odd-numbered GO trials but was not reinforced on even-numbered NO-GO trials. The number of responses required to obtain reinforcement, and the length of the inter-trial intervals (ITIs), were varied in different stages of the experiment. These systematic parametric manipulations were conducted in order to compare the roles of intra- and inter-trial information and the temporal spans which could be bridged in performing the task across the three different lesion groups. In addition, at a later stage of testing interference was introduced during the ITI to investigate its effect on task performance. The differences observed between the HIPP, CORT and SHAM groups were generally non-specific for trial type, with HIPP animals responding more overall on both NO-GO and, to a lesser extent, GO trials following each of the ITIs used. The results were consistent with the behavioural inhibition theory of hippocampal function, but not with the temporal discontiguity or working memory models. These surprising findings contrast sharply with those observed following an electrolytic lesion of the hippocampus, which has been reported to produce a delay-dependent impairment of performance on the GO/NO-GO task in rats using a very similar procedure. It is speculated that differences in performance following aspiration and electrolytic lesions may be at least partially attributable to rats adopting different response strategies induced by ITI differences in the two tasks. However, the results also raise an important question concerning the assumed equivalence of aspiration and electrolytic lesions of the hippocampus. The possibility that an interaction between procedural and lesion differences may contribute to the discrepant findings is also considered. The findings illustrate the

  20. Female peers in small work groups enhance women's motivation, verbal participation, and career aspirations in engineering.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew

    2015-04-21

    For years, public discourse in science education, technology, and policy-making has focused on the "leaky pipeline" problem: the observation that fewer women than men enter science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields and more women than men leave. Less attention has focused on experimentally testing solutions to this problem. We report an experiment investigating one solution: we created "microenvironments" (small groups) in engineering with varying proportions of women to identify which environment increases motivation and participation, and whether outcomes depend on students' academic stage. Female engineering students were randomly assigned to one of three engineering groups of varying sex composition: 75% women, 50% women, or 25% women. For first-years, group composition had a large effect: women in female-majority and sex-parity groups felt less anxious than women in female-minority groups. However, among advanced students, sex composition had no effect on anxiety. Importantly, group composition significantly affected verbal participation, regardless of women's academic seniority: women participated more in female-majority groups than sex-parity or female-minority groups. Additionally, when assigned to female-minority groups, women who harbored implicit masculine stereotypes about engineering reported less confidence and engineering career aspirations. However, in sex-parity and female-majority groups, confidence and career aspirations remained high regardless of implicit stereotypes. These data suggest that creating small groups with high proportions of women in otherwise male-dominated fields is one way to keep women engaged and aspiring toward engineering careers. Although sex parity works sometimes, it is insufficient to boost women's verbal participation in group work, which often affects learning and mastery. PMID:25848061

  1. Female peers in small work groups enhance women's motivation, verbal participation, and career aspirations in engineering

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    For years, public discourse in science education, technology, and policy-making has focused on the “leaky pipeline” problem: the observation that fewer women than men enter science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields and more women than men leave. Less attention has focused on experimentally testing solutions to this problem. We report an experiment investigating one solution: we created “microenvironments” (small groups) in engineering with varying proportions of women to identify which environment increases motivation and participation, and whether outcomes depend on students’ academic stage. Female engineering students were randomly assigned to one of three engineering groups of varying sex composition: 75% women, 50% women, or 25% women. For first-years, group composition had a large effect: women in female-majority and sex-parity groups felt less anxious than women in female-minority groups. However, among advanced students, sex composition had no effect on anxiety. Importantly, group composition significantly affected verbal participation, regardless of women’s academic seniority: women participated more in female-majority groups than sex-parity or female-minority groups. Additionally, when assigned to female-minority groups, women who harbored implicit masculine stereotypes about engineering reported less confidence and engineering career aspirations. However, in sex-parity and female-majority groups, confidence and career aspirations remained high regardless of implicit stereotypes. These data suggest that creating small groups with high proportions of women in otherwise male-dominated fields is one way to keep women engaged and aspiring toward engineering careers. Although sex parity works sometimes, it is insufficient to boost women’s verbal participation in group work, which often affects learning and mastery. PMID:25848061

  2. Female peers in small work groups enhance women's motivation, verbal participation, and career aspirations in engineering.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew

    2015-04-21

    For years, public discourse in science education, technology, and policy-making has focused on the "leaky pipeline" problem: the observation that fewer women than men enter science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields and more women than men leave. Less attention has focused on experimentally testing solutions to this problem. We report an experiment investigating one solution: we created "microenvironments" (small groups) in engineering with varying proportions of women to identify which environment increases motivation and participation, and whether outcomes depend on students' academic stage. Female engineering students were randomly assigned to one of three engineering groups of varying sex composition: 75% women, 50% women, or 25% women. For first-years, group composition had a large effect: women in female-majority and sex-parity groups felt less anxious than women in female-minority groups. However, among advanced students, sex composition had no effect on anxiety. Importantly, group composition significantly affected verbal participation, regardless of women's academic seniority: women participated more in female-majority groups than sex-parity or female-minority groups. Additionally, when assigned to female-minority groups, women who harbored implicit masculine stereotypes about engineering reported less confidence and engineering career aspirations. However, in sex-parity and female-majority groups, confidence and career aspirations remained high regardless of implicit stereotypes. These data suggest that creating small groups with high proportions of women in otherwise male-dominated fields is one way to keep women engaged and aspiring toward engineering careers. Although sex parity works sometimes, it is insufficient to boost women's verbal participation in group work, which often affects learning and mastery.

  3. The Values Adolescents Aspire to, Their Well-Being and the Values Parents Aspire to for Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casas, Ferran; Figuer, Cristina; Gonzalez, Monica; Malo, Sara

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the relationship between the psychological well-being of Spanish adolescents from 12 to 16 years old and the values they aspire to for the future (N = 1,618). Adolescents' well-being is explored through (a) their satisfaction with 19 specific life domains, (b) the Personal Well-Being Index (Cummins, "Social…

  4. "Where I Came From, Where I Am Now, and Where I'd Like to Be": Aspiring Administrators Reflect on Issues Related to Equity, Diversity, and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Frank; Marshall, Joanne M.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores student reflections about issues related to equity, diversity, and social justice from an educational foundations course. Online reflections and course assignments were analyzed from 15 aspiring administrators for patterns. Findings indicate that (1) students were willing to engage and reflect on their experiences and cultural…

  5. "My Parents Have Stressed that since I Was a Kid": Young Minority Ethnic British Citizens and the Phenomenon of Aspirational Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basit, Tehmina N.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates retrospectively and prospectively the educational and career aspirations and experiences of young minority ethnic British citizens. It focuses on one aspect of a larger mixed methods study, that is, qualitative research involving in-depth interviews with a stratified sample of 20 young men and women of minority ethnic…

  6. Job Training and Fulfillment Study. An Examination of Aspirations, Needs and Solutions for ADC Mothers in the Cincinnati, Ohio Area. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Innovative Consultants, Inc., Cincinnati, OH.

    A study was conducted to provide much-needed, in-depth qualitative information and direction regarding the experiences, attitudes, value systems, and aspirations of various segments of the Aid to Dependent Children (ADC) recipients. Eight focus groups, each composed of 8 to 10 persons, were conducted in May 1990 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Discussion…

  7. A simple technique to restore needle patency during percutaneous lavage and aspiration of calcific rotator cuff tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Jelsing, Elena J; Maida, Eugene; Smith, Jay

    2013-03-01

    Calcific rotator cuff tendinopathy caused by symptomatic calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition is a well-established cause of shoulder pain. In refractory or acutely symptomatic cases, sonographically guided percutaneous lavage and aspiration can significantly reduce pain in approximately 60%-92% of cases. Although the complication rate of sonographically guided percutaneous lavage and aspiration is apparently low, needle clogging attributable to impacted calcific debris has been described by several authors and in our experience can occur in daily practice. Traditionally, an inability to relieve the obstruction via needle repositioning or increased syringe plunger pressure has required needle removal and replacement. In this article, we outline a simple technique that can be used to restore patency of the obstructed lavage needle without necessitating needle removal and replacement. PMID:23399296

  8. Fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis of salivary gland disorders in the community hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Pitts, D B; Hilsinger, R L; Karandy, E; Ross, J C; Caro, J E

    1992-05-01

    From 1983 to 1988, 47 patients with salivary gland disorders were assessed with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) before surgery. The preoperative fine-needle diagnoses were then compared with the postoperative pathologic findings. In the same period, 63 patients from two other community hospitals who had been evaluated preoperatively with FNA were studied retrospectively. The overall sensitivity of FNA for salivary neoplasms was 80.6%. Fine-needle aspiration was more sensitive in identifying benign tumors (88.4%) than malignant neoplasms (58.3%) and was least sensitive in identifying nonneoplastic salivary diseases (35.3%). Pleomorphic adenomas were correctly identified preoperatively in 96.2% of cases, whereas for malignant neoplasms, the diagnostic accuracy was highest for mucoepidermoid carcinoma (50%). To demonstrate the strengths of FNA as a diagnostic tool, as well as to delineate its limitations, we present our 5-year experience. Our FNA results are similar to those reported by the major European and American referral centers. Because our medical centers are community based, our results may more accurately reflect those seen by otolaryngologists in private practice. To date, no evidence of tumor seeding along the FNA tract has been reported.

  9. The significance of fine needle aspiration cytology for the diagnosis and treatment of malignant lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Lopes Cardozo, P

    1980-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy of a laesion, thought to be a lymph node, is a minor procedure, which provides quick and valuable information. It should be performed with a fine needle (0.6 mM outer diameter = 23 Gauge) and a special syringe, which needs only one hand during the aspiration itself. From the experience obtained in over 6000 own patients a f.n.a.b. gives the first place information whether the laesion actually is a lymph node, or a cyst, a salivary gland, a chemodectoma or any other lesion which can mimic a lymph node, In 3000 cases a benign lymph node was found and this finding often is as important as reporting malignancy. In 2000 cases metastatic malignancy was found. In 90% of these the primary tumour could be ascertained by coupling the clinical and the cytological data. False-negatives and false-positives practically do not occur with our technique. In 1023 patients primary lymphoma was found; 523 of them being Hodgkin's disease and 500 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In fresh cases of lymphoma surgical biopsies should always be done. In relapses cytology alone will as a rule be sufficient. In case of doubt repeat the f.n.a.b. after one week and do not immediately proceed to histological biopsy.

  10. [The value of fine needle aspiration cytology in suspected neoplastic salivary gland enlargement].

    PubMed

    Schoengen, A; Binder, T; Krause, H R; Stussak, G; Zeelen, U

    1995-04-01

    Imaging offers little support in the management of salivary gland masses suggestive of a neoplastic lesion. There are also contraindications for a surgical biopsy in many cases. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is not yet widely recognized as a diagnostic tool. To date, 206 FNAC were carried out from 1986 through 1993 on 181 consecutive patients and were reviewed in the present study. Histological confirmation was possible in 174 tests, while 32 were confirmed on clinical follow-up. In sum, 192 samples were sufficient for interpretation, 10 were questionable by our standards and 4 were non-diagnostic. One hundred-seventy-one samples were true-negative, 27 true-positive, 4 false-negative and 4 false-positive. Sensitivity was 87.1% and specificity 97.7%. Out of 141 primary diagnostic procedures in which a final histologic diagnosis was available, FNAC was able to determine histogenesis in 113/124 benign lesions and 9/17 malignant masses. These included 65/67 pleomorphic adenomas and 21/22 adenolymphomas. In 8 cases a diagnosis of "adenoma" was made. Difficulties in interpretation were found in lesions that were mucoepidermoid carcinomas and, in part, adenoid cystic carcinomas. No complications occurred. Provided that there was sufficient experience in performing the aspiration technique and in cytologic interpretation, FNAC was found to be a quick, reliable, low-cost, easy-to-perform method with low risk in the management of nearly all benign and most malignant salivary gland lesions.

  11. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of lymphoproliferative lesions involving the major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Chhieng, D C; Cangiarella, J F; Cohen, J M

    2000-04-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) is an accurate and cost-effective procedure for evaluating salivary gland lesions. Lymphoproliferative lesions may manifest as salivary gland enlargement. We report our experience with 43 cases of reactive and neoplastic lymphoproliferative lesions of the salivary glands evaluated by FNA, including 23 cases of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and 20 neoplastic lymphoproliferative processes. The latter included 2 multiple myelomas and 18 non-Hodgkin lymphomas (small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 1; small cleaved cell lymphoma, 1; lympho-plasmacytoid lymphoma, 1; mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, 2; mixed cell lymphoma, 4; lymphoblastic lymphoma, 1; and large cell lymphoma, 8). There were no false-negative diagnoses. Aspiration smears from 3 patients with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and 4 patients with malignant lymphoma initially were interpreted as atypical lymphoid proliferations or as suggestive of malignant lymphoma. Thus, FNA had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 87%. The majority of patients were treated medically without surgical intervention. Among the patients who underwent surgical resection of the salivary gland, 7 had an equivocal cytologic diagnosis and 2 had a benign cytologic diagnosis, but their parotid swelling failed to regress despite medical treatment. In most instances, FNA provides useful information for subsequent disease management and obviates surgical intervention.

  12. Relationships of teenage smoking to educational aspirations and parents' education.

    PubMed

    Waldron, I; Lye, D

    1990-01-01

    This study analyzes data for white high school seniors from the 1985 Monitoring the Future national survey. Students who had less educated parents or lower educational aspirations were more likely to have tried a cigarette, more likely to have adopted cigarette smoking, and less likely to have quit smoking. These students also had more favorable attitudes toward smoking, and reported greater acceptance of smoking by their friends. In addition, the students with less educated parents or lower educational aspirations appeared to be more rejecting of adult authority and more predisposed to adopt adult behaviors, and these characteristics, in turn, were associated with smoking more. The results of multivariate analyses support the hypothesis that these students have experienced less success in school and are more likely to adopt behaviors characteristic of adults as an alternative source of status and gratification, and this contributes to their higher rates of smoking.

  13. [Aspiration syndrome due to laryngeal cleft in an infant].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Giselle; Demarchi, Victoria; Zanetta, Adrián; Urquizo, Mauricio; Lobos, Pablo; Razetti, Juan

    2014-02-01

    Aspiration is the passage of food content and endogenous secretions into the airway. Anatomical, neuromuscular or functional anomalies are among the major causes. The laryngeal cleft is a rare congenital anomaly that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of aspiration syndrome in neonates and infants. The main symptoms are stridor, recurrent respiratory infections and cyanotic crisis, cough and choking during feeding. The diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic examination. The therapeutic behaviour will depend on the extent of the cleft, among other factors. We describe the clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods and treatment of an infant with this disease, and we emphasize the need for recognition of swallowing disorders in children in order to establish an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment to prevent and avoid malnutrition as well as a severe and potentially irreversible lung compromise.

