Science.gov

Sample records for assay elisa immunoassaying

  1. Comparing Assay Performance of ELISA and Chemiluminescence Immunoassay in Detecting Antibodies to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, Siddharth; Vishwanath, Shashidhar; Banerjee, Barnini; Eshwara, Vandana Kalwaje; Chawla, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Antibodies to Hepatitis B surface Antigen (Anti-HBs) levels are measured as markers for immune response to vaccination and in decision making for post-exposure prophylaxis against Hepatitis-B. Several immunoassay formats are used to measure Anti-HBs, thus carrying the possibility of variation in measured levels between different assays. This study compares the performance of Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (CLIA) against Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) in measuring Anti-HBs titer by looking into concordance between the two test reports. Aim To compare the agreement between ELISA and CLIA in measurement of Anti–HBs antibody titers. Materials and Methods This prospective comparative study conducted at Kasturba Medical College, Manipal measured consecutive serum samples (69) sent for anti-HBs levels during May-June 2016 using both CLIA (Abbott Architect) and ELISA (Bio-Rad). Anti-HBs values of ≤10mIU/ml was considered as non-protective and >10mIU/ml as protective. The agreement between the tests in classifying the antibody titers as non-protective or protective was computed using Kappa coefficient, and the difference in individual titer values between the tests compared using Bland-Altman plot on SPSS (v.15). Results Out of the 69 samples analysed, 18 samples (26.1%) were of health-care personnel and remaining of patients. Agreement between ELISA and CLIA in identifying the antibody titers as protective and non-protective were 96.5% and 90.9% respectively, resulting in an agreement of 0.84. The coefficient-of-variation of ELISA and CLIA were 74.5% and 113.1%, respectively. Three value based discordant results were noted; two samples deemed protective by ELISA were reported as non-protective by CLIA. One non-protective titer by ELISA was reported as protective by CLIA. Conclusion Analytical agreement is good between the two immunoassays. However there are some discrepancies in quantitative measurement. This may have been due the variation in

  2. Enzyme immunoassays with special reference to ELISA techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Voller, A; Bartlett, A; Bidwell, D E

    1978-01-01

    In this review outlines are given on various types of enzyme immunoassay. The applications to such enzyme immunoassays, especially ELISA, are dealth with in detail. It is concluded that these techniques have high sensitivity and will be suitable in due course as routine laboratory tests. PMID:78929

  3. Improved Standardization of the Bio-Rad Platelia Aspergillus Galactomannan Antigen Sandwich Enzyme Immunoassay Using the DS2 (Dynex) Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Processing System.

    PubMed

    Gorton, R L; White, P L; Bagkeris, E; Cotterall, D; Desai, R; McHugh, T; Kibbler, C C

    2015-07-01

    The galactomannan enzyme immunoassay (GM-EIA) is widely utilized for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA). There is inconsistent reproducibility of results between centers when the assay is processed manually. Automation of EIAs can reduce variation. This study investigated the semiautomation of the GM-EIA on the DS2 (Dynex) platform in the following three stages: (i) DS2 GM-EIA method validation with experimental samples, (ii) DS2 retesting of case-defined clinical samples, and (iii) a 12-month audit of DS2 GM-EIA performance. In stage i, Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a reduced variance between optical density index (ODI) values for samples processed on two DS2 platforms (mean difference, -0.02; limits of agreement [LOA], -0.19 to 0.14) compared with the variance between samples processed manually and on a DS2 platform (mean difference, 0.02; LOA, -0.25 to 0.3). In stage ii, 100% (14/14 samples) qualitative agreement was observed for serum samples from patients with IA, with no significant change in the ODI values when samples were processed on the DS2 platform. A significant decrease in ODI values was observed for control serum samples on the DS2 platform (difference, 0.01; P = 0.042). In stage iii, a significant reduction in the frequency of equivocal results, from 5.56% (136/2,443 samples) to 1.56% (15/961 samples), was observed after DS2 automation (difference, 4.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.7 to 5.2%; P < 0.01), with an equivalent increase in negative results. This study demonstrates that GM-EIA automation may reduce intersite variability. Automation does not have an impact on the repeatability of truly positive results but contributes to a reduction in false-positive (equivocal) GM-EIA results, reducing the need to retest a significant proportion of samples.

  4. Development of ELISA and colloidal gold immunoassay for tetrodotoxin detetcion based on monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Ling, Sumei; Chen, Qing-Ai; Zhang, Yuming; Wang, Rongzhi; Jin, Ni; Pang, Jie; Wang, Shihua

    2015-09-15

    A monoclonal hybridoma cell named 5B9 against tetrodotoxin (TTX) was obtained after fusion of myeloma SP2/0 cells with spleen cells isolated from the immunized Balb/c mice. The 5B9 monoclonal antibody (McAb) with high affinity (about 2.55 × 10(9)) is specific to TTX, and this McAb belongs to the immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotype. Finally, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and colloidal gold immunoassay were established based on this McAb. The linear range of ELISA to detect TTX was 5-500 ng/mL, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 4.44 ng/mL. The average CV of intra- and inter-assay was less than 8%, with the samples recovery range of 70.93-99.99%. A competitive format colloidal gold strip was developed for detection of TTX in real samples, and the LOD for TTX is 20 ng/mL, and the assay time of the qualitative test can be finished in less than 10 min without any equipment. The result from test strip revealed that the test strip has a good agreement with those obtained from ELISA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Validation of an ELISA Synthetic Cannabinoids Urine Assay.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Allan J; Spinelli, Eliani; Young, Sheena; Martin, Thomas M; Kleete, Kevin L; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-10-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids are touted as legal alternatives to cannabis, at least when first released, and routine urine cannabinoid screening methods do not detect these novel psychoactive substances. Synthetic cannabinoids are widely available, are a major public health and safety problem, and a difficult challenge for drug-testing laboratories. We evaluated performance of the National Medical Services (NMS) JWH-018 direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit to sensitively, selectively, and rapidly screen urinary synthetic cannabinoids. The NMS ELISA kit targeting the JWH-018 N-(5-hydroxypentyl) metabolite was used to screen 2492 urine samples with 5 and 10 mcg/L cutoffs. A fully validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for 29 synthetic cannabinoids markers confirmed all presumptive positive and negative results. Performance challenges at ±25% and ±50% of cutoffs determined intraplate and interplate imprecision around proposed cutoffs. The immunoassay was linear from 1 to 500 mcg/L with intraplate and interplate imprecision of ≤8.2% and <14.0%, respectively. No interferences were present from 93 common drugs of abuse, metabolites, coadministered drugs, over-the-counter medications, or structurally similar compounds, and 19 of 73 individual synthetic cannabinoids (26%) exhibited moderate to high cross-reactivity to JWH-018 N-(5-hydroxypentyl) metabolite. Sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency results were 83.7%, 99.4%, and 97.6%, as well as 71.6%, 99.7%, and 96.4% with the 5 and 10 mcg/L urine cutoffs, respectively. This high throughput immunoassay exhibited good diagnostic efficiency and documented that the NMS JWH-018 direct ELISA is a viable method for screening synthetic cannabinoids in urine targeting the JWH-018 N-(5-hydroxypentyl) and related analytes. Optimal performance was achieved with a matrix-matched 5 mcg/L urine cutoff.

  6. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    1976-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay "ELISA" developed in recent years represents a significant addition to existing serological tools. Encouraging preliminary results obtained through its application to a number of parasitic diseases during the last two years indicate the value of further investigations and trials which will permit a true evaluation.Although the technique is easy to perform and quite sensitive, there are certain problems to be solved before it becomes widely usable. In the present Memorandum the technical details are given and the advantages and shortcomings of the procedure are discussed. Present applications and future prospects are reviewed.

  7. Comparison of chemiluminescent immunoassay and ELISA for measles IgG and IgM.

    PubMed

    de Ory, Fernando; Minguito, Teodora; Balfagón, Pilar; Sanz, Juan C

    2015-08-01

    In the context of measles elimination, the identification of recent infections is important for clinical laboratories. Serological diagnosis is achieved by detecting specific IgG and IgM. Recently an automated chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) (Liaison, DiaSorin, Italy) has been used to quantify the measles antibody. The aim of this study was to compare this assay with Enzygnost ELISA (Siemens, Germany), with final classification of discrepancies by indirect immunofluorescence (Euroimmun, Germany). For measles IgM, 204 sera were analyzed: 50 IgM-positive, 104 IgM-negative/IgG-positive, and 50 from other viral infections (B19V, rubella, mumps, CMV, and EBV). For the measles IgG assay, 162 samples were tested: 106 were positive and 56 were negative. For measles IgM, the sensitivity and specificity of CLIA against ELISA were 94% (95% CI: 83.2-98.6) and 100% (95% CI: 97.1-100), respectively; the corrected figures after the final classification of discrepancies were 100% (95% CI: 91.0-100) and 99.4% (95% CI: 96.1-100), respectively. In relation to IgG, the sensitivity and specificity of CLIA against ELISA were, respectively, 97.2% (95% CI: 91.7-99.4) and 92.9% (95% CI: 82.5-97.7), and 95.5% (95% CI: 89.5-98.3) and 100% (95% CI: 91.8-100) after the final classification. CLIA showed excellent sensitivity and specificity in detecting measles IgG and IgM antibodies, eliminating the need to aliquot specimens before carrying out the assay.

  8. Anti-TNP monoclonal antibodies as reagents for enzyme immunoassay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Léo, P; Ucelli, P; Augusto, E F; Oliveira, M S; Tamashiro, W M

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to produce anti-TNP monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that could be conjugated and used for the detection of antigen-antibody reactions, in which the antigen specific-antibody had been previously bound to trinitrophenyl (TNP). For hybridoma production, SP2/0-Ag14 cells were fused with spleen cells from mice previously immunized with TNP-ovalbumin (TNP-OVA). After 10 days, enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect anti-TNP antibodies in the supernatants, and five cultures were found to be strictly positive for TNP. Three of these were subsequently cloned by limiting dilution, and 15 clones were chosen for expansion based on the criterion of high reactivity against TNP. Anti-TNP MAbs produced by those clones were isotyped as IgG1, and purified by Sepharose-protein G affinity cromatography from ascites developed in BALB/c mice. Two purified MAbs (1B2.1B6 and 1B2.1E12) were coupled to horseradish peroxidase (HRPO). The resulting conjugates were evaluated in ELISA tests for interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 detection, in which the secondary anti-cytokine antibodies were coupled either to TNP or biotin. The performance of anti-TNP conjugates in these assays were compared with a biotin-streptavidin/peroxidase system. Both types of conjugates were similarly able to detect cytokines with r2 (linear correlation coefficient) close to unity value. Growth studies of one of those hybridomas (1B2.1B6) yielded a specific growth rate of 0.042 h(-1) and a doubling time of 16.5 h. Data discussed here show that at least two MAbs against TNP raised in this work can be used as a reagent for enzyme immunoassays.

  9. Measurement of vasoactive intestinal peptide using a competitive fluorescent microsphere immunoassay or ELISA in human blood samples.

    PubMed

    Song, Eun Young; VanDunk, Cassandra; Kuddo, Thea; Nelson, Phillip G

    2005-05-01

    The concentration of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) as measured by recycling immunoaffinity chromatography (RIC) has been reported to be elevated in the blood of patients with autism as compared with normal subjects. In this study, we have developed a "Competitive Fluorescent Microsphere Immunoassay" (cFMI) in which VIP competes with biotinylated VIP in binding to polyclonal antibodies on microspheres. The results were obtained using the Luminex100 system. We measured VIP in serum, plasma, and material eluted from dried blood spots on filter paper with both the cFMI and an ELISA procedure. We found that a purification procedure was necessary for obtaining useful results from plasma and serum, however, a preincubation step was required with the blood eluates. This newly developed cFMI was more sensitive (2.5 vs. 20.0 pg/ml), and more reproducible than the ELISA. To get accurate measurements of VIP in eluted material high sensitivity is especially important. Thus, the cFMI using the Luminex system has definite advantages over a conventional ELISA including the possibility that samples can be assayed at higher dilutions. We have determined that the VIP concentrations of serum, plasma, and dried blood spot eluate specimens as measured with the cFMI assay system were similar to those measured with ELISA. Thus, the new cFMI using Luminex system may be useful for detection of VIP in human blood samples.

  10. Comparison between ELISA and gel-filtration assay for the quantitation of airway mucins.

    PubMed

    Shin, C Y; Kang, S J; Kim, K C; Ko, K H

    1998-06-01

    In this study, we developed immunoassay methods for the more convenient and effective detection of rat tracheal mucin and the results were compared with those of [3H]glucosamine based gel-filtration method. A monoclonal anti-rat tracheal mucin antibody, mAbRT03, which specifically recognizes rat tracheal mucins, was used throughout in this study. To induce mucin secretion, varying concentrations of ATP (0-2 mM) were applied to the primary rat tracheal surface epithelial (RTSE) cell culture which had been metabolically radiolabeled with [3H]glucosamine and the secretion of mucin was analyzed both by the immunoassay and the gel-filtration chromatography methods. For the immunoassay, the following two procedures were employed. 1) Simple ELISA; the culture spent media were directly coated onto the assay plate and the immunoreactivity with mAbRT03 was assessed from the standard curve generated with the purified rat mucin. 2) Inhibition ELISA; A known amount of the purified rat mucin was coated onto the assay plate and then ATP-stimulated culture spent media were added to inhibit the immunoreactivity with mAbRT03. The contents of mucin in the sample were calculated from the standard inhibition curve which was generated with the purified rat mucin. The assay results obtained from the immunoassays were identical with those from the gel-filtration methods. The present result indicates that ELISA can be substituted for the laborious, time-consuming gel-filtration assay in studying the regulation of airway mucin release from cultured airway epithelial cells.

  11. AN ELISA ASSAY FOR HEME OXYGENASE (HO-1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ELISA assay for heme oxygenase (HO-l )

    Abstract

    A double antibody capture ELISA for the HO-l protein has been developed to separately quantitate HO-I protein. The use of 2.5% NP40 detergent greatly assists in freeing HO-l protein from membranes and/or other cel...

  12. AN ELISA ASSAY FOR HEME OXYGENASE (HO-1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ELISA assay for heme oxygenase (HO-l )

    Abstract

    A double antibody capture ELISA for the HO-l protein has been developed to separately quantitate HO-I protein. The use of 2.5% NP40 detergent greatly assists in freeing HO-l protein from membranes and/or other cel...

  13. Performance characteristics of an ELISA screening assay for urinary synthetic cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Eliani; Barnes, Allan J; Young, Sheena; Castaneto, Marisol S; Martin, Thomas M; Klette, Kevin L; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids are marketed as legal alternatives to cannabis, as routine urine cannabinoid immunoassays do not detect synthetic cannabinoids. Laboratories are challenged to identify these new designer drugs that are widely available and represent a major public health and safety problem. Immunoassay testing offers rapid separation of presumptive positive and negative specimens, prior to more costly and time-consuming chromatographic confirmation. The Neogen SPICE ELISA kit targets JWH-018 N-pentanoic acid as a marker for urinary synthetic cannabinoids. Assay performance was evaluated by analyzing 2469 authentic urine samples with the Neogen immunoassay and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Two immunoassay cut-off concentrations, 5 and 10 µg/L, classified samples as presumptive positive or negative, followed by qualitative LC-MS/MS confirmation for 29 synthetic cannabinoids markers with limits of detection of 0.5-10 µg/L to determine the assay's sensitivity, specificity and efficacy. Challenges at ±25% of each cut-off also were investigated to determine performance around the cut-off and intra- and inter-plate imprecision. The immunoassay was linear from 1 to 250 µg/L (r(2)  = 0.992) with intra- and inter-plate imprecision of ≤5.3% and <9%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency results with the 5 µg/L cut-off were 79.9%, 99.7%, and 97.4% and with the 10 µg/L cut-off 69.3%, 99.8%, and 96.3%, respectively. Cross-reactivity was shown for 18 of 73 synthetic cannabinoids markers evaluated. Good sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency, lack of sample preparation requirements, and rapid semi-automation documented that the Neogen SPICE ELISA kit is a viable method for screening synthetic cannabinoids in urine targeting JWH-018 N-pentanoic acid. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A homogeneous and multiplexed immunoassay for high-throughput screening using fluorometric microvolume assay technology.

    PubMed

    Swartzman, E E; Miraglia, S J; Mellentin-Michelotti, J; Evangelista, L; Yuan, P M

    1999-07-01

    We have developed a simple, homogeneous bead-based immunoassay for use with fluorometric microvolume assay technology (FMAT). The FLISA (fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay) can be easily adapted from existing immunoassays, is comparable to traditional ELISAs with respect to linear dynamic range and sensitivity, and can be readily performed in 96- and 384-well plates. Additionally, the FLISA utilizes 100-fold less primary antibody than the conventional immunoassay. The scanner uses a helium/neon laser to image and measure bead-bound fluorescence while the background fluorescence is ignored. Consequently, no wash steps are required to remove unbound antibody, ligand, and fluorophore. Furthermore, the instrument is capable of detecting two different fluorescent dyes, allowing for multiplexed assays based on color. Fluorescent bead-based immunoassays were developed for the cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, and their use in both one-color and two-color FLISAs is demonstrated. Although no wash steps were employed, the FLISA was able to accurately measure the concentrations of IL-6 and IL-8 in the growth media of cytokine-stimulated HUVEC cells. In addition, a simulated high-throughput two-color FLISA positively identified those wells in a 384-well plate that contained different amounts of IL-6 and/or IL-8 peptide. The homogeneous, multiplex and multiplate format of the FLISA reduces hands-on time and reagent usage, and is therefore ideally suited for high-throughput screening.

  15. Detection of okadaic acid (OA) using ELISA and colloidal gold immunoassay based on monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rongzhi; Zeng, Linmao; Yang, Hang; Zhong, Yanfang; Wang, Juncheng; Ling, Sumei; Saeed, Abdullah Farhan; Yuan, Jun; Wang, Shihua

    2017-10-05

    Okadaic Acid (OA), a small seafood-borne toxin secreted by Dinophysis and Prorocentrum dinoflagellates, is generally distributed in various species of shellfish and has caused diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). In view of OA toxin threat to humans and animals, it is essential to develop a rapid, accurate and sensitive method for the detection and quantification of OA in real samples. In this study, a monoclonal antibody named 10E8 was screened by cells fusion of Sp2/0 with spleen cells isolated from immunized mouse, and the isotype of McAb 10E8 was belonged to IgG1. The resulted McAb 10E8 displayed higher specificity to OA antigen, with the highest affinity of 2.66×10(9)L/moL until now. Indirect competitive ELISA (ic-ELISA) indicated that the linear range to detect OA was 20-750ng/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) was 12pg/mL, and the recovery average was (84.04±5.08)%. The LOD of colloidal gold immunoassay by naked eye and strip reader was 1ng/mL and 100pg/mL, respectively, with an average recovery of (88.0275±4.4225)%. Therefore, the developed ELISA and colloidal gold immunoassay based on this McAb can be used for OA detection in real samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation of an ELISA Synthetic Cannabinoids Urine Assay

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Allan J.; Spinelli, Eliani; Young, Sheena; Martin, Thomas M.; Klette, Kevin L.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Synthetic cannabinoids are touted as legal alternatives to cannabis, at least when first released, and routine urine cannabinoid screening methods do not detect these novel psychoactive substances. Synthetic cannabinoids are widely available, are a major public health and safety problem, and a difficult challenge for drug testing laboratories. We evaluated performance of the NMS JWH-018 direct ELISA kit to sensitively, selectively, and rapidly screen urinary synthetic cannabinoids. Materials/ Methods The NMS ELISA kit targeting the JWH-018 N-(5-hydroxypentyl) metabolite was utilized to screen 2492 urine samples with 5 and 10µg/L cutoffs. A fully validated LC-MS/MS method for 29 synthetic cannabinoids markers confirmed all presumptive positive and negative results. Performance challenges at ±25 and ±50% of cutoffs determined intra- and inter-plate imprecision around proposed cutoffs. Result The immunoassay was linear from 1–500µg/L with intra- and inter-plate imprecision of ≤8.2% and <14.0%, respectively. No interferences were present from 93 common drugs of abuse, metabolites, co-administered drugs, over-the-counter medications or structurally similar compounds, and 19 of 73 individual, synthetic cannabinoids (26%) exhibited moderate to high cross-reactivity to JWH-018 N-(5-hydroxypentyl) metabolite. Sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency results were 83.7%, 99.4% and 97.6% and 71.6%, 99.7% and 96.4%, with the 5 and 10µg/L urine cutoffs, respectively. Conclusion This high throughput immunoassay exhibited good diagnostic efficiency and documented that the NMS JWH-018 direct ELISA is a viable method for screening synthetic cannabinoids in urine targeting the JWH-018 N-(5-hydroxypentyl) and related analytes. Optimal performance was achieved with a matrix-matched 5µg/L urine cutoff. PMID:25706046

  17. Application of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine paraquat residues in milk, beef, and potatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Van Emon, J.; Seiber, J.; Hammock, B.

    1987-09-01

    The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) has included paraquat on its list of compounds to be considered for monitoring in foods. However, present methods do not easily accommodate the processing of large numbers of samples, thus limiting routine monitoring of the compound. The conventional method, based on spectrophotometry of reduced paraquat solutions, requires time-consuming sample preparation. Although the advantages of immunoassays for pesticide residue analysis have been pointed out, the reported immunoassays for paraquat have only been applied to cases of clinical poisoning or human exposure assessment. In this study, spiked milk, potato, and beef were analyzed directly, without prior cleanup, by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

  18. Comparison of electrochemiluminescence assay and ELISA for the detection of Clostridium botulinum type B neurotoxin.

    PubMed

    Guglielmo-Viret, V; Attrée, O; Blanco-Gros, V; Thullier, P

    2005-06-01

    We compared the ELISA and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassay technologies for the detection of botulinum type B neurotoxin (BotNT B), which requires highly sensitive techniques due to its potent biological activity. BotNT B complexes are the naturally secreted form of the toxin, approximately a third of which consists of the neurotoxin itself; they were aliquoted and frozen for this study. Results of both techniques were interpreted with the same standard statistical tests (ANOVA and Tukey). We first compared two commercial assays for BotNT B: the detection limit of the colorimetric ELISA was 1.56 ng/ml BotNT B complexes versus 0.39-0.78 ng/ml in the ECL test. We then used the same monoclonal antibody and the same polyclonal antibody, respectively purified by protein A and protein G chromatography, to optimize an in-house ELISA test and an in-house ECL test, making it possible to directly compare the two technologies without interference due to the properties of the antibodies used in the two tests. The colorimetric in-house ELISA had a detection threshold of 3.12 ng/ml versus the in-house ECL test whose detection threshold was 0.78-1.56 ng/ml. Thus, in both cases, the ECL assay was two to four times more sensitive than the colorimetric ELISA. The ECL assay was also more rapid (2.5 h for the in-house ECL versus 5 h for in-house ELISA with precoated wells). Overall, these elements can be used to compare the qualities of the two technologies, at least for the detection of protein antigens such as toxins.

  19. Cooperative Immunoassays: Ultrasensitive Assays with Mixed Monoclonal Antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, Paul H.; Moyle, William R.

    1983-07-01

    Mixtures of certain monoclonal antibodies appear to bind human chorionic gonadotropin in a ``cooperative'' fashion because they form circular complexes with the hormone. Experiments illustrate how this property might be exploited to develop very sensitive immunoassays for human chorionic gonadotropin or any other antigen. Since the assays are not based on competitive inhibition between radiolabeled and unlabeled antigen, they are much more sensitive than a traditional radioimmunoassay in which either one of the same antibodies is used alone.

  20. Solution ELISA as a platform of choice for development of robust, drug tolerant immunogenicity assays in support of drug development.

    PubMed

    Mikulskis, Alvydas; Yeung, Dave; Subramanyam, Meena; Amaravadi, Lakshmi

    2011-02-28

    Humanized monoclonal antibody therapeutics are in many ways indistinguishable from the anti-therapeutic/anti-drug antibodies generated in humans. Therefore, immunogenicity assessments to such therapeutics pose unique challenges in clinical trials especially when significant drug interference is encountered. There are several technology platforms based on the bridging immunogenicity assay format, which have been successfully used for detection and quantification of anti-drug antibodies (ADA) in serum or plasma samples. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Electrochemiluminescent (ECL) immunoassay formats are among the most popular technology platforms. Pretreatment of samples with acid can also be used to lower drug interference. While ECL technology platform offered many advantages over traditional solid-phase ELISA methods, reliance on a single (or limited) vendor source became a significant concern within the biopharmaceutical industry especially for immunogenicity assays that need to be implemented over a period of many years in support of a single drug development program. We describe herein a systematic evaluation of solid-phase ELISA, GYROS, AlphaLISA, ECL Immunoassay, and solution ELISA platforms for detection of anti-drug antibodies with the goal of selection and development of a robust technology platform that meets the desired performance characteristics for most immunogenicity assays and can be easily implemented in a typical immunoassay laboratory. As part of this effort the Design of Experiments (DOE) approach was utilized in optimization of sample acid treatment conditions in order to improve drug tolerance in the evaluated assay platforms. After the initial evaluation of various technology platforms, a solution ELISA format was chosen for further development to support clinical trials for a humanized therapeutic antibody. As part of the assay development, flexible use of digoxigenin and 6-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) aminohexanoic acid (DNP) for

  1. Novel fluorescent probe for highly sensitive bioassay using sequential enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-capillary isoelectric focusing (ELISA-cIEF).

    PubMed

    Henares, Terence G; Uenoyama, Yuta; Nogawa, Yuto; Ikegami, Ken; Citterio, Daniel; Suzuki, Koji; Funano, Shun-ichi; Sueyoshi, Kenji; Endo, Tatsuro; Hisamoto, Hideaki

    2013-06-07

    This paper presents a novel rhodamine diphosphate molecule that allows highly sensitive detection of proteins by employing sequential enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and capillary isoelectric focusing (ELISA-cIEF). Seven-fold improvement in the immunoassay sensitivity and a 1-2 order of magnitude lower detection limit has been demonstrated by taking advantage of the combination of the enzyme-based signal amplification of ELISA and the concentration of enzyme reaction products by cIEF.

  2. Comparison of LUCIO®-direct ELISA with CEDIA immunoassay for 'zero tolerance' drug screening in urine as required by the German re-licensing guidelines.

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Dufaux, Bertin

    2013-06-01

    The performance of the previously validated LUCIO(®)-Direct-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (direct ELISA) screening tests according to forensic guidelines is compared to that of cloned enzyme donor immunoassays (CEDIA) test for drugs of abuse in urine as defined in the new re-licensing German medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines. The MPA screening cut-offs correspond to 10 ng/ml 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), 50 ng/ml amphetamine and designer amphetamines, 25 ng/ml morphine, codeine and dihydrocodeine, 30 ng/ml benzoylecgonine, 50 ng/ml methadone metabolite, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) and metabolites of diazepam, oxazepam, bromazepam, alprazolam, flunitrazepam and lorazepam at 50 ng/ml. Average relative sensitivities and relative specificities were 99.7 % and 98.4 % for direct ELISA and 66 % and 91.4 % for CEDIA, respectively.

  3. Detection of platelet antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Comparative studies with the indirect immunofluorescence assay.

    PubMed

    Horai, S; Claas, F H; van Rood, J J

    1981-08-01

    A newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of platelet antibodies was compared with the platelet immunofluorescence test (PIF). A good correlation was found between both assays. However, ELISA seems to be more sensitive than PIF. Some sera reacted only in ELISA whereas no sera were found that were negative in ELISA and positive in PIF. When comparing the antibody titres, ELISA is at least 8 times more sensitive than PIF.

  4. Immunoassay screening of diphenhydramine (Benadryl®) in urine and blood using a newly developed assay.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Warren C; Castro, Catherine; Catbagan, Philip; Moore, Christine; Wang, Guohong

    2012-03-01

    Diphenhydramine (DPH) is a common over the counter antihistamine that produces drowsiness and has the potential to cause driving under the influence of drugs-related accidents. To date there are no commercially available immunoassay screening kits for its detection in biological fluids such as urine and/or blood. We describe a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screen and report on its utility in the analysis of authentic specimens taken from volunteers. The assay is specific for detection of DPH and does not detect closely related antihistamines like brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine, and doxylamine. There is a varying amount of cross-reactivity seen with certain tricyclic compounds, due to similarities in side chain structure with DPH. Intra- and interday precision of the assay were determined to be less than 10%. The assay is highly sensitive and has a working range from 1 to 500 ng/mL for urine and 1 to 250 ng/mL for blood. The assay was further validated with authentic urine and blood specimens obtained from volunteers and coroner's laboratories.

  5. Silver nanoparticle enhanced immunoassays: one step real time kinetic assay for insulin in serum.

    PubMed

    Lochner, Nina; Lobmaier, Christina; Wirth, Michael; Leitner, Alfred; Pittner, Fritz; Gabor, Franz

    2003-11-01

    Silver nanoparticle enhanced fluorescence is introduced as an alternative method to surface plasmon resonance techniques for real time monitoring of biorecognitive interactions or immunoassays. This method relies on the phenomenon that an electromagnetic near field is generated upon illumination on the surface of silver nanoparticles. The interaction of this field with nearby fluorophores results in fluorescence enhancement. Thus, fluorophores in the bulk solution can be discriminated from surface bound fluorophores. Anti-insulin-antibodies were immobilized on the surface of silver colloids in the following order: A ready to use microplate was prepared by bottom up coating with layers of aminosilane, silver nanoparticles, Fc-recognizing F(ab)(2)-fragments and anti-insulin-antibodies. At equilibrium conditions fluorescein-labeled insulin could only be detected in the presence of the colloid; the detection limit was 250 nM, and a fourfold increase in fluorescence was observed upon real time monitoring. The competitive assay of labeled and unlabeled insulin revealed a working range of 10-200 nM insulin in serum. The rapid single step immunoassay is easy to perform even in microplate format, its sensitivity is comparable to ELISA techniques, and offers broad application for real time monitoring of molecular recognitive processes.

  6. Image-based ELISA on an activated polypropylene microtest plate--a spectrophotometer-free low cost assay technique.

    PubMed

    Parween, Shahila; Nahar, Pradip

    2013-10-15

    In this communication, we report ELISA technique on an activated polypropylene microtest plate (APPµTP) as an illustrative example of a low cost diagnostic assay. Activated test zone in APPµTP binds a capture biomolecule through covalent linkage thereby, eliminating non-specific binding often prevalent in absorption based techniques. Efficacy of APPµTP is demonstrated by detecting human immunoglobulin G (IgG), human immunoglobulin E (IgE) and Aspergillus fumigatus antibody in patient's sera. Detection is done by taking the image of the assay solution by a desktop scanner and analyzing the color of the image. Human IgE quantification by color saturation in the image-based assay shows excellent correlation with absorbance-based assay (Pearson correlation coefficient, r=0.992). Significance of the relationship is seen from its p value which is 4.087e-11. Performance of APPµTP is also checked with respect to microtiter plate and paper-based ELISA. APPµTP can quantify an analyte as precisely as in microtiter plate with insignificant non-specific binding, a necessary prerequisite for ELISA assay. In contrast, paper-ELISA shows high non-specific binding in control sera (false positive). Finally, we have carried out ELISA steps on APPµTP by ultrasound waves on a sonicator bath and the results show that even in 8 min, it can convincingly differentiate a test sample from a control sample. In short, spectrophotometer-free image-based miniaturized ELISA on APPµTP is precise, reliable, rapid, and sensitive and could be a good substitute for conventional immunoassay procedures widely used in clinical and research laboratories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of an ELISA microarray assay for the sensitive and simultaneous detection of ten biodefense toxins.

    SciTech Connect

    Jenko, Kathryn; Zhang, Yanfeng; Kostenko, Yulia; Fan, Yongfeng; Garcia-Rodriguez, Consuelo; Lou, Jianlong; Marks, James D.; Varnum, Susan M.

    2014-10-21

    Plant and microbial toxins are considered bioterrorism threat agents because of their extreme toxicity and/or ease of availability. Additionally, some of these toxins are increasingly responsible for accidental food poisonings. The current study utilized an ELISA-based protein antibody microarray for the multiplexed detection of ten biothreat toxins, botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) A, B, C, D, E, F, ricin, shiga toxins 1 and 2 (Stx), and staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB), in buffer and complex biological matrices. The multiplexed assay displayed a sensitivity of 1.3 pg/mL (BoNT/A, BoNT/B, SEB, Stx-1 and Stx-2), 3.3 pg/mL (BoNT/C, BoNT/E, BoNT/F) and 8.2 pg/mL (BoNT/D, ricin). All assays demonstrated high accuracy (75-120 percent recovery) and reproducibility (most coefficients of variation < 20%). Quantification curves for the ten toxins were also evaluated in clinical samples (serum, plasma, nasal fluid, saliva, stool, and urine) and environmental samples (apple juice, milk and baby food) with overall minimal matrix effects. The multiplex assays were highly specific, with little crossreactivity observed between the selected toxin antibodies. The results demonstrate a multiplex microarray that improves current immunoassay sensitivity for biological warfare agents in buffer, clinical, and environmental samples.

  8. Development of an ELISA microarray assay for the sensitive and simultaneous detection of ten biodefense toxins.

    PubMed

    Jenko, Kathryn L; Zhang, Yanfeng; Kostenko, Yulia; Fan, Yongfeng; Garcia-Rodriguez, Consuelo; Lou, Jianlong; Marks, James D; Varnum, Susan M

    2014-10-21

    Plant and microbial toxins are considered bioterrorism threat agents because of their extreme toxicity and/or ease of availability. Additionally, some of these toxins are increasingly responsible for accidental food poisonings. The current study utilized an ELISA-based protein antibody microarray for the multiplexed detection of ten biothreat toxins, botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) A, B, C, D, E, F, ricin, shiga toxins 1 and 2 (Stx), and staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB), in buffer and complex biological matrices. The multiplexed assay displayed a sensitivity of 1.3 pg mL(-1) (BoNT/A, BoNT/B, SEB, Stx-1 and Stx-2), 3.3 pg mL(-1) (BoNT/C, BoNT/E, BoNT/F) and 8.2 pg mL(-1) (BoNT/D, ricin). All assays demonstrated high accuracy (75-120 percent recovery) and reproducibility (most coefficients of variation <20%). Quantification curves for the ten toxins were also evaluated in clinical samples (serum, plasma, nasal fluid, saliva, stool, and urine) and environmental samples (apple juice, milk and baby food) with overall minimal matrix effects. The multiplex assays were highly specific, with little cross-reactivity observed between the selected toxin antibodies. The results demonstrate a multiplex microarray that improves current immunoassay sensitivity for biological warfare agents in buffer, clinical, and environmental samples.

  9. Development of an ELISA assay for the quantification of soluble huntingtin in human blood cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Huntington’s disease (HD) is a monogenic disorder caused by an aberrant expansion of CAG repeats in the huntingtin gene (HTT). Pathogenesis is associated with expression of the mutant (mHTT) protein in the CNS, with its levels most likely related to disease progression and symptom severity. Since non-invasive methods to quantify HTT in the CNS do not exist, measuring amount of soluble HTT in peripheral cells represents an important step in development of disease-modifying interventions in HD. Results An ELISA assay using commercially available antibodies was developed to quantify HTT levels in complex matrices like mammalian cell cultures lysates and human samples. The immunoassay was optimized using a recombinant full-length HTT protein, and validated both on wild-type and mutant HTT species. The ability of the assay to detect significant variations of soluble HTT levels was evaluated using an HSP90 inhibitor that is known to enhance HTT degradation. Once optimized, the bioassay was applied to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HD patients, demonstrating good potential in tracking the disease course. Conclusions The method described here represents a validated, simple and rapid bio-molecular assay to evaluate soluble HTT levels in blood cells as useful tool in disease and pharmacodynamic marker identification for observational and clinical trials. PMID:24274906

  10. Immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Y.-H. Peggy

    Immunochemistry is a relatively new science that has developed rapidly in the last few decades. One of the most useful analytical developments associated with this new science is immunoassay. Originally immunoassays were developed in medical settings to facilitate the study of immunology, particularly the antibody-antigen interaction. Immunoassays now are finding widespread applications outside the clinical field because they are appropriate for a wide range of analytes ranging from proteins to small organic molecules. In the food analysis area, immunoassays are widely used for chemical residue analysis, identification of bacteria and viruses, and detection of proteins in food and agricultural products. Protein detection is important for determination of allergens and meat species content, seafood species identification, and detection of genetically modified plant tissues. While immunoassays of all formats are too numerous to cover completely in this chapter, there are several procedures that have become standard for food analysis because of their specificity, sensitivity, and simplicity.

  11. [A double antibody sandwich ELISA based assay for titration of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus].

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Zhang, Quan-Fu; Li, Chuan; Li, Jian-Dong; Jiang, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Fu-Shun; Wu, Wei; Liang, Mi-Fang; Li, De-Xin

    2013-06-01

    To develop an assay for titration of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) based on double antibody sandwich ELISA. A double antibody sandwich ELISA was developed for detection of SFTSV based on SFTSV nucleocapsid (N) protein specific poly- and monoclonal antibodies, procedures were optimized and evaluated. This ELISA based titration assay was compared with fluorescence assasy and plaque assay based titration method. The results suggested that the titers obtained by ELISA based method are consistent with those obtained by IFA based method (R = 0.999) and the plaque assay titration method (R = 0.949). The novel ELISA based titration method with high sensitivity and specificity is easy to manage and perform, and can overcome the subjectivity associated with result determination of the fluorescence assay and plaque assay based methods. The novel ELISA based titration method can also be applied to high throughput detection.

  12. Paraquat enzyme-immunoassays in biological samples: assessment of the effects of hapten-protein bridge structures on assay sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Abuknesha, Ramadan A; Luk, Connie

    2005-06-01

    Previously unreported paraquat derivatives were prepared and used to develop enzyme-immunoassay methods for paraquat in serum and urine matrices. The study involved comparison of the effects of novel paraquat derivatives made of methyl and ethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium and cyanuric chloride (heterologous bridges) or valeric acid (homologous bridges) on the ability of paraquat standards to inhibit binding of the antibody to adsorbed hapten-protein plate coating antigens prepared by coupling the derivatives to gelatine. The comparison showed striking differences in assay sensitivity due to the hapten bridge binding phenomenon where the heterologous bridge conjugates enabled achievement of sensitivity levels several orders of magnitude greater than the homologous structures. The constructed ELISA showed minimal detection limit in the range 4 pg mL(-1) in the buffer systems and less then 100 pg mL(-1) in charcoal-stripped human and horse sera and human urine. The study presents details of synthesis of novel paraquat derivatives and a highly sensitive ELISA. In addition the investigation demonstrates the critical importance of judicious selection of hapten-bridge structures to achieve improved levels of detection limits of paraquat immunoassays. The reported assay is suitable for use in monitoring of paraquat levels in exposed persons or animals and for emergency diagnostic tests.

  13. PRNP variants in goats reduce sensitivity of detection of PrPSc by immunoassay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Immunoassays are extensively utilized in disease diagnostics with monoclonal antibodies serving as critical tools within the assay. Detection of scrapie in sheep and goats relies heavily on immunoassays including immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and ELISA. In the United States, regulatory tes...

  14. Evaluation of culture, ELISA and PCR assays for the detection of Salmonella in seafood.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Surendran, P K; Thampuran, N

    2008-02-01

    The study evaluated the efficiency of culture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the detection of Salmonella in naturally contaminated seafood. In this study, 215 seafood samples comprising fish, shrimp, crab, clam, mussel, oyster, squid, cuttlefish and octopus from fish market of Cochin (India), were compared by culture, ELISA and PCR methods. Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) method was followed for culture assay, and Salmonella Tek, a commercial sandwich ELISA kit, was used for ELISA assay. Salmonella-specific PCR assay was developed for 284 bp Salmonella-specific invA gene amplicon. PCR assay exhibited 31.6% seafood positive for Salmonella followed by ELISA (23.7%) and culture method (21.3%). There was fair to excellent agreement between culture, ELISA and PCR assays (kappa coefficient values ranging from 0.385 to 1.0) for different seafood samples. The investigation revealed the greater concordance between culture and ELISA methods for seafood. Among the three methods, PCR assay was most sensitive. Lower detection rate with culture and ELISA assays could be attributed to greater sensitivity of the PCR method in the detection of Salmonella in seafood. We propose the incorporation of dual tests based on different principle and procedure for the routine analysis of Salmonella in seafood.

  15. Lateral flow (immuno)assay: its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. A literature survey.

    PubMed

    Posthuma-Trumpie, Geertruida A; Korf, Jakob; van Amerongen, Aart

    2009-01-01

    Lateral flow (immuno)assays are currently used for qualitative, semiquantitative and to some extent quantitative monitoring in resource-poor or non-laboratory environments. Applications include tests on pathogens, drugs, hormones and metabolites in biomedical, phytosanitary, veterinary, feed/food and environmental settings. We describe principles of current formats, applications, limitations and perspectives for quantitative monitoring. We illustrate the potentials and limitations of analysis with lateral flow (immuno)assays using a literature survey and a SWOT analysis (acronym for "strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats"). Articles referred to in this survey were searched for on MEDLINE, Scopus and in references of reviewed papers. Search terms included "immunochromatography", "sol particle immunoassay", "lateral flow immunoassay" and "dipstick assay".

  16. A double-sandwich ELISA for identification of monoclonal antibodies suitable for sandwich immunoassays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sandwich immunoassay (sIA) is an invaluable technique for concentrating, detecting, and quantifying target antigens. The two critical components required are a capture antibody and a detection antibody, each binding a different epitope on the target antigen. The specific antibodies incorporated...

  17. Comparative study of circulating immune complexes quantity detection by three assays--CIF-ELISA, C1q-ELISA and anti-C3 ELISA.

    PubMed

    Stanilova, S A; Slavov, E S

    2001-07-01

    The assessment of the soluble immune complexes (IC) in human sera is traditionally performed by the C1q binding assay. In the present study, a novel method for the quantity of immune complexes was reported. The methodology was based on measuring their deposition on solid-phase C3 binding glycoprotein (CIF), using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also used ELISA that employed anti-C3 antibodies to determined the quantity of immune complexes. The three assays were evaluated for their performance characteristics on the same specially prepared samples: 55 normal sera, 99 sera from RA, 88 sera from SLE, and 27 sera from PSS. The results were compared by reference to a common standard-heat aggregated IgG that possesses many activities of immune complexes. Three of the tests used displayed almost the same specificity (over 95%), while their relative sensitivity varied depending on the disease sera tested. The sensitivity of the assays used was recorded highest for C1q ELISA-28.97% of positive sera, followed by CIF-ELISA-19.63% and lowest for anti-C3 ELISA-17.29%. A well-expressed correlation was found between CIF-ELISA and anti-C3 ELISA data (r=0.42), and a week correlation was noted when comparing CIF-ELISA and C1q ELISA IC levels detected (r=0.28). When the correlation coefficients were calculated individually for each disease category, they were clearly different, and that reflected indirectly in different sensitivities of the test for various disease categories. We also found that the results from the simultaneous performance of the tests demonstrated low percentage positive results when three or two assays were used. This is most probably due to the different assay abilities to detect IC with different sizes and composition, which shows that a small part of IC in the tested sera can be detected simultaneously by more than one assay. On the basis of the results obtained, we concluded that optimal screening for IC could be achieved by parallel application of

  18. Yolk protein immunoassays (YP-ELISA) to assess diet and reproductive quality of mass-reared Orius insidiosus (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae).

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Jeffrey P; Ferkovich, Stephen M

    2002-10-01

    A yolk protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (YP-ELISA) was developed for the predator Orius insidiosus (Say). The YP-ELISA is intended to assess reproductive response to dietary and other rearing conditions, and to assist in quality control and diet development for mass rearing. Hybridomas and monoclonal antibodies were produced against homogenates of eggs dissected from females. Hybridomas were selected for secretion of IgG that reacted with extracts of both females and their eggs, and that did not react with male extracts. Each cloned hybridoma produced a monoclonal antibody that specifically reacted on western blots against one of the two major yolk polypeptides, apoVn-I (180,000 molecular weight) or apoVn-II (40,000). Yolk protein ELISAs were developed with these antibodies to assess yolk protein content of female O. insidiosus as a measure of reproductive fitness and as a potential predictor of fecundity. Protocols for an indirect antigen ELISA and double antibody sandwich ELISA were developed to assess yolk protein contents of eggs and total contents in whole body homogenates. ELISA standards consisted of homogenates of eggs collected 0-24 h following oviposition. As determined with the sandwich ELISA, yolk protein contents of eggs declined with age before hatch, with a half-life of 32-34 h. Results were similar whether the detecting antibody-enzyme conjugate was anti-apoVn-I or anti-apoVn-II. Optimal conditions and sampling parameters were developed for the sandwich ELISA, which demonstrated minimal nonspecific interference in whole-insect extracts. In an initial application of the YP-ELISA, oviposition rates over a 10-d period were compared with yolk protein contents at the end of that period, dependent on diets of differing nutritional composition and quality. High and low yolk protein contents correlated with oviposition rates on respective diets, though oviposition showed more graded response to diets than did yolk protein. Improvements in sampling

  19. Sandwich ELISA Microarrays: Generating Reliable and Reproducible Assays for High-Throughput Screens

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, Rachel M.; Varnum, Susan M.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2009-05-11

    The sandwich ELISA microarray is a powerful screening tool in biomarker discovery and validation due to its ability to simultaneously probe for multiple proteins in a miniaturized assay. The technical challenges of generating and processing the arrays are numerous. However, careful attention to possible pitfalls in the development of your antibody microarray assay can overcome these challenges. In this chapter, we describe in detail the steps that are involved in generating a reliable and reproducible sandwich ELISA microarray assay.

  20. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and colloidal gold immunoassay for sulphamethazine residues in edible animal foods: investigation of the effects of the analytical conditions and the sample matrix on assay performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Jiayi; Liu, Junwei; Zhang, Yan

    2008-03-01

    To determine sulphamethazine (SMZ) residues in edible animal foods (pig muscle, chicken muscle, egg, fish, milk and liver), a competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a colloidal gold immunoassay were established. The limits of detection of the ELISA and the colloidal gold immunoassay were 0.02 and 0.5 microg kg(-1), respectively. The specificity of the ELISA developed to the SMZ was high according to the results of cross-reactivity testing with 14 kinds of sulphonamides. To obtain a more sensitive immunoassay, buffer solution (30 mmol L(-1) phosphate-buffered saline with 0.05% Tween 20, pH 8.5) was optimized through the whole test procedure. A simple and efficient extraction method for the rapid detection of SMZ residues in foods was developed, with recoveries between 74 and 117.5%. Matrix effects can be avoided by 1:10 dilution of pig muscle, chicken muscle, egg, fish, milk and liver with optimal buffer. The detection limit of SMZ was 5 microg kg(-1) in liver and 2 microg kg(-1) in the other five samples. For the validation of the ELISA tests, sample extracts were analysed by ELISA and high-performance liquid chromatography. The results obtained by these two methods showed a good correlation (r(2)) which was greater than 0.9. The colloidal gold immunoassay presented in this assay was successfully applied to determine SMZ in pig muscle, milk and fish below or equal to the maximum residue level (20 microg kg(-1)).

  1. IMMUNOASSAY HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Exposure Research Branch has developed several enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods to support human exposure assessment studies. Immunoassays to detect low levels (<10 ng/mL) of chlorpyrifos in food, track-in dirt and house dust have been applied to sam...

  2. IMMUNOASSAY HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Exposure Research Branch has developed several enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods to support human exposure assessment studies. Immunoassays to detect low levels (<10 ng/mL) of chlorpyrifos in food, track-in dirt and house dust have been applied to sam...

  3. Comparison between conventional indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) and simplified icELISA for small molecules.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Li, Gang; Yi, Guo-Xiang; Wang, Bao-Min; Deng, Ai-Xing; Nan, Tie-Gui; Li, Zhao-Hu; Li, Qing X

    2006-06-30

    A simplified indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) for small molecules was established by modifying the procedure of conventional icELISA. The key change was that the analyte, antibody, and enzyme-labeled second antibody in the simplified icELISA were added in one step, whereas in conventional icELISA these reagents were added in two separate steps. Three small chemicals, namely zeatin riboside, glycyrrhetinic acid, and chlorimuron-ethyl, were used to verify the new assay format and compare the results obtained from conventional icELISA and simplified icELISA. The results indicated that, under optimized conditions, the new assay offered several advantages over the conventional icELISA, which are simpler, less time consuming and higher sensitive although it requires more amount of reagents. The assay sensitivity (IC50) was improved for 1.2-1.4-fold. Four licorice roots samples were analyzed by conventional icELISA and simplified icELISA, as well as liquid chromatography (LC). There was no significant difference among the content obtained from the three methods for each sample. The correlation between data obtained from conventional icELISA and simplified icELISA analyses was 0.9888. The results suggest that the simplified icELISA be useful for high throughput screening of small molecules.

  4. Evaluation of a New Competitive Immunoassay (BioElisa Syphilis) for Screening for Treponema pallidum Antibodies at Various Stages of Syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Ebel, Anne; Bachelart, Loïc; Alonso, Jean-Michel

    1998-01-01

    The BioElisa Syphilis, a new competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for Treponema pallidum whole antigen that uses specific human immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies as the competitor, was evaluated for potential use in screening for syphilis at various stages. The results obtained by this competitive EIA were compared with those obtained by the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-abs) test and the T. pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA). Serum samples from 434 patients with positive TPHA and FTA-abs test results, including patients with primary, latent, secondary, and tertiary syphilis and neurosyphilis, were investigated. Two samples tested negative by competitive EIA but were weakly reactive by the TPHA and the FTA-abs test. Sixteen serum samples from patients with clinically documented active syphilis, including several patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, tested positive by the competitive EIA. There was a direct inverse correlation between EIA indices and titers in the TPHA and the FTA-abs test for all samples that tested positive. Specificity was assessed by testing 358 serum samples which tested negative for syphilis by TPHA and the FTA-abs test, including 100 serum samples from patients with documented infectious or autoimmune diseases. Only two serum samples gave a weakly positive EIA result. Thus, competitive EIA had a sensitivity of 99.5% and a specificity of 99.4% relative to the results of the FTA-abs test and TPHA. Our evaluation shows that BioElisa Syphilis is a sensitive, specific, and simple assay for screening for syphilis. PMID:9466741

  5. Development of enzyme immunoassays (ELISA and Western blot) for the serological diagnosis of dermatophytosis in symptomatic and asymptomatic cats.

    PubMed

    Santana, Aline Elisa; Taborda, Carlos Pelleschi; Severo, Julia So; Rittner, Glauce Mary Gomes; Muñoz, Julian Esteban; Larsson, Carlos Eduardo; Larsson, Carlos Eduardo

    2017-03-11

    Dermatophytosis is the most common fungal infection in cats worldwide and plays an important role in both animal and human health due to their high zoonotic potential. Effective screening is a strong preventive measure and the fungal culture is quite useful but requires full laboratorial experience and it takes a long time to obtain the result. A rapid and accurate screening test for dermatophytosis in cats is crucial for the effective control of disease outbreaks. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of enzyme immunoassays (ELISA and Western blot [WB]) for the rapid and precise diagnosis of dermatophytosis in cats. Seventy cats of various ages were divided into three groups: S (symptomatic, n = 20), AS (asymptomatic, n = 30), and N (negative, n = 20). All animals were submitted to fungal culture and blood samples for carrying out the serological tests. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was found between IgG-specific levels of sera of Microsporum canis positive and negative animals. There was no statistic difference between groups symptomatic and asymptomatic. The ELISA test showed sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 75%. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis also showed higher diagnostic accuracy (AUC 0.925). The WB technique detected 13 bands, and the 50 kDa protein was considered the most immunogenic protein, observing reactivity in 83.3% in the symptomatic group and 66.6% in the asymptomatic group. The study concluded that ELISA and WB were useful tools to reliably detect cats that have been exposed to M. canis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Comparison of conventional lateral-flow assays and a new fluorescent immunoassay to detect influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Gary P; Wilson, Adele M; Zuretti, Alejandro R

    2013-05-01

    Sofia, a novel, fluorescent lateral-flow immunoassay was compared with two conventional colorimetric assays, Quickvue Influenza A+B and Directigen FLU A+B, to identify influenza viral antigen from patient nasopharyngeal specimens. A total of 118 frozen original influenza-positive specimens and 57 prospective specimens were examined. Using rt-PCR as a referee assay, sensitivity values (%) for influenza A/B of 80.0/74.8, 73.3/59.3 and 73.3/40.7 were obtained using the Sofia, Quickvue and Directigen assays, respectively. All assays demonstrated reduced sensitivity for influenza B as compared with influenza A virus. With respect to the Sofia assay, the sensitivity of influenza B for the Directigen assay was significantly diminished. False positive results were not observed in the Sofia and Directigen assays. The Quickvue assay produced 3 false-positive results (2 influenza A and 1 influenza B) resulting in a specificity (%) of 96 and 98 for influenza A and B, respectively. Cross-reactivity to other respiratory viruses was not observed among immunoassays. A sensitivity rank (highest to low) of rt-PCR>culture>Sofia>Quickvue>Directigen was established using dilutions of influenza A and B. Sofia provides enhanced sensitivity and objective result interpretation over conventional colorimetric immunoassays.

  7. Naked-eye sensitive ELISA-like assay based on gold-enhanced peroxidase-like immunogold activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shasha; Chen, Zhaopeng; Choo, Jaebum; Chen, Lingxin

    2016-02-01

    A naked-eye sensitive ELISA-like assay was developed based on gold-enhanced peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Using human IgG (H-IgG) as an analytical model, goat anti-human IgG antibody (anti-IgG) adsorbed on microtiter plate and AuNPs-labeled anti-IgG acted as capture antibody and detection antibody, respectively. Because the surfaces of AuNPs were blocked by protein molecules, the peroxidase-like activity of AuNPs was almost inhibited, evaluated by the catalytic oxidation of peroxidase enzyme substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), which could produce a bright blue color in the presence of H2O2. Fortunately, the catalytic ability of AuNPs was dramatically increased by the deposition of gold due to the formation of a new gold shell on immunogold. Under optimal reaction conditions, the colorimetric immunoassay presented a good linear relationship in the range of 0.7-100 ng/mL and the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.3 ng/mL calculated by 3σ/S for UV-vis detection, and obtained LOD of 5 ng/mL for naked-eye detection. The obtained results were competitive with conventional sandwich ELISA with the LOD of 1.6 ng/mL. Furthermore, this developed colorimetric immunoassay was successfully applied to diluted human serum and fetal bovine serum samples, and predicted a broad prospect for the use of peroxidase-like activity involving nanomaterials in bioassay and diagnostics.

  8. COMPARISONS OF ELISA AND WESTERN BLOT ASSAYS FOR DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM ANTIBODY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A seroprevalence survey was conducted using ELISA and Western blot (WB) assays for antibody to three Cryptosporidium antigens on 380 blood donors in Jackson County, Oregon. The purpose was to determine if either assay could detect serological evidence of an outbreak which occurre...

  9. COMPARISONS OF ELISA AND WESTERN BLOT ASSAYS FOR DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM ANTIBODY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A seroprevalence survey was conducted using ELISA and Western blot (WB) assays for antibody to three Cryptosporidium antigens on 380 blood donors in Jackson County, Oregon. The purpose was to determine if either assay could detect serological evidence of an outbreak which occurre...

  10. Performance evaluation of nine hormone assays on the Immulite 2000 immunoassay system.

    PubMed

    Tello, F L; Hernández, D M

    2000-10-01

    We evaluated the analytical performance of the Immulite 2000 immunoassay analyzer (Diagnostic Products Corporation, Los Angeles, USA) based on a new detection technology, electrochemical luminescence. The evaluated analytes were thyrotropin, triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, follitropin, lutropin, prolactin, cortisol, estradiol and progesterone. We tested the assay precision, linearity, recovery, and correlation with comparison methods for these analytes. For most assays, within-run and between-day imprecisions were less than 8% and 10%, respectively. The linearity and recovery were acceptable for all assays. The correlation between the Immulite 2000 assays and comparison methods showed satisfactory results.

  11. Development of a PCR ELISA assay for the identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    PubMed

    Sails, A D; Fox, A J; Bolton, F J; Wareing, D R; Greenway, D L; Borrow, R

    2001-10-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed based on a solution-hybridization colorimetric end-point detection format (PCR ELISA) for the identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. PCR primers were designed to target a gene sequence with species-specific motifs. Five biotin-labelled probes targeted to the species-specific motifs were investigated for the detection of digoxygenin-labelled PCR products from C. jejuni and C. coli using the PCR ELISA format. Two probes were identified, one which reacts with both the C. jejuni and C. coli target sequences (probe CC2) and one probe which reacts with the C. jejuni target sequence only (probe CJ2). The specificity of the assay with the CJ2 and CC2 probes was investigated with a range of Campylobacter spp., Arcobacter spp., Helicobacter spp. and a range of unrelated organisms. The PCR ELISA assay and probes were demonstrated to be specific for C. jejuni and C. coli. The sensitivity of the PCR ELISA assay was demonstrated to be 10-100-fold more sensitive than a gel-based PCR method using the same primers. This PCR ELISA assay is sensitive, specific and significantly reduces the time needed for the identification of C. jejuni and C. coli and has the potential to facilitate early detection of these important gastro-intestinal pathogens. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  12. Analytical Performance of ELISA Assays in Urine: One More Bottleneck towards Biomarker Validation and Clinical Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Chatziharalambous, Despina; Lygirou, Vasiliki; Latosinska, Agnieszka; Stravodimos, Konstantinos; Vlahou, Antonia; Jankowski, Vera; Zoidakis, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    ELISA is the main approach for the sensitive quantification of protein biomarkers in body fluids and is currently employed in clinical laboratories for the measurement of clinical markers. As such, it also constitutes the main methodological approach for biomarker validation and further qualification. For the latter, specific assay performance requirements have to be met, as described in respective guidelines of regulatory agencies. Even though many clinical ELISA assays in serum are regularly used, ELISA clinical applications in urine are significantly less. The scope of our study was to evaluate ELISA assay analytical performance in urine for a series of potential biomarkers for bladder cancer, as a first step towards their large scale clinical validation. Seven biomarkers (Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, Survivin, Slit homolog 2 protein, NRC-Interacting Factor 1, Histone 2B, Proteinase-3 and Profilin-1) previously described in the literature as having differential expression in bladder cancer were included in the study. A total of 11 commercially available ELISA tests for these markers were tested by standard curve analysis, assay reproducibility, linearity and spiking experiments. The results show disappointing performance with coefficients of variation>20% for the vast majority of the tests performed. Only 3 assays (for Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, Survivin and Slit homolog 2 protein) passed the accuracy thresholds and were found suitable for further application in marker quantification. These results collectively reflect the difficulties in developing urine-based ELISA assays of sufficient analytical performance for clinical application, presumably attributed to the urine matrix itself and/or presence of markers in various isoforms. PMID:26889680

  13. Evaluation of Multiple Immunoassay Technology Platforms to Select the Anti-Drug Antibody Assay Exhibiting the Most Appropriate Drug and Target Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Collet-Brose, Justine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was, at the assay development stage and thus with an appropriate degree of rigor, to select the most appropriate technology platform and sample pretreatment procedure for a clinical ADA assay. Thus, ELISA, MSD, Gyrolab, and AlphaLISA immunoassay platforms were evaluated in association with target depletion and acid dissociation sample pretreatment steps. An acid dissociation step successfully improved the drug tolerance for all 4 technology platforms and the required drug tolerance was achieved with the Gyrolab and MSD platforms. The target tolerance was shown to be better for the ELISA format, where an acid dissociation treatment step alone was sufficient to achieve the desired target tolerance. However, inclusion of a target depletion step in conjunction with the acid treatment raised the target tolerance to the desired level for all of the technologies. A higher sensitivity was observed for the MSD and Gyrolab assays and the ELISA, MSD, and Gyrolab all displayed acceptable interdonor variability. This study highlights the usefulness of evaluating the performance of different assay platforms at an early stage in the assay development process to aid in the selection of the best fit-for-purpose technology platform and sample pretreatment steps. PMID:27243038

  14. Comparisons of ELISA and Western blot assays for detection of autophagy flux.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sung-Hee; Choi, Yong-Bok; Kim, June-Hyun; Weihl, Conrad C; Ju, Jeong-Sun

    2017-08-01

    We analyzed autophagy/mitophagy flux in vitro (C2C12 myotubes) and in vivo (mouse skeletal muscle) following the treatments of autophagy inducers (starvation, rapamycin) and a mitophagy inducer (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, CCCP) using two immunodetection methods, ELISA and Western blotting, and compared their working range, accuracy, and reliability. The ELISAs showed a broader working range than that of the LC3 Western blots (Table 1). Table 2 showed that data value distribution was tighter and the average standard error from the ELISA was much smaller than those of the Western blot, directly relating to the accuracy of the assay. Test-retest reliability analysis showed good reliability for three individual ELISAs (interclass correlation, ≥ 0.7), but poor reliability for three individual Western blots (interclass correlation, ≤ 0.4) (Table 3).

  15. Development and application of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of amygdalin, a cyanogenic glycoside, in food.

    PubMed

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2014-07-09

    Amygdalin is a member of the cyanogenic glycoside group of plant secondary metabolites capable of generating hydrogen cyanide under certain conditions. As a consequence, the cyanogenic glycosides have been associated with incidents of acute and subacute food poisoning. Specific antibodies were raised against an amygdalin-bovine serum albumin immunogen synthesized using a novel approach. The antibodies were used in a microtitration plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification, for the first time, of amygdalin in commercially available foods. Correlation of results with high-performance liquid chromatography was very high (r = 0.983). The limit of detection of the immunoassay was 200 ± 0.05 pg mL(-1), and the 50% inhibitory concentration of amygdalin was 50 ± 0.02 ng mL(-1), making the ELISA particularly sensitive.

  16. ELISA assays and alcohol: increasing carbon chain length can interfere with detection of cytokines.

    PubMed

    von Maltzan, Kristine; Pruett, Stephen B

    2011-02-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are frequently used in studies on cytokine production in response to treatment of cell cultures or laboratory animals. When an ELISA assay is performed on cell culture supernatants, samples often contain the treatment agents. The purpose of the present study was to determine if some of the agents evaluated might inhibit cytokine detection by interfering with the ELISA, leaving the question of whether cytokine production was inhibited unanswered. Mouse and human cytokine ELISA kits from BD Biosciences were used according to the manufacturer's instructions. Cytokine proteins were subjected to one to five carbon alcohols at 86.8mM (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, n-butanol, and n-pentanol). After treating cell cultures with alcohols of different carbon chain lengths, we found that some of the alcohols interfered with measurement of some cytokines by ELISA, thus making their effects on cytokine production by cells in culture unclear. Increasing carbon chain length of straight chain alcohols positively correlated with their ability to inhibit detection of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 10 (IL-10), but not with the detection of interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8, (IL-8), and interleukin 12 (IL-12). To avoid misinterpretation of treatment effects, ELISA assays should be tested with the reference protein and the treatment agent first, before testing biological samples. These results along with other recent results we obtained using circular dichroism indicate that alcohols with two or more carbons can directly alter protein conformation enough to disrupt binding in an ELISA (shown in the present study) or to inhibit ligand-induced conformational changes (results not shown). Such direct effects have not been given enough consideration as a mechanism of ethanol action in the immune system.

  17. ELISA assays and alcohol: increasing carbon chain length can interfere with detection of cytokines

    PubMed Central

    von Maltzan, Kristine; Pruett, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are frequently used in studies on cytokine production in response to treatment of cell cultures or laboratory animals. When an ELISA assay is performed on cell culture supernatants, samples often contain the treatment agents. The purpose of the present study was to determine if some of the agents evaluated might inhibit cytokine detection by interfering with the ELISA, leaving the question of whether cytokine production was inhibited unanswered. Mouse and human cytokine ELISA kits from BD Biosciences were used according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Cytokine proteins were subjected to one to five carbon alcohols at 86.8 mM (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, n-butanol, and n-pentanol). After treating cell cultures with alcohols of different carbon chain lengths, we found that some of the alcohols interfered with measurement of some cytokines by ELISA, thus making their effects on cytokine production by cells in culture unclear. Increasing carbon chain length of straight chain alcohols positively correlated with their ability to inhibit detection of TNF-α and IL-10, but not with the detection of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-12. To avoid misinterpretation of treatment effects, ELISA assays should be tested with the reference protein and the treatment agent first, before testing biological samples. These results along with other recent results we obtained using circular dichroism indicate that alcohols with 2 or more carbons can directly alter protein conformation enough to disrupt binding in an ELISA (shown in the present study) or to inhibit ligand induced conformational changes (results not shown). Such direct effects have not been given enough consideration as a mechanism of ethanol action in the immune system. PMID:20843633

  18. Predicting detection limits of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and bioanalytical techniques in general.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiyun; Garcia-D'Angeli, Alexa; Brennan, Joseph P; Huo, Qun

    2014-01-21

    The detection limit is one of the most important performance parameters for bioanalytical techniques. Here we present a generic method to estimate the detection limit of biomolecular assays based on a step-by-step analysis of the assay procedure. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is used here as an example; however, much of the information presented in this article may be applied to other types of biomolecular assays and analytical techniques. A clear understanding of what affects the detection limit can help researchers to evaluate different bio-analytical techniques properly, and to design better strategies to optimize and achieve the best analytical performance.

  19. A Direct, Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) as a Quantitative Technique for Small Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Jennifer L.; Rippe, Karen Duda; Imarhia, Kelly; Swift, Aileen; Scholten, Melanie; Islam, Naina

    2012-01-01

    ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used technique with applications in disease diagnosis, detection of contaminated foods, and screening for drugs of abuse or environmental contaminants. However, published protocols with a focus on quantitative detection of small molecules designed for teaching laboratories are limited. A…

  20. A Direct, Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) as a Quantitative Technique for Small Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Jennifer L.; Rippe, Karen Duda; Imarhia, Kelly; Swift, Aileen; Scholten, Melanie; Islam, Naina

    2012-01-01

    ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used technique with applications in disease diagnosis, detection of contaminated foods, and screening for drugs of abuse or environmental contaminants. However, published protocols with a focus on quantitative detection of small molecules designed for teaching laboratories are limited. A…

  1. Immunoassays for diagnosis of coagulation disorders.

    PubMed

    Kappel, A; Ehm, M

    2010-11-01

    Immunoassays play a pivotal role in the clinical laboratory. In the coagulation section of the laboratory, they are used as an aid for diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, thrombophilia screening, or detection of coagulation factor deficiencies, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and latex agglutination immunoassay technologies are currently most widely used, while Luminescent Oxygen Channeling Immunoassay (LOCI®) and other chemiluminescence-based immunoassays are emerging technologies for the coagulation laboratory. However, not all immunoassay technologies employed are compatible with the workflow requirements of the coagulation laboratory, and, not all technologies are suitable for detection or quantification of every marker. This review focuses on technical and performance aspects of those immunoassay technologies that are most widely used in the coagulation laboratory, and provides a description of markers that are typically tested by immunoassays.

  2. The effects of detergent on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of blood group substances.

    PubMed

    McCabe, J P; Fletcher, S M; Jones, M N

    1988-04-06

    The detergents 1-0-n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OBG) and sodium n-dodecyl sulphate (SDS) have been used to extract blood group substances from human erythrocyte membranes for detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The effect of detergent concentration on the extraction process and detection by ELISA have been investigated. Detergent extraction increased the ELISA response relative to response from membrane suspensions approximately 1000-fold. Optimum responses occurred using detergent concentrations near the critical micelle concentration (cmc) for OBG and below the cmc for SDS. High detergent concentrations interfered with the ELISA but this effect was reduced by dilution of the extracts before adsorption of antigen on the microtitre wells. The interference effects of detergent on ELISA were also investigated using ovarian cyst glycoproteins as antigen. It was found that detergents inhibit the assay at the initial stage by competing with antigens for adsorption sites on the microtitre well surface and that subsequent detergent can displace pre-bound antigen. The results are discussed in terms of detergent binding to proteins (and glycoproteins) in relation to free (unbound) detergent concentration.

  3. A quantitative ELISA assay for the fragile x mental retardation 1 protein.

    PubMed

    Iwahashi, Christine; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi J; Yasui, Dag; Parrott, George; Nguyen, Danh; Mayeur, Greg; Hagerman, Paul J

    2009-07-01

    Non-coding (CGG-repeat) expansions in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene result in a spectrum of disorders involving altered neurodevelopment (fragile X syndrome), neurodegeneration (late-onset fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome), or primary ovarian insufficiency. While reliable and quantitative assays for the number of CGG repeats and FMR1 mRNA levels are now available, there has been no scalable, quantitative assay for the FMR1 protein (FMRP) in non-transformed cells. Using a combination of avian and murine antibodies to FMRP, we developed a sensitive and highly specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for FMRP in peripheral blood lymphocytes. This ELISA method is capable of quantifying FMRP levels throughout the biologically relevant range of protein concentrations and is specific for the intact FMRP protein. Moreover, the ELISA is well-suited for replicate protein determinations across serial dilutions in non-transformed cells and is readily scalable for large sample numbers. The FMRP ELISA is potentially a powerful tool in expanding our understanding of the relationship between FMRP levels and the various FMR1-associated clinical phenotypes.

  4. Comparison of GD2 Binding Capture ELISA Assays for Anti-GD2-Antibodies Using GD2-Coated Plates and a GD2-Expressing Cell-Based ELISA

    PubMed Central

    Soman, Gopalan; Yang, Xiaoyi; Jiang, Hengguang; Giardina, Steve; Mitra, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    Two assay methods for quantification of the disialoganglioside (GD2)-specific binding activities of anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies and antibody immunofusion proteins, such as ch14.18 and hu14.18-IL2, were developed. The methods differed in the use of either microtiter plates coated with purified GD2 or plates seeded with GD2-expressing cell lines to bind the anti-GD2 molecules. The bound antibodies were subsequently detected using the reactivity of the antibodies to an HRP-labeled anti-IgG Fc or antibodies recognizing the conjugate IL-2 part of the Hu 14.18IL-2 fusion protein. The bound HRP was detected using reagents such as orthophenylene diamine, 2, 2’-azinobis [3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] or tetramethylbenzidine. The capture ELISA using GD2-coated plates was developed earlier in assay development and used to demonstrate assay specificity and to compare lot-to-lot consistency and stability of ch14.18, and Hu14.18 IL-2 in clinical development. During this study, we found a number of issues related to plate-to-plate variability, GD2 lot variability, and variations due to GD2 storage stability, etc., that frequently lead to assay failure in plates coated with purified GD2. The cell-based ELISA (CbELISA) using the GD2 expressing melanoma cell line, M21/P6, was developed as an alternative to the GD2-coated plate ELISA. The results on the comparability of the capture ELISA on GD2-coated plates and the cell-based assay show that both assays give comparable results. However, the cell-based assay is more consistent and reproducible. Subsequently, the anti-GD2 capture ELISA using the GD2-coated plate was replaced with the CbELISA for product lot release testing and stability assessment. PMID:21893062

  5. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for methylphenidate (Ritalin ) in urine.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Mark G; Lewis, John G; Elder, Peter A; Moore, Grant A

    2003-09-01

    A direct enyzme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for urinary immunoreactive methylphenidate (Ritalin), in which a standard 96-well microtiter plate is used, is described. For this ELISA, a methylphenidate-thyroglobulin conjugate is immobilized to the microtiter plate and competes with methylphenidate in the standard or urine sample for antibody-binding sites. After washing, the sheep methylphenidate antibody bound to immobilized methylphenidate is detected with peroxidase-labelled goat antisheep IgG. Following a further wash, tetramethylbenzidine is added, color is developed, and the plate is read at 450 nm on an ELISA plate reader. This method is unaffected by drugs of abuse and is suitable for routine use in the toxicology laboratory.

  6. Timed ELISA: an alternative approach to quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Muller, R

    1997-10-01

    As the uses for ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) increase, so does the need for a quantitative procedure that does not require a spectrophotometer or other expensive equipment. 'Timed ELISA' employs an 'iodine clock' as the final step such that quantitative measurements may be made using a stopwatch. Catalase, coupled to the primary antibody, reduces the concentration of H2O2 available to generate iodine in the clock reaction. Iodine stains the starch component blue, but catalase prolongs the time taken for the change in colour to be observed. After the time delay occurs the transition to full colour development is extremely rapid (< 1 s) at all analyte concentrations, allowing clear definition of the end point. The performance of Timed ELISA is similar to that obtained using a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated system employing the customary spectrophotometric determination.

  7. Determination of PCBs in fish using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lasrado, J.A.; Santerre, C.R.; Zajicek, J.L.; Stahl, J.R.; Tillitt, D.E.; Deardorff, D.

    2003-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in fish tissue using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Standard curves for Aroclor 1248, 1254, and 1260 in catfish tissue were developed with ranges from 0.05 to 0.5 ppm and 0.5 to 5.0 ppm. Wild fish were initially analyzed using gas chromatography/electron-capture detection (GC/ECD) and those having residues within the standard curve ranges were analyzed with ELISA. Results obtained using ELISA and GC/ECD were not significantly different (p < 0.05) from 0.05 to 0.5 ppm. From 0.5 to 5.0 ppm, the standard curve for Aroclor 1254 was the best predictor of total PCB in wild fish samples.

  8. An ELISA DYRK1A non-radioactive assay suitable for the characterization of inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Adayev, Tatyana; Hwang, Yu-Wen

    2017-01-01

    The DYRK1A (dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A) gene encodes a proline-directed Ser/Thr kinase. Elevated expression and/or altered distribution of the kinase have been implicated in the neurological impairments associated with Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Consequently, DYRK1A inhibition has been of significant interest as a potential strategy for therapeutic intervention of DS and AD. Many classes of novel inhibitors have been described in the past decade. Although non-radioactive methods for analyzing DYRK1A inhibition have been developed, methods employing radioactive tracers are still commonly used for quantitative characterization of DYRK1A inhibitors. Here, we present a non-radioactive ELISA assay based on the detection of DYRK1A-phosphorylated dynamin 1a fragment using a phosphorylation site-specific antibody. The assay was verified by the use of two well-characterized DYRK1A inhibitors, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and harmine. The IC 50s for EGCG and harmine determined by the ELISA method were found to be comparable to those previously measured by radioactive tracing methods.  Furthermore, we determined the mode of inhibition for EGCG and harmine by a modification of the ELISA assay. This assay confirms the mode of inhibition of EGCG (non-ATP-competitive) and harmine (ATP-competitive), as previously determined. We conclude that the ELISA platform demonstrated here is a viable alternative to the traditional radioactive tracer assays for analyzing DYRK1A inhibitors. PMID:28163906

  9. Evaluation of 5 Commercially Available Zika Virus Immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Safronetz, David; Sloan, Angela; Stein, Derek R; Mendoza, Emelissa; Barairo, Nicole; Ranadheera, Charlene; Scharikow, Leanne; Holloway, Kimberly; Robinson, Alyssia; Traykova-Andonova, Maya; Makowski, Kai; Dimitrova, Kristina; Giles, Elizabeth; Hiebert, Joanne; Mogk, Rhonda; Beddome, Sharla; Drebot, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Because of the global spread of Zika virus, accurate and high-throughput diagnostic immunoassays are needed. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of 5 commercially available Zika virus serologic assays to the recommended protocol of Zika virus IgM-capture ELISA and plaque-reduction neutralization tests. Most commercial immunoassays showed low sensitivity, which can be increased.

  10. An ELISA assay for cytochrome P4501A in fish liver cells

    SciTech Connect

    Brueschweiler, B.J.; Fent, K. |; Wuergler, F.E. |

    1996-04-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression in vitro in fish hepatoma cells is described. Cells were cultured as monolayers in 96-microwell cell culture plates and exposed to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners 77, 105, 153, and 169; 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC), and {beta}-naphthoflavone (BNF) for 3 d. Relative CYP1A protein content, CYP1A enzymatic activity, and total protein content were determined directly within the wells. At low concentrations of PCB 77, PCB 169, and 3-MC, the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was induced, but it was inhibited at high concentrations of these compounds. However, CYP1A protein content measured in an ELISA performed with intact cells increased monotonically in response to the concentration. No CYP1A induction was observed for PCB 105 and PCB 153. Because comparison between EROD activity and CYP1A amount gives information about the catalytic efficiency of CYP1A in the cells, this noncompetitive, solid-phase ELISA is recommended as a complementary method to the EROD assay. This novel ELISA method may be an accurate in vitro technique for a rapid and sensitive screening of CYP1A-inducible compounds.

  11. Henipavirus microsphere immuno-assays for detection of antibodies against Hendra virus.

    PubMed

    McNabb, Leanne; Barr, J; Crameri, G; Juzva, S; Riddell, S; Colling, A; Boyd, V; Broder, C; Wang, L-F; Lunt, R

    2014-05-01

    Hendra and Nipah viruses (HeV and NiV) are closely related zoonotic pathogens of the Paramyxoviridae family. Both viruses belong to the Henipavirus genus and cause fatal disease in animals and humans, though only HeV is endemic in Australia. In general and due to the acute nature of the disease, agent detection by PCR and virus isolation are the primary tools for diagnostic investigations. Assays for the detection of antibodies against HeV are fit more readily for the purpose of surveillance testing in disease epidemiology and to meet certification requirements in the international movement of horses. The first generation indirect ELISA has been affected by non-specific reactions which must be resolved using virus neutralisation serology conducted at laboratory bio-safety level 4 containment (PC4). Recent developments have enabled improvements in the available serology assays. The production of an expressed recombinant truncated HeV G protein has been utilised in ELISA and in Luminex-based multiplexed microsphere assays. In the latter format, two Luminex assays have been developed for use in henipavirus serology: a binding assay (designed for antibody detection and differentiation) and a blocking assay (designed as a surrogate for virus neutralisation). Equine and canine field sera were used to evaluate the two Luminex assays relative to ELISA and virus neutralisation serology. Results showed that Luminex assays can be effective as rapid, sensitive and specific tests for the detection of HeV antibody in horse and dog sera. The tests do not require PC4 containment and are appropriate for high throughput applications as might be required for disease investigations and other epidemiological surveillance. Also, the results show that the Luminex assays detect effectively HeV vaccine-induced antibodies.

  12. Identifying the predator complex of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae): a comparative study of the efficacy of an ELISA and PCR gut content assay.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Valerie; Hagler, James; Daane, Kent; de León, Jesse; Groves, Russell

    2008-10-01

    A growing number of ecologists are using molecular gut content assays to qualitatively measure predation. The two most popular gut content assays are immunoassays employing pest-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays employing pest-specific DNA. Here, we present results from the first study to simultaneously use both methods to identify predators of the glassy winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). A total of 1,229 arthropod predators, representing 30 taxa, were collected from urban landscapes in central California and assayed first by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a GWSS egg-specific mAb and then by PCR using a GWSS-specific DNA marker that amplifies a 197-base pair fragment of its cytochrome oxidase gene (subunit I). The gut content analyses revealed that GWSS remains were present in 15.5% of the predators examined, with 18% of the spiders and 11% of the insect predators testing positive. Common spider predators included members of the Salticidae, Clubionidae, Anyphaenidae, Miturgidae, and Corinnidae families. Common insect predators included lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), praying mantis (Mantodea: Mantidae), ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), assassin bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), and damsel bugs (Hemiptera: Nabidae). Comparison of the two assays indicated that they were not equally effective at detecting GWSS remains in predator guts. The advantages of combining the attributes of both types of assays to more precisely assess field predation and the pros and cons of each assay for mass-screening predators are discussed.

  13. Application of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Greenberger, P A; Patterson, R

    1982-02-01

    IgE and IgG antibodies against Af were measured by ELISA in sera from 15 patients with ABPA and compared with antibody levels in six patients with extrinsic asthma and immediate-type skin reactivity to Af (prick skin test 3+ or 4+) but no other evidence for ABPA. The assay used polyvinyl microhemagglutination plates as a solid phase to adsorb antigens of Af and a double-antibody system of class-specific anti-human globulin and alkaline phosphatase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit globulin. IgE-Af and IgG-Af were significantly greater among patients with ABPA than in patients with asthma, suggesting that this assay may be used as an important diagnostic aid. The advantages of ELISA over radioimmunoassay are discussed in regard to early detection of an indolent pulmonary disease.

  14. Application of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberger, P.A.; Patterson, R.

    1982-02-01

    IgE and IgG antibodies against Af were measured by ELISA in sera from 15 patients with ABPA and compared with antibody levels in six patients with extrinsic asthma and immediate-type skin reactivity to Af (prick skin test 3+ or 4+) but no other evidence for ABPA. The assay used polyvinyl microhemagglutination plates as a solid phase to absorb antigens of Af and a double-anti-rabbit globulin. IgE-Af and IgG-Af were significantly greater among patients with ABPA than in patients with asthma, suggesting that this assay may be used as an important diagnostic aid. The advantages of ELISA over radioimmunoassay are discussed in regard to early detection of an indolent pulmonary disease.

  15. Rapid determination of phenylethanolamine A in biological samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and lateral-flow immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangmei; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Limiao; Wang, Qi; Pei, Xingyao; Jiang, Haiyang

    2015-10-01

    Phenylethanolamine A (PA) is a β-adrenergic agonist, which was first used in animal husbandry as a growth promoter in China in 2010. In this study, a monoclonal-antibody (mAb)-based indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) and lateral-flow immunoassay (LFA) for the detection of PA in swine urine and pork were developed. The immunogen was prepared by linking PA hapten with carrier protein via a diazotization method. The IC50 value of the optimized icELISA was 0.44 ng mL(-1). The limits of detection of the icELISA for PA in swine urine and pork were 0.13 ng mL(-1) and 0.39 ng g(-1), respectively. The recoveries of PA from spiked swine urine and pork were in the range 82.0-107.4 % and 81.8-113.3%, respectively, with the coefficients of variation in the range 4.1-16.2% and 1.2-6.3%, respectively. The mAbs had negligible cross reactivity with 10 other β-agonists. In contrast, the LFA had a cut-off level of 5 ng mL(-1) (g) in swine urine and pork, and the results could be achieved within 5 min. Ten blind samples of swine urine were analyzed simultaneously by icELISA, LFA, and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the results of the three methods agreed well. Therefore, the combination of two immunoassays provides an effective and rapid screening method for detection of PA residues in biological samples.

  16. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of cashew nut in foods.

    PubMed

    Gaskin, Ferdelie E; Taylor, Steve L

    2011-01-01

    The presence of undeclared cashew can pose a health risk to cashew-allergic consumers. The food industry has the responsibility to declare the presence of cashews on packaged foods even when trace residues are or might be present. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, sensitive, and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of cashew residues. Raw and roasted cashews were defatted and used separately to immunize sheep, goats, and rabbits. The cashew ELISA was developed using sheep and rabbit polyclonal anti-roasted cashew sera as capture and detector reagents, respectively, with visualization through an alkaline phosphatase-mediated substrate reaction. The cashew ELISA was shown to have a limit of quantification of 1 ppm (1 μg cashew/g). The ELISA was highly specific except that substantial cross-reactivity was noted with pistachio and a lesser degree of cross-reactivity was noted with hazelnut. The performance of the ELISA was assessed by manufacturing cookies, ice cream, and milk chocolate with added known amounts (0 to 1000 ppm) of cashew. The mean percent recoveries for ice cream, cookies, and milk chocolate were 118%± 2.9%, 84.3%± 4.0%, and 104%± 3.0%, respectively. In a limited retail survey, 4/5 retail samples with cashew declared on ingredient labels tested positive for cashew compared to 5/36 samples of foods with precautionary labels indicating the possible presence of one or more tree nuts and 0/18 samples without cashew declared on the label in any manner. The cashew ELISA can be used to detect undeclared cashew residue in foods and as a potential tool for the food industry to assess the effectiveness of allergen control strategies and to guarantee compliance with food labeling regulatory requirements.

  17. Clinical comparison of QUANTA Flash dsDNA chemiluminescent immunoassay with four current assays for the detection of anti-dsDNA autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Infantino, Maria; Meacci, Francesca; Bentow, Chelsea; Martis, Peter; Benucci, Maurizio; Afeltra, Antonella; Rigon, Amelia; Atzeni, Fabiola; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Manfredi, Mariangela; Mahler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare QUANTA Flash dsDNA, a chemiluminescent immunoassay (CIA) on the BIO-FLASH, a rapid-response chemiluminescent analyzer, to three other anti-dsDNA antibody assays and to Crithidia luciliae indirect immunofluorescence test (CLIFT). In the first part of the study, 161 samples, 61 from patients suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 100 from a disease control group, were tested by QUANTA Flash dsDNA CIA, QUANTA Lite dsDNA SC ELISA, BioPlex 2200 multiplex flow immunoassay (MFI), ImmuLisa dsDNA ELISA, and NOVA Lite CLIFT. A second cohort of 69 SLE patients was then tested by QUANTA Flash dsDNA and CLIFT to expand the study. The overall qualitative agreements varied between 77.0% (NOVA Lite CLIFT versus QUANTA Lite) and 89.4% (ImmuLisa versus NOVA Lite CLIFT). The clinical sensitivities for the anti-dsDNA antibody tests varied from 8.2% (NOVA Lite CLIFT) to 54.1% (QUANTA Lite), while the clinical specificities varied from 88.0% (BioPlex 2200) to 100.0% (NOVA Lite CLIFT). Good correlation was found between QUANTA Flash dsDNA and NOVA Lite CLIFT. Significant variations among dsDNA methods were observed. QUANTA Flash dsDNA provides a good combination of sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of SLE and good agreement to CLIFT.

  18. Validation of a KHV antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Bergmann, S M; Wang, Q; Zeng, W; Li, Y; Wang, Y; Matras, M; Reichert, M; Fichtner, D; Lenk, M; Morin, T; Olesen, N J; Skall, H F; Lee, P-Y; Zheng, S; Monaghan, S; Reiche, S; Fuchs, W; Kotler, M; Way, K; Bräuer, G; Böttcher, K; Kappe, A; Kielpinska, J

    2017-05-04

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) causes KHV disease (KHVD). The virus is highly contagious in carp or koi and can induce a high mortality. Latency and, in some cases, a lack of signs presents a challenge for virus detection. Appropriate immunological detection methods for anti-KHV antibodies have not yet been fully validated for KHV. Therefore, it was developed and validated an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect KHV antibodies. The assay was optimized with respect to plates, buffers, antigens and assay conditions. It demonstrated high diagnostic and analytical sensitivity and specificity and was particularly useful at the pond or farm levels. Considering the scale of the carp and koi industry worldwide, this assay represents an important practical tool for the indirect detection of KHV, also in the absence of clinical signs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. BrucELISA: an enzyme-antibody immunoassay for detection of Brucella abortus antibodies in milk: correlation with the Brucella ring test and with shedding of viable organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Boraker, D K; Stinebring, W R; Kunkel, J R

    1981-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-antibody immunosorbent assay (BrucELISA) is described for the detection of antibody to Brucella abortus in cow's milk. Three series of milk samples were obtained from an adult-vaccinated dairy herd infected with B. abortus. The BrucELISA system was used as a screening test for individual milks diluted 1:200 (BE 200 test), for undiluted bulk milks, and to determine antibody titer (BrucELISA titration assay). The BrucELISA results correlated highly with positive Brucella ring test reactions and culture positivity, eliminated false-positive Brucella ring test reactions, detected antibody in some samples which were Brucella ring test negative, and distinguished between vaccinated and infected animals. BrucELISA titration assay titers of greater than 1:800 were correlated with shedding, or were prognostic for animals which eventually became shedders. Binding of the enzyme-antibody conjugate to bovine immunoglobulin in the absence of rabbit anti-bovine immunoglobulin occurred with culture-positive or -negative milks showing titers of greater than 1:1,600 (the beta effect); the effect was also of predictive value in identifying eventual shedders. The BrucELISA system is a sensitive, specific, and inexpensive method for screening large numbers of individual or bulk milk samples for the presence of antibody to B. abortus. PMID:6793622

  20. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies against Campylobacter jejuni, and its clinical application.

    PubMed

    Walder, M; Forsgren, A

    1982-12-01

    Antibody response to Campylobacter jejuni/coli (CJC) was investigated, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA. With a mixture of lipopolysaccharide from two CJC strains as antigen in ELISA, all 24 tested rabbit anti-CJC sera showed high antibody levels. However, only 70% of sera from patients with Campylobacter enteritis demonstrated an antibody response against the combined LPS antigen, using paired sera. In addition, the results obtained suggested non-specific binding of human immunoglobulin. When 24 formalinized whole CJC bacteria were used as antigen in ELISA, all corresponding rabbit antisera reacted with one strain (M 14). Essentially no unspecific binding of human immunoglobulin was obtained. Antibodies were detected in sera from healthy blood donors and at a lower level in sera from children, suggesting early immunization. In 67 enteritis patients with positive stool cultures for CJC, a significantly increased level of IgG antibodies could be detected in single or paired serum samples from 82% of the patients. An IgG titre increase occurred early in the course of infection, suggesting a boosting of an earlier immunization. IgM antibodies could be detected in the same sera in 77% of the patients. Considering both IgG and IgM analyses of the enteritis sera, 94% of the patients were positive in Campylobacter ELISA serology compared with only 5% of healthy controls.

  1. Immunofluorescence assays (IFA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in autoimmune disease diagnostics--technique, benefits, limitations and applications.

    PubMed

    Bayer, P M; Fabian, B; Hübl, W

    2001-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases are relatively frequent disease complexes, affecting approximately five to seven percent of the population. After cardio-vascular and malignant diseases they come third in mortality. As the clinical diagnosis of rheumatic autoimmune diseases is difficult, laboratory tests are helpful in differential diagnosis and for verification of the clinical diagnosis. The most commonly used assay is the determination of ANAs (anti nuclear antibodies) by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA). However, this method lacks reliable standardisation and is very dependable on the qualification of the observer. Enzyme Immunoassays (EIA) and Immunoblotting techniques, on the contrary, attain good standardisation and comparability. However, the latter methods are limited to the presentation of defined autoantibodies only. There is a need to select a suitable strategy for the use of laboratory parameters in order to support the clinical diagnosis more efficiently. A possible strategy is to replace IFA as a first line screening-step by second-generation ANA-EIA kits.

  2. Development of a polyclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of Sunset Yellow FCF in food samples.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yue; Meng, Meng; Xue, Huyin; Zhang, Taichang; Yin, Yongmei; Xi, Rimo

    2012-09-15

    Sunset Yellow FCF is widely used as food additives to make foods more attractive. Due to its abuse and potential risk to human health, Sunset Yellow FCF is precisely limited to use in food. To monitor the illegal use of Sunset Yellow FCF, a polyclonal antibody-based indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) with satisfactory sensitivity and specificity was developed. A carboxyl group was introduced to Sunset Yellow FCF, then the modified hapten was coupled with carrier proteins to synthesize the immunogen and coating antigen. The IC(50) value of 0.52 ng mL(-1) and detection limit of 25 pg mL(-1) (in buffer) were achieved by this method. The cross-reactivity values of the antibodies with six structurally related colorants were less than 1.5%, indicating the high selectivity. Three kinds of food samples (beverage, dried beancurd, braised pork) and serum were chosen to evaluate the application of the immunoassay in real systems. The limits of detection (LOD) in the above three food samples were 0.12, 0.04 and 1.11, respectively (mean+3SD). The recovery (94%-106%), intra-assay (<5%) and inter-assay (<12%) coefficients of variation in foods and serum samples were also acceptable. The results suggest that this ELISA method is a specific, sensitive and simple method for the determination of Sunset Yellow FCF additives.

  3. A rapid method to improve protein detection by indirect ELISA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) is a rapid, high-throughput, quantitative immunoassay for the selective detection of target antigens. The general principle behind an ELISA is antibody mediated capture and detection of an antigen with a measureable substrate. Numerous incarnations of th...

  4. Evaluation of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and other serological tests for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Carlier, Y.; Bout, D.; Dessaint, J. P.; Capron, A.; Van Knapen, F.; Ruitenberg, E. J.; Bergquist, R.; Huldt, G.

    1980-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was evaluated in human toxoplasmosis in three laboratories using their own procedures. The same batch of serum samples was investigated in the three laboratories. ELISA results were compared by statistical analysis both with one another and with those of the dye test (DT), immunofluorescence (IF), complement fixation test (CFT), and indirect haemagglutination (IHA). Highly significant correlations were obtained between the three laboratories with ELISA using two different antigens and enzyme conjugates. The correlations between ELISA and the other serological tests showed the following sequence: CFT>IF>IHA>DT. Highly significant correlations were obtained between ELISA using anti-γ-chain and anti-total immunoglobulin conjugates. The agreement in discrimination between sera with low and high antibody levels was good for all the different ELISA techniques but discrimination between positive and negative sera depended rather on the ELISA procedure used. PMID:6991147

  5. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of the human haptoglobin phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Nina S.; Vardi, Moshe; Blum, Shany; Miller-Lotan, Rachel; Afinbinder, Yefim; Cleary, Patricia A.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Bharaj, Bhupinder; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; Rewers, Marian J.; Lache, Orit; Levy, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Haptoglobin (Hp) is an abundant serum protein which binds extracorpuscular hemoglobin (Hb). Two alleles exist in humans for the Hp gene, denoted 1 and 2. Diabetic individuals with the Hp 2-2 genotype are at increased risk of developing vascular complications including heart attack, stroke, and kidney disease. Recent evidence shows that treatment with vitamin E can reduce the risk of diabetic vascular complications by as much as 50% in Hp 2-2 individuals. We sought to develop a rapid and accurate test for Hp phenotype (which is 100% concordant with the three major Hp genotypes) to facilitate widespread diagnostic testing as well as prospective clinical trials. Methods A monoclonal antibody raised against human Hp was shown to distinguish between the three Hp phenotypes in an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hp phenotypes obtained in over 8000 patient samples using this ELISA method were compared with those obtained by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or the TaqMan PCR method. Results Our analysis showed that the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA test for Hp 2-2 phenotype is 99.0% and 98.1%, respectively. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value for Hp 2-2 phenotype is 97.5% and 99.3%, respectively. Similar results were obtained for Hp 2-1 and Hp 1-1 phenotypes. In addition, the ELISA was determined to be more sensitive and specific than the TaqMan method. Conclusions The Hp ELISA represents a user-friendly, rapid and highly accurate diagnostic tool for determining Hp phenotypes. This test will greatly facilitate the typing of thousands of samples in ongoing clinical studies. PMID:23492570

  6. Evaluation of the polyclonal ELISA HPV serology assay as a biomarker for HPV exposure

    PubMed Central

    Coseo, Sarah E.; Porras, Carolina; Dodd, Lori E.; Hildesheim, Allan; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Herrero, Rolando; Wacholder, Sholom; Gonzalez, Paula; Sherman, Mark E.; Jimenez, Silvia; Solomon, Diane; Bougelet, Catherine; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Quint, Wim; Safaeian, Mahboobeh

    2011-01-01

    Background Seropositivity to HPV16 and 18 antibodies is used as a measure of cumulative HPV exposure and as a stratifier of HPV exposure for vaccine efficacy analyses. Overall performance of these assays, as a measure of HPV exposure, has not been evaluated. Methods Using data from the enrollment phase of the HPV16/18 vaccine trial in Costa Rica, we evaluated the performance of the polyclonal ELISA HPV16 and 18 serological assays as a measure of HPV exposure. Biological (for eg. HPV infection at the cervix) and behavioral characteristics (for eg. lifetime number of sexual partners) with known associations with current and past HPV infection were used to define cases and controls (HPV exposed vs. not exposed). Pre-vaccination serum was measured for antibodies against HPV16 and HPV18 by ELISA; cervical samples were tested for HPV DNA using PCR SPF10/LiPA25. ELISA results were analyzed using receiver-operator-characteristic curves (ROC); performance was evaluated at the manufacturer set cutpoint (HPV16 =8, HPV18 =7) and at cutpoints chosen to optimize sensitivity and specificity (HPV16 =34, HPV18 =60). Results Defining cases as type-specific HPV DNA positive with high-grade abnormal cytolzogy (i.e. combined molecular and microscopic markers of infection), HPV16-ELISA gave sensitivity that was lower at the optimal cutpoint than the manufacturer cutpoint (62.2 compared with 75.7, respectively; p=0.44). However, specificity was higher (85.3 compared with 70.4, respectively; p<0.0001). Similarly, HPV18-ELISA gave sensitivity that was lower at the optimal cutpoint than the manufacturer cutpoint (34.5 compared with 51.7, respectively; p=0.40), with higher specificities (94.9 compared with 72.6, respectively; p<0.0001). Conclusions Modifying cutpoints did not improve the low sensitivity. The low sensitivity of this assay does not support its use for risk stratification or clinical settings. PMID:21934576

  7. Development of a rapid polymerase chain reaction-ELISA assay using polystyrene beads for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA.

    PubMed

    Martínez, E; Carmelo, E; Alonso, R; Ortega, A; Piñero, J; del Castillo, A; Valladares, B

    2003-01-01

    To develop a rapid colourimetric assay for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA using polystyrene beads as solid support. A nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-ELISA assay for the detection of T. gondii DNA was standardized by optimizing the hybridization time and probe concentration. Its detection threshold was then determined and compared with Southern blotting hybridization. These were found to be equivalent, but the PCR-ELISA-beads test is easier to perform and the turnaround time is much shorter than with Southern blot. The PCR-ELISA-beads assay is a valuable tool for the detection of T. gondii DNA. Our results demonstrate that this PCR-ELISA assay, using polystyrene beads, can be used as a routine diagnostic test for the detection of T. gondii in clinical laboratories.

  8. Comparison of commercial methods of immunoblot, ELISA, and chemiluminescent immunoassay for detecting type-specific herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2 IgG.

    PubMed

    de Ory, Fernando; Guisasola, María-Eulalia; Balfagón, Pilar; Sanz, Juan Carlos

    2017-03-23

    Serology for type-specific herpes simplex virus (HSV) is based on the use of the respective glycoprotein G (gG). Chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA; BIO-FLASH(®) , Biokit, Spain), ELISA (HerpeSelect(®) , Focus, USA), and immunoblot (IB; Virotech, Germany) for detecting HSV-1- and HSV-2-specific IgG were compared using 384 serum samples received for HSV serology. The samples were classified as positive or negative according to a consensus criterion. For HSV-1, 262 samples were positive and 118 were negative (four samples were unclassifiable). IB showed agreement, sensitivity, and specificity values of 98.68%, 98.47% and 99.15%, respectively. The corresponding figures for CLIA and ELISA were 98.95%, 99.24% and 98.31%, and 98.16%, 99.62% and 94.92%, respectively. For HSV-2, 106 samples were positive and 278 were negative. Agreement, sensitivity, and specificity of IB were 99.48%, 98.11%, and 100%, respectively. The corresponding figures for CLIA and ELISA were 99.48%, 99.06% and 99.64%, and 98.18%, 99.06% and 97.84%, respectively. The three methods showed excellent and equivalent performance characteristics for the detection of type-specific IgG to HSV-1 and HSV-2. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Detection of tetracosactide in plasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Martin, Laurent; Chaabo, Ayman; Lasne, Françoise

    2015-06-01

    As a synthetic analogue of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), tetracosactide is prohibited in sport by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method is proposed for detection of this drug in plasma. Since its structure corresponds to the 24 N-terminal of the 39 amino acids of the natural endogenous peptide ACTH, tetracosactide can be detected with a commercial ELISA kit for ACTH that uses antibodies, the epitopes of which are located in the 1-24 part of ACTH. However, an essential condition for detection specificity is the preliminary total clearance of endogenous ACTH in the plasma samples. This is achieved by a preparative step based on cation-exchange chromatography before ELISA. The method is specific and sensitive (LOD: 30 pg/mL) and may be used as a screening analysis in anti-doping control. The pre-analytical conditions are shown to be of the upmost importance and recommendations for blood collection (EDTA tubes), sample transport (4 °C) and plasma sample storage (-20 °C) are presented.

  10. Bisphenol A determination in baby bottles by chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, lateral flow immunoassay and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Maiolini, Elisabetta; Ferri, Elida; Pitasi, Agata Laura; Montoya, Angel; Di Giovanni, Manuela; Errani, Ermanno; Girotti, Stefano

    2014-01-07

    Two immunoassays, a Lateral Flow ImmunoAssay (LFIA) based on colloidal gold nanoparticle labels and an indirect competitive chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CL-ELISA), were developed and a high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was optimized to assess the possible release of bisphenol A (BPA, 4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol) from different plastic baby bottles treated with simulating solutions. Coating conjugate concentration, anti-BPA antibody dilution, incubation time of the primary and secondary antibodies, and tolerance to different organic solvents were optimized to obtain the best performance of the ELISA with chemiluminescent end-point detection. The influence of different buffers on LFIA performance was also evaluated. Both methods showed good repeatability (mean CV value around 13%) and sensitivity. Reproducibility tests for CL-ELISA gave a mean CV value of about 25%. The IC50 and Limit of Detection (LOD) values of CL-ELISA were 0.2 and 0.02 ng mL(-1), respectively. The LOD of LFIA was 0.1 μg mL(-1). A LC-MS/MS method was also optimized. The separation was performed in a C18 column with a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer with electrospray ionisation interface. The method showed a good linearity in the range 2 to 500 ng mL(-1), with a regression coefficient of 0.998. In the simulating solutions the detection and quantification limits, calculated by the signal to noise level of 3 (S/N = 3), were 5.8 ng mL(-1) and 17.4 ng mL(-1), respectively. This limit of quantification was about 3 and 35 times lower than the permitted limits set by the official method CEN/TS 13130-13 (0.05 μg mL(-1)) and by the Directive 2004/19/EC (0.6 μg mL(-1)), respectively. The methods were applied to determine BPA release from baby bottles, performing repeated procedures according to EU and national regulations. The results demonstrated that no BPA migration from the tested plastic materials occurred with only one

  11. Predicting protein concentrations with ELISA microarray assays, monotonic splines and Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, Don S.; Anderson, Kevin K.; White, Amanda M.; Gonzalez, Rachel M.; Varnum, Susan M.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2008-07-14

    Background: A microarray of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, or ELISA microarray, predicts simultaneously the concentrations of numerous proteins in a small sample. These predictions, however, are uncertain due to processing error and biological variability. Making sound biological inferences as well as improving the ELISA microarray process require require both concentration predictions and creditable estimates of their errors. Methods: We present a statistical method based on monotonic spline statistical models, penalized constrained least squares fitting (PCLS) and Monte Carlo simulation (MC) to predict concentrations and estimate prediction errors in ELISA microarray. PCLS restrains the flexible spline to a fit of assay intensity that is a monotone function of protein concentration. With MC, both modeling and measurement errors are combined to estimate prediction error. The spline/PCLS/MC method is compared to a common method using simulated and real ELISA microarray data sets. Results: In contrast to the rigid logistic model, the flexible spline model gave credible fits in almost all test cases including troublesome cases with left and/or right censoring, or other asymmetries. For the real data sets, 61% of the spline predictions were more accurate than their comparable logistic predictions; especially the spline predictions at the extremes of the prediction curve. The relative errors of 50% of comparable spline and logistic predictions differed by less than 20%. Monte Carlo simulation rendered acceptable asymmetric prediction intervals for both spline and logistic models while propagation of error produced symmetric intervals that diverged unrealistically as the standard curves approached horizontal asymptotes. Conclusions: The spline/PCLS/MC method is a flexible, robust alternative to a logistic/NLS/propagation-of-error method to reliably predict protein concentrations and estimate their errors. The spline method simplifies model selection and fitting

  12. Characterization of HLA class I specific antibodies by ELISA using solubilized antigen targets: I. Evaluation of the GTI QuikID assay and analysis of antibody patterns.

    PubMed

    Zachary, A A; Delaney, N L; Lucas, D P; Leffell, M S

    2001-03-01

    The development of solid phase immunoassays using solubilized HLA molecules as targets has provided a means of detecting HLA-specific antibodies that overcomes many of the shortcomings of lymphocyte based assays. We have evaluated a commercially available assay, the GTI QuikID (QID), that uses solubilized class I molecules from 40 subjects selected for their HLA phenotype, to characterize HLA-specific antibodies. We tested 595 sera from 319 subjects and compared the results obtained with QID to those obtained with cytotoxicity (CYT) and with GTI QuikScreen (QS) as well as to historic data. The correlation of QID with CYT (r = 0.54) was comparable to that between QID and QS (r = 0.60). The majority of disparities between QS and QID were apparent false negatives with QID that could be overcome by analyzing QID data at lower cutoff values. In contrast, most of the disparities between QID and CYT were false negatives in CYT due to the relatively low sensitivity of that assay. As expected, the ELISA was more sensitive (97%) than CYT (78%) but had a somewhat lower specificity (87% vs. 92%) due, most likely, to selection of sera that excluded most sera that were known to be nonspecific by CYT. Determination of antibody specificity could be achieved quickly by manual analysis of the QID data because of the way the data are presented by the manufacturer's software. Interestingly, the frequencies of different antibodies detected by ELISA differed from those detected by CYT with ELISA identifying more sera containing antibodies to both A and B locus antigens.

  13. Dextran, a hapten carrier in immunoassays for s-triazines. A comparison with ELISAs based on hapten-protein conjugates.

    PubMed

    Böcher, M; Giersch, T; Schmid, R D

    1992-07-06

    A conjugate of 2-aminohexylamino-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine (AHA), a derivative of the herbicide atrazine, with dextran as carrier has been synthesized and used as the coating antigen in ELISA procedures. The quantification of terbutryn, atrazine and prometryn in ELISA formats using monoclonal antibodies and the AHA-dextran conjugate was at least as sensitive as ELISAs using protein conjugates as immobilized antigens (sensitivity at 50% B/B0 was 0.4-0.6 micrograms/l for terbutryn). Formats with immobilized antibody and enzyme labelled AHA proved to be less sensitive (1.5 micrograms/l for terbutryn). The observed differences in sensitivity do not apparently result from structural effects of the carrier bound hapten since all conjugates were prepared with one form of the hapten, 2-aminohexylamino-atrazine, which was covalently linked via its amino function to the carriers or enzymes.

  14. Investigation of Reagent Delivery Formats in a Multivalent Malaria Sandwich Immunoassay and Implications for Assay Performance.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tinny; Robinson, Robert; Houghtaling, Jared; Fridley, Gina; Ramsey, Stephen A; Fu, Elain

    2016-02-16

    Conventional lateral flow tests (LFTs), the current standard bioassay format used in low-resource point-of-care (POC) settings, have limitations that have held back their application in the testing of low concentration analytes requiring high sensitivity and low limits of detection. LFTs use a premix format for a rapid one-step delivery of premixed sample and labeled antibody to the detection region. We have compared the signal characteristics of two types of reagent delivery formats in a model system of a sandwich immunoassay for malarial protein detection. The premix format produced a uniform binding profile within the detection region. In contrast, decoupling the delivery of sample and labeled antibody to the detection region in a sequential format produced a nonuniform binding profile in which the majority of the signal was localized to the upstream edge of the detection region. The assay response was characterized in both the sequential and premix formats. The sequential format had a 4- to 10-fold lower limit of detection than the premix format, depending on assay conjugate concentration. A mathematical model of the assay quantitatively reproduced the experimental binding profiles for a set of rate constants that were consistent with surface plasmon resonance measurements and absorbance measurements of the experimental multivalent malaria system.

  15. DETECTION OF HEAVY METALS BY IMMUNOASSAY: OPTIMIZATION AND VALIDATION OF A RAPID, PORTABLE ASSAY FOR IONIC CADMIUM (R824029)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An immunoassay is described that measured Cd(II) in aqueous samples at
    concentrations from approximately 7 to 500 ppb. The assay utilized a monoclonal
    antibody that bound tightly to a cadmium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)
    complex but not to metal-free EDTA...

  16. DETECTION OF HEAVY METALS BY IMMUNOASSAY: OPTIMIZATION AND VALIDATION OF A RAPID, PORTABLE ASSAY FOR IONIC CADMIUM (R824029)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An immunoassay is described that measured Cd(II) in aqueous samples at
    concentrations from approximately 7 to 500 ppb. The assay utilized a monoclonal
    antibody that bound tightly to a cadmium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)
    complex but not to metal-free EDTA...

  17. Determination of protein levels in soy and peanut oils by colorimetric assay and ELISA.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, Joseph E; Fu, Tong-Jen; Jackson, Lauren S; Gendel, Steven M

    2010-01-01

    Analytical methods are needed for measuring the levels of protein from allergenic food transferred into cooking oil. A simple method for determination of total protein in cooking oils was developed. Oil was extracted with phosphate-buffered saline with 0.05% Tween (PBST) and the extracts were partitioned with hexane to remove residual oil. Total protein in the PBST extracts was assayed with bicinchoninic acid (BCA), micro-BCA, reducing-agent compatible BCA and CB-XT kits. These methods were used to measure recovery of protein from peanut butter spikes of soy and peanut oil in the range of 50-1000 ppm. Recoveries were generally above 70%. However, the BCA and micro-BCA assays were subject to interference and enhanced color formation which were probably due to co-extracted antioxidants present in oil. The reducing agent-compatible BCA and CB-X protein assays reduced interference and gave lower protein values in crude, cold-pressed, and refined peanut oils. Heating oil to 180 degrees C before extraction also reduced interference-induced color enhancement. A commercial ELISA test kit was also used to measure peanut protein in oil spiked with peanut butter. Recovery of peanut residues measured by ELISA was significantly decreased when the peanut butter-spiked oil was heated to 180 degrees C compared to unheated oil. Recovery of spiked peanut butter protein measured by the buffer extraction-colorimetric method was not decreased in heated oil. The method developed here could be used to determine protein levels in crude and refined oil, and to assess the potential for allergen cross-contact from reused cooking oil.

  18. Immunohistochemical and ELISA assays for biomarkers of oxidative stress in aging and disease.

    PubMed

    Onorato, J M; Thorpe, S R; Baynes, J W

    1998-11-20

    Oxidative stress is apparent in pathology associated with aging and many age-related, chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, and neurodegenerative diseases. Although it cannot be measured directly in biological systems, several biomarkers have been identified that provide a measure of oxidative damage to biomolecules. These include amino acid oxidation products (methionine sulfoxide, ortho-tyrosine (o-tyr) and dityrosine, chlorotyrosine and nitrotyrosine), as well as chemical modifications of protein following carbohydrate or lipid oxidation, such as N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine and N epsilon-(carboxyethyl)lysine, and malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal adducts to amino acids. Other biomarkers include the amino acid cross-link pentosidine, the imidazolone adducts formed by reaction of 3-deoxyglucosone or methylglyoxal with arginine, and the imidazolium cross-links formed by the reaction of glyoxal and methylglyoxal with lysine residues in protein. These compounds have been measured in short-lived intracellular proteins, plasma proteins, long-lived extracellular proteins, and in urine, making them valuable tools for monitoring tissue-specific and systemic chemical and oxidative damage to proteins in biological systems. They are normally measured by sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods, requiring both complex analytical instrumentation and derivatization procedures. However, sensitive immunohistochemical and ELISA assays are now available for many of these biomarkers. Immunochemical assays should facilitate studies on the role of oxidative stress in aging and chronic disease and simplify the evaluation of therapeutic approaches for limiting oxidative damage in tissues and treating pathologies associated with aging and disease. In this article we summarize recent data and conclusions based on immunohistochemical and ELISA assays, emphasizing the strengths and

  19. Standardization and validation of Dot-ELISA assay for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antibody detection.

    PubMed

    Kamikawa, Camila Mika; Mendes, Rinaldo Poncio; Vicentini, Adriana Pardini

    2017-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a neglected systemic mycosis caused by a dimorphic fungus of the Paracoccidioides genus. The standard diagnosis is based on isolation of the fungi in culture, and by microscopic visualization of characteristic multiple budding yeast cells in biological samples. However, in some situations, access to the site of injury prevents the collection of biological material. A variety of immuno-serological techniques has proven useful for allowing inferring diagnosis with a certain degree of certainty, thus optimizing time. The aim of this study was to standardize and validate the Dot-ELISA (DE) assay, comparing it with the serological standard, double immunodiffusion (DI). In order to standardize the DE assay, 143 serum samples were used. Out of those, 23 were from apparently healthy patients, 77 were from patients with confirmed PCM and 43 were from patients with other lung infections (tuberculosis, aspergillosis and histoplasmosis). To validate the DE technique, 300 serum samples from patients with PCM clinical suspicion (probable and possible cases) were employed, and these results were compared with those of DI. The DE assay showed sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 95.4%, positive predictive value of 96%, negative predictive value of 98.2%, accuracy of 93%, and great precision (k = 0.93). In addition, the nitrocellulose membranes have proved to be viable for using at least 90 days after P. brasiliensis B-339 antigen sensitization. Dot-ELISA method was found to be an extremely promising tool as serologic screening technique, because of its high sensitivity. Furthermore, Dot-ELISA shows the prospect of being transferred to laboratories of mycoserology including those with fewer resources or even to be used directly in the field. It has an excellent shelf life - membranes coated with antigen can be used for testing without changes in the pattern of reactivity among laboratories - and presents reliable values of sensitivity, specificity

  20. Identification of heme oxygenase-1 stimulators by a convenient ELISA-based bilirubin quantification assay.

    PubMed

    Rücker, Hannelore; Amslinger, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has proven to be a useful tool for fighting inflammation. In order to identify new HO-1 inducers, an efficient screening method was developed which can provide new lead structures for drug research. We designed a simple ELISA-based HO-1 enzyme activity assay, which allows for the screening of 12 compounds in parallel in the setting of a 96-well plate. The well-established murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 is used and only about 26µg of protein from whole cell lysates is needed for the analysis of HO-1 activity. The quantification of HO-1 activity is based on an indirect ELISA using the specific anti-bilirubin antibody 24G7 to quantify directly bilirubin in the whole cell lysate, applying a horseradish peroxidase-tagged antibody together with ortho-phenylenediamine and H2O2 for detection. The bilirubin is produced on the action of HO enzymes by converting their substrate heme to biliverdin and additional recombinant biliverdin reductase together with NADPH at pH 7.4 in buffer. This sensitive assay allows for the detection of 0.57-82pmol bilirubin per sample in whole cell lysates. Twenty-three small molecules, mainly natural products with an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl unit such as polyphenols, including flavonoids and chalcones, terpenes, an isothiocyanate, and the drug oltipraz were tested at typically 6 or 24h incubation with RAW264.7 cells. The activity of known HO-1 inducers was confirmed, while the chalcones cardamonin, flavokawain A, calythropsin, 2',3,4'-trihydroxy-4-methoxychalcone (THMC), and 2',4'-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxychalcone (DHDMC) were identified as new potent HO-1 inducers. The highest inductive power after 6h incubation was found at 10µM for DHDMC (6.1-fold), carnosol (3.9-fold), butein (3.1-fold), THMC (2.9-fold), and zerumbone (2.5-fold). Moreover, the time dependence of HO-1 protein production for DHDMC was compared to its enzyme activity, which was further evaluated in the presence of

  1. Comparison of anti-pertussis toxin ELISA and agglutination assays to assess immune responses to pertussis.

    PubMed

    Khramtsov, Pavel; Bochkova, Maria; Timganova, Valeria; Zamorina, Svetlana; Rayev, Mikhail

    2017-08-01

    The goal of our study was to compare the following two methods of assessment of pertussis post-vaccination immunity: bacterial agglutination test and pertussis toxin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The study was carried out in Perm Region, Russia. We measured pertussis immunity using two serological methods: ELISA of IgG to pertussis toxin (PT) and the agglutination test (AT) among 135 children, in the age range from 2 months to 17 years old. The immunization schedule included four doses of DTwP: at 3, 4.5 and 6 months of age and a booster at 18 months. All participants were divided into six age groups. The percentage of samples with IgG level less than the detection limit in vaccinated children was 52.2%. The total seropositivity rate (the percent of children with agglutinin titres ≥1:160) in vaccinated children was 47.8%. Only a weak association was observed between agglutinin and anti-PT IgG titres (R = .3). Neither the primary nor the booster vaccination with DTwP influenced the IgG levels in children. Agglutinin titres significantly increased after vaccination and declined 5 years after the booster dose. Significant growth of IgG concentration was observed in 11-year-olds, indicating the presence of B. pertussis circulation in the childhood population. Based on the obtained results and the results of other authors, we summarize that anti-PT ELISA should be carefully used to assess the population immunity to pertussis. Currently, there is neither a serological test that accurately determines the protection against pertussis nor a distinctive criterion of protection that can be applied in seroepidemiological studies.

  2. Tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) immunoassay as an in vitro alternative assay for identity and confirmation of potency.

    PubMed

    Ho, Mei M; Kairo, Satnam K; Corbel, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) currently can only be standardised by delayed hypersensitivity skin reactions in sensitised guinea pigs. An in vitro dot blot immunoassay was developed for both identity and confirmation of potency estimation of PPD. Polyclonal antibodies (mainly IgG) were generated and immunoreacted with human, bovine and, to lesser extent, avian PPD preparations. Combining size exclusion chromatography (FPLC-SEC) and dot blot immunoassay, the results showed that PPD preparations were mixtures of very heterogeneous tuberculoproteins ranging in size from very large aggregates to very small degraded molecules. All individual fractions of PPD separated by size were immunoreactive, although those of the largest molecular sizes appeared the most immunoreactive in this in vitro dot blot immunoassay. This method is very sensitive and specific to tuberculoproteins and can be an in vitro alternative for the in vivo intradermal skin assay which uses guinea pigs for identity of PPD preparations. Although the capacity of PPD to elicit cell-mediated immune responses on intradermal testing has to be confirmed by in vivo assay, the dot blot immunoassay offers a rapid, sensitive and animal-free alternative to in vivo testing for confirming the identity of PPD preparations with appropriate potencies. This alternative assay would be particularly useful for national regulatory laboratories for confirming the data of manufacturers and thus reducing the use of animals.

  3. General false positive ELISA reactions in visceral leishmaniasis. Implications for the use of enzyme immunoassay analyses in tropical Africa.

    PubMed

    Elshafie, Amir I; Mullazehi, Mohammed; Rönnelid, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease in tropical countries. Clinical and laboratory features may mimic autoimmune diseases and this can complicate the Leishmania diagnosis. Due to our previous investigation for false anti-CCP2 reactivity in Leishmania-infected subjects and our interest in immunity against the joint-specific collagen type II (CII) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) we investigated the same cohort for anti-CII antibodies. We found elevated anti-CII reactivity in Leishmania-infected patients as compared to controls. When anti-CII OD values were compared with BSA-blocked control plates we found higher reactivity against BSA than in CII-coated plates in many Leishmania-infected patients. The percentage of such false positive anti-CII reactions increased with inflammatory activity, and was found in almost all Leishmania patients with highly active inflammatory disease, but was as low in Sudanese healthy controls as well as among Swedish RA patients. The correlation coefficients between false positive anti-CII and anti-CCP2 measured with a commercial ELISA were highest for patients with the most inflammatory disease but non-significant for Sudanese controls and Swedish RA patients, arguing that our findings may have general implications for ELISA measurements in leishmaniasis. ELISA investigations in areas endemic for leishmaniasis might benefit from individual-specific control wells for each serum sample. This approach might also be applicable to other geographical areas or patient groups with high incidence of inflammatory and infectious diseases.

  4. Comparison of a conventional immunoassay (ELISA) with a surface plasmon resonance-based biosensor for IGF-1 detection in cows' milk.

    PubMed

    Guidi, A; Laricchia-Robbio, L; Gianfaldoni, D; Revoltella, R; Del Bono, G

    2001-12-01

    Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) treatment is adopted in dairy cows to augment milk yield. Previous studies showed that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is present in milk from cows treated with rBST. Since IGF-1 is a suspected carcinogen, its presence in milk for human consumption is potentially a health hazard. Therefore rBST use, still authorized in the United States, has been revoked in Canada and is under evaluation in the EU. The rising attention on IGF-1 presence in alimentary milk focused the necessity to develop specific, sensitive and rapid IGF-1 detection systems. We have developed a solid phase enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and also an automated surface plasmon resonance-based biosensor system (BIA-technology) for evaluating IGF-1 in fresh cow's milk. Hyperimmune polyclonal anti-IGF-1 antibodies were characterized with respect to their specific binding capacity to IGF-1. The results obtained with these two methods have been compared. This study shows the potential usefulness of the biosensor technology for biomolecular interaction analysis. The features of this technology (fully automated, measures in real time, sharpened yes/no response) offer several advantages compared to ELISA in the detection of compounds in fresh cows' milk (MURST 40%; CNR P.F. MADESS 2).

  5. Rapid, Automated, and Specific Immunoassay to Directly Measure Matrix Metalloproteinase-9–Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 Interactions in Human Plasma Using AlphaLISA Technology: A New Alternative to Classical ELISA

    PubMed Central

    Pulido-Olmo, Helena; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Elena; Navarro-García, José Alberto; Barderas, María G.; Álvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Segura, Julián; Fernández-Alfonso, Marisol; Ruilope, Luis M.; Ruiz-Hurtado, Gema

    2017-01-01

    The protocol describes a novel, rapid, and no-wash one-step immunoassay for highly sensitive and direct detection of the complexes between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) based on AlphaLISA® technology. We describe two procedures: (i) one approach is used to analyze MMP-9–TIMP-1 interactions using recombinant human MMP-9 with its corresponding recombinant human TIMP-1 inhibitor and (ii) the second approach is used to analyze native or endogenous MMP-9–TIMP-1 protein interactions in samples of human plasma. Evaluating native MMP-9–TIMP-1 complexes using this approach avoids the use of indirect calculations of the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio for which independent MMP-9 and TIMP-1 quantifications by two conventional ELISAs are needed. The MMP-9–TIMP-1 AlphaLISA® assay is quick, highly simplified, and cost-effective and can be completed in less than 3 h. Moreover, the assay has great potential for use in basic and preclinical research as it allows direct determination of native MMP-9–TIMP-1 complexes in circulating blood as biofluid. PMID:28791014

  6. Comparative Analysis of Human Growth Hormone in Serum Using SPRi, Nano-SPRi and ELISA Assays

    PubMed Central

    Henrich, Vincent C.; Sandros, Marinella G.

    2016-01-01

    Sensitive and selective methods for the detection of human growth hormone (hGH) over a wide range of concentrations (high levels of 50-100 ng ml−1 and minimum levels of 0.03 ng ml−1) in circulating blood are essential as variable levels may indicate altered physiology. For example, growth disorders occurring in childhood can be diagnosed by measuring levels of hGH in blood. Also, the misuse of recombinant hGH in sports not only poses an ethical issue it also presents serious health threats to the abuser. One popular strategy for measuring hGH misuse, relies on the detection of the ratio of 22 kDa hGH to total hGH, as non-22 kDa endogenous levels drop after exogenous recombinant hGH (rhGH) administration.Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) is an analytical tool that allows direct (label-free) monitoring and visualization of biomolecular interactions by recording changes of the refractive index adjacent to the sensor surface in real time. In contrast, the most frequently used colorimetric method, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) uses enzyme labeled detection antibodies to indirectly measure analyte concentration after the addition of a substrate that induces a color change. To increase detection sensitivity, amplified SPRi uses a sandwich assay format and near infrared quantum dots (QDs) to increase signal strength. After direct SPRi detection of recombinant rhGH in spiked human serum, the SPRi signal is amplified by the sequential injection of detection antibody coated with near-infrared QDs (Nano-SPRi). In this study, the diagnostic potential of direct and amplified SPRi was assessed for measuring rhGH spiked in human serum and compared directly with the capabilities of a commercially available ELISA kit. PMID:26780354

  7. Assessment of Dextran Antigenicity of Intravenous Iron Preparations with Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Neiser, Susann; Koskenkorva, Taija S; Schwarz, Katrin; Wilhelm, Maria; Burckhardt, Susanna

    2016-07-21

    Intravenous iron preparations are typically classified as non-dextran-based or dextran/dextran-based complexes. The carbohydrate shell for each of these preparations is unique and is key in determining the various physicochemical properties, the metabolic pathway, and the immunogenicity of the iron-carbohydrate complex. As intravenous dextran can cause severe, antibody-mediated dextran-induced anaphylactic reactions (DIAR), the purpose of this study was to explore the potential of various intravenous iron preparations, non-dextran-based or dextran/dextran-based, to induce these reactions. An IgG-isotype mouse monoclonal anti-dextran antibody (5E7H3) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were developed to investigate the dextran antigenicity of low molecular weight iron dextran, ferumoxytol, iron isomaltoside 1000, ferric gluconate, iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose, as well as isomaltoside 1000, the isolated carbohydrate component of iron isomaltoside 1000. Low molecular weight iron dextran, as well as dextran-based ferumoxytol and iron isomaltoside 1000, reacted with 5E7H3, whereas ferric carboxymaltose, iron sucrose, sodium ferric gluconate, and isolated isomaltoside 1000 did not. Consistent results were obtained with reverse single radial immunodiffusion assay. The results strongly support the hypothesis that, while the carbohydrate alone (isomaltoside 1000) does not form immune complexes with anti-dextran antibodies, iron isomaltoside 1000 complex reacts with anti-dextran antibodies by forming multivalent immune complexes. Moreover, non-dextran based preparations, such as iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose, do not react with anti-dextran antibodies. This assay allows to assess the theoretical possibility of a substance to induce antibody-mediated DIARs. Nevertheless, as this is only one possible mechanism that may cause a hypersensitivity reaction, a broader set of assays will be required to get an understanding of the mechanisms that may

  8. Assessment of Dextran Antigenicity of Intravenous Iron Preparations with Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

    PubMed Central

    Neiser, Susann; Koskenkorva, Taija S.; Schwarz, Katrin; Wilhelm, Maria; Burckhardt, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous iron preparations are typically classified as non-dextran-based or dextran/dextran-based complexes. The carbohydrate shell for each of these preparations is unique and is key in determining the various physicochemical properties, the metabolic pathway, and the immunogenicity of the iron-carbohydrate complex. As intravenous dextran can cause severe, antibody-mediated dextran-induced anaphylactic reactions (DIAR), the purpose of this study was to explore the potential of various intravenous iron preparations, non-dextran-based or dextran/dextran-based, to induce these reactions. An IgG-isotype mouse monoclonal anti-dextran antibody (5E7H3) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were developed to investigate the dextran antigenicity of low molecular weight iron dextran, ferumoxytol, iron isomaltoside 1000, ferric gluconate, iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose, as well as isomaltoside 1000, the isolated carbohydrate component of iron isomaltoside 1000. Low molecular weight iron dextran, as well as dextran-based ferumoxytol and iron isomaltoside 1000, reacted with 5E7H3, whereas ferric carboxymaltose, iron sucrose, sodium ferric gluconate, and isolated isomaltoside 1000 did not. Consistent results were obtained with reverse single radial immunodiffusion assay. The results strongly support the hypothesis that, while the carbohydrate alone (isomaltoside 1000) does not form immune complexes with anti-dextran antibodies, iron isomaltoside 1000 complex reacts with anti-dextran antibodies by forming multivalent immune complexes. Moreover, non-dextran based preparations, such as iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose, do not react with anti-dextran antibodies. This assay allows to assess the theoretical possibility of a substance to induce antibody-mediated DIARs. Nevertheless, as this is only one possible mechanism that may cause a hypersensitivity reaction, a broader set of assays will be required to get an understanding of the mechanisms that may

  9. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for PBS Z1, a defective phage of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Steensma, H Y; Duermeyer, W

    1979-09-01

    The sensitivity, reproducibility and specificity of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the defective phage PBS Z1 of Bacillus subtilis have been investigated. It was shown that phages in concentrations between 10(8) and 2.5 X 10(10) particles/ml could be assayed with this method. The coefficient of variation for concentrations between 5 X 10(8) and 5 X 10(9) particles/ml was approx. 10%. From some other Bacillus phages tested, only the defective phages resembling PBS Z1 in morphology were detected efficiently with the ELISA for PBS Z1. A comparison is made between ELISA and other assays for PBS Z1.

  10. Comparison of a new immunoturbidometric assay of human serum lipoprotein (a) to the ELISA and the IRMA methods.

    PubMed

    Sundvall, J; Sulonen, G B; Hiltunen, O; Kiuru, J; Pursiainen, M; Jauhiainen, M

    1995-04-01

    In the present work we have tested a new immunoturbidometric (IT) lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) assay and compared it with two other Lp(a) assay systems (IRMA and ELISA) commonly used in clinical chemistry laboratories. In addition, we have examined the effects of long-term storage and plasminogen on the results of Lp(a). Intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation of the IT method were from 1.6 to 5.5% and from 2.8 to 10.7% depending on the concentration of Lp(a). The correlations between methods were 0.957 (IRMA vs. IT), 0.969 (IRMA vs. ELISA) and 0.956 (IT vs. ELISA) and the regression curves were IRMA = 1.07*IT + 11, IRMA = 1.84*ELISA + 2 and IT = 1.62*ELISA + 17, respectively. Storage of the samples for 5 years at -70 degrees C did not affect serum Lp(a) levels. There was a slight increasing effect of high concentrations of plasminogen on the Lp(a) results, but on physiological serum levels of plasminogen the effect was not significant. We conclude that the IT method provides a simple way to screen serum Lp(a) levels.

  11. Immunoassay techniques.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    No other development has had such a major impact on the measurement of hormones as immunoassay. Reagents and assay kits can now be bought commercially but not for the more esoteric or new hormones. This chapter explains the basics of the immunoassay reaction and gives simple methods for immunoassays and immunometric assays and for the production of reagents for both antigenic and hapten hormones. Alternative methods are given for the preparation of labeled hormones as well as several possible separation procedures. The methods described here have been previously used in a wide range of assays and have stood the test of time. They will allow the production of usable immunoassays in a relatively short period of time.

  12. High Sensitive Detection of Carbohydrate Binding Proteins in an ELISA-Solid Phase Assay Based on Multivalent Glyconanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chiodo, Fabrizio; Marradi, Marco; Tefsen, Boris; Snippe, Harm; van Die, Irma; Penadés, Soledad

    2013-01-01

    Improved detection of anti-carbohydrate antibodies is a need in clinical identification of biomarkers for cancer cells or pathogens. Here, we report a new ELISA approach for the detection of specific immunoglobulins (IgGs) against carbohydrates. Two nanometer gold glyconanoparticles bearing oligosaccharide epitopes of HIV or Streptococcus pneumoniae were used as antigens to coat ELISA-plates. A ~3,000-fold improved detection of specific IgGs in mice immunized against S. pneumoniae respect to the well known BSA-glycoconjugate ELISA was achieved. Moreover, these multivalent glyconanoparticles have been employed in solid phase assays to detect the carbohydrate-dependent binding of human dendritic cells and the lectin DC-SIGN. Multivalent glyconanoparticles in ELISA provide a versatile, easy and highly sensitive method to detect and quantify the binding of glycan to proteins and to facilitate the identification of biomarkers. PMID:24014084

  13. Immunological Tools: Engaging Students in the Use and Analysis of Flow Cytometry and Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Laura E.; Carson, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are commonly used techniques associated with clinical and research applications within the immunology and medical fields. The use of these techniques is becoming increasingly valuable in many life science and engineering disciplines as well. Herein, we report the development and…

  14. Immunological Tools: Engaging Students in the Use and Analysis of Flow Cytometry and Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Laura E.; Carson, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are commonly used techniques associated with clinical and research applications within the immunology and medical fields. The use of these techniques is becoming increasingly valuable in many life science and engineering disciplines as well. Herein, we report the development and…

  15. Anti-Peptide Monoclonal Antibodies Generated for Immuno-Multiple Reaction Monitoring-Mass Spectrometry Assays Have a High Probability of Supporting Western blot and ELISA*

    PubMed Central

    Schoenherr, Regine M.; Saul, Richard G.; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Yan, Ping; Whiteley, Gordon R.; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2015-01-01

    Immunoaffinity enrichment of peptides coupled to targeted, multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (immuno-MRM) has recently been developed for quantitative analysis of peptide and protein expression. As part of this technology, antibodies are generated to short, linear, tryptic peptides that are well-suited for detection by mass spectrometry. Despite its favorable analytical performance, a major obstacle to widespread adoption of immuno-MRM is a lack of validated affinity reagents because commercial antibody suppliers are reluctant to commit resources to producing anti-peptide antibodies for immuno-MRM while the market is much larger for conventional technologies, especially Western blotting and ELISA. Part of this reluctance has been the concern that affinity reagents generated to short, linear, tryptic peptide sequences may not perform well in traditional assays that detect full-length proteins. In this study, we test the feasibility and success rates of generating immuno-MRM monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (targeting tryptic peptide antigens) that are also compatible with conventional, protein-based immuno-affinity technologies. We generated 40 novel, peptide immuno-MRM assays and determined that the cross-over success rates for using immuno-MRM monoclonals for Western blotting is 58% and for ELISA is 43%, which compare favorably to cross-over success rates amongst conventional immunoassay technologies. These success rates could most likely be increased if conventional and immuno-MRM antigen design strategies were combined, and we suggest a workflow for such a comprehensive approach. Additionally, the 40 novel immuno-MRM assays underwent fit-for-purpose analytical validation, and all mAbs and assays have been made available as a resource to the community via the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium's (CPTAC) Antibody (http://antibodies.cancer.gov) and Assay Portals (http://assays.cancer.gov), respectively. This study also represents the first

  16. Identifying the predator complex of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae): A comparative study of the efficacy of an ELISA and PCR gut content assay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A growing number of ecologists are using molecular gut content assays to qualitatively measure predation. The two most popular gut content assays are immunoassays employing pest-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAb) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays employing pest-specific DNA. Here we pre...

  17. Enhanced immunoassay for porcine circovirus type 2 antibody using enzyme-loaded and quantum dots-embedded shell-core silica nanospheres based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Wu, Long; Li, Xuepu; Shao, Kang; Ye, Shiyi; Liu, Chen; Zhang, Chenjun; Han, Heyou

    2015-08-05

    Boosting the detection sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is significant to the early clinical diagnosis of various diseases. Here, we developed a versatile immunosensor using silica nanospheres as carriers for sensitive detection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) antibody. With HRP enzyme covalently immobilized on the silica nanospheres and CdSe nanocrystals embedded inside, these signal probes were successfully utilized in the sensitive detection of PCV2 antibody by ELISA, fluorometry and square-wave voltammetry (SWV). To further demonstrate the performance of the immunosensor, Human IgG (HIgG) was used as a model analyte. Since more HRP and CdSe QDs were loaded, 5-, 200- and 400-fold enhancements in amplified ELISA, fluorometry and voltammetry responses for HIgG could be achieved compared to conventional ELISA. The respective detection limits of theses methods for HIgG were 3.9, 0.1 and 0.05 ng mL(-1) with a RSD below 5% for amplified ELISA, fluorescence and SWV measurements. Additionally, a 100-fold improvement was obtained in the detection sensitivity for PCV2 antibody immunoassay. The versatile immunosensor exhibits good sensitivity, stability and reproducibility, suggesting its potential applications in clinical diagnostics.

  18. Evaluation of five enzyme immunoassays compared with the cytotoxicity assay for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in dogs.

    PubMed

    Chouicha, Nadira; Marks, Stanley L

    2006-03-01

    Clostridium difficile-associated-diarrhea (CDAD) is a nosocomial infection in dogs. Diagnosis of this infection is dependent on clinical signs of disease supported by laboratory detection of C. difficile toxins A or B, or both, in fecal specimens via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Unfortunately, to the authors' knowledge, commercially available ELISAs have not been validated in dogs to date. We evaluated 5 ELISAs done on 143 canine fecal specimens (100 diarrheic and 43 nondiarrheic dogs) and on 29 C. difficile isolates. The results of each ELISA were compared with the cytotoxin B tissue culture assay (CTA). Clostridium difficile was isolated from 23% of the fecal specimens. Eighteen of the 143 fecal specimens were toxin positive (15 diarrheic and 3 nondiarrheic dogs). On the basis of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for toxin-A and -B genes, 72% of the isolates were toxigenic. The carriage rate of toxigenic isolates in diarrheic dogs was higher than that in the nondiarrheic dogs; however, these differences were not statistically significant. A good correlation was found between CTA, PCR, and culture results. The ELISAs done on fecal specimens collected from diarrheic dogs had low sensitivity (7-33%). In contrast, ELISA for toxin A or B, or both, performed on toxigenic isolates had high sensitivity (93%). These results suggest that commercially available human ELISAs are inadequate for the diagnosis of canine C. difficile-associated diarrhea when tested on fecal specimens. In contrast, the Premier ToxinA/B and Techlab ToxinA/B ELISAs may be useful for the diagnosis of canine CDAD when used on toxigenic isolates.

  19. Effect of serum content and diluent selection on assay sensitivity and signal intensity in multiplex bead-based immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Pfleger, Christian; Schloot, Nanette; ter Veld, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In the Luminex multiplexed immunoassay system, complex samples such as human serum are diluted to minimize disturbing matrix effects with a specific diluent. This diluent has to imitate the sample matrix to allow interpolation and has to provide optimal cytokine-antibody binding for all cytokines. Because diluents influence multiplex immunoassay results, this paper explores several methods to determine the quality of a chosen diluent. Two commercially available diluents, DY997 and RD6 from R&D Systems, were compared in a 19-plex immunoassay setup from Luminex. Using diluent DY997, multiplex signal intensity was reduced by 55% when spiked samples (chemokines and cytokines at 100 pg/mL) contained 50% v/v human serum, compared to samples containing 25% v/v. When using diluent RD6, signal intensity was reduced by 20% when samples contained 50% v/v human serum, compared to 25% v/v human serum. Diluent DY997 showed decreasing multiplex assay sensitivity with increasing protein concentrations, but not as low as in the presence of 50% v/v human serum. In a 19-plex setup, this paper describes signal intensity, assay sensitivity and background signal levels in relation to the total volume-fraction of serum and protein concentration. For the determination of cytokines in serum samples with the multiplexed system Luminex the diluent RD6 seems more appropriate than the diluent DY997.

  20. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease diagnostic accuracy is improved by a new CSF ELISA 14-3-3γ assay.

    PubMed

    Leitão, M J; Baldeiras, I; Almeida, M R; Ribeiro, M H; Santos, A C; Ribeiro, M; Tomás, J; Rocha, S; Santana, I; Oliveira, C R

    2016-05-13

    Protein 14-3-3 is a reliable marker of rapid neuronal damage, specifically increased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) patients. Its detection is usually performed by Western Blot (WB), prone to methodological issues. Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a recently developed quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assay for 14-3-3γ, in comparison with WB and other neurodegeneration markers. CSF samples from 145 patients with suspicion of prion disease, later classified as definite sCJD (n=72) or Non-prion diseases (Non-CJD; n=73) comprised our population. 14-3-3 protein was determined by WB and ELISA. Total Tau (t-Tau) and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) were also evaluated. Apolipoprotein E gene (ApoE) and prionic protein gene (PRNP) genotyping was assessed. ELISA 14-3-3γ levels were significantly increased in sCJD compared to Non-CJD patients (p<0.001), showing very good accuracy (AUC=0.982; sensitivity=97%; specificity=94%), and matching WB results in 81% of all cases. It strongly correlated with t-Tau and p-Tau (p<0.0001), showing slightly higher specificity (14-3-3 WB - 63%; Tau - 90%; p-Tau/t-Tau ratio - 88%). From WB inconclusive results (n=44), ELISA 14-3-3γ correctly classified 41 patients. Additionally, logistic regression analysis selected ELISA 14-3-3γ as the best single predictive marker for sCJD (overall accuracy=93%). ApoE and PRNP genotypes did not influence ELISA 14-3-3γ levels. Despite specificity for 14-3-3γ isoform, ELISA results not only match WB evaluation but also help discrimination of inconclusive results. Our results therefore reinforce this assay as a single screening test, allowing higher sample throughput and unequivocal results.