  14. Suicidal ideation and migration aspirations among youth in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Steven

    2013-10-16

    Over the past 100 years the state of Guanajuato has consistently been one of the highest migrant sending states in Mexico. Youth living in high migratory states such as Guanajuato are heavily influenced by the expectation that they will travel to the US, and research has shown that those who do not migrate may be looked down upon by members of their community. This secondary analysis looks at the connection between suicidal ideation and migration aspirations among a group of adolescents living in Guanajuato, Mexico. Data were originally collected in 2007 as part of a comprehensive health survey of youth attending an alternative high schooling program. Regression analyses show that suicidal ideation predicts intentions to migrate among both males and females, while other factors differentially influence the adolescents by gender. The results indicate that suicidal ideation may be associated with migration aspirations among Mexican youth living in high migratory communities. Study limitations and implications are discussed.

  15. Art in Science Promoting Interest in Research and Exploration (ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M.; Zevin, D.; Thrall, L.; Croft, S.; Raftery, C.; Shackelford, R.

    2015-11-01

    Led by U.C. Berkeley's Center for Science Education at the Space Sciences Laboratory in partnership with U.C. Berkeley Astronomy, the Lawrence Hall of Science, and the YMCA of the Central Bay Area, Art in Science Promoting Interest in Research and Exploration (ASPIRE) is a NASA EPOESS-funded program mainly for high school students that explores NASA science through art and highlights the need for and uses of art and visualizations in science. ASPIRE's aim is to motivate more diverse young people (especially African Americans) to learn about Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) topics and careers, via 1) Intensive summer workshops; 2) Drop-in after school workshops; 3) Astronomy visualization-focused outreach programming at public venues including a series of free star parties where the students help run the events; and 5) A website and a number of social networking strategies that highlight our youth's artwork.

  16. Suicidal Ideation and Migration Aspirations among Youth in Central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 100 years the state of Guanajuato has consistently been one of the highest migrant sending states in Mexico. Youth living in high migratory states such as Guanajuato are heavily influenced by the expectation that they will travel to the US, and research has shown that those who do not migrate may be looked down upon by members of their community. This secondary analysis looks at the connection between suicidal ideation and migration aspirations among a group of adolescents living in Guanajuato, Mexico. Data were originally collected in 2007 as part of a comprehensive health survey of youth attending an alternative high schooling program. Regression analyses show that suicidal ideation predicts intentions to migrate among both males and females, while other factors differentially influence the adolescents by gender. The results indicate that suicidal ideation may be associated with migration aspirations among Mexican youth living in high migratory communities. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:24373268

  17. [Aspiration syndrome due to laryngeal cleft in an infant].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Giselle; Demarchi, Victoria; Zanetta, Adrián; Urquizo, Mauricio; Lobos, Pablo; Razetti, Juan

    2014-02-01

    Aspiration is the passage of food content and endogenous secretions into the airway. Anatomical, neuromuscular or functional anomalies are among the major causes. The laryngeal cleft is a rare congenital anomaly that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of aspiration syndrome in neonates and infants. The main symptoms are stridor, recurrent respiratory infections and cyanotic crisis, cough and choking during feeding. The diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic examination. The therapeutic behaviour will depend on the extent of the cleft, among other factors. We describe the clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods and treatment of an infant with this disease, and we emphasize the need for recognition of swallowing disorders in children in order to establish an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment to prevent and avoid malnutrition as well as a severe and potentially irreversible lung compromise. PMID:24566793

  18. Suicidal ideation and migration aspirations among youth in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 100 years the state of Guanajuato has consistently been one of the highest migrant sending states in Mexico. Youth living in high migratory states such as Guanajuato are heavily influenced by the expectation that they will travel to the US, and research has shown that those who do not migrate may be looked down upon by members of their community. This secondary analysis looks at the connection between suicidal ideation and migration aspirations among a group of adolescents living in Guanajuato, Mexico. Data were originally collected in 2007 as part of a comprehensive health survey of youth attending an alternative high schooling program. Regression analyses show that suicidal ideation predicts intentions to migrate among both males and females, while other factors differentially influence the adolescents by gender. The results indicate that suicidal ideation may be associated with migration aspirations among Mexican youth living in high migratory communities. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:24373268

  19. Massive reflux and aspiration after radiographically inserted gastrostomy tube placement.

    PubMed

    Chesoni, Sandra A; Bach, John R; Okamura, Erica Mia

    2015-01-01

    To the authors' knowledge, fatal postgastrostomy aspiration within 2 days of enteral nutrition has not been reported. The authors report consecutive cases of severe postgastrotomy aspiration with one being fatal for a 26-yr-old with Duchenne muscular dystrophy 2 days after initiation of gastrostomy feedings. Previous to these consecutive radiographically inserted gastrostomies, all gastrotomies at the institution were percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies or open gastrostomies. Radiographically inserted gastrostomy tubes have an increased likelihood of being oriented toward the esophagus as opposed to the duodenum, which may increase the risk for reflux. Elimination of invasive airway tubes should be delayed until after gastrostomy feedings are documented to be well tolerated. Oximetry and repeated measurements of vital capacity can suggest changes in the status of airway clearance.

  20. Fine needle aspiration and frozen section of salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Cross, D L; Gansler, T S; Morris, R C

    1990-03-01

    This report examines the role of fine needle aspiration (FNA) and frozen section (FS) examination in the management of salivary gland lesions, and is based on a review of 58 cases. FNA specimens were first classified as nonneoplastic, or as benign or malignant neoplasms. Identification of specific morphologic type of neoplastic lesions was attempted. Overall accuracy for assigning cases was 86%. Specific accuracy (histologic type of neoplasms predicted by FNA) was 72%. No inflammatory lesion was incorrectly diagnosed as neoplasm. Eight patients with histologically documented neoplasm had aspirates classified as nonneoplastic because the sample obtained was not representative. These data indicate that FNA is a highly specific method for identifying benign and malignant neoplasms. Applications of salivary gland FNA include (1) identification of nonneoplastic lesions that may respond to nonsurgical management, (2) identification of neoplasms that represent lymph node metastases rather than primary lesions of the salivary gland, (3) preliminary identification of lymphomas, and (4) preliminary separation of benign and malignant neoplasms.

  1. Fine needle aspiration cytology: utilization in pediatric pathology.

    PubMed

    Layfield, L J; Reichman, A

    1990-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration can serve as the initial diagnostic modality for a wide variety of lesions within the pediatric age group. The utility of the technique depends on the clinical setting and histologic type of tumor under study. FNA is most valuable for staging and conformation of metastatic spread in small round cell malignancies. The use of aspiration cytology as the initial diagnostic procedure for these neoplasms is more controversial since this technique may deprive the clinician of valuable information (histologic subtype, oncogene status) now available only by examination of large tissue biopsies. Similarly, FNA can serve as a triage technique for the separation of patients harboring thyroid nodules or enlarged lymph nodes into operative candidates and non-operative candidates. As cytopathologists become more familiar with the appearance of pediatric neoplasms, this diagnostic technique will become more widely used, reducing the need for operative intervention in the diagnosis of many benign and reactive lesions.

  2. Fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology of major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Qizilbash, A H; Sianos, J; Young, J E; Archibald, S D

    1985-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the major salivary glands was performed on 160 patients. In 146 patients with satisfactory samples, the cytologic diagnosis was correlated with clinical follow-up and histologic findings. There were 122 benign lesions, including 47 tumors. There were 24 malignant lesions, 10 of which were primary and 14 metastatic. The overall accuracy was 98%. The sensitivity of the technique was 87.5%. There was no false-positive diagnosis. There were three false-negative diagnoses due to sampling errors and inexperience during the initial period of the study. This study documents that needle aspiration biopsy cytology of the salivary glands is accurate, simple, rapid, inexpensive, well tolerated and harmless to the patient.

  3. Perfectionism and life aspirations in intrinsically and extrinsically religious individuals.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Patrick R

    2014-08-01

    Religiosity is related to positive health and life satisfaction but the pathways through which this occurs have not been clearly delineated. The purpose of this study was to examine potential mediators of the relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity and negative affect and life satisfaction. Perfectionism and life aspirations are two possible pathways through which religious orientation is related to outcome. It was hypothesized that adaptive perfectionism and intrinsic life aspirations would act as mediators between intrinsic religiosity and negative affect and life satisfaction, and that maladaptive perfectionism and extrinsic life aspirations would act as mediators between the extrinsic religiosity and negative affect and life satisfaction. Two consecutive samples of religious college students (N = 540 and N = 485) completed measures of the Age Universal Religious Orientation Index, the Frost Multi-Dimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Aspiration Index, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Intrinsic religiosity had a direct negative relationship with negative affect and positive relationship with life satisfaction. Contrary to the hypotheses, intrinsic religiosity had its strongest indirect effect via maladaptive perfectionism such that increased intrinsic religiosity was related to decreased maladaptive perfectionism which in turn lead to better negative affect and life satisfaction. Extrinsic religiosity was related to increased maladaptive perfectionism and thereby indirectly contributed to worse negative affect and life satisfaction. Interestingly, when the effects of maladaptive perfectionism were controlled, the direct effects of extrinsic religiosity were related to reduced negative affect and increased life satisfaction. Overall, the strongest mediator in this study of both intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity was maladaptive perfectionism, with intrinsic

  4. Joint aspiration and injection and synovial fluid analysis.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Philip; Doherty, Michael

    2009-04-01

    Joint aspiration/injection and synovial fluid (SF) analysis are both invaluable procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of joint disease. This chapter addresses: (1) the indications, the technical principles and the expected benefits and risks of aspiration and injection of intra-articular corticosteroid; and (2) practical aspects relating to SF analysis, especially in relation to crystal identification. Intra-articular injection of long-acting insoluble corticosteroids is a well-established procedure that produces rapid pain relief and resolution of inflammation in most injected joints. The knee is the most common site to require aspiration, although any non-axial joint is accessible for obtaining SF. The technique requires a knowledge of basic anatomy and should not be unduly painful for the patient. Provided sterile equipment and a sensible, aseptic approach are used, it is very safe. Analysis of aspirated SF is helpful in the differential diagnosis of arthritis and is the definitive method for diagnosis of septic arthritis and crystal arthritis. The gross appearance of SF can provide useful diagnostic information in terms of the degree of joint inflammation and presence of haemarthrosis. Microbiological studies of SF are the key to the confirmation of infectious conditions. Increasing joint inflammation is associated with increased SF volume, reduced viscosity, increasing turbidity and cell count, and increasing ratio of polymorphonuclear: mononuclear cells, but such changes are non-specific and must be interpreted in the clinical setting. However, detection of SF monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals, even from un-inflamed joints during intercritical periods, allow a precise diagnosis of gout and of calcium pyrophosphate crystal-related arthritis. PMID:19393565

  5. Aspiring and Residing IT Leaders: A Legacy for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Keith W.

    2012-01-01

    Many people think there is a quick road to leadership success. Those who want to become IT leaders--that is, "aspiring leaders"--often think: "If I just do my job well, I will rise to a leadership position." Those who are already IT leaders--that is, "residing leaders"--often think: "If I just do my job well, I will leave a lasting legacy." Doing…

  6. Fatal and near-fatal grape aspiration in children.

    PubMed

    Feltbower, Stephen; McCormack, Jon; Theilen, Ulf

    2015-06-01

    Choking remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. Whole seedless grapes are a popular fruit snack to give to young children.We present 3 cases of grape aspiration, discussing the emergency care from basic life support to specialist treatment.The lessons learned will be applicable to a wide range of health professionals from frontline emergency medical service personnel to physicians and nurses working in a hospital.

  7. Low coherence interferometry approach for aiding fine needle aspiration biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ernest W.; Gardecki, Joseph; Pitman, Martha; Wilsterman, Eric J.; Patel, Ankit; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Iftimia, Nicusor

    2014-11-01

    We present portable preclinical low-coherence interference (LCI) instrumentation for aiding fine needle aspiration biopsies featuring the second-generation LCI-based biopsy probe and an improved scoring algorithm for tissue differentiation. Our instrument and algorithm were tested on 38 mice with cultured tumor mass and we show the specificity, sensitivity, and positive predictive value of tumor detection of over 0.89, 0.88, and 0.96, respectively.

  8. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  9. Adult sudden death caused by aspiration of chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Njau, S N

    2004-01-28

    A case of a fatal foreign material aspiration is presented in the following text. A 24-year-old white male died suddenly. A piece of chewing gum lodged in a pool of frothy fluid was revealed at autopsy. Microscopic examinations revealed atelectasia emphysema, eosinophilic exudate and empty spaces. Blood and urine samples were analyzed, for alcohol and drug use by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) on an Abbott AXSYM system. No alcohol or other drugs were detected in blood or urine. PMID:15040903

  10. Can renal infarction occur after renal cyst aspiration? Case report.

    PubMed

    Emre, Habib; Soyoral, Yasemin Usul; Tanik, Serhat; Gecit, Ilhan; Begenik, Huseyin; Pirincci, Necip; Erkoc, Reha

    2011-01-01

    Renal infarction (RI) is a rarely seen disorder, and the diagnosis is often missed. The two major causes of RI are thromboemboli originhating from a thrombus in the heart or aorta, and in-situ thrombosis of a renal artery. We report a case of RI that developed due to renal artery and vein thrombosis, as confirmed by pathological evaluation of the nephrectomy material, three weeks after renal cyst aspiration.

  11. Low coherence interferometry approach for aiding fine needle aspiration biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ernest W.; Gardecki, Joseph; Pitman, Martha; Wilsterman, Eric J.; Patel, Ankit; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Iftimia, Nicusor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We present portable preclinical low-coherence interference (LCI) instrumentation for aiding fine needle aspiration biopsies featuring the second-generation LCI-based biopsy probe and an improved scoring algorithm for tissue differentiation. Our instrument and algorithm were tested on 38 mice with cultured tumor mass and we show the specificity, sensitivity, and positive predictive value of tumor detection of over 0.89, 0.88, and 0.96, respectively. PMID:25375634

  12. Fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Young, J A; Smallman, L A; Thompson, H; Proops, D W; Johnson, A P

    1990-01-01

    Eighty-eight fine needle aspirates from 79 salivary gland lesions in 77 patients were examined. The overall diagnostic sensitivity was 84% and the specificity 98.41%. When the 14 unsatisfactory specimens were excluded the sensitivity rose to 95.45%. Correct identification of the disease process was possible in nearly 80% of cases with a final benign diagnosis. The histological tumour type was correctly predicted in 75% of the malignancies. In the others the cytological diagnosis was anaplastic malignant neoplasm.