  1. A rapid and simple assay for lamotrigine in serum/plasma by HPLC, and comparison with an immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Phillip E; Fisher, Danielle S; Evers, Richard; Flanagan, Robert J

    2011-07-01

    Monitoring serum/plasma concentrations of lamotrigine may be useful under certain circumstances. An HPLC column packed with strong cation-exchange (SCX)-modified microparticulate silica together with a 100% methanol eluent containing an ionic modifier permits direct injection of sample extracts. An HPLC-UV method developed using this principle for the measurement of serum/plasma lamotrigine is simple, sensitive and selective. The analysis time is less than 5 min. Intra- and inter-assay precision and accuracy meet acceptance criteria, and sample stability, and potential interferences from other compounds have been evaluated. There was good agreement with consensus mean results from external quality assessment samples (n = 32). Analysis of patient samples (n = 115) using the HPLC method and the Seradyn QMS® Lamotrigine immunoassay showed that the immunoassay over-estimated lamotrigine by 21% on average.

  2. Development of a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of buckwheat residues in food.

    PubMed

    Panda, Rakhi; Taylor, Steve L; Goodman, Richard E

    2010-08-01

    Buckwheat is a pseudocereal (an eudicot with seed qualities and uses similar to those of monocot cereals, family Poaceae) that is consumed in some Asian countries as a staple, and in some western countries as a health food. Allergic reactions to buckwheat are common in some countries. The objective was to develop a specific and sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect traces of buckwheat that might inadvertently contaminate other foods in order to assure accurate labeling and consumer protection. Buckwheat-specific antibodies produced in 3 species of animals were tested for specificity and titer by direct ELISA and immunoblot. A sandwich ELISA was developed utilizing pooled rabbit antibuckwheat sera to capture buckwheat proteins and pooled goat antibuckwheat sera, followed by enzyme-labeled rabbit antigoat immunoglobulin G (IgG), to detect bound buckwheat proteins. The lower limit of quantification (LOQ) of the sandwich ELISA was 2 parts per million (ppm) of buckwheat in the presence of complex food matrices. The ELISA is highly specific with no cross-reactivity to any of 80 food ingredients and matrices tested. Validation studies conducted with buckwheat processed into noodles and muffins showed greater than 90% and 60% recovery, respectively. The percent recovery of buckwheat from noodles was similar to that achieved with a commercial buckwheat ELISA kit (ELISA Systems Pty. Ltd., Windsor, Queensland, Australia) at high buckwheat concentrations. However, the sensitivity of this ELISA was greater than the commercial ELISA. This newly developed ELISA is sufficiently specific and sensitive to detect buckwheat residues in processed foods to protect buckwheat-allergic subjects from potential harm. Practical Application: Buckwheat is becoming a common food ingredient in a number of processed foods due to potentially beneficial nutritional properties, without the celiac disease inducing glutenin proteins of wheat and related cereals. However

  3. Comparison of the performance of IFA, CFA, and ELISA assays for the serodiagnosis of acute Q fever by quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Herremans, Tineke; Hogema, Boris M; Nabuurs, Marrigje; Peeters, Marcel; Wegdam-Blans, Marjolijn; Schneeberger, Peter; Nijhuis, Carla; Notermans, Daan W; Galama, Joep; Horrevorts, Anton; van Loo, Inge H M; Vlaminckx, Bart; Zaaijer, Hans L; Koopmans, Marion P; Berkhout, Hanneke; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Stenos, John; Nicholson, William; Bijlmer, Henk

    2013-01-01

    The indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is considered the reference method for diagnosing Q fever, but serology is also performed by complement fixation assay (CFA) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, comparability between these assays is not clear, and therefore a quality assessment was performed. A total of 25 serum samples from negative controls, Q fever patients, and a serial diluted high-positive sample were analyzed in 10 Dutch laboratories. Six laboratories performed CFA, 5 performed IFA, and 5 performed ELISAs. Three international reference laboratories from Australia, France, and the USA also participated in this study. Qualitative values between laboratories using the same methods were within close range, and all 3 methods correctly identified acute Q fever patients. The IFA, ELISA, and CFA are all suitable serodiagnostic assays to diagnose acute Q fever, but the IFA remains an important tool in the follow-up of patients and in identifying patients at risk for developing chronic Q fever. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Blood Meal Identification in Field-Captured Sand flies: Comparison of PCR-RFLP and ELISA Assays

    PubMed Central

    Maleki-Ravasan, N; Oshaghi, MA; Javadian, E; Rassi, Y; Sadraei, J; Mohtarami, F

    2009-01-01

    Background We aimed to develop a PCR-RFLP assay based on available sequences of putative vertebrate hosts to identify blood meals ingested by field female sand fly in the northwest of Iran. In addition, the utility of PCR-RFLP was compared with ELISA as a standard method. Methods: This experimental study was performed in the Insect Molecular Biology Laboratory of School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran in 2006–2007. For PCR-RFLP a set of conserved vertebrate primers were used to amplify a part of the host mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene followed by digestion of the PCR products by Hae III enzyme. Results: The PCR-RFLP and ELISA assays revealed that 34% and 27% of field-collected sand flies had fed on humans, respectively. Additionally, PCR-RFLP assays could reveal specific host DNA as well as the components of mixed blood meals. Results of PCR-RFLP assay showed that the sand flies had fed on cow (54%), human (10%), dog (4%), human and cow (21%), dog and cow (14%), and human and dog (3%). Conclusion: The results can provide a novel method for rapid diagnosis of blood meal taken by sandflies. The advantages and limitations of PCR and ELISA assays are discussed. PMID:22808367

  5. Immunoassay detection of drugs in racing horses. XI. ELISA and RIA detection of fentanyl, alfentanil, sufentanil and carfentanil in equine blood and urine.

    PubMed

    Tobin, T; Kwiatkowski, S; Watt, D S; Tai, H H; Tai, C L; Woods, W E; Goodman, J P; Taylor, D G; Weckman, T J; Yang, J M

    1989-01-01

    We have developed and evaluated a one step enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for sufentanil and a 125I radioimmunoassay test for alfentanil as part of a panel of pre- and post-race tests for narcotic analgesics in racing horses. Our sufentanil ELISA test detects sufentanil with an I-50 of about 0.5 ng/ml. The test is rapid and economical in that it can be read with an inexpensive spectrophotometer, or even by eye. The test readily detects the presence of sufentanil or its metabolites in equine blood and urine from 1 to 24 hours respectively after administration of therapeutic or sub-therapeutic doses of this drug. Our sufentanil assay also cross-reacts with fentanyl, the methylated analogs of fentanyl (designer fentanyls), and carfentanil and detected these drugs in urine for several hours after their administration to horses. It does not, however, cross-react significantly with alfentanil. We have also developed an 125I radioimmunoassay for alfentanil. This test allows detection of alfentanil in blood and urine of horses for up to 4 hours after administration of this drug. As such, these tests are capable of improving the quality and reducing the cost of pre-race and post-race testing for fentanyl, sufentanil, carfentanil and alfentanil and a number of their congeners in racing horses. Similarly, these tests are capable of screening for these drugs in human drug abuse monitoring.

  6. Enhanced sensitive immunoassay: noncompetitive phage anti-immune complex assay for the determination of malachite green and leucomalachite green.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jie-Xian; Xu, Chao; Wang, Hong; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Gee, Shirley J; Li, Zhen-Feng; Wang, Feng; Wu, Wei-Jian; Shen, Yu-Dong; Yang, Jin-Yi; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Hammock, Bruce D

    2014-08-27

    To develop a more sensitive immunoassay for malachite green (MG) and leucomalachite green (LMG), we identified the immunocomplex binding phage-borne peptides for use in the noncompetitive phage anti-immunocomplex assay (PHAIA). An anti-LMG monoclonal antibody (mAb) was used to select immunocomplex binding peptides from a circular random eight-amino-acid phage-displayed library. After three rounds of panning-elution, five peptides that bound the LMG-mAb immunocomplex were obtained. One of the phage-borne peptide clones that resulted in an assay with the highest sensitivity was chosen for further research. The concentration of LMG producing 50% of the saturated signal and the limit of detection of the assay were 7.02 and 0.55 ng/mL, respectively, with a linear range of 1.35 to 21.56 ng/mL. The PHAIA based on the same antibody was 16 times more sensitive compared to the competitive immunoassay. PHAIA was used to analyze LMG, MG, and two mixtures of spiked fish samples, with validation by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector. Results showed a good correlation (R(2)LMG = 0.9841; R(2)MG = 0.993; R(2)Mixture = 0.9903) between the data of PHAIA and HPLC, thus the assay was an efficient method for monitoring food safety.

  7. Enhanced Sensitive Immunoassay: Noncompetitive Phage Anti-Immune Complex Assay for the Determination of Malachite Green and Leucomalachite Green

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To develop a more sensitive immunoassay for malachite green (MG) and leucomalachite green (LMG), we identified the immunocomplex binding phage-borne peptides for use in the noncompetitive phage anti-immunocomplex assay (PHAIA). An anti-LMG monoclonal antibody (mAb) was used to select immunocomplex binding peptides from a circular random eight-amino-acid phage-displayed library. After three rounds of panning-elution, five peptides that bound the LMG–mAb immunocomplex were obtained. One of the phage-borne peptide clones that resulted in an assay with the highest sensitivity was chosen for further research. The concentration of LMG producing 50% of the saturated signal and the limit of detection of the assay were 7.02 and 0.55 ng/mL, respectively, with a linear range of 1.35 to 21.56 ng/mL. The PHAIA based on the same antibody was 16 times more sensitive compared to the competitive immunoassay. PHAIA was used to analyze LMG, MG, and two mixtures of spiked fish samples, with validation by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector. Results showed a good correlation (R2LMG = 0.9841; R2MG = 0.993; R2Mixture = 0.9903) between the data of PHAIA and HPLC, thus the assay was an efficient method for monitoring food safety. PMID:25077381

  8. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a specific monoclonal antibody as a new tool to detect Sudan dyes and Para red.

    PubMed

    Ju, Chunmei; Tang, Yong; Fan, Huiying; Chen, Jinding

    2008-07-28

    To set up an immunoassay-based method to detect Sudan dyes and Para red, we generated a monoclonal antibody (Mab) using a specially designed carboxyl derivative of Sudan I (CSD I) as the immunogen. CSD I was synthesized by azocoupling reaction using 2-naphthol and diazotised 4-aminobenzoic acid. The antibody was obtained from a hybridoma, which was derived from the fusion of the mouse myeloma SP2/0 cells and the splenocytes from the mice immunized with the CSD I-bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugate. In addition, we showed that the Mab was highly specific for Sudan I, III and Para red. The limit of detection was approximately 0.01ngmL(-1) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer and 0.5ngg(-1) in chilli tomato sauce. The recoveries of Sudan I, III and Para red for the chilli tomato sauce were from 84% to 99% and coefficients of variation were from 14.9% to 33.3%. Thus, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method is a rapid and high throughput screening tool to detect Sudan dyes and Para red in food products.

  9. Superiority of radiobinding assay over ELISA for detection of IAAs in newly diagnosed type I diabetic children

    SciTech Connect

    Levy-Marchal, C.; Bridel, M.P.; Sodoyez-Goffaux, F.; Koch, M.; Tichet, J.; Czernichow, P.; Sodoyez, J.C. )

    1991-01-01

    Liquid- or solid-phase assays have been used for insulin autoantibody (IAA) determination, and the method of IAA measurement has not been standardized. IAAs were determined by radiobinding assay (RBA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in two large age-matched groups of nondiabetic and newly diagnosed insulin-dependent (type I) diabetic children. Positivity for IAA by RBA (greater than or equal to nondiabetic mean + 3SD) was 2 of 178 (1.1%) and 55 of 173 (32%) in nondiabetic and diabetic children, respectively. Prevalence of IAA by RBA was significantly higher in the youngest age-group (63% between 0-4 yr). Positivity for IAA by ELISA was 1 of 178 (0.6%) and 8 of 169 (4.7%) in nondiabetic and diabetic children, respectively. Concordance rates between both assays were 0 of 3 (0%) in control subjects and 5 of 58 (8.6%) in diabetic children. We conclude that RBA is more appropriate than ELISA for IAA detection at the onset of the disease. In addition, because available data suggest that IAAs detected by RBA only are high-affinity antibodies, it is tempting to speculate that IAAs reflect a mature immune reaction against endogenous insulin.

  10. Direct replacement of antibodies with molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles in ELISA--development of a novel assay for vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Chianella, Iva; Guerreiro, Antonio; Moczko, Ewa; Caygill, J Sarah; Piletska, Elena V; De Vargas Sansalvador, Isabel M Perez; Whitcombe, Michael J; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2013-09-03

    A simple and straightforward technique for coating microplate wells with molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) to develop assays similar to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is presented here for the first time. NanoMIPs were synthesized by a solid-phase approach with an immobilized vancomycin (template) and characterized using Biacore 3000, dynamic light scattering, and electron microscopy. Immobilization, blocking, and washing conditions were optimized in microplate format. The detection of vancomycin was achieved in competitive binding experiments with a horseradish peroxidase-vancomycin conjugate. The assay was capable of measuring vancomycin in buffer and in blood plasma within the range of 0.001-70 nM with a detection limit of 0.0025 nM (2.5 pM). The sensitivity of the assay was 3 orders of magnitude better than a previously described ELISA based on antibodies. In these experiments, nanoMIPs have shown high affinity and minimal interference from blood plasma components. Immobilized nanoMIPs were stored for 1 month at room temperature without any detrimental effects to their binding properties. The high affinity of nanoMIPs and the lack of a requirement for cold chain logistics make them an attractive alternative to traditional antibodies used in ELISA.

  11. Commercial Milk Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Kit Reactivities to Purified Milk Proteins and Milk-Derived Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ivens, Katherine O; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L

    2016-07-01

    Numerous commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits exist to quantitatively detect bovine milk residues in foods. Milk contains many proteins that can serve as ELISA targets including caseins (α-, β-, or κ-casein) and whey proteins (α-lactalbumin or β-lactoglobulin). Nine commercially-available milk ELISA kits were selected to compare the specificity and sensitivity with 5 purified milk proteins and 3 milk-derived ingredients. All of the milk kits were capable of quantifying nonfat dry milk (NFDM), but did not necessarily detect all individual protein fractions. While milk-derived ingredients were detected by the kits, their quantitation may be inaccurate due to the use of different calibrators, reference materials, and antibodies in kit development. The establishment of a standard reference material for the calibration of milk ELISA kits is increasingly important. The appropriate selection and understanding of milk ELISA kits for food analysis is critical to accurate quantification of milk residues and informed risk management decisions.

  12. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for identification of venoms from snakes in the Agkistrodon genus.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Ownby, C L

    1994-11-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a purified myotoxin from the venom of Agkistrodon contortrix laticintus (broad-banded copperhead) as immunogen was developed for potential use in the identification of envenomation by snakes belonging to the genus Agkistrodon native to North America. The specificity of the assay was tested using a total of 43 venom samples from snakes of diverse geographic locations. Venom samples used for cross-reactivity determination represent eight snake families including 14 species from the genus Crotalus. The assay detected venom from all Agkistrodon species tested without significant cross-reactivity with other venoms except for samples from two species of Bothrops which do not occur naturally north of Southern Mexico. The detection limit of the assay was 2 ng/ml for homologous crude venom dissolved in normal human serum. The assay was highly accurate in correlating optical densities with venom concentrations (r = 0.997). The presence of the antigen in experimental envenomations was readily detected by the assay at an i.m. injection dosage of 0.1 microgram/g. This ELISA is a promising test for identification of envenomations by species of Agkistrodon found in most of North America. It can also be used to study the kinetics of the myotoxin in experimental envenomations.

  13. Informative prior distributions for ELISA analyses.

    PubMed

    Klauenberg, Katy; Walzel, Monika; Ebert, Bernd; Elster, Clemens

    2015-07-01

    Immunoassays are capable of measuring very small concentrations of substances in solutions and have an immense range of application. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests in particular can detect the presence of an infection, of drugs, or hormones (as in the home pregnancy test). Inference of an unknown concentration via ELISA usually involves a non-linear heteroscedastic regression and subsequent prediction, which can be carried out in a Bayesian framework. For such a Bayesian inference, we are developing informative prior distributions based on extensive historical ELISA tests as well as theoretical considerations. One consideration regards the quality of the immunoassay leading to two practical requirements for the applicability of the priors. Simulations show that the additional prior information can lead to inferences which are robust to reasonable perturbations of the model and changes in the design of the data. On real data, the applicability is demonstrated across different laboratories, for different analytes and laboratory equipment as well as for previous and current ELISAs with sigmoid regression function. Consistency checks on real data (similar to cross-validation) underpin the adequacy of the suggested priors. Altogether, the new priors may improve concentration estimation for ELISAs that fulfill certain design conditions, by extending the range of the analyses, decreasing the uncertainty, or giving more robust estimates. Future use of these priors is straightforward because explicit, closed-form expressions are provided. This work encourages development and application of informative, yet general, prior distributions for other types of immunoassays.

  14. An ELISA immunoassay employing a conserved Leishmania hypothetical protein for the serodiagnosis of visceral and tegumentary leishmaniasis in dogs and humans.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana Maria R S; Costa, Lourena E; Salles, Beatriz C S; Santos, Thaís T O; Ramos, Fernanda F; Lima, Mariana P; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Silvestre, Bruna T; Portela, Áquila S B; Roatt, Bruno M; Silveira, Julia A G; Gonçalves, Denise U; Magalhães-Soares, Danielle F; Duarte, Mariana C; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Coelho, Eduardo A F

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, a conserved Leishmania hypothetical protein, namely LiHypA, was evaluated for the serodiagnosis of visceral and tegumentary leishmaniasis in dogs and humans. This protein showed a high amino acid sequence homology between viscerotropic and cutaneotropic Leishmania species. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using the recombinant antigen (rLiHypA), in addition to the A2 protein and two parasite antigenic preparations, which were used as controls. Regarding human diagnosis, results showed that rLiHypA was more sensitive and specific than ELISA-L. braziliensis SLA in detecting both cutaneous or mucosal leishmaniasis patients, but not those from Chagas disease patients or healthy subjects. Regarding canine diagnosis, this recombinant antigen showed higher sensitivity and specificity values, as well as a perfect accuracy to identify asymptomatic and symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in dogs, but not those from vaccinated animals or those developing babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, or Chagas disease. However, using the rA2 protein or L. braziliensis SLA as controls, significant cross-reactivity was found when these samples were used, hampering their sensitivity and specificity values for the diagnosis. In this context, LiHypA could be considered a candidate to be evaluated for the serodiagnosis of visceral and tegumentary leishmaniasis in dogs and humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Direct ELISA.

    PubMed

    Lin, Alice V

    2015-01-01

    First described by Engvall and Perlmann, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a rapid and sensitive method for detection and quantitation of an antigen using an enzyme-labeled antibody. Besides routine laboratory usage, ELISA has been utilized in medical field and food industry as diagnostic and quality control tools. Traditionally performed in 96-well or 384-well polystyrene plates, the technology has expanded to other platforms with increase in automation. Depending on the antigen epitope and availability of specific antibody, there are variations in ELISA setup. The four basic formats are direct, indirect, sandwich, and competitive ELISAs. Direct ELISA is the simplest format requiring an antigen and an enzyme-conjugated antibody specific to the antigen. This chapter describes the individual steps for detection of a plate-bound antigen using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated antibody and luminol-based enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) substrate. The methodological approach to optimize the assay by chessboard titration is also provided.

  16. Validation and comparison of two commercial ELISA kits and three in-house developed real-time PCR assays for the detection of potentially allergenic mustard in food.

    PubMed

    Palle-Reisch, Monika; Hochegger, Rupert; Štumr, Stepan; Korycanova, Kveta; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2015-05-01

    The study compares the applicability of two commercial mustard ELISA kits (Mustard ELISA Kit-specific and Mustard ELISA Kit-total) and three in-house developed real-time PCR assays (singleplex assay for white mustard, singleplex assay for black/brown mustard and duplex assay for the detection of white, black and brown mustard). Analyses of raw and brewed model sausages containing white and black/brown mustard in the range from 1 to 50 ppm indicate that both ELISAs and the three real-time PCR assays allow the detection of traces of mustard in raw and in brewed sausages. The ELISAs were found to be more sensitive than the real-time PCR assays. When the ELISAs and real-time PCR assays were applied to the analysis of 15 commercial foodstuffs differing in their labelling concerning mustard, in one sample mustard was detected with both ELISAs and the three real-time PCR assays although mustard was not indicated on the food ingredient list. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Apolipoprotein A-I assayed in human serum by isotope dilution as a potential standard for immunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Weech, P.K.; Jewer, D.; Marcel, Y.L.

    1988-01-01

    We measured the amount of apoA-I in serum by isotope dilution, finding 1.33 mg/ml (standard deviation 0.177) in six normolipidemic, healthy subjects. We developed this method by adapting published techniques to purify apoA-I from 3 ml of serum in two steps: density gradient ultracentrifugation and high performance liquid chromatography gel filtration. The 125I-labeled apoA-I tracer was first screened, by incubation with serum, to select labeled apoA-I which retained the ability to exchange with native apoA-I and bind to HDL. A known amount of 125I-labeled apoA-I-labeled HDL was added to unknown serum samples; apoA-I was reisolated from the serum and its specific radioactivity was used to calculate the dilution of the added, labeled apoA-I by the unlabeled apoA-I in the unknown serum. By not relying on immunochemical techniques, the isotope dilution assay provided results that are independent of the expression of individual apoA-I antigenic sites. Therefore, sera that have been assayed by isotope dilution can serve as standards to evaluate the accuracy of immunoassays for serum apoA-I and provide primary standards for such immunoassays.

  18. Evaluation of a commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of the neurotoxin BMAA in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Faassen, Elisabeth J; Beekman, Wendy; Lürling, Miquel

    2013-01-01

    The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is suspected to play a role in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Because BMAA seems to be produced by cyanobacteria, surface waters are screened for BMAA. However, reliable analysis of BMAA requires specialized and expensive equipment. In 2012, a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for determination of BMAA in surface waters was released. This kit could enable fast and relatively cheap screening of surface waters for BMAA. The objective of this study was to determine whether the BMAA ELISA kit was suitable for the determination of BMAA concentrations in surface waters. We hypothesised that the recovery of spiked samples was close to 100% and that the results of unspiked sample analysis were comparable between ELISA and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. However, we found that recovery was higher than 100% in most spiked samples, highest determined recovery was over 400%. Furthermore, the ELISA gave a positive signal for nearly each tested sample while no BMAA could be detected by LC-MS/MS. We therefore conclude that in its current state, the kit is not suitable for screening surface waters for BMAA.

  19. Evaluation of a Commercial Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for the Determination of the Neurotoxin BMAA in Surface Waters

    PubMed Central

    Faassen, Elisabeth J.; Beekman, Wendy; Lürling, Miquel

    2013-01-01

    The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is suspected to play a role in Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Because BMAA seems to be produced by cyanobacteria, surface waters are screened for BMAA. However, reliable analysis of BMAA requires specialized and expensive equipment. In 2012, a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for determination of BMAA in surface waters was released. This kit could enable fast and relatively cheap screening of surface waters for BMAA. The objective of this study was to determine whether the BMAA ELISA kit was suitable for the determination of BMAA concentrations in surface waters. We hypothesised that the recovery of spiked samples was close to 100% and that the results of unspiked sample analysis were comparable between ELISA and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. However, we found that recovery was higher than 100% in most spiked samples, highest determined recovery was over 400%. Furthermore, the ELISA gave a positive signal for nearly each tested sample while no BMAA could be detected by LC-MS/MS. We therefore conclude that in its current state, the kit is not suitable for screening surface waters for BMAA. PMID:23762331

  20. Design-of-experiment approach for HPLC analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a comparative assay with ELISA.

    PubMed

    Abu el Maaty, Mohamed Abdulla; Hanafi, Rasha Sayed; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y; Gad, Mohamed Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Although high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) is adopted as the method of choice for the determination of vitamin D and its metabolites in plasma, yet the unavailability of this expensive detection technique in many clinical laboratories makes ultraviolet (UV) detection the alternative of choice in many places worldwide. In this regard, determination of parameters affecting HPLC separation of vitamins D2, D3 and their hydroxyl metabolites in plasma in a systematic way would put an end to irrelevant trials for more optimization. A new robust HPLC-UV was developed, optimized using DryLab(®)2000 and validated for the determination of vitamins D2 and D3 and their 25-hydroxyl metabolites in plasma to achieve best resolution and least runtime where the metabolites elute in <10 min, where vitamin D2 is considered a feasible internal standard. Chromatographic parameters affecting resolution of the four peaks were specifically defined by a two-dimensional resolution map. Forty-six plasma samples were analyzed by the optimized method as well as by an ELISA kit to compare results and to judge validity of ELISA as a technique of clinical importance. Statistical analyses proved that the investigated assays were incomparable. Variation among subjects was detected by HPLC but not ELISA, concluding that HPLC-UV is the better tool in determining vitamin D status than ELISA.

  1. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantification of human collectin 11 (CL-11, CL-K1).

    PubMed

    Selman, L; Henriksen, M L; Brandt, J; Palarasah, Y; Waters, A; Beales, P L; Holmskov, U; Jørgensen, T J D; Nielsen, C; Skjodt, K; Hansen, S

    2012-01-31

    Collectin 11 (CL-11), also referred to as collectin kidney 1 (CL-K1), is a pattern recognition molecule that belongs to the collectin group of proteins involved in innate immunity. It interacts with glycoconjugates on pathogen surfaces and has been found in complex with mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease 1 (MASP-1) and/or MASP-3 in circulation. Mutation in the CL-11 gene was recently associated with the developmental syndrome 3MC. In the present study, we established and thoroughly validated a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on two different monoclonal antibodies. The assay is highly sensitive, specific and shows excellent quantitative characteristics such as reproducibility, dilution linearity and recovery (97.7-104%). The working range is 0.15-34 ng/ml. The CL-11 concentration in two CL-11-deficient individuals affected by the 3MC syndrome was determined to be below 2.1 ng/ml. We measured the mean serum CL-11 concentration to 284 ng/ml in 100 Danish blood donors, with a 95% confidence interval of 269-299 ng/ml. There was no significant difference in the CL-11 concentration measured in matched serum and plasma samples. Storage of samples and repeated freezing and thawing to a certain extent did not influence the ELISA. This ELISA offers a convenient and reliable method for studying CL-11 levels in relation to a variety of human diseases and syndromes.

  2. Development of a high-throughput ELISA assay for platelet function testing using platelet-rich plasma or whole blood.

    PubMed

    Salles, Isabelle; Broos, Katleen; Fontayne, Alexandre; Szántó, Tímea; Ruan, Changgeng; Nurden, Alan T; Vanhoorelbeke, Karen; Deckmyn, Hans

    2010-08-01

    Platelets play an essential role in the development of cardiovascular diseases and are the target of several agents that can inhibit their function. Despite the existence of a wide array of techniques to study platelet function, an assay to evaluate several platelet signalling pathways in a high-throughput fashion, combined with minimal blood volume and handling is still needed. We have developed a sensitive assay in the form of a sandwich ELISA where monoclonal antibodies against P-selectin or alphaIIbbeta3 and GPIbalpha were used to capture and detect platelets, respectively, in the presence of five different agonists [ADP, TRAP (thrombin receptor agonist), U46619 (thromboxane A2 analogue), collagen-related-peptide, and arachidonic acid]. Binding of platelets to the antibodies increased dose-dependently with the concentration of either agonist, while binding of ADP-activated platelets was abrogated when inhibitors of platelet activation were concomitantly added. The test showed good sample reproducibility in 15 healthy donors with conserved platelet response to agonists throughout the assay. Healthy subjects could be identified as normal-, hypo- or hyper-responders for each agonist, which for most cases (73%) was confirmed upon retesting. Finally, we demonstrated that the platelet ELISA assay can not only be used in platelet-rich plasma but also in whole blood; it now awaits large scale studies to assess its full screening and diagnostic values.

  3. Colloidal nanomaterial-based immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Teste, Bruno; Descroix, Stephanie

    2012-06-01

    Nanomaterials have been widely developed for their use in nanomedicine, especially for immunoassay-based diagnosis. In this review we focus on the use of nanomaterials as a nanoplatform for colloidal immunoassays. While conventional heterogeneous immunoassays suffer from mass transfer limitations and consequently long assay time, colloidal immunosupports allow target capture in the entire volume, thus speeding up reaction kinetics and shortening assay time. Owing to their wide range of chemical and physical properties, nanomaterials are an interesting candidate for immunoassay development. The most popular colloidal nanomaterials for colloidal immunoassays will be discussed, as well as their influence on immune reactions. Recent advances in nanomaterial applications for different formats of immunoassays will be reported, such as nanomaterial-based indirect immunoassays, optical-based agglutination immunoassays, resonance energy transfer-based immunoassays and magnetic relaxation-based immunoassays. Finally, the future of using nanomaterials for homogeneous immunoassays dedicated to clinical diagnosis will be discussed.

  4. Cephalexin residue detection in milk and beef by ELISA and colloidal gold based one-step strip assay.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liben; Wang, Zhengfang; Ferreri, Miro; Su, Jingliang; Han, Bo

    2009-06-10

    An evaluation of a rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and colloidal gold based one-step strip assay for cephalexin (CEX) residue detection in milk and beef is described. A monoclonal antibody (mAb) against CEX was produced using cephalexin-bovine serum albumin (CEX-BSA) conjugate as the immunogen, which exhibited no cross-reactivity with applied chemicals in the studied concentration range. The detection limit of rapid ELISA was calculated as 0.39 microg/kg in PBS and 19.5 microg/kg in beef and milk, which was quite lower than the European Union Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) of 100 microg/kg in milk and 200 microg/kg in muscle. Spiked samples were detected with a mean recovery of 82.8-124% and coefficient of variation of 4.88-25%, which indicated a good agreement with the spiked concentration. Accuracy and reproducibility were determined using spiked samples with four different final concentrations of 1, 2, 5, and 10 microg/kg of CEX (n = 7). Mean intra-assay variation of 6.67% and inter-assay variation of 10.66% were obtained. In contrast, the strip test for CEX had a visual detection limit of 0.5 microg/kg, which could be evaluated within 3-10 min. However, positive samples should be further quantified by more sensitive and accurate competitive indirect ELISA method. In conclusion, the described strip test is rapid, simple, and cost-effective as well as sensitive and specific enough for reliable and accurate on-site screening.

  5. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF AN ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOASSAY (ELISA) METHOD FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID IN HUMAN URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the development of a 96-microwell high sample capacity ELISA method for measuring 2,4-D in urine; the analysis of 2,4-D in real-world urine samples by both ELISA and GC/MS methods; and compares the ELISA and GC/MS results in several key areas: accuracy, preci...

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF AN ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOASSAY (ELISA) METHOD FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID IN HUMAN URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the development of a 96-microwell high sample capacity ELISA method for measuring 2,4-D in urine; the analysis of 2,4-D in real-world urine samples by both ELISA and GC/MS methods; and compares the ELISA and GC/MS results in several key areas: accuracy, preci...

  7. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and blocking with bovine serum albumin (BSA)--not all BSAs are alike.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yuhong; Isaacs, Stuart N

    2012-10-31

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is an extremely common and powerful laboratory technique for detecting proteins by antibodies. Researchers frequently use bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a blocking agent to prevent non-specific binding of antigens and antibodies to the microtiter well. While studying the interactions of the vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP) with complement, we found non-specific binding of VCP to BSA and identify a BSA preparation that did not result in non-specific binding. This work draws attention to the fact that not all BSA preparations are alike. It also highlights the need to perform critical controls to ensure that ELISA reactants do not inappropriately bind to the blocking agent.

  8. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of lupine residues in foods.

    PubMed

    Kaw, C H; Hefle, S L; Taylor, S L

    2008-10-01

    Lupine has been increasingly used in food applications due to its high nutritional value and excellent functional properties. However, lupine provokes allergic reactions in susceptible individuals. The presence of undeclared lupine residues in foods can pose a serious health risk to lupine-allergic individuals. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop a sandwich-type ELISA for the detection of lupine residues in foods. Lupine flour derived from Lupinus albus was used to immunize 3 rabbits and a sheep. Pooled lupine-specific antibodies were partially purified from the sera by ammonium sulfate precipitation. A sandwich lupine ELISA with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1 ppm was developed by utilizing the rabbit antisera as the capture reagent and the sheep antiserum as the detector reagent. The binding of the antigen-antibody complex was visualized by the addition of commercial rabbit antisheep IgG antibody labeled with alkaline phosphatase with subsequent addition of p-nitrophenyl phosphate substrate to produce a colored product for quantification. Minor cross-reactivity was observed with soy (Glycine max) and black bean (Castanospermum australe). The performance of the lupine ELISA was evaluated in reference food standards (beef frankfurter and apple cinnamon muffin) and laboratory-prepared cooked frankfurters and corn muffins. The mean percent recovery for lupine spiked-frankfurters and corn muffins were 108.4%+/- 8.8% and 103.1%+/- 11.5%, respectively. The sandwich-type lupine ELISA developed in this study provides food manufacturers and regulatory agencies with an effective analytical tool to detect and quantify lupine residues in processed foods.

  9. Detection of mustard, egg, milk, and gluten in salad dressing using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs).

    PubMed

    Lee, Poi-Wah; Niemann, Lynn M; Lambrecht, Debra M; Nordlee, Julie A; Taylor, Steve L

    2009-06-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a commonly used method for the detection of trace amounts of potentially allergenic protein residues in foods. However, food matrices and processing conditions can affect the detection of protein residues. The effects of acidity on the detectability of several allergenic proteins commonly found in salad dressing using ELISAs was investigated. First, recovery experiments were performed on salad dressing formulated with 0 to 1000 ppm mustard flour (mustard). The mean percent recovery for mustard from the salad dressing was only 7.7%+/- 1.6%. When the pH of the salad dressing was adjusted to pH 7 prior to spiking with mustard, recovery improved to 94.1%+/- 7.6%. However, if the pH was adjusted to pH 7 after spiking and extraction, the recovery was only 11.1%+/- 1.7%. When vinegar was spiked with mustard flour at pH 3, 3.5, and 4, detectability of mustard was lowest at pH 3. Basic extraction of mustard proteins from salad dressing did not improve the mustard detection. Acidic salad dressing matrices reduced the detectability of mustard by the mustard ELISA probably because of acid precipitation of mustard proteins that renders them insoluble and nonextractable. Commercial salad dressings containing 100 ppm (mg/kg) of egg, milk, or gluten were analyzed every 2 to 4 d for 90 d using 3 commercially available ELISAs. A decrease in the detection of the egg, milk, and gluten in the salad dressing upon storage was observed. Our study highlighted the importance of evaluating the utility of various ELISAs for specific food matrices and the recovery as a function of product storage.

  10. Evaluation of yolk protein levels as estrogenic biomarker in bivalves; comparison of the alkali-labile phosphate method (ALP) and a species-specific immunoassay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Morthorst, Jane E; Holbech, Henrik; Jeppesen, Morten; Kinnberg, Karin L; Pedersen, Knud L; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2014-11-01

    Altered concentration of the vertebrate yolk protein precursor vitellogenin is a recognized biomarker for endocrine disruption in fish, and within recent years yolk protein alteration has also been associated with endocrine disruption in bivalves. Species-specific, direct and sensitive methods for quantification of vitellogenin in fish have been available for years whereas bivalve yolk protein levels have been estimated indirectly by alkali-labile phosphate (ALP) liberated from high molecular weight proteins because the sequence and biochemical structure of most bivalve yolk proteins are unknown. By applying a species-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for accurate determination of yolk protein level the impact of 17β-estradiol (57, 164 and 512 ng/L) on the freshwater bivalve Unio tumidus was investigated and compared with ALP estimations. Seven weeks of exposure during the pre-spawning and spawning period had no consistent effect on yolk protein concentration in hemolymph, and ALP levels in hemolymph also remained unchanged in both males and females. Further, basal male and female ALP levels were indistinguishable whereas the ELISA demonstrated that yolk protein levels of females exceeded male levels at the time of sampling, although male basal levels were high compared to fish. Altogether it is shown that individual ALP levels do not reflect yolk protein levels and hence hemolymph ALP levels cannot serve as biomarker for estrogenic exposure during the pre-spawning and spawning period in U. tumidus. The necessity of sensitive and validated biomarkers for reliable interpretation of data and the utility of ALP and yolk protein levels as biomarkers in bivalves are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Commutability of NIST SRM 1955 Homocysteine and Folate in Frozen Human Serum with selected total homocysteine immunoassays and enzymatic assays.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Bryant C; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Zhang, Ming; Duewer, David L; Sharpless, Katherine E; Lippa, Katrice A

    2008-09-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has recently developed Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1955 Homocysteine and Folate in Frozen Human Serum with certified values for total homocysteine (tHcy) and 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolic acid. NIST has performed an international, interlaboratory assessment of SRM 1955 commutability; results are reported for tHcy only. Total Hcy was measured in 20 patient sera and in 3 levels of SRM 1955 using 14 immunoassays and/or enzymatic assays. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was utilized as the reference assay. An "errors-in-variables" statistical model was utilized to assess the commutability of SRM 1955. Normalized residuals ranged from -2.65 to 2.19 for SRM 1955. The median interlaboratory/interassay imprecision (CV) was approximately 4% for patient specimens and ranged from approximately 3% to approximately 7% for SRM 1955. The median intra-assay imprecision ranged from approximately 1% to approximately 13%. Orthogonal residuals, as a descriptor of assay accuracy, ranged from 0.29 to 7.71 and from 0.20 to 2.22 for patient specimens and SRM 1955 samples, respectively. The current study suggests that SRM 1955 is commutable with the investigated tHcy assays; however, a broader specimen set needs to be evaluated to completely substantiate this conclusion.

  12. Comparison of four functionalization methods of gold nanoparticles for enhancing the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

    PubMed Central

    Ciaurriz, Paula; Fernández, Fátima; Tellechea, Edurne; Moran, Jose F

    2017-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique is based on the specific recognition ability of the molecular structure of an antigen (epitope) by an antibody and is likely the most important diagnostic technique used today in bioscience. With this methodology, it is possible to diagnose illness, allergies, alimentary fraud, and even to detect small molecules such as toxins, pesticides, heavy metals, etc. For this reason, any procedures that improve the detection limit, sensitivity or reduce the analysis time could have an important impact in several fields. In this respect, many methods have been developed for improving the technique, ranging from fluorescence substrates to methods for increasing the number of enzyme molecules involved in the detection such as the biotin–streptavidin method. In this context, nanotechnology has offered a significant number of proposed solutions, mainly based on the functionalization of nanoparticles from gold to carbon which could be used as antibody carriers as well as reporter enzymes like peroxidase. However, few works have focused on the study of best practices for nanoparticle functionalization for ELISA enhancement. In this work, we use 20 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a vehicle for secondary antibodies and peroxidase (HRP). The design of experiments technique (DOE) and four different methods for biomolecule loading were compared using a rabbit IgG/goat anti-rabbit IgG ELISA model (adsorption, directional, covalent and a combination thereof). As a result, AuNP probes prepared by direct adsorption were the most effective method. AuNPs probes were then used to detect gliadin, one of the main components of wheat gluten, the protein composite that causes celiac disease. With this optimized approach, our data showed a sensitivity increase of at least five times and a lower detection limit with respect to a standard ELISA of at least three times. Additionally, the assay time was remarkably decreased. PMID:28243563

  13. Method for detecting classes of microcystins by combination of protein phosphatase inhibition assay and ELISA: comparison with LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Mountfort, Douglas O; Holland, Patrick; Sprosen, Jan

    2005-02-01

    Depending on the class of microcystin the protein phosphatase inhibition assay shows different sensitivities to different classes of toxin. We have determined that the IC50 values obtained from dose-response curves for the inhibition of the enzyme by micro-cystin LR, nodularin, YR, and RR were 2.2, 1.8, 9 and 175 nM, respectively. When equimolar amounts of these toxins were determined by the ELISA assay with microcystin LR as the standard, the assay showed equivalence in toxin responses. However, when the toxins were determined by the protein phosphatase inhibition assay using microcystin LR as the standard, the ratios of the values determined by PP-2A to ELISA decreased in the order: nodularin (2.23) microcystin LR (1.1)> microcystin YR (0.63)> microcystin RR (0.06). When the ratios for each standard were plotted against the IC50 values, the log-log plot was negative linear, and the lowest value for the IC50 corresponded with the lowest ratio. The differential sensitivity of the PP-2A assay to the various standards was used to establish an indicative toxicity ranking (ITR) where a ranking of 1 (the highest) was assigned to ratios of > or = 0.8 or greater, and 3 (the lowest) to values < or = 0.2. The three ranking classes corresponded to toxin equivalence represented by the four standards. The new method allows not only the determination of microcystin toxins in terms of stoichiometry (ELISA) but also in terms of indicative toxicity. The method can be performed using the same instrument (e.g. multiwell fluorimeter with absorbance capability) and offers an advantage to methods presently used to determine microcystins (e.g. ELISA or LC-MS). The former has the propensity to overestimate toxicity because it measures equivalence to microcystin LR and is a stoichiometric measurement and the latter has the disadvantage in that relatively few of the microcystins that occur naturally are available as standards. The new method was applied to the analysis of sample from lakes

  14. A recombinant antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for lungworm detection in seals.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Sophia Arlena; Lehnert, Kristina; Siebert, Ursula; Strube, Christina

    2015-09-02

    Pinnipeds are frequently infected by the lungworms Otostrongylus circumlitus and Parafilaroides gymnurus (Metastrongyloidea). Infections are frequently associated with secondary bacterial bronchopneumonia and are often lethal. To date, a reliable lungworm diagnosis in individual seals is only possible during necropsy as examination of faeces collected from resting places does not allow assignment to individuals. Therefore, a diagnostic tool for lungworm detection in living seals is desirable for monitoring health of seals in the wild and in captivity. Previously, an ELISA based on recombinant bovine lungworm major sperm protein (MSP) as diagnostic antigen was developed for lungworm diagnosis in cattle. In the present study, this test was adapted for detection of antibodies against lungworms in harbour (Phoca vitulina) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). Furthermore, sera of northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) were tested to evaluate whether the harbour/grey seal ELISA is suitable for this seal species as well. For ELISA evaluation, lungworm-positive and -negative sera of harbour and grey seals were analysed using horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated Protein A as secondary antibody. Optical density was measured and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine a cut-off value. Potential cross-reactions were examined by testing serum of seals positive for gastrointestinal and heart nematodes, but negative for lungworm infections. In addition, sera of northern elephant seals were analysed. Harbour and grey seal serum samples showed significant differences in optical density (OD) between serum of infected and uninfected animals resulting in a cut-off value of 0.422 OD with a specificity of 100% (95% CI: 87.23-100%) and a sensitivity of 97.83% (95% CI: 88.47-99.94%). Cross-reactions with heart or gastrointestinal nematodes were not observed. Analysis of northern elephant seal samples resulted in detection of antibodies

  15. A simple micro-ELISA method for the assay of antithyroglobulin autoantibodies in human serum

    PubMed Central

    Goodburn, Richard; Williams, David L; Marks, Vincent

    1981-01-01

    An indirect, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is described for the assay of thyroid autoantibodies, particularly those directed against thyroglobulin. The method is specific, sensitive and precise, and may be automated. The results are shown to correlate well with those obtained by the haemagglutination method. PMID:6974179

  16. Environmental Technology Verification Report for Abraxis Ecologenia® 17β-Estradiol (E2) Microplate Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Test Kits

    EPA Science Inventory

    This verification test was conducted according to procedures specifiedin the Test/QA Planfor Verification of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Test Kis for the Quantitative Determination of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs) in Aqueous Phase Samples. Deviations to the...

  17. Environmental Technology Verification Report for Abraxis Ecologenia® 17β-Estradiol (E2) Microplate Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Test Kits

    EPA Science Inventory

    This verification test was conducted according to procedures specifiedin the Test/QA Planfor Verification of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Test Kis for the Quantitative Determination of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs) in Aqueous Phase Samples. Deviations to the...

  18. Diagnostic tests for amoebic liver abscess: comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE).

    PubMed

    Restrepo, M I; Restrepo, Z; Elsa Villareal, C L; Aguirre, A; Restrepo, M

    1996-01-01

    The liver abscess is the most frequent extraintestinal complication of intestinal amoebiasis: its diagnosis is suggested by the clinical picture but it must be confirmed by paraclinic tests. Themost stringent diagnosis requires identification of E. histolytica. But this is possible only in a few cases. Serological tests greatly improve the diagnosis of this severe complication of amoebiasis. We compared the Enzyme Linfed Immunosorbent Assay and the Counterimmunoelectrophoresis techniques. Both techniques were used to detect amoebic antibodies in 50 control patients, 30 patients with liver abscess and 30 patients with intestinal amoebiasis. All the sera from control patients gave negative results in both techniques. When analysing the sera from patients with intestinal amoebiasis, 10% of them were positive by ELISA but non by CIE. The sera of patients with liver abscess, we found that 90% were positive by the ELISA method and 66.6% by the CIE technique. In patients with amoebic liver abscess, the results showed that the ELISA was more sensitive than the CIE, as it presented a higher sensitivity (100%) than that of the CIE technique (66%).

  19. An antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect isometamidium chloride in Oncorhynchus spp.

    PubMed

    Ardelli, B F; Woo, P T

    2000-02-09

    An antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect and measure isometamidium chloride in the plasma of Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and O. mykiss. Isometamidium-ovalbumin conjugate and anti-isometamidium antibodies were used to coat polystyrene plates. The peroxidase saturation technique was used to optimize the coating antigen concentration; it demonstrated low affinity of the isometamidium-ovalbumin conjugate but high affinity of the anti-isometamidium antibodies for polystyrene surface sites. The optimal conditions of antiisometamidium antibodies to coat plates was at pH 7.3 and a 1:1000 dilution (0.0012 mg ml(-1) protein). The ELISA was sensitive as it detected 0.0006 mg ml(-1) of isometamidium in fish plasma. Isometamidium diluted with saline could not be detected at concentrations less than 0.05 mg ml(-1). The results indicate that this ELISA is much more sensitive when isometamidium is bound to plasma than unbound isometamidium in saline.

  20. Immunological tools: engaging students in the use and analysis of flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Ott, Laura E; Carson, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are commonly used techniques associated with clinical and research applications within the immunology and medical fields. The use of these techniques is becoming increasingly valuable in many life science and engineering disciplines as well. Herein, we report the development and evaluation of a novel half-semester course that focused on introducing undergraduate and graduate students to advance conceptual and technical skills associated with flow cytometry and ELISA, with emphasis on applications, experimental design, and data analysis. This course was offered in the North Carolina State University Biotechnology Program over three semesters and consisted of weekly lectures and laboratories. Students performed and/or analyzed flow cytometry and ELISA in three separate laboratory exercises: (1) identification of transgenic zebrafish hematopoietic cells, (2) analysis of transfection efficiency, and (3) analysis of cytokine production upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Student learning outcomes were achieved as demonstrated by multiple means of assessment, including three laboratory reports, a data analysis laboratory practicum, and a cumulative final exam. Further, anonymous student self-assessment revealed increased student confidence in the knowledge and skill sets defined in the learning outcomes. Copyright © 2014 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. Development of hen antihepatitis B antigen IgY-based conjugate for ELISA assay

    PubMed Central

    Nafea, Najat Muayed; Sabbah, Majeed Arsheed; AL-Suhail, Raghad; Mahdavi, Amir Hossein; Asgary, Sedigheh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chicken antibodies have many advantages to the mammalian antibodies and have several important differences against mammalian IgG with regard to their specificity and large-scale production. In this study, the production, purification, and HRP conjugation of polyclonal IgY against hepatitis virus surface antigen (HBsAg) were carried out. Materials and Methods: Single Comb White Leghorn hens were immunized intramuscularly with hepatitis B vaccine in combination with Freund's adjuvants. Blood and eggs were collected before and during ten weeks after the first immunization. Results: A highly purified of 180 KDa with specific activity of 200 mIU/ml was obtained by our purification protocol. One milligram of the purified IgY was labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Sandwich ELISA was used to determine the optimum titer of anti-HbsAg IgY-conjugate which was found to be 1:20. Conclusions: This study showed that laying hens can be used as an alternative source for production of polyclonal antibodies against HBsAg and anti-HBs IgY could be labeled with HRP enzyme and could subsequently be used successfully as secondary antibody in ELISA for detection of HBsAg in the patients sera. PMID:26015926

  2. Immunoassay standardization.

    PubMed

    Ekins, R

    1991-01-01

    Assays employed in the biological sciences fall into two categories, which may be respectively termed "comparative" (or "functionally-specific") and "analytical" (or "structurally-specific"). The former are intended to compare the relative effects of substances, or mixtures of substances--not necessarily of identical chemical structure--on a biological system (e.g. whole animal, tissue, cell, etc). Results are represented by units of effect (i.e. they are not units of "amount" of the substance(s) measured), and differ depending on the biological system used. Such assays cannot be "standardised" by the use of a calibrant. In contrast, analytical assays are intended to measure the number of molecules (or mass) of a single substance of unique chemical structure in a test sample, and cannot legitimately be employed to measure mixtures of substances of different structure. Results are represented by units of molecular number or mass, and should be identical for any test sample irrespective of the assay system used. Immunoassays generally fall into this category. Insofar as the antigenic substances present in standards or test samples are dissimilar and/or molecularly heterogeneous, an immunoassay is invalid, and the results it yields have no universal significance. Attempts to standardize "analytically-invalid" immunoassays inevitably fail. Many substances of biological interest (e.g. TSH)--initially defined in terms of their biological function--have subsequently been shown to be molecularly heterogenous. Problems thus arise in the standardization of immunoassays used for their measurement, reflecting the fact that the measurement of a mixture of substances of differing molecular structure (and function) is a meaningless concept. It is thus impossible to "measure TSH"; it is only possible to measure the effect TSH exerts in a particularly assay system. The only long-term solution to this problem is the development of assay systems measuring individual components of

  3. Assessing Immunity to Rubella Virus: a Plea for Standardization of IgG (Immuno)assays

    PubMed Central

    Bouthry, Elise; Huzly, Daniela; Ogee-Nwankwo, Adaeze; Hao, LiJuan; Adebayo, Adebola; Icenogle, Joseph; Sarasini, Antonella; Revello, Maria Grazia; Grangeot-Keros, Liliane

    2016-01-01

    Immunity to rubella virus (RV) is commonly determined by measuring specific immunoglobulin G (RV IgG). However, RV IgG results and their interpretation may vary, depending on the immunoassay, even though most commercial immunoassays (CIAs) have been calibrated against an international standard and results are reported in international units per milliliter. A panel of 322 sera collected from pregnant women that tested negative or equivocal for RV IgG in a prior test (routine screening) was selected. This panel was tested with two reference tests, immunoblotting (IB) and neutralization (Nt), and with 8 CIAs widely used in Europe. IB and Nt gave concordant results on 267/322 (82.9%) sera. Of these, 85 (26.4%) sera were negative and 182 (56.5%) sera were positive for both tests. All 85 IB/Nt-negative samples were classified as negative with all CIAs. Of the 182 IB/Nt-positive samples, 25.3 to 61.5% were classified as equivocal and 6 to 64.8% were classified as positive with the CIAs. Wide variations in titers in international units per milliliter were observed. In our series, more than half of the women considered susceptible to RV based on CIA results tested positive for RV antibodies by IB/Nt. Our data suggest that (i) sensitivity of CIAs could be increased by considering equivocal results as positive and (ii) the definition of immunity to RV as the 10-IU/ml usual cutoff as well as the use of quantitative results for clinical decisions may warrant reconsideration. A better standardization of CIAs for RV IgG determination is needed. PMID:27147722

  4. The Diagnosis of Human Fascioliasis by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Using Recombinant Cathepsin L Protease

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales Santana, Bibiana; Vasquez Camargo, Fabio; Parkinson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Fascioliasis is a worldwide parasitic disease of domestic animals caused by helminths of the genus Fasciola. In many parts of the world, particularly in poor rural areas where animal disease is endemic, the parasite also infects humans. Adult parasites reside in the bile ducts of the host and therefore diagnosis of human fascioliasis is usually achieved by coprological examinations that search for parasite eggs that are carried into the intestine with the bile juices. However, these methods are insensitive due to the fact that eggs are released sporadically and may be missed in low-level infections, and fasciola eggs may be misclassified as other parasites, leading to problems with specificity. Furthermore, acute clinical symptoms as a result of parasites migrating to the bile ducts appear before the parasite matures and begins egg laying. A human immune response to Fasciola antigens occurs early in infection. Therefore, an immunological method such as ELISA may be a more reliable, easy and cheap means to diagnose human fascioliasis than coprological analysis. Methodology/Principal findings Using a panel of serum from Fasciola hepatica-infected patients and from uninfected controls we have optimized an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) which employs a recombinant form of the major F. hepatica cathepsin L1 as the antigen for the diagnosis of human fascioliasis. We examined the ability of the ELISA test to discern fascioliasis from various other helminth and non-helminth parasitic diseases. Conclusions/Significance A sensitive and specific fascioliasis ELISA test has been developed. This test is rapid and easy to use and can discriminate fasciola-infected individuals from patients harbouring other parasites with at least 99.9% sensitivity and 99.9% specificity. This test will be a useful standardized method not only for testing individual samples but also in mass screening programs to assess the extent of human fascioliasis in regions where this

  5. Sequential injection immunoassay for environmental measurements.

    PubMed

    Soh, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Mayumi; Hirakawa, Koji; Zhang, RuiQi; Nakajima, Hizuru; Nakano, Koji; Imato, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Sequential injection immunoassay systems for environmental measurements based on the selective immunoreaction between antigen and antibody were described. A sequential injection analysis (SIA) technique is suitable to be applied for the procedure of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), because the washing and the addition of reagent solutions can be automated by using a computer-controlled syringe pump and switching valve. We selected vitellogenin (Vg), which is a biomarker for evaluating environmental risk caused by endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the hydrosphere, and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEO), which are versatile surfactants, as target analytes in the flow immunoassay systems. For Vg monitoring, SIA systems based on spectrophotometric, chemiluminescence, and electrochemical determinations were constructed. On the other hand, chemiluminescence determination was applied to the detection of LAS and APEO. For APEO, an SIA system combined with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor was also developed. These new sequential injection immunoassay systems are expected to be useful systems for environmental analysis.

  6. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantification of human collectin 11 (CL-11, CL-K1)

    PubMed Central

    Selman, L.; Henriksen, M.L.; Brandt, J.; Palarasah, Y.; Waters, A.; Beales, P.L.; Holmskov, U.; Jørgensen, T.J.D.; Nielsen, C.; Skjodt, K.; Hansen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Collectin 11 (CL-11), also referred to as collectin kidney 1 (CL-K1), is a pattern recognition molecule that belongs to the collectin group of proteins involved in innate immunity. It interacts with glycoconjugates on pathogen surfaces and has been found in complex with mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease 1 (MASP-1) and/or MASP-3 in circulation. Mutation in the CL-11 gene was recently associated with the developmental syndrome 3MC. In the present study, we established and thoroughly validated a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on two different monoclonal antibodies. The assay is highly sensitive, specific and shows excellent quantitative characteristics such as reproducibility, dilution linearity and recovery (97.7–104%). The working range is 0.15–34 ng/ml. The CL-11 concentration in two CL-11-deficient individuals affected by the 3MC syndrome was determined to be below 2.1 ng/ml. We measured the mean serum CL-11 concentration to 284 ng/ml in 100 Danish blood donors, with a 95% confidence interval of 269–299 ng/ml. There was no significant difference in the CL-11 concentration measured in matched serum and plasma samples. Storage of samples and repeated freezing and thawing to a certain extent did not influence the ELISA. This ELISA offers a convenient and reliable method for studying CL-11 levels in relation to a variety of human diseases and syndromes. PMID:22301270

  7. Molecular mass dependence of hyaluronan detection by sandwich ELISA-like assay and membrane blotting using biotinylated hyaluronan binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Han; Tank, Mihir; Alsofyani, Abeer; Shah, Naman; Talati, Nishant; LoBello, Jaclyn C; Kim, Jin Ryoun; Oonuki, Yoji; de la Motte, Carol A; Cowman, Mary K

    2013-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is widely detected in biological samples and its concentration is most commonly determined by the use of a labeled specific HA binding protein (aggrecan G1-IGD-G2, HABP), employing membrane blotting and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-like methods. However, the detected signal intensity or the quantified value obtained by using these surface-based methods is related to the molecular mass (M) of HA, especially for HA in the low M range below ∼150 kDa. At the same mass or mass concentration, higher M HA gives a higher signal than lower M HA. We have experimentally determined the quantitative relationship between the M of HA (in the range 20–150 kDa) and the relative signal intensity in comparison with a standard HA, in a sandwich ELISA-like assay. An M-dependent signal correction factor (SCF) was calculated and used to correct the signal intensity, so that the corrected concentration value would more accurately reflect the true HA concentration in solution. The SCF for polydisperse low M HA was also calculated and compared with experimental results. When the molecular mass distribution of an HA sample is determined by a method such as gel electrophoresis, then its appropriately averaged SCF can be calculated and used to correct the signal in sandwich ELISA to obtain a more accurate concentration estimation. The correction method works for HA with M between ∼150 and 20 kDa, but lower M HA is too poorly detected for useful analysis. The physical basis of the M-dependent detection is proposed to be the increase in detector-accessible fraction of each surface-bound molecule as M increases. PMID:23964097

  8. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for brown trout vitellogenin for use in the detection of environmental estrogens

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, A.; Solomon, K.; Sherry, J.; Fielden, M.; Hodson, P.

    1995-12-31

    Vitellogenin (Vg) is a phospholipoprotein egg yolk precursor found in females of most oviparous vertebrates. Vitellogenin induction in male teleosts is known to result from exposure to xenoestrogens. Using antisera for brown trout Vg, the authors adapted an (ELISA) for in vivo Vg in brown trout (Salmo trutta). The authors will use the Vg bioassay to detect the estrogenic effects of effluents, contaminated sediments and suspect chemicals. Vg production in male fish was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 11-B estradiol. Harvested and purified Vg was used in an assay based on competition between soluble Vg and Vg adsorbed in microtitre wells for binding sites on rabbit anti-Vg antibody. Adsorbed Vg-antibody complexes were subsequently revealed by an alkaline phosphatase technique. The reaction intensity was measured as absorbance and used to quantify the amount of antibody bound to adsorbed Vg. The amount of bound antibody was inversely proportional to the amount of vitellogenin in the fish plasma. Preliminary results show that the assay`s working range, corresponding to 80--20% binding, was 14--355 ng/ml, with 50% binding (IC{sub 50}) around 71 ng/mi. Calculated at 50% binding, the intra-assay variation was less than 8% (n = 9) and the inter-assay variation was also less than 8% (n =4). The assay`s sensitivity was 0.067 ng/mi and the limit of detection was 0.134 ng/ml. The authors will present the results of Vg bioassays for the presence of estrogen mimics in industrial effluent.

  9. Antibodies to fibrillarin, PM-Scl and RNA polymerase III detected by ELISA assays in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Villalta, Danilo; Morozzi, Gabriella; Tampoia, Marilina; Alpini, Claudia; Brusca, Ignazio; Salgarolo, Valeria; Papisch, Wolfgang; Bizzaro, Nicola

    2010-05-02

    Anti-fibrillarin (AFA), anti-RNA polymerase (anti-RNAP), and anti-PM-Scl autoantibodies are useful markers for the diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc) in patients who are anti-centromere- (ACA) or anti-topoisomerase I (anti-topo I)-negative, but, until recently, the only specific method for their identification was the radio-immunoprecipitation assay. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical accuracy of the new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) developed by Phadia for their detection. Sera of 50 ACA and anti-topo I-negative SSc patients, and, as control group, sera of 122 patients (42 with SSc, ACA or anti-topo I-positive, 40 with systemic lupus erythematosus and 40 with rheumatoid arthritis) were studied. Using the cutoff proposed by the manufacturer (10 AU/mL), sensitivity and specificity were: for AFA, 22% and 92.6%; for anti-RNAP, 16% and 97.5%; and for anti-PM-Scl, 8% and 98.8%, respectively. Using a cutoff corresponding to 98.8% specificity for all three antibodies, sensitivity was 10%, 14% and 8%, respectively. The combined use of these three antibody assays enabled identification of 32% of ACA- and anti-topo I-negative SSc patients. These new ELISA methods for AFA, anti-RNAP III and anti-PM-Scl detection have good diagnostic specificity, and may help identify a subset of SSc patients ACA and anti-topo I-negative. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of Cutoff of ELISA and Immunofluorescence Assay for Scrub Typhus

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nitin; Chaudhry, Rama; Thakur, Chandan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The most common method employed for diagnosis of scrub typhus is serology. It is widely known that demonstration of ≥4-fold rise in titers of antibody in paired sera is required for diagnosis. However, for guidance of initial treatment, there is a need for rapid diagnosis at the time of admission. Therefore, there is a need for standardized region specific cutoff titers at the time of admission. Materials and Methods: A total of 258 patients of all age groups with clinically suspected scrub typhus over a period of 24 months (October 2013-October 2015) were enrolled. Serum samples of these patients were subjected to immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) for immunoglobulin M (IgM) (Fuller Labs, USA) with dilutions of 1:64, 1:128, 1:256, and 1:512. Serum samples of all 258 patients were subjected to IgM ELISA (Inbios Inc., USA). Any patient with response to antibiotics within 48 h accompanied by either presence of an eschar or positivity by polymerase chain reaction was taken as positive. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to generate cutoff for these tests. Results: A total of 20 patients were diagnosed as cases of scrub typhus. The ROC curve analysis revealed a cutoff optical density value of 0.87 with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 94.12%, respectively. ROC curve analysis of IFA revealed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 93.5%, respectively at 1:64 dilution. Conclusion: Considering cost constraints, centers in and around New Delhi region can use the cutoffs we determined for the diagnosis of scrub typhus. PMID:27621559

  11. High seroprevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM in acute Q fever by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Lai, Chung-Hsu; Chang, Lin-Li; Lin, Jiun-Nong; Chen, Wei-Fang; Kuo, Li-Li; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Q fever is serologically cross-reactive with other intracellular microorganisms. However, studies of the serological status of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae during Q fever are rare. We conducted a retrospective serological study of M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a method widely used in clinical practice, in 102 cases of acute Q fever, 39 cases of scrub typhus, and 14 cases of murine typhus. The seropositive (57.8%, 7.7%, and 0%, p<0.001) and seroconversion rates (50.6%, 8.8%, and 0%, p<0.001) of M. pneumoniae IgM, but not M. pneumoniae IgG and C. pneumoniae IgG/IgM, in acute Q fever were significantly higher than in scrub typhus and murine typhus. Another ELISA kit also revealed a high seropositivity (49.5%) and seroconversion rate (33.3%) of M. pneumoniae IgM in acute Q fever. The temporal and age distributions of patients with positive M. pneumoniae IgM were not typical of M. pneumoniae pneumonia. Comparing acute Q fever patients who were positive for M. pneumoniae IgM (59 cases) with those who were negative (43 cases), the demographic characteristics and underlying diseases were not different. In addition, the clinical manifestations associated with atypical pneumonia, including headache (71.2% vs. 81.4%, p=0.255), sore throat (8.5% vs. 16.3%, p=0.351), cough (35.6% vs. 23.3%, p=0.199), and chest x-ray suggesting pneumonia (19.3% vs. 9.5%, p=0.258), were unchanged between the two groups. Clinicians should be aware of the high seroprevalence of M. pneumoniae IgM in acute Q fever, particularly with ELISA kits, which can lead to misdiagnosis, overestimations of the prevalence of M. pneumoniae pneumonia, and underestimations of the true prevalence of Q fever pneumonia.

  12. Evaluation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of Renibacterium salmoninarum bacterins affected by persistence of bacterial antigens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pascho, R.J.; Goodrich, T.D.; McKibben, C.L.

    1997-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were injected intraperitoneally with a bacterin containing killed Renibacterium salmoninarum cells delivered alone or in an oil-based adjuvant. We evaluated the relative abilities of the batterins to prevent the initiation or progression of infection in fish challenged by waterborne exposure to R. salmoninarum. Sixty-one days after vaccination, fish were held for 24 h in water containing either no bacteria or approximately 1.7 x 103, 1.7 x 105, or 5.3 x 106 live R. salmoninarum cells/mL. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to monitor changes in the levels of R. salmoninarum antigen in live fish before and after the immersion challenges. High levels of R. salmoninarum antigens were detected by ELISA in kidney-spleen tissue homogenates from vaccinated fish immediately before the challenges. Levels of those antigens remained high in the tissues of unchallenged fish throughout the study. We found that the ELISA used in this study may be unsuitable for evaluating the efficacy of batterins because it did not distinguish antigens produced by the challenge bacteria during an infection from those of the bacterins. Groups of control and vaccinated fish also were injected with either 1.7 x 104 or 1.7 x 106 R. salmoninarum cells and served as R. salmoninarum virulence controls. Relative survival among the various subgroups in the injection challenge suggests that adverse effects might have been associated with the adjuvant used in this study. The lowest survival at both injection challenge levels was among fish vaccinated with bacteria in adjuvant.

  13. SNAP Assay Technology.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Thomas P

    2015-12-01

    The most widely used immunoassay configuration is the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) because the procedure produces highly sensitive and specific results and generally is easy to use. By definition, ELISAs are immunoassays used to detect a substance (typically an antigen or antibody) in which an enzyme is attached (conjugated) to one of the reactants and an enzymatic reaction is used to amplify the signal if the substance is present. Optimized ELISAs include several steps that are performed in sequence using a defined protocol that typically includes application of sample and an enzyme-conjugated antibody or antigen to an immobilized reagent, followed by wash and enzyme reaction steps. The SNAP assay is an in-clinic device that performs each of the ELISA steps in a timed sequential fashion with little consumer interface. The components and mechanical mechanism of the assay device are described. Detailed descriptions of features of the assay, which minimize nonspecific binding and enhance the ability to read results from weak-positive samples, are given. Basic principles used in assays with fundamentally different reaction mechanisms, namely, antigen-detection, antibody-detection, and competitive assays are given. Applications of ELISA technology, which led to the development of several multianalyte SNAP tests capable of testing for up to 6 analytes using a single-sample and a single-SNAP device are described.

  14. Identification of immunodominant antigens in canine leptospirosis by Multi-Antigen Print ImmunoAssay (MAPIA).

    PubMed

    Thomé, Sabrina; Lessa-Aquino, Carolina; Ko, Albert Icksang; Lilenbaum, Walter; Medeiros, Marco Alberto

    2014-12-03

    The microscopic agglutination test (MAT), the standard method for serological diagnosis of leptospirosis, may present limitations regarding its sensitivity. Current studies suggest that Leptospira immunoglobulin-like (Lig) proteins and LipL32 are of particular interest as serodiagnostic markers since they are present only in pathogenic species of the Leptospira genus. The purpose of this study was to identify leptospiral immunodominant proteins that are recognized by canine sera from diseased dogs. A total of 109 dogs were studied, including seroreactive dogs (MAT ≥800) and dogs with no seroreactivity detectable by MAT. Eight recombinant fragments (31-70 kDa) of pathogenic Leptospira were tested for their use as diagnostic markers for canine leptospirosis using the Multi-antigen Print Immunoassay (MAPIA) platform: LigB [582-947aa] from L. interrogans serovar Pomona, L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni and L. kirschneri serovar Gryppotyphosa, LigB [131-649aa] from L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni, L. interrogans serovar Canicola and L. kirschneri serovar Gryppotyphosa, LigA [625-1224aa] L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni and LipL32 from L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni. The data were analyzed and ROC curves were generated. Altogether, LigB [131-649aa] L. interrogans Canicola, LigB [131-649aa] L. kirschneri Gryppotyphosa and LipL32 L. interrogans Copenhageni showed best accuracy (AUC = 0.826 to 0.869), with 70% specificity and sensitivity ranging from 89% to 95%. These results reinforce their potential as diagnostic candidates for the development of new methods for the serological diagnosis of canine leptospirosis.

  15. Chemiluminometric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA)-on-a-chip biosensor based on cross-flow chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cho, Il-Hoon; Paek, Eui-Hwan; Kim, Young-Kee; Kim, Joo-Ho; Paek, Se-Hwan

    2009-01-26

    A chemiluminometric biosensor system for point-of-care testing has been developed using an immuno-chromatographic assay combined with an enzyme (e.g., horseradish peroxidase) tracer that produces a light signal measurable on a simple detector. Cross-flow chromatography, a method previously investigated by our laboratory, was utilized in order to accomplish sequential antigen-antibody binding and signal generation. This enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was effectively carried out on a plastic chip that was redesigned to simplify the fabrication process. To enhance the sensitivity, biotin-streptavidin capture technology was employed in preparing an immuno-strip that was then incorporated onto the chip in order to generate the ELISA-on-a-chip (EOC) biosensor. Samples containing cardiac troponin I (cTnI) were analyzed using the EOC. A chemiluminescent signal proportional to the analyte concentration was produced by adding a luminogenic substrate to the tracer enzyme complexed with the analyte on the chip. The luminescent signal was detected in a dark chamber mounted with a cooled charge-coupled device and the signal was converted to optical density for quantification. This EOC biosensor system was capable of detecting cTnI present in serum at concentrations as low as 0.027 ng mL(-1), 30 times lower than those measured using the conventional rapid test kit with colloidal gold as the tracer. In addition, the final data was acquired within 30s after the addition of the enzyme substrate, which was faster than the detection time required when using a colorimetric substrate with the same tracer enzyme.

  16. [Cross-reactivity evaluation of improved estradiol (E2) assay reagent based on chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kyohei; Kohama, Mika; Nakahara, Fumiko; Yamakami, Asuka; Tanaka, Chie; Momoeda, Mikio; Takeda, Kyoko

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated the performance of a newly-improved estradiol(E2) assay reagent (NEW LP-E2-N), which replaces murine monoclonal antibody in the present reagent (LP-E2-N) with sheep monoclonal antibody, since we had experienced discrepant E2 assay results between LP-E2-N and other commercially available E2 assay kits. Several examinations with the new assay reagent indicated a good performance in terms of the limit of quantity, reproducibility (within-run and between-day), dilution linearity, and influence of blood components except hemoglobin. Using analogues and/or metabolites of E2, low or no cross-reactivity has been shown in NEW LP-E2-N: 0.26% with 25 ng/mL of estrone (El), 0.14% with 100 ng/mL of estradiol-3-sulfate, 0.02% with 200 ng/mL of 17α-ethynylestradiol, and less than 0.001% with 100 ng/mL of estriol(E3), estra-17-glucuronide, and estramustine, respectively. Although discrepant results between NEW LP-E2-N and LP-E2-N were observed in 12 samples, including 9 cases under oral hormone therapy, data from these samples were similar to those using 2 commercially available E2 assay kits, Architect and Eclusys, suggesting that the NEW LP E2-N shows adequate clinical efficacy. A correlation study was performed with LP E2-N, Architect, and Eclusys using 149 serum samples obtained from patients and healthy volunteers, and the correlation results were as follows: r = 0.831, y = 0.98x + 40.6 against LP-E2-N, r = 0.991, y = 1.08x + 12.4 against Architect, r = 0.995, y = 0.80x - 3.7 against Eclusys. In conclusion, the NEW LP-E2-N reagent displayed a relatively favorable kit performance except for in the elevation of assay results with hemoglobin, as well as a low cross-reactivity with E2 analogues and/or metabolites.

  17. Infection Staging and Incidence Surveillance Applications of High Dynamic Range Diagnostic Immuno-Assay Platforms.

    PubMed

    Grebe, Eduard; Welte, Alex; Hall, Jake; Keating, Sheila M; Facente, Shelley N; Marson, Kara; Martin, Jeffrey N; Little, Susan J; Price, Matthew A; Kallas, Esper G; Busch, Michael P; Pilcher, Christopher D; Murphy, Gary

    2017-09-07

    Custom HIV staging assays, including the Sedia™ HIV-1 Limiting Antigen Avidity EIA (LAg) and avidity modifications of the Ortho VITROS® anti-HIV-1+2 and Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo assays, are used to identify 'recent' infections in clinical settings and for cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation. However, the high dynamic range of chemiluminescent platforms allows differentiating recent and longstanding infection on signal intensity, and this raises the prospect of using unmodified diagnostic assays for infection timing and surveillance applications. We tested a panel of 2,500 well-characterised specimens with estimable duration of HIV infection with the three assays and the unmodified ARCHITECT. Regression models were used to estimate mean durations of recent infection (MDRI), context-specific false-recent rates (FRR) and correlation between diagnostic signal intensity and LAg measurements. Hypothetical epidemiological scenarios were constructed to evaluate utility in surveillance applications. Over a range of MDRIs (reflecting recency discrimination thresholds), a diluted ARCHITECT-based RITA produced lower FRRs than the VITROS platform (FRR ≈ 0.5% and 1.5% respectively at MDRI ≈ 200 days) and the unmodified diagnostic ARCHITECT produces incidence estimates with comparable precision to LAg (RSE ≈ 17.5% and 15% respectively at MDRI ≈ 200 days). ARCHITECT S/CO measurements were highly correlated with LAg ODn measurements (r = 0.80) and values below 200 are strongly predictive of LAg recency and duration of infection less than one year. Low quantitative measurements from the unmodified ARCHITECT obviate the need for additional recency testing and its use is feasible in clinical staging and incidence surveillance applications.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CCBY-NC), where it is permissible to download, share, remix, transform, and buildup the work provided

  18. Comparison of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to gas chromatography (GC) - measurement of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in selected US fish extracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zajicek, J.L.; Tillitt, D.E.; Schwartz, T.R.; Schmitt, C.J.; Harrison, R.O.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of PCBs in fish tissues by immunoassay methods was evaluated using fish collected from a US monitoring program, the National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program of the US Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. Selected composite whole fish samples, which represented widely varying concentrations and sources of PCBs, were extracted and subjected to congener PCB analysis by gas chromatography (GC) and total PCB analysis using an ELISA (ePCBs) calibrated against technical Aroclor 1248. PCB congener patterns in these fishes were different from the patterns found in commercial Aroclors or their combinations as demonstrated by principal component analysis of normalized GC congener data. The sum of the PCB congeners measured by GC (total-PCBs) ranged from 37 to 4600 ng/g (wet weight). Concentrations of PCBs as determined by the ELISA method were positively correlated with total-PCBs and the ePCBs/total-PCBs ratios for individual samples ranged from 1 to 6. Ratios of ePCBs/total-PCBs for dilutions of Aroclors 1242, 1254, and 1260 and for matrix spikes range from 0.6 for 1242 to 2.5 for 1254 and 1260. These results suggest that higher chlorinated PCB congeners have higher affinity for the anti-PCB antibodies. Partial least squares with latent variable analysis of GC and ELISA data of selected Aroclors and fish samples also support the conclusion that ELISA derived PCB concentrations are dependent on the degree on chlorination.

  19. Identification of specific antinuclear antibodies in dogs using a line immunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Bremer, Hanna D; Lattwein, Erik; Renneker, Stefanie; Lilliehöök, Inger; Rönnelid, Johan; Hansson-Hamlin, Helene

    2015-12-15

    Circulating antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are commonly present in the systemic autoimmune disease Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and in other systemic rheumatic diseases, in humans as well as in dogs. The indirect immunofluorescence (IIF)-ANA test is the standard method for detecting ANA. Further testing for specific ANA with immunoblot techniques or ELISAs is routinely performed in humans to aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease. Several specific ANA identified in humans have been identified also in suspected canine SLE but, in contrast to humans, investigation of autoantibodies in canine SLE is mainly restricted to the IIF-ANA test. Our aim was to identify both known and novel specific ANA in dogs and to investigate if different IIF-ANA patterns are associated with different specific ANA in dogs. Sera from 240 dogs with suspicion of autoimmune disease (210 IIF-ANA positive (ANA(pos)) and 30 IIF-ANA negative (ANA(neg))) as well as sera from 27 healthy controls were included. The samples were analysed with a line immunoassay, LIA (Euroline ANA Profile 5, Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany) and four different ELISAs (Euroimmun). The ANA(pos) dogs were divided in two groups depending on the type of IIF-ANA pattern. Of the 210 ANA(pos) samples 68 were classified as ANA homogenous (ANA(H)) and 141 as ANA speckled (ANA(S)), one sample was not possible to classify. Dogs in the ANA(H) group had, compared to the other groups, most frequently high levels of anti-double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA) and anti-nucleosome ANA. Anti-dsDNA antibodies were confirmed in some dogs with the Crithidia luciliae indirect immunofluorescence test (CLIFT). The frequency of ANA(H) dogs with values above those observed in the healthy group was significantly higher compared to ANA(S) dogs for anti-dsDNA, anti-nucleosome, and anti-histone reactivity. Dogs in the ANA(S) group had, compared to the other groups, most frequently high levels of anti-ribonucleoproteins (RNP) and

  20. Quantitation of Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase and Thermomonospora fusca E{sub 3} exoglucanase using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, R.A.; Chou, Y.C.; Himmel, M.E.

    1995-12-31

    Two distinct quantitative indirect ELISAs were developed to determine the concentration of recombinant cellulose enzymes in culture filtrates. A monoclonal antibody (E1P7) was used as the primary antibody in developing an ELISA specific for Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase. Likewise, a polyclonal rabbit serum (Ab684) was used to develop an ELISA specific for Thermomonospora fusca E{sub 3} exoglucanase. Dose-response curves indicated a dynamic range for both assays between 0.01 and 0.08 {mu}g/mL (1-8 ng/assay) when purified enzymes were used as standards. These assays have been used to estimate concentrations of secreted recombinant E1 and/or E{sub 3} in culture supernatants of Streptomyces lividans strain TK24 in which the corresponding genes have been cloned and expressed.

  1. [A noninstrumental Immunoassay based on colloidal dyes].

    PubMed

    Liubavina, I A; Salomatina, I S; Zinchenko, A A; Zherdeev, A V; Dzantiev, B B

    2000-03-01

    Detecting labels based on water dispersions of colloidal textile dyes were developed that are useful in various analytical and diagnostic test systems for a simple visual assessment of the assay. Colored water-insoluble particles of dyes were used for the sorptional immobilization of streptavidin on their surface. The resulting streptavidin-dye (STR-DYE) complexes possessed a high visualizing capacity and were used for the combined detection of pesticides (simazine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) by noninstrumental immunoassay (DYE-comb-assay, competitive dot-immunoassay in the comb format). The detection limits and the duration of our DYE-comb-assay (4 ng/ml, 20-25 min), HRP-comb-assay (competitive dot-immunoassay in the comb format using the enzymic conjugate of STR with horseradish peroxidase) (16 ng/ml), and the traditional competitive ELISA (12-16 ng/ml, 1.5 h) were compared. This DYE-comb-assay is simple enough and can be used under field conditions.

  2. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) for the serodiagnosis of canine dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Peano, Andrea; Rambozzi, Luisa; Gallo, Maria G

    2005-04-01

    Abstract In dogs, dermatophytosis should be considered in any case of alopecic, papular or pustular lesion. The aim of this study was to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) as an aid in the diagnosis of canine dermatophytosis. The antigen used was a whole fungal extract obtained from an isolate of Microsporum canis cultured on a liquid medium from the parasitized hair of a cat with patches of alopecia. To assess the ELISA performances, sera from 18 dogs with dermatophytosis caused by M. canis (group A, n = 18), 20 dogs with skin diseases other than dermatophytosis and 22 healthy dogs (group B, n = 42) were tested. Four further animals were tested: three with dermatophytosis caused by M. gypseum and one by T. mentagrophytes. A significant difference (P < 0.01, Wilcoxon's test, w = 364) was found between IgG-specific levels of sera of recently M. canis-infected dogs (infection < 15 days) and controls (although three dogs had negative titres at this stage). A highly significant difference (P < 0.001, w = 462) was noted between controls and dogs with infection of longer duration (> 30 days). All dogs had positive titres at this stage. A highly significant correlation (P < 0.001, Spearman's test, rho = 0.86) between duration of infection and IgG concentration was noted. The test has good sensitivity (83.3%) and high specificity (95.2%) but some dogs retained positive titres after elimination of infection. The sensitivity is higher than that of direct microscopic hair examination and similar to that of fungal culture with DTM (dermatophyte test medium).

  3. Evaluation of guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters) immunization against Tetrahymena sp. by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Sharon, Galit; Nath, Pulak R; Isakov, Noah; Zilberg, Dina

    2014-09-15

    Analysis of the effectiveness of guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters) immunization based on measurements of antibody (Ab) titers suffers from a shortage of reagents that can detect guppy antibodies (Abs). To overcome this problem, we immunized mice with different preparations of guppy immunoglobulins (Igs) and used the mouse antisera to develop a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The most efficient immunogen for mouse immunization was guppy Igs adsorbed on protein A/G beads. Antisera from mice boosted with this immunoglobulin (Ig) preparation were highly specific and contained high Ab titers. They immunoreacted in a Western blot with Ig heavy and light chains from guppy serum, and Ig heavy chain from guppy whole-body homogenate. The mouse anti-guppy Ig was applied in an ELISA aimed at comparing the efficiency of different routes of guppy immunization against Tetrahymena: (i) anal intubation with sonicated Tetrahymena (40,000 Tetrahymena/fish in a total volume of 10 μL) mixed with domperidon, deoxycholic acid and free amino acids (valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and tryptophan), or (ii) intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of sonicated Tetrahymena in complete Freund's adjuvant (15,000 Tetrahymena/fish in total a volume of 20 μL). Negative control fish were anally intubated with the intubation mixture without Tetrahymena, or untreated. ELISA measurement of anti-Tetrahymena Ab titer revealed a significantly higher level of Abs in i.p.-immunized guppies, compared to the anally intubated and control fish. In addition, the efficiency of immunization was tested by monitoring guppy mortality following (i) i.p. challenge with Tetrahymena (900 Tetrahymena/fish) or (ii) cold stress followed by immersion in water containing 10,000 Tetrahymena/mL. Fish mortality on day 14 post-Tetrahymena infection by i.p. injection exceeded 50% in the control and anally intubated fish, compared to 31% in i.p.-immunized fish. Immunization did not protect from

  4. IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR MEASURING ATRAZINE AND 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods for the analysis of two potential environmental contaminants in food sample media, atrazine and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP). Two different immunoassay formats are employed: a magnetic...

  5. IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR MEASURING ATRAZINE AND 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods for the analysis of two potential environmental contaminants in food sample media, atrazine and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP). Two different immunoassay formats are employed: a magnetic...

  6. Nanobody medicated immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of cancer biomarker alpha-fetoprotein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; He, Qing-hua; Xu, Yang; Fu, Jin-heng; Li, Yan-ping; Tu, Zhui; Wang, Dan; Shu, Mei; Qiu, Yu-lou; Yang, Hong-wei; Liu, Yuan-yuan

    2016-01-15

    Immunoassay for cancer biomarkers plays an important role in cancer prevention and early diagnosis. To the development of immunoassay, the quality and stability of applied antibody is one of the key points to obtain reliability and high sensitivity for immunoassay. The main purpose of this study was to develop a novel immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of cancer biomarker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) based on nanobody against AFP. Two nanobodies which bind to AFP were selected from a phage display nanobody library by biopanning strategy. The prepared nanobodies are clonable, thermally stable and applied in both sandwich enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) and immuno-PCR assay for ultrasensitive detection of AFP. The limit detection of sandwich ELISA setup with optimized nanobodies was 0.48ng mL(-1), and the half of saturation concentration (SC50) value was 6.68±0.56ng mL(-1). These nanobodies were also used to develop an immuno-PCR assay for ultrasensitive detection of AFP, its limit detection values was 0.005ng mL(-1), and the linear range was 0.01-10,000ng mL(-1). These established immunoassays based on nanobodies were highly specific to AFP and with negligible cross reactivity with other tested caner biomarkers. Furthermore, this novel concept of nanobodies mediated immunoassay may provide potential applications in a general method for the ultrasensitive detection of various cancer biomarkers.

  7. Serological diagnosis of pertussis: IgM, IgA and IgG antibodies against Bordetella pertussis measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Viljanen, M K; Ruuskanen, O; Granberg, C; Salmi, T T

    1982-01-01

    Igm, IgA and IgG antibodies against Bordetella pertussis were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with an ultrasonicate of formalin-killed bacteria (a mixture of strains 1, 2 and 1, 2, 3) as antigen and disposable polystyrene 9-cuvette blocks as the solid phase. The specificity properties of the assay were assessed by an inhibition technique. Of the microbes tested, only B. parapertussis was able to cause a significant inhibition. In addition, IgM and IgA antibodies against B. pertussis were only found in some sporadic cases of respiratory infections caused by other microbes. Sera, nasal swabs and cough plates were received from 198 patients with suspected whooping-cough. ELISA determinations were mostly made from only one serum sample of each patient. Paired sera were studied only from the culture-positive infants under 3 months of age. The number of positive cultures was highest in group under 3 months of age (41%), where the frequency of positive ELISA was lowest (20%). The use of paired sera strikingly increased the number of ELISA-positive individuals in this youngest patient group. In later life, the relationship between these tests changed: isolation was positive in only about 10% of the patients, whereas 29-64% yielded positive titres in ELISA. This study shows that pertussis ELISA is a valuable aid in the rapid diagnosis of pertussis, particularly of the atypical forms of the disease which mostly are culture-negative.

  8. Free cortisol in serum assayed by temperature-controlled ultrafiltration before fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Lentjes, E G; Romijn, F; Maassen, R J; de Graaf, L; Gautier, P; Moolenaar, A J

    1993-12-01

    A method is described for a temperature-controlled ultrafiltration procedure to measure free cortisol in serum. A special thermometer with a sensor was developed, measuring the temperature directly in the ultrafiltration device. The sensor is screwed on the axis of the centrifuge rotor, and the centrifuge is placed in a temperature-controlled box so that the temperature of the sample is kept at 37 degrees C +/- 0.1 degrees C. The overall CV of the free cortisol assay ranges from 2.2% to 11.4%, of which the ultrafiltration contributes only 2.2-3.6%. Increasing amounts of cortisol-binding protein, as found in women using estrogen-containing oral contraceptives, have minor but significant effects on the free cortisol concentrations in serum. Serum free cortisol concentrations in a reference population (n = 114; central 95 percentiles) were 12-43 nmol/L (4-9.5% of total cortisol); in the group of the oral-contraceptive users (n = 27), the reference interval was 11-53 nmol/L (1.5-4.5%).

  9. A Colorimetric Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Detection Platform for a Point-of-Care Dengue Detection System on a Lab-on-Compact-Disc.

    PubMed

    Thiha, Aung; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2015-05-18

    The enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is the gold standard clinical diagnostic tool for the detection and quantification of protein biomarkers. However, conventional ELISA tests have drawbacks in their requirement of time, expensive equipment and expertise for operation. Hence, for the purpose of rapid, high throughput screening and point-of-care diagnosis, researchers are miniaturizing sandwich ELISA procedures on Lab-on-a-Chip and Lab-on-Compact Disc (LOCD) platforms. This paper presents a novel integrated device to detect and interpret the ELISA test results on a LOCD platform. The system applies absorption spectrophotometry to measure the absorbance (optical density) of the sample using a monochromatic light source and optical sensor. The device performs automated analysis of the results and presents absorbance values and diagnostic test results via a graphical display or via Bluetooth to a smartphone platform which also acts as controller of the device. The efficacy of the device was evaluated by performing dengue antibody IgG ELISA on 64 hospitalized patients suspected of dengue. The results demonstrate high accuracy of the device, with 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity in detection when compared with gold standard commercial ELISA microplate readers. This sensor platform represents a significant step towards establishing ELISA as a rapid, inexpensive and automatic testing method for the purpose of point-of-care-testing (POCT) in resource-limited settings.

  10. Utility of Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay, Polymerase Chain Reaction, and ELISA for Diagnosis of Leptospirosis in South Indian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Mallika; Prabhakar, Abhilash Kundavaram Paul; Satyendra, Sowmya; Thambu, David; Abraham, Ooriapadickal Cherian; Balaji, Veeraraghavan; Chen, Hua-Wei; Chao, Chien-Chung; Ching, Wei-Mei; Prakash, John Antony Jude

    2017-01-01

    Background: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease which requires laboratory diagnosis for confirmation. Materials and Methods: In this study serum samples from adults with acute undifferentiated fever (duration ≤15 days) were tested for IgM antibodies to Leptospira by ELISA, PCR for rrs gene and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for LipL32 and LipL41. Results: Among the 150 sera tested, three were positive by PCR, LAMP and IgM ELISA/modified Faines’ criteria, two by only PCR; seven only by LAMP assay and forty fulfilled modified Faine's criteria (illness clinically compatible and IgM ELISA positive for leptospirosis). Clinical correlation revealed renal compromise, low platelet count and severe jaundice were significantly related to leptospirosis (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study suggests that LAMP assay could be useful for diagnosis of leptospirosis during the 1st week of illness whereas IgM ELISA forms the mainstay of diagnosis from the 2nd week onward. Further studies especially community based, comparing ELISA, PCR, LAMP, culture and microscopic agglutination test are required to evaluate the veracity of these findings. PMID:28250618

  11. Validation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibody against Brucella abortus in cattle sera using an automated ELISA workstation.

    PubMed

    Paweska, J T; Potts, A D; Harris, H J; Smith, S J; Viljoen, G J; Dungu, B; Brett, O L; Bubb, M; Prozesky, L

    2002-03-01

    An automated indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) for the serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis was developed and validated in-house. A total of 4,803 cattle sera from South Africa (n = 3,643), Canada (n = 652), Germany (n = 240), France (n = 73) and the USA (n = 195) was used. The South African panel of sera represented 834 sera known to be positive by the Rose Bengal test (RBT), serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT), 2709 sera that were negative by CFT, and 100 sera from animals vaccinated with a standard dose of Brucella abortus strain 19. Overseas sera were obtained from reference non-vaccinated brucella-free cattle (n = 834), naturally infected (n = 72), experimentally infected (n = 71), and vaccinated animals (n = 83). Also 100 sera collected from cattle in Canada and known to be positive by competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) were used. The intermediate ranges ("borderline" range for the interpretation of test results) were derived from two-graph receiver operating characteristics analysis. The lowest values of the misclassification cost-term analysis obtained from testing overseas panels, covered lower I-ELISA cut-off PP values (0.02-3.0) than those from local panels (1.5-5.0). The relatively low cut-off PP values selected for I-ELISA were due to the fact that the positive control used represents a very strong standard compared to other reference positive sera. The greater overlap found between negative and positive cattle sera from South Africa than that between reference overseas panels was probably due to the different criteria used in classifying these panels as negative (sera from true non-diseased/non-infected animals) or positive (sera from true diseased/infected animals). The diagnostic sensitivity of the I-ELISA (at the optimum cut-off value) was 100% and of the CFT 83.3%. The diagnostic specificity of I-ELISA was 99.8% and of the CFT 100%. Estimate of Youden's index was higher for the I-ELISA (0.998) than

  12. Development of a cell culture/ELISA assay to detect anticoagulant rodenticides and its application to analysis of rodenticide treated grain.

    PubMed

    Lawley, Wendy J; Charlton, Andrew J A; Hughson, Elaine J; Grundy, Helen H; Brown, Peter M; Jones, Ainsley

    2006-03-08

    This study describes a generic biological screening assay designed to detect anticoagulant rodenticides based on their inhibitory action on the vitamin K epoxide reductase protein complex, resulting in an accumulation of under-carboxylated prothrombin or proteins induced by vitamin K antagonism (PIVKA-II). A combined cell culture/ELISA assay was optimized to measure PIVKA-II production by the human hepatoma HepG2 cell line cultured in the presence of anticoagulant rodenticides. The specificity and sensitivity of the assay was validated using 41 grain extracts containing representative concentrations of rodenticide or appropriate nonrodenticide control compounds. In all cases, PIVKA-II produced by HepG2 cells in response to grain extracts spiked with rodenticides was detected by ELISA, while PIVKA-II was not detected in supernatants collected from cells exposed to nonrodenticide controls. This represents a novel, class-specific biological assay for the detection of anticoagulant rodenticides present in contaminated grain.

  13. Evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting antidesmoglein 1 and 3 in Thai patients with pemphigus vulgaris and foliaceus.

    PubMed

    Kulkollakarn, Suthinee; Wattanakrai, Penpun; Vachiramon, Vasanop; Chalidapongse, Parichart

    2008-11-01

    Pemphigus is an acquired autoimmune blistering skin diseases, of which pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and pemphigus foliaceus (PF) are two major subtypes. A novel commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against Dsg1 and Dsg3 has been well established for diagnosis and prediction of disease activity in PF and PV. At present, the benefit of anti-Dsg 1 and anti-Dsg 3 IgG by ELISA in the diagnosis of pemphigus in Thai patients has never been reported. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA for detecting antidesmoglein 1 and 3 in Thai patients with pemphigus. Retrospective review of anti-Dsg1 and anti-Dsg3 antibody ELISA test results from 48 serum samples collected from 27 patients with PV seven patients with PF and 14 controls. The sensitivity of Dsg1 and Dsg3 ELISA for all patients with PV was 64% and 77.8% respectively. When subgrouped into only PV patients with new diagnosis, the sensitivity of Dsg 1 and Dsg 3 ELISA increased to 85.7% and 100%. In all PF patients, the sensitivity of anti-Dsg 1 ELISA was 71.4% and 100% for newly diagnosed PF cases. Anti-Dsg 3 was not detected in the PF group. The specificity of ELISA for anti-Dsg 1 and anti-Dsg 3 in both types of pemphigus was 85.7% and 92.3% respectively. Dsg 1 and Dsg 3 ELISA is a simple, highly sensitive and specific test in Thai pemphigus patients with 100% sensitivity in the diagnosis of both new pemphigus vulgaris and foliaceus patients.

  14. Effects of thermal processing on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detection of milk residues in a model food matrix.

    PubMed

    Downs, Melanie L; Taylor, Steve L

    2010-09-22

    Food products and ingredients are frequently tested for the presence of undeclared allergenic food residues (including milk) using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). However, little is understood about the efficacy of these kits with thermally processed foods. This study evaluated the performance of three milk ELISA kits with a model food processed by several methods. A model food (pastry dough squares) was spiked with nonfat dry milk at several concentrations. The pastry squares were processed by boiling (100 °C for 2 min), baking (190 °C for 30 min), frying (190 °C for 2 min), and retorting (121 °C for 20 min with 17 psi overpressure). Samples were analyzed with three commercial ELISA kits: Neogen Veratox Total Milk, ELISA Systems β-lactoglobulin, and ELISA Systems casein. The detection of milk residues depended upon the type of processing applied to the food and the specific milk analyte targeted by the ELISA kit. Poor recoveries were obtained in all processed samples (2-10% of expected values) using the β-lactoglobulin kit. Better recoveries were obtained in boiled samples (44 and 59%, respectively) using the total milk and casein kits. However, these kits performed poorly with baked (9 and 21%) and fried (7 and 18%) samples. Moderate recoveries were observed in retorted samples (23 and 28%). The decreased detection in processed samples is likely due to protein modifications, including aggregation and Maillard reactions, which affect the solubility and immunoreactivity of the antigens detected by the ELISA methods. The observed decreases in ELISA detection of milk are dramatic enough to affect risk-assessment decisions. However, a lower detection of milk residues does not necessarily indicate decreased allergenicity. These ELISA kits are not acceptable for all applications, and users should understand the strengths and limitations of each method.

  15. AN ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) METHOD FOR THE URINARY BIOMONITORING OF 2,4-DICHLOROPHRENOCYACETIC ACID (2,4-D)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was developed to quantitatively measure 2,4-dichlorophenoyacetic acid (2,4-D) in human urine. Samples were diluted (1:5) with phosphate-buffered saline, 0.05% Tween 20, with 0.02% sodium azide, and analyzed by a 96-microwekk pl...

  16. AN ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) METHOD FOR THE URINARY BIOMONITORING OF 2,4-DICHLOROPHRENOCYACETIC ACID (2,4-D)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was developed to quantitatively measure 2,4-dichlorophenoyacetic acid (2,4-D) in human urine. Samples were diluted (1:5) with phosphate-buffered saline, 0.05% Tween 20, with 0.02% sodium azide, and analyzed by a 96-microwekk pl...

  17. Diagnosis of loxoscelism in two Turkish patients confirmed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and non-invasive tissue sampling.

    PubMed

    Akdeniz, Sedat; Green, Jonathan A; Stoecker, William V; Gomez, Hernan F; Keklikçi, S Ugur

    2007-05-01

    Confirmed envenomations due to Loxosceles reclusa have not been previously documented in Turkey, to our knowledge. This brief report describes two Turkish patients with suspected envenomation by Loxosceles spider bites on the eyelids. Material obtained by swabbing the lesions with gauze was tested using a venom-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Both patients tested positive for the presence of Loxosceles venom.

  18. Cascade enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA).

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-mi; Jeong, Yujin; Kang, Hyo Jin; Chung, Sang J; Chung, Bong Hyun

    2009-10-15

    Immunoassays are representative biochemical detection methods. Among them, sandwich-type immunoassays, typified by sandwich ELISA, have used in disease diagnosis or biochemical detection with high target selectivity. Horseradish peroxidase and alkaline phosphatase have been typically used for signal amplification in ELISA. Recently developed sandwich-type immunoassays such as biobarcode immunoassays, immuno-PCR, and immuno-RCA have improved sensitivity by changing mainly the signal amplification method. To develop a novel amplification method in ELISA, an enzyme-cascading system was incorporated into an ELISA, and the new assay is termed a cascading enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA). This CELISA includes a trypsinogen-enterokinase combination as the cascading enzyme system, and was used to detect alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), which is a liver cancer marker, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Using a colorimetric reagent for signal generation, CELISA had 0.1-10pM limits-of-detection for AFP and PSA in whole human serum and assay buffers, depending on the platform, well plate, or microbead type used. This study represents the first example that incorporated an enzyme cascading step in an ELISA system, resulting in successful signal amplification with sensitive detection of pathogenic antigens in serum.

  19. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin G and four immunoassays for immunoglobulin M to Toxoplasma gondii in a series of heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed Central

    Sluiters, J F; Balk, A H; Essed, C E; Mochtar, B; Weimar, W; Simoons, M L; Ijzerman, E P

    1989-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections in heart transplant recipients were monitored by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin G (ELISA-IgG), indirect ELISA-IgM in serum IgM fractions, antibody capture ELISA-IgM, IgM-immunosorbent agglutination assay (ISAGA), and IgM immunoblotting. Basic immunosuppression consisted of cyclosporine and low-dose steroids. Before transplantation, 26 of 43 recipients showed serological evidence of infection. In serum samples from 15 (35%) recipients, specific antibodies were not detected. Approximately 50% of the heart donors, were toxoplasma seropositive. Eight of the fifteen seronegative recipients received hearts from toxoplasma-seropositive donors. In four of the eight recipients, seroconversion could be demonstrated with all tests used. In three of these four patients, clinical disease developed. One patient with strong serological evidence of toxoplasmosis died, but toxoplasma parasites and antigens were not detected at autopsy. In two patients, toxoplasma cysts were found in cardiac biopsies. Seroconversion was not prevented by the use of spiramycin prophylaxis in two recipients. Reactivations of latent infections or reinfections were detected by indirect ELISA in six (23%) seropositive recipients, but symptoms and signs of active T. gondii infection were not seen. Seroconversion and reactivation of infection were readily found by a combined use of indirect ELISA-IgG and ELISA-IgM and antibody capture ELISA-IgM. Discrepancies in results could be examined by immunoblotting. IgM-ISAGA retained stable positive values longer than IgM-ELISAs did. Cyclosporine treatment did not hamper detection of seroconversion but could cause antibody levels to remain relatively low in primary infections. Seronegative recipients should receive antitoxoplasma treatment on seroconversion. PMID:2654182

  20. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni antibodies, and comparison with a complement fixation test (CFT).

    PubMed

    Oosterom, J; den Uyl, C H; Bänffer, J R; Lauwers, S; Huisman, J; Busschbach, A E; Poelma, F G; Bellemans, R

    1985-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of total anti-Campylobacter immunoglobulins in human sera. In this assay disintegrated Campylobacter bacteria were used as the antigen. Absorption tests including other possibly enteropathogenic bacterial species showed that the ELISA system displayed a high immunological specificity for Campylobacter. Using this ELISA it was found that in about 80% of Campylobacter patients these Campylobacter antibodies are produced to almost maximal levels within 8 days after onset of disease, and that they may persist for at least 4 months. Indeed, Campylobacter antibodies were demonstrated at low levels in a large number of control sera. However, accepting an antibody titre of 1:640 as indicative of Campylobacter infection, the statistical sensitivity of the ELISA system was 77% and the specificity 95%. In an epidemiological survey a high association was demonstrated between the severity of Campylobacter-related symptoms and antibody titre values. Assessment of Campylobacter antibody titres by means of this ELISA and by a complement fixation test in 92 sera from index patients and contacts with and without symptoms showed a high association of results.

  1. Serodiagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in Argentina by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of IgG antibody to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 5 and tuberculin purified protein derivative.

    PubMed

    Balestrino, E A; Daniel, T M; de Latini, M D; Latini, O A; Ma, Y; Scocozza, J B

    1984-01-01

    IgG antibody to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 5 and tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) was measured, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in serum samples from 86 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis and 91 non-tuberculous control subjects from Santa Fé, Argentina. The geometric mean titre for the tuberculosis patients was 74.6 with antigen 5 and 99.5 with PPD. In 91 control subjects the geometric mean titres were 3.6 and 15.6 respectively. Titres were not related to tuberculin reactor status or prior BCG vaccination. At a serum dilution end-point of 1:40, ELISA with antigen 5 had a sensitivity of 81.4% and a specificity of 93.4% for tuberculosis. At 1:40, ELISA with PPD showed a sensitivity of 82.6% and a specificity of 54.9% for tuberculosis. Applied at a serum dilution of 1:40 to a hypothetical model population with a tuberculosis prevalence of 2%, ELISA using antigen 5 would correctly classify 93.2% of persons and ELISA with PPD, 55.5%. At a dilution of 1:80, accuracy is increased to 99.3% with antigen 5 and 83.3% with PPD, but sensitivity decreases to 64.0% with antigen 5 and 72.1% with PPD. Thus, antigen 5 is more accurate than PPD for the diagnosis of tuberculosis using ELISA.

  2. Serodiagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in Argentina by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of IgG antibody to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 5 and tuberculin purified protein derivative

    PubMed Central

    Balestrino, E. A.; Daniel, T. M.; de Latini, M. D. S.; Latini, O. A.; Ma, Y.; Scocozza, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    IgG antibody to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 5 and tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) was measured, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in serum samples from 86 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis and 91 non-tuberculous control subjects from Santa Fé, Argentina. The geometric mean titre for the tuberculosis patients was 74.6 with antigen 5 and 99.5 with PPD. In 91 control subjects the geometric mean titres were 3.6 and 15.6 respectively. Titres were not related to tuberculin reactor status or prior BCG vaccination. At a serum dilution end-point of 1:40, ELISA with antigen 5 had a sensitivity of 81.4% and a specificity of 93.4% for tuberculosis. At 1:40, ELISA with PPD showed a sensitivity of 82.6% and a specificity of 54.9% for tuberculosis. Applied at a serum dilution of 1:40 to a hypothetical model population with a tuberculosis prevalence of 2%, ELISA using antigen 5 would correctly classify 93.2% of persons and ELISA with PPD, 55.5%. At a dilution of 1:80, accuracy is increased to 99.3% with antigen 5 and 83.3% with PPD, but sensitivity decreases to 64.0% with antigen 5 and 72.1% with PPD. Thus, antigen 5 is more accurate than PPD for the diagnosis of tuberculosis using ELISA. PMID:6439426

  3. AN ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) METHOD FOR MONITORING 2,4 DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID (2,4-D) EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract describes a streamlined ELISA method developed to quantitatively measure 2,4-D in human urine samples. Method development steps and comparison with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are presented. Results indicated that the ELISA method could be used as a high throu...

  4. Broad-specificity immunoassay for O,O-diethyl organophosphorus pesticides: Application of molecular modeling to improve assay sensitivity and study antibody recognition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb) against 4-(diethoxyphosphorothioyloxy)benzoic acid (hapten 1) was raised and used to develop a broad-specificity competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ciELISA) for 14 O,O-diethyl organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). Computer-assisted molecular modeling was...

  5. Quantitation of IgE and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) by optical beam deflection (OBD) measurement of dot-immunobinding assay patterns visualized by an ELISA technique.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, S; Kimura, H; Tu, C Y; Kitamori, T; Sawada, T

    1993-05-05

    Dot-immunobinding assays of IgE and CEA were performed by a conventional dot-ELISA technique with diaminobenzidine staining, and the quantitative results were compared by densitometry and a new, spectroscopic, optical beam deflection (OBD) method using the same membrane. It was possible with the OBD method to detect quantities of these substances at least ten times smaller than with densitometry. Better intra-assay reproducibility for IgE and CEA measurements was obtained by the OBD method. The measurable ranges of the OBD method was broader than that of densitometry, because dark bands caused OBD in proportion to their color densities. When the dot-immunobinding assay with OBD measurement for CEA was also compared with a microtube ELISA using biotin-avidin conjugates, the sensitivities and reproducibilities of the two methods were found to be similar, with a correlation coefficient of 0.991.

  6. Utility of IgM ELISA, TaqMan real-time PCR, reverse transcription PCR, and RT-LAMP assay for the diagnosis of Chikungunya fever.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vijayalakshmi; Ravi, Vasanthapuram; Desai, Anita; Parida, Manmohan; Powers, Ann M; Johnson, Barbara W

    2012-11-01

    Chikungunya fever a re-emerging infection with expanding geographical boundaries, can mimic symptoms of other infections like dengue, malaria which makes the definitive diagnosis of the infection important. The present study compares the utility of four laboratory diagnostic methods viz. IgM capture ELISA, an in house reverse transcription PCR for the diagnosis of Chikungunya fever, TaqMan real-time PCR, and a one step reverse transcription-loop mediated isothermal amplification assay (RT-LAMP). Out of the 70 serum samples tested, 29 (41%) were positive for Chikungunya IgM antibody by ELISA and 50 (71%) samples were positive by one of the three molecular assays. CHIKV specific nucleic acid was detected in 33/70 (47%) by reverse transcription PCR, 46/70 (66%) by TaqMan real-time PCR, and 43/70 (62%) by RT-LAMP assay. A majority of the samples (62/70; 89%) were positive by at least one of the four assays used in the study. The molecular assays were more sensitive for diagnosis in the early stages of illness (2-5 days post onset) when antibodies were not detectable. In the later stages of illness, the IgM ELISA is a more sensitive diagnostic test. In conclusion we recommend that the IgM ELISA be used as an initial screening test followed one of the molecular assays in samples that are collected in the early phase of illness and negative for CHIKV IgM antibodies. Such as approach would enable rapid confirmation of the diagnosis and implementation of public health measures especially during outbreaks.

  7. Development of a sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of iduronate-2-sulfate sulfatase.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Angela Catalina; Espejo, Angela Johana; Rodriguez, Edwin Alexander; Lizaraso, Lina Maria; Rojas, Andrea; Guevara, Johana; Echeverri, Olga Yaneth; Barrera, Luis Alejandro

    2011-05-31

    Iduronate-2-sulfate sulfatase (IDS; EC 3.1.6.13) is an enzyme that belongs to human sulfatases. IDS deficiency causes the Hunter syndrome or mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II; OMIM 309900). We have been developing an expression system for human recombinant IDS (hrIDS) in Pichia pastoris, therefore a method was required for its detection during production and purification processes, which could be used also to measure the enzyme in human fluids. In this study, an immunoquantification assay for human and recombinant IDS was developed with the combination of two antibodies. Rabbit IgG and chicken IgY were used as IDS capture and detection antibodies, respectively. Chicken IgY antibodies were developed against specific amino acid sequences present in IDS but absent in other human sulfatases. hrIDS produced in P. pastoris, commercial hrIDS, and normal human plasma samples were used as antigens and immunoquantification results were compared to enzyme activity. The technique was linear over the range 8 to 500 ng mL(-1) using commercial hrIDS. The concentration range detected for IDS in normal human plasma was 14.43 to 287.88 ng mL(-1). The hrIDS was detected in P. pastoris cultures even when the enzyme was inactive, which is convenient for monitoring the production of recombinant proteins. These results show that chicken site-specific antibodies provide a good alternative, as a substitute of monoclonal antibodies, for the detection of human proteins. This is the first report on the development of an ELISA system to detect and quantify IDS with IgY antibodies.

  8. Detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae antibodies in Aotus l. lemurinus (Panamanian owl monkey) using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test.

    PubMed

    Obaldia, N

    1991-04-01

    An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was adapted to detect antibodies against Klebsiella pneumoniae in Aotus l. lemurinus monkeys. It was used to define the prevalence of infection and the immunogenicity of an Al(OH)3 bacterin in a population of laboratory born A. l. lemurinus monkeys. This represents a preliminary step to reduce K. pneumoniae produced mortality. A striking finding during a cross-sectional prevalence study was that none of the babies of less than 2 months old had detectable levels of antibody. The antibody prevalence gradually increased in all other age groups reaching 87.5% in the 8-10-month-old group. These results indicate that infection with K. pneumoniae occurred sometime between 2 and 6 months of age, probably as a result of oral-faecal contamination and a change in the feeding and grooming behaviour. To determine whether infants had maternal antibodies or if they were asymptomatic carriers of the bacterium, a cross-sectional study was done in 15 infants less than 4 months old and their mothers. K. pneumoniae antibodies were detected in 11/15 mothers with serum titers ranging from 1:4 to greater than 1:256 and the bacterium was isolated from 3 babies and one mother and her baby. Results showed that no maternal antibodies remained in babies older than 3 weeks old. A prospective study indicated a reduction in mortality from 20% for the previous 3 years to 3.7% (3/79) in AL(OH)3 K. pneumoniae bacterin vaccinated infants born during 1988-89.

  9. Standardisation and comparison of serial dilution and single dilution enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using different antigenic preparations of the Babesia (Theileria) equi parasite.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjay; Kumar, Yogesh; Malhotra, Dharam V; Dhar, Shruti; Nichani, Anil K

    2003-01-01

    Serial dilution and single dilution enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were standardised and their sensitivity and specificity were compared for serodiagnosis of Babesia equi infection. The antibody titres of 24 donkey sera of known identity were determined separately by serial dilution ELISA using three different B. equi antigens namely whole merozoite (WM), cell membrane (CM) and high speed supernatant (HSS). The ratios of the optical density (OD) of known positive and known negative sera at different serum dilutions were calculated and termed as the positive/negative (P/N) ratio. The coefficients of correlation (r) were calculated between the P/N ratios at different dilutions of sera and the log10 antibody titres of the same sera were ascertained by serial dilution ELISA. The highest value of 'r' was obtained at a serum dilution of 1:200. From log10 antibody titre of sera (y) and their P/N ratio at a dilution of 1:200 (x), regression equations (y = a + bx) were calculated separately for the three antigens. Test sera were diluted to 1:200, their OD were read in duplicate wells and were converted to the P/N ratio. Antibody titres were predicted from the P/N ratio using a regression equation separately for the three antigens. Titres obtained by both ELISAs were not significantly different from each other, thus confirming that single dilution ELISA could be successfully used to replace conventional serial dilution ELISA. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of single dilution ELISA was validated statistically using 42 B. equi disease-positive sera and 106 B. equi disease-negative sera. The WM antigen was found to be the most sensitive with a higher predictive value for negative test sera as compared to the CM or HSS antigens. Sera positive for other equine infections including Babesia caballi showed no cross-reaction with the three B. equi antigens in ELISA, thus the test was immunologically specific. Antibody titres of 109 unknown field donkey

  10. Development of sensitive direct and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for monitoring bisphenol-A in canned foods and beverages.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Peterson, Joshua Richard; Gooding, John Justin; Lee, Nanju Alice

    2012-06-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are investigated in this work for the detection of bisphenol-A (BPA), a plastic monomer and a critical contaminant in food and environment. A series of polyclonal antibodies generated in vivo using BPA-butyrate-protein conjugate and BPA-valerate-protein conjugate were evaluated on direct and indirect competitive assay formats with five competing haptens (BPA-butyrate, BPA-valerate, BPA-crotonate, BPA-acetate, and BPA-2-valerate). Two indirect ELISAs and one direct ELISA exhibiting high sensitivity and specificity for BPA were developed. The 50 % inhibition of antibody binding (IC(50)) values were 0.78 ± 0.01-1.20 ± 0.26 μg L(-1), and the limits of detection as measured by the IC(20) values were 0.10 ± 0.03-0.20 ± 0.04 μg L(-1). The assays were highly specific to BPA, only displaying low cross-reactivity (3-8 % for the indirect assays and 26 % for the direct assay) for 4-cumylphenol (4-CP), at pH 7.2. The degree of cross-reaction of 4-CP was influenced by the antibody/hapten conjugate combination, assay conditions, and the assay format. The assays were optimized for the analysis of BPA in canned vegetables, bottled water and carbonated drinks. The limits of quantification for these three evaluated sample types, based on the spike and recovery data, were 0.5, 2.5, and 100 μg L(-1), respectively.

  11. Development and Application of an ELISA Assay Using Excretion/Secretion Proteins from Epimastigote Forms of T. cruzi (ESEA Antigens) for the Diagnosis of Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Berrizbeitia, Mariolga; Figueroa, Milagros; Ward, Brian J.; Rodríguez, Jessicca; Jorquera, Alicia; Figuera, Maria A.; Romero, Leomerys; Ndao, Momar

    2012-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) for Trypanosoma cruzi was developed using epimastigote secretion/excretion proteins (ESEA antigens) obtained from axenic culture supernatants. A panel of 120 serum samples from subjects with confirmed Chagas disease (n = 50), healthy controls (n = 50), and patients with other parasitic diseases (n = 20) was used to evaluate the new ESEA-based ELISA (ELISAESEA). This new test had excellent sensitivity (98%) and acceptable specificity (88%). Cross-reactivity was observed largely in sera from subjects with Leishmania and Ascaris infections. Using Western blotting and epimastigotes from two distinct T. cruzi isolates, several polypeptide bands with molecular masses ranging from 50 to 220 kDa were detected in pooled chagasic sera. However, the band pattern for each isolate was different. These data suggest that an inexpensive and technically simple ELISA based on ESEA antigens is a promising new tool for the diagnosis of Chagas disease. PMID:23049572

  12. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a serological test for detecting antibodies against Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in sheep.

    PubMed

    Adler, B; Faine, S; Gordon, L M

    1981-09-01

    The enzyme-liked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was compared with the standard microscopic agglutination test (MAT) as a method for detecting antibodies against Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in sheep. Peak antibody levels detected by the 2 tests occurred at different times following experimental infection of sheep. In serums from flocks of sheep with naturally acquired infection there was a 95% correlation between MAT and ELISA with respect to the presence or absence of antibody to serovar hardjo, although the levels of correlation of the titres of the 2 tests was low. The 2 tests appeared to measure different antigen-antibody systems. The ELISA would be a useful test for screening large numbers of serums for antibodies to L. interrogans serovar hardjo.

  13. Nucleoprotein-based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (indirect ELISA) for detecting antibodies specific to Ebola virus and Marbug virus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Zhu, Youjie; Yang, Mengshi; Zhang, Zhenqing; Song, Donglin; Yuan, Zhiming

    2014-12-01

    Full-length nucleoproteins from Ebola and Marburg viruses were expressed as His-tagged recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli and nucleoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were established for the detection of antibodies specific to Ebola and Marburg viruses. The ELISAs were evaluated by testing antisera collected from rabbit immunized with Ebola and Marburg virus nucleoproteins. Although little cross-reactivity of antibodies was observed in anti-Ebola virus nucleoprotein rabbit antisera, the highest reactions to immunoglobulin G (IgG) were uniformly detected against the nucleoprotein antigens of homologous viruses. We further evaluated the ELISA's ability to detect antibodies to Ebola and Marburg viruses using human sera samples collected from individuals passing through the Guangdong port of entry. With a threshold set at the mean plus three standard deviations of average optical densities of sera tested, the ELISA systems using these two recombinant nucleoproteins have good sensitivity and specificity. These results demonstrate the usefulness of ELISA for diagnostics as well as ecological and serosurvey studies of Ebola and Marburg virus infection.

  14. Increased sensitivity of 3D-Well enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for infectious disease detection using 3D-printing fabrication technology.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harpal; Shimojima, Masayuki; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Le Van, An; Sugamata, Masami; Yang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay or ELISA -based diagnostics are considered the gold standard in the demonstration of various immunological reaction including in the measurement of antibody response to infectious diseases and to support pathogen identification with application potential in infectious disease outbreaks and individual patients' treatment and clinical care. The rapid prototyping of ELISA-based diagnostics using available 3D printing technologies provides an opportunity for a further exploration of this platform into immunodetection systems. In this study, a '3D-Well' was designed and fabricated using available 3D printing platforms to have an increased surface area of more than 4 times for protein-surface adsorption compared to those of 96-well plates. The ease and rapidity in designing-product development-feedback cycle offered through 3D printing platforms provided an opportunity for its rapid assessment, in which a chemical etching process was used to make the surface hydrophilic followed by validation through the diagnostic performance of ELISA for infectious disease without modifying current laboratory practices for ELISA. The higher sensitivity of the 3D-Well (3-folds higher) compared to the 96-well ELISA provides a potential for the expansion of this technology towards miniaturization platforms to reduce time, volume of reagents and samples needed for laboratory or field diagnosis of infectious diseases including applications in other disciplines.

  15. Production of monoclonal antibodies for detection of Citrus leprosis virus C in enzyme-linked immuno-assays and immunocapture reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Nandlal; Roy, Avijit; Govindarajulu, A; Nakhla, M K; Levy, L; Brlansky, R H

    2014-09-01

    Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C) causes damage in citrus production in the South and Central America. Since closely related types of citrus viruses have recently been described monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are needed for accurate and sensitive diagnosis of CiLV-C. In this study, MAbs to the expressed coat protein of CiLV-C were produced for serological detection of CiLV-C in crude extracts of infected tissues in double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (DAS-ELISA), dot blot immunosorbent assays (DBIA) and immuonocapture-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR) procedures. Monoclonal antibodies were developed in mice to the purified expressed coat protein of CiLV-C. The published standard protocols of DAS-ELISA, DBIA and IC-RT-PCR were followed for the detection of coat protein p29 of CiLV-C in the crude extracts of CiLV-C infected tissues. Two monoclonal antibodies, designated G10 and C11, were identified from four potential candidates for the specific and sensitive detection of coat protein p29 of CiLV-C in the crude citrus extracts of CiLV-C infected tissues in DAS-ELISA, whereas G10 was also selected based on performance for use in the DBIA and IC-RT-PCR diagnostic assays. Sensitivity analysis comparing the three methods for detection of coat protein p29 of CiLV-C determined that IC-RT-PCR was more sensitive than DAS-ELISA and DBIA. The creation of MAbs to CiLV-C allows for the sensitive and accurate detection of the virus from CiLV-C infected citrus leaf tissues. Successful detection of the virus in three diagnostic assays formats provides flexibility to diagnosticians who can use either ELISA or DBIA for screening large numbers of samples, and IC-RT-PCR for rapid, sensitive confirmation testing.

  16. Application of 3D Printing Technology in Increasing the Diagnostic Performance of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harpal; Shimojima, Masayuki; Shiratori, Tomomi; An, Le Van; Sugamata, Masami; Yang, Ming

    2015-07-08

    Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)-based diagnosis is the mainstay for measuring antibody response in infectious diseases and to support pathogen identification of potential use in infectious disease outbreaks and clinical care of individual patients. The development of laboratory diagnostics using readily available 3D printing technologies provides a timely opportunity for further expansion of this technology into immunodetection systems. Utilizing available 3D printing platforms, a '3D well' was designed and developed to have an increased surface area compared to those of 96-well plates. The ease and rapidity of the development of the 3D well prototype provided an opportunity for its rapid validation through the diagnostic performance of ELISA in infectious disease without modifying current laboratory practices for ELISA. The improved sensitivity of the 3D well of up to 2.25-fold higher compared to the 96-well ELISA provides a potential for the expansion of this technology towards miniaturization and Lab-On-a-Chip platforms to reduce time, volume of reagents and samples needed for such assays in the laboratory diagnosis of infectious and other diseases including applications in other disciplines.

  17. Application of 3D Printing Technology in Increasing the Diagnostic Performance of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harpal; Shimojima, Masayuki; Shiratori, Tomomi; An, Le Van; Sugamata, Masami; Yang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)-based diagnosis is the mainstay for measuring antibody response in infectious diseases and to support pathogen identification of potential use in infectious disease outbreaks and clinical care of individual patients. The development of laboratory diagnostics using readily available 3D printing technologies provides a timely opportunity for further expansion of this technology into immunodetection systems. Utilizing available 3D printing platforms, a ‘3D well’ was designed and developed to have an increased surface area compared to those of 96-well plates. The ease and rapidity of the development of the 3D well prototype provided an opportunity for its rapid validation through the diagnostic performance of ELISA in infectious disease without modifying current laboratory practices for ELISA. The improved sensitivity of the 3D well of up to 2.25-fold higher compared to the 96-well ELISA provides a potential for the expansion of this technology towards miniaturization and Lab-On-a-Chip platforms to reduce time, volume of reagents and samples needed for such assays in the laboratory diagnosis of infectious and other diseases including applications in other disciplines. PMID:26184194

  18. EVALUATION OF IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN MULTIPLE SAMPLE MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods were evaluated for the determination of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP) in multiple sample media (dust, soil, food, and urine). The dust and soil samples were analyzed by the RaPID (TM) commercial immunoassay testing ...

  19. EVALUATION OF IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN MULTIPLE SAMPLE MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods were evaluated for the determination of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP) in multiple sample media (dust, soil, food, and urine). The dust and soil samples were analyzed by the RaPID (TM) commercial immunoassay testing ...

  20. Development of a highly sensitive chemiluminescent assay for hydrogen peroxide under neutral conditions using acridinium ester and its application to an enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Hidetoshi; Tsuruoka, Keiko; Ohno, Ken-ichi; Tajima, Noriko; Nagano, Hiromi

    2014-06-01

    We developed a highly sensitive chemiluminescent (CL) assay for hydrogen peroxide using 10-methyl-9-(phenoxycarbonyl) acridinium fluorosulfonate (PMAC) that produced chemiluminescence under neutral conditions and applied it to an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). One picomole of hydrogen peroxide could be detected using the optimized PMAC-CL method and 6.2 × 10(-20) mol β-D-galactosidase (β-gal) could be detected by combining an indoxyl derivative substrate and the proposed PMAC-CL method. This highly sensitive CL β-gal assay was applied to an EIA for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) using β-gal as a label enzyme; 0.02-100.0 μU/mL TSH in human serum could be assayed directly and with high reproducibility.

  1. Utilisation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for determination of alkylphenols in various environmental matrices. Comparison with LC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Pasquet, Camille; Vulliet, Emmanuelle

    2011-10-15

    Among the wide range of substances discharged continuously in the environment, alkylphenols became a major focus of environmental research in the last decades, as it was found that they possess endocrine disrupting properties. Knowledge about the occurrence and levels of alkylphenols in environment is critical for the risk assessment of these compounds on both ecosystem and human health. However, the analysis of traces of alkylphenols in environmental matrices is a very difficult task, and the suitable methods involve generally an extraction followed by an extensive sample clean-up before detection, steps often time-consuming and costly. In order to reduce the analysis time, obtain a high throughput of analysis and thus improve work efficiency, the objective of the present study is to investigate the use of immunochemical technique (ELISA) for the determination of nonylphenol and octylphenol in soils and various kinds of water. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the determination of alkylphenols in soil using immunoassay technique is described. A methodology is developed, based on the combination of a single preparation step and the use of a simply ELISA kit. The performances of the method are compared with LC-MS/MS, considered as reference. The developed procedure offers the sensitivity and selectivity necessary for the detection of the target alkylphenols in the ng/g or ng/L range, and is successfully applied to the analysis of several samples. Results indicate that alkylphenols are quantified with concentrations in the same order than LC-MS/MS, meaning that ELISA may be useful not only in screening the samples and get a positive/negative response, but also it allows a good approximation of the concentrations.

  2. Discrepancies between a new highly sensitive Toxoplasma gondii ELISA assay and other reagents: interest of Toxo IgG Western blot.

    PubMed

    Leslé, F; Touafek, F; Fekkar, A; Mazier, D; Paris, L

    2011-10-01

    Immunodiagnostic assays are commonly used to screen for maternal toxoplasmic seroconversion during pregnancy. The introduction to the market of a new highly sensitive IgG assay, the Elecsys Toxo IgG test, has resulted in discrepancy issues with other immunoassays because of a lack of standardisation. Western blot appears to be a good alternative gold standard to the dye test, as the latter is not routinely available. For the present prospective study, we compared the analytical performances of two immunoassays, Elecsys Toxo IgG (Roche Diagnostics) and Platelia Toxo IgG (Bio-Rad, Marnes la Coquette, France), to Toxo II IgG Western blot (LDBio, Lyon, France) using 231 consecutive sera with low or equivocal IgG titres. Of these 231 sera, 213 presented discrepancies, which showed the importance of a confirmation test. Of the Elecsys Toxo IgG-positive results, 100% were confirmed by the Western blot with a positive threshold of 30 IU/ml for Elecsys; in the equivocal area (1-30 IU/ml), Western blot is negative in 54% of cases. Our results suggest that the lower diagnostic cut-off of Platelia Toxo IgG should be further reduced. Our study indirectly confirms that monitoring, especially for pregnant women, must be done in the same laboratory using the same technique. The ability to diagnose very early seroconversion using Western blot merits further study.

  3. Experimental conditions affecting the sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)*

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Howard A.; Davis, Candace L.; Bradley, Daniel W.; Maynard, James E.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitivity of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was improved 16 to 32 times after examination of various solid-phase supports, different antibody preparations as capture antibody, and different conditions for adsorbing capture antibody to the solid-phase. Comparisons were made by checkerboard titration analysis and by sensitivity studies, both of which demonstrated essentially equivalent results. Endpoints were determined by visual inspection and by spectrophotometry using o-phenylenediamine as substrate. The assay was as sensitive as commercially available radioimmunoassays without the requirement of affinity chromatography purified reagents, expensive instrumentation, or radioisotopes. PMID:6340847

  4. An evaluation of the enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) for quantitation of antibodies to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Cano, L E; Brummer, E; Stevens, D A; Restrepo, A

    1986-12-01

    The ELISA procedure was adapted for quantitation of antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Using a yeast cytoplasmic antigen and sera from patients with proven paracoccidioidomycosis, we found that 66% of sera reacted at titers greater than or equal to 1:128. Titers of this magnitude were obtained only for 4-5% of sera from healthy blood donors, tuberculosis patients and patients with other systemic mycoses. The exception was sera from patients with histoplasmosis (36% had titers greater than or equal to 1:128). Follow-up of 10 paracoccidioidomycosis patients during the course of therapy indicated a gradual decrease in antibody titers. Because of the technical advantages of the ELISA procedure in comparison with the standard complement fixation test, the ELISA test has potential utility for the quantitative determination of antibodies in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis.

  5. Performance characteristics of the VIDAS® 25-OH Vitamin D Total assay - comparison with four immunoassays and two liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods in a multicentric study.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Emmanuel; Bächer, Silvia; Mery, Sophie; Le Goff, Caroline; Piga, Nadia; Vogeser, Michael; Hausmann, Michael; Cavalier, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the analytical and clinical performance of the VIDAS® 25-OH Vitamin D Total assay. The clinical performance of the assay was compared with four other immunoassays against the results of two different liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry methods (LC-MS/MS) standardized to NIST reference materials. VIDAS® 25-OH Vitamin D Total assay precision, linearity, detection limits and sample matrix comparison were assessed following CLSI guidelines. For method comparison, a total of 150 serum samples ranging from 7 to 92 ng/mL were analyzed by all the methods. Correlation was studied using Passing-Bablok regression and Bland-Altman analysis. The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was calculated to evaluate agreement between immunoassays and the reference LC-MS/MS method. In addition, samples containing endogenous 25(OH)D2 were used to assess each immunoassay's ability to detect this analyte. Pregnancy and hemodialysis samples were used to the study the effect of vitamin D binding protein (DBP) concentration over VIDAS® assay performance. The VIDAS® 25-OH Vitamin D Total assay showed excellent correlation to the LC-MS/MS results (y=1.01x+0.22 ng/mL, r=0.93), as obtained from two different sites and distinct LC-MS/MS methods. The limit of quantification was determined at 8.1 ng/mL. Cross-reactivity for 25(OH)D2 was over 80%. At concentrations of 10.5, 26 and 65.1 ng/mL, within-run CVs were 7.9%, 3.6% and 1.7%, while total CVs (between runs, calibrations, lots and instruments) were 16.0%, 4.5% and 2.8%. The VIDAS® performance was not influenced by altered DBP levels, though under-recovery of 25(OH)D as compared to LC-MS/MS was observed for hemodialysis samples. The VIDAS® 25-OH Vitamin D Total assay is therefore considered suitable for assessment of vitamin D status in clinical routine.

  6. Evaluation of a commercial rabies ELISA as a replacement for serum neutralization assays as part of the pet travel scheme and oral vaccination campaigns of foxes.

    PubMed

    Knoop, Eva V; Freuling, Conrad M; Kliemt, Jeannette; Selhorst, Thomas; Conraths, Franz J; Müller, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    EU Regulation 998/2003 requires the serological testing of rabies-vaccinated dogs and cats in approved laboratories using serum neutralization tests prior to movement of pet animals between certain EU member states and before pet animals are imported from unlisted third countries. Serum neutralisation tests are also used for measuring the efficacy of oral rabies vaccination programmes conducted in wild carnivore populations. In this study we evaluated an OIE-listed commercial ELISA as a potential replacement for serum neutralization assays under routine conditions as a diagnostic tool for both the serological testing of dog and cat sera as part of pet travel schemes and for follow-up investigations as part of oral vaccination campaigns. When dog and cat sera were analyzed by ELISA, a sensitivity compared to the standard serological test of 36.9-82.0% and 44.4-88.9%, respectively, was calculated depending on the method used. For fox field samples from oral vaccination areas the sensitivity compared to the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (RFFIT) was 32.4% (95% CI 24.8-40.0%). In its present format, the ELISA cannot replace standard serological assays neither in the pet travel scheme nor in follow-up investigations of oral vaccination campaigns. The results obtained resemble those of other rabies ELISAs recently evaluated for the same purpose and may therefore exemplify a general misconception (binding versus neutralization) in rabies serology rather than a failure of this ELISA test per se. Also, problems with technical and legislative issues associated with the serological testing of dog and cat sera for non-commercial movement and related to the outcome of this study are addressed.

  7. Comparable between rapid one step immunochromatographic assay and ELISA in the detection of prostate specific antigen in vaginal specimens of raped women.

    PubMed

    Peonim, Vichan; Chirachariyavej, Thamrong; Atamasirikul, Kalayanee; Talthip, Jate

    2007-12-01

    Rape is a crime found in Thailand nowadays. The crime is often lacking of eyewitnesses. Therefore, examination for forensic biological evidence becomes quite important, especially investigating sperm and semen in vaginal specimens of the victim. Acid phosphatase test for semen is commonly used in Thailand but is just a presumptive test. Recently, confirmatory kit tests became available in Thailand for detecting the prostate specific antigen (PSA) from semen. This test is simpler and cheaper than ELISA. To compare the rapid one-step immunochromatographic assay with ELISA for the detection of prostate specific antigen in vaginal specimens of raped women. A diagnostic test was conducted on the vaginal specimens of raped women that were sent to the laboratory of the Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University during April-August 2006. One hundred vaginal specimens were examined for prostate specific antigen by rapid one step immunochromatographic assay and compared with ELISA. There were 85% and 83% of sensitivity, 85% and 85% of specificity, 85% and 85% of accuracy, 89% and 89% of positive predictive value, and 79% and 77% of negative predictive value from rapid one-step test kit and ELISA respectively The result showed that there was no difference on specificity, accuracy and positive predictive value between the two methods but sensitivity and negative predictive value of rapid one-step test kit was better than ELISA. The research team recommends that rapid one-step test kit for prostate specific antigen should be routine service in vaginal specimens of raped women.

  8. Immunodiagnosis of Fasciola gigantica Infection Using Monoclonal Antibody-Based Sandwich ELISA and Immunochromatographic Assay for Detection of Circulating Cathepsin L1 Protease

    PubMed Central

    Anuracpreeda, Panat; Chawengkirttikul, Runglawan; Sobhon, Prasert

    2016-01-01

    Background Tropical fasciolosis caused by Fasciola gigantica infection is one of the major diseases infecting ruminants in the tropical regions of Africa and Asia including Thailand. Parasitological diagnosis of fasciolosis is often unreliable and possesses low sensitivity. Therefore, the detection of circulating parasite antigens is thought to be a better alternative for diagnosis of fasciolosis, as it reflects the real parasite burden. Methods In this study, we have produced a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against recombinant F. gigantica cathepsin L1 (rFgCatL1), and developed both sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sandwich ELISA) and immunochromatographic (IC) test for rapid detection of circulating cathepsin L1 protease (CatL1) in the sera from mice experimentally and cattle naturally infected with Fasciola gigantica. MoAb 4E3 and biotinylated rabbit anti-recombinant CatL1 antibody were selected due to their high reactivities and specificities. Results The lower detection limits of sandwich ELISA and IC test were 3 pg/ml and 0.256 ng/ml, respectively. Sandwich ELISA and IC test could detect F. gigantica infection from day 1 to 35 post infection. In experimental mice, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 95%, 100% and 98.6% (for sandwich ELISA), and 93%, 100% and 98.2% (for IC test), while in natural cattle they were 98.3%, 100% and 99.5% (for sandwich ELISA), and 96.7%, 100% and 99.1% (for IC test). Conclusions These two assay methods showed high efficiencies and precisions for diagnosis of fasciolosis by F. gigantica. PMID:26731402

  9. Development and Evaluation of a New Creatine Kinase MB Mass Determination Assay Using a Latex Agglutination Turbidimetric Immunoassay with an Automated Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Tadashi; Hanai, Kazuma; Tanimoto, Kazuhito; Nakayama, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of myocardial infraction (MI) in patients presenting to the emergency department represents a clinical challenge. It is known that creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) is present in soluble cell fractions of cardiac muscle, and injury to those cells results in an increase of CK-MB in the blood. Therefore, CK-MB is a suitable clinical biomarker of myocardial infraction. To measure CK-MB mass rapidly and easily, we developed the new reagent 'L-type Wako CK-MB mass' (L-CK-MB mass) for the latex agglutination turbidimetric immunoassay method. Using a Hitachi LABOSPECT 008, we evaluated the performance of this assay as a method for quantifying CK-MB mass, and we compared the measurement of the serum CK-MB mass concentration with this assay to that obtained using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). A dilution test showed linearity from 5 μg/L to 190 μg/L, and the limit of quantification of the L-CK-MB mass assay was 3.0 μg/L. The within-run CV and between-day CV were 1.0 - 4.5% and 1.8 - 4.4%, respectively. Serum CK-MB mass concentration determined using the L-CK-MB mass assay was reliably and strongly correlated with that determined using ECLIA (n = 163, r = 0.999, y = 0.977x + 0.307). The L-CK-MB mass assay is able to specifically determine CK-MB mass and is a very useful method for the accurate measurement of CK-MB mass for routine clinical analyses.

  10. [Prokaryotic expression of the major antigenic domain of equine arteritis virus GL protein and the establishment of putative indirect ELISA assay].

    PubMed

    Liang, Cheng-Zhu; Cao, Rui-Bing; Wei, Jian-Chao; Zhu, Lai-Hua; Chen, Pu-Yan

    2006-06-01

    According to the antigenic analysis of equine arteritis virus (EAV) GL protein, one pair of primers were designed, with which the gene fragment coding the high antigenic domain of EAV GL protein was amplified from the EAV genome. The cloned gene was digested with BamH I and Xho I and then inserted into pET-32a and resulted pET-GL1. The pET-GL1 was transformed into the host cell BL21(DE3) and the expression was optimized including cultivation temperature and concentration of IPTG. The aim protein was highly expressed and the obtained recombinant protein manifested well reactiongenicity as was confirmed by Western blot. The recombinant GL1 protein was purified by the means of His * Bind resin protein purification procedure. Then an indirect ELISA was established to detect antibody against EAV with the purified GL1 protein as the coating antigen. The result showed that the optimal concentration of coated antigen was 9.65 microg/mL and the optimal dilution of serum was 1:80. The positive criterion of this ELISA assay is OD (the tested serum) > 0.4 and OD (the tested serum) /OD (the negative serum) > 2.0. The iGL-ELISA was evaluated versus micro-virus neutralization test. The ELISA was performed on 900 sera from which were preserved by this lab during horse entry/exit inspection, the agreement (94.1%) of these test were considered suitable for individual serological detection. In another test which 180 sera samples were detected by iGL-ELISA and INGEZIM ELISA kit respectively. The agreement ratio between the two methods is 95.6%.

  11. A simple, specific high-throughput enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantitative determination of melatonin in cell culture medium.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Cassone, Vincent M

    2015-09-01

    A simple, specific, high-throughput enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantitative determination of melatonin was developed for directly measuring melatonin in cell culture medium with 10% FBS. This assay adopts a commercial monoclonal melatonin antibody and melatonin-HRP conjugate, so it can be applied in multiple labs rapidly with low cost compared with commercial RIA and ELISA kits. In addition, the procedure is much simpler with only four steps: 1) sample/conjugate incubation, 2) plate washing, 3) TMB color reaction and 4) reading of results. The standards of the assay cover a wide working range from 100 pg/mL to 10 ng/mL. The sensitivity was 68 pg/mL in cell culture medium with 10% FBS and 26 pg/mL in PBS with as little as 25 μL sample volume. The recovery of melatonin from cell culture medium was 101.0%. The principal cross-reacting compound was 5-methoxytryptophol (0.1%). The variation coefficients of the assay, within and between runs, ranged between 6.68% and 15.76% in cell culture medium. The mean linearity of a series diluted cell culture medium sample was 105% (CV=5%), ranging between 98% and 111%, y=5.5263x+0.0646, R(2)=0.99. The assay enables small research and teaching labs to reliably measure this important neurohormone.