  13. AstroBiology Explorer Mission Concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandford, S.; Ennico, K.; Abe/Aspire Science Team

    The AstroBiology Explorer ABE and the Astrobiology SPace InfraRed Explorer ASPIRE Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions 1 Where do we come from and 2 Are we alone as outlined in NASA s Origins Program using infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity abundance and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe The ABE mission s observational program is focused on six tasks to 1 Investigate the evolution of ice and organics in dense clouds and star formation regions and the young stellar planetary systems that form in them 2 Measure the evolution of complex organic molecules in stellar outflows 3 Study the organic composition of a wide variety of solar system objects including asteroids comets and the planets and their satellites 4 Identify organic compounds in the diffuse interstellar medium and determine their distribution abundance and change with environment 5 Detect and identify organic compounds in other galaxies and determine their dependence on galactic type and 6 Measure deuterium enrichments in interstellar organics and use them as tracers of chemical processes The ASPIRE mission s observational program expands upon ABE s core mission and adds tasks that 7 Address the role of silicates in interstellar organic chemistry and 8 Use different resolution spectra to assess the relative roles and abundances of gas- and solid-state materials ABE ASPIRE achieves these goals using a highly sensitive cryogenically-cooled telescope in an

  14. Canine lymphoma: immunocytochemical analysis of fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Caniatti, M; Roccabianca, P; Scanziani, E; Paltrinieri, S; Moore, P F

    1996-03-01

    Cytospin preparations of fine-needle aspirates from 21 dogs with peripheral lymphadenopathy (18 with lymphoma and three with lymph node hyperplasia) were studied by combining morphologic and immunocytochemical analysis. Fine-needle aspirates were taken from at least two enlarged lymph nodes, and the diagnosis was based on air-dried smears stained with May-Grünwald Giemsa. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy always provided an adequate quality and quantity of cells to perform morphologic and immunologic studies. Immunophenotyping was performed on cytospin preparations with a panel of eight monoclonal antibodies specific for canine cell surface antigens and one rabbit polyclonal antibody (A452) against human CD3, which cross-reacts with dog antigen. The immunocytochemical study resulted in the diagnosis of 14 B-cell lymphomas (CD21+, CD3-) and three T-cell lymphomas (all CD3+, two CD8+). One lymphoma lacked surface antigens specific for the B- or T-cell lineage and was classified as non-B-non-T lymphoma (CD21-, CD3-, CD4-, CD8-). The monoclonal antibodies CA12.10C12, CA4.1D3, and CA1D6 and the polyclonal antibody A452, used as a group, appeared to be the most useful reagents to suggest lymphoid origin and to discriminate between T-and B-cell phenotype. Cytospin preparations in combination with immunocytochemistry provided a practical, economical, and accurate method for the diagnosis and phenotyping of canine lymphoma.

  15. Thrombus aspiration in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Meneguz-Moreno, R A; Costa, R A; A, A; Ribamar Costa, J; Abizaid, A

    2015-12-01

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become the treatment of choice in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) throughout the last years. A significant number of studies have demonstrated a morbidity and mortality benefit over thrombolysis, which has been attributed to better coronary perfusion in patients undergoing primary PCI. Even though it usually achieves normal flow in the affected epicardial vessel, myocardial reperfusion is not fully restored in a significant percentage of patients. This is commonly the result of distal thrombus embolization with subsequent impairment of myocardial microcirculation. Recognition of this has led to the development of a number of devices with different mechanisms, including thrombus aspiration catheters, in order to reduce distal embolization and therefore improve myocardial perfusion. Recent studies indeed demonstrate that the use of such devices offer additional clinical advantage in patients undergoing primary PCI in comparison to the standard PCI, whether in other trials it could not be proved. This paper focuses on general mechanisms of thrombus formation and discusses favorable and unfavorable studies towards thrombus aspiration in STEMI and its main aspects and it comes up with specific subjects that could benefit or not from the procedure of thrombus aspiration. PMID:26603617

  16. Powder aspiration in children. Report of two cases.

    PubMed Central

    Pfenninger, J; D'Apuzzo, V

    1977-01-01

    Two cases of powder aspiration are reported. A 7 1/2-month-old girl showed a classical course with an asymptomatic period of 3-4 hours, then severe respiratory distress developed. Acute respiratory insufficiency made tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation necessary for 10 days. Complications included insufficient alveolar ventilation, atelectasis, pneumothorax, and superinfection. But the baby recovered with some residual radiological changes in the lungs. A 13-month-old boy was treated immediately after massive powder aspiration by tracheal intubation and bronchial wash-out. The postoperative course was unevetful and no respiratory distress developed. Powder aspiration leads to severe bronchiolar obstruction with a delay of several hours and has a high mortality rate. The best results in treatment are obtained by immediate intubation and bronchial wash-out, even in the absence of respiratory symptoms. Artifical ventilation may be necessary with the special problem of overcoming very high airway resistance. Corticosteroids and bronchodilators may be helpful. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:836067

  17. [Recurrent breast haematoma after fine needle aspiration biopsy of angiosarcoma].

    PubMed

    Ortiz Mendoza, Carlos Manuel

    2007-03-01

    It is reported a rare complication after a fine needle aspiration biopsy of a breast angiosarcoma. A 30-years-old female presented with a right breast lump. An ovoid, hypoecoic lesion of 39 x 13 mm was detect by ultrasonography. A fine needle aspiration biopsy was carried out for diagnosis, but only blood was report. After the biopsy the skin showed a violaceous color, the lump was tender, reappeared in three instances and increased its size (15 cm). In spite of conservative management the pain and the mass did not disappear, then surgical management was decided. A soft, violaceous mass of 13 x 6 x 4 cm, with well demarcated boundaries was removed. A capillary and cavernous breast hemangioma was diagnosed. Four months later a recurrence presented, and a new excision was carried out with a resulting moderately differentiated angiosarcoma, then a simple mastectomy was performed for definitive treatment. On a literature search only one similar case was found. A recurrent haematoma after a fine needle aspiration biopsy of a breast tumor mandates to rule out an angiosarcoma.

  18. Management of ovarian cysts with percutaneous aspiration and methotrexate injection

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pratiksha; Huria, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate ultrasonographic-guided cyst aspiration and methotrexate injection in the management of simple and endometriotic ovarian cysts in selected patients. Subjects and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, from November 2007 to October 2009. It included 132 female patients (age range, 15–72 years; mean, 38.7 years) with simple or endometriotic ovarian cysts (3.0–10.6 cm) at ultrasonic examinations. We performed puncture and aspiration followed by methotrexate injection into the cyst. All patients were followed for 12 months. None was lost to follow-up. Results: At follow-up ultrasonography, cysts had disappeared in 120 patients (90.90%) and persisted in 12 patients (9%). No major complications were observed in our study population during or after the procedure. Only 10 patients reported mild pelvic pain, and four others reported dizziness or nausea during or after the procedure. Malignant cells were not found in any of the cases at cytologic examination. We did not observe any cases of infection after the procedure. Conclusion: Ultrasonography-guided transabdominal aspiration of cyst fluid and subsequent methotrexate injection appears to be an alternative treatment for both simple and endometriotic ovarian cysts in selected cases. PMID:27185974

  19. The Perceived Value of Education and Educational Aspirations in the Czech Republic: Changes in the Determination of Educational Aspirations between 1989 and 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mateju, Petr; Smith, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    This article compares the changes in the determination of educational aspirations from the end of the communist period in 1989 to 2003, focusing on a single postcommunist country, the Czech Republic. The Czech case is particularly relevant for comparative research on educational inequality and aspirations, as previous studies have shown…

  20. THE OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATIONAL SCALE--THEORY, STRUCTURE, AND CORRELATES OF AN INSTRUMENT DESIGNED TO MEASURE DIFFERENTIAL LEVELS OF OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION, FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HALLER, ARCHIBALD O.; AND OTHERS

    A STUDY WAS MADE TO DEVELOP A QUICK AND ACCURATE METHOD FOR MEASURING OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATIONS, ADDING TO KNOWN EXPLANATORY AND PREDICTIVE TECHNIQUES CONCERNING THE OCCUPATIONAL SELECTION PROCESS. "LEVEL OF OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION" (LOA) WAS THE CONCEPTUAL FOCAL POINT OF THIS PROJECT. SUBJECTS OF THE PROJECT, APPROXIMATELY 450 17-YEAR-OLD BOYS,…

  1. Aspiration Therapy Leads to Weight Loss in Obese Subjects: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Shelby; Stein, Richard; Jonnalagadda, Sreenivasa; Mullady, Daniel; Edmundowicz, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Obese patients rarely achieve long-term weight loss with only lifestyle interventions. We evaluated the use of endoscopic aspiration therapy for obesity. Aspiration therapy involves endoscopic placement of a gastrostomy tube (A-Tube) and the AspireAssist siphon assembly (Aspire Bariatrics, King of Prussia, PA) to aspirate gastric contents 20 minutes after meal consumption. Methods We performed a pilot study of 18 obese subjects who were randomly assigned (2:1) to groups that underwent aspiration therapy for 1 year plus lifestyle therapy (n = 11; mean body mass index, 42.6 ± 1.4 kg/m2) or lifestyle therapy only (n = 7; mean body mass index, 43.4 ± 2.0 kg/m). Lifestyle intervention comprised a 15-session diet and behavioral education program. Results Ten of the 11 subjects who underwent aspiration therapy and 4 of the 7 subjects who underwent lifestyle therapy completed the first year of the study. After 1 year, subjects in the aspiration therapy group lost 18.6% ± 2.3% of their body weight (49.0% ± 7.7% of excess weight loss [EWL]) and those in the lifestyle therapy group lost 5.9% ± 5.0% (14.9% ± 12.2% of EWL) (P < .04). Seven of the 10 subjects in the aspiration therapy group completed an additional year of therapy and maintained a 20.1% ± 3.5% body weight loss (54.6% ± 12.0% of EWL). There were no adverse effects of aspiration therapy on eating behavior and no evidence of compensation for aspirated calories with increased food intake. No episodes of binge eating in the aspiration therapy group or serious adverse were reported. Conclusions In a pilot study, aspiration therapy appears to be a safe and effective long-term weight loss therapy for obesity. ClinicalTrials.gov, Number: NCT00773903. PMID:24012983

  2. Time costs, aspirations and the effect of economic growth on German fertility.

    PubMed

    Ermisch, J F

    1980-01-01

    Recent research has shown strong support for the model of reproductive behavior derived from the new home economics, and it is shown in this discussion that the evidence from the Federal Republic of Germany is consistent with the new home economics model. There is little support for Easterlin's relative economic hypothesis, but there is limited endorsement for model which adds the influence of experience based material aspirations to the new home economics model. Easterlin's relative income model is reviewed before directing attention to the new home economics model and an explanation of fertility movements in West Germany. The new home economics model focuses on the family division of labor between home activities and work outside the home. The marked decline in German fertility during the 1970s is mostly attributable to factors such as expanding women's earning capacities which increased the importance of 2 earner families, who have a different family division of labor and possibly preferences biased towards "quality" of children rather than numbers. Also, real wage growth lagged behind the growth in experience based aspirations, and this drop in relative income is more dramatic if it is presumed that material aspirations are based upon the family's income experienced by a young adult during his/her adolescence, rather than just the father's earnings. The mother's contribution to family income will contribute to her family's actual standard of living and the desired standard of living of her children. The labor force participation rates of married, middle-aged German women increased markedly during the 1st half of the 1950s, thus tending to enhance the increase in the standard of living desired by the young adults reaching marrying and childbearing ages in the mid-1960s. The analysis indicates that if there is not a substantial reduction in the proportion of young married women in the labor force, fertility will move countercyclically. In that there must be some

  3. [Health education in radiology service: orientations for breast and thyroid aspiration puncture].

    PubMed

    Rosini, Ivone; Salum, Nádia Chiodelli

    2013-09-01

    This is a convergent care research developed in a school hospital's radiology service whose purpose is to learn about the concerns and expectations of clients submitted to breast and thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Puncture. Data collection was conducted from September 2010 to April 2011, through 10 educational meetings in the waiting room interviewing 88 clients. The results show: clients' perception of the test, cancer as a stigma and healthcare education as a confrontation strategy. In addition, they revealed fear of both the procedure and the diagnosis of cancer. Educational practice in the waiting room is a space to decrease anxiety and allows the exchange of experiences and knowledge between professional and client, it also fosters a support network among clients. It is characterized as important space of action to the nurse within radiology service.

  4. The Role of Social Capital in Educational Aspirations of Rural Youth.

    PubMed

    Byun, Soo-Yong; Meece, Judith L; Irvin, Matthew J; Hutchins, Bryan C

    2012-09-01

    Drawing on a recent national survey of rural high school students, this study investigated the relationship between social capital and educational aspirations of rural youth. Results showed that various process features of family and school social capital were important to predict rural youth's educational aspirations beyond sociodemographic background. In particular, parents' and teachers' educational expectations for their child and student respectively were positively related to educational aspirations of rural youth. In addition, discussion with parents about college was positively related to educational aspirations of rural youth. On the other hand, there was little evidence to suggest that number of siblings and school proportions of students on free lunch and minority students are related to educational aspirations of rural youth, after controlling for the other variables. The authors highlight unique features of rural families, schools, and communities that may combine to explain the complexity of the role of social capital in shaping educational aspirations of rural youth.

  5. The Role of Social Capital in Educational Aspirations of Rural Youth.

    PubMed

    Byun, Soo-Yong; Meece, Judith L; Irvin, Matthew J; Hutchins, Bryan C

    2012-09-01

    Drawing on a recent national survey of rural high school students, this study investigated the relationship between social capital and educational aspirations of rural youth. Results showed that various process features of family and school social capital were important to predict rural youth's educational aspirations beyond sociodemographic background. In particular, parents' and teachers' educational expectations for their child and student respectively were positively related to educational aspirations of rural youth. In addition, discussion with parents about college was positively related to educational aspirations of rural youth. On the other hand, there was little evidence to suggest that number of siblings and school proportions of students on free lunch and minority students are related to educational aspirations of rural youth, after controlling for the other variables. The authors highlight unique features of rural families, schools, and communities that may combine to explain the complexity of the role of social capital in shaping educational aspirations of rural youth. PMID:24039302

  6. Aspiration and swallowing in Parkinson disease and rehabilitation with EMST

    PubMed Central

    Troche, M.S.; Okun, M.S.; Rosenbek, J.C.; Musson, N.; Fernandez, H.H.; Rodriguez, R.; Romrell, J.; Pitts, T.; Wheeler-Hegland, K.M.; Sapienza, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Dysphagia is the main cause of aspiration pneumonia and death in Parkinson disease (PD) with no established restorative behavioral treatment to date. Reduced swallow safety may be related to decreased elevation and excursion of the hyolaryngeal complex. Increased submental muscle force generation has been associated with expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) and subsequent increases in hyolaryngeal complex movement provide a strong rationale for its use as a dysphagia treatment. The current study's objective was to test the treatment outcome of a 4-week device-driven EMST program on swallow safety and define the physiologic mechanisms through measures of swallow timing and hyoid displacement. Methods: This was a randomized, blinded, sham-controlled EMST trial performed at an academic center. Sixty participants with PD completed EMST, 4 weeks, 5 days per week, for 20 minutes per day, using a calibrated or sham, handheld device. Measures of swallow function including judgments of swallow safety (penetration–aspiration [PA] scale scores), swallow timing, and hyoid movement were made from videofluoroscopic images. Results: No pretreatment group differences existed. The active treatment (EMST) group demonstrated improved swallow safety compared to the sham group as evidenced by improved PA scores. The EMST group demonstrated improvement of hyolaryngeal function during swallowing, findings not evident for the sham group. Conclusions: EMST may be a restorative treatment for dysphagia in those with PD. The mechanism may be explained by improved hyolaryngeal complex movement. Classification of evidence: This intervention study provides Class I evidence that swallow safety as defined by PA score improved post EMST. GLOSSARY CI = confidence interval; EMST = expiratory muscle strength training; MEP = maximum expiratory pressure; PA = penetration–aspiration; PD = Parkinson disease; SWAL-QOL = Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire; UES = upper esophageal

  7. Efficacy of Thickened Liquids for Eliminating Aspiration in Head and Neck Cancer: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Barbon, Carly E.A.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To appraise the current videofluoroscopic evidence on the reduction of aspiration using thickened liquids in the head and neck cancer population. Data Sources Search terms relating to deglutition or dysphagia or swallow and neoplasms and oncology or head and neck cancer and viscosity or texture and apira or residu* were combined with honey or nectar, xerostomia, respiratory aspiration using Boolean operators. Review Methods A multi-engine literature search identified 337 non-duplicate articles of which 6 were judged to be relevant. These underwent detailed review for study quality and qualitative synthesis. Results The articles reviewed in detail predominantly described heterogeneous study samples with small sample sizes, making for difficult interpretation and generalization of results. Rates of aspiration were typically not reported by bolus consistency, despite the fact that a variety of stimulus consistencies was used during VFSS. Studies confirmed that aspiration is a major concern in the head and neck cancer population and reported a trend towards more frequent aspiration post-(chemo)radiotherapy. Conclusion Overall, the literature on thickened liquids as an intervention to eliminate aspiration in the head and neck cancer population is limited. Because aspiration is known to be prevalent in the head and neck cancer population and thickened liquids are known to eliminate aspiration in other populations, it is important to determine the effectiveness of thickened liquids for reducing aspiration in the head and neck cancer population. PMID:25358345

  8. Metastatic Chordoma: A Diagnostic Challenge on Fine Needle Aspiration.

    PubMed

    Tranesh, Ghassan; Nassar, Aziza

    2016-01-01

    Chordomas are primary low grade malignant tumors of bone that usually arise within both ends of axial skeleton. The Notochord is a midline, ectoderm-derived structure that defines the phylum of chordates. Chordomas may pose difficult diagnostic challenges when encountered in secondary locations, such as lungs or other parenchymatous organs. We report the cytologic findings of a metastatic chordoma sampled through CT-scan guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of lower lobe lung nodule in a 54-year-old man diagnosed with recurrent chordoma involving the lumber spine and paraspinal region.