  12. The standardization of 5 immunoassays for anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G(IgG).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kuo; Lin, Guigao; Han, Yanxi; Li, Jinming

    2017-09-01

    Quantitative immunoassays to detect IgG antibodies are the most commonly used tests for diagnosing toxoplasmosis. We investigated the current state of standardization of quantitative immunoassays used to measure anti-Toxoplasma IgG levels. Four fully automated immunoassays (Architect i4000ISR, Immulite 2000 Xpi, Siemens; Liaison, DiaSorin; Cobas e601, Roche) and one manual immunoassay (ELISA classic Toxo IgG, Virion Serion) were performed on the following: individual patient serum samples, the WHO international standards, control samples, and calibrators provided by 5 immunoassay manufacturers. Statistical analysis was used to illustrate the results. No perfect correlation (slope=1.0) was found between any 2 assays. Large differences in anti-Toxoplasma IgG titers were observed among the 5 immunoassays using serum samples from individual patients. Using IS 01/600 as a calibrator minimized the inter-assay variability of anti-Toxoplasma IgG values CONCLUSIONS: There is still significant effort needed towards standardization of anti-Toxoplasma IgG quantitative immunoassays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of an incurred cornbread model for gluten detection by immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Girdhari M; Khuda, Sefat E; Pereira, Marion; Slate, Andrew; Jackson, Lauren S; Pardo, Christopher; Williams, Kristina M; Whitaker, Thomas B

    2013-12-11

    Gluten that is present in food as a result of cross-contact or misbranding can cause severe health concerns to wheat-allergic and celiac patients. Immunoassays, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow device (LFD), are commonly used to detect gluten traces in foods. However, the performance of immunoassays can be affected by non-assay-related factors, such as food matrix and processing conditions. Gluten (0-500 ppm) and wheat flour (20-1000 ppm) incurred cornbread was prepared at different incurred levels and baking conditions (204.4 °C for 20, 27, and 34 min) to study the accuracy and precision of gluten measurement by seven immunoassay kits (three LFD and four ELISA kits). The stability and immunoreactivity of gluten proteins, as measured by western blot using three different antibodies, were not adversely affected by the baking conditions. However, the gluten recovery varied depending upon the ELISA kit and the gluten source used to make the incurred cornbread, affecting the accuracy of gluten quantification (BioKits, 9-77%; Morinaga, 91-137%; R-Biopharm, 61-108%; and Romer Labs, 113-190%). Gluten recovery was reduced with increased baking time for most ELISA kits analyzed. Both the sampling and analytical variance increased with an increase in the gluten incurred level. The predicted analytical coefficient of variation associated with all ELISA kits was below 12% for all incurred levels, indicative of good analytical precision.

  14. Direct Comparison of the Histidine-rich Protein-2 Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and Malaria SYBR Green I Fluorescence (MSF) Drug Sensitivity Tests in Plasmodium falciparum Reference Clones and Fresh ex vivo Field Isolates from Cambodia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-12

    assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests were directly compared using Plasmodium falciparum reference...Southeast Asia. Keywords: Immediate ex vivo Plasmodium falciparum drug susceptibility testing, HRP-2 ELISA, Malaria SYBR green fluorescence assay, Cambodia... malaria drug susceptibility assay using a reference clone to improve comparisons of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates. Malar J 2012, 11:325. 22. Le

  15. [Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibodies to Salmonella Typhi lipopolysaccharide O and capsular polysaccharide Vi antigens in persons from outbreak of typhoid fever].

    PubMed

    Rastawicki, Waldemar; Kałużewski, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of typhoid fever is dependent upon either isolation of S. Typhi from a clinical sample or the detection of raised titers of serum antibodies in the Widal test or the passive hemagglutination assay (PHA). In this study we evaluated the usefulness of ELISA for detection of antibodies to S. Typhi lipopolysaccharide O and capsular polysaccharide Vi antigens in the sera of persons from outbreak of typhoid fever. Fifteen serum samples from patients with laboratory confirmed typhoid fever and 140 sera from persons suspected for contact with typhoid fever patients from outbreak in 1974/75 in Poland were tested by ELISA. Additionally, as the control group, we tested 115 sera from blood donors for the presence of S. Typhi anti-LPS and anti-Vi antibodies. Anti-LPS and anti-Vi antibodies were detected in 80% and 53.3% of sera obtained from patients with laboratory confirmed typhoid fever, respectively. The high percentages of positive results in ELISA were also noted in the group of persons suspected for contact with typhoid fever patients (51.4% and 45%) but not in the group of blood donors (7.8% and 6.1%, respectively). The ELISA could be a useful tool for the serological diagnosis of typhoid fever in patients who have clinical symptoms but are culture negative, especially during massive outbreaks of typhoid fever.

  16. The use of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection and quantification of specific antibody from cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, B S; Levy, J G; Sikora, L

    1979-01-01

    The solid phase enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been used to quantify anti-keyhole limpet haemocyanin (anti-KLH) antibody in the serum of KLH-immune C57Bl/6 mice. When spleen cells from immune mice were cultured overnight in ELISA microtitre wells to which KLH had been adsorbed it was found that easily quantifiable amounts of anti-KLH antibody were synthesized and were detectable. It was found further that spleen cells from KLH-primed mice, when cultured in vitro in the presence of KLH, transferred to KLH-labelled ELISA plates, and cultured overnight, also produced detectable levels of antibody. Levels of antibody were detectable only after 4 and 5 days of in vitro stimulation. A comparison was made between detectable numbers of plaque forming cells to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in SRBC primed CBA mice and levels of antibody detected by the ELISA procedure. It was found that the sensitivities of the two tests were comparable. The applications of this technique to the study of in vitro antibody synthesis using soluble antigens are discussed. PMID:381177

  17. Highly broad-specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening sulfonamides: Assay optimization and application to milk samples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A broad-specific and sensitive immunoassay for the detection of sulfonamides was developed by optimizing the conditions of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in regard to different monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), assay format, immunoreagents, and several physicochemical factors (pH, salt, de...

  18. Development of a novel fluorescent microbead-based immunoassay and comparison with three enzyme-linked immunoassays for detection of anti-Erysipelothrix spp. IgG antibodies in pigs with known and unknown exposure.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Lirola, L G; Xiao, C T; Halbur, P G; Opriessnig, T

    2012-10-01

    A novel fluorescent microbead immunoassay (FMIA) using the recombinant polypeptide SpaA415 was developed for detection of anti-Erysipelothrix spp. IgG in pig sera. The diagnostic performance of the FMIA was evaluated on samples from pigs with known and unknown Erysipelothrix spp. exposure and compared to an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-1) based on the same capture antigen, and two commercially available ELISAs (ELISA-2 and ELISA-3). Sera from pigs experimentally infected with Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serotype 1a (n=60) or 19 (n=12), sera from pigs vaccinated with a commercial attenuated-live vaccine based on serotype 1a (n=12) or a commercial bacterin based on serotype 2 (n=12), and 90 field samples were utilized. The sensitivity on 22 true positive samples collected in the later stages of infection/post-vaccination was 100% for the FMIA and ELISA-1, 63.6% for ELISA-2 and 81.8% for ELISA-3. The earliest antibody response was detected 7days post inoculation with the FMIA (77.8%) and ELISA-1 (11.1%), and at 14days post-vaccination (dpv) with FMIA (50%) and ELISA-1 (50%). On field samples, a higher seroprevalence was found in pigs older than 21days with all four assays. Kappa analysis indicated that the FMIA and ELISA-1 had almost complete agreement whereas the agreement was slight with ELISA-2 and fair with ELISA-3. The sensitivity of both immunoassays based on the rSpaA415 antigen was higher compared to that of the two commercial ELISAs. The rSpaA415 FMIA has great potential as an inexpensive ELISA alternative for detection of antibodies against E. rhusiopathiae in the future.

  19. Chagas disease-specific antigens: characterization of epitopes in CRA/FRA by synthetic peptide mapping and evaluation by ELISA-peptide assay

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The identification of epitopes in proteins recognized by medically relevant antibodies is useful for the development of peptide-based diagnostics and vaccines. In this study, epitopes in the cytoplasmic repetitive antigen (CRA) and flagellar repetitive antigen (FRA) proteins from Trypanosoma cruzi were identified using synthetic peptide techniques and pooled sera from Chagasic patients. The epitopes were further assayed with an ELISA assay based on synthetic peptides. Methods Twenty-two overlapping synthetic peptides representing the coding sequence of the T. cruzi CRA and FRA proteins were assessed by a Spot-synthesis array analysis using sera donated by patients with Chagas disease. Shorter peptides were selected that represented the determined epitopes and synthesized by solid phase synthesis to evaluate the patterns of cross-reactivities and discrimination through an ELISA-diagnostic assay. Results The peptide Spot-synthesis array successfully identified two IgG antigenic determinants in the CRA protein and four in FRA. Bioinformatics suggested that the CRA antigens were unique to T. cruzi while the FRA antigen showed similarity with sequences present within various proteins from Leishmania sp. Subsequently, shorter peptides representing the CRA-1, CRA-2 and FRA-1 epitopes were synthesized by solid phase synthesis and assayed by an ELISA-diagnostic assay. The CRA antigens gave a high discrimination between Chagasic, Leishmaniasis and T. cruzi-uninfected serum. A sensitivity and specificity of 100% was calculated for CRA. While the FRA antigen showed a slightly lower sensitivity (91.6%), its specificity was only 60%. Conclusions The epitopes recognized by human anti-T. cruzi antibodies have been precisely located in two biomarkers of T. cruzi, CRA and FRA. The results from screening a panel of patient sera through an ELISA assay based on peptides representing these epitopes strongly suggest that the sequences from CRA would be useful for the

  20. Development of an Assay for the Detection of PrPres in Blood and Urine Based on PMCA Assay and ELISA Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    diagnostic assay. The assay in the pilot form is developed with plasma from hamsters infected with the 263K strain of scrapie . The same assay can be...adapted to human PrP test. In this funding period we completed the optimization of the conditions for proteinase K (PK) digestion of PrPres in scrapie ...alone10. We have been developing a prototype assay for TSE infection using hamsters infected with the 263K stain of scrapie . In our current assay

  1. Evaluation of fully automated assays for the detection of Rubella IgM and IgG antibodies by the Elecsys(®) immunoassay system.

    PubMed

    van Helden, Josef; Grangeot-Keros, Liliane; Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle; Vleminckx, Renaud; Masset, Frédéric; Revello, Maria-Grazia

    2014-04-01

    Screening for acute rubella infection in pregnancy is an important element of antenatal care. This study compared the sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of two new, fully automated Elecsys(®) Rubella IgM and IgG immunoassays designed for the Elecsys 2010, Modular Analytics E170, COBAS e-411 and COBAS e-601 and e602 analytical platforms, with current assays using serum from patients with primary rubella infections, vaccinated patients, patients with potentially cross-reacting infections and on routine samples in clinical laboratories in France, Germany and Italy. Both assays showed good within-run and within-laboratory precision. A sensitivity of 79.8-96.0% was demonstrated for Elecsys IgM in primary, early acute infection, consistent with existing assays. In samples obtained from routine antenatal screening, the Elecsys Rubella IgM assay revealed high specificity (98.7-99.0%). A significantly (p<0.0001) lower reactivity was demonstrated in samples from previously infected patients where acute rubella infection was excluded, and the incidence of false positives in patients with potentially cross-reacting infections was lower with Elecsys Rubella IgM compared with other. The Elecsys Rubella IgG assay exhibited a relative sensitivity of 99.9-100.0% and specificity of 97.4-100.0% in samples from routine antenatal screening. The Elecsys Rubella IgM and IgG assays allow convenient, rapid and reliable determination of anti-rubella antibodies. Sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility were comparable with existing assay systems. Assay results were available in approximately half the time required for currently employed methods and the assays are compatible with widely used analytical platforms.

  2. Fabricating a UV-Vis and Raman Spectroscopy Immunoassay Platform.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Cynthia; Israelsen, Nathan D; Sieverts, Michael; Vargis, Elizabeth

    2016-11-10

    Immunoassays are used to detect proteins based on the presence of associated antibodies. Because of their extensive use in research and clinical settings, a large infrastructure of immunoassay instruments and materials can be found. For example, 96- and 384-well polystyrene plates are available commercially and have a standard design to accommodate ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy machines from various manufacturers. In addition, a wide variety of immunoglobulins, detection tags, and blocking agents for customized immunoassay designs such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are available. Despite the existing infrastructure, standard ELISA kits do not meet all research needs, requiring individualized immunoassay development, which can be expensive and time-consuming. For example, ELISA kits have low multiplexing (detection of more than one analyte at a time) capabilities as they usually depend on fluorescence or colorimetric methods for detection. Colorimetric and fluorescent-based analyses have limited multiplexing capabilities due to broad spectral peaks. In contrast, Raman spectroscopy-based methods have a much greater capability for multiplexing due to narrow emission peaks. Another advantage of Raman spectroscopy is that Raman reporters experience significantly less photobleaching than fluorescent tags(1). Despite the advantages that Raman reporters have over fluorescent and colorimetric tags, protocols to fabricate Raman-based immunoassays are limited. The purpose of this paper is to provide a protocol to prepare functionalized probes to use in conjunction with polystyrene plates for direct detection of analytes by UV-Vis analysis and Raman spectroscopy. This protocol will allow researchers to take a do-it-yourself approach for future multi-analyte detection while capitalizing on pre-established infrastructure.

  3. Application of BALB/c mouse in the local lymph node assay:BrdU-ELISA for the prediction of the skin sensitizing potential of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Hou, Fenxia; Xing, Caihong; Li, Bin; Cheng, Juan; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Man

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a skin disease characterized by eczema and itching. A considerable proportion of chemicals induce ACD in humans. More than 10,000 substances should be tested for skin sensitization potential under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) regulation. The Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) has been designated as the first-choice in vivo assay for sensitization testing by REACH. The LLNA:BrdU-ELISA is a validated non-radioactive modification to the LLNA. For both the LLNA and the LLNA:BrdU-ELISA, CBA/JN mouse is the preferred mouse strain recommended in the regulatory guidelines. However, the availability of CBA/JN mouse in China is only limited to a few animal suppliers, which makes the mouse difficult to obtain. BALB/c mouse, which is widely commercially available, is considered for alternative use but it can only be used in the assay after it has been evaluated by formal validation study. Thus, a validation study was conducted in our laboratory to determine if BALB/c mouse could also be used in the LLNA:BrdU-ELISA. Forty-three test substances including 32 LLNA sensitizers and 11 LLNA non-sensitizers, their vehicles and each concentration used were the same as that used in the formal validation study for the LLNA:BrdU-ELISA using CBA/JN mouse. Female BALB/c mice of 8-10 weeks old were randomly allocated to groups (four mice per group). The test substance (25 μl) or the vehicle alone was applied to the dorsum of both ears daily for 3 consecutive days. A single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml of BrdU (10mg/ml) solution was given on day 5. On day 6, a pair of auricular lymph nodes from each mouse was excised, weighed and stored at -20°C until BrdU-ELISA was conducted. This validation study for the LLNA:BrdU-ELISA using BALB/c mouse correctly identified 30 of 31 sensitizers and 8 of 11 non-sensitizers. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, false positive rate, false negative rate

  4. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of use of the synthetic cannabinoid agonists UR-144 and XLR-11 in human urine.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Amanda L A; Ofsa, Bill; Keil, Alyssa Marie; Simon, John R; McMullin, Matthew; Logan, Barry K

    2014-09-01

    Ongoing changes in the synthetic cannabinoid drug market create the need for relevant targeted immunoassays for rapid screening of biological samples. We describe the validation and performance characteristics of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay designed to detect use of one of the most prevalent synthetic cannabinoids in urine, UR-144, by targeting its pentanoic acid metabolite. Fluorinated UR-144 (XLR-11) has been demonstrated to metabolize to this common product. The assay has significant cross-reactivity with UR-144-5-OH, UR-144-4-OH and XLR-11-4-OH metabolites, but <10% cross-reactivity with the parent compounds, and no measurable cross-reactivity with other synthetic cannabinoids and their metabolites at concentrations of <1,000 ng/mL. The assay's cutoff is 5 ng/mL relative to the pentanoic acid metabolite of UR-144, which is used as the calibrator. The method was validated with 90 positive and negative control urine samples for UR-144, XLR-11 and its metabolites tested versus liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were determined to be 100% for the assay at the specified cutoff. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Updates in immunoassays: parasitology.

    PubMed

    Josko, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Although most clinical laboratories use microscopy and routine O&P procedures when identifying parasitic infections, there are several parasites that are better detected through serological means. Toxoplasma, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium were discussed along with immunoassays used for their detection. Immunoassays provide quick results and are less labor intensive than specimen concentration and slide preparation for microscopic examination. These assays are easy to use and provide sensitive and specific results. Some clinical laboratories no longer perform O&Ps in house and refer specimens to reference laboratories for evaluation. By using immunoassays, some of the more common parasites can be identified in a timely manner reducing turn-around times. Some controversy exists over the use of IIF and EIA tests used for ANA testing along with measuring CRPs and PCT as predictors of bacterial sepsis and septic shock. Regardless of the methodology discussed in this series of articles, there are pros and cons to the various immunoassays available. Determining the most appropriate assay based on patient population and volume is governed by the institution and its patients' needs. In conclusion, immunoassays, whether manual or automated, are easy to use, cost effective and allow the medical laboratory professional to provide quick and accurate results to the clinician so the most appropriate treatment can be administered to the patient. The ultimate goal of healthcare professionals is to provide the highest quality of medical care in a timely manner. The use of immunoassays in the clinical laboratory allows the healthcare team to successfully achieve this goal.

  6. Development of an analytical protocol for a fast, sensitive and specific protein recognition in paintings by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Palmieri, M; Vagnini, Manuela; Pitzurra, L; Rocchi, P; Brunetti, B G; Sgamellotti, A; Cartechini, L

    2011-03-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis of proteins offers a particularly promising approach for investigations in cultural heritage on account of its appreciated properties of being highly specific, sensitive, relatively fast, and cost-affordable with respect to other conventional techniques. In spite of that, it has never been fully exploited for routine analyses of painting materials in consideration of several analytical issues that inhibited its diffusion in conservation science: limited sample dimensions, decrease of binder solubility and reduced availability of antibody bonding sites occurring with protein degradation. In this study, an ELISA analytical protocol suited for the identification of aged denatured proteins in ancient painting micro-samples has been developed. We focused on the detection of bovine β-casein and chicken ovalbumin as markers of bovine milk (or casein) and chicken albumen, respectively. A systematic experimentation of the ELISA protocol has been carried out on mock-ups of mural and easel painting prepared with 13 different pigments to assess limits and strengths of the method when applied for the identification of proteins in presence of a predominant inorganic matrix. The analytical procedure has been optimized with respect to protein extraction, antibodies' concentrations, incubation time and temperature; it allows the detection of the investigated proteins with sensitivity down to nanograms. The optimized protocol was then tested on artificially aged painting models. Analytical results were very encouraging and demonstrated that ELISA allows for protein analysis also in degraded painting samples. To address the feasibility of the developed ELISA methodology, we positively investigated real painting samples and results have been cross-validated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  7. Evaluating concentration estimation errors in ELISA microarray experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, Don S.; White, Amanda M.; Varnum, Susan M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2005-01-26

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a standard immunoassay to predict a protein concentration in a sample. Deploying ELISA in a microarray format permits simultaneous prediction of the concentrations of numerous proteins in a small sample. These predictions, however, are uncertain due to processing error and biological variability. Evaluating prediction error is critical to interpreting biological significance and improving the ELISA microarray process. Evaluating prediction error must be automated to realize a reliable high-throughput ELISA microarray system. Methods: In this paper, we present a statistical method based on propagation of error to evaluate prediction errors in the ELISA microarray process. Although propagation of error is central to this method, it is effective only when comparable data are available. Therefore, we briefly discuss the roles of experimental design, data screening, normalization and statistical diagnostics when evaluating ELISA microarray prediction errors. We use an ELISA microarray investigation of breast cancer biomarkers to illustrate the evaluation of prediction errors. The illustration begins with a description of the design and resulting data, followed by a brief discussion of data screening and normalization. In our illustration, we fit a standard curve to the screened and normalized data, review the modeling diagnostics, and apply propagation of error.

  8. ELISA: Methods and Protocols

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The antibody is central to the performance of an ELISA providing the basis of analyte selection and detection. It is the interaction of antibody with analyte under defined conditions that dictates the outcome of the ELISA and deviations in those conditions will impact assay performance. The aim of...

  9. Immuno-PCR assay for sensitive detection of proteins in real time

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The immuno-PCR (IPCR) assay combines the versatility and robustness of immunoassays with the exponential signal amplification power of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Typically, IPCR allows a 10–1,000-fold increase in sensitivity over the analogous enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thi...

  10. Immunoassay as an analytical tool in agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Grothaus, G David; Bandla, Murali; Currier, Thomas; Giroux, Randal; Jenkins, G Ronald; Lipp, Markus; Shan, Guomin; Stave, James W; Pantella, Virginia

    2006-01-01

    Immunoassays for biotechnology engineered proteins are used by AgBiotech companies at numerous points in product development and by feed and food suppliers for compliance and contractual purposes. Although AgBiotech companies use the technology during product development and seed production, other stakeholders from the food and feed supply chains, such as commodity, food, and feed companies, as well as third-party diagnostic testing companies, also rely on immunoassays for a number of purposes. The primary use of immunoassays is to verify the presence or absence of genetically modified (GM) material in a product or to quantify the amount of GM material present in a product. This article describes the fundamental elements of GM analysis using immunoassays and especially its application to the testing of grains. The 2 most commonly used formats are lateral flow devices (LFD) and plate-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The main applications of both formats are discussed in general, and the benefits and drawbacks are discussed in detail. The document highlights the many areas to which attention must be paid in order to produce reliable test results. These include sample preparation, method validation, choice of appropriate reference materials, and biological and instrumental sources of error. The article also discusses issues related to the analysis of different matrixes and the effects they may have on the accuracy of the immunoassays.

  11. The Dot Blot ELISA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerbig, Donald G., Jr.; Fenk, Christopher J.; Goodhart, Amy S.

    2000-01-01

    Uses two laboratory techniques, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Western Blot, to demonstrate antibody-antigen binding concepts. Includes a list of required materials and directions for the procedure, and makes suggestions for classroom applications. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  12. The Dot Blot ELISA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerbig, Donald G., Jr.; Fenk, Christopher J.; Goodhart, Amy S.

    2000-01-01

    Uses two laboratory techniques, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Western Blot, to demonstrate antibody-antigen binding concepts. Includes a list of required materials and directions for the procedure, and makes suggestions for classroom applications. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  13. High-throughput enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA) electrochemiluminescent detection of botulinum toxins in foods for food safety and defence purposes.

    PubMed

    Phillips, R W; Abbott, D

    2008-09-01

    Clostridum species produce seven serotypes (A-G) of botulinum toxin, four of which (A, B, E, and F) are normally associated with human illness. To date, the most reliable test for botulinum toxin is the mouse bioassay. The authors' laboratory has been exploring the use of an antibody-based assay similar to an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA) but utilizing electrochemiluminescent technology (BioVerify assay) as an alternative to the mouse bioassay for testing food samples. The detection limit of this assay is as low as 10 ng g(-1) depending on the food matrix and the serotype detected. Detection of botulinum toxin between 10 and 200 ng g(-1) is a linear curve allowing for the possibility of performing quantitative as well as qualitative testing of samples. The ease of the assay, limited sample preparation, and low detection limit make the BioVerify assay and instrument an excellent, high-throughput option for detecting botulinum toxins in food matrices.

  14. Performance of Three Enzyme Immunoassays and Two Direct Fluorescence Assays for Detection of Giardia lamblia in Stool Specimens Preserved in ECOFIX

    PubMed Central

    Fedorko, Daniel P.; Williams, Esther C.; Nelson, Nancy A.; Calhoun, Leslie B.; Yan, Sizhuang S.

    2000-01-01

    ECOFIX is a single-vial stool preservative that is both formalin- and mercury-free. We evaluated the abilities of three commercial Giardia lamblia-specific enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) (ProSpecT Giardia Microplate Assay [Alexon-Trend Inc.], Giardia Test [Techlab], and Premier Giardia lamblia [Meridian Diagnostics, Inc.]) and two commercial direct fluorescent-antibody (FA) assays for G. lamblia (Crypto/Giardia IF Test [Techlab] and Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia [Meridian Diagnostics, Inc.]) to detect G. lamblia in 34 G. lamblia-positive and 44 G. lamblia-negative stool specimens (determined by traditional examination for ova and parasites) preserved in ECOFIX compared to their abilities to detect G. lamblia in the same specimens preserved in formalin as the “gold standard” for each assay. Of the 34 formalin-fixed positive specimens, the number detected by each assay was as follows:, Alexon EIA, 34; Meridian EIA, 27; Techlab EIA, 29; Meridian FA assay, 31; and Techlab FA assay, 28. Both FA tests and the Alexon EIA performed well with ECOFIX, but the other two EIAs detected fewer positive specimens (the difference was statistically significant with the Techlab EIA) when ECOFIX was the preservative. Use of G. lamblia cyst antigen from cultured organisms preserved in formalin and ECOFIX demonstrated that the Alexon EIA could detect smaller amounts of antigen in ECOFIX than the other two EIAs could and suggested that cyst antigen is more stable in formalin. We recommend that laboratories use an FA assay or the Alexon EIA if they plan to use ECOFIX as their stool preservative. PMID:10878088

  15. Performance of three enzyme immunoassays and two direct fluorescence assays for detection of Giardia lamblia in stool specimens preserved in ECOFIX.

    PubMed

    Fedorko, D P; Williams, E C; Nelson, N A; Calhoun, L B; Yan, S S

    2000-07-01

    ECOFIX is a single-vial stool preservative that is both formalin- and mercury-free. We evaluated the abilities of three commercial Giardia lamblia-specific enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) (ProSpecT Giardia Microplate Assay [Alexon-Trend Inc.], Giardia Test [Techlab], and Premier Giardia lamblia [Meridian Diagnostics, Inc.]) and two commercial direct fluorescent-antibody (FA) assays for G. lamblia (Crypto/Giardia IF Test [Techlab] and Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia [Meridian Diagnostics, Inc.]) to detect G. lamblia in 34 G. lamblia-positive and 44 G. lamblia-negative stool specimens (determined by traditional examination for ova and parasites) preserved in ECOFIX compared to their abilities to detect G. lamblia in the same specimens preserved in formalin as the "gold standard" for each assay. Of the 34 formalin-fixed positive specimens, the number detected by each assay was as follows:, Alexon EIA, 34; Meridian EIA, 27; Techlab EIA, 29; Meridian FA assay, 31; and Techlab FA assay, 28. Both FA tests and the Alexon EIA performed well with ECOFIX, but the other two EIAs detected fewer positive specimens (the difference was statistically significant with the Techlab EIA) when ECOFIX was the preservative. Use of G. lamblia cyst antigen from cultured organisms preserved in formalin and ECOFIX demonstrated that the Alexon EIA could detect smaller amounts of antigen in ECOFIX than the other two EIAs could and suggested that cyst antigen is more stable in formalin. We recommend that laboratories use an FA assay or the Alexon EIA if they plan to use ECOFIX as their stool preservative.

  16. Application of linear discriminant analysis in performance evaluation of extractable nuclear antigen immunoassay systems in the screening and diagnosis of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Pi, David; de Badyn, Monika Hudoba; Nimmo, Mike; White, Rick; Pal, Jason; Wong, Patrick; Phoon, Carmen; O'Connor, Deidre; Pi, Steven; Shojania, Kam

    2012-10-01

    This study applied a linear discriminant analysis model to evaluate the performance of 2 types of commercially available extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) immunoassays for the screening and diagnosis of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) in a large tertiary hospital reference laboratory: (1) an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and (2) a multiplex bead-based immunoassay (MPBI). The results of the study showed both ENA immunoassays had comparable sensitivity for the detection of SARDs compared with the antinuclear antigen immunofluorescence (ANA-IF) method (ANA-IF: 85.6%, ENA-ELISA: 91.5%, ENA-MPBI: 83.1%, pairwise comparisons with ANA-IF: P > .05). However, both ENA immunoassays offered improved specificity compared with the ANA-IF (ANA-IF: 24.2%; ENA-ELISA: 39.8%; ENA-MPBI: 53.1%; pairwise comparison with ANA-IF: P < .001). The use of a more specific screening immunoassay with comparable sensitivity to ANA-IF is important in a tertiary hospital with high prevalence of non-SARD immune diseases. Diagnostic performance of the ENA/dsDNA components by the MPBI and ELISA methods did not differ significantly (area under the curve [AUC], 81.0% vs 83.0%, respectively, P > .05), but the key ENA/dsDNA variables contributing to the discriminating power of the assays for the diagnosis of specific SARDs were reagent/method dependent.

  17. Multiplex detection of plant pathogens using a microsphere immunoassay technology.

    PubMed

    Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Himananto, Orawan; Seepiban, Channarong; Kumpoosiri, Mallika; Warin, Nuchnard; Oplatowska, Michalina; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Grant, Irene R; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Elliott, Christopher T

    2013-01-01

    Plant pathogens are a serious problem for seed export, plant disease control and plant quarantine. Rapid and accurate screening tests are urgently required to protect and prevent plant diseases spreading worldwide. A novel multiplex detection method was developed based on microsphere immunoassays to simultaneously detect four important plant pathogens: a fruit blotch bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), chilli vein-banding mottle virus (CVbMV, potyvirus), watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, tospovirus serogroup IV) and melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, tospovirus). An antibody for each plant pathogen was linked on a fluorescence-coded magnetic microsphere set which was used to capture corresponding pathogen. The presence of pathogens was detected by R-phycoerythrin (RPE)-labeled antibodies specific to the pathogens. The assay conditions were optimized by identifying appropriate antibody pairs, blocking buffer, concentration of RPE-labeled antibodies and assay time. Once conditions were optimized, the assay was able to detect all four plant pathogens precisely and accurately with substantially higher sensitivity than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) when spiked in buffer and in healthy watermelon leaf extract. The assay time of the microsphere immunoassay (1 hour) was much shorter than that of ELISA (4 hours). This system was also shown to be capable of detecting the pathogens in naturally infected plant samples and is a major advancement in plant pathogen detection.

  18. Comparison of drugs of abuse detection in meconium by EMIT II and ELISA.

    PubMed

    Marin, Stephanie J; Keith, Lindsay; Merrell, Miles; McMillin, Gwendolyn A

    2009-04-01

    The results of meconium specimens and fortified samples screened for drugs of abuse by both enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT((R) )II) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods were compared. The sample preparation for the ELISA screen was a simple buffer extraction versus a lengthy and more laborious sample preparation procedure for the EMIT II screen. The ELISA method was automated using a TECAN Genesis. The EMIT II analysis was automated with an Olympus AU400e. The opioid screen was calibrated with hydromorphone and the benzodiazepine screen was calibrated with clonazepam to maximize detection for these analytes. Previously validated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), two-dimensional GC-MS, or liquid chromatography-tandem MS methods were used for confirmation. Results from the two techniques compared well. Agreement of the ELISA assay was greater than 90% when compared to EMIT II for all drug classes except barbiturates and benzodiazepines. ELISA appears to be more sensitive than EMIT II for the detection of amphetamines, methadone, propoxyphene, and cocaine. ELISA compared well to EMIT II for cannabinoids, opioids, and PCP. Specificity of the ELISA assay was slightly better for PCP and opioids. EMIT II appears to be more sensitive for the detection of barbiturates and benzodiazepines. The ELISA method reduced turnaround time by 50% compared to the EMIT II method.

  19. COMPARISON OF IMMUNOASSAY AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY METHODS FOR MEASURING 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2PYRIDINOL IN MULTIPLE SAMPLE MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods were evaluated for the determination of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP) in multiple sample media (dust, soil, food, and urine). The dust and soil samples were analyzed by a commercial RaPID immunoassay testing kit. ...

  20. COMPARISON OF IMMUNOASSAY AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY METHODS FOR MEASURING 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2PYRIDINOL IN MULTIPLE SAMPLE MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods were evaluated for the determination of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP) in multiple sample media (dust, soil, food, and urine). The dust and soil samples were analyzed by a commercial RaPID immunoassay testing kit. ...

  1. Analysis of Benzo[a]pyrene in Vegetable Oils Using Molecularly Imprinted Solid Phase Extraction (MISPE) Coupled with Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

    PubMed Central

    Pschenitza, Michael; Hackenberg, Rudolf; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a molecularly imprinted polymer-based solid phase extraction (MISPE) method coupled with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for determination of the PAH benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in vegetable oils. Different molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared using non-covalent 4-vinylpyridine/divinylbenzene co-polymerization at different ratios and dichloromethane as porogen. Imprinting was done with a template mixture of phenanthrene and pyrene yielding a broad-specific polymer for PAHs with a maximum binding capacity (Q) of ∼32 μg B[a]P per 50 mg of polymer. The vegetable oil/n-hexane mixture (1:1, (v/v)) was pre-extracted with acetonitrile, the solvent evaporated, the residue reconstituted in n-hexane and subjected to MISPE. The successive washing with n-hexane and isopropanol revealed most suitable to remove lipid matrix constituents. After elution of bound PAHs from MISPE column with dichloromethane, the solvent was evaporated, the residue reconstituted with dimethyl sulfoxide and diluted 100-fold with methanol/water (10:90, (v/v)) for analysis of B[a]P equivalents with an ELISA. The B[a]P recovery rates in spiked vegetable oil samples of different fatty acid composition were determined between 63% and 114%. The presence of multiple PAHs in the oil sample, because of MIP selectivity and cross-reactivity of the ELISA, could yield overestimated B[a]P values. PMID:24887045

  2. Kinetic analyses and performance of a colloidal magnetic nanoparticle based immunoassay dedicated to allergy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Teste, Bruno; Kanoufi, Frédéric; Descroix, Stéphanie; Poncet, Pascal; Georgelin, Thomas; Siaugue, Jean-Michel; Petr, Jan; Varenne, Anne; Hennion, Marie-Claire

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility to use magnetic nanoparticles as immunosupports for allergy diagnosis. Most immunoassays used for immunosupports and clinical diagnosis are based on a heterogeneous solid-phase system and suffer from mass-transfer limitation. The nanoparticles' colloidal behavior and magnetic properties bring the advantages of homogeneous immunoassay, i.e., species diffusion, and of heterogeneous immunoassay, i.e., easy separation of the immunocomplex and free forms, as well as analyte preconcentration. We thus developed a colloidal, non-competitive, indirect immunoassay using magnetic core-shell nanoparticles (MCSNP) as immunosupports. The feasibility of such an immunoassay was first demonstrated with a model antibody and described by comparing the immunocapture kinetics using macro (standard microtiter plate), micro (microparticles) and nanosupports (MCSNP). The influence of the nanosupport properties (surface chemistry, antigen density) and of the medium (ionic strength, counter ion nature) on the immunocapture efficiency and specificity was then investigated. The performances of this original MCSNP-based immunoassay were compared with a gold standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a microtiter plate. The capture rate of target IgG was accelerated 200-fold and a tenfold lower limit of detection was achieved. Finally, the MCSNP-based immunoassay was successfully applied to the detection of specific IgE from milk-allergic patient's sera with a lower LOD and a good agreement (CV < 6%) with the microtiter plate, confirming the great potential of this analytical platform in the field of immunodiagnosis.

  3. Use of the Falcon assay screening test--enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (FAST-ELISA) and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) to determine the prevalence of human fascioliasis in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, G V; Soler de Galanes, M; Rodriguez-Perez, J; Bjorland, J; Silva de Lagrava, M; Ramirez Guzman, S; Bryan, R T

    1992-05-01

    A collaborative study between the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, the Centers for Disease Control, the Bolivian Ministry of Health, and private voluntary organizations (Foster Parents Plan International and Danchurchaid) working in Bolivia has identified a region in the northwestern Altiplano of Bolivia near Lake Titicaca as harboring the highest prevalence of human fascioliasis in the world reported to date. Two serologic techniques (the Falcon assay screening test-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [FAST-ELISA] and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot [EITB]) were used in the determination of its prevalence. One hundred serum samples and 73 stool samples were obtained from Aymara Indians from Corapata, Bolivia. Antibody absorbance levels to Fasciola hepatica excretion-secretion antigens were compared with EITB banding patterns using the same antigen preparation. A positive FAST-ELISA result was defined as an absorbance value greater than the mean plus three standard deviations of two sets of normal negative controls (Puerto Rican and Bolivian). Using this criterion, 53 of 100 sera tested were found positive by this technique. Within this group, 19 (95%) of 20 individuals who were parasite positive were also positive by FAST-ELISA. An additional 24 individuals who were negative for F. hepatica eggs and 10 individuals for whom no specimens were received were also positive by FAST-ELISA. Among the 53 individuals negative for F. hepatica eggs, 29 were also negative by FAST-ELISA. The EITB analysis of the sera from confirmed infected individuals revealed at least three F. hepatica (Fh) bands with molecular weights of 12, 17, and 63 kD, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Comparison of a frozen human foreskin fibroblast cell assay to an enzyme immunoassay and toxigenic culture for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile☆☆☆★

    PubMed Central

    Strachan, Alastair J.; Evans, Natalie E.; Williams, O. Martin; Spencer, Robert C.; Greenwood, Rosemary; Probert, Chris J.

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to validate the Hs27 ReadyCell assay (RCCNA) as an alternative CCNA method compared against a commonly used commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method and toxigenic culture (TC) reference standard. A total of 860 samples were identified from those submitted to the Health Protection Agency microbiology laboratories over a 30-week period. RCCNA performed much better than EIA when using TC as a gold standard, with sensitivities of 90.8% versus 78.6% and positive predictive value of 87.3% to 81.9%, respectively. The Hs27 Human Foreskin Fibroblast ReadyCells are an easy-to-use and a sensitive CCNA method for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile directly from stool. A turnaround time of up to 48 h for a negative result and possible need for repeat testing make it an unsuitable method to be used in most clinical laboratory setting. PMID:23107315

  5. Hydrogel nanoparticle based immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Liotta, Lance A; Luchini, Alessandra; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Espina, Virginia

    2015-04-21

    An immunoassay device incorporating porous polymeric capture nanoparticles within either the sample collection vessel or pre-impregnated into a porous substratum within fluid flow path of the analytical device is presented. This incorporation of capture particles within the immunoassay device improves sensitivity while removing the requirement for pre-processing of samples prior to loading the immunoassay device. A preferred embodiment is coreshell bait containing capture nanoparticles which perform three functions in one step, in solution: a) molecular size sieving, b) target analyte sequestration and concentration, and c) protection from degradation. The polymeric matrix of the capture particles may be made of co-polymeric materials having a structural monomer and an affinity monomer, the affinity monomer having properties that attract the analyte to the capture particle. This device is useful for point of care diagnostic assays for biomedical applications and as field deployable assays for environmental, pathogen and chemical or biological threat identification.

  6. Comparison of a Multiplexed Fluorescent Covalent Microsphere Immunoassay and an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Measurement of Human Immunoglobulin G Antibodies to Anthrax Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Biagini, Raymond E.; Sammons, Deborah L.; Smith, Jerome P.; MacKenzie, Barbara A.; Striley, Cynthia A. F.; Semenova, Vera; Steward-Clark, Evelen; Stamey, Karen; Freeman, Alison E.; Quinn, Conrad P.; Snawder, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported an accurate, sensitive, specific, reproducible, and quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) in human serum (C. P. Quinn, V. A. Semenova, C. M. Elie et al., Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:1103-1110, 2002). The ELISA had a minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of 0.06 μg/ml, which, when dilution adjusted, yielded a whole-serum MDC of 3.0 μg of anti-PA IgG per ml. The reliable detection limit (RDL) was 0.09 μg/ml, while the dynamic range was 0.06 to 1.7 μg/ml. The diagnostic sensitivity of the assay was 97.6% and the diagnostic specificity was 94.2% for clinically verified cases of anthrax. A competitive inhibition anti-PA IgG ELISA was also developed to enhance the diagnostic specificity to 100%. We report a newly developed fluorescence covalent microbead immunosorbent assay (FCMIA) for B. anthracis PA which was Luminex xMap technology. The FCMIA MDC was 0.006 μg of anti-PA IgG per ml, the RDL was 0.016 μg/ml, and the whole-serum equivalent MDC was 1.5 μg/ml. The dynamic range was 0.006 to 6.8 μg/ml. Using this system, we analyzed 20 serum samples for anti-PA IgG and compared our results to those measured by ELISA in a double-masked analysis. The two methods had a high positive correlation (r2 = 0.852; P < 0.001). The FCMIA appears to have benefits over the ELISA for the measurement of anti-PA IgG, including greater sensitivity and speed, enhanced dynamic range and reagent stability, the use of smaller sample volumes, and the ability to be multiplexed (measurement of more than one analyte simultaneously), as evidenced by the multiplexed measurement in the present report of anti-PA and anti-lethal factor IgG in serum from a confirmed clinical anthrax infection. PMID:14715544

  7. Detection of the Peanut Allergens Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 in Human Breast Milk: Development of 2 Sensitive and Specific Sandwich ELISA Assays.

    PubMed

    Schocker, Frauke; Scharf, Alexandra; Kull, Skadi; Jappe, Uta

    2017-09-27

    Little is known about breast milk as a vehicle for tolerance development or sensitization to peanuts very early in life. Thus, well-characterized and highly sensitive detection systems for the reliable determination of peanut allergens in breast milk are mandatory. For the quantification of the marker allergens Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 in the low nanogram per milliliter range in breast milk samples of a German cohort, sensitive and highly specific sandwich ELISAs were optimized and validated. The Ara h 2 ELISA revealed a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.3 ng Ara h 2/mL and a quantification range of 2.3-250 ng/mL, the Ara h 6 ELISA showed an LOD of 0.7 ng/mL and a working range of 1.1-14.4 ng/mL. The assays showed no relevant cross-reactivity against other potentially cross-reactive legume, seed, and tree nut extracts (<0.01%, except for Ara h 1 in the Ara h 2 ELISA <0.1%). Ara h 2 was detectable in breast milk samples from 14/40 (35%) of the participants in concentrations from 2.3 to 184 ng/mL, Ara h 6 appeared in 9/40 (22.5%) of the lactating mothers between 1.1 and 9.7 ng/mL, and 1 highly positive sample with 79 ng/mL. Both allergens appeared at the same time points, but Ara h 6 in lower concentrations than Ara h 2. Sensitive and specific diagnostic tools for the determination of Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 in human breast milk were established. The kinetics of secreted Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 seem to be similar but with a difference in concentration. Follow-up investigations on their tolerogenic or sensitizing properties in breast milk become now accessible. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Development of a combined technique using a rapid one-step immunochromatographic assay and indirect competitive ELISA for the rapid detection of baicalin.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Madan Kumar; Putalun, Waraporn; Sritularak, Boonchoo; Morinaga, Osamu; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2011-09-09

    A colloidal gold conjugated anti-baicalin monoclonal antibody (anti-BA MAb) was prepared and used in an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) for BA in Scutellariae Radix and Kampo medicines. This competitive ICA uses an anti-BA MAb which shows a high specificity for BA and baicalein. Its advantages include a short assay time (15 min), no dependence on any instrumental systems, and it can detect BA in plant materials and Kampo medicines. The limit of detection for the ICA was found to be around 0.6 μg mL(-1)of baicalin. Moreover, the usefulness of the combination of indirect competitive ELISA and the ICA using anti-BA MAb as a quality control method was confirmed for analysis of BA in Scutellariae Radix and Kampo medicines with a sufficient sensitivity (200 ng mL(-1) to 2 μg mL(-1)), obtainable in an easy and timely manner.

  9. How-to-do-it: Immunological Assays for the Classroom 1. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A Laboratory Tool for Demonstration of Antibody-Antigen Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, A. J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Background information, list of required materials, and procedures are provided for an immunological assay which has been modified for use as a classroom/laboratory demonstration of antigen-antibody reaction. The assay is designed for a two and one-half hour laboratory period but may be modified for one hour laboratories. (JN)

  10. How-to-do-it: Immunological Assays for the Classroom 1. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A Laboratory Tool for Demonstration of Antibody-Antigen Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, A. J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Background information, list of required materials, and procedures are provided for an immunological assay which has been modified for use as a classroom/laboratory demonstration of antigen-antibody reaction. The assay is designed for a two and one-half hour laboratory period but may be modified for one hour laboratories. (JN)

  11. [The prokaryotic expression and the establishment of the putative indirect ELISA assay for the HA gene for avian influenza virus (AIV) H5N1 subtype].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qi-sheng; Zhang, Xiao-yong; Liu, Hua-lei; Li, Peng; Chen, Pu-yan

    2005-02-01

    Using a pair of specific primers designed according to the relevant nucleotide sequence from GenBank, the HA1 gene of H5N1 subtype AIV was amplified with PCR method. The PCR product was cloned into pET-32a(+) to get a prokaryotic recombinant plasmid pET-HA1. The target gene was successfully expressed in the host cell BL21 (DE3) when induced with IPTG. The expression was optimized with proper inducing conditions of 0.8 mmol/L IPTG and 3 hours induction. The highest expression of the target protein added up to 32.7% of the total bacterial protein. Western blot analysis proved the recombinant protein has good reactive ability against H5N1 subtype AIV positive serum. The optional working circumstances for the iHA-ELISA assay (antigenicity concentration: 4 microg/mL; serum dilution: 1:200) was tried out with chess titration. The positive criterion of this ELISA assay is OD(the tested serum) > 0.5 and OD(the tested serum)/OD(the negative serum) > 2.0.

  12. Development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of neomycin residues in pig muscle, chicken muscle, egg, fish, milk and kidney.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Xu, B; Zhang, Y; He, J X

    2009-05-01

    A colorimetric competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was developed using polyclonal antibody to determine neomycin residues in food of animal origin. No cross-reactivity of the antibody was observed with other aminoglycosides. The limit of detection of the method was 0.1μg/kg. A simple and efficient sample extraction method was established with recoveries of neomycin ranged from 75% to 105%. The detection limits were 5μg/kg(l) in pig muscle, chicken muscle, fish and milk, 10μg/kg in kidney and 20μg/kg in egg, respectively. Chemiluminescence assay was developed for detecting neomycin residues in pig muscle and chicken muscle. The limit of detection of the method was 0.015μg/kg, and the detection limits were 1.5μg/kg in pig muscle and 6μg/kg in chicken muscle. The ELISA tests were validated by HPLC, and the results showed a good correlation (r(2)) which was greater than 0.9.

  13. Comparison of a Flow Assay for Brucellosis Antibodies with the Reference cELISA Test in West African Bos indicus

    PubMed Central

    Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.; Koterwas, Bronwyn; Land, Fiona; Handel, Ian G.; Tucker, James; Morgan, Kenton L.; Tanya, Vincent N.; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2009-01-01

    Brucellosis is considered by the Food and Agricultural Organisation and the World Health Organisation as one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. It is a major veterinary public health challenge as animals are almost exclusively the source of infection for people. It is often undiagnosed in both human patients and the animal sources and it is widely acknowledged that the epidemiology of brucellosis in humans and animals is poorly understood, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. It is therefore important to develop better diagnostic tools in order to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and also for use in the field for disease control and eradication. As with any new diagnostic test, it is essential that it is validated in as many populations as possible in order to characterise its performance and improve the interpretation of its results. This paper describes a comparison between a new lateral flow assasy (LFA) for bovine brucellosis and the widely used cELISA in a no gold standard analysis to estimate test performance in this West African cattle population. A Bayesian formulation of the Hui-Walter latent class model incorporated previous studies' data on sensitivity and specificity of the cELISA. The results indicate that the new LFA is very sensitive (∼87%) and highly specific (∼97%). The analysis also suggests that the current cut-off of the cELSIA may not be optimal for this cattle population but alternative cut-offs did not significantly change the estimates of the LFA. This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of this simple to use test in field based surveillance and control which could be easily adopted for use in developing countries with only basic laboratory facilities. PMID:19381332

  14. Development of an Assay for the Detection of PrPres in Blood and Urine Based on PMCA Assay an ELISA Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    animal models: the hamster infected with the 263K strain of scrapie and the sheep either naturally or experimentally infected with scrapie . Using hamster...prototype assay can be developed using blood from animal models, in our case: hamsters infected with the 263K stain of scrapie and sheep naturally and...experimentally infected with scrapie . In addition to the usual assay diagnostic requirements of reproducibly, reliability and robustness, the TSE blood

  15. Interferences in Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Jill; Ward, Greg

    2004-01-01

    Substances that alter the measurable concentration of the analyte or alter antibody binding can potentially result in immunoassay interference. Interfering, endogenous substances that are natural, polyreactive antibodies or autoantibodies (heterophiles), or human anti-animal antibodies together with other unsuspected binding proteins that are unique to the individual, can interfere with the reaction between analyte and reagent antibodies in immunoassay. Lipaemia, cross-reactivity, and exogenous interferences due to pre-analytical variation, matrix and equipment reaction also affect immunoassay. Interfering substances may lead to falsely elevated or falsely low analyte concentration in one or more assay systems depending on the site of the interference in the reaction and possibly result in discordant results for other analytes. The prevalence of interference is generally low in assays containing blocking agents that neutralise or inhibit the interference but is often higher in new, untested immunoassays. A wide range of analytes measured by immunoassay including hormones, tumour markers, drugs, cardiac troponin and microbial serology may be affected. Interference in immunoassay may lead to the misinterpretation of a patient's results by the laboratory and the wrong course of treatment being given by the physician. Laboratories should put processes in place to detect, test and report suspected interferences. It is equally important that physicians communicate any clinical suspicion of discordance between the clinical and the laboratory data to the laboratory. The detection of interference may require the use of an alternate assay or additional measurements, before and after treatment with additional blocking reagent, or following dilution of the sample in non-immune serum. It is imperative that laboratories inform physicians of the follow-up procedure and report on the presence of any interference. The establishment of on-going laboratory-physician contact is

  16. Enzyme immunoassay for methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Aoki, K; Kuroiwa, Y

    1983-01-01

    A competitive enzyme immunoassay for methamphetamine with alkaline phosphatase labeled methamphetamine, Sepharose-antibody and p-nitrophenylphosphate as substrate was developed. The anti-methamphetamine antisera produced in rabbits by immunization with N-(4-aminobutyl) methamphetamine-BSA conjugate were specific for methamphetamine and showed low cross-reactivities with p-OH methamphetamine and amphetamine (metabolites of methamphetamine). The range of methamphetamine measurable by the enzyme immunoassay was 1 to 300 ng/tube. According to the assay, methamphetamine could be detected from urine and extract of hair.

  17. Use of rapid HIV assays as supplemental tests in specimens with repeatedly reactive screening immunoassay results not confirmed by HIV-1 Western blot.

    PubMed

    Wesolowski, Laura G; Delaney, Kevin P; Meyer, William A; Blatt, Amy J; Bennett, Berry; Chavez, Pollyanna; Granade, Timothy C; Owen, Michele

    2013-09-01

    An alternate HIV testing algorithm has been proposed which includes a fourth-generation immunoassay followed by an HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation supplemental test for reactive specimens and a nucleic acid test (NAT) for specimens with discordant results. To evaluate the performance of five rapid tests (Alere Clearview, Bio-Rad Multispot, OraSure OraQuick, MedMira Reveal, and Trinity Biotech Unigold) as the supplemental antibody assay in the algorithm. A total of 3273 serum and plasma specimens that were third-generation immunoassay repeatedly reactive and Western blot (WB) negative or indeterminate were tested with rapid tests and NAT. Specimens were classified by NAT: (1) HIV-1 infected (NAT-reactive; n=184, 5.6%), (2) HIV-status unknown (NAT nonreactive; n=3078, 94.2%) or by Multispot, (3) HIV-2 positive (n=5), and (4) HIV-1 and HIV-2 positive (n=6). Excluding HIV-2 positive specimens, we calculated the proportion of reactive rapid tests among specimens with reactive and nonreactive NAT. The proportion of infected specimens with reactive rapid test results and negative or indeterminate WB ranged from 30.4% (56) to 47.8% (88) depending on the rapid test. From 1% to 2% of NAT-negative specimens had reactive rapid test results. In these diagnostically challenging specimens, all rapid tests identified infections that were missed by the Western blot, but only Multispot could differentiate HIV-1 from HIV-2. Regardless of which rapid test is used as a supplemental test in the alternative algorithm, false-positive algorithm results (i.e., reactive screening and rapid test in uninfected person) may occur, which will need to be resolved during the baseline medical evaluation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Evaluation of two immunoassay procedures for drug testing in hair samples.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, F; Kirschbaum, K M; Graumann, K; Herzfeld, C; Sachs, H; Madea, B

    2012-02-10

    A preliminary initial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LUCIO-Direct ELISA kit) and a preliminary DRI enzyme immunoassay were evaluated for drug detection in head hair with respect to lowered cutoff values recommended in Germany for the control of abstinence in cases of re-granting of drivers' licences. Following drug classes were included: cannabinoids, opiates, cocaine like substances, amphetamine, methamphetamine (and methylenedioxyamphetamines), methadone, and benzodiazepines. 759 analyses were performed using LUCIO-Direct ELISA kits and 936 analyses using DRI enzyme immunoassay tests. Sample size for each drug group and immunoassay test reached from 74 to 178. The LUCIO-Direct ELISA kit revealed a sensitivity of 91% for amphetamine up to 98% for methadone (methamphetamine 92%, cocaine 94%, opiates 94%, benzodiazepines 96%) and values of specificity of 72% for methadone up to 89% for amphetamine and benzodiazepines. The test was not useful for a preliminary screening for tetrahydrocannabinol (sensitivity of 65%) in consideration of a suggested cutoff of 0.02 ng/mg. The DRI enzyme immunoassay test was only useful for morphine and cocaine testing at low recommended new cutoff values (0.1 ng/mg) revealing sensitivities of 94% and 99%, respectively.

  19. Comparison of nested and ELISA based polymerase chain reaction assays for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women with preterm complications.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, S; Chong, P P; Mokhtarudin, R; Lye, M S; Wan Hassan, W H

    2014-03-01

    Identification of pregnant women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis is essential to allow early antibiotic treatment in order to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. In this study, two nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) namely nested PCR (BioSewoom, Korea) and Amplicor CT/NG (Roche Diagnostic, USA) were evaluated in terms of sensitivity and specificity for the detection of C. trachomatis DNA in pregnant women with preterm complications. A cross-sectional study was carried out in two public hospitals in Southern Selangor, Malaysia. Endocervical swabs obtained were subjected to DNA amplification using nested PCR (BioSewoom, Korea) and Amplicor CT/NG (Roche Diagnostic, USA). A total of 83 endocervical swabs obtained from pregnant women of less than 37 weeks gestation and presented with preterm complications were subjected to chlamydial DNA detection using both assays. The study shows that Amplicor CT/NG assay is more effective in the detection of C. trachomatis DNA from endocervical swabs compared to Biosewoom nested PCR kit. Agreement between the two assays were poor (kappa=0.094) with nested PCR showing a low sensitivity of 10.81% and a 97.83% specificity when compared to Amplicor CT/NG. The results obtained indicated that BioSewoom nested PCR was less sensitive than Amplicor CT/ NG for detecting C. trachomatis in endocervical specimens and that another more reliable test is required for confirmatory result.

  20. An immunoassay-based reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the rapid detection of avian influenza H5N1 virus viremia.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi; Yu, Xu; Chen, Hao; Diao, Youxiang

    2016-12-15

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H5N1 attracts particular consideration because it is a continuous threat to animals and public health systems. The viremia caused by AIV H5N1 infection may increase the risk of blood-borne transmission between humans. Therefore, there is a need to rapidly evaluate and implement screening measures for AIV H5N1 viremia that allows for rapid response to this potentially pandemic threat. The present report describes an immunoassay-based reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (immuno-RT-LAMP) assay for the rapid detection of AIV H5N1 in whole blood samples. Using PCR tubes coated with an H5 subtype monoclonal antibody, AIV H5N1 virions were specifically captured from blood samples. After a thermal lysis step, the released viral N1 gene was exponentially amplified using RT-LAMP on either a real-time PCR instrument for quantitative analysis, or in a water bath system for endpoint analysis. The detection limit of the newly developed immuno-RT-LAMP assay was as low as 1.62×10(1) 50% embryo infectious dose/mL of virus in both regular samples and simulated viremia samples. There were no cross-reactions with non-H5N1 influenza viruses or other avian viruses. The reproducibility of the assay was confirmed using intra- and inter-assay tests with variability ranging from 1.05% to 3.37%. Our results indicate that immuno-RT-LAMP is a novel, effective point-of-care virus identification solution for the rapid diagnosis and monitoring of AIV H5N1 in blood samples.

  1. Detection and serogroup differentiation of Salmonella spp. in food within 30 hours by enrichment-immunoassay with a T6 monoclonal antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, S P; Tsui, C O; Roberts, D; Chau, P Y; Ng, M H

    1996-01-01

    We previously described an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay which makes use of monoclonal antibody T6, which recognizes an epitope on the outer core polysaccharide of Salmonella lipopolysaccharide molecules that is common to almost all Salmonella serovars. In this paper, we show that this assay can detect between 10(5) and 10(7) Salmonella cells per ml even in the presence of excess Escherichia coli. A total of 153 of 154 (99%) serogroup A to E strains and 51 of 78 (71%) serogroup F to 67 strains were reactive as determined by this assay. This corresponds to a detection rate of approximately 98% of all salmonellae known to affect humans. None of the 65 strains of non-Salmonella bacteria tested positive. Taking advantage of the O-factor polysaccharides also present on the antigen captured by the immobilized T6 antibody, we showed that 136 of 154 Salmonella serogroup A to E strains (88%) were correctly differentiated according to their serogroups by use of enzyme conjugates of a panel of O-factor-specific monoclonal antibodies. We evaluated this assay for the detection and serogroup differentiation of salmonellae directly from enrichment cultures of simulated food, eggs, pork, and infant formula milk. All 26 samples which had been contaminated with Salmonella spp. were detected by T6 (100% sensitivity), with only one false-positive result from 101 samples not contaminated by Salmonella spp. (99% specificity). The detection time was substantially reduced to between 17 and 29 h, depending on the enrichment methods used. Since there were no false-negative results, we concluded that this enrichment-immunoassay method can afford rapid screening for Salmonella spp. in food samples. PMID:8779567

  2. Preprogrammed, parallel on-chip immunoassay using system-level capillarity control.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Paczesny, Sophie; Takayama, Shuichi; Kurabayashi, Katsuo

    2013-07-16

    Fully manual use of conventional multiwell plates makes enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based immunoassays highly time-consuming and labor-intensive. Here, we present a capillarity-driven on-chip immunoassay that greatly saves time and labor with an inexpensive setup. Our immunoassay process starts with pipetting multiple solutions into multiwells constructed on a microfluidic device chip. Subsequently, capillarity spontaneously transports multiple sample solutions and common reagent solutions into assigned detection channels on the chip in a purely passive and preprogrammed manner. Our device implements capillarity-driven immunoassays involving four sample and six reagent solutions within 30 min by orchestrating the functions of on-chip passive components. Notably, our immunoassay technique reduces the total number of pipetting processes by ~5 times, as compared to assays on multiwell plates (48 vs 10). This assay technique allows us to quantify the concentrations of C-reactive protein and suppressor of tumorigenicity 2 with a detection limit of 8 and 90 pM, respectively. This device should be useful for sophisticated, parallel biochemical microfluidic processing in point-of-care settings under limited resources.

  3. Preprogrammed, Parallel On-Chip Immunoassay Using System-Level Capillarity Control

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Paczesny, Sophie; Takayama, Shuichi; Kurabayashi, Katsuo

    2014-01-01

    Fully manual use of conventional multiwell plates makes enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based immunoassays highly time-consuming and labor-intensive. Here, we present a capillarity-driven on-chip immunoassay that greatly saves time and labor with an inexpensive setup. Our immunoassay process starts with pipetting multiple solutions into multiwells constructed on a microfluidic device chip. Subsequently, capillarity spontaneously transports multiple sample solutions and common reagent solutions into assigned detection channels on the chip in a purely passive and preprogrammed manner. Our device implements capillarity-driven immunoassays involving four sample and six reagent solutions within 30 min by orchestrating the functions of on-chip passive components. Notably, our immunoassay technique reduces the total number of pipetting processes by ~5 times, as compared to assays on multiwell plates (48 vs 10). This assay technique allows us to quantify the concentrations of C-reactive protein and suppressor of tumorigenicity 2 with a detection limit of 8 and 90 pM, respectively. This device should be useful for sophisticated, parallel biochemical microfluidic processing in point-of-care settings under limited resources. PMID:23789820

  4. Sensitivity of the Quidel Sofia Fluorescent Immunoassay Compared With 2 Nucleic Acid Assays and Viral Culture to Detect Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09.

    PubMed

    Arbefeville, Sophie S; Fickle, Ann R; Ferrieri, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    To confirm a diagnosis of influenza at the point of care, healthcare professionals may rely on rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs). RIDTs have low to moderate sensitivity compared with viral culture or real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). With the resurgence of the influenza A (Flu A; subtype H1N1) pandemic 2009 (pdm09) strain in the years 2013 and 2014, we evaluated the accuracy of the United State Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved Sofia Influenza A+B Fluorescent Immunoassay to detect epidemic Flu A(H1N1)pdm09 in specimens from the upper-respiratory tract. During a 3-month period, we collected 40 specimens that tested positive via PCR and/or culture for Flu A of the H1N1 pdm09 subtype. Of the 40 specimens, 27 tested positive (67.5%) via Sofia assay for Flu A. Of the 13 specimens with a negative result via Sofia testing, 4 had coinfection, as detected by the GenMark Diagnostics eSensor Respiratory Viral Panel. This sensitivity of the RIDT Sofia assay to detect Flu A(H1N1) pdm09 was comparable to previously reported sensitivities ranging from 10% to 75% for older RIDTs.

  5. Bead-based multiplex immuno-assays for cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and other analytes: median fluorescence intensities versus their derived absolute concentration values for statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Breen, Edmond J; Polaskova, Veronika; Khan, Alamgir

    2015-02-01

    Within the scientific literature, analyses of data from bead based multiplex immunoassays are based on either median fluorescence intensities (MFI) or derived absolute concentration values (ACV) but no consideration of which set of data is the most appropriate for analysis has been published. Here we look at the variance of MFI versus their ACV from the expression of 14 analytes in plasma, using 6 commercially available kits, across 177 patients, recorded at two time points and the associated analyte standards. In total 60 micro titre plates were used resulting in 4965 MFI. In doing so we develop a new background subtraction procedure that reduced by 50% the number of out-of-range values observed in our data set. Using a linear mixed-effect model, which normalizes for assay-to-assay variation, MFI produced similar significant differences than that observed using absolute concentration values. We show that subtracting analyte blanks produces 15% negative MFI resulting in uncertainty of the data being analysed. We argue for analysis of protein expression values MFI are generally a better choice than absolute concentration values. It is argued that analyte standards are not required on each plate, or not at all, in multi-plate experiments, but knowledge of the concentration curve and the range of MFI values that fall within the limits of this curve for each analyte is required. The significance of using MFI over concentration values for the life scientist means higher statistical power and lower costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Production of mono- and polyclonal antibodies to Citrus leprosis virus C2 and their application in triple antibody sandwich ELISA and immunocapture RT-PCR diagnostic assays.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Nandlal; Roy, Avijit; Leon, M G; Wei, G; Nakhla, M K; Levy, L; Brlansky, R H

    2017-05-01

    The newly discovered Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type 2 (CiLV-C2) is one of the causal virus of citrus leprosis disease complex; which leads to substantial loss of citrus production in the states of Meta and Casanare of Colombia. Specific and sensitive detection methods are needed to monitor the dissemination of CiLV-C2 in Colombia, and to prevent introduction of CiLV-C2 to other citrus growing countries. Toward this end, putative coat protein gene (CPG) of CiLV-C2 was amplified from CiLV-C2 infected citrus tissues. The CPG was cloned, expressed and purified a recombinant coat protein of ∼31kDa which used to generate monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal antisera. Four monoclonal antibodies and two polyclonal antisera were selected as being specific following Western blotting. The monoclonal antibody MAb E5 and polyclonal antiserum PAb UF715 were selected testing with an extract of CiLV-C2 infected leaves using triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA). In addition, an immunocapture RT-PCR was standardized using MAb E5 for specific and sensitive detection of CiLV-C2. The standardized TAS-ELISA and IC-RT-PCR were able to detect CiLV-C2 in the extracts of symptomatic citrus leprosis tissues up to the dilutions of 1:160 and 1:2580, respectively. Result demonstrated that CiLV-C2 is present in citrus orchards in Meta and Casanare citrus growing areas of Colombia. TAS-ELISA could be used for routine detection of CiLV-C2, epidemiological studies, and for border inspections for quarantine purposes. IC-RT-PCR could be valuable for CiLV-C2 validation and viral genome analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Monoclonal antibodies suitable for incorporation into a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of specific antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona.

    PubMed

    Surujballi, O; Elmgren, C

    2000-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were produced by fusing Sp2/0-Ag14 myeloma cells with spleen cells from BALB/c and ND4 mice that were immunized with killed Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona whole cells. Thirty hybridomas which produced antibodies (of the IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, or IgG3 isotype) that bound to epitopes on the serovar pomona whole cell antigen were identified by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-eight of these 30 mAbs cross-reacted in the indirect ELISA with at least one whole cell antigen prepared from 12 other pathogenic Leptospira serovars, and/or with whole cell antigen from the non-pathogenic Leptospira biflexa serovar patoc. The two serovar pomona-specific mAbs, which were designated M897 and M898, were obtained from the ND4 mouse and were both of the IgG1 isotype. In competitive ELISAs, M897 and M898 were inhibited from binding to the pomona antigen by bovine sera with anti-serovar pomona microscopic agglutination test (MAT) titres ranging from 100 to 6400. No significant inhibition was observed with pomona MAT-negative sera or with sera from animals experimentally infected with serovars canicola, copenhageni, grippotyphosa, hardjo type hardjobovis or sejroe. The epitopes recognized by M897 and M898 were both highly susceptible to sodium meta-periodate oxidation, indicating a carbohydrate composition. Neither of these mAbs reacted in immunoblots with the separated components of the serovar pomona whole cell antigen.

  8. Comparison of automated multiplexed bead-based ANA screening assay with ELISA for detecting five common anti-extractable nuclear antigens and anti-dsDNA in systemic rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoonjung; Park, Yongjung; Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2012-01-18

    A newly developed and totally automated Luminex-based assay, the BioPlex™ 2200 system, is able to detect various autoantibodies simultaneously from a single sample. We compared the BioPlex™ 2200 system with ELISA for the detection of six autoantibodies. A total of 127 serum samples from the patients with systemic rheumatic diseases were collected and assayed with the BioPlex™ 2200 system (Bio-Rad, USA) and conventional ELISA (INOVA Diagnostics, USA) for 5 anti-extractable nuclear antigens. Additionally, relative sensitivity of the BioPlex™ 2200 system for detecting anti-dsDNA was evaluated with 79 specimens from SLE patients, which were positive for anti-dsDNA by ELISA. The concordance rates between ELISA and the BioPlex ranged from 88.1% for anti-RNP to 95.2% for anti-Scl-70, and the kappa coefficients between the results by the two assays were from 0.48 to 0.67. Among the 79 anti-dsDNA positive specimens by ELISA, seventy-eight (98.7%) showed positive results for anti-dsDNA by the BioPlex. The BioPlex™ 2200 system showed comparable results with those by conventional ELISA for detecting autoantibodies, and this automated assay could measure multifarious autoantibodies concurrently in a single sample. It could be effectively used in clinical laboratories for screening autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Results of an International Interlaboratory Trial to Determine Twelve Allergens Using Real-time PCR- and ELISA-based Assays.

    PubMed

    Köppel, René; Rentsch, Jürg; Ruf, Jürg; Eugster, Albert; Graf, Christoph; Felderer, Nora; Pietsch, Klaus; Ilg, Evelyn

    2014-10-01

    To elucidate the capability of laboratories to determine allergen contents, an international interlaboratory trial was conducted using meat products spiked with 12 allergens. The measurement uncertainty was calculated independent of the applied method simulating realistic situations when comparing analysis certificates from different laboratories. The measurement uncertainty was revealed to be in the best cases +/-100%, in the worst cases quantification exhibited a measurement uncertainty of higher than 200% making quantitative analysis impossible. The measurement uncertainty seemed to depend on the analyte and assays used.

  10. Biosensor, ELISA, and frog embryo teratogenesis assay: Xenopus (FETAX) analysis of water associated with frog malformations in Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garber, Eric A. E.; Erb, Judith L.; Downward, James G.; Priuska, Eric M.; Wittliff, James L.; Feng, Wenke; Magner, Joseph; Larsen, Gerald L.

    2001-03-01

    Between 1995 and 1997 over 62% of the counties in Minnesota reported the presence of malformed frogs. While most sites have recently shown a decline in malformed frog populations, one site in northeastern Minnesota with no prior history of containing malformed frogs was recently discovered to contain > 67% malformed Rana pipiens (northern leopard frogs). As part of an effort to study the presence of hormonally active agents in fresh water sources, water samples were collected from lakes in Minnesota containing malformed frogs and analyzed for the presence of hormonally active compounds using a novel evanescent field fluorometric biosensor and the frog embryo teratogenesis assay: Xenopus (FETAX) bioassay. The waveguide based biosensor developed by ThreeFold Sensors (TFS biosensor, Ann Arbor, MI) detects the presence of estrogenic compounds capable of interacting with free human ER-a and by inhibiting binding to an immobilized estrogen. The FETAX bioassay is a developmental assay, which measures teratogenicity, mortality, and inhibition of growth during the first 96 hours of organogenesis and thereby provides a universal screen for endocrine disruptors. TFS biosensor and FETAX screening of the water samples suggest a relationship between estrogenic activity, mineral supplementation, and the occurrence of malformed frogs.

  11. Design, preparation and use of ligated phosphoproteins: a novel approach to study protein phosphatases by dot blot array, ELISA and Western blot assays.