  9. Flexible transbronchial needle aspiration for staging of bronchogenic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, K P; Brower, R; Haponik, E F; Siegelman, S

    1983-11-01

    Flexible transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) provides access to mediastinal lymph nodes, but its role in staging bronchogenic carcinoma is unknown. To determine the efficacy and safety of this procedure for staging the extent of mediastinal disease, the results of TBNA performed during fiberoptic bronchoscopy in 39 patients without known extrathoracic metastases were reviewed. Flexible TBNA was found to be a safe, effective method for determining the presence or absence of mediastinal metastases from bronchogenic carcinoma. Furthermore, TBNA results compare favorably with roentgenographic staging techniques, with the added advantage of providing cytopathologic information. PMID:6313305

  10. Sclerosing hemangioma: A diagnostic dilemma in fine needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jennifer; Zhou, Fang; Wei, Xiao-Jun; Kovacs, Sandor; Simsir, Aylin; Shi, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing hemangioma of the lung is a benign neoplasm with a widely debated histogenesis. It has a polymorphic histomorphology characterized by a biphasic cell population of “surface cells” and “round cells” arranged in four general patterns: Papillary, solid, angiomatous, and sclerotic. This variability in histomorphology makes it difficult to diagnose sclerosing hemangioma by fine needle aspiration (FNA). We present a case of sclerosing hemangioma diagnosed on FNA with immunohistochemistry performed on an accompanied cell block. The clinical presentation, cytomorphology, immunohistochemistry, and differential diagnoses are discussed. PMID:27168758

  11. Metastatic Chordoma: A Diagnostic Challenge on Fine Needle Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Tranesh, Ghassan; Nassar, Aziza

    2016-01-01

    Chordomas are primary low grade malignant tumors of bone that usually arise within both ends of axial skeleton. The Notochord is a midline, ectoderm-derived structure that defines the phylum of chordates. Chordomas may pose difficult diagnostic challenges when encountered in secondary locations, such as lungs or other parenchymatous organs. We report the cytologic findings of a metastatic chordoma sampled through CT-scan guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of lower lobe lung nodule in a 54-year-old man diagnosed with recurrent chordoma involving the lumber spine and paraspinal region. PMID:26881166

  12. Meconium aspiration syndrome and neonatal outcome in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Malik, A S; Hillman, D

    1994-01-01

    The outcome in 148 inborn meconium-stained neonates was studied prospectively over a 5-month period. Fifty-three infants (38.5%) developed meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). There was a significantly higher rate of MAS (p < 0.001), mechanical ventilation (p < 0.016) and hospital stay (p < 0.016) in neonates with meconium in the trachea than in neonates with no meconium in the oropharynx. The incidence of MAS was significantly higher and the duration of hospital stay longer in outborn than in inborn infants (p < 0.022).

  13. Transseptal fine needle aspiration of a large left atrial tumour.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi Wing; Ruygrok, Peter; Sutton, Timothy; Ding, Patricia; van Vliet, Chris; Occleshaw, Christopher; Smith, Warren

    2010-07-01

    The diagnosis of cardiac tumours is often based on images without tissue diagnosis or tissue obtained at surgery. Percutaneous myocardial biopsy via a transvenous approach has been described in literatures but this technique is not feasible with left atrial tumours. We report a patient presenting with heart failure and left atrial tumour. The diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasm was established pre-operatively via successful transseptal fine needle aspiration of cells from a left atrial tumour. We believe this technique worth consideration to aid pre-surgery diagnosis.

  14. Granulomatous lung disease in children by aspiration of medications.

    PubMed

    Hański, W; Figurski, R; Fermus, R

    1987-01-01

    Post mortem examinations of 8 infants, 11 d to 5 months old and one 12 year old girl, demonstrated foreign bodies in the lungs which could be identified as orally administered drugs: cholestyramine (Questran) and phenobarbital (Luminal, Gardenal) or phenydantin-components. The microscopic changes caused by such deposits and the histologic methods of identifying medicines are presented. The authors point to the role of aspiration in deposit formation and to the pseudomiliary granulomatous nature of subsequent changes. It is proposed to define the alterations as a separate form of aspiratory lesion in children. PMID:3296546

  15. Fine needle aspiration in head and neck surgery.

    PubMed

    Mixon, T; Gianoli, G

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to familiarize the reader with the use of fine needle aspiration (FNA) in head and neck surgery. The materials and method of performing FNA are described in detail. Three different areas are addressed: cervical lymph nodes, thyroid nodules, and salivary gland masses. The benefits and limitations of FNA are fully discussed. Early results were far from perfect, but increased exposure has greatly enhanced the accuracy of experienced pathologists. Current results show that FNA is a quick, inexpensive, and relatively painless procedure which in most cases shows excellent sensitivity and specificity. It often helps avoid surgery in benign disease and aids in surgical planning for malignant disease.

  16. Needle aspiration cytologic biopsy in head and neck masses.

    PubMed

    Young, J E; Archibald, S D; Shier, K J

    1981-10-01

    Over 500 fine (no. 22) needle aspiration biopsies were done on head and neck lesions. The total accuracy for the series was 94.5 percent. The accuracy rates for thyroid, salivary and metastatic or benign lymph node lesions were similar: approximately 95 percent. Only lymphomatous lesions gave a lower accuracy rate: 75 percent. This method of evaluating masses in the head and neck is simple, rapid, inexpensive, well-tolerated and harmless, and is very accurate when there is close cooperation between the clinician and the cytopathologist.

  17. [Cytologic diagnosis of salivary gland lesions by fine needle aspiration].

    PubMed

    Fu, X W

    1989-12-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology was used in diagnosis of 504 major and minor salivary gland lesions. In 180 cases with satisfactory specimens, cytologic diagnosis was contrasted with pathohistologic findings. There were 150 benign lesions (including 124 tumors and 26 cases of other lesions) and 30 malignant tumors. The total correspondence rate was 94.5%. The rate of misdiagnosis was 5.5%. Cytologic appearance of various salivary gland tumors is described and the significance of distribution of mucus is discussed. The misdiagnosed cases were mainly in the early stage.

  18. Fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, G; Verma, A K; Sood, N; Khurana, N

    1994-07-01

    247 salivary gland lesions were subjected to fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology; 179 were designated as neoplastic lesions and 68 as non-neoplastic. Based on cytomorphologic features, the neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions were subcategorised. All but 36 of the neoplastic lesions were subjected to histopathologic study. The overall diagnostic accuracy of FNA cytology for neoplastic lesions was 91%. The sensitivity rate for detecting malignant tumours was 87.8% and the specificity 98.0%. There was 100% sensitivity for cytodiagnosis of benign tumours. The high sensitivity and specificity of cytodiagnosis makes FNA cytology a valuable diagnostic modality in the evaluation of salivary gland lesions.

  19. Ultrasound techniques in the evaluation of the mediastinum, part 2: mediastinal lymph node anatomy and diagnostic reach of ultrasound techniques, clinical work up of neoplastic and inflammatory mediastinal lymphadenopathy using ultrasound techniques and how to learn mediastinal endosonography.

    PubMed

    Jenssen, Christian; Annema, Jouke Tabe; Clementsen, Paul; Cui, Xin-Wu; Borst, Mathias Maximilian; Dietrich, Christoph Frank

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasound imaging has gained importance in pulmonary medicine over the last decades including conventional transcutaneous ultrasound (TUS), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), and endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS). Mediastinal lymph node (MLN) staging affects the management of patients with both operable and inoperable lung cancer (e.g., surgery vs. combined chemoradiation therapy). Tissue sampling is often indicated for accurate nodal staging. Recent international lung cancer staging guidelines clearly state that endosonography should be the initial tissue sampling test over surgical staging. Mediastinal nodes can be sampled from the airways [endobronchial ultrasound combined with transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA)] or the esophagus [endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA)]. EBUS and EUS have a complementary diagnostic yield and in combination virtually all MLNs can be biopsied. Additionally endosonography has an excellent yield in assessing granulomas in patients suspected of sarcoidosis. The aim of this review in two integrative parts is to discuss the current role and future perspectives of all ultrasound techniques available for the evaluation of mediastinal lymphadenopathy and mediastinal staging of lung cancer. A specific emphasis will be on learning mediastinal endosonography. Part 1 deals with an introduction into ultrasound techniques, MLN anatomy and diagnostic reach of ultrasound techniques and part 2 with the clinical work up of neoplastic and inflammatory mediastinal lymphadenopathy using ultrasound techniques and how to learn mediastinal endosonography.

  20. A Case Report of Esophageal Bronchogenic Cyst and Review of the Literature With an Emphasis on Endoscopic Ultrasonography Appearance.

    PubMed

    Han, Chaoqun; Lin, Rong; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Jun; Ding, Zhen; Hou, Xiaohua

    2016-03-01

    Esophageal bronchogenic cysts are extremely rare. Here we report a more rare type of both presence of intra- and paraesophageal bronchogenic cyst that was safely removed via surgical resection. A 31-year-old male patient with space-occupying lesions in the mediastinum suddenly presented with persistent chest pain for 2 days and then transferred to dysphagia >1 week. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) showed a hypoechoic cystic-solid mass arising from the muscularis propria and local hyperechoic area in the deeper portion of cyst, concomitant with a heterogeneous center and tube-like structure lesion in mediastinum. Turbid coffee color paste contents were aspirated inside the tumor under endoscopic ultrasonography guided-fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). A subsequent surgery was performed and histologic finding was diagnostic of esophageal bronchogenic cyst. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the cyst was positive for carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199) and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125). At a follow-up visit 3 months later, the patient had a regular diet and no complaint. This study is to summarize the clinical manifestations and EUS features of esophageal bronchogenic cyst by retrospectively reviewing the literature and simultaneously to provide guide for the correct examination scheme. The appearance of esophageal bronchogenic cyst can be great variation; EUS seems to be a valuable option for diagnosis and surveillance. PMID:26986156

  1. Endoscopic ultrasound characteristics of pancreatic lymphoepithelial cysts: A case series from a large referral center

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Kunal S.; DeWitt, John M.; Sherman, Stuart; Cramer, Harvey M.; Tirkes, Temel; Al-Haddad, Mohammad A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Lymphoepithelial cysts (LECs) of the pancreas are benign lesions that can mimic cystic neoplasms on imaging. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) features have not been well described. We aimed to describe the clinical and EUS characteristics of LECs and the present outcomes of management at a high-volume referral center. Materials and Methods: We identified patients who underwent EUS and were found to have LECs based on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology or surgical pathology from existing databases. EUS features, imaging characteristics, and pathology results were described. Results: Sixteen patients were found to have 17 LECs. The mean size was 33 mm ± 15 mm. Locations within the pancreas included 10 lesions in the tail, 3 in the body, 1 in the uncinate process; the remaining 3 were exophytic. Six lesions were anechoic, 6 were hypoechoic, and 5 had mixed echogenicity. Nine lesions had mixed solid/cystic components, 7 were purely cystic, and 1 was solid. Cyst fluid was thick or viscous in six cases and thin in three. Eleven patients had diagnostic cytopathology. Six patients ultimately underwent surgery due to symptoms, nondiagnostic FNA, or other clinical concerns for malignancy. Conclusions: Pancreatic LECs have variable morphology and echogenicity on EUS, but the appearance of a cyst with variable solid and cystic components combined with the appearance of thick, turbid, and viscous aspirate should raise suspicion for an LEC. The majority of patients with LECs at our center avoided surgery for LECs on the basis of diagnostic EUS-FNA. PMID:27503157

  2. Fine-needle aspiration for the diagnosis of primary epithelial tumors of the lacrimal gland and ocular adnexa.

    PubMed

    Sturgis, C D; Silverman, J F; Kennerdell, J S; Raab, S S

    2001-02-01

    Results of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of solid-tissue neoplasms arising in the periocular glands are infrequently reported in the literature. To our knowledge, no previous series relating to this topic exist. Neoplastic processes that arise in the semiconfined area of the orbit behave as space-occupying lesions. Such lesions can exert significant pressure on the globe, be responsible for altered vision, and result in proptosis. When noninvasive techniques fail to confirm or rule out the suspicion of a neoplastic lacrimal or adnexal lesion, FNA may be of use in establishing a diagnosis in an efficient, reliable, timely, cost-effective, and safe manner. During the 14-yr interval from 1986-1999, 77 orbital/ocular needle aspiration biopsies were conducted by staff ophthalmologists at Allegheny General Hospital (Pittsburgh, PA). Review of the diagnoses for these specimens revealed seven primary solid-tissue lesions of the lacrimal gland and other adnexal glands, all arising in adult patients (age range, 45-92 yr; mean age, 74 yr). Primary lacrimal and adnexal gland neoplasms were found to represent approximately 9% of orbital fine-needle aspirations (7/79). The 7 cases included 3 lacrimal gland lesions diagnosed as benign mixed tumors, 3 lesions diagnosed as adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland, and 1 tumor diagnosed as sebaceous carcinoma of the meibomian holocrine glands. Cytologic diagnoses were rendered using standard criteria for salivary gland-type tumors. Tissue confirmation was available from surgical follow-up in 4 of the 7 cases, with 100% correlation. Although primary neoplasms of the lacrimal gland and glands of the eyelids are rare, accurate diagnoses of such lesions may be established with minimally invasive aspiration techniques. Preoperative aspiration biopsy diagnoses provide a great advantage to ophthalmic surgeons who routinely operate in a conservative fashion in an area of the body requiring great attention to cosmesis. Our experience

  3. Guiding thyroid nodule management by fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Morayati, S J; Freitas, J E

    1991-12-01

    To determine the clinical value and cost effectiveness of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in thyroid nodule management, a retrospective analysis of 945 consecutive patients subjected to FNA of cold nodules detected by clinical exam and Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scan between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 1987, was performed. After FNA, thyroid surgery was required in only 287 of 945 patients (30.4%). Of 87 cancers with satisfactory aspirates, 84 exhibited positive or suspicious cytology (sensitivity 96.6%). The predictive values for positive and negative cytology were 96.9% and 95.7%, respectively. Of 745 patients with known or presumed benign disease up to seven years of follow up, 642 showed benign cytologies (specificity 86.2%). The cancer removal rate (1980-1987) was higher with FNA and surgery than with surgery alone (P less than 0.001). The estimated cost saving of FNA in 1980-1987 approximates $564,000. FNA is of great value since it enables greater cancer detection in a cost-effective manner.