    PubMed

    Sun, Luo; Ghosh, Inca; Barshevsky, Tanya; Kochinyan, Samvel; Xu, Ming-Qun

    2007-07-01

    The study of substrate specificity of protein phosphatases (PPs) is very challenging since it is difficult to prepare a suitable phosphorylated substrate. Phosphoproteins, phosphorylated by a protein kinase, or chemically synthesized phosphopeptides are commonly used substrates for PPs. Both types of these substrates have their advantages and limitations. Phosphoproteins mimic more closely the physiologically relevant PP substrates, but their preparation is technically demanding. Synthetic phosphopeptides present advantages over proteins because they can be easily produced in large quantity and their amino acid sequence can be designed to contain potential determinants of substrate specificity. However, short peptides are less optimal compared to in vivo PP substrates and often display poor and variable binding to different matrices, resulting in low sensitivity in analysis of PP activity on solid support. In this work we utilize the intein-mediated protein ligation (IPL) technique to generate substrates for PPs, combining the advantages of proteins and synthetic peptides in one molecule. The ligation of a synthetic phosphopeptide to an intein-generated carrier protein (CP) with a one-to-one stoichiometry results in the formation of a ligated phosphoprotein (LPP). Three widely used assays, dot blot array, Western blot and ELISA were employed to study the PP activity on LPP substrates. Dephosphorylation was measured by detection of the remaining phosphorylation, or lack of it, with a phospho-specific antibody. The data show the advantage of LPPs over free peptides in assays on solid supports. LPPs exhibited enhanced binding to the matrices used in the study, which significantly improved sensitivity and consistency of the assays. In addition, saturation of the signal was circumvented by serial dilution of the assay samples. This report describes detailed experimental procedures for preparation of LPP substrates and their use in PP assays based on immobilization on

  12. Undergraduate Laboratory Module for Implementing ELISA on the High Performance Microfluidic Platform.

    PubMed

    Giri, Basant; Peesara, Ravichander R; Yanagisawa, Naoki; Dutta, Debashis

    Implementing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in microchannels offers several advantages over its traditional microtiter plate-based format, including a reduced sample volume requirement, shorter incubation period, and greater sensitivity. Moreover, microfluidic ELISA platforms are inexpensive to fabricate and allow integration of analytical procedures, such as sample preconcentration, that further enhance the performance of the immunoassay. In view of the scientific potential of microfluidic ELISAs, inclusion of this technique into an undergraduate curriculum is valuable in preparing the next generation of scientists and engineers. Here, an experimental module is presented for this immunoassay method that can be completed in an undergraduate laboratory setting within two 3-h periods (including all incubation and data analyses procedures) using only a microliter of sample and reagents per assay. In addition to acquainting students with the microfluidic technology, the reported module provides training in quantitating ELISAs using the kinetic format of the assay. Furthermore, it offers a useful educational tool for introducing undergraduates to basic image analysis techniques, as well as signal-to-noise ratio and limit of detection calculations that are valuable in characterizing any analytical method.

  13. Undergraduate Laboratory Module for Implementing ELISA on the High Performance Microfluidic Platform

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Basant; Peesara, Ravichander R.; Yanagisawa, Naoki; Dutta, Debashis

    2015-01-01

    Implementing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in microchannels offers several advantages over its traditional microtiter plate-based format, including a reduced sample volume requirement, shorter incubation period, and greater sensitivity. Moreover, microfluidic ELISA platforms are inexpensive to fabricate and allow integration of analytical procedures, such as sample preconcentration, that further enhance the performance of the immunoassay. In view of the scientific potential of microfluidic ELISAs, inclusion of this technique into an undergraduate curriculum is valuable in preparing the next generation of scientists and engineers. Here, an experimental module is presented for this immunoassay method that can be completed in an undergraduate laboratory setting within two 3-h periods (including all incubation and data analyses procedures) using only a microliter of sample and reagents per assay. In addition to acquainting students with the microfluidic technology, the reported module provides training in quantitating ELISAs using the kinetic format of the assay. Furthermore, it offers a useful educational tool for introducing undergraduates to basic image analysis techniques, as well as signal-to-noise ratio and limit of detection calculations that are valuable in characterizing any analytical method. PMID:26052160

  14. Development of an Assay for the Detection of PrPres in Blood and Urine Based on PMCA Assay and ELISA Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    plasma from hamsters infected with the 263K strain of scrapie . The assay has shown high sensitivity and specificity and good reproducibility. In this...long term, “limiting dilution” titration of untreated, whole urine from scrapie infected hamsters, we have now conclusively shown that urine from...the 263K stain of scrapie . Great efforts have been directed towards the development of a pre- mortem preclinical diagnostic test using blood as the

  15. Comparison of immunocytochemical estrogen receptor assay, estrogen receptor enzyme immunoassay, and radioligand-labeled estrogen receptor assay in human breast cancer and uterine tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Heubner, A.; Beck, T.; Grill, H.J.; Pollow, K.

    1986-08-01

    Determination of estrogen receptor content in 82 breast cancer specimens with immunocytochemical estrogen receptor assay (ER-EIA) (Abbott) was compared with our routinely used binding assay using /sup 125/I-estradiol as radioligand with Scatchard plot analysis of the binding data. Although the estrogen receptor content measured with the ER-EIA was approximately 2-fold higher compared with the binding assay, the immunochemical method proved to be a useful alternative for estrogen receptor determination. Furthermore, it is possible to detect estrogen receptors in FPLC Superose 12 (size exclusion column) eluates or in the fractions obtained after sucrose density centrifugation using the ER-EIA. Forty breast cancer samples were analyzed utilizing the immunocytochemical technique (ER-ICA) for visualization of the estrogen receptor content in frozen tumor tissues in relationship to the quantitative results obtained with the ER-EIA assay. Specific staining for estrogen receptor was confined only to the cell nucleus, was distributed irregularly among the tumor cells, and was variable in intensity. The staining intensity and the percentage of positively stained cells increased with increasing level of cytosolic estrogen receptor. In 27 of 40 cases the immunocytochemical results correlated well with the ER-EIA assay. Nine cases were ER-ICA negative with positive ER-EIA, and four were ER-ICA positive with negative ER-EIA.

  16. Dual Electrophoresis Detection System for Rapid and Sensitive Immunoassays with Nanoparticle Signal Amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fangfang; Ma, Junjie; Watanabe, Junji; Tang, Jinlong; Liu, Huiyu; Shen, Heyun

    2017-02-15

    An electrophoretic technique was combined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system to achieve a rapid and sensitive immunoassay. A cellulose acetate filter modified with polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) was used as a solid substrate for three-dimensional antigen-antibody reactions. A dual electrophoresis process was used to induce directional migration and local condensation of antigens and antibodies at the solid substrate, avoiding the long diffusion times associated with antigen-antibody reactions in conventional ELISAs. The electrophoretic forces drove two steps in the ELISA process, namely the adsorption of antigen, and secondary antibody-labelled polystyrene nanoparticles (NP-Ab). The total time needed for dual electrophoresis-driven detection was just 4 min, nearly 2 h faster than a conventional ELISA system. Moreover, the rapid NP-Ab electrophoresis system simultaneously achieved amplification of the specific signal and a reduction in noise, leading to a more sensitive NP-Ab immunoassay with a limit of detection (LOD) of 130 fM, and wide range of detectable concentrations from 0.13 to 130 pM. These results suggest that the combination of dual electrophoresis detection and NP-Ab signal amplification has great potential for future immunoassay systems.

  17. Dual Electrophoresis Detection System for Rapid and Sensitive Immunoassays with Nanoparticle Signal Amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fangfang; Ma, Junjie; Watanabe, Junji; Tang, Jinlong; Liu, Huiyu; Shen, Heyun

    2017-02-01

    An electrophoretic technique was combined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system to achieve a rapid and sensitive immunoassay. A cellulose acetate filter modified with polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) was used as a solid substrate for three-dimensional antigen-antibody reactions. A dual electrophoresis process was used to induce directional migration and local condensation of antigens and antibodies at the solid substrate, avoiding the long diffusion times associated with antigen-antibody reactions in conventional ELISAs. The electrophoretic forces drove two steps in the ELISA process, namely the adsorption of antigen, and secondary antibody-labelled polystyrene nanoparticles (NP-Ab). The total time needed for dual electrophoresis-driven detection was just 4 min, nearly 2 h faster than a conventional ELISA system. Moreover, the rapid NP-Ab electrophoresis system simultaneously achieved amplification of the specific signal and a reduction in noise, leading to a more sensitive NP-Ab immunoassay with a limit of detection (LOD) of 130 fM, and wide range of detectable concentrations from 0.13 to 130 pM. These results suggest that the combination of dual electrophoresis detection and NP-Ab signal amplification has great potential for future immunoassay systems.

  18. Dual Electrophoresis Detection System for Rapid and Sensitive Immunoassays with Nanoparticle Signal Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fangfang; Ma, Junjie; Watanabe, Junji; Tang, Jinlong; Liu, Huiyu; Shen, Heyun

    2017-01-01

    An electrophoretic technique was combined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system to achieve a rapid and sensitive immunoassay. A cellulose acetate filter modified with polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) was used as a solid substrate for three-dimensional antigen-antibody reactions. A dual electrophoresis process was used to induce directional migration and local condensation of antigens and antibodies at the solid substrate, avoiding the long diffusion times associated with antigen-antibody reactions in conventional ELISAs. The electrophoretic forces drove two steps in the ELISA process, namely the adsorption of antigen, and secondary antibody-labelled polystyrene nanoparticles (NP-Ab). The total time needed for dual electrophoresis-driven detection was just 4 min, nearly 2 h faster than a conventional ELISA system. Moreover, the rapid NP-Ab electrophoresis system simultaneously achieved amplification of the specific signal and a reduction in noise, leading to a more sensitive NP-Ab immunoassay with a limit of detection (LOD) of 130 fM, and wide range of detectable concentrations from 0.13 to 130 pM. These results suggest that the combination of dual electrophoresis detection and NP-Ab signal amplification has great potential for future immunoassay systems. PMID:28198385

  19. Carbon Nanotubes with Enhanced Chemiluminescence Immunoassay for CCD-Based Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B in Food

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Minghui; Kostov, Yordan; Bruck, Hugh A.; Rasooly, Avraham

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) detection can significantly enhance the sensitivity of immunoassays but often requires expensive and complex detectors. The need for these detectors limits broader use of ECL in immunoassay applications. To make ECL more practical for immunoassays, we utilize a simple cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) detector combined with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for primary antibody immobilization to develop a simple and portable point-of-care immunosensor. This combination of ECL, CNT, and CCD detector technologies is used to improve the detection of Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) in food. Anti-SEB primary antibodies were immobilized onto the CNT surface, and the antibody–nanotube mixture was immobilized onto a polycarbonate surface. SEB was then detected by an ELISA assay on the CNT–polycarbonate surface with an ECL assay. SEB in buffer, soy milk, apple juice, and meat baby food was assayed with a LOD of 0.01 ng/mL using our CCD detector, a level similar to the detection limit obtained with a fluorometric detector when using the CNTs. This level is far more sensitive than the conventional ELISA, which has a LOD of ~1 ng/mL. Our simple, versatile, and inexpensive point-of-care immunosensor combined with the CNT-ECL immunoassay method described in this work can also be used to simplify and increase sensitivity for many other types of diagnostics and detection assays. PMID:18855418

  20. Feasibility of a simple microsieve-based immunoassay platform.

    PubMed

    Zweitzig, Daniel R; Tibbe, Arjan G; Nguyen, Ai T; van Rijn, Cees J M; Kopnitsky, Mark J; Cichonski, Kathleen; Terstappen, Leon W M M

    2016-10-01

    The intrinsic properties of silicon microsieves, such as an optically flat surface, high overall porosity, and low flow resistance have led to an increasing number of biotechnology applications. In this report, the feasibility of creating a microsieve-based immunoassay platform was explored. Microsieves containing 5μm pores were coupled with poly-acrylic acid chains, and then mounted into a plastic holder to enable rapid reagent exchanges via a wicking mechanism. The mounted microsieves were coated with infectious disease-related antigens at [2.5 and 25μg/mL], [20 and 50μg/mL], and [20 and 100μg/mL] to facilitate detection of serum-derived human antibodies against Rubella (3-day measles), B. burgdorferi (Lyme disease), or T. pallidum (syphilis), respectively. The prototype microsieve-based immunoassay platform was able to distinguish positive control sera containing antibodies against Rubella, T. pallidum, and B. burgdorferi from negative control sera with similar qualitative results as FDA-approved ELISA tests. Testing of a WHO IgG syphilitic standard at 0.3, 0.15, 0.075, 0.0375, and 0.01875IU/mL demonstrated that the T. pallidum microsieve assay is able to distinguish disease-specific IgG signal from background signal at similar, and possibly lower, levels than the corresponding ELISA. The T. pallidum microsieve assay prototype also differentiated positive clinical serum samples from negative donor samples, and the results were in good agreement with ELISA (R(2)=0.9046). These feasibility studies demonstrate the potential for utilizing microsieves, along with a reagent wicking device, as a simple diagnostic immunoassay platform.

  1. Immunoassay based water quality analysis: A new tool for drinking water supply management

    SciTech Connect

    Kostyshyn, C.R.; Brown, W.; Hervey, E.; Hull, C.

    1996-11-01

    The recent availability of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests for the analysis of organic environmental contaminants provides drinking water utility managers and operators with a new tool for managing treatment operations and monitoring source watersheds. Immunoassay technology permits rapid, inexpensive and accurate in-plant testing of many SDWA regulated organic contaminants at concentrations well below established MCL`s. Analytical testing which would not be practicable due to the high cost or long turnaround time limitations of conventional testing methods is now being performed using immunoassay based analysis. Water quality data generated using immunoassay based methods are being utilized by drinking water utilities as an integral part of source watershed management programs, process operations optimization efforts, pro-active raw and finished water testing programs, and flood and incident response management.

  2. A simple device for multiplex ELISA made from melt-extruded plastic microcapillary film.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Alexander D; Reis, Nuno M; Slater, Nigel K H; Mackley, Malcolm R

    2011-12-21

    We present a simple device for multiplex quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISA) made from a novel melt-extruded microcapillary film (MCF) containing a parallel array of 200 μm capillaries along its length. To make ELISA devices different protein antigens or antibodies were immobilised inside individual microcapillaries within long reels of MCF extruded from fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP). Short pieces of coated film were cut and interfaced with a pipette, allowing sequential uptake of samples and detection solutions into all capillaries from a reagent well. As well as being simple to produce, these FEP MCF devices have excellent light transmittance allowing direct optical interrogation of the capillaries for simple signal quantification. Proof of concept experiments demonstrate both quantitative and multiplex assays in FEP MCF devices using a standard direct ELISA procedure and read using a flatbed scanner. This new multiplex immunoassay platform should find applications ranging from lab detection to point-of-care and field diagnostics.

  3. Matrix effect and cross-reactivity of select amphetamine-type substances, designer analogues, and putrefactive amines using the Bio-Quant direct ELISA presumptive assays for amphetamine and methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Apollonio, Luigino G; Whittall, Ian R; Pianca, Dennis J; Kyd, Jennelle M; Maher, William A

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Bio-Quant Direct ELISA assays for amphetamine and methamphetamine in the routine presumptive screening of biological fluids. Standard concentration curves of the target analytes were assayed to assess sensitivity, and known concentrations of common amphetamine-type substances (ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, phentermine), designer analogues (MDA, MDMA, MDEA, MBDB, PMA, 4-MTA, 2CB), and putrefactive amines (phenylethylamine, putrescine, tryptamine, tyramine) were analyzed to determine cross-reactivity. Results of the standard curve studies show the capacity of both Direct ELISA kits to confidently detect down to 3 ng/mL interday (PBS matrix; CVs 6.3-15.5%). Cross-reactivity relative to that of 50 ng/mL preparations of the target compounds demonstrated that the Direct ELISA kit for amphetamine also detected MDA (282%), PMA (265%), 4-MTA (280%), and phentermine (61%), and the Direct ELISA for methamphetamine also assayed positive for MDMA (73%), MDEA (18%), pseudoephedrine (19%), MBDB (8%), and ephedrine (9%). Matrix studies demonstrated that both ELISA kits could be applied to screening of blood, urine, and saliva to a concentration of 6 ng/mL or lower. In conclusion, the Bio-Quant Direct ELISA kits for amphetamine and methamphetamine are fast and accurate and have demonstrated themselves to be useful tools in routine toxicological testing.

  4. Development of a Microsphere-Based Serologic Multiplexed Fluorescent Immunoassay and a Reverse Transcriptase PCR Assay To Detect Murine Norovirus 1 Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Charlie C.; Wobus, Christiane E.; Steffen, Earl K.; Riley, Lela K.; Livingston, Robert S.

    2005-01-01

    Murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) is a newly recognized pathogen of mice that causes lethal infection in mice deficient in components of the innate immune response but not in wild-type 129 mice. In this study, in vitro-propagated MNV-1 was used as antigen to develop a multiplexed fluorescent immunoassay (MFI) to detect antibodies to MNV-1 in infected mice. The MNV-1 MFI was 100% specific and 100% sensitive in detecting anti-MNV-1 antibody in sera from experimentally infected mice. Testing of a large number of mouse serum samples (n = 12,639) submitted from contemporary laboratory mouse colonies in the United States and Canada revealed that 22.1% of these sera contained antibodies to MNV-1, indicating infection with MNV-1 is widespread in research mice. In addition, a reverse transcriptase PCR primer pair with a sensitivity of 25 virus copies was developed and used to demonstrate that MNV-1 RNA could be detected in the spleen, mesenteric lymph node, and jejunum from some experimentally infected mice 5 weeks postinoculation. These diagnostic assays provide the necessary tools to define the MNV-1 infection status of research mice and to aid in the establishment of laboratory mouse colonies free of MNV-1 infection. PMID:16210475

  5. Potential cross-reactivity of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nucleocapsid (N)-based IgG ELISA assay for plasma samples from HIV-1 positive intravenous drug users (IDUs).

    PubMed

    Yasmon, Andi; Ibrahim, Fera; Bela, Budiman; Sjahrurachman, Agus

    2012-07-01

    to evaluate the specificity of the SARS-CoV N protein-based IgG ELISA assay for detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in plasma samples obtained from HIV-1 positive and HIV-1 negative intravenous drug users (IDUs). the SARS-CoV N gene was cloned into pQE-80L vector, and the constructs were transformed into Escherichia coli BL21. The 6x His-tagged N protein was expressed by inducing the bacterial cells with isopropyl-1-thio-D-galactopyranoside (IPTG) and purified by Ni-NTA affinity resin. The 6x His-tagged N protein was used as antigen for ELISA assay and evaluated for the serum samples from patients with SARS positive and the plasma samples from the HIV-1 positive and negative IDUs. all sera samples from patients with SARS positive were the ELISA positive (100% sensitivity). The ELISA assay yielded no positive results of the total 61 HIV-1 negative IDU samples (100% specificity) and two positive results of the total 68 HIV-1 positive IDU samples (97.06% specificity). the specificity of the SARS-CoV N protein-based IgG ELISA assay for the detection of the SARS-CoV N specific IgG in plasma samples from IDUs with HIV-1 positive is, therefore, questionable.

  6. Correlation between Clostridium difficile bacterial load, commercial real-time PCR cycle thresholds, and results of diagnostic tests based on enzyme immunoassay and cell culture cytotoxicity assay.

    PubMed

    Dionne, Léa-Laurence; Raymond, Frédéric; Corbeil, Jacques; Longtin, Jean; Gervais, Philippe; Longtin, Yves

    2013-11-01

    The impact of Clostridium difficile fecal loads on diagnostic test results is poorly understood, but it may have clinical importance. In this study, we investigated the relationship between C. difficile fecal load and the results of four assays: a glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzyme immunoassay (EIA), a toxin A/B antigen EIA (ToxAB), a cell culture cytotoxicity assay (CCA), and PCR targeting the tcdB gene. We also compared the PCR cycle threshold (CT) with the results of quantitative culture using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Finally, we sequenced the genomes of 24 strains with different detection profiles. A total of 203 clinical samples harboring toxigenic C. difficile were analyzed and sorted into one of four groups: 17 PCR(+) (group 1), 37 PCR(+) GDH(+) (group 2), 24 PCR(+) GDH(+) CCA(+) (group 3), and 125 PCR(+) GDH(+) ToxAB(+) (group 4). The overall median fecal load in log10 CFU/g was 6.67 (interquartile range [IQR], 5.57 to 7.54). The median fecal bacterial load of groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 4.15 (IQR, 3.00 to 4.98), 5.74 (IQR, 4.75 to 6.16), 6.20 (IQR, 5.23 to 6.80), and 7.08 (IQR, 6.35 to 7.83), respectively. Group 1 samples had lower fecal loads than those from each of the other groups (P < 0.001). Group 2 samples had lower fecal loads than those from groups 3 and 4 (P < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between PCR CT and fecal loads (ρ = -0.697; P < 0.001). NAP1 strains were associated with the detection of toxins by EIA or CCA (P = 0.041). This study demonstrates an association between C. difficile fecal load and the results of routinely used diagnostic tests.

  7. Technical and clinical evaluation of the VITROS® Immunodiagnostic Products 25-OH Vitamin D Total Assay--comparison with marketed automated immunoassays and a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Cavalier, Etienne; Rousselle, Olivier; Ferrante, Nunzio; Carlisi, Agnes; Le Goff, Caroline; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2013-10-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the technical and clinical performance of the VITROS® Immunodiagnostic Products 25-OH Vitamin D Total Assay, and compare it with the performance of five marketed automated assays and a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry reference method (LC-MS/MS). Three hundred patient serum samples were used to compare the correlation of the VITROS® 25-OH Vitamin D Total Assay with both the other immunoassays and the LC-MS/MS method, using Passing-Bablok regression and Bland-Altman analyses. Concordance of the diagnosis of vitamin D status was calculated to test the agreement between the different assays. In addition, samples containing vitamin D2 were used to test the assay's ability to detect the D2 form of the vitamin. These results from the VITROS® 25-OH Vitamin D Total Assay generally correlated well with those from most of the marketed immunoassays. Cross-reactivity of the D2 form was calculated as being close to 100%. Additionally, we found substantial variability in performance amongst the various assays, which suggests the need for optimisation and recalibration of commercial methods.

  8. Clinical comparison of the Treponema pallidum CAPTIA syphilis-G enzyme immunoassay with the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption immunoglobulin G assay for syphilis testing.

    PubMed

    Halling, V W; Jones, M F; Bestrom, J E; Wold, A D; Rosenblatt, J E; Smith, T F; Cockerill, F R

    1999-10-01

    Recently, a treponema-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme immunoassay (EIA), the CAPTIA Syphilis-G (Trinity Biotech, Jamestown, N.Y.), has become available as a diagnostic test for syphilis. A total of 89 stored sera previously tested by the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) IgG assay were evaluated by the CAPTIA EIA. The FTA-ABS IgG procedure was performed by technologists unblinded to results of rapid plasmid reagin (RPR) testing of the same specimens. Borderline CAPTIA-positive samples (antibody indices of >/=0.650 and 0.900, the sample was considered positive. Thirteen of 89 (15%) samples had discrepant results. Compared to the FTA-ABS assay, the CAPTIA EIA had a sensitivity and specificity and positive and negative predictive values of 70.7, 97.9, 96.7, and 79.7%, respectively. In another analysis, discrepancies between results were resolved by repeated FTA-ABS testing (technologists were blinded to previous RPR results) and patient chart reviews. Seven CAPTIA-negative samples which were previously interpreted (unblinded) as minimally reactive by the FTA method were subsequently interpreted (blinded) as nonreactive. One other discrepant sample (CAPTIA negative and FTA-ABS positive [at an intensity of 3+], unblinded) was FTA negative with repeated testing (blinded). For the five remaining discrepant samples, chart reviews indicated that one patient (CAPTIA negative and FTA-ABS positive [minimally reactive], blinded) had possible syphilis. These five samples were also evaluated and found to be negative by another treponema-specific test, the Treponema pallidum microhemagglutination assay. Therefore, after repeated testing and chart reviews, 2 of the 89 (2%) samples had discrepant results; the adjusted sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 96.7, 98.3, 96.7, and 98.3%, respectively. This study demonstrates that the CAPTIA IgG EIA is a

  9. Immunochemical determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole as the responsible agent for the musty odor in foods. 2. Immunoassay evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sanvicens, Nuria; Varela, Begoña; Marco, M Pilar

    2003-07-02

    Immunoassays for 2,4,6-trichloroanisol (TCA) have been evaluated. The assays were developed after raising antibodies against three different immunizing haptens (1). Lack of reproducibility has been one of the main problems of these assays. Precision was worse on these assays, reaching lower limits of detection. The high lipophilicity of TCA and its, consequently, low water solubility have been found to be the major cause of this problem. A reliable microplate-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been set after consideration of the TCA physicochemical features and evaluation of important parameters affecting immunoassay performance. The immunoassay uses As78 (developed against hapten B-KLH) and C9-OVA as the coating antigen. The selectivity is high although the brominated analogue 2,4,6-TBA is also recognized. In buffered media containing 7% ethanol, the resulting assay shows a good accuracy with an IC(50) value of 0.53 microgram L(-)(1) and a limit of detection of 0.044 microgram L(-)(1). Red and white wine samples caused important interferences in the immunoassay demonstrating the necessity of a cleanup procedure prior to the ELISA.

  10. ImmunoCard STAT! cartridge antigen detection assay compared to microplate enzyme immunoassay and modified Kinyoun's acid-fast staining technique for detection of Cryptosporidium in fecal specimens.

    PubMed

    El-Moamly, Amal Abdul-Rasheed; El-Sweify, Mohamed Aly

    2012-02-01

    Cryptosporidium species infect humans and a wide range of animals worldwide; outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have been reported in several countries. Routine diagnostic methods may be insufficient to demonstrate the presence of these organisms. The study assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the antigen detection immuno-cartridge test, ImmunoCard STAT! (Meridian Bioscience Inc., Cincinnati, OH, USA), compared to the combined gold standard: modified Kinyoun's acid-fast technique confirmed with the microplate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of Cryptosporidium in fecal specimens. Three hundred fifteen formalin-fixed stool specimens were submitted for testing. The Kinyoun's acid-fast-stained smear revealed 24 positive samples for Cryptosporidium (of which 23 specimens were confirmed by the EIA) and 291 negative samples (of which 289 were negative by EIA). Agreement between the three used tests was shown in 22 positive and 288 negative samples for Cryptosporidium. Kappa score of agreement between the immuno-cartridge test and EIA was 0.957, p = 0.000. The sensitivity of the immuno-cartridge test was 96% (95% confidence interval (CI), 87% to 104%) and the total accuracy of the test was 97% (95% CI, 93-103). The ImmunoCard STAT! Cryptosporidium cartridge assay is easy to use and does not require specialized training or equipment and is useful in routine diagnosis and screening for Cryptosporidium especially where rapid, point of care testing is needed or where other reliable tests are unfeasible with a performance comparable to the EIA and acid-fast technique.

  11. Leishmania infantum mimotopes and a phage-ELISA assay as tools for a sensitive and specific serodiagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Salles, Beatriz C S; Costa, Lourena E; Alves, Patrícia T; Dias, Ana C S; Vaz, Emília R; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Ramos, Fernanda F; Duarte, Mariana C; Roatt, Bruno M; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Tavares, Carlos A P; Gonçalves, Denise U; Rocha, Regina L; Goulart, Luiz R; Coelho, Eduardo A F

    2017-03-01

    Serological methods used to diagnose visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are considered minimally invasive, but they present problems related with their sensitivity and/or specificity. In this study, a subtractive selection using the phage display technology against antibodies from healthy subjects living in endemic and non-endemic areas of disease, as well as from Chagas disease patients and those developing active VL, was developed. The aim of this study was to select bacteriophage-fused epitopes to be used in the serodiagnosis of human VL. Eight phage clones were selected after the bio-panning rounds, and their reactivity was evaluated in a phage-ELISA assay against a human serological panel. A wild-type clone and the recombinant K39-based immunochromatographic test were used as controls. In the results, it was shown that all clones showed an excellent performance to serologically identify VL patients, demonstrating the feasibility of the isolated phages for developing a specific and sensitive serodiagnosis of human VL.

  12. Novel signal-enhancing immunoassay for ultrasensitive biomarker detection based on laser-induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Kunping; Wei, Yin; Wang, Xu; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-03-03

    An innovative signal-enhancing immunoassay for ultrasensitive biomarker detection based on laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) has been developed. A novel LIF optical system with high collection efficiency was constructed by using a parabolic mirror. Carboxyl-functionalized magnetic beads were used to immobilize antibody for achieving a conventional sandwich assay. Fluorescence from Rhodamine 6G (R6G)-labeled antibody was collected by the newly designed optical system. To reduce photobleaching of R6G under laser irradiation, ethanol instead of commonly used aqueous solution was used as assay buffer in the last stage. The newly developed LIF immunoassay displayed excellent analytical performance for α-fetoprotein (AFP) detection in the concentration range from 0.005 to 1.0 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.0016 ng/mL. The detection limit obtained in this work is about 3 orders of magnitude better than that of conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, the proposed method exhibited excellent precision, acceptable stability, and good reproducibility. Furthermore, the proposed immunoassay was successfully applied to AFP determination in real serum specimens. Therefore, the present immunoassay was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for ultrasensitive biomarker detection.

  13. Sensitive, fast, and specific immunoassays for methyltestosterone detection.

    PubMed

    Kong, Na; Song, Shanshan; Peng, Juan; Liu, Liqiang; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai

    2015-04-29

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) and an immunochromatographic strip assay using a highly specific monoclonal antibody, were developed to detect methyltestosterone (MT) residues in animal feed. The optimized icELISA had a half-inhibition concentration value of 0.26 ng/mL and a limit of detection value of 0.045 ng/mL. There was no cross-reactivity with eight analogues, revealing high specificity for MT. Based on icELISA results, the recovery rate of MT in animal feed was 82.4%-100.6%. The results were in accordance with those obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The developed immunochromatographic strip assay, as the first report for MT detection, had a visual cut-off value of 1 ng/mL in PBS, 2.5 ng/g in fish feed, and 2.5 ng/g in pig feed. Therefore, these immunoassays are useful and fast tools for MT residue detection in animal feed.

  14. Sensitive, Fast, and Specific Immunoassays for Methyltestosterone Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Na; Song, Shanshan; Peng, Juan; Liu, Liqiang; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai

    2015-01-01

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) and an immunochromatographic strip assay using a highly specific monoclonal antibody, were developed to detect methyltestosterone (MT) residues in animal feed. The optimized icELISA had a half-inhibition concentration value of 0.26 ng/mL and a limit of detection value of 0.045 ng/mL. There was no cross-reactivity with eight analogues, revealing high specificity for MT. Based on icELISA results, the recovery rate of MT in animal feed was 82.4%–100.6%. The results were in accordance with those obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The developed immunochromatographic strip assay, as the first report for MT detection, had a visual cut-off value of 1 ng/mL in PBS, 2.5 ng/g in fish feed, and 2.5 ng/g in pig feed. Therefore, these immunoassays are useful and fast tools for MT residue detection in animal feed. PMID:25938198

  15. Development of NanoLuc bridging immunoassay for detection of anti-drug antibodies.

    PubMed

    Nath, Nidhi; Flemming, Rod; Godat, Becky; Urh, Marjeta

    2017-11-01

    Anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) are generated in-vivo as an immune response to therapeutic antibody drugs and can significantly affect the efficacy and safety of the drugs. Hence, detection of ADAs is recommended by regulatory agencies during drug development process. A widely accepted method for measuring ADAs is "bridging" immunoassay and is frequently performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or electrochemiluminescence (ECL) platform developed by Meso Scale Discovery (MSD). ELISA is preferable due to widely available reagents and instruments and broad familiarity with the technology; however, MSD platform has gained wide acceptability due to a simpler workflow, higher sensitivity, and a broad dynamic range but requires proprietary reagents and instruments. We describe the development of a new bridging immunoassay where a small (19kDa) but ultra-bright NanoLuc luciferase enzyme is used as an antibody label and signal is luminescence. The method combines the convenience of ELISA format with assay performance similar to that of the MSD platform. Advantages of the NanoLuc bridging immunoassay are highlighted by using Trastuzumab and Cetuximab as model drugs and developing assays for detection of anti-Trastuzumab antibodies (ATA) and anti-Cetuximab antibodies (ACA). During development of the assay several aspects of the method were optimized including: (a) two different approaches for labeling drugs with NanoLuc; (b) sensitivity and dynamic range; and (c) compatibility with the acid dissociation step for improved drug tolerance. Assays showed high sensitivity of at least 1.0ng/mL, dynamic range of greater than four log orders, and drug tolerance of >500. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A microfluidic multiplex proteomic immunoassay device for translational research.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jing; Seegmiller, Jesse; Hanson, Naomi Q; Zaun, Christopher; Li, Danni

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic technology has the potential to miniaturize and automate complex laboratory procedures. The objective of this study was to assess a microfluidic immunoassay device, Simple Plex, which simultaneously measured IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 in serum samples. This assessment is important to understanding the potentials of this microfluidic device as a valuable tool in translational research efforts. We studied the operational characteristics of Simple Plex, and compared to other immunoassay systems including bead-based (i.e., Bio-Plex(®) from Bio-Rad) and planar micro-spot based (i.e., Multi-Array from Meso Scale Discovery) multiplex assays. We determined imprecisions for each of the Simple Plex assays and evaluated the ability of Simple Plex to detect IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 in serum samples. Simple Plex assays required 25 µL serum, and 1.5 h to run 16 samples per cartridge per instrument. Assay imprecisions, evaluated by measurement of 6 replicates in duplicate from a serum pool using three different cartridges, were less than 10 % for all 4 cytokine protein biomarkers, comparable to the imprecisions of traditional ELISAs. The Simple Plex assays were able to detect 32, 95, 97, and 100 % [i.e., percentages of the results within the respective analytical measurement ranges (AMRs)] of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10, respectively, in 66 serum samples. Simple Plex is a microfluidic multiplex immunoassay device that offers miniaturized, and automated analysis of protein biomarkers. Microfluidic devices such as Simple Plex represent a promising platform to be used in translational research to measure protein biomarkers in real clinical samples.

  17. [Skin sensitization of 3, 4-bis (4'-aminofurazano-3') furoxan in mice evaluated by BrdU-ELISA local lymph node assay].

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Gao, J H; Liu, Z Y; Yue, H; Gao, Y C; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z Z; Zhou, Y S

    2016-08-20

    Objective: To investigate skin sensitization of 3, 4-bis (4'-aminofurazano-3') furoxan (DATF) in mice using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BrdU-ELISA) . Methods: A total of 30 specific pathogen-free BALB/C mice were randomly divided into high-, medium-, and low-dose DATF groups, positive control group, and solvent control group, with six mice in each group. The mice in the high-, medium-, and low-dose DATF groups were treated with 50%, 25%, and 10% (0.5, 0.25, and 0.10 g/ml) DATF solution, those in the positive control group were treated with 1% 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzol (DNCB) , and those in the solvent control group were treated with acetone/olive oil (4∶1) . After treatment, retroauricular lymph nodes were collected and cell suspension was prepared. ELISA was used to measure the level of cell proliferation after the addition of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) , and the BrdU labeling index (LI) and test substance concentration at a stimulation index (SI) of 1.6 (EC1.6) were calculated. Results: There were no significant differences in auricular thickness between groups (P>0.05) , and DAFT did not have skin irritation. Compared with the solvent control group, the high-dose DATF group and the positive control group showed significant increases in the weight of lymph nodes (P<0.05) . Compared with the solvent control group, all the other groups showed significant increases in BrdU LI (P<0.01) . The low-, medium-, and high-dose DATF groups had SIs of 6.1, 8.8, and 12.1, respectively, and the EC1.6 of DATF was 2.2%, which suggested that DATF had strong sensitization. Conclusion: DATF has strong skin sensitization in mice, with reference to the guideline of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development Item No. 442B (OECD TG 442B) .

  18. Evaluation of automated immunoassays for 25(OH)-vitamin D determination in different critical populations before and after standardization of the assays.

    PubMed

    Cavalier, Etienne; Lukas, Pierre; Crine, Yannick; Peeters, Stéphanie; Carlisi, Agnès; Le Goff, Caroline; Gadisseur, Romy; Delanaye, Pierre; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2014-04-20

    Standardization of immunoassays for 25(OH)-vitamin D determination is a major problem in clinical practice. A worldwide standardization program has started to address this and will reduce the bias observed between immunoassays. We aimed to calibrate 5 immunoassays on a LC-MS/MS traceable to the SRM 2972 and the ID-LC-MS/MS 25(OH)D Reference Method Procedure to see if the re-standardization would be efficient in a population of 3rd trimester pregnant women (PW), hemodialysis (HD) and osteoporosis (OP) patient. 184 serum samples (25(OH)D: 8.4-87 ng/ml) were selected to calibrate the immunoassays (Abbott-Architect, Roche-Elecsys, DiaSorin-Liaison, Siemens-Centaur and IDS-iSYS). Chromsystems MassChrom method was used as the referenced. Serum obtained in 34 PW, 25 HD and 34 OP patients were used as comparatives. After adjusting to LC-MS/MS, immunoassays had regression slopes nearly identical to 1.0 with intercepts <0.5 ng/ml. However, in special populations, a systematic bias was still observed, except for iSYS. Re-standardization of 25(OH)D immunoassay will globally improve the differences. However, patients with a different serum matrix will still present significantly different results when they will be run with different methods. For those patients, the LC-MS/MS method seems to be the method of choice, even if some immunoassays are less influenced than others. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative analysis of plasma interleiukin-6 by immunoassay on microchip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Hashimoto, Y.; Yatsushiro, S.; Yamamura, S.; Tanaka, M.; Ooie, T.; Baba, Y.; Kataoka, M.

    2012-03-01

    Sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) is one of the most frequently employed assays for clinical diagnosis, since this enables the investigator to identify specific protein biomarkers. However, the conventional assay using a 96-well microtitration plate is time- and sample-consuming, and therefore is not suitable for rapid diagnosis. To overcome these drawbacks, we performed a sandwich ELISA on a microchip. We employed the piezoelectric inkjet printing for deposition and fixation of 1st antibody on the microchannnel surface (300 μm width and 100 μm depth). Model analyte was interleukin-6 (IL-6) which was one of the inflammatory cytokine. After blocking the microchannel, antigen, biotin-labeled 2nd antibody, and avidin-labeled peroxidase were infused into the microchannel and incubated for 20 min, 10 min, and 5 min, respectively. This assay could detect 2 pg/ml and quantitatively measure the range of 0-32 pg/ml. Liner regression analysis of plasma IL-6 concentration obtained by microchip and conventional methods exhibited a significant relationship (R2 = 0.9964). This assay reduced the time for the antigen-antibody reaction to 1/6, and the consumption of samples and reagents to 1/50 compared with the conventional method. This assay enables us to determine plasma IL-6 with accuracy, high sensitivity, time saving ability, and low consumption of sample and reagents, and thus will be applicable to clinic diagnosis.

  20. Development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for glutathione S-transferase (GST-S) protein in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus and its application for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Jae-Sung; Kim, Bo-Mi; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee; Park, Gyung Soo; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2013-11-01

    To utilize the GST-S protein as a useful biomarker for environmental contamination, we developed a polyclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus. Two polyclonal antibodies, TJ-GST-S1 and TJ-GST-S2, were raised against two TJ-GST-S synthetic peptides. Also a recombinant TJ-GST-S protein was purified as a standard for ELISA development. Each polyclonal antibody was tested by Western blot analysis and indirect ELISA. Of two polyclonal antibodies, TJ-GST-S2 ELISA was further employed due to its wide range of detection and the limit of specificity compared to those of TJ-GST-S1 ELISA system. After exposure to 4 metals (Ag, As, Cd, and Cu) to T. japonicus, the amount of TJ-GST-S protein was significantly elevated in a concentration-dependent manner. Also, TJ-GST-S protein was upregulated at relative high concentrations of B[α]P, PCB, and TBT. In this paper, we suggest that T. japonicas ELISA for TJ-GST-S2 is useful as a potential indicator system for marine contaminants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Occurrence and Distribution of Pesticides in the St. Lucie River Watershed, South-Central Florida, 2000-01, Based on Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Screening

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lietz, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    The St. Lucie River watershed is a valuable estuarine ecosystem and resource in south-central Florida. The watershed has undergone extensive changes over the last century because of anthropogenic activities. These activities have resulted in a complex urban and agricultural drainage network that facilitates the transport of contaminants, including pesticides, to the primary canals and then to the estuary. Historical data indicate that aquatic life criteria for selected pesticides have been exceeded. To address this concern, a reconnaissance was conducted to assess the occurrence and distribution of selected pesticides within the St. Lucie River watershed. Numerous water samples were collected from 37 sites among various land-use categories (urban/built-up, citrus, cropland/pastureland, and inte-grated). Samples were collected at inflow points to primary canals (C-23, C-24, and C-44) and at control structures along these canals from October 2000 to September 2001. Samples were screened for four pesticide classes (triazines, chloroacetanilides, chlorophenoxy compounds, and organophosphates) by using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) screening. A temporal distribution of pesticides within the watershed was made based on samples collected at the integrated sites during different rainfall events between October 2000 and September 2001. Triazines were detected in 32 percent of the samples collected at the integrated sites. Chloroacetanilides were detected in 60 percent of the samples collected at the integrated sites, with most detections occurring at one site. Chlorophenoxy compounds were detected in 17 percent of the samples collected at the integrated sites. Organophosphates were detected in only one sample. A spatial distribution and range of concentration of pesticides at the 37 sampling sites in the watershed were determined among land-use categories. Triazine concentrations ranged from highest to lowest in the citrus, urban/built-up, and integrated areas

  2. Comparison of the performance of the LIAISON VZV-IgG and VIDAS automated enzyme linked fluorescent immunoassays with reference to a VZV-IgG time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay and implications of choice of cut-off for LIAISON assay.

    PubMed

    Maple, P A C; Rathod, P; Smit, E; Gray, J; Brown, D; Boxall, E H

    2009-01-01

    Determination of Varicella Zoster virus (VZV) immune status in pregnant women without history of chickenpox is important in identifying those who genuinely need VZV immune globulin prophylaxis following significant exposure to chickenpox or shingles. Immune status testing requires highly sensitive and specific immunoassays for timely and accurate results. To compare the performance of DiaSorin LIAISON and Biomerieux VIDAS VZV-IgG assays with reference to a VZV-IgG time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA). A panel of sera collected from 65 pregnant contacts of VZV and 62 individuals tested for VZV immunity was tested in all three assays. Dose-response curves were generated using International Standards W1044 and 90/690. Sensitivity and specificity of VIDAS compared to VZV-TRFIA was 54.5% and 97.9% respectively and for LIAISON compared to VZV-TRFIA was 67% and 100% respectively. Both assays correlated well with TRFIA with R2 correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.76 respectively. Dose-response curves showed both Standards behaved in a similar manner in each assay. For VIDAS, the test cut-off value of 0.9 correlated with 275-280mIU/ml and for LIAISON a cut-off value of 150mIU/ml correlated with 208-219mIU/ml. By dose-response data and in comparison with TRFIA, LIAISON is more sensitive and specific than VIDAS.

  3. ELEGANT ENVIRONMENTAL IMMUNOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunochemical methods are based on selective antibodies directed to a particular target analyte. The specific binding between antibody and analyte can be used for detection and quantitation. Methods such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can provide a sensitiv...

  4. ELEGANT ENVIRONMENTAL IMMUNOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunochemical methods are based on selective antibodies directed to a particular target analyte. The specific binding between antibody and analyte can be used for detection and quantitation. Methods such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can provide a sensitiv...

  5. Determination of thiabendazole in fruit juices by a new monoclonal enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Abad, A; Manclús, J J; Moreno, M J; Montoya, A

    2001-01-01

    A competitive, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for thiabendazole has been developed and applied to the analysis of fruit juices spiked with this fungicide. The immunoassay is based on a new monoclonal antibody derived from a hapten functionalized at the nitrogen atom in the 1-position of the thiabendazole structure. To our knowledge, such a structure has not been previously used to obtain antibodies to thiabendazole. The I50 value and the detection limit of the ELISA for standards were 0.2 and 0.05 ng/mL, respectively. Fruit juices were analyzed by diluting samples in assay buffer, without extraction or cleanup. Samples were not even centrifuged or filtered to remove fruit pulp. Under these conditions, the immunoassay was able to accurately determine thiabendazole down to 1 ng/mL in orange and grapefruit juices, down to 5 ng/mL in banana juice, and down to 20 ng/mL in apple and pear juices. Sensitivity differences of the ELISA were caused by the minimum dilution required by each juice to minimize matrix effects: 1/10 for orange and grapefruit juices, 1/50 for banana juice, and 1/100 for apple and pear juices. In an attempt to further increase the sensitivity of the immunoassay for matrixes showing the strongest interferences, apple and pear juices spiked with thiabendazole at low levels (1-20 ng/mL) were extracted with ethyl acetate before analysis. This simple procedure entailed a significant reduction of matrix effects, which in fact allowed us to determine accurately as low as 5 ng/mL thiabendazole in apple and pear juices. Irrespective of whether samples were analyzed by the direct dilution method or after extraction, the simplicity, sensitivity, and sample throughput of this monoclonal immunoassay makes it a very convenient method for the routine monitoring of thiabendazole residues in fruit juices.

  6. Evaluation of a new nanoparticle-based lateral-flow immunoassay for the exclusion of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT).

    PubMed

    Sachs, Ulrich J; von Hesberg, Jakob; Santoso, Sentot; Bein, Gregor; Bakchoul, Tamam

    2011-12-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an adverse complication of heparin caused by HIT antibodies (abs) that recognise platelet factor 4-heparin (PF4/hep) complexes. Several laboratory tests are available for the confirmation and/or refutation of HIT. A reliable and rapid single-sample test is still pending. It was the objective of this study to evaluate a new lateral-flow immunoassay based on nanoparticle technology. A cohort of 452 surgical and medical patients suspected of having HIT was evaluated. All samples were tested in two IgG-specific ELISAs, in a particle gel immunoassay (PaGIA) and in a newly developed lateral-flow immunoassay (LFI-HIT) as well as in a functional test (HIPA). Clinical pre-test probability was determined using 4T's score. Platelet-activating antibodies were present in 34/452 patients, all of whom had intermediate to high clinical probability. PF4/hep abs were detected in 79, 87, 86, and 63 sera using the four different immunoassays. The negative predictive values (NPV) were 100% for both ELISA tests and LFI-HIT but only 99.2% for PaGIA. There were less false positives (n=29) in the LFI-HIT compared to any other test. Additionally, significantly less time was required to perform LFI-HIT than to perform the other immunoassays. In conclusion, a newly developed lateral-flow assay, LFI-HIT, was capable of identifying all HIT patients in a cohort in a short period of time. Beside an NPV of 100%, the rate of false-positive signals is significantly lower with LFI-HIT than with other immunoassay(s). These performance characteristics suggest a high potency in reducing the risk and costs in patients suspected of having HIT.

  7. Validation of a multiplex electrochemiluminescent immunoassay platform in human and mouse samples

    PubMed Central

    Bastarache, J.A.; Koyama, T.; Wickersham, N.E; Ware, L.B.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of multiplex immunoassays, there are very few scientific reports that test the accuracy and reliability of a platform prior to publication of experimental data. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated the need for new assay platform validation prior to use of biologic samples from large studies in order to optimize sample handling and assay performance. In this study, our goal was to test the accuracy and reproducibility of an electrochemiluminescent multiplex immunoassay platform (Meso Scale Discovery, MSD®) and compare this platform to validated, singleplex immunoassays (R&D Systems®) using actual study subject (human plasma and mouse bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma) samples. We found that the MSD platform performed well on intra- and inter-assay comparisons, spike and recovery and cross-platform comparisons. The mean intra-assay CV% and range for MSD was 3.49 (0.0-10.4) for IL-6 and 2.04 (0.1-7.9) for IL-8. The correlation between values for identical samples measured on both MSD and R&D was R=0.97 for both analytes. The mouse MSD assay had a broader range of CV% with means ranging from 9.5-28.5 depending on the analyte. The range of mean CV% was similar for single plex ELISAs at 4.3-23.7 depending on the analyte. Regardless of species or sample type, CV% was more variable at lower protein concentrations. In conclusion, we validated a multiplex electrochemiluminscent assay system and found that it has superior test characteristics in human plasma compared to mouse BALF and plasma. Both human and MSD assays compared favorably to well-validated singleplex ELISA's PMID:24768796

  8. Differentiation of Classical Swine Fever Virus Infection from CP7_E2alf Marker Vaccination by a Multiplex Microsphere Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hongyan; Harimoorthy, Rajiv; Vijayaraghavan, Balaje; Blome, Sandra; Widén, Frederik; Beer, Martin; Belák, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious viral disease of pigs that has a tremendous socioeconomic impact. Vaccines are available for disease control. However, most industrialized countries are implementing stamping-out strategies to eliminate the disease and avoid trade restrictions. These restrictions can be avoided through the use of marker vaccines such as CP7_E2alf. Marker vaccines have to be accompanied by reliable and robust discriminatory assays. In this context, a multiplex microsphere immunoassay for serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) was developed to distinguish CSF virus (CSFV)-infected animals from CP7_E2alf-vaccinated animals. To this end, three viral proteins, namely, CSFV E2, CSFV Erns, and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) E2, were produced in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system; they were used as antigens in a microsphere immunoassay, which was further evaluated by testing a large panel of pig sera and compared to a well-characterized commercial CSFV E2 antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and a test version of an improved CSFV Erns antibody ELISA. Under a cutoff median fluorescence intensity value of 5,522, the multiplex microsphere immunoassay had a sensitivity of 98.5% and a specificity of 98.9% for the detection of antibodies against CSFV E2. The microsphere immunoassay and the CSFV Erns ELISA gave the same results for 155 out of 187 samples (82.8%) for the presence of CSFV Erns antibodies. This novel multiplex immunoassay is a valuable tool for measuring and differentiating immune responses to vaccination and/or infection in animals. PMID:25378351

  9. From Interface to Solution: Integrating Immunoassay with Netlike Rolling Circle Amplification for Ultrasensitive Detection of Tumor Biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chang; Bo, Bing; Mao, Xiaoxia; Shi, Hai; Zhu, Xiaoli; Li, Genxi

    2017-01-01

    Both the 3D solution and the 2D interface play important roles in bioanalysis. For the former, reactions can be carried out adequately; while for the latter, interfering substance can be eliminated simply through wash. It is a challenge to integrate the advantages of solution-based assays and the interface-based assays. Here, we report an immuno-NRCA (netlike rolling circle amplification) strategy, which integrates immunoassay with NRCA for the ultrasensitive detection of tumor biomarker, by taking the assay of a tumour marker as an example. In this strategy, immunoreactions occur on interface, while the target-induced signal amplification can be completed totally in solution. As a result, this system has the merits of both solution- and interface-based assays. The whole procedure of this novel strategy is similar to the conventional ELISA, inheriting the usability. But in comparison with ELISA, the performance is greatly improved. The detection limit can be lowered to 5.5 fg/L, making it possible to detect the target tumour marker in one drop of blood. Also, in comparison with established immuno-PCR method, which integrates immunoassay with the commonly used nucleic acid amplification approach, this system has no requirement for thermal cycler owing to the isothermal amplification, and it has the ability to retain the immunoreactivities. So, the new immunoassay method proposed in this study may have more feasible applications in the future. PMID:28042314

  10. ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone radiofrequency radiation

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Seyyed Mohammad Javad; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Hamid Reza; Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad; Mostafavi, Nayyer Sadat; Mahmoudi, Golshan; Berenjkoub, Nafiseh; Akmali, Zahra; Hossein-Beigi, Fahimeh; Arsang, Vajiheh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The increasing number of mobile phones can physically cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) in medical environments; can also cause errors in immunoassays in laboratories. The ELISA readers are widely used as a useful diagnostic tool for Enzymun colorimetric assay in medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the ELISA reader could be interfered by the exposure to the 900 MHz cell phones in the laboratory. Materials and Methods: Human serum samples were collected from 14 healthy donors (9 women and 5 men) and each sample was divided into four aliquots and was placed into four batches for the in-vitro quantitative determination of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). During colorimetric reading of the first, second, and third batches, the ELISA reader (Stat Fax 2100, Awareness Technology, Inc., USA) was exposed to 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 W exposure of 900 MHz radiation, respectively. For the forth batch (control group), no radiation was applied. All experiments were performed comparing ELISA read out results of the I, II, and III batches with the control batch, using the Wilcoxon test with criterion level of P = 0.050. Results: The final scores in the exposed batches I, II, and III were not statistically significant relative to the control batch (P > 0.05). The results showed that 900 MHz radiation exposure did not alter the ELISA measured levels of hCG hormone in I (P = 0.219), II (P = 0.909), and III (P = 0.056) batches compared to the control batch. Conclusion: This study showed that ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone RF radiation at a closed contact (less than 5 cm distance). However, we recommend that medical institutions discuss these issues in the context of their specific use of technologies and frame a policy that is clear and straightforward to guide staff, patients, and visitors. PMID:27376040

  11. ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone radiofrequency radiation.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Seyyed Mohammad Javad; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Hamid Reza; Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad; Mostafavi, Nayyer Sadat; Mahmoudi, Golshan; Berenjkoub, Nafiseh; Akmali, Zahra; Hossein-Beigi, Fahimeh; Arsang, Vajiheh

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of mobile phones can physically cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) in medical environments; can also cause errors in immunoassays in laboratories. The ELISA readers are widely used as a useful diagnostic tool for Enzymun colorimetric assay in medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the ELISA reader could be interfered by the exposure to the 900 MHz cell phones in the laboratory. Human serum samples were collected from 14 healthy donors (9 women and 5 men) and each sample was divided into four aliquots and was placed into four batches for the in-vitro quantitative determination of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). During colorimetric reading of the first, second, and third batches, the ELISA reader (Stat Fax 2100, Awareness Technology, Inc., USA) was exposed to 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 W exposure of 900 MHz radiation, respectively. For the forth batch (control group), no radiation was applied. All experiments were performed comparing ELISA read out results of the I, II, and III batches with the control batch, using the Wilcoxon test with criterion level of P = 0.050. The final scores in the exposed batches I, II, and III were not statistically significant relative to the control batch (P > 0.05). The results showed that 900 MHz radiation exposure did not alter the ELISA measured levels of hCG hormone in I (P = 0.219), II (P = 0.909), and III (P = 0.056) batches compared to the control batch. This study showed that ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone RF radiation at a closed contact (less than 5 cm distance). However, we recommend that medical institutions discuss these issues in the context of their specific use of technologies and frame a policy that is clear and straightforward to guide staff, patients, and visitors.

  12. Risk factors for herds to test positive for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis-antibodies with a commercial milk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in Ontario and western Canada.

    PubMed

    Sorge, Ulrike S; Lissemore, Kerry; Godkin, Ann; Jansen, Jocelyn; Hendrick, Steven; Wells, Scott; Kelton, David F

    2012-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify risk factors associated with i) a Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-antibody milk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAP milk ELISA)-positive herd status, and ii) the within-herd MAP milk ELISA-positive prevalence in Canadian dairy herds. This prospective cohort study was conducted between 2005 and 2009 on 226 herds in Ontario and western Canada, which participated in a voluntary risk assessment (RA)-based Johne's disease control program. Two MAP milk ELISA and risk assessments and a previsit survey were available per herd. The overall farm RA scores alone could not be used to predict whether a herd would test positive for MAP antibodies. However, the results of this study indicated that increasing the likelihood of exposing calves to MAP through certain management practices, as assessed with the RA, increased the likelihood of a herd being test-positive for MAP antibodies.

  13. Magnetic affinity enzyme-linked immunoassay for diagnosis of Schistosomiasis japonicum in persons with low-intensity infection.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qin; Yang, Hai; Feng, Youmei; Zhu, Yanhong; Yang, Xiangliang

    2012-10-01

    Most schistosome-endemic areas in China are characterized by low-intensity infections that are independent of prevalence. To establish an effective diagnostic method, we developed a magnetic affinity enzyme-linked immunoassay based on soluble egg antigens (SEA-MEIA) for diagnosing schistosomiasis in persons with low-intensity infection with Schistosoma japonicum by comparing it with a conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results showed that the SEA-MEIA had a higher sensitivity and greater precision in the diagnosis of low-intensity S. japonicum infections than the ELISA. In addition, when we used Pearson's correlation in associating SEA-MEIA with ELISA, a significant correlation existed between the two assays (r = 0.845, P < 0.001). Our data indicated that SEA-MEIA, with a higher sensitivity and greater ease of performance, would be valuable for diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonicum in persons with low-intensity infections.

  14. The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, D.E.

    1995-06-01

    With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbant assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were reported as capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detecting soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition, these antibodies were highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies reported an extension of the level of sensitivity to -80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These antibodies offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances.

  15. A Competitive Bio-Barcode Amplification Immunoassay for Small Molecules Based on Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Du, Pengfei; Jin, Maojun; Chen, Ge; Zhang, Chan; Jiang, Zejun; Zhang, Yanxin; Zou, Pan; She, Yongxin; Jin, Fen; Shao, Hua; Wang, Shanshan; Zheng, Lufei; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    A novel detection method of small molecules, competitive bio-barcode amplification immunoassay, was developed and described in this report. Through the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) probe and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) probe we prepared, only one monoclonal antibody can be used to detect small molecules. The competitive bio-barcode amplification immunoassay overcomes the obstacle that the bio-barcode assay cannot be used in small molecular detection, as two antibodies are unable to combine to one small molecule due to its small molecular structure. The small molecular compounds, triazophos, were selected as targets for the competitive bio-barcode amplification immunoassay. The linear range of detection was from 0.04 ng mL−1 to 10 ng mL−1, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.02 ng mL−1, which was 10–20 folds lower than ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay). A practical application of the proposed immunoassay was evaluated by detecting triazophos in real samples. The recovery rate ranged from 72.5% to 110.5%, and the RSD was less than 20%. These results were validated by GC-MS, which indicated that this convenient and sensitive method has great potential for small molecular in real samples. PMID:27924952

  16. Development and application of dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent (dot-ELISA) assay for detection of Brucella melitensis and evaluation of the shedding pattern in infected goats.

    PubMed

    Onilude, Opeyemi Mayowa; Mohd Yusoff, Sabri; Emikpe, Benjamin Obukowho; Tanko, Polycarp; Shahrom, Salisi M; Effendy, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of Brucella melitensis is essential for the treatment and control of brucellosis both in animals and humans. The thrust for the development of a rapid diagnostic technique to overcome the limitations of conventional microbiological and serological tests brought about this investigation on the development and application of dot-ELISA for antigen and antibody detection in infected goats. Fifteen apparently healthy Boer aged 2-3 years which tested negative for brucellosis using PCR and ELISA, were grouped into A (10 goats infected intraocularly with 10(7) CFU of B. melitensis) and B (5 goats) as control. Discharges (ocular, nasal, and vaginal) and blood were collected at days 3, 7, 10, 14, weekly until 42 post-infection (pi) for dot-ELISA, PCR, and RBPT. Dot-ELISA detected B. melitensis antigen and antibody in group A at day 3 and 7 pi, respectively with adequate sensitivity and specificity relative to PCR and RBPT. The bacteria shedding detected from discharges at day 3 pi in the nasal and ocular route with dot-ELISA. Group B were consistently negative. Values such as speed, simplicity, field adaptability, high sensitivity, and specificity make dot-ELISA a rapid and adequate technique for diagnosis of brucellosis in B. melitensis infected goats within few hours.

  17. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for the detection of botulinum neurotoxins A, B, E, and F in selected food matrices.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay; Datta, Shomik; Sachdeva, Amita; Maslanka, Susan; Dykes, Janet; Skinner, Guy; Burr, Donald; Whiting, Richard C; Sharma, Shashi K

    2015-01-01

    The mouse bioassay (MBA) is the only accepted standard method for detection of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) in foods. The ELISA method has several advantages over the MBA and is therefore widely used for in vitro detection of BoNTs. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted a precollaborative study to evaluate the applicability of Botulinum Toxin ELISA kits for the detection of BoNT serotypes A, B, E, and F in a variety of food matrices. In this study, food samples (e.g., broccoli, salami, smoked salmon, green beans, orange juice, tomato juice, low-fat plain yogurt, whole milk, liquid infant formula milk, and liquid eggs) were spiked with high, medium, and low concentration BoNT serotypes A, B, E, and F. Samples (unspiked and spiked) were tested at both laboratories by the ELISA kits. All food samples were positive for BoNTs by ELISA in both laboratories at medium and high spiking levels; a positive ELISA result in low spiked samples was both serotype and laboratory dependent. Overall, the ELISA method appears to be an effective preliminary screening method for BoNT detection in food matrices.

  18. Protein immunoassay methods for detection of biotech crops: applications, limitations, and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Stave, James W

    2002-01-01

    Immunoassay methods are available for detection and quantitation of proteins expressed by most biotechnology-derived crops in commercial production. The 2 most common test formats are enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunochromatographic (lateral flow) strip tests. Two ELISA methods, one for Roundup Ready soybeans and one for MON810 CrylAb corn, were the subject of large international collaborative studies and were demonstrated to quantitatively determine the concentrations of biotech crops in samples of ground grain. Quantitative ELISA methods are also useful for analysis of processed fractions of agricultural commodities such as soybean toasted meal or corn flour. Both strip tests and ELISAs for biotech crops are currently being used on a large scale in the United States to manage the sale and distribution of grain. In these applications, tests are used to determine if the concentration of biotech grain is above or below specified threshold limits. Using existing U.S. Department of Agriculture sampling techniques, the reliability of the threshold determination is expressed in terms of statistical confidence rather than analytical precision. Combining the use of protein immunoassays with Identity Preservation systems provides an effective means of characterizing the raw and processed agricultural inputs to the food production system in a way that allows food producers to comply with labeling laws.

  19. Is a Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA)-based assay a valid tool for detecting risky malaria blood donations in Africa?

    PubMed

    Atchade, Pascal S; Doderer-Lang, Cécile; Chabi, Nicodème; Perrotey, Sylvie; Abdelrahman, Tamer; Akpovi, Casimir D; Anani, Ludovic; Bigot, André; Sanni, Ambaliou; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2013-08-08

    Malaria is a leading cause of mortality in southern Benin. The main causative agent, Plasmodium falciparum, poses a threat on critical transfusions in pregnant women and children. This study's objective was to compare the performance of different malaria screening methods in blood donors in southern Benin, a malaria-endemic country. Blood from 2,515 voluntary blood donors in Benin was collected over a period of 10 months in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) tubes, which were then classified according to extraction time: long rainy season, short dry season, short rainy season, and long dry season. Microscopic examination was used to count parasites. Parasite density (PD) was expressed as the number of parasites per μL of blood. Pan Plasmodium pLDH detection was assessed by an ELISA-malaria antigen test. Using crude soluble P. falciparum antigens, an ELISA-malaria antibody test detected anti-Plasmodium antibodies. Among the 2,515 blood donors (2,025 males and 488 females) screened, the rate of asymptomatic Plasmodium carriage was 295/2,515 (11.72%, 95% CI: 10.5-13.1%). Males had a higher infection rate (12.4%) than did females (8.8%). Parasite density was very low: between seven and100 parasites per μL of blood was reported in 80% of donors with parasitaemia. Three Plasmodium species were diagnosed: P. falciparum in 280/295 patients (95.0%), Plasmodium malariae in 14/295 (5.0%), and Plasmodium ovale in 1/295 (0.34%). Malaria prevalence in donors was higher during the rainy seasons (13.7%) compared with the dry seasons (9.9%). The use of a highly sensitive assay enabled pan Plasmodium pLDH detection in 966/2,515 (38.4%, 95% CI: 36.5%-40.3%). Malaria antibody prevalence was 1,859/2,515 (73.9%, 95% CI: 72.16-75.6%). Donors' antigenaemia and antibody levels varied significantly (P <0.05) over the course of the four seasons. The highest antigenaemia rate 323/630 (51.3%), was observed during the short rainy season, while the highest antibody prevalence, 751/886 (84

  20. Development of a highly sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of phenylethanolamine A in tissue and feed samples and confirmed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Cao, Biyun; He, Guangzhao; Yang, Hong; Chang, Huafang; Li, Shuqun; Deng, Anping

    2013-10-15

    Phenylethanolamine A (PA) is a new emerged β-adrenergic agonist illegally used as feed additives for growth promotion. In this study, a highly sensitive and specific indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of PA in tissue and feed samples was developed and confirmed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). By reduction of nitryl group to amino group, the PA derivative was synthesized and coupled to carrier proteins with diazobenzidine method. The antisera obtained from four immunized rabbits were characterized in terms of sensitivity and specificity. All antisera displayed high sensitivity with IC50 values lower than 0.48 ng mL(-1). The most sensitive ELISA was established with IC50 and limit of detection (LOD) values of 0.049 ng mL(-1) and 0.003 ng mL(-1), respectively. The cross-reactivity (CR) values of the antisera with three frequently used β-adrenergic agonists (clenbuterol, salbutamol and ractopamine) were lesser than 0.39%; there was no CR of the antisera with other six compounds including two structurally related substances (isoproterenol, phenylephrine). To investigate the accuracy and precision of the assay, swine kidney, liver, meat and feed samples were fortified with PA at different content and analyzed by ELISA. Acceptable recovery rates of 92.2-113.7% and intra-assay coefficients of variation of 3.8-10.9% (n=3) were achieved. Seven spiked samples were simultaneously analyzed by ELISA and LC-MS/MS. There was a high correlation coefficient of 0.9956 (n=7) between the two methods. The proposed ELISA proven to be a feasible quantitative/screening method for PA analysis in tissue and feed samples with the properties of high sensitivity and specificity, high sample throughput and low expensive.

  1. State of the art of aldosterone immunoassays. A multicenter collaborative study on the behalf of the Cardiovascular Biomarkers Study Group of the Italian Section of European Society of Ligand Assay (ELAS) and Società Italiana di Biochimica Clinica (SIBIOC).

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Antonio; Prontera, Concetta; Masotti, Silvia; Franzini, Maria; Marchetti, Cristina; Giovannini, Stefania; Zucchelli, Gian Carlo; Emdin, Michele; Passino, Claudio; Clerico, Aldo

    2015-04-15

    Two new immunoassay methods for aldosterone assay using automated platforms recently became available into market. The main aim of the present study is to evaluate the analytical performance of these automated direct immunoassay methods, and also to compare their analytical characteristics to those of the most popular RIA and EIA methods used in an Italian External Quality Assessment (EQA) study. In this study analytical performances of two aldosterone immunoassays using the IDS iSYS and DiaSorin LIAISON fully automated platforms, were evaluated. Results obtained with the two platforms in EDTA plasma samples of healthy subjects and patients were compared with those obtained by RIA and EIA methods used in the Italian EQA scheme, named Immunocheck study. The two automated methods showed similar analytical performances: LoD 83.9 vs 92.2 pmol/L, LoQ 104.4 vs 111.1 pmol/L, respectively; moreover, the within-run and total imprecision values showed CV% between 8.1 and 14.1 for samples with 180.8 and 387.2 pmol/L concentration for both methods. There was a close linear regression between methods, however we found a significant proportional bias between LIAISON and iSYS methods. The EQA samples results obtained with these two methods were highly correlated to the consensus mean values. Our data indicate that aldosterone values measured with the two automated methods actually show better reproducibility, shorter laboratory Turn Around Time (TAT) and require less "hands on labor" compared to RIA and EIA immunoassays. However, in our study significant bias was observed in result comparison, this means that translating aldosterone concentration in clinical information an appropriate definition of reference ranges for each method is mandatory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of the Antimicrobial Triclosan in Environmental Samples by Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ki Chang; Ranganathan, Anupama; Bever, Candace S.; Hwang, Sung Hee; Holland, Erika B.; Morisseau, Kevin; Pessah, Isaac N.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Gee, Shirley J.

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive, competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of the antimicrobial triclosan (TCS; 2,4,4’-trichloro-2’-hydroxydiphenyl ether) was developed. Novel immunizing haptens were synthesized by derivatizing at the 4-Cl position of the TCS molecule. Compounds derived from substitutions at 4’-Cl and that replaced the 2’–OH with a –Cl were designed as unique coating antigen haptens. Polyclonal rabbit antisera were screened against the coating antigen library in order to identify combinations of immunoreagents resulting in the most sensitive assays. The most sensitive assay identified was one utilizing antiserum #1155 and a heterologous competitive hapten where the 2’–OH group was substituted with a Cl. An IC50 value and the detection range for TCS in assay buffer were 1.19 and 0.21–6.71 μg/L, respectively. The assay was selective for TCS, providing low cross-reactivity (< 5%) to the major metabolites of TCS and to brominated diphenyl ether-47. A second assay utilizing a competitive hapten containing Br instead of Cl substitutions was broadly selective for both brominated and chlorinated diphenylethers. Using the most sensitive assay combination, TCS concentrations were measured in water samples following dilution. Biosolid samples were analyzed following dilution of a simple solvent extract. The immunoassay results were similar to those determined by LC-MS/MS. This immunoassay can be used as a rapid and convenient tool to screen for human and environmental exposure. PMID:26937944

  3. Multiplexing immunoassays for cytokine detection in the serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: lack of sensitivity and interference by rheumatoid factor.

    PubMed

    Churchman, Sarah M; Geiler, Janina; Parmar, Rekha; Horner, Elizabeth A; Church, Leigh D; Emery, Paul; Buch, Maya H; McDermott, Michael F; Ponchel, Frederique

    2012-01-01

    Accurately measuring cytokines in clinical material remains an important challenge in the development of biomarkers. Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISAs) are considered 'gold standard'; however, their use is limited by the relatively large sample volume required for multiple analyte testing. Several alternatives (including membrane or bead-ELISA) have been developed particularly to enable multiplexing. Concerns were raised regarding their use in rheumatology due to interference by heterophilic antibodies, notably rheumatoid factor (RF). In this report, we compared several multiplex assays using serum from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with respect to the presence of residual RF following attempted removal employing commonly used procedures. Healthy control and RF-positive/negative RA sera were used to compare 4 multiplex assays with ELISA: bead-based 'Luminex' immunoassay, cytometric bead assays (CBAs), membrane-based and Mosaic™ ELISAs. Sera were tested following Ig blockade (mixed species serum) or removal (using PEG6000 or sepharose-L). Ig removal was only partially efficient and residual RF was detected in most sera. RF had no impact on cytokine measurement by ELISA. In single and multiplex Luminex, cytokine levels associated with false positive results correlated directly with RF titres. Following Ig-blockade/removal, these relationship remained suggesting false positivity was still associated with the presence of residual RF. Conversely, detection of cytokines in multiplex membrane-based or Mosaic- ELISA were not affected by the presence of RF; however, levels of cytokines readily detected by ELISA were often below the detection threshold of these assays. CBA assays were also low on sensitivity but unaffected by RF. False positivity, due to the presence of heterophilic antibodies, mainly affected Luminex assays. Other assays however remained limited in their sensitivity. Multiplexing of cytokine measurement remains a challenge, particularly in

  4. Polypropylene microtitre plates modified with [Cr(OH)6](3-) for enhanced ELISA sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Welch, Nicholas G; Lebot, Cedric J; Easton, Christopher D; Scoble, Judith A; Pigram, Paul J; Muir, Benjamin W

    2017-07-01

    Chromium solutions have been used as wet chemical modifiers for polymer microtitre plates used in improving immunoassay performance. However, polypropylene has been excluded from the list of potentially modifiable substrates (AnteoTechnologies, 2015). Here we show that untreated polypropylene microtitre plates can indeed be modified using a [Cr(OH)6](3-) complex. Compared to unmodified polypropylene, the chromium modified surfaces demonstrate an up to 4-fold improvement in both assay sensitivity and signal intensity in an antigen capture ELISA. Atomic force microscope (AFM) images indicate that the chromium complex facilitates dispersion of the antibody, reducing aggregation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimizing ELISAs for precision and robustness using laboratory automation and statistical design of experiments.