  4. Aspiring to leadership--identifying teacher-leaders.

    PubMed

    Rogers, John

    2005-11-01

    Educational institutions need effective leaders at many levels. This paper explores the applicability of the Porter/Mazlow need-priority and Herzberg maintenance-motivation models to the challenge of identifying individuals who aspire to leadership. The review includes literature from teaching, engineering, medicine, astronomy, business, and the military. Autonomy need and achievement motivation consistently distinguished leaders from non-leaders in several studies. Affiliation and esteem needs also characterized leaders in two studies. These empirical data support the use of these theoretical models, which are intuitively appealing and have potential for practical applications. One such application could be the identification and recruitment of education "champions" who would be teacher-leaders at dispersed sites. Through self-reflection faculty members could become aware of their needs and motivations and may realize their leadership aspirations and accept the teacher-leader role. For an education "champions" program to be successful, the department leadership would need to attend to the organizational culture and provide release time for the teacher-leaders. A blueprint for the development of teacher-leaders is outlined.

  5. Aspiring to leadership--identifying teacher-leaders.

    PubMed

    Rogers, John

    2005-11-01

    Educational institutions need effective leaders at many levels. This paper explores the applicability of the Porter/Mazlow need-priority and Herzberg maintenance-motivation models to the challenge of identifying individuals who aspire to leadership. The review includes literature from teaching, engineering, medicine, astronomy, business, and the military. Autonomy need and achievement motivation consistently distinguished leaders from non-leaders in several studies. Affiliation and esteem needs also characterized leaders in two studies. These empirical data support the use of these theoretical models, which are intuitively appealing and have potential for practical applications. One such application could be the identification and recruitment of education "champions" who would be teacher-leaders at dispersed sites. Through self-reflection faculty members could become aware of their needs and motivations and may realize their leadership aspirations and accept the teacher-leader role. For an education "champions" program to be successful, the department leadership would need to attend to the organizational culture and provide release time for the teacher-leaders. A blueprint for the development of teacher-leaders is outlined. PMID:16332556

  6. Functional morphology and evolution of aspiration breathing in tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Owerkowicz, Tomasz

    2006-11-01

    In the evolution of aspiration breathing, the responsibility for lung ventilation gradually shifted from the hyobranchial to the axial musculoskeletal system, with axial muscles taking over exhalation first, at the base of Tetrapoda, and then inhalation as well at the base of Amniota. This shift from hyobranchial to axial breathing freed the tongue and head to adapt to more diverse feeding styles, but generated a mechanical conflict between costal ventilation and high-speed locomotion. Some "lizards" (non-serpentine squamates) have been shown to circumvent this speed-dependent axial constraint with accessory gular pumping during locomotion, and here we present a new survey of gular pumping behavior in the tuatara and 40 lizard species. We observed gular pumping behavior in 32 of the 40 lizards and in the tuatara, indicating that the ability to inflate the lungs by gular pumping is a shared-derived character for Lepidosauria. Gular pump breathing in lepidosaurs may be homologous with buccal pumping in amphibians, but non-ventilatory buccal oscillation and gular flutter have persisted throughout amniote evolution and gular pumping may have evolved independently by modification of buccal oscillation. In addition to gular pumping in some lizards, three other innovations have evolved repeatedly in the major amniote clades to circumvent the speed-dependent axial constraint: accessory inspiratory muscles (mammals, crocodylians and turtles), changing locomotor posture (mammals and birds) and respiratory-locomotor phase coupling to reduce the mechanical conflict between aspiration breathing and locomotion (mammals and birds).

  7. [The immediate interpretation for fine-needle aspiration cytology].

    PubMed

    Chang, M C; Ho, W L

    1993-11-01

    From December 1990 to November 1992, 2005 cases of immediate interpretation for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology were performed, of which 727 cases were confirmed by surgical pathology. A mobile cytologic laboratory (a cart loaded with a dual viewing microscope, Liu's staining solutions, hair dryer, and slides) can be moved to the Out-patient Department, wards and Computed Tomography room, where clinicians perform aspiration and pathologists read smears. Immediate verbal diagnoses are documented to patients' charts and listed in cytopathologic files. Immediate interpretation in this entire series yielded a sensitivity 92.5%; specificity, 98.1%; false-positive rate, 1.1%; false-negative rate, 3.2%; positive predictive value (PV), 97.3%; negative PV, 94.7% and efficiency, 95.7%. The cause of false-negative results in the 23 cases probably came from the hesitation in making an immediate diagnosis. Most of these cases were malignant lymphoma or breast carcinoma. The roles of immediate cytodiagnosis are (1) to decrease the inadequate rate of FNA specimens; (2) to render preliminary diagnosis for clinicians to make decisions; (3) to provide on-site teaching material for both clinicians and pathology residents to better understand clinicopathological correlations; (4) to act as the initial diagnostic procedure in the evaluation of a superficial palpable mass. This study shows that immediate interpretation for FNA cytology is a simple, rapid, accurate and noninvasive diagnostic procedure that can be routinely used for superficial palpable masses.

  8. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes with cryopreserved testicular sperm aspiration samples.

    PubMed

    Roque, M; Valle, M; Marques, F; Sampaio, M; Geber, S

    2016-04-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be performed with testicular frozen-thawed spermatozoa in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). Sperm retrieval can be performed in advance of oocyte aspiration, as it may avoid the possibility of no recovery of spermatozoa on the day of oocyte pickup. There are few studies available in the literature concerning the use of frozen-thawed spermatozoa obtained from testicular sperm aspiration (TESA). To evaluate the effects and the outcomes of ICSI with frozen-thawed spermatozoa obtained by TESA, we performed a retrospective analysis of 43 ICSI cycles using frozen-thawed TESA. We obtained acceptable results with a fertilisation rate of 67.9%, an implantation rate (IR) of 17.1%, and clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates of 41.9% and 37.2% respectively. The results of this study suggest that performing ICSI using cryopreserved frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa with TESA as a first option is a viable, safe, economic and effective method for patients with NOA.

  9. The hazards of vacuum aspiration in late first trimester abortions.

    PubMed

    Moberg, P; Sjöberg, B; Wiqvist, N

    1975-01-01

    The incidence of somatic complications in connection with legal termination of pregnancy by vacuum aspiration was analysed in 1,123 hospital patients. Special attention was paid to complication rates in relation to gestational age. It was found that the incidence of major uterine haemorrhage increased with gestational period, being unexpectedly high in the 12th week. When anaesthesia was supplemented with halothane there was a significantly higher incidence of uterine haemorrhage that when this anaesthetic was avoided. The results indicate that strict principles for the operation procedure are mandatory to reduce blood loss and other complications. It is suggested that the end of the 12th week should not be considered as a "magic" time limit for vaccum aspiration but that the policy should aim at early intervention, preferably before the end of the 10th week. In the event of late first trimester abortions or "border line" cases it is of advantage to administer prostaglandin extra-amniotically for pre-operative dilatation of the cervix.

  10. Late recognized nail aspiration in a child: case report.

    PubMed

    Çobanoğlu, Ufuk; Can, Muhammed; Birincioğlu, Ismail; Edirne, Yeşim; Melek, Mehmet

    2011-09-01

    Foreign body (FB) aspiration is common in children aged 0-3 years. Our case, a 2.5-year-old girl, presented with sudden onset of cough, fever and sputum; she had been treated twice for acute bronchitis four months ago. Resisting complaints led to an esophagoscopic examination in our Chest Surgery Clinic after a chest X-ray suggested FB in the esophagus, but no FB could be detected. A lateral chest X-ray revealed a FB with its sharp end targeting the trachea and its round end to the right hemithorax. Removal of the FB with forceps was not possible during rigid bronchoscopy. The FB was removed by thoracotomy and bronchotomy under general anesthesia. The removed FB was a nail measuring 6 cm in length. This case report should serve to stress the diversity of FB aspirations in childhood, the role of parental neglect, and that physicians should be aware of the possibility of FB in children with persistent cough.

  11. Mechanosensitive shivering of model tissues under controlled aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Guevorkian, Karine; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Carlier, Camille; Dufour, Sylvie; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    During embryonic development and wound healing, the mechanical signals transmitted from cells to their neighbors induce tissue rearrangement and directional movements. It has been observed that forces exerted between cells in a developing tissue under stress are not always monotonically varying, but they can be pulsatile. Here we investigate the response of model tissues to controlled external stresses. Spherical cellular aggregates are subjected to one-dimensional stretching forces using micropipette aspiration. At large enough pressures, the aggregate flows smoothly inside the pipette. However, in a narrow range of moderate aspiration pressures, the aggregate responds by pulsed contractions or “shivering.” We explain the emergence of this shivering behavior by means of a simple analytical model where the uniaxially stretched cells are represented by a string of Kelvin–Voigt elements. Beyond a deformation threshold, cells contract and pull on neighboring cells after a time delay for cell response. Such an active behavior has previously been found to cause tissue pulsation during dorsal closure of Drosophila embryo. PMID:21771735

  12. Chondroid syringoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bipin

    2010-01-01

    Chondroid syringoma is a rare benign skin adnexal tumor of eccrine/apocrine origin affecting commonly the head and neck region. It used to be previously called as mixed tumor of skin because of the presence of both the epithelial and mesenchymal components. There are only few case reports describing the fine needle aspiration cytologic features of chondroid syringoma for diagnosis. We studied a 20-year-old male case from Taplejung district of Nepal came to Otorhinolaryngology out patient department with the complaints of painless, progressively enlarging swelling on the dorsum of nose. On examination, 2.0 x 2.0 cm, firm, non-tender swelling was seen on the right side of dorsum of nose. Overlying skin was normal, and the swelling was fixed to the skin but freely mobile over underlying structure. A clinical diagnosis of dermoid cyst was entertained, and the case was subjected to FNAC. FNA yielded mucoid material which on microscopy showed clusters of round cells with moderate to abundant cytoplasm embedded in chondromyxoid ground substance. The nuclei were monomorphic, centrally to eccentrically located and had fine chromatin. On the basis of these cytologic features, a diagnosis of chondroid syringoma was made. We concluded that Chondroid syringoma may be considered as a rare differential diagnosis in the swelling of head and neck region and the diagnosis can be easily confirmed or ruled out by means of fine needle aspiration cytology.

  13. Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology of Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Benefits and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    1998-01-01

    Purpose. Examine the benefits and limitations of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNA) used as the definitive diagnostic method before treatment. Method. Review of the 25 year experience at a multidisciplinary musculo-skeletal centre where FNA is the primary diagnostic approach to soft tissue sarcoma in the extremities and trunk wall and the experience of various experts in the field. Results. FNA has several benefits compared with coarse needle or open surgical biopsy. The most important are rapid preliminary diagnosis, no need for hospitalization and anaesthesia, negligible complications and fear for tumour cell spread. With the collected experience gained during the years a reliable diagnosis of sarcoma is the rule in general and specific-type diagnoses are possible in many histotypes, especially when the cytologic examination is supplemented with ancillary diagnostics. The most important limitations are inability to hit small deep-seated sarcoma and some diagnostic pitfalls such as the correct diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasms, variants of benign lipomatous tumours and ‘new soft tissue tumour entities’. Discussion. Optimal use of FNA calls for certain requirements such as centralization, experience in soft tissue tumour cytology–histopathology, the FNA technique and close co-operation between the orthopaedic surgeon and cytopathologist. PMID:18521248

  14. ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction, Thrombus Aspiration, and Different Invasive Strategies. A TASTE Trial Substudy

    PubMed Central

    Fröbert, Ole; Calais, Fredrik; James, Stefan K; Lagerqvist, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Background The clinical effect of thrombus aspiration in ST-elevation myocardial infarction may depend on the type of aspiration catheter and stenting technique. Methods and Results The multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label trial Thrombus Aspiration in ST-Elevation myocardial infarction in Scandinavia (TASTE) did not demonstrate a clinical benefit of thrombus aspiration compared to percutaneous coronary intervention alone. We assessed the effect of type of aspiration device, stent type, direct stenting, and postdilatation on outcomes at 1 year. There was no difference in all-cause mortality, between the 3 most frequently used aspiration catheters (Eliminate [Terumo] 5.4%, Export [Medtronic] 5.0%, Pronto [Vascular Solutions] 4.5%) in patients randomized to thrombus aspiration. There was no difference in mortality between directly stented patients randomized to thrombus aspiration compared to patients randomized to percutaneous coronary intervention only (risk ratio 1.08, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.67, P=0.73). Similarly, there was no difference in mortality between the 2 randomized groups for patients receiving drug-eluting stents (risk ratio 0.89, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.26, P=0.50) or for those treated with postdilation (risk ratio 0.72, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.07, P=0.11). Furthermore, there was no difference in rehospitalization for myocardial infarction or stent thrombosis between the randomized arms in any of the subgroups. Conclusions In patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction randomized to thrombus aspiration, the type of aspiration catheter did not affect outcome. Stent type, direct stenting, or postdilation did not affect outcome irrespective of treatment with thrombus aspiration and percutaneous coronary intervention or percutaneous coronary intervention alone. Clinical Trial Registration URL: ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01093404, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01093404. PMID:26077585

  15. Science dual enrollment: An examination of high school students' post-secondary aspirations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Chelsia

    The purpose of this study was to determine if participation in science dual enrollment courses influenced African American high school students' post-secondary aspirations that will lead to college attendance. The investigation examined the relationship between African American students' learning experiences and how their self-efficacy and outcome expectations impact their goal setting. The goal was to determine the impact of the following variables on African American students' plan to pursue a bachelor's or advanced degree: (a) STEM exposure, (b) Algebra 1 achievement, (c) level of science class, and (d) receiving science college credit for dual enrollment course. The social cognitive career theory framed this body of research to explore how career and academic interests mature, are developed, and are translated into action. Science dual enrollment participation is a strategy for addressing the lack of African American presence in the STEM fields. The causal comparative ex post facto research design was used in this quantitative study. The researcher performed the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric analysis of variance and Pearson's chi-square tests to analyze secondary data from the High School Longitudinal Study first follow-up student questionnaire. The results indicate that STEM exposure and early success in Algebra 1 have a statistically significant impact on African American students' ambition to pursue a bachelor's or advanced degree. According to the Pearson's chi-square and independent sample Kruskal-Wallis analyses, level of students' science class and receiving college credit for dual enrollment do not significantly influence African American students' postsecondary aspirations.