    PubMed

    Joelsson, Daniel; Moravec, Phil; Troutman, Matthew; Pigeon, Joseph; DePhillips, Pete

    2008-08-20

    Transferring manual ELISAs to automated platforms requires optimizing the assays for each particular robotic platform. These optimization experiments are often time consuming and difficult to perform using a traditional one-factor-at-a-time strategy. In this manuscript we describe the development of an automated process using statistical design of experiments (DOE) to quickly optimize immunoassays for precision and robustness on the Tecan EVO liquid handler. By using fractional factorials and a split-plot design, five incubation time variables and four reagent concentration variables can be optimized in a short period of time.

  6. A survey for antibodies to equine arteritis virus in donkeys, mules and zebra using virus neutralisation (VN) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Paweska, J T; Binns, M M; Woods, P S; Chirnside, E D

    1997-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey of donkeys in South Africa (n = 4300) indicated a wide distribution and increasing prevalence of antibodies to equine arteritis virus (EAV). Donkey sera inhibited equine arteritis virus infection in virus neutralisation (VN) tests and in ELISA specifically bound to a recombinant antigen derived from the Bucyrus isolate of EAV. These results suggest that donkeys have been exposed to the same serotype of this virus as circulates among horses. A good correlation existed between EAV neutralising antibody titres and ELISA absorbance values (0.8631); the ELISA was sensitive and specific (99.2% and 80.3% respectively) for donkey sera when compared to the VN test and the recombinant ELISA antigen did not cross-react with sera positive for common African equine pathogens. VN+ ELISA+ donkeys were also found in Morocco and Zimbabwe and seropositive mules in both South Africa and Morocco. No seropositive zebra (n = 266) were detected from game reserves or zoos in 9 countries. The results confirm that in addition to horses and donkeys, mules are naturally infected with EAV.

  7. Seroprevalence of equine granulocytic anaplasmosis and lyme borreliosis in Canada as determined by a point-of-care enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

    PubMed Central

    Schvartz, Gili; Epp, Tasha; Burgess, Hilary J.; Chilton, Neil B.; Pearl, David L.; Lohmann, Katharina L.

    2015-01-01

    Equine granulocytic anaplasmosis (EGA) and Lyme borreliosis (LB) are an emerging concern in Canada. We estimated the seroprevalence of EGA and equine LB by testing 376 convenience serum samples from 3 provinces using a point-of-care SNAP® 4Dx® ELISA (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine, USA), and investigated the agreement between the point-of-care ELISA and laboratory-based serologic tests. The estimated seroprevalence for EGA was 0.53% overall (0.49% in Saskatchewan, 0.71% in Manitoba), while the estimated seroprevalence for LB was 1.6% overall (0.49% in Saskatchewan, 2.86% in Manitoba). There was limited agreement between the point-of-care ELISA and an indirect fluorescent antibody test for EGA (kappa 0.1, PABAK 0.47) and an ELISA/Western blot combination for LB (kappa 0.23, PABAK 0.71). While the SNAP® 4Dx® ELISA yielded expected seroprevalence estimates, further evaluation of serologic tests for the purposes of disease exposure recognition may be needed. PMID:26028677

  8. A comparison of a blocking ELISA and a haemagglutination inhibition assay for the detection of antibodies to Avibacterium (Haemophilus) paragallinarum in sera from artificially infected chickens.

    PubMed

    Sun, H; Miao, D; Zhang, P; Gong, Y; Blackall, P J

    2007-10-01

    The ability of blocking ELISAs and haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests to detect antibodies in sera from chickens challenged with either Avibacterium (Haemophilus) paragallinarum isolate Hp8 (serovar A) or H668 (serovar C) was compared. Serum samples were examined weekly over the 9 weeks following infection. The results showed that the positive rate of serovar A specific antibody in the B-ELISA remained at 100% from the second week to the ninth week. In chickens given the serovar C challenge, the highest positive rate of serovar C specific antibody in the B-ELISA appeared at the seventh week (60% positive) and was then followed by a rapid decrease. The B-ELISA gave significantly more positives at weeks 2, 3, 7, 8 and 9 post-infection for serovar A and at week 7 post-infection for serovar C. In qualitative terms, for both serovar A and serovar C infections, the HI tests gave a lower percentage of positive sera at all time points except at 9 weeks post-infection with serovar C. The highest positive rate for serovar A HI antibodies was 70% of sera at the fourth and fifth weeks post-infection. The highest rate of serovar C HI antibodies was 20% at the fifth and sixth weeks post-infection. The results have provided further evidence of the suitability of the serovar A and C B-ELISAs for the diagnosis of infectious coryza.

  9. Development of a fluorescent microbead-based immunoassay for the detection of hepatitis E virus IgG antibodies in pigs and comparison to an enzyme-linked immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Owolodun, Olajide A; Giménez-Lirola, Luis G; Gerber, Priscilla F; Sanford, Brenton J; Feagins, Alicia R; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Halbur, Patrick G; Opriessnig, Tanja

    2013-11-01

    Swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic virus and pigs are considered as an important reservoir. Swine HEV infection is widespread and most pig herds are infected. Humans can be infected with swine HEV via consumption of undercooked pork or through direct contact with infected pigs. To minimize the risk of zoonotic transmission, sensitive tools to assess the HEV infection status of pigs and pork products are needed. The objective of this study was to develop a fluorescent microbead-based immunoassay (FMIA) for the detection of IgG antibodies against swine HEV and compare it to an in-house enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Three sets of samples were utilized: (A) samples from pigs infected experimentally with different strains of HEV (positive controls, n=72), (B) samples from known HEV-negative pigs (negative controls, n=62) and (C) samples from pigs of unknown HEV infection status (n=182). All samples were tested by both ELISA and FMIA. The results on the experimental samples with known HEV exposure indicate that both assays have a specificity of 100% while the sensitivity ranges from 84.6% (ELISA) to 92.3% (FMIA). The overall prevalence of HEV IgG antibodies in field samples from pigs with unknown HEV exposure was 21.9% (40/182) for the ELISA and 21.4% (39/182) for the FMIA. The two assays had an almost perfect overall agreement (Kappa=0.92).

  10. Negative interference in serum HBsAg ELISA from rheumatoid factors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Yu, Zhen; Fan, Wen; Wang, Xueping; Xie, Mingshui; Xu, Yiting; Hu, Lihua; Li, Yirong

    2013-01-01

    RF(Rheumatoid factor) is usually thought to cause positive interference in immunoassay. Recently, our study showed that high-concentration RFs caused negative interference as well as positive interference in serum HBsAg(Hepatitis B surface antigen) ELISA(Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), but it is unclear that RF causing negative interference is an anomaly produced by a certain ELISA kit or a common property of most of HBsAg ELISA kits. Serum models were made by blending HBsAg-positive sera and high- or moderate-concentration RFs sera at the ratio of 1: 9, then one-step and two-step ELISA were adopted to determine HBsAg in serum models. No matter what kind of kit used, one-step ELISA showed that HBsAg S/CO( sample/cut off) values in serum models were significantly lower than original values. Bivariate correlations tests showed decline rates of HBsAg S/CO Values were not associated to serum RF concentrations ranging from 288 to 3560 IU/mL. HBsAg converted to be negative in 69.80% serum models with original-value ranging from 1.00 to 10.00, and in 2.68% serum models with higher original-value. RF causing decline of HBsAg S/CO value provided by one-step ELISA was more obvious than that provided by two-step ELISA. It is concluded that susceptibility of all HBsAg ELISA assays to interference from RF, leading to predominantly lower and in some cases "false-negative" results, and moreover, the lower the original HBsAg S/CO Value, the higher the false-negative rate.

  11. Negative Interference in Serum HBsAg ELISA from Rheumatoid Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xueping; Xie, Mingshui; Xu, Yiting; Hu, Lihua; Li, Yirong

    2013-01-01

    Background RF(Rheumatoid factor) is usually thought to cause positive interference in immunoassay. Recently, our study showed that high-concentration RFs caused negative interference as well as positive interference in serum HBsAg(Hepatitis B surface antigen) ELISA(Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), but it is unclear that RF causing negative interference is an anomaly produced by a certain ELISA kit or a common property of most of HBsAg ELISA kits. Methods Serum models were made by blending HBsAg-positive sera and high- or moderate-concentration RFs sera at the ratio of 1: 9, then one-step and two-step ELISA were adopted to determine HBsAg in serum models. Results No matter what kind of kit used, one-step ELISA showed that HBsAg S/CO( sample/cut off) values in serum models were significantly lower than original values. Bivariate correlations tests showed decline rates of HBsAg S/CO Values were not associated to serum RF concentrations ranging from 288 to 3560 IU/mL. HBsAg converted to be negative in 69.80% serum models with original-value ranging from 1.00 to 10.00, and in 2.68% serum models with higher original-value. RF causing decline of HBsAg S/CO value provided by one-step ELISA was more obvious than that provided by two-step ELISA. Conclusions It is concluded that susceptibility of all HBsAg ELISA assays to interference from RF, leading to predominantly lower and in some cases "false-negative" results, and moreover, the lower the original HBsAg S/CO Value, the higher the false-negative rate. PMID:24260439

  12. Study on the use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in determining human antibodies to diphtheria toxin as compared with a reference toxin neutralization assay.

    PubMed

    Skoura, L; Efstratiou, A; Tsakris, A; Pournaras, S; George, R C; Douboyas, J

    1999-07-01

    Serum samples from 156 Greek persons were assessed by an IgG-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a reference tissue culture toxin-neutralization (TN) assay for the quantitation of diphtheria toxin antibodies. By the reference method, 7.7% of the persons were susceptible to diphtheria (antitoxin < 0.01 IU/ml), 28.8% had basic protection (antitoxin 0.01-0.09 IU/ml) and 63.5% were fully protective (antitoxin > or = 0.1 IU/ ml), while the corresponding figures were 17.9, 36.5 and 45.5% when they were tested by the immunoassay. None of the samples been susceptible by the TN assay were found to have some protection when tested by ELISA. However, three (6.7%) of the 45 samples showing a basic protection with TN, were fully protective when titrated by the immunoassay. In addition, 31 (31.3%) of the 99 samples been fully protective by the bioassay, were found to be either basically protective or susceptible by means of the ELISA. Overall, validity features of the immunoassay were: sensitivity 68.7%, specificity 94.7%, positive predictive value 95.8% and negative predictive value 63.5%. The ELISA tested in our study could be used to determine diphtheria antitoxin in individuals needed a booster immunization (susceptible or basic protective samples), although it might falsely include in the above categories samples that are within the fully protective levels of antibodies.

  13. Digital Assays Part II: Digital Protein and Cell Assays.

    PubMed

    Basu, Amar S

    2017-08-01

    A digital assay is one in which the sample is partitioned into many containers such that each partition contains a discrete number of biological entities (0, 1, 2, 3, . . .). A powerful technique in the biologist's toolkit, digital assays bring a new level of precision in quantifying nucleic acids, measuring proteins and their enzymatic activity, and probing single-cell genotype and phenotype. Where part I of this review focused on the fundamentals of partitioning and digital PCR, part II turns its attention to digital protein and cell assays. Digital enzyme assays measure the kinetics of single proteins with enzymatic activity. Digital enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISAs) quantify antigenic proteins with 2 to 3 log lower detection limit than conventional ELISA, making them well suited for low-abundance biomarkers. Digital cell assays probe single-cell genotype and phenotype, including gene expression, intracellular and surface proteins, metabolic activity, cytotoxicity, and transcriptomes (scRNA-seq). These methods exploit partitioning to 1) isolate single cells or proteins, 2) detect their activity via enzymatic amplification, and 3) tag them individually by coencapsulating them with molecular barcodes. When scaled, digital assays reveal stochastic differences between proteins or cells within a population, a key to understanding biological heterogeneity. This review is intended to give a broad perspective to scientists interested in adopting digital assays into their workflows.

  14. Influence of affinity on antibody determination in microtiter ELISA systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peterman, J.H.; Voss, E.W. Jr.; Butler, J.E.

    1986-03-01

    Theoretically, all immunoassays are affinity (Ka) dependent when the product of the antibody (Ab) Ka and the free epitope concentration is less than 10. Thus, the degree of dependence on Ka depends on the concentration of available antigen in the system. The authors examined the binding of /sup 125/I-anti-fluorescein (a-FLU) monoclonal antibodies of different affinities to FLU-gelatin adsorbed on Immunlon 2 microtiter plates. Data obtained were in general agreement with our theoretical predictions; the percent of /sup 125/I-a-FLU which bound correlated with Ka, as did the shape of the titration curves. Measurement of 5 a-FLU monoclonals by the ELISA showed that the determination of Ab concentrations depends on the FLU-gelatin concentration, epitope density, and on the relationship between the Kas of test samples and the reference standard Ab preparation. Thus the ELISA is Ka dependent and should not be used routinely to estimate the absolute amount to Ab in unknown samples. However, the Ka dependency of the ELISA might provide a convenient assay for the estimation of the relative functional Ka (rfKa) of antibody preparations.

  15. Prospective evaluation of automatized PF4/heparin immunoassays HemosIL HIT-ab (PF4-H) for the diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Jourdy, Y; Nougier, C; Rugeri, L; Bordet, J C; Sobas, F; Negrier, C

    2015-04-01

    Recently, rapid immunoassays have been developed to allow the detection of antibodies anti-PF4/heparin. In this prospective study, we evaluated the performances of a automatized immunoassay (HemosIL HIT-Ab) in comparison with an ELISA (Zymutest HIA IgG) used for the diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) in association with the 4T's score. According to the 4T's score, samples with score ≤3 had no further analysis. Two immunological assays Zymutest HIA IgG and HemosIL HIT-Ab were performed in samples with score ≥4. In patients with at least one positive immunological assay or two negative immunological assays but with high-pretest probability (4T's score ≥6), HIT was screened by one functional assay using washed platelets. The sensitivities of both assays were excellent and comparable (100%). The specificity was 92.3% for ELISA and 91.2% for HemosIL HIT-Ab. The analysis of the operating characteristics showed that both assays have almost identical ROCs (AUROC, 0.9951 and 0.9853, respectively, for ELISA and HemosIL HIT-Ab) and the calculating of the κ coefficient revealed a good agreement (0.67). Performance characteristics of the HemosIL HIT-Ab are comparable to the Zymutest HIA IgG. The HemosIL HIT-Ab can be used in association with the 4T's score to rule out HIT. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Enzyme-amplified protein micorarray and a fluidic renewable surface fluorescence immunoassay for botulinum neurotoxin detection using high-affinity recombinant antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Varnum, Susan M.; Warner, Marvin G.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Anheier, Norman C.; Lou, Jianlong; Marks, James D.; Smith, Leonard A.; Feldhaus, Michael J.; Grate, Jay W.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2006-06-16

    With the use of high-affinity recombinant monoclonal antibodies against the receptor binding domain of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A), two separate immunoassay platforms were developed for either the sensitive or the rapid detection of BoNT/A. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarray was developed for the specific and sensitive detection of BoNT in buffer and clinical fluids. This assay has the sensitivity to detect BoNT in diverse samples down to 14 fM (1.4 pg/mL). Using the recombinant monoclonal antibodies, a renewable surface microcolumn sensor was developed for the rapid detection of BoNT/A in an automated fluidic system. While the ELISA microarray assay, because of its sensitivity, offers an alternative to the mouse bioassay, the renewable surface assay has potential as a rapid screening assay for the analysis of complex environmental samples.

  17. Development of an Heterologous Immunoassay for Ciprofloxacin Residue in Milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinqing, Jiang; Haitang, Zhang; Zhixing, An; Zhiyong, Xu; Xuefeng, Yang; Huaguo, Huang; Ziliang, Wang

    A heterologous immunoassay has been developed for the determination of Ciprofloxacin (CPFX) residues in milk. For this reason, carbodiimide active ester method was employed to synthesize the artificial antigen of CPFX-BSA, and mixed anhydride reaction was used to prepare the coating antigen of CPFX-OVA to pursue the heterologous sensitivity. Based on the square matrix titration, an icELISA method was developed for the quantitative detection of CPFX in cattle milk. The dynamic range was from 0.036 to 92.5 ng/mL, with LOD and IC50 value of 0.019 ng/mL and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. Except for a high cross-reactivity (89.7%) to Enrofloxacin, negligible cross-reactivity to the other compounds was observed. After optimization, 0.03 mol/L of HCl, or 10% of methanol was used in the assay buffer. 20-fold dilution in cattle milk gave an inhibition curve almost the same as that in PBS buffer. The regression equation for this assay was y = 0.9036 x + 1.4574, with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9844. The results suggest the veracity of the heterologous immunoassay for detecting CPFX residue in milk.

  18. Comparison of in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with gold standard in vivo mouse neutralization test for the detection of low level antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sonmez, Cemile; Coplu, Nilay; Gozalan, Aysegul; Akin, Lutfu; Esen, Berrin

    2017-06-01

    Detection of anti-tetanus antibody levels is necessary for both determination of the immune status of individuals and also for planning preventive measures. ELISA is the preferred test among in vitro tests however it can be affected by the cross reacting antibodies. A previously developed in-house ELISA test was found not reliable for the antibody levels ≤1.0IU/ml. A new method was developed to detect low antibody levels correctly. The aim of the present study was to compare the results of the newly developed in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test with the in vivo mouse neutralization test, for the antibody levels ≤1.0IU/ml. A total of 54 serum samples with the antibody levels of three different levels, =0.01IU/ml, 0.01-0.1IU/ml, 0.1-1IU/ml, which were detected by in vivo mouse neutralization test were studied by the newly developed in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test. Test was validated by using five different concentrations (0.01IU/ml, 0.06IU/ml, 0.2IU/ml, 0.5IU/ml, 1.0IU/ml). A statistically significant correlation (r(2)=0.9967 p=0,001) between in vivo mouse neutralization test and in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test, was observed. For the tested concentrations intra-assay, inter-assay, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and coefficients of variations were determined as ≤15%. In-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test can be an alternative method to in vivo mouse neutralization method for the detection of levels ≤1.0IU/ml. By using in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test, individuals with non protective levels, will be reliably detected. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Diagnostic performance of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect bovine leukemia virus antibodies in bulk-tank milk samples

    PubMed Central

    Nekouei, Omid; Durocher, Jean; Keefe, Greg

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the diagnostic performance of a commercial ELISA for detecting bovine leukemia virus antibodies in bulk-tank milk samples from eastern Canada. Sensitivity and specificity of the test were estimated at 97.2% and 100%, respectively. The test was recommended as a cost-efficient tool for large-scale screening programs. PMID:27429469

  20. Detection of alpha-fetoprotein in magnetic immunoassay of thin channels using biofunctional nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, H. Y.; Gao, B. Z.; Yang, S. F.; Li, C. S.; Fuh, C. Bor

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the use of fluorescent biofunctional nanoparticles (10-30 nm) to detect alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in a thin-channel magnetic immunoassay. We used an AFP model biomarker and s-shaped deposition zones to test the proposed detection method. The results show that the detection using fluorescent biofunctional nanoparticle has a higher throughput than that of functional microparticle used in previous experiments on affinity reactions. The proposed method takes about 3 min (versus 150 min of previous method) to detect 100 samples. The proposed method is useful for screening biomarkers in clinical applications, and can reduce the run time for sandwich immunoassays to less than 20 min. The detection limits (0.06 pg/ml) and linear ranges (0.068 pg/ml-0.68 ng/ml) of AFP using fluorescent biofunctional nanoparticles are the same as those of using functional microparticles within experimental errors. This detection limit is substantially lower and the linear range is considerably wider than those of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and other methods in sandwich immunoassay methods. The differences between this method and an ELISA in AFP measurements of serum samples were less than 12 %. The proposed method provides simple, fast, and sensitive detection with a high throughput for biomarkers.

  1. Trace analysis of pollutants by use of honeybees, immunoassays, and chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Girotti, S; Ghini, S; Maiolini, E; Bolelli, L; Ferri, E N

    2013-01-01

    Specific and sensitive analysis to reveal and monitor the wide variety of chemical contaminants polluting all environment compartments, feed, and food is urgently required because of the increasing attention devoted to the environment and health protection. Our research group has been involved in monitoring the presence and distribution of agrochemicals by monitoring beehives distributed throughout the area studied. Honeybees have been used both as biosensors, because the pesticides affect their viability, and as "contaminant collectors" for all environmental pollutants. We focused our research on the development of analytical procedures able to reveal and quantify pesticides in different samples but with a special attention to the complex honeybee matrix. Specific extraction and purification procedures have been developed and some are still under optimization. The analytes of interest were determined by gas or liquid chromatographic methods and by compound-specific or group-specific immunoassays in the ELISA format, the analytical performance of which was improved by introducing luminescence detection. The range of chemiluminescent immunoassays developed was extended to include the determination of completely different pollutants, for example explosives, volatile organic compounds (including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes), and components of plastics, for example bisphenol A. An easier and portable format, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was added to the ELISA format to increase application flexibility in these assays. Aspects of the novelty, the specific characteristics, the analytical performance, and possible future development of the different chromatographic and immunological methods are described and discussed.

  2. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies: a comparison of different assays for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Debaugnies, F; Servais, G; Badot, V; Noubouossie, D; Willems, D; Corazza, F

    2013-01-01

    Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies are highly specific markers of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Considering the heterogeneity of the target antigens involved, and the test platforms and conjugates proposed in commercial anti-CCP assays, we assessed the diagnostic performances of four fully automated anti-CCP assays in a cohort of patients with RA compared to patients with other autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. We also evaluated the agreement between the qualitative results of these immunoassays. We evaluated three anti-CCP2 assays [Eurodiagnostica enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Elecsys electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) on the Modular E170 Analyzer, and Zenit chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) on the Zenit RA Analyzer] and one anti-CCP3 assay (Inova ELISA). ELISAs were performed on an automated workstation. Samples from 112 patients with RA and a disease control group of 136 patients (53 with autoimmune diseases, 65 non-autoimmune disorders, and 18 infectious diseases) were studied (included 161 samples submitted consecutively to the laboratory). At a fixed specificity of 92%, the anti-CCP3 assay presented the highest sensitivity (75%) compared to the anti-CCP2 assays evaluated (63-72%). The Zenit anti-CCP2 assay gave the most false-positive results (especially in patients with viral infections and connective tissue diseases). The agreement between assays ranged from 86.3% to 95.2% and Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.724 to 0.899. Recently released automated workstations provide a valuable alternative to ELISA to diagnose RA. However, differences in diagnostic performances are highlighted in our experience, especially for the Zenit assay. In our cohort, the anti-CCP3 assay gave slightly better performances than the anti-CCP2 assays (with the exception of the Zenit assay).

  3. Nanoparticle-based Immunoassays for Sensitive and Early Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Type 1 Capsid (p24) Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shixing; Hewlett, Indira

    2009-01-01

    We have evaluated the feasibility of using nanoparticle (NP)-based assays for improving detection sensitivity of HIV-1 p24 antigen. The first assay is a gold NP-based biobarcode amplification (BCA) assay which could detect HIV-1 p24 antigen at levels as low as 0.1 pg/ml. Compared with BCA, the lower limit of detection (LOD) for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was 10 ~ 15 pg/ml. These results demonstrate that the HIV-1 p24 BCA assay offers 100 ~ 150-fold enhancement in the detection limit over the traditional colorimetric ELISA. Furthermore, the BCA assay detected HIV-1 infection 3 days earlier than ELISA in seroconversion samples. A second assay is the europium (Eu+) NP-based immunoassay (ENIA), which uses Eu+ NPs to replace gold NPs in the BCA assay to further simplify the detection method and decrease the incubation time. For detection of HIV-1 p24, the lower LOD for ENIA was 0.5 pg/ml. These results indicate that the universal labeling technology based on NPs and its application may provide a rapid and sensitive testing platform for clinical diagnosis and laboratory research. PMID:20225948

  4. Evaluation of a new automated chemiluminescence immunoassay for FGF23.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yuichiro; Fukumoto, Seiji; Fujita, Toshiro

    2012-03-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a hormone regulating phosphate and vitamin D metabolism. We have previously established a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for FGF23 and reported that FGF23 values are useful for the differential diagnosis of chronic hypophosphatemia. However, this ELISA has a rather narrow assay range of 3-800 pg/ml, and it was pointed out that the assay performance is not satisfactory when automatic washing is used. Here we evaluated a new automated chemiluminescence immunoassay for FGF23. This assay uses 10 μl sera or plasma samples and requires 20 min to obtain the first result. The assay was linear up to about 15,000 pg/ml and had a detection limit of 1 pg/ml. In addition, this assay showed coefficients of variation of less than 5% using samples with average FGF23 levels of 43.2-2,454.0 pg/ml. When FGF23 levels in 210 samples from chronic hypophosphatemic patients were evaluated by both the previous ELISA and this new assay, there was a good correlation of R (2) = 0.96. However, FGF23 levels by the new assay showed lower values, especially in samples with high FGF23 levels. Given that the lowest FGF23 level in patients with FGF23-related hypophosphatemia was 30.8 pg/ml and that the highest FGF23 levels in patients with non-FGF23-related hypophosphatemia was 20.8 pg/ml by this novel assay, the sensitivity and specificity were 100% when the cutoff was set between 20.8 and 30.8 pg/ml. From the aspect of convenience and the coefficients of variation of this assay, we propose that the cutoff be 25 pg/ml. There results indicate that this new assay is ideal for both clinical use and clinical studies, especially when measuring many samples with high FGF23 levels.

  5. Development of a Microsphere-based Immunoassay for Serological Detection of African Horse Sickness Virus and Comparison with Other Diagnostic Techniques.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Matamoros, A; Beck, C; Kukielka, D; Lecollinet, S; Blaise-Boisseau, S; Garnier, A; Rueda, P; Zientara, S; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2016-12-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a viral disease that causes high morbidity and mortality rates in susceptible Equidae and therefore significant economic losses. More rapid, sensitive and specific assays are required by diagnostic laboratories to support effective surveillance programmes. A novel microsphere-based immunoassay (Luminex assay) in which beads are coated with recombinant AHS virus (AHSV) structural protein 7 (VP7) has been developed for serological detection of antibodies against VP7 of any AHSV serotype. The performance of this assay was compared with that of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and commercial lateral flow assay (LFA) on a large panel of serum samples from uninfected horses (n = 92), from a reference library of all AHSV serotypes (n = 9), on samples from horses experimentally infected with AHSV (n = 114), and on samples from West African horses suspected of having AHS (n = 85). The Luminex assay gave the same negative results as ELISA when used to test the samples from uninfected horses. Both assays detected antibodies to all nine AHSV serotypes. In contrast, the Luminex assay detected a higher rate of anti-VP7 positivity in the West African field samples than did ELISA or LFA. The Luminex assay detected anti-VP7 positivity in experimentally infected horses at 7 days post-infection, compared to 13 days for ELISA. This novel immunoassay provides a platform for developing multiplex assays, in which the presence of antibodies against multiple ASHV antigens can be detected simultaneously. This would be useful for serotyping or for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals.

  6. Detecting clothianidin residues in environmental and agricultural samples using rapid, sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gold immunochromatographic assay.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Hua, Xiude; Ma, Ming; Liu, Jisong; Zhou, Liangliang; Wang, Minghua

    2014-11-15

    Two rapid, sensitive immunoassays based on monoclonal antibody for detecting clothianidin were developed and applied in agricultural samples: a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a semiquantitative gold immunochromatographic assay (GICA). Under optimal conditions, the half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC50) and the limit of detection (LOD, IC10) of clothianidin were 25.6 and 3.8 ng mL(-1) for ELISA. GICA using colloidal gold-MAb probe had a visual detection limit of 8 ng mL(-1), and the results can be judged by the naked eye within 10 min. The cross-reactivities of the immunoassays with its analogues were negligible except for that with dinotefuran. For the spiked agricultural samples, recoveries of 78.0 to 114.5% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 3.2 to 12.8% were achieved for ELISA and further evaluated by GICA. Furthermore, the results of ELISA and GICA for the authentic samples correlated well with those obtained by HPLC. Overall, the proposed ELISA and GICA are satisfactory for rapid, sensitive, and quantitative/semiquantitative detection of clothianidin residues in agricultural samples.

  7. Development of a plasma panel test for detection of human myocardial proteins by capillary immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Torabi, Fereidon; Mobini Far, Hamid Reza; Danielsson, Bengt; Khayyami, Masoud

    2007-02-15

    A chemiluminescence immunoassay for the detection of four heart marker proteins: myoglobin, creatine kinase mb [CKmb], troponin I [TnI], and fatty acid-binding protein [FABP], was designed. The immunoassay was based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and antibodies immobilized in glass capillaries pre-treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The protein bound to the antibody was detected by using an anti-protein-horseradish peroxidase [HRP] conjugate. The reaction of the HRP with luminal and hydrogen peroxide-based substrate generated the chemiluminescence and a photodiode detector was used to measure the light intensity. The same assay protocol was used to detect all four proteins. Ultrasound waves were used to improve the silanization of glass and the antibody immobilization process. The optimization of the duration and intensity of the ultrasound was performed for the myoglobin assay. Ultrasound improved the silanization procedure and the capillaries gave an approximately 2.5 times greater ELISA response. Ultrasound also improved the sensitivity by approximately 100% when monoclonal antibody was immobilized on a glass capillary. Calibration curves corresponding to analyte concentrations ranging from 2.4 to 2400 ng/ml in plasma samples were recorded. The detection limits were in the region of 1.2 myoglobin, 0.6 CKmb, 5.6 TnI, and 4 ng/ml FABP in plasma with a coefficient of variation of 3-9.9%.

  8. Development of an electrochemical immunoassay for detection of gatifloxacin in swine urine.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jian; Meng, Meng; Liu, Zhong-qiu; Zhi, Jin-fang; Zhang, Yuan-yang; Xu, Jing; Wang, Ya-bin; Liu, Jin-ting; Xi, Ri-mo

    2012-02-01

    To detect gatifloxacin (GAT) residue in swine urine, an electrochemical immunoassay was established. An indirect competitive immunoassay was developed, in which the coating antigen is immobilized in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plate and GAT residue from the sample competes with the limited binding sites in added anti-GAT antibody. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugated to goat anti-rabbit IgG was used as the enzymatic label. A carbon fiber working electrode was constructed and current signals were detected by using hydrogen peroxide as a substrate and hydroquinone as an electrochemical mediator. The electrochemical immunoassay was evaluated by analysis of GAT in buffer or swine urine and an average value of half inhibition concentration (IC(50)) of 8.9 ng/ml was obtained. Excellent specificity of the antibody was achieved with little cross-reaction with lomefloxacin (3.0%), ciprofloxacin (3.0%), and ofloxacin (1.9%) among commonly used (fluoro)quinolones. In conclusion, the immunoassay system developed in this research can be used as a rapid, powerful and on-site analytical tool to detect GAT residue in foods and food products.

  9. Development of an electrochemical immunoassay for detection of gatifloxacin in swine urine*

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jian; Meng, Meng; Liu, Zhong-qiu; Zhi, Jin-fang; Zhang, Yuan-yang; Xu, Jing; Wang, Ya-bin; Liu, Jin-ting; Xi, Ri-mo

    2012-01-01

    To detect gatifloxacin (GAT) residue in swine urine, an electrochemical immunoassay was established. An indirect competitive immunoassay was developed, in which the coating antigen is immobilized in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plate and GAT residue from the sample competes with the limited binding sites in added anti-GAT antibody. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugated to goat anti-rabbit IgG was used as the enzymatic label. A carbon fiber working electrode was constructed and current signals were detected by using hydrogen peroxide as a substrate and hydroquinone as an electrochemical mediator. The electrochemical immunoassay was evaluated by analysis of GAT in buffer or swine urine and an average value of half inhibition concentration (IC50) of 8.9 ng/ml was obtained. Excellent specificity of the antibody was achieved with little cross-reaction with lomefloxacin (3.0%), ciprofloxacin (3.0%), and ofloxacin (1.9%) among commonly used (fluoro)quinolones. In conclusion, the immunoassay system developed in this research can be used as a rapid, powerful and on-site analytical tool to detect GAT residue in foods and food products. PMID:22302425

  10. An ultrasensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay of chloramphenicol based on gold nanoparticles and magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Haiyang; Yu, Xuezhi; Zhu, Jinghui; Wang, Xia; Wang, Zhanhui; Niu, Lanlan; Wu, Xiaoping; Shen, Jianzhong

    2013-05-01

    A competitive, direct, chemiluminescent immunoassay based on a magnetic beads (MBs) separation and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) labelling technique to detect chloramphenicol (CAP) has been developed. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labelled anti-CAP monoclonal antibody conjugated with AuNPs and antigen-immobilized MBs were prepared. After optimization parameters of immunocomplex MBs, the IC50 values of chemiluminescence magnetic nanoparticles immunoassay (CL-MBs-nano-immunoassay) were 0.017 µg L(-1) for extract method I and 0.17 µg L(-1) for extract method II. The immunoassay with two extract methods was applied to detect CAP in milk. Comparison of these two extract methods showed that extract method I was advantageous in better sensitivity, in which the sensitivity was 10 times compared to that of extract method II, while extract method II was superior in simple operation, suitable for high throughout screen. The recoveries were 86.7-98.0% (extract method I) and 80.0-103.0% (extract method II), and the coefficients of variation (CVs) were all <15%. The satisfactory recovery with both extract methods and high correlation with traditional ELISA kit in milk system confirmed that the immunomagnetic assay based on AuNPs exhibited promising potential in rapid field screening for trace CAP analysis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Development of dioxin toxicity evaluation method in human milk by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay--assay validation for human milk.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Yukio; Saito, Koichi; Ogawa, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Susumu; Shan, Guomin; Sanborn, James R; Hammock, Bruce D; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Matsuki, Yasuhiko

    2002-03-01

    In this study, the development of a toxicity evaluation method for dioxins in human milk by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was reported. A total of 17 human milk samples were tested by ELISA and by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to assess whether the ELISA performed on samples obtained from primiparas could be considered as reliable enough for identifying a dioxins contamination in human milk. The concept of toxicity equivalent quantity (TEQ) screening was validated by comparing TEQ values for a set of human milk samples to the ELISA responses predicted for those samples. A fairly good correlation (r = 0.920) between immunoassay and GC/MS was achieved for human milk. This ELISA should be useful for biological samples monitoring.

  12. Infection status outcome, machine learning method and virus type interact to affect the optimised prediction of hepatitis virus immunoassay results from routine pathology laboratory assays in unbalanced data.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Alice M; Lidbury, Brett A

    2013-06-25

    Advanced data mining techniques such as decision trees have been successfully used to predict a variety of outcomes in complex medical environments. Furthermore, previous research has shown that combining the results of a set of individually trained trees into an ensemble-based classifier can improve overall classification accuracy. This paper investigates the effect of data pre-processing, the use of ensembles constructed by bagging, and a simple majority vote to combine classification predictions from routine pathology laboratory data, particularly to overcome a large imbalance of negative Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) cases versus HBV or HCV immunoassay positive cases. These methods were illustrated using a never before analysed data set from ACT Pathology (Canberra, Australia) relating to HBV and HCV patients. It was easier to predict immunoassay positive cases than negative cases of HBV or HCV. While applying an ensemble-based approach rather than a single classifier had a small positive effect on the accuracy rate, this also varied depending on the virus under analysis. Finally, scaling data before prediction also has a small positive effect on the accuracy rate for this dataset. A graphical analysis of the distribution of accuracy rates across ensembles supports these findings. Laboratories looking to include machine learning as part of their decision support processes need to be aware that the infection outcome, the machine learning method used and the virus type interact to affect the enhanced laboratory diagnosis of hepatitis virus infection, as determined by primary immunoassay data in concert with multiple routine pathology laboratory variables. This awareness will lead to the informed use of existing machine learning methods, thus improving the quality of laboratory diagnosis via informatics analyses.

  13. A new immunoassay to quantify fungal antigens from the indoor mould Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Zahradnik, Eva; Kespohl, Sabine; Sander, Ingrid; Schies, Ursula; Khosravie-Hohn, Janett; Lorenz, Wolfgang; Engelhart, Steffen; Kolk, Annette; Schneider, Gerd; Brüning, Thomas; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika

    2013-06-01

    Aspergillus versicolor is among the most commonly found moulds in moisture-damaged buildings and can be associated with adverse health effects in humans. This paper reports the development, validation and application of an enzyme immunoassay to quantify A. versicolor antigens. A sandwich ELISA was developed using polyclonal antibodies that recognize a broad range of A. versicolor proteins present in fungal spores and in mycelia fragments. To validate the new method, A. versicolor antigens were quantified in samples collected from homes with visible mould growth, including dust from vacuumed walls and bulk samples of building materials. Antigen concentrations were compared to the results of a commercial ELISA based on monoclonal antibodies (AveX ELISA, Indoor Biotechnologies, Charlottesville, USA) and correlated with colony forming units (CFU) of A. versicolor. The A. versicolor ELISA was very sensitive with a lower detection limit of 120 pg ml(-1). The assay also showed some reactivity to other moulds with strongest reactions with other Aspergillus species (1-3% reactivity). The new assay detected A. versicolor antigens in a much higher percentage of dust samples (88% vs. 27%) and bulk samples (89% vs. 24%) than the AveX assay. A significant correlation (r = 0.67, and p < 0.0001) was found between antigen concentrations and CFU of A. versicolor. Based on its low detection limit and good correlation with the culture-based method, this new immunoassay seems to be a useful tool for the measurement of A. versicolor exposure levels and a reliable complement to the traditional monitoring techniques, such as mould cultivation or microscopy.

  14. Bioelectrochemical Immunoassay of Polychlorinated Biphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ying-Ying; Liu, Guodong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-04-01

    A simple, rapid, and highly sensitive bioelectrochemical immunoassay method based on magnetic beads (MBs) and disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPE) has been developed to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The principle of this bioassay is based on a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using PCB-antibody-coated MBs and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled PCB (HRP-PCB). A magnetic process platform was used to mix and shake the samples during the immunoreactions and to separate free and unbound reagents after the liquid-phase competitive immunoreactions among PCB-antibody-coated MBs, PCB analyte, and HRP-PCB. After a complete immunoassay, the HRP tracers attached to MBs were transferred to a substrate solution containing o-aminophenol and hydrogen peroxide for electrochemical detection. The different parameters, including the amount of HRP-PCB conjugates, immunoreaction time, and the concentration of substrate that governs the analytical performance of the immunoassay have been studied in detail and optimized. The detection limit of 5 pg mL-1 was obtained under optimum experimental conditions. The performance of this bioelectrochemical immunoassay was successfully evaluated with untreated river water spiked with PCBs, and the results were validated by commercial PCB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, indicating that this convenient and sensitive technique offers great promise for decentralized environmental application and trace PCBs monitoring.

  15. Performance of the TechLab C. DIFF CHEK-60 Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) in Combination with the C. difficile Tox A/B II EIA Kit, the Triage C. difficile Panel Immunoassay, and a Cytotoxin Assay for Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Snell, Heather; Ramos, Meredith; Longo, Sue; John, Michael; Hussain, Zafar

    2004-01-01

    We compared a recently marketed enzyme immunoassay for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), TechLab's C. DIFF CHEK-60 (TL-GDH), in combination with the C. difficile Tox A/B II enzyme immunoassay (Tox-A/B) with (i) the Triage C. difficile test, which detects both GDH (TR-GDH) and toxin A (TR-Tox-A); (ii) an in-house cytotoxin assay (C-Tox); and (iii) stool cultures for C. difficile. All C. difficile isolates were tested for the presence of the toxin genes by PCR. If a toxin gene-positive strain of Clostridium difficile was recovered and a toxin was detected by any method, the result was considered to be truly positive. Eighty-seven of 93 and 79 of 93 C. difficile culture-positive samples were also TL-GDH and TR-GDH positive, respectively. No test was able to detect toxin in all samples with true-positive results. Tox-A/B and TR-Tox-A in combination with the GDH detection tests and C-Tox were able to identify 52 and 50 samples with true-positive results. Tox-A/B and TR-Tox-A would have missed 15 and 31% of cases of C. difficile-associated diarrhea, respectively, if used alone. PMID:15472364

  16. Performance of the TechLab C. DIFF CHEK-60 enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in combination with the C. difficile Tox A/B II EIA kit, the Triage C. difficile panel immunoassay, and a cytotoxin assay for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Snell, Heather; Ramos, Meredith; Longo, Sue; John, Michael; Hussain, Zafar

    2004-10-01

    We compared a recently marketed enzyme immunoassay for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), TechLab's C. DIFF CHEK-60 (TL-GDH), in combination with the C. difficile Tox A/B II enzyme immunoassay (Tox-A/B) with (i) the Triage C. difficile test, which detects both GDH (TR-GDH) and toxin A (TR-Tox-A); (ii) an in-house cytotoxin assay (C-Tox); and (iii) stool cultures for C. difficile. All C. difficile isolates were tested for the presence of the toxin genes by PCR. If a toxin gene-positive strain of Clostridium difficile was recovered and a toxin was detected by any method, the result was considered to be truly positive. Eighty-seven of 93 and 79 of 93 C. difficile culture-positive samples were also TL-GDH and TR-GDH positive, respectively. No test was able to detect toxin in all samples with true-positive results. Tox-A/B and TR-Tox-A in combination with the GDH detection tests and C-Tox were able to identify 52 and 50 samples with true-positive results. Tox-A/B and TR-Tox-A would have missed 15 and 31% of cases of C. difficile-associated diarrhea, respectively, if used alone.

  17. Transferability of antibody pairs from ELISA to fiber optic surface plasmon resonance for infliximab detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Stappen, Thomas; Lu, Jiadi; Bloemen, Maarten; Geukens, Nick; Spasic, Dragana; Delport, Filip; Verbiest, Thierry; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Gils, Ann

    2015-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is a pleiotropic cytokine up-regulated in inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. The introduction of anti-TNF drugs such as infliximab has revolutionized the treatment of these diseases. Recently, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of infliximab has been introduced in clinical decision making to increase cost-efficiency. Nowadays, TDM is performed using radio-immunoassays, homogeneous mobility shift assays or ELISA. Unfortunately, these assays do not allow for in situ treatment optimization, because of the required sample transportation to centralized laboratories and the subsequent assay execution time. In this perspective, we evaluated the potential of fiber optic-surface plasmon resonance (FO-SPR). To achieve this goal, a panel of 55 monoclonal anti-infliximab antibodies (MA-IFX) was developed and characterized in-house, leading to the identification of nine different clusters. Based on this high diversity, 22 antibody pairs were selected and tested for their reactivity towards IFX, using one MA-IFX as capture and one MA-IFX for detection, in a sandwich type ELISA and FO-SPR. This study showed that the reactivity towards IFX of each antibody pair in ELISA is highly similar to its reactivity on FO-SPR, indicating that antibody pairs are easily transferable between both platforms. Given the fact that FO-SPR shows the potential for miniaturization and fast assay time, it can be considered a highly promising platform for on-site infliximab monitoring.

  18. Nanoparticle-based sandwich electrochemical immunoassay for carbohydrate antigen 125 with signal enhancement using enzyme-coated nanometer-sized enzyme-doped silica beads.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dianping; Su, Biling; Tang, Juan; Ren, Jingjing; Chen, Guonan

    2010-02-15

    A novel nanoparticle-based electrochemical immunoassay of carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) as a model was designed to couple with a microfluidic strategy using anti-CA125-functionalized magnetic beads as immunosensing probes. To construct the immunoassay, thionine-horseradish peroxidase conjugation (TH-HRP) was initially doped into nanosilica particles using the reverse micelle method, and then HRP-labeled anti-CA125 antibodies (HRP-anti-CA125) were bound onto the surface of the synthesized nanoparticles, which were used as recognition elements. Different from conventional nanoparticle-based electrochemical immunoassays, the recognition elements of the immunoassay simultaneously contained electron mediator and enzyme labels and simplified the electrochemical measurement process. The sandwich-type immunoassay format was used for the online formation of the immunocomplex in an incubation cell and captured in the detection cell with an external magnet. The electrochemical signals derived from the carried HRP toward the reduction of H(2)O(2) using the doped thionine as electron mediator. Under optimal conditions, the electrochemical immunoassay exhibited a wide working range from 0.1 to 450 U/mL with a detection limit of 0.1 U/mL CA125. The precision, reproducibility, and stability of the immunoassay were acceptable. The assay was evaluated for clinical serum samples, receiving in excellent accordance with results obtained from the standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Concluding, the nanoparticle-based assay format provides a promising approach in clinical application and thus represents a versatile detection method.

  19. Rapid immunoassays for diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: Comparison of diagnostic accuracy, reproducibility, and costs in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Bankova, Andriyana; Andres, Yvonne; Horn, Michael P.; Alberio, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    Background Immunoassays are crucial in the work-up of patients with suspected heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and rapid tests have been recently developed. However, comparative data on diagnostic accuracy, reproducibility, and analytical costs of different immunoassays in clinical practice are limited. Methods Samples of 179 consecutive patients evaluated for suspected HIT in clinical practice using a polyspecific enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (GTI diagnostics; ELISA) and a rapid particle gel immunoassay (PaGIA), were additionally analysed with a IgG-specific chemiluminescent immunoassay (AcuStar HIT-IgG). Presence of HIT was defined as a positive functional heparin-induced platelet aggregation test. Diagnostic accuracy was determined for low, intermediate and high thresholds as previously established (ELISA: optical density 0.4, 1.3, and 2.0 respectively; PaGIA: positive/negative, titre of 4, titre of 32; AcuStar HIT-IgG: 1.0 U/ml, 2.8, 9.4) and reproducibility was assessed by repeated measurements. Costs of test determination were calculated taking reagents, controls, and working time of technicians according to Swiss health care system into account. Results Data on PaGIA results were available for 171 patients (95.5%), ELISA for 144 patients (80.4%), and AcuStar HIT-IgG for 179 patients (100%). Sensitivity was above 95% for all assays at low and intermediate thresholds. Specificity increased with higher thresholds and was above 90% for all assays with intermediate and high thresholds. Specificity of AcuStar HIT-IgG (92.8%; 95% CI 87.7, 96.2) was significantly higher than PaGIA (83.0%; 95% CI 76.3, 88.5) and higher than ELISA (81.8%, 95% CI 74.2, 88.0) at low threshold (p<0.05). Reproducibility was adequate for all assays. Total costs per test were CHF 51.02 for ELISA, 117.70 for AcuStar HIT-IgG, and 83.13 for PaGIA. Conclusions We observed favourable diagnostic accuracy measures and a high reproducibility for PaGIA and AcuStar HIT

  20. Rapid and sensitive detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in milk and ground beef using magnetic bead-based immunoassay coupled with tyramide signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Muhsin; Herzig, Gene P D; Jeong, Kwang Cheol; Dunigan, Samantha; Shah, Parth; Ahn, Soohyoun

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major foodborne pathogen that has posed serious problems for food safety and public health. Recent outbreaks and recalls associated with various foods contaminated by E. coli O157:H7 clearly indicate its deleterious effect on food safety. A rapid and sensitive detection assay is needed for this harmful organism to prevent foodborne illnesses and control outbreaks in a timely manner. We developed a magnetic bead-based immunoassay for detection of E. coli O157:H7 (the most well-known Shiga toxigenic E. coli strain) with a 96-well microplate as an assay platform. Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and tyramide signal amplification were coupled to the assay to increase its sensitivity and specificity. This immunoassay was able to detect E. coli O157:H7 in pure culture with a detection limit of 50 CFU/ml in less than 3 h without an enrichment step. The detection limit was decreased 10-fold to 5 CFU/ml with addition of a 3-h enrichment step. When this assay was tested with other nontarget foodborne pathogens and common enteric bacteria, no cross-reactivity was found. When tested with artificially contaminated ground beef and milk samples, the assay sensitivity decreased two- to fivefold, with detection limits of 250 and 100 CFU/ml, respectively, probably because of the food matrix effect. The assay results also were compared with those of a sandwich-type enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an ELISA coupled with IMS; the developed assay was 25 times and 4 times more sensitive than the standard ELISA and the IMS-ELISA, respectively. Tyramide signal amplification combined with IMS can improve sensitivity and specificity for detection of E. coli O157:H7. The developed assay could be easily adapted for other foodborne pathogens and will contribute to improved food safety and public health.

  1. Statistical approaches to developing a multiplex immunoassay for determining human exposure to environmental pathogens.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Swinburne A J; Simmons, Kaneatra J; Eason, Tarsha N; Griffin, Shannon M; Curioso, Clarissa L; Wymer, Larry J; Fout, G Shay; Grimm, Ann C; Oshima, Kevin H; Dufour, Al

    2015-10-01

    There are numerous pathogens that can be transmitted through water. Identifying and understanding the routes and magnitude of exposure or infection to these microbial contaminants are critical to assessing and mitigating risk. Conventional approaches of studying immunological responses to exposure or infection such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) and other monoplex antibody-based immunoassays can be very costly, laborious, and consume large quantities of patient sample. A major limitation of these approaches is that they can only be used to measure one analyte at a time. Multiplex immunoassays provide the ability to study multiple pathogens simultaneously in microliter volumes of samples. However, there are several challenges that must be addressed when developing these multiplex immunoassays such as selection of specific antigens and antibodies, cross-reactivity, calibration, protein-reagent interferences, and the need for rigorous optimization of protein concentrations. In this study, a Design of Experiments (DOE) approach was used to optimize reagent concentrations for coupling selected antigens to Luminex™ xMAP microspheres for use in an indirect capture, multiplex immunoassay to detect human exposure or infection from pathogens that are potentially transmitted through water. Results from Helicobacter pylori, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella typhimurium singleplexes were used to determine the mean concentrations that would be applied to the multiplex assay. Cut-offs to differentiate between exposed and non-exposed individuals were determined using finite mixed modeling (FMM). The statistical approaches developed facilitated the detection of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to H. pylori, C. jejuni, Toxoplasma gondii, hepatitis A virus, rotavirus and noroviruses (VA387 and Norwalk strains) in fifty-four diagnostically characterized plasma samples. Of the characterized samples, the detection rate was 87.5% for H

  2. Validation and evaluation of VapA-specific IgG and IgG subclass enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to identify foals with Rhodococcus equi pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Sanz, M G; Oliveira, A F; Loynachan, A; Page, A; Svansson, V; Giguère, S; Horohov, D W

    2016-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi (Rhodococcus hoagii/Prescottella equi) is a common cause of foal pneumonia, but its diagnosis remains a challenge for equine veterinarians. While the VapA-specific (virulence-associated protein A) immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has low sensitivity and specificity for detecting pneumonic foals, little is known about VapA-specific IgG subclasses. To evaluate the performance of VapA-specific ELISA for IgG and its subclasses IgGa, IgGb and IgG(T) in the early diagnosis of pneumonia caused by R. equi. Assay validation followed by assessment of diagnostic performance using archived samples from animals of known status. Serum samples from exposed (n = 125) and nonexposed adult horses (n = 10) and from experimentally challenged and naturally infected foals were used for ELISA validation. Post mortem and tissue culture records of the last 24 years from the Institute for Experimental Pathology at the University of Iceland in Keldur, Iceland laboratory were evaluated to confirm the absence of R. equi cases in Iceland. The diagnostic performance of VapA-specific IgG and its subclasses was evaluated using banked serum samples from pneumonic (n = 21) and healthy foals (n = 80). To evaluate each IgG assay, a cut-off value was selected based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and used to calculate sensitivity and specificity. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were calculated for each ELISA. Using sera from Iceland, where R. equi infection has not been reported, the VapA-specific IgG ELISA differentiated exposed from nonexposed horses. When used to identify infected foals, VapA-specific IgG, IgGa and IgGb had no diagnostic value. In contrast, IgG(T) had high sensitivity and specificity. Horses from Iceland are not exposed to VapA(+) R. equi and can serve as negative controls. VapA-specific IgG subclasses, with the exception of IgG(T), are poor predictors of disease. Further

  3. Immunoassays of soy proteins.

    PubMed

    Brandon, David L; Friedman, Mendel

    2002-10-23

    Proteins of soybeans (Glycine max) are widely used in animal and human nutrition. In addition to the bulk of the seed storage proteins, which are classified as albumins and globulins, approximately 6% of soybean proteins are classified as inhibitors of trypsin and chymotrypsin and approximately 0.5% are sugar-binding lectins. The two major classes of inhibitors are the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor, which inhibits trypsin, and the Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI), which inhibits both trypsin and chymotrypsin. Unless removed or inactivated, these inhibitors and lectins can impair the nutritional quality and safety of soy-based diets. On the other hand, several studies suggest that BBI can also function as an anticarcinogen, possibly through interaction with a cellular serine protease. Good-quality soybean proteins contribute to the nutritional value of many specialty foods including infant soy formulas and milk replacers for calves, and provide texture to many processed foods. However, they may also induce occasional allergic responses in humans. This paper outlines immunoassays developed to analyze for soy proteins in different soybean lines, in processed foods, and in nonsoy foods fortified with soy proteins. An assessment of the current status of immunoassays, especially of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for soybean inhibitors of digestive enzymes, soy globulins, and soy lectins, demonstrates the usefulness of these methods in plant and food sciences and in medicine.

  4. Rapid method for the detection of storage mites in cereals: feasibility of an ELISA based approach.

    PubMed

    Dunn, J A; Thind, B B; Danks, C; Chambers, J

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes the development of rapid immunodiagnostic tests for the detection of storage mite infestations in cereals and cereal products. The study's first phase (proof of concept) involved the production of a species-specific enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for the flour mite, Acarus siro (L.), a major pest of stored commodities. The specificity of this new assay was assessed against key stored product contaminants (13 species of mites of which three were predatory, five species of insects and five species of fungi) in the presence and absence of grain. The assay was species-specific (no cross-reactivity to other storage contaminants) and was unaffected by the presence of cereal antigens in the extract. In the study's second phase, species- and genera-specific ELISAs were developed for a range of key storage mite pests: the cosmopolitan food mite (Lepidoglyphus destructor), the grocers' itch mite (Glycyphagus domesticus), the grainstack mite (Tyrophagus longior), mites of the Tyrophagus and Glycyphagus generas, and all storage mites. All tests were demonstrably specific to target species or genera, with no cross-reactions observed to other storage pest contaminants or cereals. The final, validation phase, involved a comparative assessment of the species-specific A. siro and the genus-specific Tyrophagus ELISAs with the flotation technique using laboratory and field samples. Both ELISAs were quantitative (0-30 mites per 10 g wheat) and produced good comparative data with the flotation technique (A. siro r(2)=0.91, Tyrophagus spp. r(2)=0.99).

  5. Comparison of T24H-his, GST-T24H and GST-Ts8B2 recombinant antigens in western blot, ELISA and multiplex bead-based assay for diagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Hernández-González, Ana; Noh, John; Perteguer, María Jesús; Gárate, Teresa; Handali, Sukwan

    2017-05-15

    Currently, the reference standard assay for the serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the lentil lectin-bound glycoproteins/enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (LLGP-EITB). The main disadvantage of this technique is the complexity of obtaining and purifying the LLGP extract. This could be solved by replacement with highly specific recombinant antigens from Taenia solium. Based on previous studies, we selected and produced the recombinant Ts8B2 and T24H proteins and applied them to three diagnostic techniques: western blot (WB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the multiplex bead-based assay (MBA). The Ts8B2 and T24H cDNA sequences were expressed in a prokaryotic system and the corresponding expression products purified; three recombinant proteins were further characterized: T24H-his, GST-T24H and GST-Ts8B2. The proteins on WB, ELISA and MBA were tested against 149 sera from patients with NCC confirmed by brain imaging, 40 sera from patients with other parasitic diseases, and 131 sera from US. individuals without evidence of neurocysticercosis (clinical/serological/brain imaging). The sensitivity and specificity of each antigen by WB were calculated by counting the number of true positive, false positive, true negative and false negative results. Using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, the cut-off values for the ELISA and MBA were established as well as the sensitivity and specificity of each assay. All three antigens showed a high sensitivity on WB in active NCC cases with two or more viable cysts and low sensitivity for cases with single viable cyst or calcified lesions and inactive NCC. WB showed the highest specificity and sensitivity out of the three diagnostic techniques. The recombinant T24H-his was the best diagnostic reagent in WB (100% sensitivity, 99.4% specificity), exhibiting similar results to the LLGP-EITB, against the same panel of NCC sera. The GST-T24H antigen worked better than the others in ELISA and MBA

  6. Detection of c-reactive protein based on a magnetic immunoassay by using functional magnetic and fluorescent nanoparticles in microplates.

    PubMed

    Yang, S F; Gao, B Z; Tsai, H Y; Fuh, C Bor

    2014-11-07

    We report the preparation and application of biofunctional nanoparticles to detect C-reactive protein (CRP) in magnetic microplates. A CRP model biomarker was used to test the proposed detection method. Biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles, CRP, and biofunctional fluorescent nanoparticles were used in a sandwich nanoparticle immunoassay. The CRP concentrations in the samples were deduced from the reference plot, using the fluorescence intensity of the sandwich nanoparticle immunoassay. When biofunctional nanoparticles were used to detect CRP, the detection limit was 1.0 ng ml(-1) and the linear range was between 1.18 ng ml(-1) and 11.8 μg ml(-1). The results revealed that the method involving biofunctional nanoparticles exhibited a lower detection limit and a wider linear range than those of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and most other methods. For CRP measurements of serum samples, the differences between this method and ELISA in CRP measurements of serum samples were less than 13%. The proposed method can reduce the analysis time to one-third that of ELISA. This method demonstrates the potential to replace ELISA for rapidly detecting biomarkers with a low detection limit and a wide dynamic range.

  7. Detection of biomarkers for inflammatory diseases by an electrochemical immunoassay: the case of neopterin.

    PubMed

    Centi, Sonia; Tombelli, Sara; Puntoni, Mariarita; Domenici, Claudio; Franek, Milan; Palchetti, Ilaria

    2015-03-01

    An electrochemical immunoassay for neopterin was developed using recently produced specific antibodies immobilized to protein A-coated magnetic beads in combination with differential pulse voltammetry and screen-printed array of electrodes. Neopterin-alkaline phosphatase conjugate was used as label in a competitive assay format. Multiplexed analysis of neopterin was demonstrated by replacing the traditional ELISA with electrochemical detection and the traditional plastic wells with screen-printed array of electrodes. The optimized electrochemical method, based on polyclonal antibodies, reached a limit of detection of 0.008 ng/mL with an average RSD %=10. Serum samples collected from patients with sepsis, healthy volunteers and other patients without a confirmed clinical diagnosis were also analyzed. The obtained results, compared with those of a commercial ELISA kit, had a significant correlation, showing the possibility to distinguish among the serum samples from ill or healthy subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a simple gel permeation clean-up procedure coupled to a rapid disequilibrium enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of Sudan I dye in spices and sauces.

    PubMed

    Oplatowska, Michalina; Stevenson, Paul J; Schulz, Claudia; Hartig, Lutz; Elliott, Christopher T

    2011-09-01

    Sudan dyes have been found to be added to chilli and chilli products for illegal colour enhancement purposes. Due to the possible carcinogenic effect, they are not authorized to be used in food in the European Union or the USA. However, over the last few years, many products imported from Asian and African countries have been reported via the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed in the European Union to be contaminated with these dyes. In order to provide fast screening method for the detection of Sudan I (SI), which is the most widely abused member of Sudan dyes family, a unique (20 min without sample preparation) direct disequilibrium enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed. The assay was based on polyclonal antibodies highly specific to SI. A novel, simple gel permeation chromatography clean-up method was developed to purify extracts from matrices containing high amounts of fat and natural pigments, without the need for a large dilution of the sample. The assay was validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria. The detection capability was determined to be 15 ng g(-1) in sauces and 50 ng g(-1) in spices. The recoveries found ranged from 81% to 116% and inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation from 6% to 20%. The assay was used to screen a range of products (85 samples) collected from different retail sources within and outside the European Union. Three samples were found to contain high amounts (1,649, 722 and 1,461 ng g(-1)) of SI by ELISA. These results were confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The innovative procedure allows for the fast, sensitive and high throughput screening of different foodstuffs for the presence of the illegal colorant SI.

  9. Direct comparison of the histidine-rich protein-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests in Plasmodium falciparum reference clones and fresh ex vivo field isolates from Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Performance of the histidine-rich protein-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests were directly compared using Plasmodium falciparum reference strains and fresh ex vivo isolates from Cambodia against a panel of standard anti-malarials. The objective was to determine which of these two common assays is more appropriate for studying drug susceptibility of “immediate ex vivo” (IEV) isolates, analysed without culture adaption, in a region of relatively low malaria transmission. Methods Using the HRP-2 and MSF methods, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against a panel of malaria drugs were determined for P. falciparum reference clones (W2, D6, 3D7 and K1) and 41 IEV clinical isolates from an area of multidrug resistance in Cambodia. Comparison of the IC50 values from the two methods was made using Wilcoxon matched pair tests and Pearson’s correlation. The lower limit of parasitaemia detection for both methods was determined for reference clones and IEV isolates. Since human white blood cell (WBC) DNA in clinical samples is known to reduce MSF assay sensitivity, SYBR Green I fluorescence linearity of P. falciparum samples spiked with WBCs was evaluated to assess the relative degree to which MSF sensitivity is reduced in clinical samples. Results IC50 values correlated well between the HRP-2 and MSF methods when testing either P. falciparum reference clones or IEV isolates against 4-aminoquinolines (chloroquine, piperaquine and quinine) and the quinoline methanol mefloquine (Pearson r = 0.85-0.99 for reference clones and 0.56-0.84 for IEV isolates), whereas a weaker IC50 value correlation between methods was noted when testing artemisinins against reference clones and lack of correlation when testing IEV isolates. The HRP-2 ELISA produced a higher overall success rate (90% for producing IC50 best-fit sigmoidal curves), relative to only a 40% success rate for the

  10. Development of IgY based sandwich ELISA for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin G (SEG), an egc toxin.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Sowmya; Ramlal, Shylaja; Kingston, Joseph; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2016-11-21

    Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is a major foodborne illness caused by staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). It is a well known fact that foodborne outbreak investigations are solely characterized by commercially available immunoassay kits. However, these assays encompass only few enterotoxins such as SEA-SEE which are renowned as "classical" enterotoxins and unable to detect any other novel enterotoxins even though their involvement is predicted. In this context, the present study involved development of a sandwich ELISA immunoassay for the specific detection of "non-classical" enterotoxin G (SEG). The toxin belongs to enterotoxin gene cluster (egc) which comprises a bunch of five toxin genes that are known to co-express. Thus, the developed assay might indirectly speculate the presence of other toxins in the cluster. The efficiency of ELISA was compared with PCR analysis where all strains possessing seg were found positive for toxin production. Additionally, analogous to other studies which reported the co-occurrence of seg and sei, the PCR analysis accomplished in the study evinced the same. The sandwich format allowed sensitive detection with a detection limit of 1ng/mL. High specificity was achieved in presence of non-target protein as well as bacteria. Likewise, staphylococcal protein A (SpA) interference that is inevitably associated with immunoassays was eliminated by implementation of anti-SEG IgY in our study. Consequently, chicken IgY were used to capture target antigen in developed sandwich ELISA. Further, spiking studies and analysis on natural samples emphasized the robustness as well as applicability of developed method. Altogether, the established assay could be a reliable detection tool for the routine investigation of SEG as well as to predict other egc toxins in samples from food and clinical sources.

  11. Development of rapid flow-through-based dot-immunoassay for serodiagnosis of leptospirosis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Subathra, M; Senthilkumar, T M A; Ramadass, P; Dhinakar Raj, G

    2011-01-01

    An IgG-ELISA used recombinant antigen and a rapid flow-through enzyme immunoassay were developed for rapid screening of leptospiral antibodies in dogs using recombinant LipL41, which is one of the conserved outer membrane proteins in pathogenic leptospires as the coating antigen. Results from this study were compared with the standard microscopic agglutination test and found that the sensitivity and specificity of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were 75.46% and 93.29% and whereas that of flow-through-based dot-immunobinding assay were 87.73% and 89.63%, respectively. Relative merits of these tests were also assessed. The flow-through-based dot-immunobinding assay was thus proved to be a valid screening test for canine leptospirosis.

  12. Development and Validation of a Fluorescent Multiplexed Immunoassay for Measurement of Transgenic Proteins in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Yeaman, Grant R; Paul, Sudakshina; Nahirna, Iryna; Wang, Yongcheng; Deffenbaugh, Andrew E; Liu, Zi Lucy; Glenn, Kevin C

    2016-06-22

    In order to provide farmers with better and more customized alternatives to improve yields, combining multiple genetically modified (GM) traits into a single product (called stacked trait crops) is becoming prevalent. Trait protein expression levels are used to characterize new GM products and establish exposure limits, two important components of safety assessment. Developing a multiplexed immunoassay capable of measuring all trait proteins in the same sample allows for higher sample throughput and savings in both time and expense. Fluorescent (bead-based) multiplexed immunoassays (FMI) have gained wide acceptance in mammalian research and in clinical applications. In order to facilitate the measurement of stacked GM traits, we have developed and validated an FMI assay that can measure five different proteins (β-glucuronidase, neomycin phosphotransferase II, Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab2, and CP4 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase) present in cotton leaf from a stacked trait product. Expression levels of the five proteins determined by FMI in cotton leaf tissues have been evaluated relative to expression levels determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) of the individual proteins and shown to be comparable. The FMI met characterization requirements similar to those used for ELISA. Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that FMI results are equivalent to those determined by conventional individual ELISAs to measure GM protein expression levels in stacked trait products but with significantly higher throughput, reduced time, and more efficient use of resources.

  13. PCB 118 and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Immunoassays for Screening Dioxins in Retail Fish.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Ashieda, Kazunori; Okuyama, Akira; Tanioka, Youhei; Sakata, Kazuto; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Sasaki, Kumiko; Maitani, Tamio

    2008-05-14

    The efficacy of a combination of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits was examined for screening the toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of dioxins in retail fish. The coplanar PCB-EIA system, which is a competitive immunoassay specific for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 118, was tested as a screening method for mono- ortho PCBs. The Ah immunoassay (Ah-I), which is an ELISA-based aryl hydrocarbon receptor binding assay, was analyzed for its screening ability for non- ortho PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Dilution and recovery tests using purified fish extracts revealed no major interference of the matrix in the PCB-EIA and suggested that the matrix effect was minimized in the Ah-I. Finally, the results for the fish samples ( n = 20) showed a strong correlation between this method and high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry for the determination of the TEQ concentrations of mono- ortho PCBs ( r = 0.99) and non- ortho PCBs and PCDD/Fs ( r = 0.97). These data indicate that our method is suitable for screening retail fish to determine the TEQ concentrations of dioxins.

  14. Photoelectrochemical detection of enzymatically generated CdS nanoparticles: Application to development of immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Javier; Saa, Laura; Grinyte, Ruta; Pavlov, Valeri

    2016-03-15

    We report an innovative photoelectrochemical process (PEC) based on graphite electrode modified with electroactive polyvinylpyridine bearing osmium complex (Os-PVP). The system relies on the in situ enzymatic generation of CdS quantum dots (QDs). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) catalyzes the hydrolisis of sodium thiophosphate (TP) to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) which in the presence Cd(2+) ions yields CdS semiconductor nanoparticles (SNPs). Irradiation of SNPs with the standard laboratory UV-illuminator (wavelength of 365 nm) results in photooxidation of 1-thioglycerol (TG) mediated by Os-PVP complex on the surface of graphite electrode at applied potential of 0.31 V vs. Ag/AgCl. A novel immunoassay based on specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) combined with the PEC methodology was developed. Having selected the affinity interaction between bovine serum albumine (BSA) with anti-BSA antibody (AB) as a model system, we built the PEC immunoassay for AB. The new assay displays a linear range up to 20 ngmL(-1) and a detection limit (DL) of 2 ngmL(-1) (S/N=3) which is lower 5 times that of the traditional chromogenic ELISA test employing p-nitro-phenyl phosphate (pNPP). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sensitive chemiluminescent immunoassay of triclopyr by digital image analysis.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Aurora N; Sánchez, Francisco G; Baro, Enrique N; Díaz, Ana F G; Aguilar, Alfonso; Algarra, Manuel

    2012-08-15

    An image based detection of chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CL-ELISA) for the quantification of triclopyr has been developed. The immunoassay was an indirect competitive immunoassay with an anti-rabbit secondary antibody conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Chemiluminescence was produced by the luminol/H(2)O(2)/HRP reaction, detected by a monochrome video CCD camera and digitized with an Imagraph IC-PCI frame grabber using a custom program developed in C(++) (Microsoft Visual C(++) 6.0). Two main improvements are reported in the data processing software: the implementation of a circular mesh covering the perimeter of each well, eliminating diffuse light from the neighboring wells, and the use of volume (the integration of light intensity of all pixels that define a well) as an analytical signal instead of CL intensity or area (as usual in commercial plate readers) to improve precision for normalization of the total light output. The standard curve was produced for 0.01-10 ng/L triclopyr. The limit of detection was 0.8 ng/L and the variation coefficient was 3.07% (n=10, P=0.05).

  16. Diagnostic ELISA for parietal cell autoantibody using tomato lectin-purified gastric H+/K(+)-ATPase (proton pump).

    PubMed

    Chuang, J S; Callaghan, J M; Gleeson, P A; Toh, B H

    1992-01-01

    Circulating parietal cell autoantibodies, a useful diagnostic marker for autoimmune gastritis and pernicious anaemia, are currently routinely tested by serum immunofluorescence reactivity with frozen sections of rodent stomach. The major molecular targets of these parietal cell autoantibodies have recently been demonstrated to be the alpha- and the beta-subunits of the gastric H+/K(+)-ATPase (proton pump). We have demonstrated that tomato lectin binds specifically to the beta-subunit of the proton pump and concomittantly co-purifies the alpha-subunit. In the present study, we have exploited the latter observation for the development of a diagnostic ELISA for the detection of parietal cell autoantibodies and compared the performance of this assay with an ELISA using crude gastric membranes. The ELISAs were tested on 72 parietal cell autoantibody-positive sera, 72 parietal cell autoantibody-negative sera and 72 disease-control sera. The ELISA using lectin-purified canine proton pump was superior to that using crude canine gastric membranes in that it was about two-fold more sensitive (82% vs. 43%). With an assay sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 90%, we propose that the ELISA using the lectin-purified proton pump is a rapid, simple, sensitive and specific diagnostic immunoassay for parietal cell autoantibodies.

  17. Monoclonal Antibodies to Recombinant Fag e 3 Buckwheat Allergen and Development of a Two-site ELISA for Its Quantification.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae Hyun; Park, Jung Won

    2017-09-01

    Buckwheat is a major cause of anaphylaxis, and Fag e 3 is the key major allergen in buckwheat. However, an immunoassay system for the quantification of Fag e 3 has yet to be developed. We developed a 2-site enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) produced against recombinant Fag e 3. We applied this ELISA to quantify native Fag e 3 in total buckwheat extract. Four clones of mAbs were produced, and all recognized vicilin allergens not only from buckwheat, but also from peanut and walnut. However, the ELISA using these antibodies was only able to quantify Fag e 3 in the total extract after addition of 1% sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and heating, which facilitated dissociation of the allergen. The detection limit of the developed 2-site ELISA was 0.8 μg/mL. The measurement of Fag e 3 in the total extract of buckwheat showed that approximately 12% of protein in total buckwheat extract was Fag e 3. We have developed an ELISA system for the quantification of the group 3 buckwheat allergen, Fag e 3, specifically. This assay will be useful for standardization of buckwheat allergens and monitoring of buckwheat contamination in foods.

  18. An Ultra-Sensitive Immunoassay for Quantifying Biomarkers in Breast Tumor Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Carol B.; Man, Yan-Gao; Mason, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) have been validated at the highest level of evidence as clinical biomarkers of prognosis in breast cancer. The American Society of Clinical Oncology recommends using uPA and PAI-1 levels in breast tumors for deciding whether patients with newly diagnosed node-negative breast cancer can forgo adjuvant chemotherapy. The sole validated method for quantifying uPA and PAI-1 levels in breast tumor tissue is a colorimetric ELISA assay that takes 3 days to complete and requires 100-300 mg of fresh or frozen tissue. In this study we describe a new assay method for quantifying PAI-1 levels in human breast tumor tissue. This assay combines pressure-cycling technology to extract PAI-1 from breast tumor tissue with a highly sensitive liposome polymerase chain reaction immunoassay for quantification of PAI-1 in the tissue extract. The new PAI-1 assay method reduced the total assay time to one day and improved assay sensitivity and dynamic range by >100, compared to ELISA. PMID:24494029

  19. Establishing an indirect sandwich enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies against Histomonas meleagridis from experimentally infected specific pathogen-free chickens and turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Windisch, M.; Hess, M.

    2010-01-01

    No serological method suitable for large screening of antibodies against Histomonas meleagridis in poultry is available so far, the objective targeted in the present investigation. Consequently, an ELISA was developed as a suitable tool for this purpose. Investigating serum samples from non-infected specific pathogen-free (spf) chickens and commercial turkeys a high-background signal was noticed when ELISA plates were directly coated with purified parasitic cells. This signal was significantly reduced by coating the plates with a polyclonal rabbit antibody, raised against histomonads, prior to the addition of the antigen. Adopting this approach five antigen preparations were compared and a high reproducibility could be demonstrated reflected by a very low coefficient of variation of 5.3% and 1.7% for the chicken and turkey sera, respectively. After this initial development all further experiments were carried out with one set of plates and the same antigen preparation. Investigating chicken sera obtained from birds infected at 14 days of life, OD values above a predetermined cut-off value were observed 2 weeks post-infection and a rise of IgG antibodies was noticed until 6 weeks post-infection, when the experiment was terminated. Non-protected turkeys infected at 6 weeks of age displayed an increasing IgG response until 14 days post-infection, prior to the death of animals due to histomonosis. In comparison, the majority of turkeys vaccinated with attenuated histomonads, obtained through prolonged passaging and challenged 4 weeks later with virulent parasites, displayed a demonstrable antibody response after the challenge only. Antibody titres increased until 4 weeks post-challenge when the birds were killed and the study was terminated. Altogether, the developed indirect sandwich ELISA proved to be a quick and efficient method to detect IgG antibodies against H. meleagridis in sera of experimentally infected chickens and turkeys and will be a helpful tool to

  20. Establishing an indirect sandwich enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies against Histomonas meleagridis from experimentally infected specific pathogen-free chickens and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Windisch, M; Hess, M

    2009-04-06

    No serological method suitable for large screening of antibodies against Histomonas meleagridis in poultry is available so far, the objective targeted in the present investigation. Consequently, an ELISA was developed as a suitable tool for this purpose. Investigating serum samples from non-infected specific pathogen-free (spf) chickens and commercial turkeys a high-background signal was noticed when ELISA plates were directly coated with purified parasitic cells. This signal was significantly reduced by coating the plates with a polyclonal rabbit antibody, raised against histomonads, prior to the addition of the antigen. Adopting this approach five antigen preparations were compared and a high reproducibility could be demonstrated reflected by a very low coefficient of variation of 5.3% and 1.7% for the chicken and turkey sera, respectively. After this initial development all further experiments were carried out with one set of plates and the same antigen preparation. Investigating chicken sera obtained from birds infected at 14 days of life, OD values above a predetermined cut-off value were observed 2 weeks post-infection and a rise of IgG antibodies was noticed until 6 weeks post-infection, when the experiment was terminated. Non-protected turkeys infected at 6 weeks of age displayed an increasing IgG response until 14 days post-infection, prior to the death of animals due to histomonosis. In comparison, the majority of turkeys vaccinated with attenuated histomonads, obtained through prolonged passaging and challenged 4 weeks later with virulent parasites, displayed a demonstrable antibody response after the challenge only. Antibody titres increased until 4 weeks post-challenge when the birds were killed and the study was terminated. Altogether, the developed indirect sandwich ELISA proved to be a quick and efficient method to detect IgG antibodies against H. meleagridis in sera of experimentally infected chickens and turkeys and will be a helpful tool to

  1. Development of an integrase-based ELISA for specific diagnosis of individuals infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Rikhtegaran Tehrani, Zahra; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Soori, Shahrzad; Azizi, Mohammad; Khabiri, Alireza

    2015-04-01

    Currently, enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) are the most common immunological diagnostic methods that are used as the screening tool in HIV detection. Among all three major genes of HIV, the products of gag and env are usually used in EIAs (ELISAs and rapid tests). Hence, the presence of cross reacting antibodies against these antigens leads to the appearance of repetitive false positive results in screening tests. Re-testing the primary reactive samples with EIAs using other HIV antigens can considerably reduce the rate of false positive results. The products of pol gene may act as an appropriate candidate in this context. Integrase is a conserved and immunogenic product of HIV, encoded by the pol gene. The aim of this research was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of an ELISA detecting integrase antibodies. Recombinant integrase was produced in Escherichia coli to develop the integrase-based ELISA. Assay performance was evaluated by HIV positive and negative sera and an HIV panel of BBI (PRB-601). The sensitivity and specificity of assay was determined as 96.7 [95% confidence interval: 91.3-98.9%] and 100% [95% CI: 96.1-100%], respectively. High specificity of this assay may suggest its possible use in the detection of HIV.

  2. Multiplexed electrochemical immunoassay of biomarkers using metal sulfide quantum dot nanolabels and trifunctionalized magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dianping; Hou, Li; Niessner, Reinhard; Xu, Mingdi; Gao, Zhuangqiang; Knopp, Dietmar

    2013-08-15

    A novel multiplexed stripping voltammetric immunoassay protocol was designed for the simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers (CA 125, CA 15-3, and CA 19-9 used as models) using PAMAM dendrimer-metal sulfide quantum dot (QD) nanolabels as distinguishable signal tags and trifunctionalized magnetic beads as an immunosensing probe. The probe was prepared by means of co-immobilization of primary monoclonal anti-CA 125, anti-CA 15-3 and anti-CA 19-9 antibodies on a single magnetic bead. The PAMAM dendrimer-metal sulfide QD nanolabels containing CdS, ZnS and PbS were synthesized by using in situ synthesis method, which were utilized for the labeling of polyclonal rabbit anti-CA 125, anti-CA 15-3 and anti-CA 19-9 detection antibodies, respectively. A sandwich-type immunoassay format was adopted for the simultaneous determination of target biomarkers in a low-binding microtiter plate. The subsequent anodic stripping voltammetric analysis of cadmium, zinc, and lead components released by acid from the corresponding QD nanolabels was conducted at an in situ prepared mercury film electrode based on the difference of peak potentials. Experimental results indicated that the multiplexed immunoassay enabled the simultaneous detection of three cancer biomarkers in a single run with wide dynamic ranges of 0.01-50 U mL(-1) and detection limits (LODs) of 0.005 U mL(-1). Intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) were less than 7.2% and 10.4%, respectively. No significant differences at the 0.05 significance level were encountered in the analysis of 10 clinical serum specimens between the multiplexed immunoassay and a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Aqueous two-phase systems enable multiplexing of homogeneous immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Arlyne B.; Frampton, John P.; Huang, Nien-Tsu; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Paczesny, Sophie; Takayama, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of protein biomarkers is critical for biomarker validation and early disease detection. Current multiplex immunoassays are time consuming costly and can suffer from low accuracy. For example, multiplex ELISAs require multiple, tedious, washing and blocking steps. Moreover, they suffer from nonspecific antibody cross-reactions, leading to high background and false-positive signals. Here, we show that co-localizing antibody-bead pairs in an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) enables multiplexing of sensitive, no-wash, homogeneous assays, while preventing nonspecific antibody cross-reactions. Our cross-reaction-free, multiplex assay can simultaneously detect picomolar concentrations of four protein biomarkers ((C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10), CXCL9, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-6) in cell supernatants using a single assay well. The potential clinical utility of the assay is demonstrated by detecting diagnostic biomarkers (CXCL10 and CXCL9) in plasma from 88 patients at the onset of the clinical symptoms of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). PMID:25083509

  4. Detection of flagellar antigen of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in canine faeces with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)--new prospects for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Monfort, J D; Bech-Nielsen, S; Stills, H F

    1994-01-01

    A new diagnostic procedure was developed to detect the flagellar antigen of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in canine faecal specimens and was tested on faecal samples from random-source dogs obtained from the local dog pound. Extraction of acid-soluble proteins was performed on faecal specimens and the extracted material was evaluated using species-specific monoclonal antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The assay detected all C. jejuni or C. coli infected specimens compared with direct selective faecal culture. One of 18 faecal specimens culture-negative for C. jejuni was identified as positive by the assay, i.e. a false positive rate of 1 of 18 (5.6%) and a corresponding specificity of 94.4%. These results suggest that the screening procedure developed to detect flagellar antigens of C. jejuni and C. coli in canine faecal samples should be further investigated as a diagnostic alternative to culture.

  5. Development of a bead-based multiplex immunoassay for simultaneous quantitative detection of IgG serum antibodies against measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella-zoster virus.

    PubMed

    Smits, Gaby P; van Gageldonk, Pieter G; Schouls, Leo M; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Berbers, Guy A M

    2012-03-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is normally used to quantify the amount of serum IgG antibodies against measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella-zoster virus (MMRV). However, this method is time- and material-consuming. Therefore, a multiplex immunoassay for the simultaneous quantitative detection of antibodies against MMRV was developed. In-house as well as commercially available antigens can be used, making the assay available for all laboratories. The multiplex assay is much more sensitive than the separate ELISAs and has a high specificity, and only 5 μl of serum is needed. Heterologous inhibition did not exceed 11.5%, while homologous inhibition varied between 91.3 and 97.9%. Good correlations with the in-house ELISAs for measles (R(2) = 0.98), mumps (R(2) = 0.97), and rubella (R(2) = 0.97) virus as well as with the ELISA kit for varicella-zoster virus (R(2) = 0.95) were obtained. In conclusion, the MMRV multiplex assay is a good alternative to the conventional ELISAs and suitable for use in serosurveillance and vaccine studies.

  6. Determination of ANA specificity using multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay in patients with ANA positivity at high titres after infliximab treatment: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Caramaschi, Paola; Ruzzenente, Orazio; Pieropan, Sara; Volpe, Alessandro; Carletto, Antonio; Bambara, Lisa Maria; Biasi, Domenico

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate ANA specificity using the fully automated multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay in patients affected either by rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis who developed strong positivity for ANA as assessed by indirect immunofluorescent method on HEp-2 cells during infliximab treatment. Three men affected by ankylosing spondylitis and 12 women affected by rheumatoid arthritis who developed ANA positivity at high titres during infliximab treatment underwent the identification of ANA specificity by multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay; moreover anti-DNA and anti-ENA antibodies were tested by indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA method, respectively. In 4 out of 15 cases, the determination of ANA reactivity by multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay was also performed on the serum collected before infliximab administration. One patient affected by rheumatoid arthritis showed multiple ANA reactivities against SS-A, SS-B, RNP, Sm, Jo-1 and histones; one patient affected by ankylosing spondylitis resulted positive for the same autoantibodies, except for anti-Sm antibody. Moreover, two patients, one with rheumatoid arthritis and one with ankylosing spondylitis, showed single antibody specificity to SS-B and RNP, respectively. The remaining 11 cases did not show any positivity. Instead, all the patients resulted negative for anti-ENA antibodies by the ELISA method. In the four cases tested for ANA specificity by multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay before and after infliximab administration no difference was found. The search for anti-DNA antibody always resulted negative by both the traditional immunofluorescent assay and the novel technique. The use of multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay in patients treated with infliximab with ANA positivity at high titres allowed to find some ANA specificities which were not revealed by ELISA method. Nevertheless, the majority of patients resulted negative in spite of

  7. The differences in short- and long-term varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immunoglobulin G levels following varicella vaccination of healthcare workers measured by VZV fluorescent-antibody-to-membrane-antigen assay (FAMA), VZV time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay and a VZV purified glycoprotein enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Maple, P A C; Haedicke, J; Quinlivan, M; Steinberg, S P; Gershon, A A; Brown, K E; Breuer, J

    2016-08-01

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) reporting no history of varicella frequently receive varicella vaccination (vOka) if they test varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immunoglobulin G (IgG) negative. In this study, the utilities of VZV-IgG time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (VZV-TRFIA) and a commercial VZV-IgG purified glycoprotein enzyme immunoassay (gpEIA) currently used in England for confirming VZV immunity have been compared to the fluorescent-antibody-to-membrane-antigen assay (FAMA). A total of 110 HCWs received two doses of vOka vaccine spaced 6 weeks apart and sera collected pre-vaccination (n = 100), at 6 weeks post-completion of vaccination (n = 86) and at 12-18 months follow-up (n = 73) were analysed. Pre-vaccination, by FAMA, 61·0% sera were VZV IgG negative, and compared to FAMA the sensitivities of VZV-TRFIA and gpEIA were 74·4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 57·9-87·0] and 46·2% (95% CI 30·1-62·8), respectively. Post-completion of vaccination the seroconversion rate by FAMA was 93·7% compared to rates of 95·8% and 70·8% determined by VZV-TRFIA and gpEIA, respectively. At 12-18 months follow-up seropositivity rates by FAMA, VZV-TRFIA and gpEIA were 78·1%, 74·0% and 47·9%, respectively. Compared to FAMA the sensitivities of VZV-TRFIA and gpEIA for measuring VZV IgG following vaccination were 96·4% (95% CI 91·7-98·8) and 74·6% (95% CI 66·5-81·6), respectively. Using both FAMA and VZV-TRFIA to identify healthy adult VZV susceptibles and measure seroconversion showed that vOka vaccination of HCWs is highly immunogenic.

  8. Clostridium difficile infection diagnostics - evaluation of the C. DIFF Quik Chek Complete assay, a rapid enzyme immunoassay for detection of toxigenic C. difficile in clinical stool samples.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Karin; Karlsson, Hanna; Norén, Torbjörn

    2016-11-01

    Diagnostic testing for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has, in recent years, seen the introduction of rapid dual-EIA (enzyme immunoassay) tests combining species-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) with toxin A/B. In a prospective study, we compared the C. DIFF Quik Chek Complete test to a combination of selective culture (SC) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of the toxin A gene. Of 419 specimens, 68 were positive in SC including 62 positive in LAMP (14.7%). The combined EIA yielded 82 GDH positives of which 47 were confirmed toxin A/B positive (11%) corresponding to a sensitivity and specificity of 94% for GDH EIA compared to SC and for toxin A/B EIA a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 99% compared to LAMP. Twenty different PCR ribotypes were evenly distributed except for UK 081 where only 25% were toxin A/B positive compared to LAMP. We propose a primary use of a combined GDH toxin A/B EIA permitting a sensitive 1-h result of 379 of 419 (90%, all negatives plus GDH and toxin EIA positives) referred specimens. The remaining 10% being GDH positive should be tested for toxin A/B gene on the same day and positive results left to a final decision by the physician. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF INFLAMMATION BIOMARKERS DURING SIMULATED CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS USING A MICROFLUIDIC IMMUNOASSAY DEVICE – A PILOT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Sasso, Lawrence A.; Aran, Kiana; Guan, Yulong; Ündar, Akif; Zahn, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    This work demonstrates the use of a continuous online monitoring system for tracking systemic inflammation biomarkers during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) procedures. The ability to monitor inflammation biomarkers during CPB will allow surgical teams to actively treat inflammation and reduce harmful effects on postoperative morbidity and mortality, enabling improved patient outcomes. A microfluidic device has been designed which allows automation of the individual processing steps of a microbead immunoassay to allow continuous tracking of antigen concentrations. Preliminary experiments have demonstrated that the results produced by the micro-immunoassay are comparable to results produced from a standard ELISA (r=0.98). Additionally, integration of the assay with a simulated CPB circuit has been demonstrated with temporal tracking of C3a concentrations within blood continuously sampled from the circuit. The presented work describes the motivation, design challenges, and preliminary experimental results of this project. PMID:23305589

  10. Novel potentiometry immunoassay with amplified sensitivity for diphtheria antigen based on Nafion, colloidal Ag and polyvinyl butyral as matrixes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dianping; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Zhang, Linyan; Zhong, Xia; Dai, Jianyuan; Liu, Yan

    2004-11-30

    A novel potentiometry immunoassay with amplified sensitivity has been developed for the detection of diphtheria antigen (Diph) via immobilizing diphtheria antibody (anti-Diph) on a platinum electrode based on Nafion, colloidal Ag (Ag), and polyvinyl butyral (PVB) as matrixes in this study. The modified procedure was further characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The influence and factors influencing the performance of resulting immunosensor were studied in detail. The resulting immunosensor exhibited sigmoid curve with log Diph concentrations, high sensitivity (51.4 mV/decade), wide linear range from 8 to 800 ng ml(-1) with a detection limit of 1.5 ng ml(-1), rapid potentiometric response (<3 min) and long-term stability (>6 months). Analytical results of clinical samples show that the developed immunoassay is comparable with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) method, implying a promising alternative approach for detecting diphtheria antigen in the clinical diagnosis.

  11. The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, D.E.; Brimfield, A.A.; Cook, L.

    1996-10-01

    With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detection soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition these antibodies were found to be highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies extended the level of sensitivity to {approximately}80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These reagents offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances. More recent efforts have focussed on developing antibodies specific for sulfur mustard a highly reactive vesicating agent.

  12. Brood stock segregation of spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha by use of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the fluorescent antibody technique (FAT) affects the prevalence and levels of Renibacterium salmoninarum infection in progeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pascho, Ronald J.; Elliott, Diane G.; Streufert, Jonathan M.

    1991-01-01

    A study of the effect of maternal Renibacterium salmoninarum infection levels on the prevalence and levels of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in progeny fish was conducted at a production salmon hatchery. A total of 302 mating pairs of spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha was screened in August 1988 for R. salmoninarum by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). On the basis of ELISA testing of kidney tissues from all fish and the testing of ovarian fluid samples from a subsample of the females by a direct membrane filtration fluorescent antibody technique (MF-FAT), selected egg lots were segregated into 2 groups of 30 egg lots or about 135 000 eggs each. One group contained egg lots from male and female parents that had low R. salmoninarum infection levels or tested negative for R. salmoninarum (low-BKD group), and the other group contained egg lots from female parents with relatively high R. salmoninarum infection levels and male parents with various infection levels (high-BKD group). The progeny groups were maintained in separate rearing units supplied with untreated river water, and were monitored for R. salmoninarum by the ELISA until they were released from the hatchery in April 1990. Total mortality of the juvenile fish was higher (p = 0.0001) in the high-BKD group (20%) than in the low-BKD group (10 %). Mortality in the high-BKD group was highest after the fish were moved from nursery tanks to raceways, and clinical BKD became evident in this group. During the 11 mo of raceway rearing, mortality in the high-BKD group was 17 % compared with 5 % for the low-BKD group. An ELISA analysis of smolts just before release showed an R. salmoninarum infection rate of 85 % in the high-BKD group and 62 % in the low-BKD group. Of the positive fish, 98 % in the low-BKD group and 55 % in the high-BKD group had low infection levels, whereas 36 % in the high-BKD group and only 1 % in the low-BKD group had high infection levels. The results of this research

  13. Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay of Mycotoxins: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Maragos, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Immunoassays are routinely used in the screening of commodities and foods for fungal toxins (mycotoxins). Demands to increase speed and lower costs have lead to continued improvements in such assays. Because many reported mycotoxins are low molecular weight (below 1 kDa), immunoassays for their detection have generally been constructed in competitive heterogeneous formats. An exception is fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA), a homogeneous format that does not require the separation of bound and free labels (tracer). The potential for rapid, solution phase, immunoassays has been realized in the development of FPIA for many of the major groups of mycotoxins, including aflatoxins, fumonisins, group B trichothecenes (primarily deoxynivalenol), ochratoxin A, and zearalenone. This review describes the basic principles of FPIA and summarizes recent research in this area with regard to mycotoxins. PMID:22069541

  14. Development of an isotope dilution assay for precise determination of insulin, C-peptide, and proinsulin levels in non-diabetic and type II diabetic individuals with comparison to immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Kippen, A D; Cerini, F; Vadas, L; Stöcklin, R; Vu, L; Offord, R E; Rose, K

    1997-05-09

    We describe the application of a stable isotope dilution assay (IDA) to determine precise insulin, C-peptide, and proinsulin levels in blood by extraction from serum and quantitation by mass spectrometry using analogues of each target protein labeled with stable isotopes. Insulin and C-peptide levels were also determined by immunoassay, which gave consistently higher results than by IDA, the relative difference being larger at low concentrations. Insulin, C-peptide, and proinsulin levels were all shown by IDA to be higher in type II diabetics than in non-diabetics, with mean values rising from 22 (+/- 2) to 92 (+/- 8), 335 (+/- 11) to 821 (+/- 24), and 6 (+/- 1) to 37 (+/- 3) pM, respectively. Interestingly, the ratio between IDA and immunoassay values for insulin levels increased from 1.3 in non-diabetics to 1.7 in type II diabetics. The ratio between proinsulin and insulin levels by IDA increased from 0.24 in non-diabetics to 0.36 in type II diabetics, whereas the ratio between C-peptide and insulin levels by IDA decreased from 17.6 to 10.7. This disproportionate change in protein levels between different types of individuals has implications for the metabolism of insulin in the diabetics studied (type II) and suggests that C-peptide levels are not always a reliable guide as to pancreatic insulin secretion. In addition, levels of the 33-residue C-peptide (partially trimmed form) were shown to be less than 10% that of the fully trimmed 31-residue C-peptide levels, and we tested IDA in a clinical context by two post-pancreatic graft studies. IDA was shown to give direct, positive identification of the target protein with unrivaled accuracy, avoiding many of the problems associated with present methodology for protein determination.

  15. Evaluation of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for serological diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in a group of non-ulcer dyspepsia sufferers.

    PubMed Central

    Ching, C. K.; Thompson, S.; Buxton, C.; Holgate, C.; Holmes, G. K.

    1993-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach is associated with gastritis and peptic ulceration and may be causative. A noninvasive test for this organism might be useful in managing some patients with dyspepsia without the need for further investigation. We have evaluated a new commercially available serological test (Helico-G ELISA, Porton Cambridge, UK) for this infection to assess its diagnostic accuracy in a retrospective study of 115 patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia. Sixty-three of these patients (55%) were found to have H. pylori infection and gastritis on histology. A sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 90% were obtained. No significant fall in the antibody titres was found in a subgroup of 15 patients who were selected to complete a course of triple therapy despite significant improvement in their dyspepsia score and confirmed eradication of H. pylori organism in 80% of these patients. We conclude that the test has limited value in aiding clinical decision of managing patients with dyspepsia. PMID:8208642

  16. Detection of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid in river water with a colloidal gold-based lateral flow immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Wu, Aihua; Hu, Jing; Lin, Manman; Wen, Mengtang; Zhang, Xiao; Xu, Chongxin; Hu, Xiaodan; Zhong, Jianfeng; Jiao, Lingxia; Xie, Yajing; Zhang, Cunzhen; Yu, Xiangyang; Liang, Ying; Liu, Xianjin

    2015-08-15

    3-Phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) is a general metabolite of synthetic pyrethroids. It could be used as a generic biomarker for multiple pyrethroids exposure for human or pyrethroid residues in the environment. In this study, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against 3-PBA were developed by using PBA-bovine serum albumin (BSA) as an immunogen. In the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format, the I50 and I10 values of purified mAbs were 0.63 and 0.13 μg/ml, respectively, with a dynamic range between 0.19 and 2.04 μg/ml. Then, the colloidal gold (CG)-based lateral flow immunoassay was established based on the mAbs. The working concentration of coating antigen and CG-labeled antibodies and the blocking effects were investigated to get optimal assay performance. The cutoff value for the assay was 1 μg/ml 3-PBA, and the detection time was within 10 min. A total of 40 river water samples were spiked with 3-PBA at different levels and determined by the lateral flow immunoassay without any sample pretreatments. The negative false rate was 2.5%, and no positive false results were observed at these levels. This lateral flow immunoassay has the potential to be an on-site screening method for monitoring 3-PBA or pyrethroid residues in environmental samples.

  17. Development of an Immunoassay for the Detection of the Phenylpyrazole Insecticide Fipronil

    PubMed Central

    Vasylieva, Natalia; Ahn, Ki Chang; Barnych, Bogdan; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    Phenylpyrazole insecticides such as fipronil have been used as replacements for organophosphates. The wide application of fipronil raises concern about environmental contamination and risk for fish, birds, other non-targeted beings and human health. A sensitive, competitive indirect heterologous enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed. Antibodies with different specificities to fipronil and its metabolites were produced. Two ELISAs having IC50 values of 0.58 ± 0.06 and 2.6 ± 0.4 ng/mL were developed. Design of different haptens and coating antigens resulted in two assays with distinct cross-reactivity patterns for structurally related compounds: 96%, 38% and 101% vs 39%, 1.4% and 25% for fipronil-sulfide, fipronil-detrifluoromethylsulfonyl and fipronil-desulfinyl, respectively. Performance of the immunoassays was demonstrated by a recovery study from spiked water, human serum and urine matrices, giving recovery values in the range of 85–111% for different concentrations. The assays demonstrated good correlation in fipronil recovery with conventional LC-MS/MS analysis. The generic assay 2265 has the sensitivity to measure fipronil and its analogs in serum at levels relevant for exposure monitoring. The assays were used to analyze human urine samples obtained from exposure studies and serum samples from rats treated with fipronil-containing diet. PMID:26196357

  18. Ultrasensitive Detection of Toxins Using Immunoassay Amplification. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    memo dtd 25 Jul 1994 .».. AD-B164 360 illEillll AD ULTRASENSITIVE DETECTION OP TOXINS USING IMMUNOASSAY AMPLIFICATION PHASE I PINAL REPORT...affinity antibodies. 2. Assay protocol. Ideally, the assay should be simple to perform, and the reagents should be stable enough to be practical for field...highest assay result by this Immunoassay . The only logical conclusion from this work, was that there was another contaminant in the food sample against

  19. Quantitative analysis of phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase in genetically modified herbicide tolerant pepper by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Shim, Youn-Young; Shin, Weon-Sun; Moon, Gi-Seong; Kim, Kyung-Hwan

    2007-04-01

    An immunoassay method was developed to quantitatively detect phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase (PAT) encoded by the Bialaphos resistance (bar) gene in genetically modified (GM) pepper. The histidine-tagged PAT was overexpressed in Escherichia coli M15 (pQE31-bar) and efficiently purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography. A developed sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (S-ELISA) method (detection limit: 0.01 microg/ml) was 100-fold more sensitive than a competitive indirect ELISA (CI-ELISA) method or Western blot analysis in detecting the recombinant PAT. In real sample tests, PAT in genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) peppers was successfully quantified [4.9 +/- 0.4 microg/g of sample (n = 6)] by the S-ELISA method. The S-ELISA method developed here could be applied to other GMHT crops and vegetables producing PAT.

  20. Monoclonal antibodies specific for immunorecessive epitopes of glucuronoxylomannan, the major capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans, reduce serotype bias in an immunoassay for cryptococcal antigen.

    PubMed

    Percival, Ann; Thorkildson, Peter; Kozel, Thomas R

    2011-08-01

    Immunoassay for detection of glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), the major capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans, is an important tool for diagnosis of cryptococcosis. However, immunoassays that are based solely or in part on detection with polyclonal antibodies may show serotype bias in detection of GXM, particularly limited sensitivity for serotype C. In this study, we describe detection of GXM in an antigen capture sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that used a cocktail of two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). MAb F12D2 was previously produced by immunization with GXM that had been treated to remove O-acetyl groups, a major source of serotype specificity. MAb F12D2 has a high degree of reactivity with GXM of serotypes A, B, C, and D, but the reactivity with serotype D was less than was found with other MAbs. MAb 339 is highly reactive with GXM of serotypes A and D. Use of a combination of the two MAbs produced an immunoassay that had the best properties of both MAbs, including good reactivity with serotype C, which is an emerging threat in sub-Saharan Africa. These results suggest that next-generation immunoassays for diagnosis of cryptococcosis may be formulated by (i) use of immunization and hybridoma screening strategies that are designed to prospectively meet the needs of immunoassay performance and (ii) careful selection of MAbs that span the expected polysaccharide serotypes in the subject patient population.

  1. Miniaturized immunoassays: moving beyond the microplate.

    PubMed

    Verch, Thorsten; Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    After more than 40 years, immunoassays are still the backbone of protein biomarker analysis in clinical diagnostics and drug development. They have come a long way since their inception, incorporating technical developments including monoclonal antibodies, novel labels and lately microfluidics. A number of microfluidic platforms have been tested, such as centrifugational compact disc assays, lab-on-a-chip, arrays and digital electrochemical assays. This review focuses on commercial applications of microfluidic immunoassays with reference to some applied academic examples of interest. Advantages and disadvantages of the platform technologies are discussed in general.

  2. Evaluation of an inhouse rapid ELISA test for detection of giardia in domestic sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jolaine M; Hankenson, F Claire

    2010-11-01

    Sheep (Ovis aries) are increasingly used at our institution as models of human disease. Within the research environment, routine husbandry and handling of sheep has potential for transmission of zoonotic agents, including Giardia. The prevalence of Giardia in sheep may approach 68%. Classic diagnostic testing involves microscopic examination for fecal cysts or trophozoites; however, limitations of microscopy include time, labor, and potential false-negative results due to intermittent shedding. We wished to determine whether a commercial rapid ELISA used for Giardia detection in dogs and cats could be used in sheep. Fecal samples collected from sheep (n = 93) were tested with a combination of 6 methods: reference laboratory fecal flotation, reference laboratory ELISA, inhouse fecal flotation, and commercially available tests (enzyme immunoassay, direct fluorescence antibody assay, and rapid ELISA). Prevalence of Giardia infection in facility sheep was 11.8% (11 of 93 animals). Of the 11 samples considered positive, 3 were confirmed by multiple testing methods, and 5 were positive by microscopy alone. Inhouse fecal flotation for 8 samples was positive on only 1 of 2 consecutive testing days. The rapid ELISA test exhibited 0% sensitivity for sheep giardiasis. Overall, the examined methods had low sensitivities and low positive predictive values. Despite limitations, microscopic analysis of repeat fecal samples remained the most accurate diagnostic method for ovine giardiasis among the methods tested.

  3. Detection of antibodies against therapeutic proteins in the presence of residual therapeutic protein using a solid-phase extraction with acid dissociation (SPEAD) sample treatment prior to ELISA.

    PubMed

    Smith, Holly W; Butterfield, Anthony; Sun, Deqin

    2007-12-01

    The evaluation of the potential immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins in nonclinical safety studies has become complicated by the development of biopharmaceuticals that are dosed at high concentrations and/or have long half lives. These products remain in the circulation of the test system for extended periods of time, resulting in samples containing high concentrations of drug that interfere with standard immunogenicity assays. This protocol describes a novel solid-phase extraction with acid dissociation (SPEAD) sample treatment that removes the interfering therapeutic protein "drug" from the sample prior to performance of a direct immunoassay for detection of anti-drug antibodies (ADA). A biotin-avidin capture technique is used to physically separate ADA and ADA:Drug complexes from the drug and the sample matrix. The acid dissociation step removes the ADA from the biotin-avidin complex, and detection is performed by simple direct enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). The SPEAD treatment allows for detection of ADA in an ELISA format and results in a >10-100-fold increase in residual drug tolerance as compared to an immunoassay without the sample treatment. The method can be used for serum samples from all species, but is presented here as an assay for detection of anti-drug antibodies in cynomolgus monkey serum.

  4. Assessment of an ELISA Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, David L.; Lau, Joann M.

    2012-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a powerful immunological technique for quantifying small amounts of compounds and has been used in research and clinical settings for years. Although there are laboratory exercises developed to introduce the ELISA technique to students, their ability to promote student learning has not been…

  5. Assessment of an ELISA Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, David L.; Lau, Joann M.

    2012-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a powerful immunological technique for quantifying small amounts of compounds and has been used in research and clinical settings for years. Although there are laboratory exercises developed to introduce the ELISA technique to students, their ability to promote student learning has not been…

  6. A Simple ELISA Exercise for Undergraduate Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Moore, Cathy R.

    Understanding of immunological techniques such as the Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) is an important part of instructional units in human health, developmental biology, microbiology, and biotechnology. This paper describes a simple ELISA exercise for undergraduate biology that effectively simulates the technique using a paper model.…

  7. Fully mechanized latex immunoassay for serum lipoprotein(a).

    PubMed

    Abe, A; Yoshimura, Y; Sekine, T; Maeda, S; Yamashita, S; Noma, A

    1994-03-01

    We have developed a fully automated system to quantify lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) in human serum, based on the latex-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay by application of the Immuno Chemistry Analyzer 501X. This assay was carried out with undiluted serum and was able to detect at Lp(a) levels higher than 4.0 mg/l. When judged to be out of range of the calibration (> 600 mg/l), the sample was automatically re-tested after automatic 10-fold dilution. Within-run C.V.s ranged from 1.9 to 2.1% and between-run C.V.s from 2.7 to 3.9%. Results by the present method were in good agreement with those by the in-house ELISA (r = 0.978) and the commercial ELISA (r = 0.990). The distribution of Lp(a) levels in sera from 508 healthy donors was highly skewed; the mean and median were 158 mg/l and 105 mg/l, respectively.

  8. A Multiplex Microsphere Immunoassay for Zika Virus Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Susan J; Furuya, Andrea; Zou, Jing; Xie, Xuping; Dupuis, Alan P; Kramer, Laura D; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2017-02-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of infectious agents is essential for patient care, disease control, and countermeasure development. The present serologic diagnosis of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection relies mainly on IgM-capture ELISA which is confounded with the flaw of cross-reactivity among different flaviviruses. In this communication, we report a multiplex microsphere immunoassay (MIA) that captures the diagnostic power of viral envelope protein (that elicits robust, yet cross-reactive antibodies to other flaviviruses) and the differential power of viral nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS5 (that induce more virus-type specific antibodies). Using 153 patient specimens with known ZIKV and/or dengue virus (DENV; a closely related flavivirus) infections, we showed that (i) ZIKV envelope-based MIA is equivalent or more sensitive than IgM-capture ELISA in diagnosing ZIKV infection, (ii) antibody responses to NS1 and NS5 proteins are more ZIKV-specific than antibody response to envelope protein, (iii) inclusion of NS1 and NS5 in the MIA improves the diagnostic accuracy when compared with the MIA that uses envelope protein alone. The multiplex MIA achieves a rapid diagnosis (turnaround time<4h) and requires small specimen volume (10μl) in a single reaction. This serologic assay could be developed for use in clinical diagnosis of ZIKV infection and for monitoring immune responses in vaccine trials.

  9. A survey of 17α-ethinylestradiol and mestranol residues in Hawkesbury River, Australia, using a highly specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) demonstrates the levels of potential biological significance.

    PubMed

    Uraipong, Chatchaporn; Allan, Robin D; Li, Chunhua; Kennedy, Ivan R; Wong, Victor; Lee, Nanju Alice

    2017-10-01

    This study reports on the potential status of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and mestranol (MeEE2) residues in aquatic environments in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, based on the analysis by a specific ELISA we developed. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against the EE2 hapten with a linker attached at the C3-position to direct the antibody binding towards the ring D of EE2/MeEE2. Using this approach, an ELISA highly specific to EE2 and MeEE2 was successfully developed, showing less than 3.1% cross-reactivity (% CR) with other major steroidal sex hormones and their derivatives. The assay performed with the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.04 ± 0.01µg/L for both EE2 and MeEE2, and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.05 ± 0.01ng/L when it was coupled with the SM2-Biobeads solid phase extraction. Prior to conducting the survey study, it was validated against the gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) method, which showed high correlation with R(2) of 0.934. Fresh surface water samples collected at different sites along Hawkesbury River in New South Wales (NSW) were analyzed for the EE2/ MeEE2 residues using the developed ELISA. The EE2/MeEE2 levels were found to range between 4.1 and 8.3ng/L in Emigrant Creek, NSW, where the primary activity was macadamia plantation, and higher levels between 15 and 29ng/L in South Creek, NSW, Greater Western Sydney at sites upstream and downstream of the municipal sewage treatment plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Serodiagnosis of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections by a novel NS1-based ELISA devoid of cross-reactivity with dengue virus antibodies: a multicohort study of assay performance, 2015 to 2016

    PubMed Central

    Steinhagen, Katja; Probst, Christian; Radzimski, Christiane; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Emmerich, Petra; van Esbroeck, Marjan; Schinkel, Janke; Grobusch, Martin P; Goorhuis, Abraham; Warnecke, Jens M; Lattwein, Erik; Komorowski, Lars; Deerberg, Andrea; Saschenbrecker, Sandra; Stöcker, Winfried; Schlumberger, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Serological diagnosis of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections is challenging due to high cross-reactivity between flaviviruses. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of a novel anti-ZIKV ELISA based on recombinant ZIKV non-structural protein 1 (NS1). Assay sensitivity was examined using sera from 27 patients with reverse transcription (RT)-PCR-confirmed and 85 with suspected ZIKV infection. Specificity was analysed using sera from 1,015 healthy individuals. Samples from 252 patients with dengue virus (n = 93), West Nile virus (n = 34), Japanese encephalitis virus (n = 25), chikungunya virus (n = 19) or Plasmodium spp. (n = 69) infections and from 12 yellow fever-vaccinated individuals were also examined. In confirmed ZIKV specimens collected ≥ 6 days after symptom onset, ELISA sensitivity was 58.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 36.0–78.4) for IgM, 88.2% (95% CI: 64.4–98.0) for IgG, and 100% (95% CI: 78.4–100) for IgM/IgG, at 99.8% (95% CI: 99.2–100) specificity. Cross-reactivity with high-level dengue virus antibodies was not detected. Among patients with potentially cross-reactive antibodies anti-ZIKV positive rates were 0.8% (95% CI: 0–3.0) and 0.4% (95% CI: 0–2.4) for IgM and IgG, respectively. Providing high specificity and low cross-reactivity, the NS1-based ELISA has the potential to aid in counselling patients, pregnant women and travellers after returning from ZIKV-endemic areas. PMID:28006649

  11. Rapid detection of autoantibodies to dsDNA with the particle gel immunoassay (ID-PaGIA)

    PubMed Central

    Seltsam, A; Schwind, P; Abraham, K; Hiepe, F; Cygan, S; Aebischer, I; Salama, A

    2002-01-01

    Patients and methods: Serum samples were collected from 40 unselected healthy blood donors and 200 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or a positive antinuclear antibody screen, or both. The samples were tested in the presence of red high density polystyrene particles coated with purified human dsDNA using the gel technique (Micro Typing System, ID-PaGIA, particle gel immunoassay). The results were compared with those obtained by the two standard anti-dsDNA antibody detection methods, Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence test (CLIF) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The three anti-dsDNA assays exhibited an overall agreement of 87% and significant correlation with each other (p<0.0001). In the SLE group (n=71), 45 patients (63%) were found to be positive by ID-PaGIA compared with only 11/129 (9%) patients in the non-SLE group. Thus the ID-PaGIA had a sensitivity of 63%, and a specificity of 92% for SLE. In comparison, the standard detection methods showed sensitivities of 62% (CLIF) and 70% (ELISA) and specificities of 99% (CLIF) and 84% (ELISA) for SLE. Anti-dsDNA reactivity in the agglutination assay correlated closely with the quantities of antibody obtained by CLIF (r=0.81, p<0.0001) and ELISA (r=0.73, p<0.0001). Conclusions: The new particle gel agglutination test is a sensitive and specific immunoassay. It is a simple test procedure that might be well suited as a rapid screening method. PMID:11874846

  12. Analytical validation of a reference laboratory ELISA for the detection of feline leukemia virus p27 antigen.

    PubMed

    Buch, Jesse S; Clark, Genevieve H; Cahill, Roberta; Thatcher, Brendon; Smith, Peter; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Leutenegger, Christian M; O'Connor, Thomas P; Beall, Melissa J

    2017-09-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is an oncogenic retrovirus of cats. Immunoassays for the p27 core protein of FeLV aid in the detection of FeLV infections. Commercial microtiter-plate ELISAs have rapid protocols and visual result interpretation, limiting their usefulness in high-throughput situations. The purpose of our study was to validate the PetChek FeLV 15 ELISA, which is designed for the reference laboratory, and incorporates sequential, orthogonal screening and confirmatory protocols. A cutoff for the screening assay was established with 100% accuracy using 309 feline samples (244 negative, 65 positive) defined by the combined results of FeLV PCR and an independent reference p27 antigen ELISA. Precision of the screening assay was measured using a panel of 3 samples (negative, low-positive, and high-positive). The intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was 3.9-7.9%; the inter-assay CV was 6.0-8.6%. For the confirmatory assay, the intra-assay CV was 3.0-4.7%, and the inter-assay CV was 7.4-9.7%. The analytical sensitivity for p27 antigen was 3.7 ng/mL for inactivated whole FeLV and 1.2 ng/mL for purified recombinant FeLV p27. Analytical specificity was demonstrated based on the absence of cross-reactivity to related retroviruses. No interference was observed for samples containing added bilirubin, hemoglobin, or lipids. Based on these results, the new high-throughput design of the PetChek FeLV 15 ELISA makes it suitable for use in reference laboratory settings and maintains overall analytical performance.

  13. Immunoassay as a screening tool for industrial toxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, T.

    1986-08-01

    Immunoassay techniques may represent useful screening tools to assist analysts interested in the presence and amounts of organic toxicants in biological fluids. The widespread application of immunoassay methods in medicinal and forensic (drugs of abuse) chemistry has resulted in such screening methodologies. Four methodologies of potential benefit are considered: the free radical assay technique, the enzyme-mediated immunoassay technique, radioimmunoassay, and hemagglutination. Each of these immunoassays is based on the competitive displacement of the labeled drug (or toxicant) from the antibody complex by the unlabeled drug-toxicant in the sample.

  14. Development of ELISA for the detection of transgenic vegetative insecticidal protein in GM crops/produce.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R

    2012-01-11

    In the process of the development of insect-resistant genetically modified (GM) crops and also to evaluate the consistency in the expression of toxin under field conditions, immunological assays are commonly being used. An immunoassay was developed to support the labelling of vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip3A)-based GM produce. The developed ELISA for the measurement of Vip3A is a triple antibody sandwich procedure utilising a polyclonal capture antibody (mouse anti-Vip3A) and a polyclonal detection antibody (rabbit anti-Vip3A) followed by use of a third HRP-conjugated anti-species antibody (goat anti-rabbit IgG). The limit of detection limit of the ELISA assay was 16 ng ml(-1) with a linear quantification range from approximately 31 to 500 ng ml(-1) of Vip3A protein. Furthermore, the assay was in-house validated with GM brinjal samples. The assay was specific, sensitive and reproducible, which can be helpful to detect and track down the spread of unapproved and intentionally/unintentionally released GM produce harbouring Vip protein.

  15. Anti-idiotypic nanobody-alkaline phosphatase fusion proteins: Development of a one-step competitive enzyme immunoassay for fumonisin B1 detection in cereal.

    PubMed

    Shu, Mei; Xu, Yang; Liu, Xing; Li, Yanping; He, Qinghua; Tu, Zhui; Fu, Jinheng; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2016-06-14

    A rapid and sensitive one-step competitive enzyme immunoassay for the detection of FB1 was developed. The anti-idiotypic nanobody-alkaline phosphatase (Ab2β-Nb-AP) was validated by the AP enzyme activity and the properties of bounding to anti-FB1-mAb (3F11) through colorimetric and chemiluminescence analyses. The 50% inhibitory concentration and the detection limit (LOD) of colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for FB1 were 2.69 and 0.35 ng mL(-1), respectively, with a linear range of 0.93-7.73 ng mL(-1). The LOD of the chemiluminescence ELISA (CLIA) was 0.12 ng mL(-1), and the IC50 was 0.89 ± 0.09 ng mL(-1) with a linear range of 0.29-2.68 ng mL(-1). Compared with LC-MS/MS, the results of this assay indicated the reliability of the Ab2β-Nb-AP fusion protein based one-step competitive immunoassay for monitoring FB1 contamination in cereals. The Ab2β-Nb-AP fusion proteins have the potential to replace chemically-coupled probes in competitive enzyme immunoassay systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Truncated recombinant non-structural protein 2C-based indirect ELISA for FMD sero-surveillance.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Sonalika; Mohapatra, Jajati Keshari; Pandey, Laxmi Kant; Sharma, Gaurav Kumar; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2013-11-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a transboundary animal disease caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus. In India, systematic preventive vaccination using inactivated trivalent (O, A and Asia 1) vaccine is the strategy being adopted to control FMD. The use of non-structural protein (NSP)-contaminated inactivated vaccine raises concerns over differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) by NSP based immunoassays. However, 2C being a membrane associated protein usually remain absent in vaccine formulations and thus, anti-2C response is one of the most reliable indicator of the FMDV infection. In this study, 34 amino acids from N-terminus of 2C protein were removed to eliminate membrane-binding amphipathic helicase activity for the expression of recombinant protein in soluble form. Truncated 2C (2Ct) was utilized for development of an indirect ELISA (I-ELISA) for bovine and the developed 2Ct I-ELISA was validated using a panel constituting of serum of naïve, vaccinated and infected animals. The assay was compared with the in-house r3AB3 I-ELISA and the overall concordance was 85.31%. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the 2Ct I-ELISA were 92.9% and 94.0%, respectively. The apparent prevalence of anti-2C antibodies for random bovine samples tested by the developed assay was 23.7%. The developed ELISA will help in augmenting the sensitivity of detection if used in combination with r3AB3 I-ELISA for sero-surveillance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. ELISA-BASE: An Integrated Bioinformatics Tool for Analyzing and Tracking ELISA Microarray Data

    SciTech Connect

    White, Amanda M.; Collett, James L.; Seurynck-Servoss, Shannon L.; Daly, Don S.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2009-06-15

    ELISA-BASE is an open-source database for capturing, organizing and analyzing protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarray data. ELISA-BASE is an extension of the BioArray Soft-ware Environment (BASE) database system, which was developed for DNA microarrays. In order to make BASE suitable for protein microarray experiments, we developed several plugins for importing and analyzing quantitative ELISA microarray data. Most notably, our Protein Microarray Analysis Tool (ProMAT) for processing quantita-tive ELISA data is now available as a plugin to the database.

  18. Modification of a deoxynivalenol-antigen-mimicking nanobody to improve immunoassay sensitivity by site-saturation mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yu-Lou; He, Qing-Hua; Xu, Yang; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yuan-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    A nanobody (N-28) which can act as a deoxynivalenol (DON) antigen has been generated, and its residues Thr102-Ser106 were identified to bind with anti-DON monoclonal antibody by alanine-scanning mutagenesis. Site-saturation mutagenesis was used to analyze the plasticity of five residues and to improve the sensitivity of the N-28-based immunoassay. After mutagenesis, three mutants were selected by phage immunoassay and were sequenced. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of the immunoassay based on mutants N-28-T102Y, N-28-V103L, and N-28-Y105F were 24.49 ± 1.0, 51.83 ± 2.5, and 35.65 ± 1.6 ng/mL, respectively, showing the assay was, respectively, 3.2, 1.5, and 2.2 times more sensitive than the wild-type-based assay. The best mutant, N-28-T102Y, was used to develop a competitive phage ELISA to detect DON in cereals with high specificity and accuracy. In addition, the structural properties of N-28-T102Y and N-28 were investigated, revealing that the affinity of N-28-T102Y decreased because of increased steric hindrance with the large side chain. The lower-binding-affinity antigen mimetic may contribute to the improvement of the sensitivity of competitive immunoassays. These results demonstrate that nanobodies would be a favorable tool for engineering. Moreover, our results have laid a solid foundation for site-saturation mutagenesis of antigen-mimicking nanobodies to improve immunoassay sensitivity for small molecules.

  19. A highly sensitive immunoassay for atrazine based on covalently linking the small molecule hapten to a urea-glutaraldehyde network on a polystyrene surface.

    PubMed

    Sai, Na; Sun, Wenjing; Wu, Yuntang; Sun, Zhong; Yu, Guanggui; Huang, Guowei

    2016-11-01

    A new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for atrazine was developed based on covalent bonding of the small molecule hapten, 2-mercaptopropionic acid-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine (MPA-atrazine), to urea-glutaraldehyde (UGA)-treated microtiter plates. In this assay, the microtiter plate surface was treated with the UGA network to both introduce amino groups, which were used to cross-link with the hapten carboxylate groups, and efficiently prevent non-specific adsorption of antibodies, which successfully eliminated the time-consuming routine blocking step. Compared with HNO3-H2SO4-APTES-hapten coated ELISA (modified with a HNO3-H2SO4-APTES mixture and covalent-linked hapten) and conventional ELISA (coated with hapten-carrier protein conjugates), the novel ELISA format increased the sensitivity by approximately 3.5-fold and 7.5-fold, respectively, and saved 2.5h and 34h of coating hapten time, respectively. The method's 50% inhibition concentration for atrazine was 5.54ngmL(-1), and the limit of detection was 0.16ngmL(-1) after optimization of reaction conditions. Furthermore, the ELISA was adapted for analysis of atrazine in corn, rice, and water samples, demonstrating recoveries of 90%-108%. Thus, the assay provides a convenient alternative to conventional, laborious immunoassays for routine supervision of residue detection in food and the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of an original RT-PCR–ELISA multiplex assay for MDR1 and MRP, along with p53 determination in node-positive breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, J M; Etienne, M C; Formento, J L; Francoual, M; Rostagno, P; Peyrottes, I; Ettore, F; Teissier, E; Leblanc-Talent, P; Namer, M; Milano, G

    1999-01-01

    The long-term prognostic value of tumoural MDR1 and MRP, along with p53 and other classical parameters, was analysed on 85 node-positive breast cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based adjuvant therapy. All patients underwent tumour resection plus irradiation and adjuvant chemotherapy (the majority receiving fluorouracil–epirubicin–cyclophosphamide). Median follow-up for the 54 alive patients was 7.8 years. Mean age was 53.7 years (range 28–79) and 54 patients were post-menopausal. MDR1 and MRP expression were quantified according to an original reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction multiplex assay with colourimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection(β2-microglobulin as control). P53 protein was analysed using an immunoluminometric assay (Sangtec). MDR1 expression varied within an 11-fold range (mean 94, median 83), MRP within a 45-fold range (mean 315, median 242) and p53 protein from the limit of detection (0.002 ng mg−1) up to 35.71 ng mg−1(mean 1.18, median 0.13 ng mg−1). P53 protein was significantly higher in oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative than in ER-positive tumours (P = 0.039). The higher the p53, the lower the MDR1 expression (P = 0.015, r = –0.27). P53 was not linked to progesterone receptor (PR) status, S phase fraction, or MRP. Significantly greater MDR1 expression was observed in grade I tumours (P = 0.029). No relationship was observed between MDR1 and MRP. Neither MDR1 nor MRP was linked to ER or PR status. Unlike MDR1, MRP was correlated with the S phase: the greater the MRP, the lower the S phase (P = 0.006, r = –0.42). Univariate Cox analyses revealed that MDR1, MRP, p53 and S phase had no significant influence on progression-free or specific survival. A tendency suggested that the greater the p53, the shorter the progression-free survival (P = 0.076 as continuous and 0.069 as dichotomous). © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10638986

  1. A direct immunoassay for detecting diatoms in groundwater as an indicator of the direct influence of surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, C.E.; Schrock, R.M.; Reilly, T.J.; Baehr, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GWUDISW) is of concern in communities where growing public demand on groundwater resources has resulted in increased withdrawals and hydraulic stress near surface water bodies. Under these conditions, contaminants such as methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) and biological materials have been detected in domestic wells. Other contaminants and pathogens associated with surface water are not routinely tested for in groundwater-supplied systems. To address the need for methods to easily identify potentially vulnerable supplies, a direct immunoassay for the quantitative detection of diatoms in raw water samples was developed as a measure of surface water influence on groundwater. Cell wall preparations from Nitzschia palea Ku??tzing, a freshwater diatom found throughout North America, were used to produce a polyclonal antibody that was applied in a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed to detect the presence of N. palea cell wall components. The direct immunoassay allows detection at 500 cells L-1, a level similar to diatom concentrations observed in samples of groundwater collected near the test site. This investigation was the first attempt to utilize an ELISA as an indicator of surface water influence on groundwater. Further research is needed to develop more specific diatom-based monoclonal antibodies, determine cross-reactivity, and optimize sample processing and ELISA procedures for development of a standardized method. ?? Springer 2005.

  2. A direct immunoassay for detecting diatoms in groundwater as an indicator of the direct influence of surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, C.E.; Schrock, R.M.; Reilly, T.J.; Baehr, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GWUDISW) is of concern in communities where growing public demand on groundwater resources has resulted in increased withdrawals and hydraulic stress near surface water bodies. Under these conditions, contaminants such as methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) and biological materials have been detected in domestic wells. Other contaminants and pathogens associated with surface water are not routinely tested for in groundwater-supplied systems. To address the need for methods to easily identify potentially vulnerable supplies, a direct immunoassay for the quantitative detection of diatoms in raw water samples was developed as a measure of surface water influence on groundwater. Cell wall preparations from Nitzschia palea Kützing, a freshwater diatom found throughout North America, were used to produce a polyclonal antibody that was applied in a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed to detect the presence of N. palea cell wall components. The direct immunoassay allows detection at 500 cells L−1, a level similar to diatom concentrations observed in samples of groundwater collected near the test site. This investigation was the first attempt to utilize an ELISA as an indicator of surface water influence on groundwater. Further research is needed to develop more specific diatom-based monoclonal antibodies, determine cross-reactivity, and optimize sample processing and ELISA procedures for development of a standardized method.

  3. Production of polyclonal antibody against madecassoside and development of immunoassay methods for analysis of triterpene glycosides in Centella asiatica.

    PubMed

    Tassanawat, Patcharin; Putalun, Waraporn; Yusakul, Gorawit; Sritularak, Boonchoo; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Centella asiatica (L.) Urban consists of two major triterpene glycosides, asiaticoside (AS) and madecassoside (MA), as active components used for wound healing and enhancing memory. To produce a polyclonal antibody against madecassoside (MA-PAb) and develop enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Eastern blotting methods for quantitative analysis of triterpene glycosides in Centella asiatica. An ELISA method was developed using polyclonal antibody against MA. An Eastern blotting method on the PES membrane was established for determination of MA and AS. The immunoassays were validated for sensitivity, precision, specificity and accuracy. The prepared MA-PAb shows specificity to MA and AS. The measuring range of triterpene glycosides was 0.39-50 µg/mL using the ELISA method. An Eastern blotting method was developed for determining individual MA and AS, which could be detected in the range of 62.5-500 ng. The limit of detection for MA and AS was 31.25 ng. The two methods developed showed good specificity, precision, and accuracy, and also correlated with high-performance liquid chromatography. These immunoassays have several advantages that include high sensitivity as well as being rapid and facile for determination of the triterpene glycosides in C. asiatica. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Biosensor immunoassay for the screening of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in retail fish.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Miyoshi, Noriko; Sasaki, Kumiko; Maitani, Tamio

    2008-06-09

    Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) often make up the majority of the toxic equivalent (TEQ) contribution of dioxins found in fish samples. For the purpose of making risk assessments, it is therefore important to develop screening methods for determining TEQ concentrations of DL-PCBs in retail fish. We have developed a rapid biosensor immunoassay (BIA) for DL-PCBs that uses a surface plasmon resonance sensor (Biacore 3000). The BIA is highly specific for 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118) that is generally the most abundant DL-PCB isomer found in fish. The fish extracts were first cleaned up on a multilayer silica gel column followed by an alumina column, then subjected to the assay. The quantitative limit of the assay was 1 ng PCB 118 per gram of tested sample. Dilution and recovery tests using purified fish extracts suggested that the matrix effect was minimized in the assay by diluting the analyzed samples. The assay results for retail fish samples (n=7) agreed well with those obtained by an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) using the same monoclonal antibody: ELISA has been already validated for determining DL-PCBs in fish samples, so BIA performs well in this analysis. Finally, BIA results for the TEQ concentrations of DL-PCBs in retail fish samples (n=10) correlated well with those obtained by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (r=0.89). Our method is therefore useful for screening retail fish to determine the TEQ concentrations of DL-PCBs.

  5. Homogeneous immunoassay based on aggregation of antibody-functionalized gold nanoparticles coupled with light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Du, Baoan; Li, Zhengping; Cheng, Yongqiang

    2008-05-30

    A universal platform of homogeneous noncompetitive immunoassay, using human immunoglobulin (IgG) as a model analyte, has been developed. The assay is based on aggregation of antibody-functionalized gold nanoparticles directed by the immunoreaction coupled with light scattering detection with a common spectrofluorimeter. In phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) solution, the light scattering intensity of the gold nanoparticles functionalized with goat-anti-human IgG can be greatly enhanced by addition of the human IgG. Based on this phenomenon, a wide dynamic range of 0.05-10 microg ml(-1) for determination of human IgG can be obtained, and the detection limit can reach 10 ng ml(-1). The proposed immunoassay can be accomplished in a homogeneous solution with one-step operation within 10 min and has been successfully applied to the determination of human IgG in serum samples, in which the results are well consistent with those of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indicating its high selectivity and practicality. Therefore, the gold nanoparticle-based light scattering method can be used as a model to establish the general methods for protein assay in the fields of molecular biology and clinical diagnostics.

  6. Novel ELISAs for screening of the biogenic amines GABA, glycine, beta-phenylethylamine, agmatine, and taurine using one derivatization procedure of whole urine samples.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Han; Wynveen, Paul; Nichkova, Mikaela; Kellermann, Gottfried

    2010-08-01

    The inhibitory neurotransmitters GABA, glycine and agmatine and neuromodulators beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA) and taurine are important biogenic amines of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems in the body. Abnormalities in the metabolism of these biomarkers have been implicated in a vast number of neurological diseases. Novel competitive immunoassays, using one unique whole urine derivatization procedure applicable for all five biomarkers, have been developed. The determination of these biomarkers was highly reproducible: the coefficient of variance of inter- and intra-assay variation is between 3.9% and 9.8% for all assays. The assays show a good linearity in urine samples within the range of 100-400 mg Cr/dL and specificity when urine samples are spiked with biogenic amines. The recoveries are between 76 and 154%. The correlation between HPLC and ELISA for glycine and taurine (n = 10) showed regression coefficients of 0.97 and 0.98, respectively. An in vivo study on the urinary clearance of beta-PEA, agmatine and taurine after oral intake by healthy individuals demonstrated the specificity and clinical significance of these new immunoassays. The immunoassays are useful for clinical and basic research where a fast and accurate assay for the screening of biogenic amines in urine is required, without preclearance of the sample.

  7. Direct construction of an open-sandwich enzyme immunoassay for one-step noncompetitive detection of thyroid hormone T4.

    PubMed

    Islam, Kamrun Nahar; Ihara, Masaki; Dong, Jinhua; Kasagi, Noriyuki; Mori, Toshihiro; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2011-02-01

    To establish a sensitive noncompetitive immunoassay for thyroxine (T4), we attempted to isolate anti-T4 antibodies from a phage display library based on a phagemid pDong1 ( Dong et al. Anal. Biochem.2009, 36, 386 ), which was designed to enable open-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (OS-ELISA) after selection on immobilized antigen. After the Fab-displaying phage library made from the splenocytes of T4-KLH immunized mice was subjected to biopanning on T4-BSA, two T4-specific clones were obtained. When they were assayed by indirect competitive ELISA, both clones showed low IC(50) (5-13 ng/mL), indicating their high affinity to T4. When they were used for OS-ELISA that detects antigen-dependency of the interaction between variable domains V(H) and V(L), a clone successfully detected 1 ng/mL of T4 with a working range superior to that of competitive IA. OS-ELISA was also performed with maltose binding protein (MBP)-fused V(H)/V(L) of this clone, which showed a detection limit less than 0.1 ng/mL T4. Moreover, the assay showed cross-reactivity with T3 similar to that of competitive ELISA, and also gave a reasonable total serum T4 concentration (90 ng/mL) from ethanol-extracted sample serum using the recombinant proteins. This is the first direct construction of an OS-ELISA system bypassing hybridoma, which will be applicable to the detection of many other small molecule antigens.

  8. Immunoassays in Biotechnology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunoassays have broad applications for a wide variety of important biological compounds and environmental contaminants. Immunoassays can detect the presence of an antigen in the human body, a pollutant in the environment, or a critical antibody in a patient’s serum to develop a...

  9. Immunoassays in Biotechnology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunoassays have broad applications for a wide variety of important biological compounds and environmental contaminants. Immunoassays can detect the presence of an antigen in the human body, a pollutant in the environment, or a critical antibody in a patient’s serum to develop a...

  10. Comparison of two immunoassays for determining hepatitis B virus serum markers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wanzhou; Li, Yan; Wang, Ming; Gu, Jian

    2011-09-28

    To evaluate and compare the detection efficacy of serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers by two immunoassays: electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ECLIA and ELISA were used to analyze 359 serum samples, including 64 HBsAg/anti-HBs coexistence serological pattern samples (samples positive for both HBsAg and anti-HBs), 24 HBeAg/anti-HBe coexistence serological pattern samples (samples positive for both HBeAg and anti-HBe), and 271 normal serological pattern samples (negative for either of the combinations). In the normal serological pattern samples, the concordance rates of the two methods in detecting serum HBV markers were as follows: 97.05% for HBsAg, 92.62% for anti-HBs, 100% for HBeAg, 76.75% for anti-HBe, and 58.67% for anti-HBc. The differences in the qualitative criteria for anti-HBc and anti-HBe were primarily responsible for the discrepancy between the two methods (κ-values of 0.657 and 0.253, respectively). Most weak positive results, determined by ECLIA, were negative determined by ELISA, whereas the results of HBsAg, anti-HBs, and HBeAg detection were generally consistent. In the HBsAg/anti-HBs coexistence serological pattern samples, the concordance rates of HBsAg and anti-HBs detection were 98.44% and 34.38%, respectively. The positive rate of ELISA does not vary as the COI (cut-off index) varies which was determined by ECLIA; in the HBeAg/anti-HBe coexistence serological pattern samples, the concordance rates of HBeAg and anti-HBe detection were 45.83% and 79.17%, respectively. Most weak positive results, determined by ECLIA, were negative when determined by ELISA. The discrepancies between the two assays in normal serological patterns samples and HBeAg/anti-HBe coexistence serological pattern samples were mostly due to the different sensitivity of the two assays, but for the HBsAg/anti-HBs coexistence serological pattern samples, the discrepancy was not caused by the different sensitivity. It is

  11. Competitive Protein-binding assay-based Enzyme-immunoassay Method, Compared to High-pressure Liquid Chromatography, Has a Very Lower Diagnostic Value to Detect Vitamin D Deficiency in 9–12 Years Children

    PubMed Central

    Zahedi Rad, Maliheh; Neyestani, Tirang Reza; Nikooyeh, Bahareh; Shariatzadeh, Nastaran; Kalayi, Ali; Khalaji, Niloufar; Gharavi, Azam

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most reliable indicator of Vitamin D status is circulating concentration of 25-hydroxycalciferol (25(OH) D) routinely determined by enzyme-immunoassays (EIA) methods. This study was performed to compare commonly used competitive protein-binding assays (CPBA)-based EIA with the gold standard, high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods: Concentrations of 25(OH) D in sera from 257 randomly selected school children aged 9–11 years were determined by two methods of CPBA and HPLC. Results: Mean 25(OH) D concentration was 22 ± 18.8 and 21.9 ± 15.6 nmol/L by CPBA and HPLC, respectively. However, mean 25(OH) D concentrations of the two methods became different after excluding undetectable samples (25.1 ± 18.9 vs. 29 ± 14.5 nmol/L, respectively; P = 0.04). Based on predefined Vitamin D deficiency as 25(OH) D < 12.5 nmol/L, CPBA sensitivity and specificity were 44.2% and 60.6%, respectively, compared to HPLC. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the best cut-offs for CPBA was 5.8 nmol/L, which gave 82% sensitivity, but specificity was 17%. Conclusions: Though CPBA may be used as a screening tool, more reliable methods are needed for diagnostic purposes. PMID:26330983

  12. Competitive Protein-binding assay-based Enzyme-immunoassay Method, Compared to High-pressure Liquid Chromatography, Has a Very Lower Diagnostic Value to Detect Vitamin D Deficiency in 9-12 Years Children.

    PubMed

    Zahedi Rad, Maliheh; Neyestani, Tirang Reza; Nikooyeh, Bahareh; Shariatzadeh, Nastaran; Kalayi, Ali; Khalaji, Niloufar; Gharavi, Azam

    2015-01-01

    The most reliable indicator of Vitamin D status is circulating concentration of 25-hydroxycalciferol (25(OH) D) routinely determined by enzyme-immunoassays (EIA) methods. This study was performed to compare commonly used competitive protein-binding assays (CPBA)-based EIA with the gold standard, high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Concentrations of 25(OH) D in sera from 257 randomly selected school children aged 9-11 years were determined by two methods of CPBA and HPLC. Mean 25(OH) D concentration was 22 ± 18.8 and 21.9 ± 15.6 nmol/L by CPBA and HPLC, respectively. However, mean 25(OH) D concentrations of the two methods became different after excluding undetectable samples (25.1 ± 18.9 vs. 29 ± 14.5 nmol/L, respectively; P = 0.04). Based on predefined Vitamin D deficiency as 25(OH) D < 12.5 nmol/L, CPBA sensitivity and specificity were 44.2% and 60.6%, respectively, compared to HPLC. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the best cut-offs for CPBA was 5.8 nmol/L, which gave 82% sensitivity, but specificity was 17%. Though CPBA may be used as a screening tool, more reliable methods are needed for diagnostic purposes.

  13. Clinical performance of a commercial real-time PCR assay for Aspergillus DNA detection in serum samples from high-risk patients: comparison with a galactomannan enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Pini, P; Bettua, C; Orsi, C F; Venturelli, C; Faglioni, L; Forghieri, F; Bigliardi, S; Luppi, F; Girardis, M; Blasi, E

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the clinical performance of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based commercial platform, the Myconostica MycAssay™ Aspergillus (MAP), for fungal DNA detection in the serum of patients at risk of invasive aspergillosis (IA). Sixty-four hospitalized patients were prospectively enrolled and a total of 71 different episodes were investigated (30 episodes were clinically/microbiologically classified as IA and 41 as control episodes). When MAP was compared to the galactomannan (GM) assay, no significant differences were found in terms of sensitivity (46.7% vs. 50.0%), specificity (97.6% vs. 95.1%), positive predictive value (PPV) (93.3% vs. 88.2%), and negative predictive value (NPV) (71.4% vs. 72.2%). The corresponding ar