  16. Acinic-cell carcinoma, papillary-cystic variant: a diagnostic dilemma in salivary gland aspiration.

    PubMed

    Ali, Syed Z

    2002-10-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) plays a pivotal role as the initial diagnostic modality of choice when dealing with salivary gland (SG) lesions. Due to the heterogeneous nature of most SG neoplasms, cytologic interpretation on FNA can be quite challenging. This is particularly valid when dealing with rare tumor types, such as the papillary-cystic variant of acinic-cell carcinoma (ACC-PCV), resulting in a high rate of false-negative cytologic diagnoses. Seven cases of ACC-PCV diagnosed on tissue resection with a prior FNA performed in cytology were studied. Material consisted of Diff-Quik and Papanicolaou stained cytologic smears, as well as hematoxylin-eosin stained cell block and histopathologic sections. In no case did the FNA performed prior to the surgical resection eventuate in a cytopathologic diagnosis of cancer. A retrospective morphologic review of the smears disclosed several characteristics common to all 7 cases, i.e., mostly tightly cohesive fragments of neoplastic epithelium seen as monolayered sheets or with a prominent papillary architecture, high nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio ductal-type epithelium, cystic material and degenerated cellular debris, histiocytes, cells with squamoid and metaplastic oncocytic changes, vacuolated and pigmented histiocyte-like tumor cells, and lack of a predominant single-cell component or naked neoplastic cell nuclei. ACC-PCV represents a rare yet significant cause of false-negative results for cancer on SG aspirations. An erroneous interpretation may occur due to lack of experience in dealing with this tumor type, the rarity of published literature on ACC-PCV, and a predominantly cystic, somewhat variegated appearance of the tumor mimicking other benign and malignant SG lesions.

  17. The Effects on Motor Performance of Setting an Overt Level of Aspiration by Mentally Retarded Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozar, Bill

    This study investigates the effects of setting an overt level of aspiration on the standing long jump performance of mildly and moderately retarded institutionalized children. Thirty-three mildly retarded and seven moderately retarded students were randomly assigned to either an overt level of aspiration (OLA) group or a control group. Each…

  18. Cloning Their Own: Aspirant Principals and the School-Based Selection Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronn, Peter; Lacey, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we report data from two projects concerned with the aspirant principals' perspectives about school principal recruitment in three Australian states. In particular, we consider what our informants perceive as factors that inhibit the realisation of their aspirations. These factors include aspects of the operation of school-based…

  19. Developing Conceptual Understandings of the Capacity to Aspire for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prodonovich, Samuel; Perry, Laura B.; Taggart, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews research and theory relating to aspirations for higher education as a cultural capacity. Understanding the social and cultural dimensions of aspirations for higher education is important as they are increasingly becoming part of social commentary and more recently educational policy, research and practice. This paper synthesises…

  20. Career Aspirations of Youth: Untangling Race/Ethnicity, SES, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Carlstrom, Aaron H.; Katz, Andrew D.; Chew, Aaronson Y.; Ray, G. Christopher; Laine, Lia; Caulum, David

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the influence of gender, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity on the career aspirations of over 22,000 8th and 10th grade youth. The top five occupations identified by youth as aspirations included artist, lawyer, musician, FBI agent, and actor/actress. Top occupations were also reported for each gender x socioeconomic…

  1. Image Theory and Career Aspirations: Indirect and Interactive Effects of Status-Related Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Dahling, Jason J.

    2010-01-01

    The present study applied Image Theory (Beach, 1990) to test how different components of a person's value image (i.e., perceived social status identity and conformity to masculine and feminine gender role norms) interact to influence trajectories toward high career aspirations (i.e., high value for status in one's work and aspirations for…

  2. Aspiring Principals' Perception of the Challenges of Beginning Principals and the Support That They Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Pak Tee

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an exploratory research project about the perception of aspiring principals regarding the challenges of beginning principals and the support that they need. These aspiring principals are participants on the Leaders in Education Programme (LEP) in Singapore. According to the research findings, the LEP participants…

  3. Development of Occupational Aspirations in Early Korean Adolescents: A Multiple-Group Latent Curve Model Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.

    2012-01-01

    The complex phenomenon of intraindividual and interindividual differences in the development of occupational aspirations and factors influencing this development were examined in a longitudinal sample of 5,727 Korean adolescents over a 4-year period. A downward trajectory of occupational aspirations from junior high school to the first year of…

  4. Adolescent Occupational Aspirations: Test of Gottfredson's Theory of Circumscription and Compromise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Daria B.; Wang, Eugene W.; Stevenson, Sarah J.; Johnson, Leah E.; Crews, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between adolescent occupational aspirations and midlife career success. The model for adolescent occupational aspirations was derived from Gottfredson's (1981) theory of circumscription and compromise. The authors hypothesized that parental socioeconomic status (SES), ability, and gender predict adolescent…

  5. Motivation and Career Aspirations of Female Students Studying Science at Achimota School in Accra, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andoh, Paul K.; Bosiakoh, Thomas Antwi; Afranie, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines science education for girls in Achimota School, a second cycle institution in Accra, in terms of their motivations for pursuing science and future aspirations. It explores parental backgrounds and how they impacted on the motivations and aspirations of the girls. The survey method was adopted in this study, which involved a…

  6. Silver Bullet or Red Herring? New Evidence on the Place of Aspirations in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Ralf; Kintrea, Keith; Houston, Muir

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal study of student aspirations at the ages of 13 and 15 in three schools in the United Kingdom, where there has been a great deal of emphasis placed on aspirations in recent policy making. The data, based on individual interviews with 490 students in areas with significant deprivation as well as interviews with…

  7. Constructing New Identities? The Role of Gender and Education in Rural Girls' Life Aspirations in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on rural and indigenous girls and their mothers in Peru, examining how they position schooling and education in their current life and future aspirations, in order to better understand girls' increasing participation in education. It is argued here that the high educational aspirations girls and their families have are not only…

  8. Exploring the Academic Achievement and Career Aspirations of College-Bound and Postsecondary Zulu Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Steven B.; Wallis, Amy Birtel; Dunston, Kwesi T.

    2003-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative approach used to identify developmental and contextual factors associated with academic success and career aspirations of 13 Black Zulu South African students transitioning into college or in their first year of college. Students were queried on their aspirations and values, definitions of success, and…

  9. Educational Aspirations in an Urban Community College: Differences between Immigrant and Native Student Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the educational aspirations of immigrant and native students in an urban community college. Using Burton Clark's cooling-out theory as a framework, the study looked at choices students make when applying to college and the extent to which students later change their aspirations. Immigrant students who were educated in United…

  10. The Realism and Sex Type of Four- to Five-Year-Old Children's Occupational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Care, Esther; Deans, Jan; Brown, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Research on career development has focused primarily on adolescents and adults. However, in Gottfredson's theory of circumscription and compromise (2002) it is proposed that career aspirations originate in the preschool years and that the earliest work aspirations of children are sex typed in relation to the activities of same sex adults. This…

  11. Differences Between Men and Women in Their Aspirations for Careers in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Betty

    This study looked at three areas of women's aspirations for careers in educational administration: the relative distribution of aspiration levels; the relationships to achievement orientation; and the relationship of self-role congruence to educational administration. Significant inequalities were found in the distribution of subjects based on…

  12. Bounded Aspirations: Rural, African American High School Students and College Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Darris R.; Clayton, Ashley B.; Conzelmann, Johnathan G.; Baynes, Patti; Umbach, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative case study explores the career and educational aspirations, college choice process, and college barriers and opportunities of 26 rural, African American high school students. Data included interviews with 26 students and 11 school staff members. Findings suggest that the students' rural context shapes aspirations. In addition,…

  13. College Talk and the Rural Economy: Shaping the Educational Aspirations of Rural, First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieken, Mara Casey

    2016-01-01

    The college-going rates of rural students lag behind those of more urban students, a gap likely due, in part, to rural students' lower educational aspirations. These lower aspirations appear to be tied to the dilemma that higher education presents for many rural students: whether to remain in their rural home, working in traditional trades and…

  14. Using Propensity Score Matching to Determine the Efficacy of Secondary Career Academies in Raising Educational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Lee, In Heok; Gemici, Sinan

    2010-01-01

    Data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 database was used to determine the effects of career academy participation in grades 9 or 10 on educational aspirations. Propensity score matching was used to obtain initially equivalent groups for analysis. No statistically significant differences in postsecondary educational aspirations were…

  15. ASPIRE (Awareness of Sexual Prejudice Is the Responsibility of Educators) Module 2: Sexism in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livonia Public Schools, MI.

    This second of four workshop modules in the Project ASPIRE (Awareness of Sexual Prejudice is the Responsibility of Educators) series deals with developing awareness of how sex-role stereotyping affects the vocational and life-style aspirations and decisions of students. (See Note about other modules.) The module helps workshop participants (1)…

  16. The Role of Social Capital in Educational Aspirations of Rural Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Hutchins, Bryan C.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on a recent national survey of rural high school students, this study investigated the relationship between social capital and educational aspirations of rural youth. Results showed that various process features of family and school social capital were important for predicting rural youths' educational aspirations beyond sociodemographic…

  17. Impoverished Students with Academic Promise in Rural Settings: 10 Lessons from Project Aspire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Virginia H.; Cross, Tracy L.

    2006-01-01

    Project Aspire was created to identify poor rural students with academic potential and to provide them with academic and counseling support in advanced placement courses and prerequisites. This article describes Project Aspire and its foundations; the relevant lessons learned from the literature on poverty, small schools, rural schools, and gifted…

  18. Parents' Aspirations for Their Children's Educational and Occupational Prospects in Greece: The Role of Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vryonides, Marios; Gouvias, Dionysios

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on parents and the way they perceive and formulate expectations and aspirations about their children's educational and occupational outcomes. Drawing on evidence from a survey among more than 700 parents of primary school pupils this paper demonstrates that interesting patterns in parental aspirations can be observed. These…

  19. Future Aspirations of Urban Adolescents: A Person-in-Context Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk; Diemer, Matthew; Jackson, Lisa; Gonsalves, Lisa; Howell, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Recognizing the importance future aspirations play in the developmental outcomes of adolescents, this study illuminates the role that individual and contextual factors play in the formation of future aspirations among urban youth. The data for this study were collected prior to the implementation of an intervention program at an urban high school.…

  20. Development of Predicted Paths for ACT Aspire Score Reports. WP-2014-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    This report focuses on the initial development of the predicted score paths for ACT Aspire reporting. The paths provide predicted score ranges for the next two years--as well as predicted ACT score ranges for tests administered at grades 9 and 10. Longitudinal ACT Aspire data for students tested in spring 2013 and spring 2014, as well as…

  1. The Relationship between Career Variables and Occupational Aspirations and Expectations for Australian High School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Wendy; Creed, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This study surveyed 925 Australian high school students enrolled in grades 8 through 12 on measures of occupational aspirations, occupational expectations, career status aspirations, and career status expectations; it tested the association between these variables and career maturity, career indecision, career decision-making self-efficacy, and…

  2. A Study of Professional Aspirations and Perceived Obstacles: A Case for Administrative Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Eileen L.; Easter, Linda M.

    This study surveyed 170 faculty members at a public, mid-sized eastern university, comparing men's and women's aspirations and perceived obstacles to attaining various levels of executive positions in higher education. The study used the Academic Goals and Aspirations Survey, which requested demographic information regarding rank, status,…

  3. The Influences of Career Support and Sexual Identity on Sexual Minority Women's Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Lauren D.; Gushue, George V.; Cerrone, Michelle T.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between sexual identity, family/friend career support, and career aspirations in a sample of 381 sexual minority women. The results indicated that family career support and friend career support were positively related to career aspirations of sexual minority women. The results also indicated that the…

  4. Young Children's Aspirations in Science: The unequivocal, the uncertain and the unthinkable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWitt, Jennifer; Osborne, Jonathan; Archer, Louise; Dillon, Justin; Willis, Beatrice; Wong, Billy

    2013-04-01

    Students' lack of interest in studying science and in science-related careers is a concern in the UK and worldwide. Yet there is limited data, particularly longitudinal, on the sources and development of science-related aspirations. In response, the ASPIRES (Science Aspirations and Career Choice: Age 10-14) longitudinal study is investigating the development of students' educational and occupational aspirations over time. In the first phase of the project, a questionnaire exploring science-related aspirations and interests was completed by over 9,000 primary school students across England. This survey allowed us to explore possible associations between attitudes and aspirations, links which have not been investigated in previous attitudinal studies of this scope. Overall, students expressed positive attitudes to science, reported positive parental attitudes to science and held very positive images of scientists. Multilevel modelling analyses revealed that aspirations in science were most strongly related to parental attitudes to science, attitudes to school science and self-concept in science, and are also associated with students' gender, ethnicity and cultural capital. However, the images students held of scientists were not as closely related to aspirations. These factors are discussed in more detail within the paper, alongside a consideration of possible school-related effects.

  5. Independent School Department Heads: The Influence of Role Ambiguity, Relationships, and Professional Development on Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsella, Shane

    2012-01-01

    Little research exists on the career aspirations of department heads in independent schools. What does exist focuses on public school teachers in the United States and the United Kingdom. This study sought to determine the career aspirations, job satisfaction, and job efficacy of department heads. Using data from an original survey instrument…

  6. Middle School Children's Career Aspirations: Relationship to Adult Occupations and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuette, Christine T.; Ponton, Michael K.; Charlton, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors explored the relationship between the career aspirations of 89 preadolescents from low socioeconomic backgrounds and the actual occupations of the working adults in their homes with regard to status, job gender identification, and interest (Holland, 1997). There was a significant relationship between boys' career aspirations and the…

  7. A Comparison Study of 12th Grade Hispanic Students' College Anticipations, Aspirations, and College Preparatory Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Aliber; Watt, Karen M.; Huerta, Jeffery

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the differences in educational aspirations and educational anticipations between four groups (AVID, GEAR UP, AVID/GEAR UP, and Control) of high school seniors who participated in a previous study as 10th graders (Watt, Huerta, & Lozano, 2007). It also measured whether any change in aspirations and anticipations occurred within…

  8. Aspiration, Identity and Self Belief: Snapshots of Social Structure at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Richard, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the evidence gathered from original interviews to show how the aspirations of young people develop in light of their social circumstances. Those who attend independent schools will find that the relationship between what goes on at home and at school makes it socially almost impossible not to have achievable aspirations for a…

  9. Growing Up at the "Margins": Concerns, Aspirations, and Expectations of Young People Living in Nairobi's Slums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabiru, Caroline W.; Mojola, Sanyu A.; Beguy, Donatien; Okigbo, Chinelo

    2013-01-01

    We explore the concerns, challenges, aspirations, and expectations of sub-Saharan African youth, and investigate how these youth cope with neighborhood constraints to aspiration achievement. We draw on cross-sectional survey data from 4,033 12-22-year-olds (50.3% males) from two Kenyan urban slums and subsequent in-depth interviews conducted with…

  10. Characteristics of Female Students Who Aspire to Science and Engineering or Homemaking Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mau, Wei-Cheng; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Identified predictors that discriminated between nontraditional and traditional career aspirations in eighth-grade female students (n=930). Results indicate that educational aspirations, parental expectations, self-reported grade point averages, and science proficiency were the best discriminators between the groups, and that differences across…

  11. African American Career Aspirations: Examining the Relative Influence of Internalized Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Danice L.; Segrist, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relative influence of aspects of internalized racism on the career aspirations of a sample of African American adults. Participants (N = 315), ranging in age from 18 to 62 years, completed measures of internalized racism and career aspirations online. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to…

  12. Aspiration-based learning promotes cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongkui; Chen, Xiaojie; Wang, Long; Li, Bin; Zhang, Wenge; Wang, Huifeng

    2011-06-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma by proposing an aspiration-based preference learning, under which individuals switch the learning agents only if the achieved payoffs are lower than their aspirations. Both synchronous and asynchronous updates are considered. We find that the aspiration level can substantially influence the evolution of cooperation, with the moderate aspiration level leading to a plateau of the high cooperation level. There exist phase transitions for proper combinations of parameters and we give an analysis for the phase transition points. We also investigate the stationary configuration patterns and the stationary distributions of cooperators and defectors on the square lattice for a comprehensive understanding. The behavior of the well-mixed system of our model has also been discussed. Our results may provide further insights into understanding the role played by individual aspiration in the emergence of cooperation.

  13. Aspirated bile: a major host trigger modulating respiratory pathogen colonisation in cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Reen, F J; Woods, D F; Mooij, M J; Chróinín, M N; Mullane, D; Zhou, L; Quille, J; Fitzpatrick, D; Glennon, J D; McGlacken, G P; Adams, C; O'Gara, F

    2014-10-01

    Chronic respiratory infections are a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality. However, the molecular triggers that cause respiratory pathogens to adopt persistent and often untreatable lifestyles during infection remain largely uncharacterised. Recently, bile aspiration caused by gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) has emerged as a significant complication associated with respiratory disease, and cystic fibrosis (CF) in particular. Based on our previous finding that the physiological concentrations of bile influence respiratory pathogens towards a chronic lifestyle in vitro, we investigated the impact of bile aspiration on the lung microbiome of respiratory patients. Sputum samples (n = 25) obtained from a cohort of paediatric CF patients were profiled for the presence of bile acids using high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Pyrosequencing was performed on a set of ten DNA samples that were isolated from bile aspirating (n = 5) and non-bile aspirating (n = 5) patients. Both denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing revealed significantly reduced biodiversity and richness in the sputum samples from bile aspirating patients when compared with non-aspirating patients. Families and genera associated with the pervasive CF microbiome dominated aspirating patients, while bacteria associated with the healthy lung were most abundant in non-aspirating patients. Bile aspiration linked to GOR is emerging as a major host trigger of chronic bacterial infections. The markedly reduced biodiversity and increased colonisation by dominant proteobacterial CF-associated pathogens observed in the sputum of bile aspirating patients suggest that bile may play a major role in disease progression in CF and other respiratory diseases. PMID:24816901

  14. The relation of soy intake and isoflavone levels in nipple aspirate fluid.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Hebshi, Sandra; Custer, Laurie; Franke, Adrian A

    2008-02-01

    Given the possible breast cancer preventive effects of isoflavones, substances with an estrogen-like structure occurring in soybeans, it is of interest to assess levels directly in the breast. The objective of this pilot study was to measure isoflavones in nipple aspirate fluid. In a pilot study with 11 women, nipple aspirate fluid and urine samples were collected at baseline and after 1 month of consuming two servings of soymilk per day. In a parallel investigation, one woman donated nipple aspirate fluid, blood, and urine on the same day after consuming different amounts of soy for 9 days. Nipple aspirate fluid was collected with an aspirator, diluted 1 : 11, and stored at -20 degrees C. Isoflavonoids in nipple aspirate fluid, serum, and urine were liquid-liquid extracted after enzymatic hydrolysis followed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization high resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis using triply C labeled internal isoflavonoid standards. After the 30-day soy intervention, median nipple aspirate fluid yield changed very little (P=0.47), whereas urinary isoflavonoid excretion (P=0.04) and isoflavonoid levels in nipple aspirate fluid (P=0.12) increased substantially. For the nine samples collected in one participant, isoflavonoids measured in nipple aspirate fluid, plasma, and urine were highly correlated with the number of daily soy servings and with each other. This pilot study indicates that isoflavonoids in nipple aspirate fluid are 10 times lower than in plasma and are closely related to levels of isoflavonoids in urine and plasma. These findings show that isoflavonoids are present in breast fluid and may act directly on breast tissue.

  15. Autologous Bone Marrow Aspirate Therapy in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Chittoria, Ravi Kumar; Nandhagopal, Vijayaraghavan; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad; Thiruvoth, Friji Meethale; Sivakumar, Dinesh Kumar; Asokan, Arjun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the role of autologous bone marrow aspirate therapy (ABMAT) in wound healing. Approach: This is a retrospective analysis of 9 patients (11 chronic nonhealing wounds) in whom ABMAT was used. Patients (wounds) were grouped into two groups. Group 1 included 4 patients (5 wounds) refusing/unfit for reconstruction and managed only with ABMAT. Group 2 included 5 patients (6 wounds) who agreed/fit for reconstruction after wound bed preparation with ABMAT. End point of the study was complete wound healing. Results: ABMAT helped in complete healing of chronic nonhealing wounds by secondary intention in group 1 patients and enhanced process of wound bed preparation for reconstruction in group 2 patients. Innovation: This study highlights the importance of ABMAT in the management of chronic nonhealing wounds. Conclusion: ABMAT helps in wound bed preparation to allow the wound to heal completely or cover by skin graft/flap. PMID:26989576

  16. Adaption of suction connectors for use in meconium aspiration syndrome.

    PubMed

    Green, David Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Severe meconium aspiration syndrome is difficult to manage and has a high mortality in developing countries. Guidelines are available for the initial management. If the infant has been born through particulate meconium and is not vigorous, an inspection of the vocal cords by laryngoscopy is recommended. If meconium is seen at the cords it should, ideally, be sucked out of the trachea using an endotracheal tube as a suction device. However, as this needs a way of applying suction directly to the endotracheal tube it can be problematic. Commercially available equipment does exist, but in a resource-scarce setting, its cost could be prohibitive. We have adapted cheap suction connectors which can be adapted for this purpose.

  17. Barr body in fine needle aspiration cytology of ovarian malignancies.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Pallavi; Dey, Pranab

    2012-11-01

    The Barr body is the inactive X chromosome in a female somatic cell. It is readily identified as plano-convex structure of 2-3 micron in diameter on the periphery of the nuclear membrane. The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of Barr body count in malignant ovarian tumors on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears. In this retrospective study, Barr body was counted in FNAC smears of 20 successive malignant ovarian lesions and expressed as percentage. Mean (±SD) Barr body score was 2.4 ± 2.58. Minimum Barr body count was 1 and maximum was 9. The gross reduction of Barr body in ovarian neoplasms is an interesting cytomorphologic finding.

  18. Rotor and stator assembly configured as an aspirating face seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnquist, Norman Arnold (Inventor); Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran (Inventor); Reluzco, George (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A rotor and stator assembly having a rotor and a stator with opposing surfaces defining an air bearing and an air dam of an aspirating face seal. In a first embodiment, the air bearing and the air dam are axially offset. In a second embodiment, the rotor has an axially extending protuberance located radially between the air bearing and the air dam. The axial offset and the protuberance each act to divert the air flow (e.g., compressed gas or combustion gases in a gas turbine or steam in a steam turbine) in a direction transverse to the air flow direction through the air bearing and the air dam, thus isolating the air flows from the air bearing and the air dam which improves seal performance.

  19. Sand aspiration with near-drowning. Radiographic and bronchoscopic findings.

    PubMed

    Dunagan, D P; Cox, J E; Chang, M C; Haponik, E F

    1997-07-01

    Sand and foreign-body aspiration may accompany drowning and near-drowning, but few details regarding such patients are available in the literature. We report a 26-yr-old woman who suffered near-drowning after a motor-vehicle accident. Initial attempts at ventilation were compromised by increased peak airway pressures, which decreased following the removal of large amounts of sand from the patient's endotracheal tube. Chest radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) scans of the patient obtained upon her arrival in the emergency department demonstrated sand bronchograms within the lower lobes of both lungs, and sand within the maxillary sinuses and stomach. We present the radiographic, bronchoscopic, and microbiologic findings within hours after this patient's accident, with a review of the literature and provisional recommendations for the management of such patients.

  20. Propolis-induced descending necrotizing mediastinitis and aspiration pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jeng-Yuan; Hsu, Nan-Yung

    2013-04-01

    Propolis is a resinous substance collected by bees as a sealant for their hives. It is also used in traditional medicine as an antioxidant and antiinflammatory agent to treat ulcers, superficial burns, and microbial diseases. In this report, a 40-year-old woman who took liquid propolis for relief of her common cold experienced severe sore throat, dysphagia, and easy choking followed by fever and chills. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis and concomitant aspiration pneumonia were evident on the image studies. We performed video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery to achieve immediate and adequate drainage, and the patient resumed normal deglutition 2 months later. Early diagnosis and prompt video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery intervention are paramount to manage this life-threatening situation.

  1. Bone Marrow Aspirate in the Treatment of Chondral Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Holton, James; Imam, Mohamed A.; Snow, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to transdifferentiate into a desired cell lineage has captured the imagination of scientists and clinicians alike. The limited ability for chondrocytes to regenerate in chondral injuries has raised the concept of using MSCs to help regenerate and repair damaged tissue. The expansion of cells in a laboratory setting to be delivered back to the patient is too costly for clinical use in the present tough economic climate. This process is slow with due to the complexity of trying to imitate the natural environment and biological stimulation of chondral cell replication and proliferation. Bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) has the potential to provide an easily accessible and readily available source of MSCs with key growth factors that can be used in treating chondral injuries. This review summarizes the underlying basic science of MSCs and the therapeutic potential of BMAC. PMID:27379241

  2. Archosaurian respiration and the pelvic girdle aspiration breathing of crocodyliforms.

    PubMed Central

    Claessens, Leon P. A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Birds and crocodylians, the only living archosaurs, are generally believed to employ pelvic girdle movements as a component of their respiratory mechanism. This in turn provides a phylogenetic basis for inferring that extinct archosaurs, including dinosaurs, also used pelvic girdle breathing. I examined lung ventilation through cineradiography (high-speed X-ray filming) and observed that alligators indeed rotate the pubis to increase tidal volume, but did not observe pelvic girdle movement contributing to lung ventilation in guinea fowl, emus or tinamous, despite extensive soft-tissue motion. Re-examination of fossil archosaurs reveals that pubic rotation evolved in basal crocodyliforms and that pelvic girdle breathing is not a general archosaurian mechanism. The appearance of pelvic aspiration in crocodyliforms is a striking example of the ability of amniotes to increase gas exchange or circumvent constraints on respiration through the evolution of novel accessory breathing mechanisms. PMID:15306317

  3. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of salivary gland mycoses.

    PubMed

    Raab, S S; Thomas, P A; Cohen, M B

    1994-01-01

    This report details the fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytomorphologic features of two cases of salivary gland mycosis. Both patients had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and presented with parotid gland masses. The first patient had Histoplasmosis with secondary infection by Candida. Cytopathologically, the FNAB smears showed classic features of a deep-seated mycosis characterized by necrosis and scattered fungal forms. The second patient had a colonizing sialadenitis caused by either Asperigillus or Fusarium. Cytopathologically, the findings were similar to those seen in aspergillomas of the lung or paranasal sinuses with numerous hyphal forms and an absence of an inflammatory response. Because mycotic disease can induce a wide spectrum of pathogenic change, other benign or malignant, solid or cystic lesions enter into the differential diagnosis.

  4. Fine needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M B; Fisher, P E; Holly, E A; Ljung, B M; Löwhagen, T; Bottles, K

    1990-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy is an increasingly popular method for the evaluation of salivary gland tumors. Of the common salivary gland tumors, mucoepidermoid carcinoma is probably the most difficult to diagnose accurately by this means. A series of 96 FNA biopsy specimens of salivary gland masses, including 34 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 51 other benign and malignant neoplasms, 7 nonneoplastic lesions and 4 normal salivary glands, were analyzed in order to identify the most useful criteria for diagnosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Thirteen cytologic criteria were evaluated in the FNA specimens, and a stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed. The three cytologic features selected as most predictive of mucoepidermoid carcinoma were intermediate cells, squamous cells and overlapping epithelial groups. Using these three features together, the sensitivity and specificity of accurately diagnosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma were 97% and 100%, respectively.

  5. Maxillary odontogenic myxoma: a diagnostic pitfall on aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeta; Jain, Shyama; Gupta, Sunita

    2002-08-01

    A painless, slow-growing cheek swelling in a young male clinically considered a salivary gland mass was aspirated. Cytology smears were hypocellular. The striking feature was abundant myxoid material with a few monomorphic oval cells, interpreted as myxoid variant of pleomorphic adenoma. Subsequent CT scan was suggestive of a malignant tumor but biopsy confirmed it as myxoma. Myxoma of the jaw is a rare benign tumor that has a tendency for bone destruction, invasion into surrounding structures, and a relatively high recurrence rate. Maxillary myxoma is less frequent but behaves more aggressively than in the mandible, as it spreads through the maxillary sinus. Cytologically, it should be differentiated from other tumors showing predominant myxoid change. Awareness of potential diagnostic pitfalls and careful evaluation of clinical and radiological data is necessary to narrow the differential diagnosis.

  6. The Relationship of Parental Education and Maternal Work and Occupational Status to Occupational Aspiration in Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlin, Frances-Dee

    1976-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of parental education and maternal work and occupational status to the occupational aspirations of adolescent females. Significant association was found between occupational aspiration and father's education and between occupational aspiration and mother's occupational status (traditional or…

  7. Postmortem endogenous ethanol production and diffusion from the lung due to aspiration of wood chip dust in the work place.

    PubMed

    Furumiya, Junichi; Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Akinori; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki

    2011-07-01

    We report an autopsy case of postmortem ethanol diffusion into the cardiac blood after aspiration of wood chips, although antemortem ethanol consumption was not evident. A man in his twenties, who was loading a truck with small wood chips in a hot, humid storehouse, was accidentally buried in a heap of chips. At the time the body was discovered, 20 h after the accident, rectal temperature was 36°C. Autopsy showed the cause of death to be asphyxia due to obstruction of the airway by aspiration of wood chips. The ethanol and n-propanol levels were significantly higher in the lungs (left, 0.603 and 0.009 mg/g; right, 0.571 and 0.006 mg/g) than in other tissues. A significant difference in ethanol concentration was observed between the left cardiac blood (0.243 mg/g) and the right femoral blood (0.042 mg/g). Low levels of ethanol and n-propanol were detected in the stomach contents (0.105 and 0.001 mg/g, respectively). In order to determine whether aspiration of wood chips affects postmortem ethanol production in the lung, we measured the ethanol and n-propanol levels of homogenized rabbit lung tissue incubated with autoclaved or non-autoclaved wood chips. Levels of ethanol and n-propanol were significantly higher in the homogenates incubated with non-autoclaved chips for 24h. The results of this animal experiment suggested that the ethanol detected in the lung was produced by putrefactive bacteria within the wood chips. After death, the ethanol produced endogenously in the lung appears to have diffused and affected the ethanol concentration of the left cardiac blood.

  8. Utility of intranasal Ketamine and Midazolam to perform gastric aspirates in children: a double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We performed a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a sedation protocol based on intranasal Ketamine and Midazolam (INKM) administered by a mucosal atomizer device in uncooperative children undergoing gastric aspirates for suspected tuberculosis. Primary outcome: evaluation of Modified Objective Pain Score (MOPS) reduction in children undergoing INKM compared to the placebo group. Secondary outcomes: evaluation of safety of INKM protocol, start time sedation effect, duration of sedation and evaluation of parents and doctors’ satisfaction about the procedure. Methods In the sedation group, 19 children, mean age 41.5 months, received intranasal Midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) and Ketamine (2 mg/kg). In the placebo group, 17 children received normal saline solution twice in each nostril. The child’s degree of sedation was scored using the MOPS. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate the parents’ and doctors’ opinions on the procedures of both groups. Results Fifty-seven gastric washings were performed in the sedation-group, while in the placebo-group we performed 51 gastric aspirates. The degree of sedation achieved by INMK enabled all procedures to be completed without additional drugs. The mean duration of sedation was 71.5 min. Mean MOPS was 3.5 (range 1-8) in the sedation-group, 7.2 (range 4-9) in the placebo-group (p <0.0001). The questionnaire revealed high levels of satisfaction by both doctors and parents in the sedation-group compared to the placebo-group. The only side effect registered was post-sedation agitation in 6 procedures in the sedation group (10.5%). Conclusions Our experience suggests that atomized INKM makes gastric aspirates more acceptable and easy to perform in children. Trial registration Unique trial Number: UMIN000010623; Receipt Number: R000012422. PMID:24598046

  9. "If We Can't Do It, Our Children Will Do It One Day": A Qualitative Study of West African Immigrant Parents' Losses and Educational Aspirations for Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roubeni, Sonia; De Haene, Lucia; Keatley, Eva; Shah, Nira; Rasmussen, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This study examined migration narratives of West African immigrants for the connections between experiences of loss and educational aspirations for their children. The qualitative design consisted of three interviews per family in which parents (N = 20, 12 families) were asked to narrate their families' migration histories. Transcripts were…

  10. Clinical features and outcomes of aspiration pneumonia compared with non-aspiration pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Makoto; Iwasaki, Takuya; Yamazaki, Yohei; Takayasu, Hiromi; Tateno, Hidetsugu; Tazawa, Sakiko; Kato, Eisuke; Wakabayashi, Aya; Yamaguchi, Fumihiro; Tsuchiya, Yutaka; Yamashita, Jun; Takeda, Norikazu; Matsukura, Satoshi; Kokubu, Fumio

    2014-07-01

    Pneumonia is a leading cause of death among elderly patients. Although aspiration pneumonia (AP) commonly occurs with aging, its clinical features and outcomes are still uncertain. The aims of this study were to describe the clinical features and outcomes of AP and to assess whether presence of AP affects clinical outcomes in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). We retrospectively analyzed patients with CAP and HCAP hospitalized in our institution in Japan from October 2010 to March 2012. We compared clinical features and outcomes between AP and non-AP, and investigated risk factors for recurrence of pneumonia and death. Of 214 consecutive patients, 100 (46.7%) were diagnosed as having aspiration pneumonia. These patients were older and had lower body mass index, more comorbidities, and poorer Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) than the patients with non-AP. Patients with AP had more severe disease, required longer hospital stays, and had a frequent recurrence rate of pneumonia and higher mortality. In multivariate analyses, AP, age, and ECOG PS were related to recurrence of pneumonia, and the prognostic factors were CURB-65 score and ECOG PS. AP was not a significant indicator for prognosis but was the strongest risk factor for recurrence of pneumonia. Clinical background and outcomes including recurrence and mortality of AP were obviously different from those of non-AP; therefore AP should be considered as a distinct subtype of pneumonia, and it is important to prevent the recurrence of pneumonia in the patients with AP.

  11. The incidence of postoperative aspiration among children undergoing supraglottoplasty for laryngomalacia.

    PubMed

    Anderson de Moreno, Lauren C; Burgin, Sarah J; Matt, Bruce H

    2015-08-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to determine the incidence of aspiration after supraglottoplasty at Riley Hospital for Children in Indianapolis. We reviewed the charts of 468 patients-281 males and 187 females, aged 2 days to 20 years-who had undergone supraglottoplasty for the treatment of laryngomalacia; most patients (69.9%) were aged 28 days to 2 years. A total of 47 patients (10.0%) experienced aspiration after supraglottoplasty; the overall association between supraglottoplasty and aspiration was not statistically significant (p = 0.25). Aspiration was positively correlated with age younger than 18 months, the performance of a revision procedure, the presence of an underlying neuromuscular disorder (n = 20), and the need for a postoperative gastrostomy tube (p < 0.001 for all). When the 20 patients with a neuromuscular disorder were excluded from our data analysis, the incidence of aspiration after supraglottoplasty fell to only 5.8% (27/468). We conclude that supraglottoplasty is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of laryngomalacia. It does not significantly increase the overall incidence of aspiration in children, and thus the risk of aspiration should not be considered a deterrent to surgery, even in children with neuromuscular problems. PMID:26322450

  12. Fine Needle Aspiration in the Diagnosis of Childhood Malignant Disease in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Magrath, I. T.

    1973-01-01

    One hundred aspirations using a fine needle have been performed on 94 patients with a suspected diagnosis of malignant tumour, 31 of which were in patients with recurrent tumour. In 90 aspirates where histology was also available there was agreement between histological and cytological diagnosis in 81 (90%). This percentage was identical when only previously undiagnosed tumours were considered (60). In 4 aspirates no cells were obtained from tumours in which a diagnosis was made histologically and in 5 there was disagreement with histology, either regarding the presence of malignancy, or tumour type. The technique of fine needle aspiration is simple, rapid, safe and reliable. It is particularly valuable when emergency treatment is required, necessitating a very rapid diagnosis, or when the tumour is entirely intra-abdominal and the patient is unfit for laparotomy. Repeat aspirates may be performed to assess progress following treatment, or multiple suspected tumour sites may be aspirated to assist staging. The technique may be used to confirm the presence of relapsing tumour. Aspiration cytology may prove valuable as a further dimension in the interpretation of histological sections in a variety of childhood tumours, and in some circumstances may be sufficient in itself to establish a diagnosis. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4131498

  13. The Above-and-Beyond Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicoine, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Today's young people are sophisticated consumers in the higher education marketplace. They are seeking "above and beyond" academic experiences such as study abroad and undergraduate research. They are looking for a personalized academic experience, and they aspire to be in community with others who share a similar sense of purpose and…

  14. Biopsy Needle Advancement during Bone Marrow Aspiration Increases Mesenchymal Stem Cell Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Anne E.; Watts, Ashlee E.

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-care kits to concentrate bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used clinically in horses. A maximal number of MSCs per milliliter of marrow aspirated might be desired prior to use of a point-of-care system to concentrate MSCs. Our objective was to test a method to increase the number of MSCs per milliliter of marrow collected. We collected two BM aspirates using two different collection techniques from 12 horses. The first collection technique was to aspirate BM from a single site without advancement of the biopsy needle. The second collection technique was to aspirate marrow from multiple sites within the same sternal puncture by advancing the needle 5 mm three times for BM aspiration from four sites. Numbers of MSCs in collected BM were assessed by total nucleated cell count of BM after aspiration, total colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) assay, and total MSC number at each culture passage. The BM aspiration technique of four needle advancements during BM aspiration resulted in higher initial nucleated cell counts, more CFU-Fs, and more MSCs at the first passage. There were no differences in the number of MSCs at later passages. Multiple advancements of the BM needle during BM aspiration resulted in increased MSC concentration at the time of BM collection. If a point-of-care kit is used to concentrate MSCs, multiple advancements may result in higher MSC numbers in the BM concentrate after preparation by the point-of-care kit. For culture expanded MSCs beyond the first cell passage, the difference is of questionable clinical relevance. PMID:27014705

  15. Transvaginal Aspiration of Ovarian Cysts: Long-Term Follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, D.; Colville, J.; Keeling, A.; Broe, D.; Fotheringham, T.; Lee, M.J.

    2006-06-15

    Background and purpose. Transvaginal aspiration of ovarian cysts has been advocated as a viable alternative to surgery in patients who are high-risk surgical candidates. We describe a retrospective study evaluating the results of transvaginal aspirations of benign ovarian cysts in patients at increased surgical risk, focusing on long-term follow-up for recurrence of the cyst and/or development of malignancy. Methods. Twenty-four women with ovarian cysts underwent 34 transvaginal drainages between October 1998 and December 2004. All patients were referred following diagnosis of a persistent ovarian cyst with a benign appearance on ultrasound. All patients were unsuitable candidates for surgery (history of previous pelvic surgery, n = 21; high risk for anesthesia, n = 1; and unsuitable for laparoscopy due to obesity, n = 2). Patients with a history of pregnancy, acute abdominal symptoms, or previous gynecologic malignancy were excluded. A 20G x 20 cm Chiba needle was used for transvaginal aspiration using an endocavity probe (Acuson XP, Mountain View, CA, USA; Siemens Sololine, Erlangen, Germany) and intravenous sedoanalgesia. Cysts were aspirated to dryness. Results. Long-term follow-up of patients was performed and revealed a recurrence rate of 75%. Eighty-three percent of cysts on the left and 42% of those on the right recurred. Nine of 15 (60%) patients with recurrence required further intervention. Two of 9 underwent surgical intervention only, 4 of 9 had repeat transvaginal aspiration(s) performed, and 3 of 9 had a combination of both transvaginal aspiration and surgery. No patient developed ovarian malignancy. Conclusion. Transvaginal cyst aspiration has many advantages including short hospital stay, rapid recovery, excellent patient tolerance, and a low rate of procedure-related complications. Our study demonstrates that ovarian cyst recurrence following transvaginal drainage is a more significant problem than previously documented, especially if the cyst is

  16. Cough in the elderly: a novel strategy for preventing aspiration pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ebihara, Satoru; Ebihara, Takae

    2011-06-01

    Management of cough in the elderly with a deteriorated physical and mental status has received little focus. Since an aged population is rapidly increasing in developed countries, the research in this population are warranted. Cough reflex sensitivity in the elderly was shown to be hypersensitive, normosensitive and hyposensitive. The hypersensitive cough reflex is mostly due to gastro-esophageal reflux in nursing home patients. Impaired cough reflex sensitivity is assumed to play a crucial role in the development of pneumonia in the elderly. A marked depression of cough reflex sensitivity is reported in elderly patients with aspiration pneumonia. The impairment of the cough reflex in patients with aspiration pneumonia can involve both cortical facilitatory pathways for cough and medullary reflex pathways. We found the urge-to-cough in patients with aspiration pneumonia was also down-regulated, suggesting the involvement of supramedullary dysfunction in the etiology of aspiration pneumonia in the elderly. In order to prevent aspiration pneumonia in the elderly, restoration of cough reflex sensitivity is essential. We found several methods to restore cough reflex sensitivity in the elderly. They also improved the swallowing reflex, another important airway protective reflex, in the elderly. In the treatment of aspiration pneumonia, one of the most challenging steps is the start of eating for patients who usually fast at the time of hospitalization. By combining the methods to restore the cough reflex sensitivity and swallowing reflex, we developed a protocol to start eating in the elderly patients with aspiration pneumonia. Using the protocol, we reduced the incidence of re-aspiration due to start of eating in patients with aspiration pneumonia to one third of the patients without the protocol.

  17. A case of accidental aspiration of an endodontic instrument by a child treated under conscious sedation.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, R; Prasad, Vishnu; Menon, Padma A

    2013-04-01

    Dental management of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often requires the need for pharmacological behavior management techniques such as the use of sedation. The purpose of this article is to describe a clinical case involving accidental aspiration of an Endodontic instrument during root canal therapy under sedation. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of aspiration of an Endodontic instrument and should serve to heighten the awareness with regard to aspiration during dental procedures under sedation. It also emphasizes the need for proper isolation techniques in patients treated under sedation, thereby preventing such complications.

  18. A case of accidental aspiration of an endodontic instrument by a child treated under conscious sedation.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, R; Prasad, Vishnu; Menon, Padma A

    2013-04-01

    Dental management of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often requires the need for pharmacological behavior management techniques such as the use of sedation. The purpose of this article is to describe a clinical case involving accidental aspiration of an Endodontic instrument during root canal therapy under sedation. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of aspiration of an Endodontic instrument and should serve to heighten the awareness with regard to aspiration during dental procedures under sedation. It also emphasizes the need for proper isolation techniques in patients treated under sedation, thereby preventing such complications. PMID:24883031

  19. Total laryngectomy for management of chronic aspiration pneumonia in a myopathic dog.

    PubMed

    Vernau, Karen M; Marks, Stanley L; Kuhn, Maggie A; Culp, William T N; Owens, Tammy J; Shelton, G Diane; Siddiqui, Tausif; Pollard, Rachel; Belafsky, Peter C

    2016-07-01

    A 5-month-old female pit bull terrier dog evaluated for ataxia, progressive regurgitation, and recurrent aspiration pneumonia had markedly elevated creatine kinase activity, non-inflammatory generalized myopathy, and severe esophageal dysmotility. A narrow-field total laryngectomy was performed. The dog is doing well 30 months after surgery, and no longer has episodes of aspiration pneumonia, despite intermittent regurgitation. This case represents the first application of total laryngectomy for the prevention of chronic recurrent aspiration pneumonia in the dog. PMID:27429466

  20. Relationship between parental aspiration and academic achievement of Xhosa children from broken and intact families.

    PubMed

    Cherian, V I

    1994-06-01

    This study concerned the relationship between parental aspiration and academic achievement of Xhosa pupils (369 boys and 652 girls) whose ages ranged from 13 to 17 years (mean age, 15.3 yr.). Children were chosen at random from the Standard 7/Year 9 population of Transkei. A questionnaire administered to parents or parent surrogates identified 242 children of parents divorced or separated and 713 from intact homes and obtained parental aspiration for the education of children. Analysis of variance showed significant effects of parental aspiration on academic achievement of children whether the children were from broken or intact homes.